WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable cooperative robotic

  1. Cooperating mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  2. Sustainable Cooperative Robotic Technologies for Human and Robotic Outpost Infrastructure Construction and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroupe, Ashley W.; Okon, Avi; Robinson, Matthew; Huntsberger, Terry; Aghazarian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Robotic Construction Crew (RCC) is a heterogeneous multi-robot system for autonomous acquisition, transport, and precision mating of components in construction tasks. RCC minimizes resources constrained in a space environment such as computation, power, communication and, sensing. A behavior-based architecture provides adaptability and robustness despite low computational requirements. RCC successfully performs several construction related tasks in an emulated outdoor environment despite high levels of uncertainty in motions and sensing. Quantitative results are provided for formation keeping in component transport, precision instrument placement, and construction tasks.

  3. Surgery with cooperative robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Amy C; Berg, Kyle A; Dumpert, Jason; Wood, Nathan A; Visty, Abigail Q; Rentschler, Mark E; Platt, Stephen R; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2008-03-01

    Advances in endoscopic techniques for abdominal procedures continue to reduce the invasiveness of surgery. Gaining access to the peritoneal cavity through small incisions prompted the first significant shift in general surgery. The complete elimination of external incisions through natural orifice access is potentially the next step in reducing patient trauma. While minimally invasive techniques offer significant patient advantages, the procedures are surgically challenging. Robotic surgical systems are being developed that address the visualization and manipulation limitations, but many of these systems remain constrained by the entry incisions. Alternatively, miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are completely inserted into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice procedures. These robots can provide vision and task assistance without the constraints of the entry incision, and can reduce the number of incisions required for laparoscopic procedures. In this study, a series of minimally invasive animal-model surgeries were performed using multiple miniature in vivo robots in cooperation with existing laparoscopy and endoscopy tools as well as the da Vinci Surgical System. These procedures demonstrate that miniature in vivo robots can address the visualization constraints of minimally invasive surgery by providing video feedback and task assistance from arbitrary orientations within the peritoneal cavity.

  4. Communicating Cooperative Robots with Bluetooth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Son, L.T.; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2001-01-01

    A generic architecture for system of cooperating communicating mobile robots is presented. An overall structure is defined from a modularity viewpoint, where a number of generic modules are identified; low level communication interface, network layer services such as initial and adaptive network...

  5. Cooperative robots and sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelil, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Mobile robots and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have enabled great potentials and a large space for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. Robotics and WSNs have mostly been considered as separate research fields and little work has investigated the marriage between these two technologies. However, these two technologies share several features, enable common cyber-physical applications and provide complementary support to each other.
 The primary objective of book is to provide a reference for cutting-edge studies and research trends pertaining to robotics and sensor networks, and in particular for the coupling between them. The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter presents a cooperation strategy for teams of multiple autonomous vehicles to solve the rendezvous problem. The second chapter is motivated by the need to improve existing solutions that deal with connectivity prediction, and proposed a genetic machine learning approach for link-quality prediction. The third chapter presents an arch...

  6. Organizational Fluidity and Sustainable Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Glance, N S; Glance, Natalie; Huberman, Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    Abstract We show that fluid organizations display higher levels of cooperation than attainable by groups with either a fixed social structure or lacking one altogether. By moving within the organization, individuals cause restructurings that facilitate cooperation. Computer experiments simulating fluid organizations faced with a social dilemma reveal a myriad of complex cooperative behaviors that result from the interplay between individual strategies and structural changes. Significantly, fluid organizations can display long cycles of sustained cooperation interrupted by short bursts of defection.

  7. Cooperative robots and sensor networks 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Dios, JRamiro

    2015-01-01

    This book compiles some of the latest research in cooperation between robots and sensor networks. Structured in twelve chapters, this book addresses fundamental, theoretical, implementation and experimentation issues. The chapters are organized into four parts namely multi-robots systems, data fusion and localization, security and dependability, and mobility.

  8. Design principles of a cooperative robot controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Vincent; Hayati, Samad

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a controller for cooperative robots being designed at McGill University in a collaborative effort with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The first part of the paper discusses the background and motivation for multiple arm control. Then, a set of programming primitives, which are based on the RCCL system and which permit a programmer to specify cooperative tasks are described. The first group of primitives are motion primitives which specify asynchronous motions, master/slave motions, and cooperative motions. In the context of cooperative robots, trajectory generation issues will be discussed and the implementation described. A second set of primitives provides for the specification of spatial relationships. The relations between programming and control in the case of multiple robot are examined. Finally, the paper describes the allocation of various tasks among a set of microprocessors sharing a common bus.

  9. Cooperative Robots to Observe Moving Targets: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Rinner, Bernhard; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The deployment of multiple robots for achieving a common goal helps to improve the performance, efficiency, and/or robustness in a variety of tasks. In particular, the observation of moving targets is an important multirobot application that still exhibits numerous open challenges, including the effective coordination of the robots. This paper reviews control techniques for cooperative mobile robots monitoring multiple targets. The simultaneous movement of robots and targets makes this problem particularly interesting, and our review systematically addresses this cooperative multirobot problem for the first time. We classify and critically discuss the control techniques: cooperative multirobot observation of multiple moving targets, cooperative search, acquisition, and track, cooperative tracking, and multirobot pursuit evasion. We also identify the five major elements that characterize this problem, namely, the coordination method, the environment, the target, the robot and its sensor(s). These elements are used to systematically analyze the control techniques. The majority of the studied work is based on simulation and laboratory studies, which may not accurately reflect real-world operational conditions. Importantly, while our systematic analysis is focused on multitarget observation, our proposed classification is useful also for related multirobot applications.

  10. Cooperative robots and sensor networks 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Khelil, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    This book is the second volume on Cooperative Robots and Sensor Networks. The primary objective of this book is to provide an up-to-date reference for cutting-edge studies and research trends related to mobile robots and wireless sensor networks, and in particular for the coupling between them. Indeed, mobile robots and wireless sensor networks have enabled great potentials and a large space for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. Robotics and wireless sensor networks have mostly been considered as separate research fields and little work has investigated the marriage between these two technologies. However, these two technologies share several features, enable common cyber-physical applications and provide complementary support to each other. The book consists of ten chapters, organized into four parts. The first part of the book presents three chapters related to localization of mobile robots using wireless sensor networks. Two chapters presented new solutions based Extended Kalman Filter and Particle Fi...

  11. Robotic Cooperative Learning Promotes Student STEM Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Pauline; Ardito, Gerald; Scollins, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The principal purpose of this investigation is to study the effect of robotic cooperative learning methodologies on middle school students' critical thinking, and STEM interest. The semi-experimental inquiry consisted of ninety four six-grade students (forty nine students in the experimental group, forty five students in the control group), chosen…

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory: Applied to Cooperative Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro U. Lima

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to the design of a population of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence. The research has been developed under the SocRob project, carried out by the Intelligent Systems Laboratory at the Institute for Systems and Robotics - Instituto Superior T?cnico (ISR/IST in Lisbon. The acronym of the project stands both for "Society of Robots" and "Soccer Robots", the case study where we are testing our population of robots. Designing soccer robots is a very challenging problem, where the robots must act not only to shoot a ball towards the goal, but also to detect and avoid static (walls, stopped robots and dynamic (moving robots obstacles. Furthermore, they must cooperate to defeat an opposing team. Our past and current research in soccer robotics includes cooperative sensor fusion for world modeling, object recognition and tracking, robot navigation, multi-robot distributed task planning and coordination, including cooperative reinforcement learning in cooperative and adversarial environments, and behavior-based architectures for real time task execution of cooperating robot teams.

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory: Applied to Cooperative Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro U. Lima

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to the design of a population of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence. The research has been developed under the SocRob project, carried out by the Intelligent Systems Laboratory at the Institute for Systems and Robotics - Instituto Superior Técnico (ISR/IST in Lisbon. The acronym of the project stands both for “Society of Robots” and “Soccer Robots”, the case study where we are testing our population of robots. Designing soccer robots is a very challenging problem, where the robots must act not only to shoot a ball towards the goal, but also to detect and avoid static (walls, stopped robots and dynamic (moving robots obstacles. Furthermore, they must cooperate to defeat an opposing team. Our past and current research in soccer robotics includes cooperative sensor fusion for world modeling, object recognition and tracking, robot navigation, multi-robot distributed task planning and coordination, including cooperative reinforcement learning in cooperative and adversarial environments, and behavior-based architectures for real time task execution of cooperating robot teams.

  14. Cooperative system and method using mobile robots for testing a cooperative search controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Raymond H.; Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A test system for testing a controller provides a way to use large numbers of miniature mobile robots to test a cooperative search controller in a test area, where each mobile robot has a sensor, a communication device, a processor, and a memory. A method of using a test system provides a way for testing a cooperative search controller using multiple robots sharing information and communicating over a communication network.

  15. Modelling cooperation of industrial robots as multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Banas, W.; Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Sekala, A.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, more and more often in a cell is more than one robot, there is also a dual arm robots, because of this cooperation of two robots in the same space becomes more and more important. Programming robotic cell consisting of two or more robots are currently performed separately for each element of the robot and the cell. It is performed only synchronization programs, but no robot movements. In such situations often placed industrial robots so they do not have common space so the robots are operated separately. When industrial robots are a common space this space can occupy only one robot the other one must be outside the common space. It is very difficult to find applications where two robots are in the same workspace. It was tested but one robot did not do of movement when moving the second and waited for permission to move from the second when it sent a permit - stop the move. Such programs are very difficult and require a lot of experience from the programmer and must be tested separately at the beginning and then very slowly under control. Ideally, the operator takes care of exactly one robot during the test and it is very important to take special care.

  16. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot`s own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup.

  17. Vision-Integrated Physiotherapy Service Robot Using Cooperating Two Arms

    OpenAIRE

    Huanbing Gao; Shouyin Lu; Tao Wang; Cungen Liu

    2013-01-01

    This study present the mechanical architecture, control system and other modules of a physiotherapy service robot which can treat degenerative disease and chronic disease of middle-aged and aged people by Chinese massage skill. The main body of the robot includes a massage adjustable bed, two 4-DOF robot arms and two massage hands that can accomplish various massage manipulations. Two arms cooperate to improve the massage efficiency and provide sufficient strength and enough reachable workspa...

  18. IED Cleanup: A Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge--The Benefits and Execution of a Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Mark; Kressly, Rich

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a cooperative classroom robotics challenge named "IED Cleanup". This classroom challenge was created to incorporate a humanitarian project with the use of a robotics design system in order to remove simulated IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) to a detonation zone within a specified amount of time. Throughout the activity,…

  19. Cooperation of Humanoid Robots using Teleoperation for Transferring an Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Raza Jafri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method is proposed for humanoid robots performing object transfering task in a teleoperated cooperative paradigm. The cooperative task is accomplished using simple communication among two humanoid robots and then switch between modes according to the situation. In case of object passing with two humanoid robots, mutual position shifts may occur while they are moving. Therefore, it is necessary to correct the position in a real-time manner.To control the arm and hand of the robot remotely we use master arm and hand while it carries and passes the object, the dynamic stability during the execution of walking is ensured by incorporating the ZMP criterion and the desired spacing between the robots is controlled by Leader follower type control .Object passing cooperation for two humanoid robots is based on computer control, wireless LAN, vision, cooperative handling control and text commands. The method is applied as key software of the system. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology for performing cooperatively real time tasks is discussed.

  20. Cooperative path following control of multiple nonholonomic mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ke-Cai; Jiang, Bin; Yue, Dong

    2017-11-01

    Cooperative path following control problem of multiple nonholonomic mobile robots has been considered in this paper. Based on the framework of decomposition, the cooperative path following problem has been transformed into path following problem and cooperative control problem; Then cascaded theory of non-autonomous system has been employed in the design of controllers without resorting to feedback linearization. One time-varying coordinate transformation based on dilation has been introduced to solve the uncontrollable problem of nonholonomic robots when the whole group's reference converges to stationary point. Cooperative path following controllers for nonholonomic robots have been proposed under persistent reference or reference target that converges to stationary point respectively. Simulation results using Matlab have illustrated the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Pneumatic Tactile Sensor for Co-Operative Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Daoxiong; He, Rui; Yu, Jianjun; Zuo, Guoyu

    2017-11-10

    Tactile sensors of comprehensive functions are urgently needed for the advanced robot to co-exist and co-operate with human beings. Pneumatic tactile sensors based on air bladder possess some noticeable advantages for human-robot interaction application. In this paper, we construct a pneumatic tactile sensor and apply it on the fingertip of robot hand to realize the sensing of force, vibration and slippage via the change of the pressure of the air bladder, and we utilize the sensor to perceive the object's features such as softness and roughness. The pneumatic tactile sensor has good linearity, repeatability and low hysteresis and both its size and sensing range can be customized by using different material as well as different thicknesses of the air bladder. It is also simple and cheap to fabricate. Therefore, the pneumatic tactile sensor is suitable for the application of co-operative robots and can be widely utilized to improve the performance of service robots. We can apply it to the fingertip of the robot to endow the robotic hand with the ability to co-operate with humans and handle the fragile objects because of the inherent compliance of the air bladder.

  2. The effect of action recognition and robot awareness in cooperative robot teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-03-01

    Previous research in cooperative robotics has investigated several possible ways of coordinating the actions of cooperative teams -- from implicit cooperation through sensory feedback to explicit cooperation using the exchange of communicated messages. These various approaches differ in the extent to which robot team members arc aware of, or recognize, the actions of their teammates, and the extent to which they use this information to effect their own actions. The research described in this paper investigates this issue of robot awareness of team member actions and its effect on cooperative team performance by examining the results of a series of experiments on teams of physical mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup. In these experiments. we vary the team size (and thus the level of redundancy in team member capabilities) and the level of awareness robots have of their teammates` current actions and evaluate the team`s performance using two metrics: time and energy. The results indicate that the impact of action awareness on cooperative team performance is a function not only of team size and the metric of evaluation. but also on the degree to which the effects of actions can be sensed through the world, the relative amount of work that is available per robot, and the cost of replicated actions. From these empirical studies, we propose a number of principles regarding the use of action recognition and robot awareness of team member actions in cooperative teams -- principles which will help guide engineers in the design and composition of the proper cooperative team for a given robotic mission.

  3. Achieving Cost Benefits in Sustainable Cooperative Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Coimbra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative housing sector is directed at low and medium income residents who cannot afford to buy their homes in the regular private market. Due to social housing legislation, it is possible to build cooperative housing below regular market costs and use tax benefits, therefore providing affordable dwellings to their owners. Traditional cooperative housing used to provide less comfort and higher running costs in indoor and domestic hot water heating than in standard construction. However, cooperative housing has started to change its method of traditional construction towards sustainable construction, in order to benefit from the savings on energy consumption and domestic water as well as to provide an improvement as far as the comfort of its residents is concerned. Therefore, in this article, the savings in electricity and natural gas in different building settlements, calculated for Madalena building—sustainable construction—and for Azenha de Cima building—traditional construction—will be presented, according to two different criteria of calculation: efficiency of dwellings at a pre-determined standard level of indoor comfort opposed to real consumptions made by residents. For each building under analysis, an energy audit and further monitoring were brought in, in order to issue an energy evaluation according to the Portuguese energy agency rules. Results showed an expected decrease of the operational costs of natural gas and electricity, obtained by the use of efficient building systems and equipment, as well as a decrease of the payback period for each situation.

  4. Virtual Commissioning of an Assembly Cell with Cooperating Robots

    OpenAIRE

    S. Makris; G. Michalos; G. Chryssolouris

    2012-01-01

    The Virtual Commissioning (VC) technology is the latest trend in automotive assembly which, among other benefits, promises a more efficient handling of the complexity in assembly systems, a great reduction in the system’s ramp-up time, and a resulting shortening of the product’s time to market. This paper presents the application of VC techniques to the case of an industrial robotic cell, involving cooperating robots. The complete workflow of the virtual validation of the cell is presented, a...

  5. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  6. Humanoid Robot RH-1 for Collaborative Tasks: A Control Architecture for Human-Robot Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción A. Monje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The full-scale humanoid robot RH-1 has been totally developed in the University Carlos III of Madrid. In this paper we present an advanced control system for this robot so that it can perform tasks in cooperation with humans. The collaborative tasks are carried out in a semi-autonomous way and are intended to be put into operation in real working environments where humans and robots should share the same space. Before presenting the control strategy, the kinematic model and a simplified dynamic model of the robot are presented. All the models and algorithms are verified by several simulations and experimental results.

  7. A Fully Sensorized Cooperative Robotic System for Surgical Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Arriaga, Saúl; Vargas, José Emilio; Ramos, Juan M.; Aceves, Marco A.; Gorrostieta, Efren; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-01-01

    In this research a fully sensorized cooperative robot system for manipulation of needles is presented. The setup consists of a DLR/KUKA Light Weight Robot III especially designed for safe human/robot interaction, a FD-CT robot-driven angiographic C-arm system, and a navigation camera. Also, new control strategies for robot manipulation in the clinical environment are introduced. A method for fast calibration of the involved components and the preliminary accuracy tests of the whole possible errors chain are presented. Calibration of the robot with the navigation system has a residual error of 0.81 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ±0.41 mm. The accuracy of the robotic system while targeting fixed points at different positions within the workspace is of 1.2 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ±0.4 mm. After calibration, and due to close loop control, the absolute positioning accuracy was reduced to the navigation camera accuracy which is of 0.35 mm (rms). The implemented control allows the robot to compensate for small patient movements. PMID:23012551

  8. A fully sensorized cooperative robotic system for surgical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Arriaga, Saúl; Vargas, José Emilio; Ramos, Juan M; Aceves, Marco A; Gorrostieta, Efren; Kalender, Willi A

    2012-01-01

    In this research a fully sensorized cooperative robot system for manipulation of needles is presented. The setup consists of a DLR/KUKA Light Weight Robot III especially designed for safe human/robot interaction, a FD-CT robot-driven angiographic C-arm system, and a navigation camera. Also, new control strategies for robot manipulation in the clinical environment are introduced. A method for fast calibration of the involved components and the preliminary accuracy tests of the whole possible errors chain are presented. Calibration of the robot with the navigation system has a residual error of 0.81 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ± 0.41 mm. The accuracy of the robotic system while targeting fixed points at different positions within the workspace is of 1.2 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ± 0.4 mm. After calibration, and due to close loop control, the absolute positioning accuracy was reduced to the navigation camera accuracy which is of 0.35 mm (rms). The implemented control allows the robot to compensate for small patient movements.

  9. A Fully Sensorized Cooperative Robotic System for Surgical Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Tovar-Arriaga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research a fully sensorized cooperative robot system for manipulation of needles is presented. The setup consists of a DLR/KUKA Light Weight Robot III especially designed for safe human/robot interaction, a FD-CT robot-driven angiographic C-arm system, and a navigation camera. Also, new control strategies for robot manipulation in the clinical environment are introduced. A method for fast calibration of the involved components and the preliminary accuracy tests of the whole possible errors chain are presented. Calibration of the robot with the navigation system has a residual error of 0.81 mm (rms with a standard deviation of ±0.41 mm. The accuracy of the robotic system while targeting fixed points at different positions within the workspace is of 1.2 mm (rms with a standard deviation of ±0.4 mm. After calibration, and due to close loop control, the absolute positioning accuracy was reduced to the navigation camera accuracy which is of 0.35 mm (rms. The implemented control allows the robot to compensate for small patient movements.

  10. Communicating with Teams of Cooperative Robots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perzanowski, D; Schultz, A. C; Adams, W; Bugajska, M; Marsh, E; Trafton, G; Brock, D; Skubic, M; Abramson, M

    2002-01-01

    .... For this interface, they have elected to use natural language and gesture. Gestures can be either natural gestures perceived by a vision system installed on the robot, or they can be made by using a stylus on a Personal Digital Assistant...

  11. Safe Human-Robot Cooperation in an Industrial Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pedrocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard EN ISO10218 is fostering the implementation of hybrid production systems, i.e., production systems characterized by a close relationship among human operators and robots in cooperative tasks. Human-robot hybrid systems could have a big economic benefit in small and medium sized production, even if this new paradigm introduces mandatory, challenging safety aspects. Among various requirements for collaborative workspaces, safety-assurance involves two different application layers; the algorithms enabling safe space-sharing between humans and robots and the enabling technologies allowing acquisition data from sensor fusion and environmental data analysing. This paper addresses both the problems: a collision avoidance strategy allowing on-line re-planning of robot motion and a safe network of unsafe devices as a suggested infrastructure for functional safety achievement.

  12. Teleprogramming a cooperative space robotic workcell for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haule, Damian D.; Noorhosseini, S. M.; Malowany, Alfred S.

    1992-11-01

    The growing insight into the complexity and cost of in-orbit operations of future space missions strengthens the belief that a significant amount of automation will be needed to operate the orbital laboratories in a safe, efficient, and economic way. Thus, Automation & Robotics (A&R) technology is vital for unmanned exploration missions to comets and planets. While part of the space worksite may be structured, the space environment is generally unstructured. By `structured,' we mean environments that are designed and engineered to somehow `cooperate' with the machine. In addition, the structured part of the space worksite may be damaged or in an unknown condition. This lack of structure, as well as the non- repetitive nature of the tasks, require constant adaptation to the space environment by the robot. This is the motivation for increased space robot autonomy. However, complete autonomy is still beyond the scope of today's state-of-the-art in the case of a system executing a complete mission in a hazardous environment such as space. A systematic approach for the development of A&R technologies will reduce the lead-times and costs of facilities for recurrent basic tasks. A space robotic workcell (SRW) is a collection of robots, sensors, and other industrial equipment grouped in a cooperative environment to perform various complex tasks in space. Due to their distributed nature, the control and programming of SRWs is often a difficult task. The issues involved in order to design a real-time teleprogrammable SRW system that performs intervention tasks at remote unstructured sites are summarized. The concept of `remotely operated autonomous robots' (i.e., robots teleprogrammed and telesupervised at the task level while at a space worksite) is also developed via telepresence for human-machine interface and voice/speech programming. This paper makes an assessment of the role that teleprogramming may have in furthering the automation capabilities of space teleoperated

  13. Sustaining Emotional Communication when Interacting with an Android Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios

    of an android related to its actions, perception and intelligence, or failure to identify which robot type is qualified to perform a specific task, might lead to disruption of HRI. This study is concerned with the problem of sustaining emotional communication when interacting with an android social robot......-Robot Interaction (HRI), therefore when directly interacting with such robots discomfort might be created in recognizing either the robotic expression of emotion, and/or the probable following action of the robot. Failure of the roboticist to meet the expectations that rise from the anthropomorphic appearance......, and consists of a number of rather diverse contributions to this field of research. These contributions include new results and methods in relation to the perception of robots both prior to and after HRI, the evaluation and assessment of robotic platforms and robot properties in relation to specific tasks...

  14. Cooperative multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research; Emmons, B.A. [Albion Coll., MI (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

    1997-03-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring, or observing, the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications of this type, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the authors investigate the sue of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets. They focus primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to maximize the collective tie during which each object is being observed by at least one robot in the area of interest. The initial efforts in this problem address the aspects of distributed control in homogeneous robot teams with equivalent sensing and movement capabilities working in an uncluttered, bounded area. This paper first formalizes the problem, discusses related work, and then shows that this problem is NP-hard. They then present a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level control.

  15. Dual-Arm Robot Motion Planning Based on Cooperative Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurković, Petar; Jerbić, Bojan

    This paper presents a cooperative coevolutionary approach to path planning for two robotic arms sharing common workspace. Each arm is considered an agent, required to find transition strategy from given initial to final configuration in the work space. Since the robots share workspace, they present dynamic obstacle to each other. To solve the problem of path planning in optimized fashion, we formulated it to multi-objective optimization domain and implemented co-evolutionary algorithm to simultaneously optimize four conflicting objectives. End-effector trajectory length, end-effector velocity distribution, total rotate angle and number of collisions are the objectives to be optimized. Simulation results for two 2-R type robots are presented.

  16. 77 FR 34067 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics..., Inc., Burke, VA; Lithos Robotics Corporation, Amherst, NY; Mechatron Inc., Somerville, MA; Mercedes...

  17. 78 FR 13896 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics...; Humanistic Robotics, Inc., Philadelphia, PA; Polaris Sales, Inc., Medina, MN; TDC Acquisition Holdings, Inc...

  18. 75 FR 54914 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics... Robotics Inc., Pittsburgh, PA; Energetics Technology Center, Inc., La Plata, MD; Expertise Applications Inc...

  19. Multi-robot motion control for cooperative observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research

    1997-06-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring (or observing) the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications involving limited-range sensors, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the authors investigate the use of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for the observation of multiple moving targets. They focus primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to minimize the total time in which targets escape observation by some robot team member in the area of interest. This paper first formalizes the problem and discusses related work. The authors then present a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level reasoning control based on the ALLIANCE formalism. They analyze the effectiveness of the approach by comparing it to 3 other feasible algorithms for cooperative control, showing the superiority of the approach for a large class of problems.

  20. Collaborative gaze channelling for improved cooperation during robotic assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ka-Wai; Sun, Loi-Wah; Mylonas, George P; James, David R C; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2012-10-01

    The use of multiple robots for performing complex tasks is becoming a common practice for many robot applications. When different operators are involved, effective cooperation with anticipated manoeuvres is important for seamless, synergistic control of all the end-effectors. In this paper, the concept of Collaborative Gaze Channelling (CGC) is presented for improved control of surgical robots for a shared task. Through eye tracking, the fixations of each operator are monitored and presented in a shared surgical workspace. CGC permits remote or physically separated collaborators to share their intention by visualising the eye gaze of their counterparts, and thus recovers, to a certain extent, the information of mutual intent that we rely upon in a vis-à-vis working setting. In this study, the efficiency of surgical manipulation with and without CGC for controlling a pair of bimanual surgical robots is evaluated by analysing the level of coordination of two independent operators. Fitts' law is used to compare the quality of movement with or without CGC. A total of 40 subjects have been recruited for this study and the results show that the proposed CGC framework exhibits significant improvement (p collaborative tasks for robotic surgery. Detailed experimental validation results demonstrate the potential clinical value of the proposed CGC framework.

  1. Evolutionary Fuzzy Control and Navigation for Two Wheeled Robots Cooperatively Carrying an Object in Unknown Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Lai, Min-Ge; Zeng, Wan-Ting

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a method that allows two wheeled, mobile robots to navigate unknown environments while cooperatively carrying an object. In the navigation method, a leader robot and a follower robot cooperatively perform either obstacle boundary following (OBF) or target seeking (TS) to reach a destination. The two robots are controlled by fuzzy controllers (FC) whose rules are learned through an adaptive fusion of continuous ant colony optimization and particle swarm optimization (AF-CACPSO), which avoids the time-consuming task of manually designing the controllers. The AF-CACPSO-based evolutionary fuzzy control approach is first applied to the control of a single robot to perform OBF. The learning approach is then applied to achieve cooperative OBF with two robots, where an auxiliary FC designed with the AF-CACPSO is used to control the follower robot. For cooperative TS, a rule for coordination of the two robots is developed. To navigate cooperatively, a cooperative behavior supervisor is introduced to select between cooperative OBF and cooperative TS. The performance of the AF-CACPSO is verified through comparisons with various population-based optimization algorithms for the OBF learning problem. Simulations and experiments verify the effectiveness of the approach for cooperative navigation of two robots.

  2. Virtual Commissioning of an Assembly Cell with Cooperating Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Makris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Commissioning (VC technology is the latest trend in automotive assembly which, among other benefits, promises a more efficient handling of the complexity in assembly systems, a great reduction in the system’s ramp-up time, and a resulting shortening of the product’s time to market. This paper presents the application of VC techniques to the case of an industrial robotic cell, involving cooperating robots. The complete workflow of the virtual validation of the cell is presented, and the implementation requirements are discussed. Based on the findings, the outlook and challenges for the wide-range adoption of VC technologies in large-scale assembly systems are provided.

  3. A Decentralized Interactive Architecture for Aerial and Ground Mobile Robots Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    HARIK, el Houssein Chouaib; Guérin, François; Guinand, Frédéric; Brethé, Jean-François; Pelvillain, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    International audience; —This paper presents a novel decentralized interactive architecture for aerial and ground mobile robots cooperation. The aerial mobile robot is used to provide a global coverage during an area inspection, while the ground mobile robot is used to provide a local coverage of ground features. We include a human-in-the-loop to provide waypoints for the ground mobile robot to progress safely in the inspected area. The aerial mobile robot follows continuously the ground mobi...

  4. Controlling the cooperative behavior of a system of automous mobile robots

    OpenAIRE

    Stilwell, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    A novel material transport system is presented that uses 'swarms' of small autonomous mobile robots to collectively lift and move palletized loads. The robots are relatively unsophisticated in design and have no advanced sensory or communications capability. There is no central or supervisory controller directing the robots. Each robot must be able react to its environment autonomously, yet cooperate within a team of similarly designed robots. Reactive and behavior-based pri...

  5. Cooperative Three-Robot System for Traversing Steep Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Younse, Paulo; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Teamed Robots for Exploration and Science in Steep Areas (TRESSA) is a system of three autonomous mobile robots that cooperate with each other to enable scientific exploration of steep terrain (slope angles up to 90 ). Originally intended for use in exploring steep slopes on Mars that are not accessible to lone wheeled robots (Mars Exploration Rovers), TRESSA and systems like TRESSA could also be used on Earth for performing rescues on steep slopes and for exploring steep slopes that are too remote or too dangerous to be explored by humans. TRESSA is modeled on safe human climbing of steep slopes, two key features of which are teamwork and safety tethers. Two of the autonomous robots, denoted Anchorbots, remain at the top of a slope; the third robot, denoted the Cliffbot, traverses the slope. The Cliffbot drives over the cliff edge supported by tethers, which are payed out from the Anchorbots (see figure). The Anchorbots autonomously control the tension in the tethers to counter the gravitational force on the Cliffbot. The tethers are payed out and reeled in as needed, keeping the body of the Cliffbot oriented approximately parallel to the local terrain surface and preventing wheel slip by controlling the speed of descent or ascent, thereby enabling the Cliffbot to drive freely up, down, or across the slope. Due to the interactive nature of the three-robot system, the robots must be very tightly coupled. To provide for this tight coupling, the TRESSA software architecture is built on a combination of (1) the multi-robot layered behavior-coordination architecture reported in "An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots" (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 10 (October 2004), page 65, and (2) the real-time control architecture reported in "Robot Electronics Architecture" (NPO-41784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 1 (January 2008), page 28. The combination architecture makes it possible to keep the three robots synchronized and coordinated, to use data

  6. Conceptualizing the Effectiveness of Sustainability Assessment in Development Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Hugé

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment has emerged as a key decision-support process in development cooperation in response to the growing acknowledgement of the impacts of global change. This paper aims at conceptualizing the effectiveness of sustainability assessment as applied in development cooperation, by focusing on the sustainability assessment practice by actors of the official Belgian Development Cooperation. The conceptualization of the effectiveness of sustainability assessment is synthesized in a set of issues and concerns, based on semi-structured interviews. The paper highlights the specificity of sustainability assessment in the development cooperation sector (e.g., through the cultural and discursive compatibility dimensions of assessment in a North-South context. Effectiveness is inherently linked to the expected functions of sustainability assessment in the decision-making process, which include fostering organizational change, shaping contextually adapted framings of sustainability and operationalizing the sustainability transition. These findings highlight the relevance of a discourse-sensitive approach to sustainability assessment if one is to strengthen its credibility and legitimacy.

  7. Human-Multi-Robot Teleoperation for Cooperative Manipulation Tasks using Wearable Haptic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinello, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative multi-robot systems require planning and adaptive capabilities in order to perform cooperative manipulation tasks in dynamic or unstructured environments. Since these capabilities are inherent to humans, it is suitable to consider human-multi-robot teleoperation for cooperative...... manipulation where one human commands a multi-robot system. In this paper, a teleoperated multi-robot system is considered as a redundant system in the task space. A dynamic redundancy resolution control approach is performed in the task space to decouple two subtasks: object manipulation and grasp maintenance...

  8. Development and implementation of algorithms in a population of cooperative autonomous mobile robots

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namoshe, M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the number of mobile robot users has lead to the design and implementation of cooperative autonomous mobile robots. Autonomous robots require the ability to build maps of an unknown environment while simultaneously using these maps...

  9. 76 FR 59160 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... Robotics Technology Consortium (``RTC'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney... Robotics LLC, Pittsburgh, PA; Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL; EMSolutions, Inc...

  10. 76 FR 79218 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics...''), Robotics Technology Consortium, Inc. (``RTC'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the...; Jaybridge Robotics, Cambridge, MA; Klett Consulting Group, Inc., Virginia Beach, VA; and Next Wave Systems...

  11. Cognitive Coordination for Cooperative Multi-Robot Teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-robot teams have potential advantages over a single robot. Robots in a team can serve different functionalities, so a team of robots can be more efficient, robust and reliable than a single robot. In this dissertation, we are in particular interested in human level intelligent multi-robot

  12. Cooperative Path Planning and Constraints Analysis for Master-Slave Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Gan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A strategy of cooperative path planning for a master-slave multiple robot system is presented in this paper. The path planning method is based on motion constraints between the end-effectors of cooperative robots. Cooperation motions have been classified into three types by relative motions between end-effectors of master and slave robots, which is concurrent cooperation, coupled synchronous cooperation and combined synchronous cooperation. Based on this classification, position /orientation constraints and joint velocity constraints are explored in-depth here. In order to validate the path planning method and the theoretical developments in motion constraints analysis, representative experiments based on two industrial robots, Motoman VA1400 and HP20, are provided at the end of the paper. The experimental results have proved both the effectiveness of the path planning method and the correctness of the constraints analysis.

  13. COOPERATION AND EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN GLOBALIZATION ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEDELCU ELENA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to approach a relatively new topic: international cooperation for sustainable development. The first part of this paper is a theoretical construct which deals with the connection that exists between its main variables: globalization, democratization and development. This part of the paper also brings into evidence the necessity and importance of international cooperation for sustainable development (SD during the globalization era. The second part of the paper aims to briefly analyse the importance and practice of education for sustainable development (ESD in our contemporary society: the case of Romania. Conclusions represent the object of the last part of the paper.

  14. Cooperative Robotics and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    If we think tenuous abodes of life may be hiding in remote extraterrestrial environmental niches, and if we want to assess the biological status of a given locale or entire planet before sending humans (perhaps because of contamination concerns or other motivations) then we face the challenge of robotically exploring a large space efficiently and in enough detail to have confidence in our assessment of the biological status of the environment in question. On our present schedule of perhaps two or so missions per opportunity, we will likely need a different exploratory approach than singular stationary landers or singular rover missions or sample return, because there appear to be fundamental limitations in these mission profiles to obtain the many samples we will likely need if we want to have confidence in assessing the biological status of an environment in which life could be hiding in remote environmental niches. Singular rover missions can potentially accommodate sampling over a fairly large area, but are still limited by range and can be a single point of failure. More importantly, such mission profiles have limited payload capabilities which are unlikely to meet the demanding requirements of life-detection. Sample return has the advantage of allowing sophisticated analysis of the sample, but also has the severe limitations associated with only being able to bring back a few samples. This presentation will suggest two cooperative robotic approaches for exploration that have the potential to overcome these difficulties and facilitate efficient and thorough life-detecting exploration of a large space. Given the two premises stated above, it appears at least two fundamental challenges have to be met simultaneously: (1) coverage of a large space and (2) bringing to bear a sophisticated suite of detection and experimental payloads on any specific location in order to address a major challenge in looking for extraterrestrial life: namely, executing a wide variety

  15. Ultrasound guided robotic biopsy using augmented reality and human-robot cooperative control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, C; Troia, E; Ferrari, V; Megali, G; Pietrabissa, A; Mosca, F

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided biopsy is a proficient mininvasive approach for tumors staging but requires very long training and particular manual and 3D space perception abilities of the physician, for the planning of the needle trajectory and the execution of the procedure. In order to simplify this difficult task, we have developed an integrated system that provides the clinician two types of assistance: an augmented reality visualization allows accurate and easy planning of needle trajectory and target reaching verification; a robot arm with a six-degree-of-freedom force sensor allows the precise positioning of the needle holder and allows the clinician to adjust the planned trajectory (cooperative control) to overcome needle deflection and target motion. Preliminary tests have been executed on an ultrasound phantom showing high precision of the system in static conditions and the utility and usability of the cooperative control in simulated no-rigid conditions.

  16. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant, cooperative control of heterogeneous mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  17. Investigation of the Impedance Characteristic of Human Arm for Development of Robots to Cooperate with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mozasser; Ikeura, Ryojun; Mizutani, Kazuki

    In the near future many aspects of our lives will be encompassed by tasks performed in cooperation with robots. The application of robots in home automation, agricultural production and medical operations etc. will be indispensable. As a result robots need to be made human-friendly and to execute tasks in cooperation with humans. Control systems for such robots should be designed to work imitating human characteristics. In this study, we have tried to achieve these goals by means of controlling a simple one degree-of-freedom cooperative robot. Firstly, the impedance characteristic of the human arm in a cooperative task is investigated. Then, this characteristic is implemented to control a robot in order to perform cooperative task with humans. A human followed the motion of an object, which is moved through desired trajectories. The motion is actuated by the linear motor of the one degree-of-freedom robot system. Trajectories used in the experiments of this method were minimum jerk (the rate of change of acceleration) trajectory, which was found during human and human cooperative task and optimum for muscle movement. As the muscle is mechanically analogous to a spring-damper system, a simple second-order equation is used as models for the arm dynamics. In the model, we considered mass, stiffness and damping factor. Impedance parameter is calculated from the position and force data obtained from the experiments and based on the “Estimation of Parametric Model”. Investigated impedance characteristic of human arm is then implemented to control a robot, which performed cooperative task with human. It is observed that the proposed control methodology has given human like movements to the robot for cooperating with human.

  18. Gesteme-free context-aware adaptation of robot behavior in human-robot cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessi, Federico; Beretta, Elisa; Gatti, Cecilia; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; De Momi, Elena

    2016-11-01

    Cooperative robotics is receiving greater acceptance because the typical advantages provided by manipulators are combined with an intuitive usage. In particular, hands-on robotics may benefit from the adaptation of the assistant behavior with respect to the activity currently performed by the user. A fast and reliable classification of human activities is required, as well as strategies to smoothly modify the control of the manipulator. In this scenario, gesteme-based motion classification is inadequate because it needs the observation of a wide signal percentage and the definition of a rich vocabulary. In this work, a system able to recognize the user's current activity without a vocabulary of gestemes, and to accordingly adapt the manipulator's dynamic behavior is presented. An underlying stochastic model fits variations in the user's guidance forces and the resulting trajectories of the manipulator's end-effector with a set of Gaussian distribution. The high-level switching between these distributions is captured with hidden Markov models. The dynamic of the KUKA light-weight robot, a torque-controlled manipulator, is modified with respect to the classified activity using sigmoidal-shaped functions. The presented system is validated over a pool of 12 näive users in a scenario that addresses surgical targeting tasks on soft tissue. The robot's assistance is adapted in order to obtain a stiff behavior during activities that require critical accuracy constraint, and higher compliance during wide movements. Both the ability to provide the correct classification at each moment (sample accuracy) and the capability of correctly identify the correct sequence of activity (sequence accuracy) were evaluated. The proposed classifier is fast and accurate in all the experiments conducted (80% sample accuracy after the observation of ∼450ms of signal). Moreover, the ability of recognize the correct sequence of activities, without unwanted transitions is guaranteed (sequence

  19. Direct Visual Servoing to Track Trajectories in Human-Robot Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pomares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a dynamic image-based control system to guide two coupled robots. The first robot is a Mitsubishi PA-10 robotic manipulator which has a second mini-robot with 3 degrees of freedom (DOF attached at its end-effector. The vision system used for the guidance of both robots is composed of a camera at the end-effector of the mini-robot. The paper presents a new method to perform the mini-robot guidance using dynamic control to track a previous generated image trajectory. The mini-robot performs the tracking in a workspace in cooperation with a human operator. Therefore, the proposed visual control is combined with virtual visual servoing to perform a safety behavior.

  20. Realising a socially sustainable South African society through cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K LG Teise

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Education conceptualised in terms of the broader project of socially sustainable development (SSD makes cooperative learning (CL valuable in realising the former. Cooperative learning emphasises cooperation as integral to learner success, and because of this CL strategies have been found to be successful in fostering positive intergroup attitudes in classrooms, multicultural and otherwise. Social sustainable development concerns those aspects of human life and human relations which are necessary for the survival of society. Apart from it being particularly instrumental in improving learners’ academic performance, CL is equally valuable in promoting positive social relations amongst group members. Such relations are important for achieving social sustainable development. Therefore, CL could particularly be valuable to develop in learners, and the broader society, the social dispositions required for a socially sustainable South African society. My argument centres on the potential of CL as a practical strategy towards the development of a social sustainable South African society. In an attempt to demonstrate that CL holds the potential to contribute towards a social sustainable South African society, I’ll be focusing on the core tenets of SSD. These tenets are explored in relation to the principles and social outcomes of CL in order to establish the extent the latter could be instrumental in promoting SSD.

  1. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR)at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Impact of a Sustained Cooperative Learning Intervention on Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Sanz, Naira; Fernandez-Cando, Judith; Santos, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cooperative Learning has been recently defined as a true pedagogical model. Moreover, in a recent review Casey and Goodyear reported that it can help physical education promote the four basic learning outcomes: physical, cognitive, social and affective. Purpose: The main goal was to investigate the impact of a sustained Cooperative…

  3. Sustaining cooperation in a differential game of advertising goodwill accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Gromova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    The paper suggests a differential game of advertising competition among three symmetric firms, played over an infinite horizon. The objective of the research is to see if a cooperative agreement among the firms can be sustained over time. For this purpose the paper determines the characteristic...

  4. Formulation and implementation of relational behaviours for multi-robot cooperative systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vecht, B; Lima, P; Nardi, D; Riedmiller, M; Sammut, C; SantosVictor, J

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a general formulation of relational behaviours for cooperative real robots and an example of its implementation using the pass between soccer robots of the Middle-Sized League of RoboCup. The formulation is based on the Joint Commitment Theory and the pass implementation is

  5. Cooperation between humans and robots in fine assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Konold, P.; Rapp, I.; Mann, C.; Muminovic, A.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ever smaller components in manufacturing processes require handling, assembling and testing of miniature similar components. The human eye meets its optical limits with ongoing miniaturization of parts, due to the fact that it is not able to detect particles with a size smaller than 0.11 mm or register distances below 0.07 mm - like separating gaps. After several hours of labour, workers cannot accurately differentiate colour nuances as well as constant quality of work cannot be guaranteed. Assembly is usually done with tools, such as microscopes, magnifiers or digital measuring devices. Due to the enormous mental concentration, quickly a fatigue process sets in. This requires breaks or change of task and reduces productivity. Dealing with handling devices such as grippers, guide units and actuators for component assembling, requires a time consuming training process. Often productivity increase is first achieved after years of daily training. Miniaturizations are ubiquitously needed, for instance in the surgery. Very small add-on instruments must be provided. In measurement, e.g. it is a technological must and a competitive advantage, to determine required data with a small-as-possible, highest-possible-resolution sensor. Solution: The realization of a flexible universal workstation, using standard robotic systems and image processing devices in cooperation with humans, where workers are largely freed up from highly strenuous physical and fine motoric work, so that they can do productive work monitoring and adjusting the machine assisted production process.

  6. Distributed control of multi-robot teams: Cooperative baton passing task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, they describe the implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative baton passing task. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes during the task.

  7. Novel Trajectory Control for Human Cooperation Robot Based on Behavior Mode Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Kazuki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel trajectory control system for human cooperation robots based on behavior mode switching. Human cooperation robots have the great possibility to serve as useful support systems for elderly people and physically handicapped people and it is expected to realize the smooth and human-friendly support movements. This study defines three behavior modes in human cooperation motion and their respective trajectory control system are designed. In the trajectory design, minimum jerk model is introduced to realize the smooth and human-friendly cooperation movements. In addition, the initial value compensation at the mode switching is also developed. Some experiments on two-axis plane robot and performance evaluation by trial subjects show the effectiveness of the proposed trajectory control system.

  8. A Case-Study for Life-Long Learning and Adaptation in Cooperative Robot Teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1999-09-19

    While considerable progress has been made in recent years toward the development of multi-robot teams, much work remains to be done before these teams are used widely in real-world applications. Two particular needs toward this end are the development of mechanisms that enable robot teams to generate cooperative behaviors on their own, and the development of techniques that allow these teams to autonomously adapt their behavior over time as the environment or the robot team changes. This paper proposes the use of the Cooperative Multi-Robot Observation of Multiple Moving Targets (CMOMMT) application as a rich domain for studying the issues of multi-robot learning and adaptation. After discussing the need for learning and adaptation in multi-robot teams, this paper describes the CMOMMT application and its relevance to multi-robot learning. We discuss the results of the previously- developed, hand-generated algorithm for CMOMMT and the potential for learning that was discovered from the hand-generated approach. We then describe the early work that has been done (by us and others) to generate multi- robot learning techniques for the CMOMMT application, as well as our ongoing research to develop approaches that give performance as good, or better, than the hand-generated approach. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop techniques for multi-robot learning and adaptation in the CMOMMT application domain that will generalize to cooperative robot applications in other domains, thus making the practical use of multi-robot teams in a wide variety of real-world applications much closer to reality.

  9. A 2.5D Map-Based Mobile Robot Localization via Cooperation of Aerial and Ground Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae Hyeon; Shim, Jae Hong; Cho, Young Im

    2017-11-25

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in studying the task coordination of aerial and ground robots. When a robot begins navigation in an unknown area, it has no information about the surrounding environment. Accordingly, for robots to perform tasks based on location information, they need a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) process that uses sensor information to draw a map of the environment, while simultaneously estimating the current location of the robot on the map. This paper aims to present a localization method based in cooperation between aerial and ground robots in an indoor environment. The proposed method allows a ground robot to reach accurate destination by using a 2.5D elevation map built by a low-cost RGB-D (Red Green and Blue-Depth) sensor and 2D Laser sensor attached onto an aerial robot. A 2.5D elevation map is formed by projecting height information of an obstacle using depth information obtained by the RGB-D sensor onto a grid map, which is generated by using the 2D Laser sensor and scan matching. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for its accuracy in location recognition and computing speed.

  10. A 2.5D Map-Based Mobile Robot Localization via Cooperation of Aerial and Ground Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyeon Nam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increasing interest in studying the task coordination of aerial and ground robots. When a robot begins navigation in an unknown area, it has no information about the surrounding environment. Accordingly, for robots to perform tasks based on location information, they need a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM process that uses sensor information to draw a map of the environment, while simultaneously estimating the current location of the robot on the map. This paper aims to present a localization method based in cooperation between aerial and ground robots in an indoor environment. The proposed method allows a ground robot to reach accurate destination by using a 2.5D elevation map built by a low-cost RGB-D (Red Green and Blue-Depth sensor and 2D Laser sensor attached onto an aerial robot. A 2.5D elevation map is formed by projecting height information of an obstacle using depth information obtained by the RGB-D sensor onto a grid map, which is generated by using the 2D Laser sensor and scan matching. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for its accuracy in location recognition and computing speed.

  11. Ant-like task allocation and recruitment in cooperative robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Michael J. B.; Billeter, Jean-Bernard; Keller, Laurent

    2000-08-01

    One of the greatest challenges in robotics is to create machines that are able to interact with unpredictable environments in real time. A possible solution may be to use swarms of robots behaving in a self-organized manner, similar to workers in an ant colony. Efficient mechanisms of division of labour, in particular series-parallel operation and transfer of information among group members, are key components of the tremendous ecological success of ants. Here we show that the general principles regulating division of labour in ant colonies indeed allow the design of flexible, robust and effective robotic systems. Groups of robots using ant-inspired algorithms of decentralized control techniques foraged more efficiently and maintained higher levels of group energy than single robots. But the benefits of group living decreased in larger groups, most probably because of interference during foraging. Intriguingly, a similar relationship between group size and efficiency has been documented in social insects. Moreover, when food items were clustered, groups where robots could recruit other robots in an ant-like manner were more efficient than groups without information transfer, suggesting that group dynamics of swarms of robots may follow rules similar to those governing social insects.

  12. Tracking and Formation Control of Leader-Follower Cooperative Mobile Robots Based on Trilateration Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Suryawati Ningrum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with formation control of swarm robot based on changing of robot’s relative positional data. A follow the leader movement with simple triangle formation case is applied with three robots; a leader with two followers. Trilateration method is used as a method of determining the position of the leader robot from the follower robots using the distance to the reference point (local positioning. Follower robots are designed to follow every movement of the leader on a formation position. The controller is designed to maintain the formation position of the follower robots relatively to the leader. As a uniqueness, a relative positional control method by using bearing angle and distance error is proposed instead of the common Cartesian positional error control. From the experiment which conducted in maximum distance between the robots,it was obtained a maximum error approximately 56%. The follower robots are able to follow any changes in motion of the robot leader with average distance error of 36%. Keywords: Cooperative mobile robot, formation control, trilateration, follow the leader

  13. Funding oncology clinical trials: are cooperative group trials sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Hsien-Yeang; Whelan, Patrick; Levine, Mark N; Cowan, Kathryn; Lysakowski, Barbara; Kowaleski, Brenda; Snider, Anne; Xu, Rebecca Y; Arnold, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Many oncology clinical trials departments (CTDs) are in serious fiscal deficit and their sustainability is in jeopardy. This study investigates whether the payment models used to fund industry versus cooperative group trials contribute to the fiscal deficit of a CTD. We examined the lifetime costs of all cooperative group and industry trials activated in the CTD of a cancer center between 2007 and 2011. A trial's lifetime is defined as being from the date the first patient was accrued until the last patient's actual or projected final follow-up visit. For each trial, we calculated the lifetime monthly net income, which was defined as monthly revenue minus monthly costs. Data sources included study protocols, trial budgets, and accrual data. Of the 97 trials analyzed, 64 (66%) were cooperative group trials. The pattern of lifetime net income for cooperative group trials has a positive peak during patient accrual followed by a negative trough during follow-up. In contrast, the pattern for industry trials resembled an "l" shape. The patterns reflect the differing payment models: upfront lump-sum payments (cooperative group) versus milestone payments (industry). The negative trough in the lifetime net income of a cooperative group trial occurs because follow-up costs are typically not funded or are underfunded. CTDs accrue more patients in new trials to offset that deficit. The CTD uses revenue from accrual to existing trials to cross-subsidize past trials in follow-up. As the number of patients on follow-up increases, the fiscal deficit grows larger each year, perpetuating the cycle.

  14. Generating Self-Reliant Teams of Autonomous Cooperating Robots: Desired design Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1999-05-01

    The difficulties in designing a cooperative team are significant. Several of the key questions that must be resolved when designing a cooperative control architecture include: How do we formulate, describe, decompose, and allocate problems among a group of intelligent agents? How do we enable agents to communicate and interact? How do we ensure that agents act coherently in their actions? How do we allow agents to recognize and reconcile conflicts? However, in addition to these key issues, the software architecture must be designed to enable multi-robot teams to be robust, reliable, and flexible. Without these capabilities, the resulting robot team will not be able to successfully deal with the dynamic and uncertain nature of the real world. In this extended abstract, we first describe these desired capabilities. We then briefly describe the ALLIANCE software architecture that we have previously developed for multi-robot cooperation. We then briefly analyze the ALLIANCE architecture in terms of the desired design qualities identified.

  15. Simultaneous repetitive motion planning of two redundant robot arms for acceleration-level cooperative manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunong; Wang, Ying; Guo, Dongsheng; Yu, Xiaotian; Xiao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    This Letter proposes a novel simultaneous repetitive motion planning (SRMP) scheme of two redundant robot arms for cooperative manipulation. To remedy the joint-angle drift phenomenon, two SRMP subschemes are exploited at the joint-acceleration level. The subschemes are then simultaneously reformulated as two quadratic programs (QPs), which are finally unified into a QP problem solving. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation based on two three-link robot arms both substantiate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed SRMP scheme.

  16. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  17. Cooperative Tasks between Humans and Robots in Industrial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Corrales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative tasks between human operators and robotic manipulators can improve the performance and flexibility of industrial environments. Nevertheless, the safety of humans should always be guaranteed and the behaviour of the robots should be modified when a risk of collision may happen. This paper presents the research that the authors have performed in recent years in order to develop a human-robot interaction system which guarantees human safety by precisely tracking the complete body of the human and by activating safety strategies when the distance between them is too small. This paper not only summarizes the techniques which have been implemented in order to develop this system, but it also shows its application in three real human-robot interaction tasks.

  18. Self-organized control in cooperative robots using a pattern formation principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Jens, E-mail: j.starke@mat.dtu.d [Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Denmark, Matematiktorvet, Building 303 S, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Ellsaesser, Carmen [Institute of Applied Mathematics and Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 294, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Fukuda, Toshio [Center for Cooperative Research in Advanced Science and Technology, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2011-05-23

    Self-organized modular approaches proved in nature to be robust and optimal and are a promising strategy to control future concepts of flexible and modular manufacturing processes. We show how this can be applied to a model of flexible manufacturing based on time-dependent robot-target assignment problems where robot teams have to serve manufacturing targets such that an objective function is optimized. Feasibility of the self-organized solutions can be guaranteed even for unpredictable situations like sudden changes in the demands or breakdowns of robots. As example an uncrewed space mission is visualized in a simulation where robots build a space station. - Highlights: Adapting a pattern formation principle to control cooperative robots in a robust way. Flexible manufacturing systems are modelled by time-dependent assignment problems. Coupled selection equations guarantee feasibility of solutions. Solution structure (permutations) is not destroyed by inhomogeneous growth rates. Example of an uncrewed space mission shows effectivity and robustness.

  19. SWARMs Ontology: A Common Information Model for the Cooperation of Underwater Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Bilbao, Sonia; Martín-Wanton, Tamara; Bastos, Joaquim; Rodriguez, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    In order to facilitate cooperation between underwater robots, it is a must for robots to exchange information with unambiguous meaning. However, heterogeneity, existing in information pertaining to different robots, is a major obstruction. Therefore, this paper presents a networked ontology, named the Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs) ontology, to address information heterogeneity and enable robots to have the same understanding of exchanged information. The SWARMs ontology uses a core ontology to interrelate a set of domain-specific ontologies, including the mission and planning, the robotic vehicle, the communication and networking, and the environment recognition and sensing ontology. In addition, the SWARMs ontology utilizes ontology constructs defined in the PR-OWL ontology to annotate context uncertainty based on the Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN) theory. Thus, the SWARMs ontology can provide both a formal specification for information that is necessarily exchanged between robots and a command and control entity, and also support for uncertainty reasoning. A scenario on chemical pollution monitoring is described and used to showcase how the SWARMs ontology can be instantiated, be extended, represent context uncertainty, and support uncertainty reasoning. PMID:28287468

  20. SWARMs Ontology: A Common Information Model for the Cooperation of Underwater Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate cooperation between underwater robots, it is a must for robots to exchange information with unambiguous meaning. However, heterogeneity, existing in information pertaining to different robots, is a major obstruction. Therefore, this paper presents a networked ontology, named the Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs ontology, to address information heterogeneity and enable robots to have the same understanding of exchanged information. The SWARMs ontology uses a core ontology to interrelate a set of domain-specific ontologies, including the mission and planning, the robotic vehicle, the communication and networking, and the environment recognition and sensing ontology. In addition, the SWARMs ontology utilizes ontology constructs defined in the PR-OWL ontology to annotate context uncertainty based on the Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN theory. Thus, the SWARMs ontology can provide both a formal specification for information that is necessarily exchanged between robots and a command and control entity, and also support for uncertainty reasoning. A scenario on chemical pollution monitoring is described and used to showcase how the SWARMs ontology can be instantiated, be extended, represent context uncertainty, and support uncertainty reasoning.

  1. SWARMs Ontology: A Common Information Model for the Cooperation of Underwater Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Bilbao, Sonia; Martín-Wanton, Tamara; Bastos, Joaquim; Rodriguez, Jonathan

    2017-03-11

    In order to facilitate cooperation between underwater robots, it is a must for robots to exchange information with unambiguous meaning. However, heterogeneity, existing in information pertaining to different robots, is a major obstruction. Therefore, this paper presents a networked ontology, named the Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs) ontology, to address information heterogeneity and enable robots to have the same understanding of exchanged information. The SWARMs ontology uses a core ontology to interrelate a set of domain-specific ontologies, including the mission and planning, the robotic vehicle, the communication and networking, and the environment recognition and sensing ontology. In addition, the SWARMs ontology utilizes ontology constructs defined in the PR-OWL ontology to annotate context uncertainty based on the Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN) theory. Thus, the SWARMs ontology can provide both a formal specification for information that is necessarily exchanged between robots and a command and control entity, and also support for uncertainty reasoning. A scenario on chemical pollution monitoring is described and used to showcase how the SWARMs ontology can be instantiated, be extended, represent context uncertainty, and support uncertainty reasoning.

  2. Cooperative Localization Algorithm for Multiple Mobile Robot System in Indoor Environment Based on Variance Component Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Multiple Mobile Robot (MMR cooperative system is becoming a focus of study in various fields due to its advantages, such as high efficiency and good fault tolerance. However, the uncertainty and nonlinearity problems severely limit the cooperative localization accuracy of the MMR system. Thus, to solve the problems mentioned above, this manuscript presents a cooperative localization algorithm for MMR systems based on Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF and adaptive Variance Component Estimation (VCE methods. In this novel algorithm, a nonlinear filter named CKF is used to enhance the cooperative localization accuracy and reduce the computational load. On the other hand, the adaptive VCE method is introduced to eliminate the effects of unknown system noise. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of the cooperative localization algorithm based on normal CKF by utilizing the real experiment data. In addition, the results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the CKF cooperative localization algorithm both in accuracy and consistency.

  3. Cooperative Exploration by Multi-robots without Global Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chao-xia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficient exploration of unknown environments is a fundamental problem in mobile robotics. We propose a novel topological map whose nodes are represented with the range finder's free beams together with the visual scale-invariant features. The topological map enables teams of robots to efficiently explore environments from different, unknown locations without knowing their initial poses, relative poses and global poses in a certain world reference frame. The experiments of map merging and coordinated exploration demonstrate the proposed map is not only easy for merging, but also convenient for robust and efficient explorations in unknown environments..

  4. Behavior-based cooperative robotics applied to multi-target observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-12-31

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring (or observing) the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement - determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications involving limited-range sensors, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the author investigates the use of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for the observation of multiple moving targets. The author focuses primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to minimize the total time in which targets escape observation by some robot team member in the area of interest. The initial efforts on this problem address the aspects of distributed control in homogeneous robot teams with equivalent sensing and movement capabilities working in an uncluttered, bounded area. This paper first formalizes the problem, discusses related work, and then shows that this problem is NP-hard. The author then presents a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level control. The low-level control is described in terms of force fields emanating from the targets and the robots. The higher level control is presented in the ALLIANCE formalism, which provides mechanisms for fault tolerant cooperative control, and allows robot team members to adjust their low-level actions based upon the actions of their teammates. The author then presents the results of the ongoing implementation of this approach, both in simulation and on physical robots. To the authors knowledge, this is the first paper addressing this research problem that has been implemented on physical robot teams.

  5. What Role for Emotions in Cooperating Robots? - The Case of RH3-Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessimoz, Jean-Daniel; Gauthey, Pierre-François

    The paper reviews key aspects of emotions in the context of cooperating robots (mostly, robots cooperating with humans), and gives numerous concrete examples from RH-Y robots. Emotions have been first systematically studied in relation to human expressions, and then the shift has come towards a machine-based replication. Emotions appear to result from changes, from convergence or deviation between status and goals; they trigger appropriate activities, are commonly represented in 2D or 3D affect space, and can be made visible by facial expressions. While specific devices are sometimes created, emotive expressions seem to be conveniently rendered by a set of facial images or more simply by some icons; they can also possibly be parameterized in a few dimensions for continuous modulation. In fact however, internal forces for activities and changes may be expressed in many ways other than faces: screens, panels, and operational behaviors. Relying on emotions ensures useful aspects, such as experience reuse, legibility or communication. But it also includes limits such as due to the nature of robots, of interactive media, and even of the very domain of emotions. For our goal, the design of effective and efficient, cooperating robots, in domestic applications, communication and interaction play key roles; best practices become evident after experimental verification; and our experience gained so far, over 10 years and more, points at a variety of successful strategic attitudes and expression modes, much beyond classic human emotions and facial or iconic images.

  6. 75 FR 57502 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics Technology Consortium, Inc. Correction In notice document 2010-22215 beginning on page 54914 in the issue of...

  7. Optimal Control of Holding Motion by Nonprehensile Two-Cooperative-Arm Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more researchers have focused on nursing-care assistant robot and placed their hope on it to solve the shortage problem of the caregivers in hospital or nursing home. In this paper, a nonprehensile two-cooperative-arm robot is considered to realize holding motion to keep a two-rigid-link object (regarded as a care-receiver stable on the robot arms. By applying Newton-Euler equations of motion, dynamic model of the object is obtained. In this model, for describing interaction behavior between object and robot arms in the normal direction, a viscoelastic model is employed to represent the normal forces. Considering existence of friction between object and robot arms, LuGre dynamic model is applied to describe the friction. Based on the obtained model, an optimal regulator is designed to control the holding motion of two-cooperative-arm robot. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation results are shown.

  8. Distributed cooperating processes in a mobile robot control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Thomas L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A mobile inspection robot has been proposed for the NASA Space Station. It will be a free flying autonomous vehicle that will leave a berthing unit to accomplish a variety of inspection tasks around the Space Station, and then return to its berth to recharge, refuel, and transfer information. The Flying Eye robot will receive voice communication to change its attitude, move at a constant velocity, and move to a predefined location along a self generated path. This mobile robot control system requires integration of traditional command and control techniques with a number of AI technologies. Speech recognition, natural language understanding, task and path planning, sensory abstraction and pattern recognition are all required for successful implementation. The interface between the traditional numeric control techniques and the symbolic processing to the AI technologies must be developed, and a distributed computing approach will be needed to meet the real time computing requirements. To study the integration of the elements of this project, a novel mobile robot control architecture and simulation based on the blackboard architecture was developed. The control system operation and structure is discussed.

  9. Model predictive control for cooperative control of space robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Somasundar; Alamdari, Seyed Amin Sajadi; Dentler, Jan; Olivares-Mendez, Miguel A.; Voos, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The problem of Orbital Manipulation of Passive body is discussed here. Two scenarios including passive object rigidly attached to robotic servicers and passive body attached to servicers through manipulators are discussed. The Model Predictive Control (MPC) technique is briefly presented and successfully tested through simulations on two cases of position control of passive body in the orbit.

  10. Co-robotic ultrasound imaging: a cooperative force control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchi, Rodolfo; Aalamifar, Fereshteh; Fang, Ting Yun; Taylor, Russell H.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging remains one of the most commonly used imaging modalities in medical practice. However, due to the physical effort required to perform US imaging tasks, 63-91% of ultrasonographers develop musculoskeletal disorders throughout their careers. The goal of this work is to provide ultrasonographers with a system that facilitates and reduces strain in US image acquisition. To this end, we propose a system for admittance force robot control that uses the six-degree-of-freedom UR5 industrial robot. A six-axis force sensor is used to measure the forces and torques applied by the sonographer on the probe. As the sonographer pushes against the US probe, the robot complies with these forces, following the user's desired path. A one-axis load cell is used to measure contact forces between the patient and the probe in real time. When imaging, the robot augments the axial forces applied by the user, lessening the physical effort required. User studies showed an overall decrease in hand tremor while imaging at high forces, improvements in image stability, and a decrease in difficulty and strenuousness.

  11. Man-Robot Symbiosis: A Framework For Cooperative Intelligence And Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lynne E.; Pin, Francois G.

    1988-10-01

    The man-robot symbiosis concept has the fundamental objective of bridging the gap between fully human-controlled and fully autonomous systems to achieve true man-robot cooperative control and intelligence. Such a system would allow improved speed, accuracy, and efficiency of task execution, while retaining the man in the loop for innovative reasoning and decision-making. The symbiont would have capabilities for supervised and unsupervised learning, allowing an increase of expertise in a wide task domain. This paper describes a robotic system architecture facilitating the symbiotic integration of teleoperative and automated modes of task execution. The architecture reflects a unique blend of many disciplines of artificial intelligence into a working system, including job or mission planning, dynamic task allocation, man-robot communication, automated monitoring, and machine learning. These disciplines are embodied in five major components of the symbiotic framework: the Job Planner, the Dynamic Task Allocator, the Presenter/Interpreter, the Automated Monitor, and the Learning System.

  12. Prototyping a Hybrid Cooperative and Tele-robotic Surgical System for Retinal Microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balicki, Marcin; Xia, Tian; Jung, Min Yang; Deguet, Anton; Vagvolgyi, Balazs; Kazanzides, Peter; Taylor, Russell

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a tele-robotic microsurgical platform designed for development of cooperative and tele-operative control schemes, sensor based smart instruments, user interfaces and new surgical techniques with eye surgery as the driving application. The system is built using the distributed component-based cisst libraries and the Surgical Assistant Workstation framework. It includes a cooperatively controlled EyeRobot2, a da Vinci Master manipulator, and a remote stereo visualization system. We use constrained optimization based virtual fixture control to provide Virtual Remote-Center-of-Motion (vRCM) and haptic feedback. Such system can be used in a hybrid setup, combining local cooperative control with remote tele-operation, where an experienced surgeon can provide hand-over-hand tutoring to a novice user. In another scheme, the system can provide haptic feedback based on virtual fixtures constructed from real-time force and proximity sensor information.

  13. Patient-cooperative control increases active participation of individuals with SCI during robot-aided gait training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duschau-Wicke Alexander

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manual body weight supported treadmill training and robot-aided treadmill training are frequently used techniques for the gait rehabilitation of individuals after stroke and spinal cord injury. Current evidence suggests that robot-aided gait training may be improved by making robotic behavior more patient-cooperative. In this study, we have investigated the immediate effects of patient-cooperative versus non-cooperative robot-aided gait training on individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI. Methods Eleven patients with iSCI participated in a single training session with the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The patients were exposed to four different training modes in random order: During both non-cooperative position control and compliant impedance control, fixed timing of movements was provided. During two variants of the patient-cooperative path control approach, free timing of movements was enabled and the robot provided only spatial guidance. The two variants of the path control approach differed in the amount of additional support, which was either individually adjusted or exaggerated. Joint angles and torques of the robot as well as muscle activity and heart rate of the patients were recorded. Kinematic variability, interaction torques, heart rate and muscle activity were compared between the different conditions. Results Patients showed more spatial and temporal kinematic variability, reduced interaction torques, a higher increase of heart rate and more muscle activity in the patient-cooperative path control mode with individually adjusted support than in the non-cooperative position control mode. In the compliant impedance control mode, spatial kinematic variability was increased and interaction torques were reduced, but temporal kinematic variability, heart rate and muscle activity were not significantly higher than in the position control mode. Conclusions Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training

  14. Impact of International Cooperation for Sustaining Space-Science Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Jani, Karan

    2016-01-01

    Space-science programs provide a wide range of application to a nation's key sectors of development: science-technology infrastructure, education, economy and national security. However, the cost of sustaining a space-science program has discouraged developing nations from participating in space activities, while developed nations have steadily cut down their space-science budget in past decade. In this study I investigate the role of international cooperation in building ambitious space-science programs, particularly in the context of developing nations. I devise a framework to quantify the impact of international collaborations in achieving the space-science goals as well as in enhancing the key sectors of development of a nation. I apply this framework on two case studies, (i) Indian Space Research Organization - a case of space-science program from a developing nation that has historically engaged in international collaborations, and (ii) International Space Station - a case for a long term collaboration ...

  15. Cooperative Work and Sustainable Scientific Software Practices in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, N.

    2013-12-01

    Most scientific software projects are dependent on the work of many diverse people, institutions and organizations. Incentivizing these actors to cooperatively develop software that is both reliable, and sustainable is complicated by the fact that the reward structures of these various actors greatly differ: research scientists want results from a software or model run in order to publish papers, produce new data, or test a hypothesis; software engineers and research centers want compilable, well documented code that is refactorable, reusable and reproducible in future research scenarios. While much research has been done on incentives and motivations for participating in open source software projects or cyberinfrastrcture development, little work has been done on what motivates or incentivizes developers to maintain scientific software projects beyond their original application. This poster will present early results of research into the incentives and motivation for cooperative scientific software development. In particular, this work focuses on motivations for the maintenance and repair of libraries on the software platform R. Our work here uses a sample of R packages that were created by research centers, or are specific to earth, environmental and climate science applications. We first mined 'check' logs from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) to determine the amount of time a package has existed, the number of versions it has gone through over this time, the number of releases, and finally the contact information for each official package 'maintainer'. We then sent a survey to each official maintainer, asking them questions about what role they played in developing the original package, and what their motivations were for sustaining the project over time. We will present early results from this mining and our survey of R maintainers.

  16. Human-robot cooperative movement training: Learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benitez Raul

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Methods Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. Results We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. Conclusion The assist

  17. Human-robot cooperative movement training: learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, Jeremy L; Benitez, Raul; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2007-03-28

    A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. The assist-as-needed algorithm proposed here can limit error during the learning of a

  18. Fuzzy variable impedance control based on stiffness identification for human-robot cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dachao; Yang, Wenlong; Du, Zhijiang

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic fuzzy variable impedance control algorithm for human-robot cooperation. In order to estimate the intention of human for co-manipulation, a fuzzy inference system is set up to adjust the impedance parameter. Aiming at regulating the output fuzzy universe based on the human arm’s stiffness, an online stiffness identification method is developed. A drag interaction task is conducted on a 5-DOF robot with variable impedance control. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior.

  19. Distributed Finite-Time Cooperative Control of Multiple High-Order Nonholonomic Mobile Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haibo; Wen, Guanghui; Cheng, Yingying; He, Yigang; Jia, Ruting

    2017-12-01

    The consensus problem of multiple nonholonomic mobile robots in the form of high-order chained structure is considered in this paper. Based on the model features and the finite-time control technique, a finite-time cooperative controller is explicitly constructed which guarantees that the states consensus is achieved in a finite time. As an application of the proposed results, finite-time formation control of multiple wheeled mobile robots is studied and a finite-time formation control algorithm is proposed. To show effectiveness of the proposed approach, a simulation example is given.

  20. Sustained cooperation by running away from bad behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Efferson Charles; Roca Carlos P.; Vogt Sonja; Helbing Dirk

    2016-01-01

    For cooperation to evolve, some mechanism must limit the rate at which cooperators are exposed to defectors. Only then can the advantages of mutual cooperation outweigh the costs of being exploited. Although researchers widely agree on this, they disagree intensely about which evolutionary mechanisms can explain the extraordinary cooperation exhibited by humans. Much of the controversy follows from disagreements about the informational regularity that allows cooperators to avoid defectors. Re...

  1. Hybrid motion control of humanoid robot for leader-follower cooperative tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Srđan Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for leader-follower type cooperative transportation of an object by multiple humanoid robots or a single robot and a human. The emphasis in this paper is on the hybrid control algorithm and motion generation of the follower robot, while the influence of the leader has been simulated as external force acting on the follower’s hands. The presented approach uses impedance controller to provide compliant behavior of robot arms and it is an extension of our previous work on dual-mode impedance controller for safe human-robot interaction. Synthesis of the follower’s legs and trunk motion is based on the reconfigurable adaptive motion primitives, which are defined as simple, parameterized motion building blocks that can be combined in a sequence or in parallel to generate complex motion. It has been already proven that motion generation, based on reconfigurable adaptive primitives enables the robot to modify gait parameters online, at any time instant, and to synthesize dynamically balanced walk. Motion of the follower is based on the reactive approach, where the gait parameters (walking velocity, direction and step length depend on the intensity and the direction of the external force vector. Robot end-effectors are compliant in the horizontal plain, adapting to the physical guidance of the leader, while being stiff in the vertical direction in order to compensate the external force in negative Z direction. The proposed framework has been tested by numerical simulations involving a dynamic robot model. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III44008 and by Provincial secretariat for science and technological development under contract 114-451-2116/2011

  2. Interaction learning for dynamic movement primitives used in cooperative robotic tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Biehl, Martin; Aein, Mohamad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Since several years dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) are more and more getting into the center of interest for flexible movement control in robotics. In this study we introduce sensory feedback together with a predictive learning mechanism which allows tightly coupled dual-agent system...... to cooperate. Simulations as well as real-robot experiments are shown. Interestingly, all these mechanisms are entirely based on low level interactions without any planning or cognitive component.......Abstract Since several years dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) are more and more getting into the center of interest for flexible movement control in robotics. In this study we introduce sensory feedback together with a predictive learning mechanism which allows tightly coupled dual-agent systems...

  3. Cooperative robot programming based on the parallel logic language KL1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Fumio; Iizuka, Keiichi; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Ohwada, Hayato

    1996-10-01

    Multi-agent root systems for the real world, must handle negotiations between agents. In this paper, we present a robot language which makes it easy to describe negotiation processes. This language provides concurrency and synchronization based on the logic programming language KL1. We incorporate the language into a look-ahead facility for handling emergent situations. Thus, reactive actions can be described in the language. We illustrate these facilities through cooperate tasks in pick-and-place problems.

  4. A Dynamic Cooperative Scheme with Multiple Antennas for Indoor Mobile Robot Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Liang Chang; Bo-Han Wu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a spatial cooperative diversity and decision-making technique to enhance signal detection and indoor mobile robot positioning performance of a global positioning satellite system (GNSS) receiver. Though the adaptive antenna array technique in early research could effectively promote antijamming freedom, overcome time-varying system, and mitigate narrowband and wideband interferences, factors such as the decrease of signal magnitude caused by obstacles (especially in the in...

  5. On position/force tracking control problem of cooperative robot manipulators using adaptive fuzzy backstepping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigzadehnoe, Barmak; Rahmani, Zahra; Khosravi, Alireza; Rezaie, Behrooz

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the position and force tracking control problem of cooperative robot manipulator system handling a common rigid object with unknown dynamical models and unknown external disturbances is investigated. The universal approximation properties of fuzzy logic systems are employed to estimate the unknown system dynamics. On the other hand, by defining new state variables based on the integral and differential of position and orientation errors of the grasped object, the error system of coordinated robot manipulators is constructed. Subsequently by defining the appropriate change of coordinates and using the backstepping design strategy, an adaptive fuzzy backstepping position tracking control scheme is proposed for multi-robot manipulator systems. By utilizing the properties of internal forces, extra terms are also added to the control signals to consider the force tracking problem. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed adaptive fuzzy backstepping position/force control approach ensures all the signals of the closed loop system uniformly ultimately bounded and tracking errors of both positions and forces can converge to small desired values by proper selection of the design parameters. Finally, the theoretic achievements are tested on the two three-link planar robot manipulators cooperatively handling a common object to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Building the Leviathan – Voluntary centralisation of punishment power sustains cooperation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor Z.; Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cooperation among humans is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by free riders. Peer punishment has been suggested as a solution to this puzzle, but cumulating evidence questions its robustness in sustaining cooperation. Amongst others, punishment fails when it is not powerful enough, or when it elicits counter-punishment. Existing research, however, has ignored that the distribution of punishment power can be the result of social interactions. We introduce a novel experiment in which individuals can transfer punishment power to others. We find that while decentralised peer punishment fails to overcome free riding, the voluntary transfer of punishment power enables groups to sustain cooperation. This is achieved by non-punishing cooperators empowering those who are willing to punish in the interest of the group. Our results show how voluntary power centralisation can efficiently sustain cooperation, which could explain why hierarchical power structures are widespread among animals and humans. PMID:26888519

  7. 36 CFR 223.117 - Administration of cooperative or Federal sustained yield units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or Federal sustained yield units. 223.117 Section 223.117 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Contracts Contract Administration § 223.117 Administration of cooperative or Federal sustained yield units. With respect to sustained yield units established pursuant to the provisions of the Act of March 29...

  8. Feasibility and effects of patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training applied in a 4-week pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schück, Alex; Labruyère, Rob; Vallery, Heike; Riener, Robert; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander

    2012-05-31

    Functional training is becoming the state-of-the-art therapy approach for rehabilitation of individuals after stroke and spinal cord injury. Robot-aided treadmill training reduces personnel effort, especially when treating severely affected patients. Improving rehabilitation robots towards more patient-cooperative behavior may further increase the effects of robot-aided training. This pilot study aims at investigating the feasibility of applying patient-cooperative robot-aided gait rehabilitation to stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury during a therapy period of four weeks. Short-term effects within one training session as well as the effects of the training on walking function are evaluated. Two individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury and two with chronic stroke trained with the Lokomat gait rehabilitation robot which was operated in a new, patient-cooperative mode for a period of four weeks with four training sessions of 45 min per week. At baseline, after two and after four weeks, walking function was assessed with the ten meter walking test. Additionally, muscle activity of the major leg muscles, heart rate and the Borg scale were measured under different walking conditions including a non-cooperative position control mode to investigate the short-term effects of patient-cooperative versus non-cooperative robot-aided gait training. Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training was tolerated well by all subjects and performed without difficulties. The subjects trained more actively and with more physiological muscle activity than in a non-cooperative position-control mode. One subject showed a significant and relevant increase of gait speed after the therapy, the three remaining subjects did not show significant changes. Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training is feasible in clinical practice and overcomes the main points of criticism against robot-aided gait training: It enables patients to train in an active, variable and more natural

  9. Hybrid FES-robot cooperative control of ambulatory gait rehabilitation exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Ama, Antonio J; Gil-Agudo, Angel; Pons, José L; Moreno, Juan C

    2014-03-04

    Robotic and functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches are used for rehabilitation of walking impairment of spinal cord injured individuals. Although devices are commercially available, there are still issues that remain to be solved. Control of hybrid exoskeletons aims at blending robotic exoskeletons and electrical stimulation to overcome the drawbacks of each approach while preserving their advantages. Hybrid actuation and control have a considerable potential for walking rehabilitation but there is a need of novel control strategies of hybrid systems that adequately manage the balance between FES and robotic controllers. Combination of FES and robotic control is a challenging issue, due to the non-linear behavior of muscle under stimulation and the lack of developments in the field of hybrid control. In this article, a cooperative control strategy of a hybrid exoskeleton is presented. This strategy is designed to overcome the main disadvantages of muscular stimulation: electromechanical delay and change in muscle performance over time, and to balance muscular and robotic actuation during walking.Experimental results in healthy subjects show the ability of the hybrid FES-robot cooperative control to balance power contribution between exoskeleton and muscle stimulation. The robotic exoskeleton decreases assistance while adequate knee kinematics are guaranteed. A new technique to monitor muscle performance is employed, which allows to estimate muscle fatigue and implement muscle fatigue management strategies. Kinesis is therefore the first ambulatory hybrid exoskeleton that can effectively balance robotic and FES actuation during walking. This represents a new opportunity to implement new rehabilitation interventions to induce locomotor activity in patients with paraplegia.Acronym list: 10 mWT: ten meters walking test; 6 MWT: six minutes walking test; FSM: finite-state machine; t-FSM: time-domain FSM; c-FSM: cycle-domain FSM; FES: functional electrical

  10. Using "human state aware" robots to enhance physical human-robot interaction in a cooperative scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlos Rodriguez; Fraile Marinero, Juan Carlos; Turiel, Javier Perez; Muñoz, Victor

    2013-11-01

    Human motor performance, speed and variability are highly susceptible to emotional states. This paper reviews the impact of the emotions on the motor control performance, and studies the possibility of improving the perceived skill/challenge relation on a multimodal neural rehabilitation scenario, by means of a biocybernetic controller that modulates the assistance provided by a haptic controlled robot in reaction to undesirable physical and mental states. Results from psychophysiological, performance and self assessment data for closed loop experiments in contrast with their open loop counterparts, suggest that the proposed method had a positive impact on the overall challenge/skill relation leading to an enhanced physical human-robot interaction experience. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. From Intuitive Programming of Robotic Systems to Business Sustainability of Manufacturing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mocan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are issues which are becoming more and more important for nowadays companies. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic and production activity the limited resources of our planet. Eco-innovations, eco-efficiency and corporate social responsibility practices define much of the current industrial sustainability agenda. While important, they are insufficient in themselves to deliver the holistic changes necessary to achieve long-term social and environmental sustainability. This paper proposed a framework for designing multimodal human-robot interfaces and a demonstrator that facilitate a sustainable use of robotic systems with positive effects on SMEs business sustainability. The proposed approach is intended to bring important contributions to the development of human robot interaction in order to facilitate intuitive programming and to enable easily adapting to changes in robot tasks and applications without the need of using skilled personnel. Our research emphasize the idea that new technologies in product and process create and enable new business strategies; and we demonstrate that changing the paradigm in programming industrial robotic systems it is possible by a “business case for sustainability” to have a sustainable development of the business, in special in case of SMEs.

  12. Hierarchical HMM based learning of navigation primitives for cooperative robotic endovascular catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii-Tari, Hedyeh; Liu, Jindong; Payne, Christopher J; Bicknell, Colin; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased use of remote-controlled steerable catheter navigation systems for endovascular intervention, most current designs are based on master configurations which tend to alter natural operator tool interactions. This introduces problems to both ergonomics and shared human-robot control. This paper proposes a novel cooperative robotic catheterization system based on learning-from-demonstration. By encoding the higher-level structure of a catheterization task as a sequence of primitive motions, we demonstrate how to achieve prospective learning for complex tasks whilst incorporating subject-specific variations. A hierarchical Hidden Markov Model is used to model each movement primitive as well as their sequential relationship. This model is applied to generation of motion sequences, recognition of operator input, and prediction of future movements for the robot. The framework is validated by comparing catheter tip motions against the manual approach, showing significant improvements in the quality of catheterization. The results motivate the design of collaborative robotic systems that are intuitive to use, while reducing the cognitive workload of the operator.

  13. Formation-Based Control Scheme for Cooperative Transportation by Multiple Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Yufka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a motion-planning and control scheme for a cooperative transportation system comprising a single rigid object and multiple autonomous non-holonomic mobile robots. A leader-follower formation control strategy is used for the transportation system in which the object is assumed to be the virtual leader; the robots carrying the object are considered to be followers. A smooth trajectory between the current and desired locations of the object is generated considering the constraints of the virtual leader. In the leader-follower approach, the origin of the coordinate system attached to the centre of gravity of the object, which is known as the virtual leader, moves along the generated trajectory while the real robots, which are known as followers, maintain a desired distance and orientation in relation to the leader. An asymptotically stable tracking controller is used for trajectory tracking. The proposed approach is verified by simulations and real applications using Pioneer P3-DX mobile robots.

  14. Vision-Based Cooperative Pose Estimation for Localization in Multi-Robot Systems Equipped with RGB-D Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new vision based cooperative pose estimation scheme for systems of mobile robots equipped with RGB-D cameras. We first model a multi-robot system as an edge-weighted graph. Then, based on this model, and by using the real-time color and depth data, the robots with shared field-of-views estimate their relative poses in pairwise. The system does not need the existence of a single common view shared by all robots, and it works in 3D scenes without any specific calibration pattern or landmark. The proposed scheme distributes working loads evenly in the system, hence it is scalable and the computing power of the participating robots is efficiently used. The performance and robustness were analyzed both on synthetic and experimental data in different environments over a range of system configurations with varying number of robots and poses.

  15. Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alufohai, G. O.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…

  16. European cooperation on the sustainable return and reintegration of asylum seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, J.; e.a., [Unknown

    2010-01-01

    More cooperation in the field of sustainable return and reintegration could lead to more efficient and effective reintegration programmas. Cooperation both between European players as well with countries of origin. In practice however, joint reintegration programmes are virtually non-existent. On

  17. The role of cooperatives in sustaining the livelihoods of rural communities: The case of rural cooperatives in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Mhembwe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the research was to analyse the role of cooperatives in sustaining the livelihoods of local rural communities in Shurugwi District in Zimbabwe. Descriptive survey design was used in this mixed method approach to the study. A questionnaire, interviews and observation methods were employed as the main research instruments. Purposive sampling technique was adopted and data were collected from government officials and from members of the six cooperatives in Shurugwi District. A total of 50 research participants were involved in the study. It was found that cooperatives were established as a strategy to sustain livelihoods of rural communities. With the adoption of cooperatives, people in the rural communities managed to generate employment, boost food production, empower the marginalised, especially women, and promote social cohesion and integration, thereby improving their livelihoods and reducing poverty. Most cooperatives face a number of challenges that include lack of financial support, poor management and lack of management skills, and lack of competitive markets to sell their produce. The study recommends that the government and the banking sector render financial support to cooperatives in rural communities to allow them to expand and diversify their business operations; constant training on leadership and management skills is provided to cooperatives’ members. There is also a need for cooperatives, especially those in the agricultural sector, to form some producer associations so as to easily market their produce. Lastly, the study recommends that future research should focus on investigating issues that hinder the growth of the cooperative movement in rural communities of Zimbabwe. It is hoped that policy-makers, the academia and communities would benefit from the study.

  18. Innovation, Cooperation, and the Perceived Benefits and Costs of Sustainable Agriculture Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lubell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A central goal of most sustainable agriculture programs is to encourage growers to adopt practices that jointly provide economic, environmental, and social benefits. Using surveys of outreach professionals and wine grape growers, we quantify the perceived costs and benefits of sustainable viticulture practices recommended by sustainability outreach and certification programs. We argue that the mix of environmental benefits, economic benefits, and economic costs determine whether or not a particular practice involves decisions about innovation or cooperation. Decision making is also affected by the overall level of knowledge regarding different practices, and we show that knowledge gaps are an increasing function of cost and a decreasing function of benefits. How different practices are related to innovation and cooperation has important implications for the design of sustainability outreach programs. Cooperation, innovation, and knowledge gaps are issues that are likely to be relevant for the resilience and sustainability of many different types of social-ecological systems.

  19. Local and Sustainable Food Supply: The Role of European Retail Consumer Co-operatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hingley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  This paper investigates the rationale for local and sustainable food systems and retailer co-operatives as their entry points within local conditions. Emphasis is on localised food networks and connection between socially as well as environmentally sustainable production, distribution and consumption. Investigated is the premise that co-operative organisational structures, for reasons of their long-term socially responsible origins are at the forefront of development of local and sustainable food systems and are thereby in a position to offer a specific contribution to market development. Two key research questions are proposed: Firstly, is there a pre-determination of co-operatives to issues of sustainable and local food sourcing given the historical and practical context of their ethical/socially responsible and stakeholder-based business model? Secondly, do co-ops express support for re-localising food systems and what contribution do they make concerning sustainable food and their relationships with local food suppliers? The method of investigation is through a two country retailer co-operative sector analysis and comparison (Finland and Italy. The enquiry is qualitative and exploratory in nature in the form of an embedded, multiple case design. The paper makes practical and theoretical contribution to knowledge concerning interpretation of ‘localness’ in food, the role of co-operatives and the co-operative ethos in sustainable food systems and the development of the local food economy. Results of the study show a positive relationship between co-operative ethos and (social sustainability in local food, but the de-centralised nature of retailer co-operation also provides a barrier to replication of good practice.

  20. Increasing motivation in robot-aided arm rehabilitation with competitive and cooperative gameplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Several strategies have been proposed to improve patient motivation and exercise intensity during robot-aided stroke rehabilitation. One relatively unexplored possibility is two-player gameplay, allowing subjects to compete or cooperate with each other to achieve a common goal. In order to explore the potential of such games, we designed a two-player game played using two ARMin arm rehabilitation robots. Methods The game was an air-hockey task displayed on a computer monitor and controlled using shoulder movements in the ARMin robot. Three game modes were tested: single-player (competing against computer), competitive (competing against human), and cooperative (cooperating with human against computer). All modes were played by 30 unimpaired subjects and 8 impaired chronic stroke subjects. The subjects filled out the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory questionnaire after each game mode, as well as a final questionnaire about game preferences and their personality. Results Nearly all unimpaired subjects preferred playing the two-player game modes to the single-player one, as they enjoyed talking and interacting with another person. However, there were two distinct player groups: one liked the competitive mode but not the cooperative mode while the other liked the cooperative but not the competitive mode. Unimpaired subjects who liked the competitive mode also put significantly more effort into it than into the other modes. Results from impaired subjects were similar, with even impaired subjects over 60 years old enjoying competitive gameplay. The subjects’ personalities roughly predicted which mode they would prefer, which was especially evident in a poorly-matched impaired pair that preferred the single-player mode. Conclusions Results indicate great potential for two-player rehabilitation games, in the form of greater enjoyment as well as potentially more intensive exercise compared to single-player games. However, the right game type needs to be chosen

  1. Increasing motivation in robot-aided arm rehabilitation with competitive and cooperative gameplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Domen; Nagle, Aniket; Keller, Urs; Riener, Robert

    2014-04-16

    Several strategies have been proposed to improve patient motivation and exercise intensity during robot-aided stroke rehabilitation. One relatively unexplored possibility is two-player gameplay, allowing subjects to compete or cooperate with each other to achieve a common goal. In order to explore the potential of such games, we designed a two-player game played using two ARMin arm rehabilitation robots. The game was an air-hockey task displayed on a computer monitor and controlled using shoulder movements in the ARMin robot. Three game modes were tested: single-player (competing against computer), competitive (competing against human), and cooperative (cooperating with human against computer). All modes were played by 30 unimpaired subjects and 8 impaired chronic stroke subjects. The subjects filled out the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory questionnaire after each game mode, as well as a final questionnaire about game preferences and their personality. Nearly all unimpaired subjects preferred playing the two-player game modes to the single-player one, as they enjoyed talking and interacting with another person. However, there were two distinct player groups: one liked the competitive mode but not the cooperative mode while the other liked the cooperative but not the competitive mode. Unimpaired subjects who liked the competitive mode also put significantly more effort into it than into the other modes. Results from impaired subjects were similar, with even impaired subjects over 60 years old enjoying competitive gameplay. The subjects' personalities roughly predicted which mode they would prefer, which was especially evident in a poorly-matched impaired pair that preferred the single-player mode. Results indicate great potential for two-player rehabilitation games, in the form of greater enjoyment as well as potentially more intensive exercise compared to single-player games. However, the right game type needs to be chosen for each subject depending on skill and

  2. 'Part of the solution': Developing sustainable energy through co-operatives and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguid, Fiona C. B.

    After five years of development, WindShare Co-operative in Toronto, Ontario became the first urban wind turbine in North America and the first co-operatively owned and operated wind turbine in Canada. The development of WindShare Co-operative has spurred the growth of a green energy co-operative sector in Ontario. This study, which included 27 interviews and a focus group with members of WindShare Co-operative, focuses on the roles of community-based green energy co-operatives in advancing sustainable energy development and energy literacy. Sustainable energy development is firmly rooted in the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic success, and green energy co-operatives can be a way to help achieve those successes. Green energy co-operatives are structures for providing renewable energy generation or energy conservation practices, both of which have important environmental impacts regarding climate change and pollution levels. Co-operative structures are supported by processes that include local ownership, democracy, participation, community organizing, learning and social change. These processes have a significant social impact by creating a venue for people to be directly involved in the energy industry, by involving learning through participation in a community-based organization, and by advancing energy literacy within the membership and the general public. In regards to the economic impacts, green energy co-operatives foster a local economy and local investment opportunities, which have repercussions regarding building expertise within Ontario's green energy and co-operative development future, and more generally, captures members' interest because they have a direct stake in the co-operative. This thesis shows that green energy co-operatives, like WindShare, play an important role in advancing sustainable energy development, energy literacy and the triple bottom line. Members of WindShare expressed resounding feelings of pride, efficacy

  3. Outside the Green Box: Embedding Education for Sustainable Development through Cooperative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Denise; Turner, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    By 2010 all educators in the English lifelong learning sector were expected to embed "education for sustainable development" to support their learners in becoming sustainable citizens. The teacher training team at a college in southwest England used a "cooperative inquiry" approach to develop themselves and their curriculum, to…

  4. The Analysis of the Determinants of Sustainable Cross-Border Cooperation and Recommendations on Its Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border partnerships are a distinctive example of inter-organizational cooperation, embedded, in terms of territory, in the neighboring borderland regions of two or more countries. The aim of this paper is to identify factors that contribute to the sustainable cross-border cooperation and affect motivation to increase cooperation between cross-border partners. The objective implementation is connected with the verification of a hypothesis referring to the possible impact of the European Union funds on the trans-boundary cooperation transformations. Results of desk research and quantitative research involving IDI, CATI, CAWI and CATI and PAPI data collection methods, implemented in the Polish–Czech borderland in 2016 were used in this paper. Research on the Polish–Lithuanian borderland was also used in the paper to conduct comparative analysis, useful to identify and evaluate factors motivating sustainable cross-border cooperation in the Czech–Polish borderland. The sustainable, cross-border and inter-organizational cooperation in the borderlands results from the simultaneous interaction of three groups of factors: (1 people and institutions (the quality of interpersonal relationships; (2 cross-border planning, procedures and support mechanisms (e.g., the possibility of jointly planning the cross-border cooperation and obtaining EU funds for the development of the borderlands as well as the availability of other funds helpful in this kind of cooperation; and (3 environment (historical affinity and geographical proximity of neighboring border regions, system support at the regional and local level in neighboring countries.

  5. Study and Application of Reinforcement Learning in Cooperative Strategy of the Robot Soccer Based on BDI Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bo-ying

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic cooperation model of multi-Agent is formed by combining reinforcement learning with BDI model. In this model, the concept of the individual optimization loses its meaning, because the repayment of each Agent dose not only depend on itsself but also on the choice of other Agents. All Agents can pursue a common optimum solution and try to realize the united intention as a whole to a maximum limit. The robot moves to its goal, depending on the present positions of the other robots that cooperate with it and the present position of the ball. One of these robots cooperating with it is controlled to move by man with a joystick. In this way, Agent can be ensured to search for each state-action as frequently as possible when it carries on choosing movements, so as to shorten the time of searching for the movement space so that the convergence speed of reinforcement learning can be improved. The validity of the proposed cooperative strategy for the robot soccer has been proved by combining theoretical analysis with simulation robot soccer match (11vs11 .

  6. A Dynamic Cooperative Scheme with Multiple Antennas for Indoor Mobile Robot Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a spatial cooperative diversity and decision-making technique to enhance signal detection and indoor mobile robot positioning performance of a global positioning satellite system (GNSS receiver. Though the adaptive antenna array technique in early research could effectively promote antijamming freedom, overcome time-varying system, and mitigate narrowband and wideband interferences, factors such as the decrease of signal magnitude caused by obstacles (especially in the indoor environment, multipath, and blanking effect caused by the change in antenna direction with the motion of mobile robot can degrade the detection and interference mitigation performance of GNSS receivers. This paper aims to develop a dynamic cooperative scheme to proceed with the switch, selection, combination, and optimization among antennas. In addition, a signal processing experimental platform is also established to receive actually indoor GNSS signals for verification. The proposed scheme is capable of effectively promoting the postcorrelation signal-to-noise ratio (SNR capability of a GNSS receiver under the indoor environment.

  7. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Professionals' Attitudes toward Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarovic, Rosanne E.; Mueller, J. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 369 of 500 extension professionals reflected a shared vision for sustainable agriculture and recognition of a need for environmentally sound farming practices. There was less unanimity about endorsing the social aspects of sustainable agriculture, though they agreed on the need for more systems research. (SK)

  8. Role of cooperative companies in sustainable rice production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in the districts of Guilan state of Iran to assess the impact of cooperative companies on the economic condition of rice farmers in the Guilan state. The research was conducted in the 2005 to 2007 periods. Three hundred respondents were selected for the study comprising equal number of ...

  9. I Reach Faster When I See You Look: Gaze Effects in Human-Human and Human-Robot Face-to-Face Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-David; Pattacini, Ugo; Lelong, Amelie; Bailly, Gerrard; Elisei, Frederic; Fagel, Sascha; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Human-human interaction in natural environments relies on a variety of perceptual cues. Humanoid robots are becoming increasingly refined in their sensorimotor capabilities, and thus should now be able to manipulate and exploit these social cues in cooperation with their human partners. Previous studies have demonstrated that people follow human and robot gaze, and that it can help them to cope with spatially ambiguous language. Our goal is to extend these findings into the domain of action, to determine how human and robot gaze can influence the speed and accuracy of human action. We report on results from a human-human cooperation experiment demonstrating that an agent's vision of her/his partner's gaze can significantly improve that agent's performance in a cooperative task. We then implement a heuristic capability to generate such gaze cues by a humanoid robot that engages in the same cooperative interaction. The subsequent human-robot experiments demonstrate that a human agent can indeed exploit the predictive gaze of their robot partner in a cooperative task. This allows us to render the humanoid robot more human-like in its ability to communicate with humans. The long term objectives of the work are thus to identify social cooperation cues, and to validate their pertinence through implementation in a cooperative robot. The current research provides the robot with the capability to produce appropriate speech and gaze cues in the context of human-robot cooperation tasks. Gaze is manipulated in three conditions: Full gaze (coordinated eye and head), eyes hidden with sunglasses, and head fixed. We demonstrate the pertinence of these cues in terms of statistical measures of action times for humans in the context of a cooperative task, as gaze significantly facilitates cooperation as measured by human response times.

  10. Cooperative Control for A Hybrid Rehabilitation System Combining Functional Electrical Stimulation and Robotic Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingguo; Ren, Yong; Gui, Kai; Jia, Jie; Xu, Wendong

    2017-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) and robotic exoskeletons are two important technologies widely used for physical rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. We developed a hybrid rehabilitation system (FEXO Knee) that combined FES and an exoskeleton for swinging movement control of human knee joints. This study proposed a novel cooperative control strategy, which could realize arbitrary distribution of torque generated by FES and exoskeleton, and guarantee harmonic movements. The cooperative control adopted feedfoward control for FES and feedback control for exoskeleton. A parameter regulator was designed to update key parameters in real time to coordinate FES controller and exoskeleton controller. Two muscle groups (quadriceps and hamstrings) were stimulated to generate active torque for knee joint in synchronization with torque compensation from exoskeleton. The knee joint angle and the interactive torque between exoskeleton and shank were used as feedback signals for the control system. Central pattern generator (CPG) was adopted that acted as a phase predictor to deal with phase confliction of motor patterns, and realized synchronization between the two different bodies (shank and exoskeleton). Experimental evaluation of the hybrid FES-exoskeleton system was conducted on five healthy subjects and four paraplegic patients. Experimental results and statistical analysis showed good control performance of the cooperative control on torque distribution, trajectory tracking, and phase synchronization.

  11. Cooperative Control for A Hybrid Rehabilitation System Combining Functional Electrical Stimulation and Robotic Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingguo Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional electrical stimulation (FES and robotic exoskeletons are two important technologies widely used for physical rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. We developed a hybrid rehabilitation system (FEXO Knee that combined FES and an exoskeleton for swinging movement control of human knee joints. This study proposed a novel cooperative control strategy, which could realize arbitrary distribution of torque generated by FES and exoskeleton, and guarantee harmonic movements. The cooperative control adopted feedfoward control for FES and feedback control for exoskeleton. A parameter regulator was designed to update key parameters in real time to coordinate FES controller and exoskeleton controller. Two muscle groups (quadriceps and hamstrings were stimulated to generate active torque for knee joint in synchronization with torque compensation from exoskeleton. The knee joint angle and the interactive torque between exoskeleton and shank were used as feedback signals for the control system. Central pattern generator (CPG was adopted that acted as a phase predictor to deal with phase confliction of motor patterns, and realized synchronization between the two different bodies (shank and exoskeleton. Experimental evaluation of the hybrid FES-exoskeleton system was conducted on five healthy subjects and four paraplegic patients. Experimental results and statistical analysis showed good control performance of the cooperative control on torque distribution, trajectory tracking, and phase synchronization.

  12. Stakeholder cooperation in implementation of the sustainable development concept: Montenegrin tourist destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Pjerotic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of involving diverse stakeholders in tourism planning is receiving growing recognition. Tourism destination planning is a complex process, due to the existence of a wide variety of stakeholders with a wide range of opinions, multiple problem visions and different interests. Despite the complexity of the planning process one feature acknowledged for successful destination management planning is high level of stakeholder cooperation. The paper examines the level of stakeholder cooperation on the specific example of the sustainable development concept implementation in Montenegrin tourism. It starts with two hypotheses: first, the development level of instruments for managing tourist destination depends on stakeholder cooperation level in a particular destination, and second, implementation of the sustainable development concept is positively correlated with the development of instruments for managing tourist destination. The results have indicated poor implementation of tourism development plans and low level of stakeholder cooperation.

  13. Benefits of University-Industry Cooperation for Innovations of Sustainable Biological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Althoff Philippi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the benefits of technological cooperation between the College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz – University of São Paulo (Esalq/USP and the start-up Bug, a company that operates in the biological control of pests as a sustainable alternative to traditional methods. This research was based on a case study regarding a technological cooperation, which resulted in sustainable innovation involving a biological control of pests through the use of a parasite wasp that naturally parasitize the sugarcane borer’s eggs, preventing the growth of caterpillars in field crops. The technological cooperation led the company to extend its cooperation to other educational and research institutions.

  14. Local Sustainability and Cooperation Actions in the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Daddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The populations of the Middle East and Africa are increasing rapidly, contributing to rapid urban growth. This paper describes a two-year action research process involving diverse public, private, and community stakeholders. The actions aimed to develop and strengthen the capabilities of three Mediterranean cities (Marrakech, Morocco; Sin el Fil, Lebanon; and Bodrum, Turkey in managing and promoting local sustainable development. The needs and priorities of each Mediterranean partner were identified and pilot actions were elaborated to promote urban sustainability, the exploitation of local resources, and the enhancement of local tangible and intangible assets. The paper describes the outputs of pilot actions carried out in these cities, highlighting how these experiences contribute to the current debate on urban sustainability. Broad implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  15. ANALYSIS OF A NETWORK OF COOPERATION IN MISIONES, ARGENTINA: BENEFITS AND LACKS FOR LOCAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos, Michalus; Gilberto, Hernández Pérez

    2012-01-01

    We present a case study of a network of existing cooperation in the province of Misiones, Argentina, composed of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Elaboration of black tea and a group of SMEs from sawn wood, formed from the particular initiative of the tea entrepreneur. The aim is to identify the benefits of working in cooperation and, in turn, highlight the lacks when these processes are not performed in a planned and sustainable local oriented development. The case study that is exposed i...

  16. Designing a Robot Teaching Assistant for Enhancing and Sustaining Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, I-Chun; Chao, Kuo-Jen; Lee, Ling; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Although many researchers have pointed out that educational robots can stimulate learners' learning motivation, the learning motivation will be hardly sustained and rapidly decreased over time if the amusement and interaction merely come from the new technology itself without incorporating instructional strategies. Many researchers have…

  17. Supporting Sustainable Strategies for SMEs through Training, Cooperation and Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brien, Emma O.; Hamburg, Ileana

    2014-01-01

    In order to remain successful and competitive in business today it is important that SMEs can sustain themselves by adapting to economic changes. SMEs have a distinct advantage over large companies in that they have less bureaucracy and hierarchical restrictions and can implement changes quickly. However often they are slow to change their way of…

  18. Role of cooperative companies in sustainable rice production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... reduction and sustainable food production, a comprehensive schedule was developed and field-tested before data collection. Personal interview, direct observation and group discussions were the methods used for data collection. The main tool for collection of data and information related to the variables ...

  19. Teacher-Community Cooperation to Promote Sustainability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    establish how teachers relate with the local community and how they harness this interaction to promote sustainability of wetlands ... Participants in this research were sampled from 242 teachers who had participated in an in-service course on ..... The nature of wetlands: A handbook of wetlands in. Kenya. Nairobi: NMK ...

  20. Social sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel: The role of agricultural cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels have been criticized in academic and activist circles not only for their environmental consequences but also for their social impacts on food availability and on small-scale family farming. Meanwhile (global) initiatives and policies have been developed to stimulate "sustainable biofuels".

  1. Integrated Network Architecture for Sustained Human and Robotic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Gary; Cesarone, Robert; Deutsch, Leslie; Edwards, Charles; Soloff, Jason; Ely, Todd; Cook, Brian; Morabito, David; Hemmati, Hamid; Piazolla, Sabino; hide

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Enterprise is planning a series of human and robotic missions to the Earth's moon and to Mars. These missions will require communication and navigation services. This paper1 sets forth presumed requirements for such services and concepts for lunar and Mars telecommunications network architectures to satisfy the presumed requirements. The paper suggests that an inexpensive ground network would suffice for missions to the near-side of the moon. A constellation of three Lunar Telecommunications Orbiters connected to an inexpensive ground network could provide continuous redundant links to a polar lunar base and its vicinity. For human and robotic missions to Mars, a pair of areostationary satellites could provide continuous redundant links between Earth and a mid-latitude Mars base in conjunction with the Deep Space Network augmented by large arrays of 12-m antennas on Earth.

  2. The Dynamics and Sliding Mode Control of Multiple Cooperative Welding Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design, dynamic modelling and sliding mode control of multiple cooperative welding robot manipulators (MWRMs. The MWRMs can handle complex tasks that are difficult or even impossible for a single manipulator. The kinematics and dynamics of the MWRMs are studied on the basis of the Denavit-Hartenberg and Lagrange method. Following that, considering the MWRM system with nonlinear and unknown disturbances, a non-singular terminal sliding mode control strategy is designed. By means of the Lyapunov function, the stability of the controller is proved. Simulation results indicate that the good control performance of the MWRMs is achieved by the non-singular terminal sliding mode controller, which also illustrates the correctness of the dynamic modelling and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  3. Managing European Cross Border Cooperation Projects on Sustainability: A Focus on MESP Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Schenone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available International cooperation is a must to achieve the goal of sustainable development, since only through cross border actions’ complex issues like environmental degradation can be faced. Supranational initiatives and shared objectives are the only path for getting a durable and effective green strategy, which transcends boundaries or governments and fosters a common effort for sustainability through networking. The European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI aims at reinforcing cooperation between the European Union (EU and partner countries’ regions placed along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. To this extent, MESP (Managing the Environmental Sustainability of Ports for a durable development can be considered as a typical cross border cooperation project, willing to create a sustainable environmental management of port in northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean basin. This has been achieved through the development of specific guidelines towards environmental sustainability and the collection of common tools, methodologies, good practices and innovations focused on pollution reduction that can be replicated in Mediterranean ports and further. This was possible through the creation of a strong cooperation network and long-lasting collaborations among partners and stakeholders such as harbour cities, port authorities, universities, research centres and scientific skills.

  4. Movement Performance of Human-Robot Cooperation Control Based on EMG-Driven Hill-Type and Proportional Models for an Ankle Power-Assist Exoskeleton Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Gao, JinWu

    2017-08-01

    Although the merits of electromyography (EMG)-based control of powered assistive systems have been certified, the factors that affect the performance of EMG-based human-robot cooperation, which are very important, have received little attention. This study investigates whether a more physiologically appropriate model could improve the performance of human-robot cooperation control for an ankle power-assist exoskeleton robot. To achieve the goal, an EMG-driven Hill-type neuromusculoskeletal model (HNM) and a linear proportional model (LPM) were developed and calibrated through maximum isometric voluntary dorsiflexion (MIVD). The two control models could estimate the real-time ankle joint torque, and HNM is more accurate and can account for the change of the joint angle and muscle dynamics. Then, eight healthy volunteers were recruited to wear the ankle exoskeleton robot and complete a series of sinusoidal tracking tasks in the vertical plane. With the various levels of assist based on the two calibrated models, the subjects were instructed to track the target displayed on the screen as accurately as possible by performing ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. Two measurements, the root mean square error (RMSE) and root mean square jerk (RMSJ), were derived from the assistant torque and kinematic signals to characterize the movement performances, whereas the amplitudes of the recorded EMG signals from the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius (GAS) were obtained to reflect the muscular efforts. The results demonstrated that the muscular effort and smoothness of tracking movements decreased with an increase in the assistant ratio. Compared with LPM, subjects made lower physical efforts and generated smoother movements when using HNM, which implied that a more physiologically appropriate model could enable more natural and human-like human-robot cooperation and has potential value for improvement of human-exoskeleton interaction in future applications.

  5. Safety Aspects in a Human-Robot Interaction Scenario: A Human Worker Is Co-operating with an Industrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaeh, Michael; Roesel, Wolfgang

    This paper presents a concept of a smart working environment designed to allow true joint actions of humans and industrial robots. The proposed system perceives its environment with multiple sensor modalities and acts in it with an industrial robot manipulator to assemble workpieces in combination with a human worker. In combination with the reactive behavior of the robot, safe collaboration between the human and the robot is possible. Generally, the application scenario is situated in a factory, where a human worker is supported by a robot to accomplish a given hybrid assembly scenario, that covers manual and automated assembly steps. For an effective human-robot collaboration, new safety methods have to be developed and proven. Human workers as well as objects in the environment have to be detected and a collision avoidance algorithm has to ensure the safety for persons and equipment.

  6. THE COOPERATIVE WORK AND FAMILY FARMING ECOLOGICALLY BASED: ACTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM THE LOCAL REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana da Silva Andersson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the associated farmers to Cooperativa Sul Ecológica de Agricultores Familiares Ltda., and to understand the organization of the cooperative institution. For this, we conducted semi-structured interviews with the family farmers ecological base and development agents along Cooperative, together the use of secondary sources. Since the Cooperative presents their work ethics and press for horizontal beginning, it allows collective decision making. In addition, your audience - family farmers ecological base - has an active history of sustainable and cooperative work. Therefore, we can measure both the public research on the family farm as the institution Cooperativa Sul Ecológica actual actions and what Costabeber & Caporal established as ecologically based agriculture.

  7. Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  8. ANALYSIS OF A NETWORK OF COOPERATION IN MISIONES, ARGENTINA: BENEFITS AND LACKS FOR LOCAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos, Michalus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of a network of existing cooperation in the province of Misiones, Argentina, composed of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs Elaboration of black tea and a group of SMEs from sawn wood, formed from the particular initiative of the tea entrepreneur. The aim is to identify the benefits of working in cooperation and, in turn, highlight the lacks when these processes are not performed in a planned and sustainable local oriented development. The case study that is exposed is a unique, contemporary data survey with establishments belonging to the cooperative network, interviews with entrepreneurs and managers of production, which led to evidence the benefits of cooperation, which include: use of waste, generation of trust between employers and contribution to environmental stewardship. There were also major shortcomings that prevent greater profit derived from the lack of an appropriate methodological instrument to implement this type of cooperative enterprises, among which stands out: poor use of idle resources, lack of process improvements through innovations joint, non-participation of major players and systematic orientation towards the local sustainable development.

  9. Sustained Professional Development on Cooperative Learning: Impact on Six Teachers' Practices and Students' Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Victoria A

    2017-03-01

    It has been argued, extensively and internationally, that sustained school-based continuous professional development (CPD) has the potential to overcome some of the shortcomings of traditional one-off CPD programs. Yet, the evidence base on more effective or less effective forms of CPD is contradictory. The mechanisms by which sustained support should be offered are unclear, and the impacts on teachers' and students' learning are complex and difficult to track. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a sustained school-based, tailored, and supported CPD program on teachers' practices and students' learning. Data are reported from 6 case studies of individual teachers engaged in a yearlong CPD program focused on cooperative learning. The CPD program involved participatory action research and frequent interaction/support from a boundary spanner (researcher/facilitator). Data were gathered from 29 video-recorded lessons, 108 interviews, and 35 field journal entries. (a) Individualized (external) support, (b) departmental (internal) support, and (c) sustained support impacted teachers' practices of cooperative learning. The teachers adapted their practices of cooperative learning in response to their students' learning needs. Teachers began to develop a level of pedagogical fluency, and in doing so, teachers advanced students' learning. Because this study demonstrates impact, it contributes to international literature on effective CPD. The key contribution is the detailed evidence about how and why CPD supported 6 individual teachers to learn-differently-and the complexity of the learning support required to engage in ongoing curriculum development to positively impact student learning.

  10. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D on robot system cooperating and coexisting with human beings. R and D on robot system cooperating and coexisting with human beings; 2000 nendo ningen kyocho kyozongata robot system kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    A highly safe and reliable robot is being developed capable of cooperating with human beings and executing complicated operations in a human working/living space. This paper describes the fiscal 2000 results. Development of robot motion library was continued for extended task for providing services to people in care houses for the aged controlling motions of the humanoid robot. A basic design for a personal service system by the humanoid robot was conducted with the aim of nursing assistance and for the objective of developing a portable terminal type tele-operation device. A public and a home cockpit were researched with the purpose of developing user interfaces for telexistence control. A dynamic simulator for humanoid robots was built, with motions of standing-up and walking examined, in order to develop basic theories for the dual-handed tasks aided by the leg-arm cooperative motion. To develop a robot that properly and safely cooperates and coexists with the human beings, it is essential to obtain a dynamically reasonable and natural control law, so that the basic studies were conducted in this direction. With the purpose of developing a motion capture and learning system, a virtual robot platform and an information acquiring interface were developed. Studies were also conducted on modeling technique for achieving realistic material properties from high-precision image synthesis and actual images. (NEDO)

  11. A Hybrid Method of Analyzing Patents for Sustainable Technology Management in Humanoid Robot Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A humanoid, which refers to a robot that resembles a human body, imitates a human’s intelligence, behavior, sense, and interaction in order to provide various types of services to human beings. Humanoids have been studied and developed constantly in order to improve their performance. Humanoids were previously developed for simple repetitive or hard work that required significant human power. However, intelligent service robots have been developed actively these days to provide necessary information and enjoyment; these include robots manufactured for home, entertainment, and personal use. It has become generally known that artificial intelligence humanoid technology will significantly benefit civilization. On the other hand, Successful Research and Development (R & D on humanoids is possible only if they are developed in a proper direction in accordance with changes in markets and society. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze changes in technology markets and society for developing sustainable Management of Technology (MOT strategies. In this study, patent data related to humanoids are analyzed by various data mining techniques, including topic modeling, cross-impact analysis, association rule mining, and social network analysis, to suggest sustainable strategies and methodologies for MOT.

  12. Aspects of Sustainability: Cooperation, Job Satisfaction, and Burnout among Swiss Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, Johanna; Moock, Jörn; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Greater sustainability in mental health services is frequently demanded but seldom analyzed. Levels of cooperation, job satisfaction, and burnout are indicators of social sustainability in this field and are of particular importance to medical staff. Because registered psychiatrists play a central role, we assessed the status quo and interactions between these three factors among registered psychiatrists in Switzerland. A postal survey with three standardized questionnaires about cooperation, job satisfaction, and burnout was conducted among all registered psychiatrists in the German-speaking part of Switzerland (n = 1485). Addresses were provided by the Swiss Medical Association. Response rate was 23.7% (n = 352), yielding a largely male sample (62.8%; n = 218) aged 55.5 ± 8.7 years old. Quantity (47 ± 56.2 contacts over 3 months) and duration (91.1 ± 101.6 min per week) of cooperation was found to be diverse depending on the stakeholder. Quality of cooperation was greatest in general practitioners (81.5%) while it was worst in community mental health providers (54.9%). Overall job satisfaction was assessed rather high (3.7 ± 0.8), and burnout rates were below crucial values (Emotional Exhaustion, 2.9 ± 0.8; Depersonalization, 1.9 ± 0.5). Both were positively influenced by cooperation. The strongest correlation was found between job satisfaction and burnout, and both had significant inverse relationships in all dimensions. To foster sustainability in outpatient mental health care regarding cooperation, job satisfaction, and burnout, personal aspects such and age or years of registration, organizational aspects, such as networking and practice setting, as wells as supportive aspects such as psychotherapy, and self-help groups, must be considered. Quality of cooperation should be reinforced in particular. Because Integrated and Managed Care models cover several of these factors, the models should be more strongly

  13. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Seferaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  14. Co-operatives as a development mechanism to support job creation and sustainable waste management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available great sustainability challenge. However, the waste sector can provide significant opportunities for improving livelihoods, generating jobs and developing enterprises, through the recovery of valuable recyclables. Co-operatives are recognised as a means...

  15. Taxation of cooperatives from the perspective of international expansion and sustainable development of social economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Patón García

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has created a major concern in developedcountries for control of social risks with negative effects on growth and this problem can be approached from the perspective of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Thus, CSR is seen as an entrepreneurial attitude aimed at promoting social, economic and environmental purposes while guarantying competitiveness in the international market. Thus, social economy can contribute to sustainable development, economic and social cohesion, to promote productive and income distribution, to ensure employment and equality of opportunities. The purpose of this study is to have an influence onthe role that taxation plays in the area of incentive policies related to social economy and very prominently manifested in the legal status of cooperatives. The approach aims to provide proposals on tax regulation of cooperatives taking the perspective of the international context and the size of the sector in countries like Spain and Peru in order to encourage cooperative social responsibility. Indeed, the importance of providing a legal and fiscal framework to promote their internationalization connects providentially with the principles that govern the cooperative action. We consider that it is essential, from the perspective of sustainable development and cooperatives’social responsibility, to take into account in the tax regime applicable criteria that can be justified on constitutional principles, the general interest of society or internationalization economic activity. Also, there could be other positive effects in the area of Latin America, such as decreasing tax evasion and the formalization of at least a portion of the informal sector of the economy, including the real impulse to CSR.

  16. Japanese lunar robotics exploration by co-operation with lander and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unmanned mobile robots for surface exploration of the Moon or planets have been extensively studied and developed. A lunar rover is expected to travel safely in a wide area and explore in detail. Japanese lunar robotics exploration is under study to conduct an unmanned geological survey in the vicinity of central peaks of ...

  17. Japanese lunar robotics exploration by co-operation with lander and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unmanned mobile robots for surface exploration of the Moon or planets have been extensively studied and developed.A lunar rover is expected to travel safely in a wide area and explore in detail. Japanese lunar robotics exploration is under study to conduct an unmanned geological survey in the vicinity of central peaks of ...

  18. Passivity-based control of robotic manipulators for safe cooperation with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, Andrea Maria; Lacevic, Bakir; Rocco, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the control of articulated robots in unstructured environments. The proposed control ensures several properties. First, the controller guarantees the achievement of a goal position without getting stuck in local minima. Then, the controller makes the closed-loop system passive, which renders the approach attractive for applications where the robot needs to safely interact with humans. Finally, the control law is explicitly shaped by the safety measure - the danger field. The proposed control law has been implemented and validated in a realistic experimental scenario, demonstrating the effectiveness in driving the robot to a given configuration in a cluttered environment, without any offline planning phase. Furthermore, the passivity of the system enables the robot to easily accommodate external forces on the tool, when a physical contact between the robot and the environment is established.

  19. Transitions towards sustainable agriculture: the organic apiculture niche in an Argentinean cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Vila Seoane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that it is possible to transform innovation pathways in natural-resource-based industries towards more sustainable ones. In particular, it employs the socio-technical transitions framework to understand the structural barriers that the industrial agricultural system puts to COOPSOL, an Argentinean cooperative project of organic apiculture. The article is based on qualitative data that systematize, on the one hand, the pressures for continuity and change in the agricultural system. On the other hand, the data reveal the main perceptions of COOPSOL´s actors about the existing structural limits.

  20. Adaptive Task-Space Cooperative Tracking Control of Networked Robotic Manipulators Without Task-Space Velocity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinwu; Wang, Hesheng; Liu, Yun-Hui; Chen, Weidong; Hu, Guoqiang; Zhao, Jie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the task-space cooperative tracking control problem of networked robotic manipulators without task-space velocity measurements is addressed. To overcome the problem without task-space velocity measurements, a novel task-space position observer is designed to update the estimated task-space position and to simultaneously provide the estimated task-space velocity, based on which an adaptive cooperative tracking controller without task-space velocity measurements is presented by introducing new estimated task-space reference velocity and acceleration. Furthermore, adaptive laws are provided to cope with uncertain kinematics and dynamics and rigorous stability analysis is given to show asymptotical convergence of the task-space tracking and synchronization errors in the presence of communication delays under strongly connected directed graphs. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  1. Self-organized control in cooperative robots using a pattern formation principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Ellsaesser, Carmen; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Self-organized modular approaches proved in nature to be robust and optimal and are a promising strategy to control future concepts of flexible and modular manufacturing processes. We show how this can be applied to a model of flexible manufacturing based on time-dependent robot-target assignment...... problems where robot teams have to serve manufacturing targets such that an objective function is optimized. Feasibility of the self-organized solutions can be guaranteed even for unpredictable situations like sudden changes in the demands or breakdowns of robots. As example an uncrewed space mission...

  2. An Effective Division of Labor Between Human and Robotic Agents Performing a Cooperative Assembly Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Bluethmann, William; Rochlis, Jennifer; Huber, Eric; Ambrose, Robert

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by human astronauts. These so-called extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) are risky, expensive and complex. Work is underway to develop a robotic astronaut's assistant that can help reduce human EVA time and workload by delivering human-like dexterous manipulation capabilities to any EVA worksite. An experiment is conducted to evaluate human-robot teaming strategies in the context of a simplified EVA assembly task in which Robonaut, a collaborative effort with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), an anthropomorphic robot works side-by-side with a human subject. Team performance is studied in an effort to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each teaming configuration and to recommend an appropriate division of labor. A shared control approach is developed to take advantage of the complementary strengths of the human teleoperator and robot, even in the presence of significant time delay.

  3. Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot Powered by PAMs Cooperates with FES Arrays to Realize Reach-to-Grasp Trainings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xikai; Han, Hualin; Huang, Jian; Li, Jian; Su, Chen; Jiang, Xiaobo; He, Jiping

    2017-01-01

    The reach-to-grasp activities play an important role in our daily lives. The developed RUPERT for stroke patients with high stiffness in arm flexor muscles is a low-cost lightweight portable exoskeleton rehabilitation robot whose joints are unidirectionally actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). In order to expand the useful range of RUPERT especially for patients with flaccid paralysis, functional electrical stimulation (FES) is taken to activate paralyzed arm muscles. As both the exoskeleton robot driven by PAMs and the neuromuscular skeletal system under FES possess the highly nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, iterative learning control (ILC) is studied and is taken to control this newly designed hybrid rehabilitation system for reaching trainings. Hand function rehabilitation refers to grasping. Because of tiny finger muscles, grasping and releasing are realized by FES array electrodes and matrix scan method. By using the surface electromyography (EMG) technique, the subject's active intent is identified. The upper limb rehabilitation robot powered by PAMs cooperates with FES arrays to realize active reach-to-grasp trainings, which was verified through experiments. © 2017 Xikai Tu et al.

  4. Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot Powered by PAMs Cooperates with FES Arrays to Realize Reach-to-Grasp Trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xikai Tu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reach-to-grasp activities play an important role in our daily lives. The developed RUPERT for stroke patients with high stiffness in arm flexor muscles is a low-cost lightweight portable exoskeleton rehabilitation robot whose joints are unidirectionally actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs. In order to expand the useful range of RUPERT especially for patients with flaccid paralysis, functional electrical stimulation (FES is taken to activate paralyzed arm muscles. As both the exoskeleton robot driven by PAMs and the neuromuscular skeletal system under FES possess the highly nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, iterative learning control (ILC is studied and is taken to control this newly designed hybrid rehabilitation system for reaching trainings. Hand function rehabilitation refers to grasping. Because of tiny finger muscles, grasping and releasing are realized by FES array electrodes and matrix scan method. By using the surface electromyography (EMG technique, the subject’s active intent is identified. The upper limb rehabilitation robot powered by PAMs cooperates with FES arrays to realize active reach-to-grasp trainings, which was verified through experiments.

  5. Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot Powered by PAMs Cooperates with FES Arrays to Realize Reach-to-Grasp Trainings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen; Jiang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    The reach-to-grasp activities play an important role in our daily lives. The developed RUPERT for stroke patients with high stiffness in arm flexor muscles is a low-cost lightweight portable exoskeleton rehabilitation robot whose joints are unidirectionally actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). In order to expand the useful range of RUPERT especially for patients with flaccid paralysis, functional electrical stimulation (FES) is taken to activate paralyzed arm muscles. As both the exoskeleton robot driven by PAMs and the neuromuscular skeletal system under FES possess the highly nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, iterative learning control (ILC) is studied and is taken to control this newly designed hybrid rehabilitation system for reaching trainings. Hand function rehabilitation refers to grasping. Because of tiny finger muscles, grasping and releasing are realized by FES array electrodes and matrix scan method. By using the surface electromyography (EMG) technique, the subject's active intent is identified. The upper limb rehabilitation robot powered by PAMs cooperates with FES arrays to realize active reach-to-grasp trainings, which was verified through experiments. PMID:29065566

  6. Cooperative 3D and 2D mapping with heterogenous ground robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John G., III; Baran, David; Stump, Ethan; Young, Stuart; Christensen, Henrik I.

    2012-06-01

    Efficient and accurate 3D mapping is desirable in disaster recovery as well as urban warfare situations. The speed with which these maps can be generated is vital to provide situational awareness in these situations. A team of mobile robots can work together to build maps more quickly. We present an algorithm by which a team of mobile robots can merge 2D and 3D measurements to build a 3D map, together with experiments performed at a military test facility.

  7. Cooperative Wall-climbing Robots in 3D Environments for Surveillance and Target Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-08

    method which solved the perspective three points ( P3P ) camera pose estimation problem with unique solutions to determine the pose of the overhead...camera installed on wall-climbing robot with respect to the ground robot. The deterministic method can generate the unique solution to P3P problem by...determine the wall-climbing robot’s pose by moving along arbitrary trajectory. Based on the unique solutions to the P3P problem, we introduced an intra

  8. Influence of facial feedback during a cooperative human-robot task in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laura; Khoramshahi, Mahdi; Salesse, Robin N; Bortolon, Catherine; Słowiński, Piotr; Zhai, Chao; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Di Bernardo, Mario; Capdevielle, Delphine; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C; Bardy, Benoit G; Billard, Aude; Raffard, Stéphane

    2017-11-03

    Rapid progress in the area of humanoid robots offers tremendous possibilities for investigating and improving social competences in people with social deficits, but remains yet unexplored in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the influence of social feedbacks elicited by a humanoid robot on motor coordination during a human-robot interaction. Twenty-two schizophrenia patients and twenty-two matched healthy controls underwent a collaborative motor synchrony task with the iCub humanoid robot. Results revealed that positive social feedback had a facilitatory effect on motor coordination in the control participants compared to non-social positive feedback. This facilitatory effect was not present in schizophrenia patients, whose social-motor coordination was similarly impaired in social and non-social feedback conditions. Furthermore, patients' cognitive flexibility impairment and antipsychotic dosing were negatively correlated with patients' ability to synchronize hand movements with iCub. Overall, our findings reveal that patients have marked difficulties to exploit facial social cues elicited by a humanoid robot to modulate their motor coordination during human-robot interaction, partly accounted for by cognitive deficits and medication. This study opens new perspectives for comprehension of social deficits in this mental disorder.

  9. Building Sustainable Smallholder Cooperatives in Emerging Market Economies: Findings from a Five-Year Project in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Meador

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of two smallholder dairy cooperatives in Kenya examines the question: what factors are conducive to producing sustainable smallholder cooperatives that can gain entry into the vertical value chain in liberalized post-colonial economies? The relative weight of income advantage; selective individual incentives and, social capital on maintaining member patronage are assessed within variable environmental constraints and opportunities facing different cooperatives. The methodology includes case study observation of the cooperatives during a five-year period, as well as sample surveys of members and non-members that include indicators of dairy income; reasons why farmers elect to join or not join the cooperative; and assessments of the importance of different services provided by the cooperative. The findings show how the relative weight of specific incentives for cooperative membership can vary from one environment to another within the same nation. The most important finding is that maintaining sustainable smallholder cooperatives within an increasingly competitive environment depends on the ability of managers to create business strategies that are compatible with the cooperative’s environmental constraints but, at the same time, incentivize members’ patronage.

  10. Robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    explaining how the robot functioning is controlled. A brief description of the measurements involved is also discussed. Introduction. Basically, the developments in two other related subjects, in- strumentation and control engineering played a major role in aiding the rapid development of the field of robotics. By instru-.

  11. Sustainable Relations in International Development Cooperation Projects: The Role of Organizational Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Rota

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available  The importance of the human side of project management to assess the success of international development project has not been fully considered yet. An analysis of the literature on the project success definition, focused on the success criteria and success factors, was carried out. The organization’s effectiveness, in terms of Relations Sustainability, emerged as a criteria integrating the "time, cost, performance" approach to define a project success. Based on previous research contributions on the factors influencing the organization’s effectiveness, the paper expands the analysis of the influence of Organizational Climate on the Relation Sustainability between project manager and project team involved in international cooperation for development. The statistical methods used include confirmatory factors analysis and structural equation modeling. The results carry implications for project management identifying five dimensions of Organizational Climate (trust, innovation, social cohesion, communication and job challenge influencing Relations Sustainability. This finding suggests that Organizational Climate contributes to project success by creating trust, stimulating commitment and generating satisfaction to overcome conflicts between project manager and project team.

  12. Tandem mobile robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  13. Design of an Action Selection Mechanism for Cooperative Soccer Robots Based on Fuzzy Decision Making Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alireza Mohades Kasaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Robocup is an international competition for multi agent research and related subject like: Artificial intelligence, Image processing, machine learning, robot path planning, control, and
    obstacle avoidance. In a soccer robot game, the environment is highly competitive and dynamic. In order to work in the dynamically changing environment, the decision-making system of a soccer robot system should have the features of flexibility and real-time adaptation. In this paper we will
    focus on the Middle Size Soccer Robot league (MSL and new hierarchical hybrid fuzzy methods for decision making and action selection of a robot in Middle Size Soccer Robot league (MSL are presented. First, the behaviors of an agent are introduced, implemented and classified in two layers,
    the Low_Level_Behaviors and the High_Level_Behaviors. In the second layer, a two phase mechanism for decision making is introduced. In phase one, some useful methods are implemented which check the robot’s situation for performing required behaviors. In the next phase, the team strategy, team formation, robot’s role and the robot’s positioning system are introduced. A fuzzy logical approach is employed to recognize the team strategy and further more to tell the player the
    best position to move. We believe that a Dynamic role engine is necessary for a successful team. Dynamic role engine and formation control during offensive or defensive play, help us to prevent collision avoidance among own players when attacking the ball and obstacle avoidance of the opponents. At last, we comprised our implemented algorithm in the Robocup 2007 and 2008 and results showed the efficiency of the introduced methodology. The results are satisfactory which has already been successfully implemented in ADRO RoboCup team. This project is still in progress and some new interesting methods are described in the current report.

  14. Cooperation Is Not Enough—Exploring Social-Ecological Micro-Foundations for Sustainable Common-Pool Resource Use [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Caroline; Wijermans, Nanda; Schlüter, Maja; Lindahl, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level. In this paper, we identify social-ecological micro-foundations that facilitate cooperative sustainable common-pool resource use. We do so by using an agent-based model (ABM) that is informed by behavioral common-pool resource experiments. In these experiments, groups that cooperate do not necessarily manage the resource sustainably, but also over- or underexploit. By reproducing the patterns of the behavioral experiments in a qualitative way, the ABM represents a social-ecological explanation for the experimental observations. We find that the ecological knowledge of each group member cannot sufficiently explain the relationship between cooperation and sustainable resource use. Instead, the development of a sustainable exploitation level depends on the distribution of ecological knowledge among the group members, their influence on each other's knowledge, and the environmental uncertainty the individuals perceive. The study provides insights about critical social-ecological micro-foundations underpinning collective action and sustainable resource management. These insights may inform policy-making, but also point to future research needs regarding the mechanisms of social learning, the development of shared management strategies and the interplay of social and ecological uncertainty.

  15. Cooperation Is Not Enough—Exploring Social-Ecological Micro-Foundations for Sustainable Common-Pool Resource Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijermans, Nanda; Schlüter, Maja; Lindahl, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level. In this paper, we identify social-ecological micro-foundations that facilitate cooperative sustainable common-pool resource use. We do so by using an agent-based model (ABM) that is informed by behavioral common-pool resource experiments. In these experiments, groups that cooperate do not necessarily manage the resource sustainably, but also over- or underexploit. By reproducing the patterns of the behavioral experiments in a qualitative way, the ABM represents a social-ecological explanation for the experimental observations. We find that the ecological knowledge of each group member cannot sufficiently explain the relationship between cooperation and sustainable resource use. Instead, the development of a sustainable exploitation level depends on the distribution of ecological knowledge among the group members, their influence on each other’s knowledge, and the environmental uncertainty the individuals perceive. The study provides insights about critical social-ecological micro-foundations underpinning collective action and sustainable resource management. These insights may inform policy-making, but also point to future research needs regarding the mechanisms of social learning, the development of shared management strategies and the interplay of social and ecological uncertainty. PMID:27556175

  16. COOPERATIVE PERFORMANCE SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC PLAYING ROBOTS :BASIC TECHNOLOGY FOR SYNCHRONIZING TO THE SURROUNDING PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    若林, 直哉

    2016-01-01

    Automatic playing robots are the robots that can play musical instruments just like human players by using artificial mechanical systems and the intelligent computer ystems. When we want to try concerts with those robots, it is inevitably necessary to synchronize “our” performance to the robots. As an “automatic” robot, the robot should synchronize to our performance in tempo, expressions and etc. In this paper, a new type of automatic playing robot is proposed that can synchronize the musi...

  17. [Cooperation, Job Satisfaction and Burn Out - Sustainability in Outpatient Mental Health Care among Medical Specialists in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, Johanna; Moock, Jörn; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2017-04-01

    Objective Cooperation, job satisfaction, and burn out risk are indicators of sustainability in mental health services. Thus they were assessed among registered medical specialists in outpatient mental health care in Germany. Method A postal survey consisting of three questionnaires about cooperation, job satisfaction, and burnout was carried out among all registered medical specialists in outpatient mental health care in Germany (n = 4,430). Results 14.1 % (n = 626) of the specialists responded to the survey. Quality and quantity of cooperation regarding mental health care services were rated diverse, job satisfaction was assessed medium to high, and burnout risk was low to medium. Higher job satisfaction correlated with good quality of cooperation, fewer years of practice, fewer patients' chronically ill, more patients who as well seek psychotherapy, and less time spent on cooperation. Low burn out risk correlated with good quality of cooperation, higher age, single practice setting and a higher amount of patients who as well seek psychotherapy. Conclusion Quality and quantity of cooperation in outpatient mental health care - especially regarding community mental health care institutions - should be fostered. Aspects to be considered to reinforce job satisfaction and minimize burn out risk are age, years of practice, quality and quantity of cooperation, practice setting, and the mixture of patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Robust, fast and accurate vision-based localization of a cooperative target used for space robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhuoman; Wang, Yanjie; Luo, Jun; Kuijper, Arjan; Di, Nan; Jin, Minghe

    2017-07-01

    When a space robotic arm deploys a payload, usually the pose between the cooperative target fixed on the payload and the hand-eye camera installed on the arm is calculated in real-time. A high-precision robust visual cooperative target localization method is proposed. Combing a circle, a line and dots as markers, a target that guarantees high detection rates is designed. Given an image, single-pixel-width smooth edges are drawn by a novel linking method. Circles are then quickly extracted using isophotes curvature. Around each circle, a square boundary in a pre-calculated proportion to the circle radius is set. In the boundary, the target is identified if certain numbers of lines exist. Based on the circle, the lines, and the target foreground and background intensities, markers are localized. Finally, the target pose is calculated by the Point-3-Perspective algorithm. The algorithm processes 8 frames per second with the target distance ranging from 0.3m to 1.5 m. It generated high-precision poses of above 97.5% on over 100,000 images regardless of camera background, target pose, illumination and motion blur. At 0.3 m, the rotation and translation errors were less than 0.015° and 0.2 mm. The proposed algorithm is very suitable for real-time visual measurement that requires high precision in aerospace.

  19. Fuzzy logic controller for cooperative mobile robotics implemented in leader-follower formation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Molina-Villa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el diseño de un controlador de lógica difusa implementandoel método líder-seguidor para un sistema de robótica cooperativa móvil, que permita a ungrupo de robots establecer y mantener una formación geométrica especifi ca mientras sedesplazan siguiendo una trayectoria de referencia. Como resultado de la investigación, seprobó mediante simulación un sistema de control cooperativo, que permite a un grupo derobots mantener una formación específi ca mientras desarrollan una misión determinada.Este controlador permite evadir obstáculos cambiando la formación o cambiando el líder delgrupo en cualquier momento.

  20. Cooperative institutions for sustainable common pool resource management: Application to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh; Dinar, Ariel

    2012-09-01

    Beneficiaries of common pool resources (CPRs) may select available noncooperative and regulatory exogenous institutions for managing the resource, as well as cooperative management institutions. All these institutions may increase the long-term gains, prolong the life of the resource, and help to escape the tragedy of the commons trap. Cooperative game theory approaches can serve as the backbone of cooperative CPR management institutions. This paper formulates and applies several commonly used cooperative game theoretic solution concepts, namely, the core, Nash-Harsanyi, Shapley, and nucleolus. Through a numerical groundwater example, we show how CPR users can share the gains obtained from cooperation in a fair and efficient manner based on these cooperative solution concepts (management institutions). Although, based on their fairness rationales, various cooperative management institutions may suggest different allocations that are potentially acceptable to the users, these allocation solutions may not be stable as some users may find them unfair. This paper discusses how different methods, such as application of the plurality rule and power index, stability index, and propensity to disrupt concepts, can help identify the most stable and likely solutions for enforcing cooperation among the CPR beneficiaries. Furthermore, how the noncooperative managerial characteristics of the CPR users can affect the stability and acceptability of the different cooperative CPR management institutions is discussed, providing valuable policy insights for cooperative CPR management at community levels.

  1. Energy policy, economic cooperation, and sustainable development in Central Asia: the case of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djakhangir, S.

    2005-04-15

    This research deals with a number of issues on the transformation process, sustainable development and regional cooperation in Central Asia. These areas of the research are discussed within the three models of development, i.e. national, regional, and global. Within the new concept on stability and conflict prevention, the author attempted to sort out the economic fundamentals affecting contemporary development of the states in the region. The main focus is made on Uzbekistan which is the most populated country in the region and whose socio-political and economic development has substantial impact on the regional situation. The analysis of the country's progress in domestic economic reforms in the past not only defines some conflict areas of development, but also tries to shape those fields where national strategy is confronted with difficulties on the long and pain-staking way from the plan system towards liberal market economy and democratic society. At the sector-specific level, particular attention is paid to the trends in Uzbekistan's energy sector. Simultaneously the work argues that national policy decisions in the energy field go much beyond national borders, and strongly correlated to intra-regional relations, as well as to those heated by geopolitical and geoeconomic considerations of the USA, Russia, Iran, China, the EU, and Turkey. Subsequently, the research concludes that Central Asia so far remains mainly as an object of expansion of great geopolitical interests rather than being a sovereign player in international relations. In this regard, sustainable development of the states in the region is expected to depend to a large extent on how the interests of the regional states will be put in line with those of non-regionals. Finally, the research emphasizes that in terms of limited domestic resources, investment and donor activities are desperately needed, both in Uzbekistan and the whole region, to modernize production process, raise

  2. ITS for sustainable mobility: tools for designing and evaluating co-operative road-vehicle systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, M.; Vink, W.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Arem, B. van; Wilmink, I.

    2004-01-01

    Intelligent co-operative road-vehicle systems, in which intelligent road-side equipment co-operates with intelligent vehicles, have great potential to improve traffic flow safety, efficiency, reliability and quality of the environment. But what concepts for these systems are both realistic and

  3. Constraining free riding in public goods games: designated solitary punishers can sustain human cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Rick; Henrich, Joseph; Van Vugt, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Much of human cooperation remains an evolutionary riddle. Unlike other animals, people frequently cooperate with non-relatives in large groups. Evolutionary models of large-scale cooperation require not just incentives for cooperation, but also a credible disincentive for free riding. Various theoretical solutions have been proposed and experimentally explored, including reputation monitoring and diffuse punishment. Here, we empirically examine an alternative theoretical proposal: responsibility for punishment can be borne by one specific individual. This experiment shows that allowing a single individual to punish increases cooperation to the same level as allowing each group member to punish and results in greater group profits. These results suggest a potential key function of leadership in human groups and provides further evidence supporting that humans will readily and knowingly behave altruistically. PMID:18812292

  4. A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor based on cooperative sensing for robot skin applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cai, Xia; Kan, Wenqing; Qiu, Shihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Caixia; Liu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor has been designed and implemented, which is capable of combining capacitive-resistive detection in this paper. The capacitive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-C, and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-R. The characteristics of the proximity sensor are as follows: (1) the theoretical mode is developed which indicates that this proximity sensor can reflect proximity information accurately; (2) both sensing modes are vertically integrated into a sandwich-like chip with an 8 mm × 12 mm unit area. The thickness of a mode-R sensing material (graphene nanoplatelets) and mode-C dielectric (the mixture of carbon black and silicone rubber) is 1 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively; (3) for mode-R, the linearity of temperature-resistance curve can achieve 0.998 in the temperature range from 25°C to 65°C. And for mode-C, various materials can be successfully detected with fast response and high reversibility. Meanwhile, the study compensated the influence of object temperature to ensure mode-C properly works. A cooperative sensing test shows that R-C dual modes sense effectively which can enlarge the sensing distance compared with the single mode proximity sensor. The fabrication of this sensor is convenient, and the integrity of a flexible sandwich-like structure based on dual modes is beneficial to form arrays, which is suitable to be used in skin-like sensing applications.

  5. A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor based on cooperative sensing for robot skin applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cai, Xia; Kan, Wenqing; Qiu, Shihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Caixia; Liu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor has been designed and implemented, which is capable of combining capacitive-resistive detection in this paper. The capacitive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-C, and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-R. The characteristics of the proximity sensor are as follows: (1) the theoretical mode is developed which indicates that this proximity sensor can reflect proximity information accurately; (2) both sensing modes are vertically integrated into a sandwich-like chip with an 8 mm × 12 mm unit area. The thickness of a mode-R sensing material (graphene nanoplatelets) and mode-C dielectric (the mixture of carbon black and silicone rubber) is 1 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively; (3) for mode-R, the linearity of temperature-resistance curve can achieve 0.998 in the temperature range from 25  ° C to 65  ° C. And for mode-C, various materials can be successfully detected with fast response and high reversibility. Meanwhile, the study compensated the influence of object temperature to ensure mode-C properly works. A cooperative sensing test shows that R-C dual modes sense effectively which can enlarge the sensing distance compared with the single mode proximity sensor. The fabrication of this sensor is convenient, and the integrity of a flexible sandwich-like structure based on dual modes is beneficial to form arrays, which is suitable to be used in skin-like sensing applications.

  6. Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  7. Light-sustained cooperative mechanisms observed at liquid junctions of chalcopyrite semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattarin, S.; Tributsch, H.

    1988-07-01

    Electrochemical oscillations previously shown to occur during hydrogen peroxide reduction of natural samples of copper-containing sulfides (e.g. Cu 5FeS 4) have also been produced with synthetic chalcopyrites (CuMeX 2 with Me=Fe, In, X=S, Se). It is possible partly to control this cooperative phenomenon by photoexcitation of p-type CuInS 2 and p-type CuInSe 2, semiconductor electrodes. With illumination as a key factor in the control of cooperative phenomena it should be possible to explore non-linear photoelectrochemical mechanisms with possible applications to solar energy conversion. The cooperative phenomenon studied involves the interaction of electrons with copper (in oxidation states I, II and III) and oxygen and thus might be related to the cooperative mechanism causing high-temperature superconduction in copper oxide phases.

  8. Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  9. Empowering electricity: co-operatives, sustainability, and power sector reform in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacArthur, Julie L

    2016-01-01

    .... Empowering Electricity offers an illuminating analysis of these co-ops within the context of larger debates over climate change, renewable electricity policy, sustainable community development...

  10. Cooperation between Logistic Service Providers and Shippers on making transportation sustainable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stef Weijers; Reinder Pieters; Onno Omta; Hans-Heinrich Glöckner

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes Dutch Logistic Service Providers attitudes towards sustainability and how they translate this into business practise. This is done by looking at what Logistic Service Providers say what they are doing or intend to do to improve sustainability for their transport services.

  11. Collective Entrepreneurship as a Means for Sustainable Community Development: A Cooperative Case Study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw van der Walt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Many in rural communities in South Africa are living in poor conditions. By stimulating economic activities, this problem can be alleviated. One way to achieve this is for entrepreneurs to form cooperative alliances. Since earnings produced are returned to the member/owner and the end result is that this wealth is kept within the community. Thereby the goal of job creation and uplifting of communities are reached. This article focuses on the constraints of institutional structures and entrepreneurial skills of farmers and non-farmers in rural areas and reflects on the establishment of a cooperative as an appropriate mechanism for promoting collective entrepreneurship. The results of the cooperative two years after implementation are also discussed.

  12. The transmission of sustainable harvesting norms when agents are conditionally cooperative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, Andries; Grasman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and observational studies have highlighted the importance of agents being conditionally cooperative when facing a social dilemma. We formalize this mechanism in a theoretical model that portrays a small community having joint access to a common pool resource. The diffusion of norms of

  13. To Enable and Sustain: Pacific Air Forces’ Theater Security Cooperation as a Line of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    and plans guide PACAF in areas of emphasis on regional security coopera- tion, joint teamwork , and the joint needs of its Air Force forces for...inter- agency effort, teamwork with the diplomatic community is essential- to assure that goals and objectives are complementary. This calls for time...Asia-Pacific is a team sport . The security cooperation activities that promote it flow from national- level strategy guided by the combatant commander

  14. Sustained Professional Development on Cooperative Learning: Impact on Six Teachers' Practices and Students' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: It has been argued, extensively and internationally, that sustained school-based continuous professional development (CPD) has the potential to overcome some of the shortcomings of traditional one-off CPD programs. Yet, the evidence base on more effective or less effective forms of CPD is contradictory. The mechanisms by which sustained…

  15. Review of North-South and South-South cooperation and conditions necessary to sustain research capability in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandiwana, Stephen; Ornbjerg, Niels

    2003-09-01

    ethical assurance for BRTI and non-BRTI-administered projects. Over the last eight years, BRTI has established regional and international legitimacy, and many funding agencies accept the role of the organization in 'Third Country Training for South-South Cooperation'. The article concludes by identifying essential conditions for sustaining research capability at BRL and similar institutions in developing countries. In rolling out a new ethos for research, great expectation is placed on the success of the New Partnership for Africa Development.

  16. Collaborative Environmental Governance, Inter-Agency Cooperation and Local Water Sustainability in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Administrative fragmentation among government agencies has posed a significant challenge to environmental governance. However, few studies have theoretically examined and empirically measured how local governments in China address this with collaborative approaches. Informed by the ecology of games framework (EGF, this paper examined the status of inter-agency water governance in Dongguan City: the pilot city of aquatic ecologically friendly city of China. The research question we seek to address is: What are the main characteristics of the water governance network in local China? With empirical data collected via survey questionnaires and semi-structured in-depth interviews following the EGF, we find that local agencies have realized the need for cooperation in water resource management. However, they were not substantially familiar with each other in the local policy network, failing to reach their full potential in collaboration. Social network analysis was used to analyze the collaborative network. We found that the network has a weak to moderate density, allowing for collective action problems and leading to insufficient cooperative governance. The network has presented central actors with strong bridging capital to control information and resource flows. We also find strong bonding capital among some policy actors as shown in high reciprocity, clustering coefficient and transitivity. To strengthen the effectiveness of local water governance, efforts should be made to establish a functional department and extend the boundary of collaborative network.

  17. The duality of gaze: Eyes extract and signal social information during sustained cooperative and competitive dyadic gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eJarick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to nonhuman primate eyes, which have a dark sclera surrounding a dark iris, human eyes have a white sclera that surrounds a dark iris. This high contrast morphology allows humans to determine quickly and easily where others are looking and infer what they are attending to. In recent years an enormous body of work has used photos and schematic images of faces to study these aspects of social attention, e.g., the selection of the eyes of others and the shift of attention to where those eyes are directed. However, evolutionary theory holds that humans did not develop a high contrast morphology simply to use the eyes of others as attentional cues; rather they sacrificed camouflage for communication, that is, to signal their thoughts and intentions to others. In the present study we demonstrate the importance of this by taking as our starting point the hypothesis that a cornerstone of nonverbal communication is the eye contact between individuals and the time that it is held. In a single simple study we show experimentally that the effect of eye contact can be quickly and profoundly altered merely by having participants, who had never met before, play a game in a cooperative or competitive manner. After the game participants were asked to make eye contact for a prolonged period of time (10 minutes. Those who had played the game cooperatively found this terribly difficult to do, repeatedly talking and breaking gaze. In contrast, those who had played the game competitively were able to stare quietly at each other for a sustained period. Collectively these data demonstrate that when looking at the eyes of a real person one both acquires and signals information to the other person. This duality of gaze is critical to nonverbal communication, with the nature of that communication shaped by the relationship between individuals, e.g., cooperative or competitive.

  18. Path Planning of Multi-robot Cooperation for Avoiding Obstacle Based on Improved Artificial Potential Field Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhaofeng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the process of the multi-robot collaboration, the problem of path planning is necessary to consider the barrier of static obstacles, but also to avoid collisions between the collaborative robots. This paper selected artificial potential field method as the basic method of path planning, and proposed improvement strategies for its unreachable goal and the problem of easy to fall into local minimum value and other issues. In theory, improvement measures of this paper can make repulsive force of the robot close to the obstacles around target tends to 0, and forms path planning along the edge of the obstacles. Simulation results show that the proposed method can effectively solve the inherent problems of artificial potential field to form a satisfactory path planning.

  19. Public and Hidden Economies in Atuntaqui (Ecuador: The Challenge of Sustaining Cooperation in Textile Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Colloredo-Mansfeld

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 2000s, Atuntaqui’s quality improvement program, joint marketing investments, and cultural initatives were designed to leverage the power of strategic cooperation. Over the course of several development projects, however, social interactions became more inclusive and more contentious. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a public economy and contrast it with narrower social capital theories to account for the benefits of Atuntaqui’s move from hidden production to an open trade. With data from field research that spans seven years, this article documents how the pressures of rapid manufacturing growth and the missteps in managing civic projects have undermined public participation and closed off important features of the public economy. The paper concludes with observa­tion about how to revive more robust collaborations through diversification of local participants, strengthening of the chamber of commerce, and recognizing and including the large wave of new, smaller producers. 

  20. Viewpoint – The Role of the German Development Cooperation in Promoting Sustainable Hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen Seeger

    2010-06-01

    Germany’s engagement in the promotion of participatory processes on dam-related issues is building on the WCD and follow-up processes, as outlined in this article. On the global level, BMZ, represented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, is currently part of the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum (HSAF. On the national level, one example of support is the contribution to and interaction with the Ghana Dam Dialogue, which is facilitated through two local partners: the International Water Management Institute (IWMI and the Volta Basin Development Foundation (VBDF.

  1. Quorum Sensing Coordinates Cooperative Expression of Pyruvate Metabolism Genes To Maintain a Sustainable Environment for Population Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawver, Lisa A; Giulietti, Jennifer M; Baleja, James D; Ng, Wai-Leung

    2016-12-06

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a microbial cell-cell communication system that regulates gene expression in response to population density to coordinate collective behaviors. Yet, the role of QS in resolving the stresses caused by the accumulation of toxic metabolic by-products at high cell density is not well defined. In response to cell density, QS could be involved in reprogramming of the metabolic network to maintain population stability. Using unbiased metabolomics, we discovered that Vibrio cholerae mutants genetically locked in a low cell density (LCD) QS state are unable to alter the pyruvate flux to convert fermentable carbon sources into neutral acetoin and 2,3-butanediol molecules to offset organic acid production. As a consequence, LCD-locked QS mutants rapidly lose viability when grown with fermentable carbon sources. This key metabolic switch relies on the QS-regulated small RNAs Qrr1-4 but is independent of known QS regulators AphA and HapR. Qrr1-4 dictate pyruvate flux by translational repression of the enzyme AlsS, which carries out the first step in acetoin and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. Consistent with the idea that QS facilitates the expression of a common trait in the population, AlsS needs to be expressed cooperatively in a group of cells. Heterogeneous populations with high percentages of cells not expressing AlsS are unstable. All of the cells, regardless of their respective QS states, succumb to stresses caused by toxic by-product accumulation. Our results indicate that the ability of the bacteria to cooperatively control metabolic flux through QS is critical in maintaining a sustainable environment and overall population stability. Our work reveals a novel role for Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing (QS) in relieving the stresses caused by toxic metabolite accumulation when the population becomes crowded through metabolic reprogramming. QS enables V. cholerae switching from a low cell density energy-generating metabolism that is beneficial to

  2. Sustainable Carbon Dioxide Photoreduction by a Cooperative Effect of Reactor Design and Titania Metal Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Olivo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective process based on the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to face on the one hand, the crucial problem of environmental pollution, and, on the other hand, to propose an efficient way to product clean and sustainable energy sources has been developed in this work. Particular attention has been paid to the sustainability of the process by using a green reductant (water and TiO2 as a photocatalyst under very mild operative conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure. It was shown that the efficiency in carbon dioxide photoreduction is strictly related to the process parameters and to the catalyst features. In order to formulate a versatile and high performing catalyst, TiO2 was modified by oxide or metal species. Copper (in the oxide CuO form or gold (as nanoparticles were employed as promoting metal. Both photocatalytic activity and selectivity displayed by CuO-TiO2 and Au-TiO2 were compared, and it was found that the nature of the promoter (either Au or CuO shifts the selectivity of the process towards two strategic products: CH4 or H2. The catalytic results were discussed in depth and correlated with the physicochemical features of the photocatalysts.

  3. Institutions and Social Change: implementing co-operative housing and environmentally sustainable development at Christie Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan McClean

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available How can institutions contribute to the building of civil society in the twenty- first century? It is clear that the old laissez-faire approach and the more recent neo-conservative reliance on the market have failed to deliver housing for many people. On the other hand the state-based welfare housing model espoused by the Australian Labor Party over the twentieth century has also been beset by problems. Social alienation, and the crisis in affordable housing make the case that individualist approaches to urban living are not working. More communal solutions are needed - solutions attuned to a complex view of civil society outlined by Michael Edwards' tripartite definition. At the same time the onset of global warming now prompts Australians to create more environmentally sustainable ways of living. Addressing the theme of responsibility, this paper focuses on citizenship in its broader environmental, social and active forms. It analyses interviews and documentary evidence concerning the planning and development of Christie Walk, an innovative, medium density eco-city development in Adelaide. The investigation reveals the effects of some Australian institutions on residents' efforts to live socially and environmentally sustainable lives in an urban environment. The paper offers transdisciplinary research and analysis, linking the fields of history, urban housing, community development and environmental theory.

  4. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. According to the importance of the embodiment of robots in the sense of presence, the influence of robots in communication culture is anticipated. The sustainability of robotics culture based on diversity for cultural communities for various acceptance modalities is explored in order to anticipate the creation of different attributes of culture between robots and humans in the future.

  5. Experiments in cooperative-arm object manipulation with a two-armed free-flying robot. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koningstein, Ross

    1990-01-01

    Developing computed-torque controllers for complex manipulator systems using current techniques and tools is difficult because they address the issues pertinent to simulation, as opposed to control. A new formulation of computed-torque (CT) control that leads to an automated computer-torque robot controller program is presented. This automated tool is used for simulations and experimental demonstrations of endpoint and object control from a free-flying robot. A new computed-torque formulation states the multibody control problem in an elegant, homogeneous, and practical form. A recursive dynamics algorithm is presented that numerically evaluates kinematics and dynamics terms for multibody systems given a topological description. Manipulators may be free-flying, and may have closed-chain constraints. With the exception of object squeeze-force control, the algorithm does not deal with actuator redundancy. The algorithm is used to implement an automated 2D computed-torque dynamics and control package that allows joint, endpoint, orientation, momentum, and object squeeze-force control. This package obviates the need for hand-derivation of kinematics and dynamics, and is used for both simulation and experimental control. Endpoint control experiments are performed on a laboratory robot that has two arms to manipulate payloads, and uses an air bearing to achieve very-low drag characteristics. Simulations and experimental data for endpoint and object controllers are presented for the experimental robot - a complex dynamic system. There is a certain rather wide set of conditions under which CT endpoint controllers can neglect robot base accelerations (but not motions) and achieve comparable performance including base accelerations in the model. The regime over which this simplification holds is explored by simulation and experiment.

  6. Methodological Approach for the Sustainability Assessment of Development Cooperation Projects for Built Innovations Based on the SDGs and Life Cycle Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie D. Maier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodological approach for a sustainability assessment of development cooperation projects. Between the scientific disciplines there is no agreement on the term of “sustainability”. Whereas the definition of sustainability within the context of development cooperation frequently highlights the long-term success of an intervention, the United Nations herald the inclusion of social, economic and environmental aspects. This paper proposes to bridge this gap by providing an analytical framework that uses nine impact category groups based on thematic priorities of sustainable development derived from the Sustainable Development Goals. Additionally, the long-term effectiveness of a project is taken into consideration. These impact category groups comprise the analytical framework, which is investigated by the Life Cycle Assessment and an indicator-based analysis. These data are obtained through empirical social research and the LCA inventory. The underlying concept is based on life cycle thinking. Taking up a multi-cycle model this study establishes two life cycles: first, the project management life cycle; and, second, the life cycle of a project’s innovation. The innovation’s life cycle is identified to have the greatest impact on the target region and the local people and is consequently of primary interest. This methodological approach enables an ex-post sustainability assessment of a built innovation of a development cooperation project and is tested on a case study on Improved Cooking Stoves in Bangladesh.

  7. Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot Powered by PAMs Cooperates with FES Arrays to Realize Reach-to-Grasp Trainings

    OpenAIRE

    Xikai Tu; Hualin Han; Jian Huang; Jian Li; Chen Su; Xiaobo Jiang; Jiping He

    2017-01-01

    The reach-to-grasp activities play an important role in our daily lives. The developed RUPERT for stroke patients with high stiffness in arm flexor muscles is a low-cost lightweight portable exoskeleton rehabilitation robot whose joints are unidirectionally actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). In order to expand the useful range of RUPERT especially for patients with flaccid paralysis, functional electrical stimulation (FES) is taken to activate paralyzed arm muscles. As both the ...

  8. Cooperation of plants and microorganisms: getting closer to the genetic construction of sustainable agro-systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonovich, Igor A; Provorov, Nikolai A

    2007-07-01

    The molecular research into two types of beneficial plant-microbe symbioses is reviewed: nutritional (with N(2)-fixing bacteria or mycorrhizal fungi) and defensive (with endo- and epiphytic microbes suppressing pathogens and phytophagans). These symbioses are based on the signaling interactions that result in the development of novel tissue/cellular structures and of extended metabolic capacities in the partners, which greatly improve the adaptive potential of plants due to a decrease in their sensitivity to biotic and abiotic stresses. The molecular, genetic and ecological knowledge on plant-microbe interactions provides a strategy for the organization of sustainable crop production based on substituting the agrochemicals (mineral fertilizers, pesticides) by microbial inoculants. An improvement of plant-microbe symbioses should involve the coordinated modifications in the partners' genotypes resulting in highly complementary combinations. These modifications should be based on the broad utilization of genetic resources from natural symbiotic systems aimed at: (i) increased competitiveness of the introduced (effective) with respect to local (ineffective) microbial strains, and (ii) overcoming the limiting steps in the metabolic machineries of the symbiotic systems.

  9. H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen, Special Representative of the Romanian Government for Integration, Co-operation and Sustainable Development

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen, Special Representative of the Romanian Government for Integration, Co-operation and Sustainable Development (third from left) with (left to right) Florian Ciolacu (Romanian Mission in Geneva), Cornel Comsa (personal adviser to the Prince), Sorin Ilie (CERN), Calin Alexa (ATLAS), Iosif Legrand (Caltech/CMS), Mihaela Gheata (ALICE), Andrei Gheata (ALICE), and Sorin Zgura (ALICE).

  10. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D on robot system cooperating and coexisting with human beings. Development for putting new power generating technology to practical use; 2000 nendo ningen kyocho kyozongata robot system kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinhatsuden gijutsu jitsuyoka kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    A highly safe and reliable robot is being developed capable of cooperating and coexisting with human beings to carry out complicated operations in a dangerous site such as a plant, power station maintenance, construction, disaster relief, etc. This paper describes the fiscal 2000 results. In the research for navigated walking functions, the capabilities were extracted for walking straight, turning around and going up and down stairs, with a virtual platform simulated and examined. In the development of remote operation for proxy drive, a method was investigated for instructing change in posture and cooperative movement of the arms and legs. In the evaluation of proxy drive operations for industrial vehicles, a type of operating machine was specified for driving in a standing posture applicable to a robot. In the development of information forming technology supporting remote operations, a basic design was made for the simulator technology of compensating information. Server/client remote control technology was investigated, while a plurality of bi-directional interface means were reviewed for the purpose of efficient information exchange between a robot and an operator. A system for assembling a wall panel was evaluated as an outdoor man-machine cooperative operation. Adaptability to complicated environment such as unprepared ground was also studied, as well as the control of movement of a humanoid robot. (NEDO)

  11. "La cooperación en el desarrollo de la Humanidad: de los hechos históricos a la tenacidad de la axiología cooperativa en los pilares de la sostenibilidad" (Cooperation in the development of Humanity: from historical facts to the tenacity of cooperative axiology in the pillars of sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although he is known the history of the cooperative movement,it will display the presence of cooperation, in how much value in the process ofdevelopment of mankind. Also, submit the first co-operative, developed tech-niques under eigenvalues of respect with the environment and with the com-mon, allowing the man to subtract from the nature the essential means totheir survival. Also, is going to demonstrate the importance of cooperation asa mechanism for overcoming socio-economic needs, and, above all, the impor-tance of the axiological substrate of cooperation as a sustainability budget.

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on research and development of human cooperating and coexisting robot system. Research and development of rationalization in oil refining system; 2000 nendo ningen kyocho kyozongata robot system kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekiyu seisei system gorika kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    It is intended to develop a human cooperating and coexisting robot system that can move around freely during operation and shutdown of a oil refining plant to perform different works. This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000. With regard to the navigation and maintenance work functions, design was made on the robot induction system and its conception to perform the works after the robot has reached a place of the work. The specifications required for the robot supporting agent were made clear, and the constituting modules were designed to exchange information with the robot. Specifications were compiled for a portable remote operation device intended of operating different vehicles. Investigations were carried out on such protection technologies as interference check and shock absorbing materials to protect the robot platform. A method was developed to acquire posture and motion patterns of a human demonstrator, using only the upper half of the body, from the images captured by a head-mounted camera. Discussions were given on the specifications, systems and image processing algorithms required for vision-navigated autonomous walking, whose practicability was verified. Autonomous walking by means of map-based guidance, and hand operating technologies were also discussed. (NEDO)

  13. Concurrent Path Planning with One or More Humanoid Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a controller and one or more robots each having a plurality of robotic joints. Each of the robotic joints is independently controllable to thereby execute a cooperative work task having at least one task execution fork, leading to multiple independent subtasks. The controller coordinates motion of the robot(s) during execution of the cooperative work task. The controller groups the robotic joints into task-specific robotic subsystems, and synchronizes motion of different subsystems during execution of the various subtasks of the cooperative work task. A method for executing the cooperative work task using the robotic system includes automatically grouping the robotic joints into task-specific subsystems, and assigning subtasks of the cooperative work task to the subsystems upon reaching a task execution fork. The method further includes coordinating execution of the subtasks after reaching the task execution fork.

  14. On Open- source Multi-robot simulators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namoshe, M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Open source software simulators play a major role in robotics design and research as platforms for developing, testing and improving architectures, concepts and algorithms for cooperative/multi-robot systems. Simulation environment enables control...

  15. H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen, Special Representative of the Romanian Government for Integration, Co-operation and Sustainable Development

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen, Special Representative of the Romanian Government for Integration, Co-operation and Sustainable Development, is seen here visiting Microcosm, CERN's on-site exhibition centre. Photo 01: H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen (right) with his personal adviser Cornel Comsa inside Microcosm's full-scale model of a six-metre section of the LHC. Photos 04-06: H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen with Emma Sanders from ETT Division.

  16. Borderline personality disorder, but not euthymic bipolar disorder, is associated with a failure to sustain reciprocal cooperative behaviour: implications for spectrum models of mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, K E A; Goodwin, G M; Rogers, R D

    2015-06-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have overlapping clinical presentations and symptoms - sources of persistent clinical confusion. Game-theory can characterize how social function might be sub-optimal in the two disorders and move the field beyond the anecdotal description of clinical history. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BPD and BD can be distinguished on the basis of diminished reciprocal altruism in iterated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) games. Twenty females with BPD, 20 females with euthymic BD and 20 healthy (non-clinical) females, matched for age and cognitive ability, were assessed for Axis-I and personality disorders, and completed psychometric measures of state affect, impulsivity and hostility. Participants completed two iterated PD games and a test of gaze-cueing. In the PD games, BPD participants failed to show statistically stable preferences to cooperate with social partners (playing tit-for-tat) and made significantly fewer cooperative responses compared to BD or controls (ANOVA main effect p = 0.03, post-hoc Tukey p < 0.05 for both comparisons). BPD participants were also less likely to sustain cooperation following experiences involving mutual cooperation than the other groups. Neither BPD nor BD participants demonstrated impairments in shifting visual attention on the basis of other peoples' gaze. These data indicate that BPD is (selectively) associated with difficulties in establishing, and then maintaining, reciprocal cooperation, involving altruism. These difficulties are not seen in euthymic BD. Our data support the differentiation of BPD from BD and offer fresh insights into the social difficulties experienced by individuals with diagnoses of BPD.

  17. "We Cooperate, or We Die": Sustainable Coexistence in Terry Pratchett's "The Amazing Maurice" and "His Educated Rodents"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziewicz, Marek

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Terry Pratchett's "The Amazing Maurice" as a modern example of environmentally informed social dreaming about sustainable coexistence. In our increasingly ecologically-conscious world sustainability and coexistence have become key words in the discourse about social, economic and political relations. The problem of relating…

  18. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of a human cooperating and coexisting type robot system (Development of energy use rationalization technology); 1999 nendo ningen kyocho kyozongata robot system kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a system technology for the human cooperating and coexisting type robot that can perform various types of works substituting human hands. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing a high-function hand, development and fabrication were executed on a device to teach four finger holding actions that correspond to the enhancement in action stability and control responsiveness of the four finger hand and to positions and attitudes of objects. In fabricating the robot platforms, single platform tests and remotely controlled platform connection tests were performed, which demonstrated the functions as an integrated system. In developing libraries for topography adaptive three-dimensional basic walking actions, development was carried out on libraries that correspond to menus for direct advance on a flat land, slewing, and walking on staircases and irregular land. It was found that control closer to that for actually usable robot is possible by considering time delay in articulate control when simulation was performed using the testing robot body. In the study and survey of robot proliferation, development plans were presented that take into consideration the social influence, technological factors, and cost need adaptability. (NEDO)

  19. Tandem robot control system and method for controlling mobile robots in tandem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, David R.; Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.

    2002-01-01

    A control system for controlling mobile robots provides a way to control mobile robots, connected in tandem with coupling devices, to navigate across difficult terrain or in closed spaces. The mobile robots can be controlled cooperatively as a coupled system in linked mode or controlled individually as separate robots.

  20. Robotic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

  1. Probability distribution of the number of deceits in collective robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Murciano, Antonio; Zamora, Javier; Lopez-Sanchez, Jesus; Rodriguez-Santamaria, Emilia

    2002-01-01

    The benefit obtained by a selfish robot by cheating in a real multirobotic system can be represented by the random variable Xn,q: the number of cheating interactions needed before all the members in a cooperative team of robots, playing a TIT FOR TAT strategy, recognize the selfish robot. Stability of cooperation depends on the ratio between the benefit obtained by selfish and cooperative robots. In this paper, we establish the probability model for Xn,q. If the values...

  2. The cooperation of sustained and phasic inhibitions increases the contrast of ITD-tuning in low-frequency neurons of the chick nucleus laminaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Rei; Okuda, Hiroko; Kuba, Hiroshi; Nishino, Eri; Ishii, Takahiro M; Ohmori, Harunori

    2013-02-27

    Neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL) of birds detect the coincidence of binaural excitatory inputs from the nucleus magnocellularis (NM) on both sides and process the interaural time differences (ITDs) for sound localization. Sustained inhibition from the superior olivary nucleus is known to control the gain of coincidence detection, which allows the sensitivity of NL neurons to ITD tolerate strong-intensity sound. Here, we found a phasic inhibition in chicken brain slices that follows the ipsilateral NM inputs after a short time delay, sharpens coincidence detection, and may enhance ITD sensitivity in low-frequency NL neurons. GABA-positive small neurons are distributed in and near the NL. These neurons generate IPSCs in NL neurons when photoactivated by a caged glutamate compound, suggesting that these GABAergic neurons are interneurons that mediate phasic inhibition. These IPSCs have fast decay kinetics that is attributable to the α1-subunit of the GABAA receptor, the expression of which dominates in the low-frequency region of the NL. Model simulations demonstrate that phasic IPSCs narrow the time window of coincidence detection and increase the contrast of ITD-tuning during low-level, low-frequency excitatory input. Furthermore, cooperation of the phasic and sustained inhibitions effectively increases the contrast of ITD-tuning over a wide range of excitatory input levels. We propose that the complementary interaction between phasic and sustained inhibitions is the neural mechanism that regulates ITD sensitivity for low-frequency sound in the NL.

  3. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    condition introduced in chapter 3 holds. I then compare the results of the best distributed control strategy to the op- timal solution and show that this...International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pages 767- 770, 1983. [Carberry, 19901 Mary Sandra Carberry. Incorporating default inferences into plan

  4. National workshop on forest productivity & technology: cooperative research to support a sustainable & competitive future - progress and strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Vance

    2010-01-01

    The Agenda 2020 Program is a partnership among government agencies, the forest products industry, and academia to develop technology capable of enhancing forest productivity, sustaining environmental values, increasing energy efficiency, and improving the economic competitiveness of the United States forest sector. In November 2006, the USDA Forest Service, in...

  5. Sustaining Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) for Future NASA Robotic Science Missions Including NF-4 and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, E.; Stackpoole, M.; Violette, S.

    2017-11-01

    Sustainability of PICA for the upcoming NF-4 and future Discovery to Flag missions required us to evaluate new source of domestic rayon as the current rayon supplier has discontinued manufacturing. This poster presents results from our investigation.

  6. Analysis on the Load Carrying Mechanism Integrated as Heterogeneous Co-operative Manipulator in a Walking Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajay Vedaraj, I. S.; Jain, Ritika; Rao, B. V. A.

    2014-07-01

    After industrial robots came into existence during 1960, the technology of robotics with the design and analysis of robots in various forms in industries as well as in domestic applications were developed. Nowadays, along with the automotive sector the robots are producing a great impact in the form of quality and production rate to register their existence reliable in various other sectors also. Robotic technology has undergone various phase translations from being tortured as humanoids to the present day manipulators. Depending upon the various forms of its existence, robot manipulators are designed as serial manipulators and parallel manipulators. Individually both types can be proved effective though both have various drawbacks in design and the kinematic analysis. The versatility of robots can be increased by making them work in an environment where the same work volume is shared by more than one manipulator. This work volume can be identified as co-operative work volume of those manipulators. Here the interference of manipulators in the work volume of other manipulators is possible and is made obstacle free. The main advantage of co-operative manipulators is that when a number of independent manipulators are put together in a cooperative work envelope the efficiency and ability to perform tasks is greatly enhanced. The main disadvantage of the co-operative manipulators lies in the complication of its design even for a simple application, in almost all fields. In this paper, a cooperative design of robot manipulators to work in co-operative work environment is done and analysed for its efficacy. In the industrial applications when robotic manipulators are put together in more numbers, the trajectory planning becomes the tough task in the work cell. Proper design can remove the design defects of the cooperative manipulators and can be utilized in a more efficient way. In the proposed research paper an analysis is made on such a type of cooperative manipulator

  7. PIK3CA-mutated melanoma cells rely on cooperative signaling through mTORC1/2 for sustained proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jillian M; Deuker, Marian M; Baguley, Bruce C; McMahon, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Malignant conversion of BRAF- or NRAS-mutated melanocytes into melanoma cells can be promoted by PI3'-lipid signaling. However, the mechanism by which PI3'-lipid signaling cooperates with mutationally activated BRAF or NRAS has not been adequately explored. Using human NRAS- or BRAF-mutated melanoma cells that co-express mutationally activated PIK3CA, we explored the contribution of PI3'-lipid signaling to cell proliferation. Despite mutational activation of PIK3CA, melanoma cells were more sensitive to the biochemical and antiproliferative effects of broader spectrum PI3K inhibitors than to an α-selective PI3K inhibitor. Combined pharmacological inhibition of MEK1/2 and PI3K signaling elicited more potent antiproliferative effects and greater inhibition of the cell division cycle compared to single-agent inhibition of either pathway alone. Analysis of signaling downstream of MEK1/2 or PI3K revealed that these pathways cooperate to regulate cell proliferation through mTORC1-mediated effects on ribosomal protein S6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in an AKT-dependent manner. Although PI3K inhibition resulted in cytostatic effects on xenografted NRASQ61H /PIK3CAH1047R melanoma, combined inhibition of MEK1/2 plus PI3K elicited significant melanoma regression. This study provides insights as to how mutationally activated PIK3CA acts in concert with MEK1/2 signaling to cooperatively regulate mTORC1/2 to sustain PIK3CA-mutated melanoma proliferation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Research cooperation project on conservation and sustainable use of tropical bioresources; Seibutsu tayosei hozen to jizokuteki riyonado ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Research cooperation has been conducted on the conservation of biological species inhabiting in the tropical rainforest in developing countries in tropic zone and the sustainable use of genetic resources using biotechnologies. For the research cooperation with Thailand in FY 1996, research of the food acquisition strategy of the Primates has been conducted. A total of 19 species of animals and plants, i.e., 7 species of arbors, 7 species of herbs, and 5 species of insects, were newly confirmed for pig-tailed monkey. In Indonesia, a feasibility study was conducted on the information center of Indonesian tropical bioresources. For the research of culture collection of bacteria, 113 strains of acetic acid bacteria and 85 strains of lactic acid bacteria were separated from Indonesian specimens, and they were identified. An agreement was concluded with Malaysia, and discussions were conducted for the concrete implementation plan. For the project, construction of a database was investigated for bioresources including bacteria and higher animals useful for industries. Maintenance of gene bank was also investigated. 391 refs., 61 figs., 93 tabs.

  9. Lessons from collaborative governance and sociobiology theories for reinforcing sustained cooperation: a government food security case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, L A; Montoya, I; Sánchez González, O D

    2015-07-01

    This research aimed to understand how cooperation and collaboration work in interagency arrangements using a case study of the public management of food security and nutrition in Bogotá, Colombia. This study explored the available scientific literature on Collaborative Governance within the Public Management body of knowledge and the literature on Cooperation from the Sociobiology field. Then, proposals were developed for testing on the ground through an action-research effort that was documented as a case study. Finally, observations were used to test the proposals and some analytical generalizations were developed. To document the case study, several personal interviews, file reviews and normative reviews were conducted to generate a case study database. Collaboration and cooperation concepts within the framework of interagency public management can be understood as a shared desirable outcome that unites different agencies in committing efforts and resources to the accomplishment of a common goal for society, as seen in obtaining food and nutrition security for a specific territory. Collaboration emerges when the following conditions exist and decreases when they are absent: (1) a strong sponsorship that may come from a central government policy or from a distributed interagency consensus; (2) a clear definition of the participating agencies; (3) stability of the staff assigned to the coordination system; and (4) a fitness function for the staff, some mechanism to reward or punish the collaboration level of each individual in the interagency effort. As this research investigated only one case study, the findings must be taken with care and any generalization made from this study needs to be analytical in nature. Additionally, research must be done to accept these results universally. Food security and nutrition efforts are interagency in nature. For collaboration between agencies to emerge, a minimum set of characteristics that were established during the

  10. Robot maps, robot moves, robot avoids

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is a cornerstone for this century’s innovations. From robot nurses to your own personal assistant, most robots need to know: ‘where is it?’ ‘Where should it go?’ And ‘how to get there?’ Without answers to these questions a robot cannot do much. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/robot-maps-robot-moves-robot-avoids/

  11. Distributed Estimation and Control for Robotic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonetto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile robots that communicate and cooperate to achieve a common task have been the subject of an increasing research interest in recent years. These possibly heterogeneous groups of robots communicate locally via a communication network and therefore are usually referred to as robotic networks.

  12. Robotic architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  13. Robot Actors, Robot Dramaturgies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth

    This paper considers the use of tele-operated robots in live performance. Robots and performance have long been linked, from the working androids and automata staged in popular exhibitions during the nineteenth century and the robots featured at Cybernetic Serendipity (1968) and the World Expo...... discourse shapes how we perceive and use technology and also points to the ways in which emerging technologies “refashion our experience of space, time and human being filter through our art works, dreams and fantasies.” This paper considers a survey of robot dramaturgies to demonstrate how performance both...... shapes and reinforces popular awareness and misconceptions of robots. Flyvende Grise’s The Future (2013), Amit Drori’s Savanna (2010), Global Creatures’ King Kong (2013) and Louis Philip Demers’ Blind Robot (2013) each utilize tele-operated robots across a wide range of human and animal morphologies...

  14. Fiscal 1998 research cooperation project. Research cooperation on diversity preservation and sustainable use for living organisms; 1998 nendo seibutsu tayosei hozen to jizokuteki riyo nado ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the titled research cooperation. Joint R and D with Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia was made on collection and preservation of bio-resources such as tropical rain forest, and sustainable use of them by developing countries themselves. The project includes the simple identification and preservation technology of biospecies such as microorganism, assessment and monitoring technology of ecosystem, search of useful functions of biospecies, and construction of a bio-resource information network. This project promotes conversion of excessive hunting into resource conservation in agriculture, forestry and fisheries industries, and establishment of the basis of new product development in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. This project also contributes to preparation of the basic scheme of developed countries including Japan to countries holding bio-resources in addition to industrial basis preparation of every country. Until 1997, basis establishment has been made such as training of researchers, preparation of equipment and technical guidance, and in the final 1998, various results such as extraction of promising samples from microorganisms were obtained. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1998 result report on the R and D of human cooperation/coexistence type robot system. (Development of commercialization of new power generation technology); 1998 nendo ningen kyocho kyozongata robot system no kenkyu kaihatsu (shinhatsuden gijutsu jitsuyoka kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The R and D were conducted to realize a robot system which can work cooperating and coexisting with humans at working places for maintenance, construction, rescue, etc. of plants and power plants. In the fabrication of a robot platform supporting maintenance, etc., the interface specifications were studied for command/data communication with the remote control platform. In the development of an audio-visual display system and a communication system, they were designed based on the required specifications of audio-visual display/communication systems for the remote control cockpit. In the development of a human-friendly display system for sense of operation, the basic design was carried out of a manipulation device, gripping operation, a force display device, a traveling operation device, and a body sense display device which make it possible to command standard operations required for walking with two legs and going up/down stairs and for lifting up and carrying an object with two arms with ease and presence. Further R and D were conducted of a method for displaying reality, sensor simulator, a network interface for the basic robot motion library, etc. (NEDO)

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on operational research of human cooperative and coexisting (humanoid) robot system. Development of energy usage rationalizing technology; 2000 nendo ningen kyocho kyozongata robot system un'yo kenkyu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 2000 in the operational research on the human cooperative and coexisting (humanoid) robot system to rationalize energy usage. Operational method and maintenance were studied on the platform hardware that has been developed in the previous fiscal year. Checks were given periodically on the robot platform hardware, and no anomalies were verified in all operation. Verifications were made on the fasteners, additional tightening, fitting of the connectors, battery checks, zero position and step response checks, and output checks on the force component sensor, gyro sensor and G sensor. For the virtual robot platform, discussions were given on the basic movement library for the geography complying three-dimensional walking. Such configurations were constituted that integrated use is possible with the simulator system by connecting the networks, and the user can instruct the CORBA server with the generation of walking movements according to the GUI by using the general purpose WWW browser to connect it to the HTTP server, whose result can be verified by three-dimensional graphics. A method to stabilize the all-axis movement servo model was made open to public. (NEDO)

  17. Phosphorylation-dependent and -independent functions of p130 cooperate to evoke a sustained G1 block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus; Farkas, T; Lukas, J

    2001-01-01

    The retinoblastoma (pRb)-related p130 pocket protein is a regulator of cell growth and differentiation, and a candidate tumour suppressor. Both pRb and p130 operate through interactions with cellular proteins, including the E2F transcription factors. While such interactions are controlled...... by phosphorylation of multiple sites of pRb, regulation of p130 remains poorly understood. We now identify 22 in vivo phosphorylation sites of p130, targeted by diverse kinases, and present evidence for three cyclin-dependent kinase 4(6) [Cdk4(6)] specific phosphorylations, which appear critical for controlling...... the growth-restraining activity of p130. When expressed in U2OS cells, the phosphorylation-deficient mutant p130(Delta)(CDK4), in which the Cdk4 specific sites were mutated to alanine residues, imposed a more sustained G1 arrest than a constitutively active pRb(Delta)(CDK), known to repress all cellular E2F...

  18. Chemical leasing: cooperative business models for sustainable chemicals management. Summary of research projects commissioned by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perthen-Palmisano, Barbara; Jakl, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Chemicals play a vital role in the day-to-day life of industrialised societies. Their use is not restricted to the chemical enterprises per se, but is a crucial part of production processes in a lot of industrial sectors. Traditional instruments of environmental policy (such as bans, restrictions) can only deal with the most hazardous substances. The Johannesburg Implementation Plan of 2002 calls for more sustainable patterns of production and consumption, and sets the year of 2020 as a goal to use chemicals in a way that human health and the environment are not endangered. Political instruments should not only gather more knowledge about the properties of chemicals, but should also stimulate the environmentally sound use of chemicals. Existing business models should therefore be reviewed in relation to this strategic approach to encourage marketing options with respect to the environmental focus. Business models were examined for their effects on the consumption of chemicals and amount of waste emissions in relation to their economic potential. Different possibilities for cooperation of supplier, user and disposal companies were elaborated and examined with a view to the specific situation in Austria. A range of cooperative models--summarised under the term 'chemical leasing'--was identified, which can contribute to a more efficient use of resources. 12 main possible application areas (cleaning, lubrication, paint stripping and others) have been identified in Austria. If chemical leasing models were applied in these areas, the amounts of chemicals currently used could be reduced by one third (53,000 tonnes per year). Cost reductions of up to 15% can be expected. The application of chemical leasing models can contribute considerably to achieving more sustainable and resource-efficient patterns of production. The Austrian Ministry for Environment has therefore decided to subsidise the further practical implementation of these new service-oriented business models

  19. Robot and robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.

  20. Time-of-flight-assisted Kinect camera-based people detection for intuitive human robot cooperation in the surgical operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyl, Tim; Nicolai, Philip; Comparetti, Mirko D; Raczkowsky, Jörg; De Momi, Elena; Wörn, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Scene supervision is a major tool to make medical robots safer and more intuitive. The paper shows an approach to efficiently use 3D cameras within the surgical operating room to enable for safe human robot interaction and action perception. Additionally the presented approach aims to make 3D camera-based scene supervision more reliable and accurate. A camera system composed of multiple Kinect and time-of-flight cameras has been designed, implemented and calibrated. Calibration and object detection as well as people tracking methods have been designed and evaluated. The camera system shows a good registration accuracy of 0.05 m. The tracking of humans is reliable and accurate and has been evaluated in an experimental setup using operating clothing. The robot detection shows an error of around 0.04 m. The robustness and accuracy of the approach allow for an integration into modern operating room. The data output can be used directly for situation and workflow detection as well as collision avoidance.

  1. Forestry cooperatives: past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowner cooperatives are not a new phenomenon, but past efforts to create and sustain these businesses have been largely unsuccessful in the U.S. Before and just after World War II saw significant investment in cooperative development that failed to create durable business. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the history of forestry cooperatives...

  2. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  3. 1st Iberian Robotics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Ferre, Manuel; ROBOT2013; Advances in robotics

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the ROBOT 2013: FIRST IBERIAN ROBOTICS CONFERENCE and it can be said that included both state of the art and more practical presentations dealing with implementation problems, support technologies and future applications. A growing interest in Assistive Robotics, Agricultural Robotics, Field Robotics, Grasping and Dexterous Manipulation, Humanoid Robots, Intelligent Systems and Robotics, Marine Robotics, has been demonstrated by the very relevant number of contributions. Moreover, ROBOT2013 incorporates a special session on Legal and Ethical Aspects in Robotics that is becoming a topic of key relevance. This Conference was held in Madrid (28-29 November 2013), organised by the Sociedad Española para la Investigación y Desarrollo en Robótica (SEIDROB) and by the Centre for Automation and Robotics - CAR (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)), along with the co-operation of Grupo Temático de Robótica CEA-GT...

  4. RoboSmith: Wireless Networked Architecture for Multiagent Robotic System

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Moldoveanu; Doru Ursutiu; Dan Floroian; Laura Floroian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper is presented an architecture for a flexible mini robot for a multiagent robotic system. In a multiagent system the value of an individual agent is negligible since the goal of the system is essential. Thus, the agents (robots) need to be small, low cost and cooperative. RoboSmith are designed based on these conditions. The proposed architecture divide a robot into functional modules such as locomotion, control, sensors, communication, and actuation. Any mobile robot can be const...

  5. Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  6. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... divers theoretical and conceptual frameworks to study collective action with a human ecosystem approach and develop one with a stronger anthropological reference....

  7. Robot Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    This paper considers art-based research practice in robotics through a discussion of our course and relevant research projects in autonomous art. The undergraduate course integrates basic concepts of computer science, robotic art, live performance and aesthetic theory. Through practice...... in robotics research (such as aesthetics, culture and perception), we believe robot aesthetics is an important area for research in contemporary aesthetics....

  8. Filigree Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture.......Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture....

  9. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  10. Educational Robotics: Open Questions and New Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimisis, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the current situation in the field of educational robotics and identifies new challenges and trends focusing on the use of robotic technologies as a tool that will support creativity and other 21st-century learning skills. Finally, conclusions and proposals are presented for promoting cooperation and networking of…

  11. Interactive robots in experimental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jens; Winfield, Alan F T; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2011-07-01

    Interactive robots have the potential to revolutionise the study of social behaviour because they provide several methodological advances. In interactions with live animals, the behaviour of robots can be standardised, morphology and behaviour can be decoupled (so that different morphologies and behavioural strategies can be combined), behaviour can be manipulated in complex interaction sequences and models of behaviour can be embodied by the robot and thereby be tested. Furthermore, robots can be used as demonstrators in experiments on social learning. As we discuss here, the opportunities that robots create for new experimental approaches have far-reaching consequences for research in fields such as mate choice, cooperation, social learning, personality studies and collective behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of Behavior of Robots with Emotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shigehiko; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    Cooperated multi robots system has much dominance in comparison with single robot system. It is able to adapt to various circumstances and has a flexibility for variation of tasks. However it has still problems to control each robot, though methods for control multi robots system have been studied. Recently, the robots have been coming into real scene. And emotion and sensitivity of the robots have been widely studied. In this study, human emotion model based on psychological interaction was adapt to multi robots system to achieve methods for organization of multi robots. The characteristics of behavior of multi robots system achieved through computer simulation were analyzed. As a result, very complexed and interesting behavior was emerged even though it has rather simple configuration. And it has flexiblity in various circumstances. Additional experiment with actual robots will be conducted based on the emotion model.

  13. TROTER's (Tiny Robotic Operation Team Experiment): A new concept of space robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renjeng

    1990-01-01

    In view of the future need of automation and robotics in space and the existing approaches to the problem, we proposed a new concept of robots for space construction. The new concept is based on the basic idea of decentralization. Decentralization occurs, on the one hand, in using teams of many cooperative robots for construction tasks. Redundancy and modular design are explored to achieve high reliability for team robotic operations. Reliability requirement on individual robots is greatly reduced. Another area of decentralization is manifested by the proposed control hierarchy which eventually includes humans in the loop. The control strategy is constrained by various time delays and calls for different levels of abstraction of the task dynamics. Such technology is needed for remote control of robots in an uncertain environment. Thus, concerns of human safety around robots are relaxed. This presentation also introduces the required technologies behind the new robotic concept.

  14. Silviculture in cooperation with hunters: The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Reitz; Andrea Hille; Susan Stout

    2004-01-01

    The long history of deer overabundance in Pennsylvania is associated with very high reforestation costs and substantial threats to diversity and sustainability. In response to this legacy, several landowners and agency personnel formed the Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative (KQDC) in partnership with the Sand County Foundation. This Cooperative focuses on about 74,000...

  15. ARTEMiS (Automated Robotic Terrestrial Exoplanet Microlensing Search): A possible expert-system based cooperative effort to hunt for planets of Earth mass and below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, M.; Horne, K.; Allan, A.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Tsapras, Y.; Snodgrass, C.; Bode, M. F.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Fraser, S. N.; Kerins, E.; Mottram, C. J.; Steele, I. A.; Street, R. A.; Wheatley, P. J.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.

    2008-03-01

    The technique of gravitational microlensing is currently unique in its ability to provide a sample of terrestrial exoplanets around both Galactic disk and bulge stars, allowing to measure their abundance and determine their distribution with respect to mass and orbital separation. Thus, valuable information for testing models of planet formation and orbital migration is gathered, constituting an important piece in the puzzle for the existence of life forms throughout the Universe. In order to achieve these goals in reasonable time, a well-coordinated effort involving a network of either 2m or 4×1m telescopes at each site is required. It could lead to the first detection of an Earth-mass planet outside the Solar system, and even planets less massive than Earth could be discovered. From April 2008, ARTEMiS (Automated Robotic Terrestrial Exoplanet Microlensing Search) is planned to provide a platform for a three-step strategy of survey, follow-up, and anomaly monitoring. As an expert system embedded in eSTAR (e-Science Telescopes for Astronomical Research), ARTEMiS will give advice for follow-up based on a priority algorithm that selects targets to be observed in order to maximize the expected number of planet detections, and will also alert on deviations from ordinary microlensing light curves by means of the SIGNALMEN anomaly detector. While the use of the VOEvent (Virtual Observatory Event) protocol allows a direct interaction with the telescopes that are part of the HTN (Heterogeneous Telescope Networks) consortium, additional interfaces provide means of communication with all existing microlensing campaigns that rely on human observers. The success of discovering a planet by microlensing critically depends on the availability of a telescope in a suitable location at the right time, which can mean within 10 min. To encourage follow-up observations, microlensing campaigns are therefore releasing photometric data in real time. On ongoing planetary anomalies, world

  16. Coordination of multiple mobile robots via communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huosheng; Kelly, Ian; Keating, David A.; Vinagre, David

    1999-01-01

    Research on the coordination of multiple mobile robots has to address three main problems: (i) how to appropriately divide the functionality of the system into multiple roots, (ii) how to manage the dynamic configuration of the system, and (iii) how to realize cooperation behavior. This paper will concentrate on the third aspect. More specifically, the aim of our research is to develop a team of coordinating mobile robots via effective communication for real work applications. We will describe the methodology to achieve cooperative behavior, the experimental mobile robots developed, and potential application areas. The developed system is demonstrated by two examples such as flocking and shared experience learning.

  17. Collaborative Assembly Operation between Two Modular Robots Based on the Optical Position Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Su

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the cooperation between two master-slave modular robots. A cooperative robot system is set up with two modular robots and a dynamic optical meter-Optotrak. With Optotrak, the positions of the end effectors are measured as the optical position feedback, which is used to adjust the robots' end positions. A tri-layered motion controller is designed for the two cooperative robots. The RMRC control method is adopted to adjust the master robot to the desired position. With the kinematics constraints of the two robots including position and pose, joint velocity, and acceleration constraints, the two robots can cooperate well. A bolt and nut assembly experiment is executed to verify the methods.

  18. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more

  19. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating

  20. Robots' Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Pirttilahti, Juho

    2016-01-01

    Human-robot-collaboration is considered one of the answers to the flexible needs of more and more customizing manufacturing. Its purpose is to fit together the best qualities of both human and robots to reduce the cost and time of manufacturing. One of the key questions in this area is safety. The purpose of this thesis was to define the required safety functionality of cartesian, delta and articulated robots based on the current machine needs. Using the future robotic concepts investigat...

  1. Cuspidal Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Wenger, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the so-called cuspidal robots, i.e. those robots that can move from one inverse geometric solution to another without meeting a singular confuguration. This feature was discovered quite recently and has then been fascinating a lot of researchers. After a brief history of cuspidal robots, the chapter provides the main features of cuspidal robots: explanation of the non-singular change of posture, uniqueness domains, regions of feasible paths, identification and cla...

  2. Affective robot for elderly assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Laura; Gaggioli, Andrea; Pioggia, Giovanni; De Rossi, Federico; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several robotic solutions for the elderly have been proposed. However, to date, the diffusion of these devices has been limited: available robots are too cumbersome, awkward, and expensive to become widely adopted. Another key issue which reduces the appeal of assistive robots is the lack of socio-emotional interaction: affective interchanges represent key requirements to create sustainable relationships between elderly and robots. In this paper, we propose a new approach to enhance the acceptability of robotic systems, based on the introduction of affective dimensions in human-robot interaction. This strategy is aimed at designing a new generation of relational and cognitive robots fusing information from embodied unobtrusive sensory interfaces. The final objective is to develop embodied interfaces, which are able to learn and adapt their affective responses to the user's behavior. User and robot will engage in natural interactions, involving verbal and non-verbal communication, improving empathic exchange of moods and feelings. Relevant independent living and quality of life related issues will be addressed: on-going monitoring of health parameters, assistance in everyday's activities, social support and cognitive/physical exercises. We expect that the proposed strategy will enhance the user's acceptance and adoption of the assistive robotic system.

  3. Assessment of cooperation mechanism options: Cost-efficient and sustainable deployment of renewable energy sources towards the 20% target by 2020, and beyond. D3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pade Hansen, L.-L.; Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Skovsgaard Nielsen, L.

    2012-12-15

    The RES Directive 2009/28/EC (European Commission 2009) set legally binding targets for EU Member States on energy consumption from renewable sources - the 2020 RES targets. A part of this can be achieved through the use of cooperation mechanisms: statistical transfer, joint project and joint support schemes. The intention of the cooperation mechanisms is to provide the flexibility needed to achieve Europe's renewable energy targets in a more cost-efficient way. In Task 3 of the RES4Less project we analyse the benefits and challenges of using the two cooperation mechanisms: joint project and joint support schemes. This report is the outcome of the work in Task 3.2 where we analyse how the barriers can be overcome and how different design options can be used under varying conditions and time horizons. Cooperation mechanisms have the potential to reduce the compliance costs of reaching the 2020 RES targets for EU member states. The largest benefits can be achieved under full harmonisation and one joints support scheme. However, the different national objectives along with uneven distribution of benefits and costs make this unrealistic in the near future. Cooperation between pairs or groups of countries with large net benefits that can be relatively easy estimated and shared is attractive and realisable in a shorter time horizon. Joint project cooperation is the most flexible instrument to use as it preserves the national legislation and support schemes (national objectives) and can be easily scaled in size. The drawback is the high transaction costs and some uncertainty regarding which party should carry the project implementation risk and guaranty the support for the projects for the entire lifetime. The joint projects can be realised in a short term horizon and as such pave the way for further cooperation. Large projects has a considerable advantage in the reduced transaction cost relative to project size and governments can be expected to be more willing to

  4. 4th International Conference on Advanced Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The Fourth International Conference on Advanced Robotics was held in Columbus, Ohio, U. S. A. on June 13th to 15th, 1989. The first two conferences in this series were held in Tokyo. The third was held in Versailles, France in October 1987. The International Conference on Advanced Robotics is affiliated with the International Federation of Robotics. This conference was sponsored by The Ohio State University. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers was a cooperating co-sponsor. The objective of the International Conference on Advanced Robotics is to provide an international exchange of information on the topic of advanced robotics. This was adopted as one of the themes for international research cooperation at a meeting of representatives of seven industrialized countries held in Williamsburg, U. S. A. in May 1983. The present conference is truly international in character with contributions from authors of twelve countries. (Bulgaria, Canada, France, Great Britain, India, Italy, Japan, Peoples Republic o...

  5. Study on cooperative active sensing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, Nobuyuki [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Electrotechnical Laboratory is involved in the development and the improvement of three dimensional geometrical modeling for the work environment including various kinds of robots. Here, the research on the system which allows to materialize an active sensing by the cooperation of robots and the construction of an experimental system for the assessment of such modeling were reviewed. In the second stage of this project, the development of cooperative active sensory system with small size mobile robots as an operation platform was attempted. Thus, studies on the sensing techniques for robot operation and the real-time sensing techniques were started. An electric binocular head was prepared after consideration of size, cost and convenience and attached to the commercially available mobile robot base (Mouse 89, Japan System Design Co., Ltd.). The small mobile robot capable of binocular visual tracing thus obtained was confirmed to be highly efficient by various cooperative control experiments although the head was prepared at the sacrifice of control characteristics. Next, a real-time sensing system which allows to trace a moving object was constructed on the basis of Zero Disparity Filter (ZDF) produced by Kaenel et al. and further improved in the respect of the difficulty in real time processing and an expanded type ZDF was obtained. This system is routinely used as an basic vision unit for a mobile robot in the presence. (M.N.)

  6. Mechatronics design of a robotic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Buonocore, Luca Rosario

    2015-01-01

    The same coordination aspects are the key-points of the last proposed method about comunication: now, the robotic device have to cooperate in order to manage the object in the desired way with a good sensitivity and this can be done exploiting the torque end force sensor of the new system. A general introduction underlining the need to make a robot autonomous or at least able to operate in unstructured scenarios to cope with human end other robotic device. Project of ultralight robot ar...

  7. Robot Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Lenarcic, Jadran; Stanišić, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the area of robot mechanisms, primarily considering industrial manipulators and humanoid arms. The book is intended for both teaching and self-study. Emphasis is given to the fundamentals of kinematic analysis and the design of robot mechanisms. The coverage of topics is untypical. The focus is on robot kinematics. The book creates a balance between theoretical and practical aspects in the development and application of robot mechanisms, and includes the latest achievements and trends in robot science and technology.

  8. The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative: can adaptive management and local stakeholder engagement sustain reduced impact of ungulate browsers in forest systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan L. Stout; Alejandro A. Royo; David S. deCalesta; Kevin McAleese; James C. Finley

    2013-01-01

    The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative (KQDC) was established in 2000 to test new approaches to stewardship of white-tailed deer and forest habitat on a 30 000 hectare landscape in northwest Pennsylvania, USA. Partners included land managers, scientists, educators, tourism promoters,and hunters. KQDC goals were adaptive management of the deer herd, improved habitat...

  9. Vitruvian Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Robots are simultaneously real machines and technical images that challenge our sense of self. In the Open Forum I discuss the movie Ex Machina by director Alex Garland. The robot Ava, played by Alicia Vikander, is a rare portrait of what could be interpreted as a feminist robot (and...... there are spoilers ahead for any readers unfamiliar with this movie). Though she apparently is created as the dream of the ‘perfect woman’, sexy and beautiful, she also develops and urges to free herself from the slavery of her creator, Nathan Bateman. She is a robot created along the perfect dimensions...... as a Vitruvian robot but is also a creature which could be interpreted as a human being. However, the point I want to raise is not whether Ava’s reaction to robot slavery is justified or not but how her portrait raises questions about the blurred lines between reality and fiction when we discuss our robotic...

  10. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  11. US-German Cooperation For Further Development Of Decision Support Systems For Sustainable Contaminated Site Revitalization - Berlin, Germany, Sept. 24, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic) is a web-based decision support tool developed by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in partnership with the Office of Brownfields and Land Revital...

  12. Cost-Efficient and Sustainable Deployment of Renewable Energy Sources towards the 20% Target by 2020, and beyond. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Longa, F. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Pade Hnasen, L. [Technical University of Denmark DTU, Lyngby (Denmark); Tantareanu, C. [Center for Promotion of Clean and Efficient Energy ENERO, Bucharest (Romania); Caldes-Gomez, N.; Santamaria-Belda, M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented, highlighting the most relevant results. A brief chapter concludes the document, giving an outlook on the follow-up activities of the RES4LESS project. This summary is intended not only as an introduction to the RES4LESS cases studies, but also as a guideline to read and interpret the in-depth analysis carried out in the final documents that describe the case studies in detail. These documents will be published in September 2012 on the RES4LESS website, www.res4less.eu. The objective of the RES4LESS project is to develop a Roadmap to cost-efficient deployment of energy from renewable sources (RES) in Europe, via cross-border cooperation mechanisms. The Commission has indicated that the 2020 targets for renewable energy (European Commission 2009) can be achieved through cooperation between Member States. This cooperation could lead to win-win situations, when a country with a large low-cost potential for renewable electricity could sell part of its surplus to a country with a limited and/or expensive potential. In the project, first a scoping exercise has been carried out to identify which countries could be candidates for cooperation. Next, three case studies have been elaborated to give a better view of what these cooperation mechanisms would entail in practice. The analysis has focused on renewable electricity (RES-E), although cooperation mechanisms could also be envisaged for renewable heat. Among the Member States providing the largest and cheapest surpluses Denmark, Romania and Spain have been chosen as Host Countries for the RES4LESS case studies. The technologies considered in the case studies are Offshore Wind for Denmark, Biomass for Romania, and CSP for Spain.

  13. Robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, M; Marescaux, J

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency in minimally invasive surgery requires intensive and continuous training, as it is technically challenging for unnatural visual and haptic perceptions. Robotic and computer sciences are producing innovations to augment the surgeon's skills to achieve accuracy and high precision during complex surgery. This article reviews the current use of robotically assisted surgery, focusing on technology as well as main applications in digestive surgery, and future perspectives. The PubMed database was interrogated to retrieve evidence-based data on surgical applications. Internal and external consulting with key opinion leaders, renowned robotics laboratories and robotic platform manufacturers was used to produce state-of-the art business intelligence around robotically assisted surgery. Selected digestive procedures (oesophagectomy, gastric bypass, pancreatic and liver resections, rectal resection for cancer) might benefit from robotic assistance, although the current level of evidence is insufficient to support widespread adoption. The surgical robotic market is growing, and a variety of projects have recently been launched at both academic and corporate levels to develop lightweight, miniaturized surgical robotic prototypes. The magnified view, and improved ergonomics and dexterity offered by robotic platforms, might facilitate the uptake of minimally invasive procedures. Image guidance to complement robotically assisted procedures, through the concepts of augmented reality, could well represent a major revolution to increase safety and deal with difficulties associated with the new minimally invasive approaches. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hand-held medical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  15. Who’s Afraid of Robots?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio; Santoni de Sio, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We argue that lack of direct and conscious control is not, in principle, a reason to be afraid of machines in general and robots in particular: in order to articulate the ethical and political risks of increasing automation one must, therefore, tackle the difficult task of precisely delineating...... the theoretical and practical limits of sustainable delegation to robots....

  16. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically

  17. Delta Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Herder, J.L.; van der Wijk, V.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a delta robot comprising a stationary base (2) and a movable platform (3) that is connected to the base with three chains of links (4,5,6), and comprising a balancing system incorporating at least one pantograph (7) for balancing the robot's center of mass, wherein the at least one pantograph has a first free extremity (10) at which it supports a countermass (13) which is arranged to balance the center of mass of the robot.

  18. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  19. Supporting the development of environmentally  sustainable technologies and products: the role of  innovation, informal cooperation and governmental  agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2008-01-01

        Sustainable, economic, environmental and social development will  require substantial improvements in the efficiency of present environmental  and resource use, which in turn will increase the focus on a broader set of  environmental, economic and social linkages. These are the result of dyna...

  20. Robot umanoidi o robot umani?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Parisi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Che cosa e' un robot? A che cosa serve un robot? Un robot e' qualcosa di fisico, costruito da noi, che somiglia a un organismo vivente e si comporta come un organismo vivente. Gli organismi viventi comprendono gli animali e le piante, ma i robot riproducono gli animali piuttosto che le piante, anche se ci sono tentativi di costruire robotpiante. Comportarsi come un animale significa avere degli organi sensoriali con cui ricevere informazioni dall'ambiente e degli organi motori che permettono di spostarsi nell'ambiente o di muovere una qualche parte del proprio corpo, ad esempio la testa o un braccio, in maniera non programmata, ma autonoma, cioe' rispondendo agli stimoli che arrivano momento per momento ai sensori del robot. Questo risponde alla domanda "Che cosa e' un robot?".

  1. Intelligent robotics can boost America's economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    A case is made for strategic investment in intelligent robotics as a part of the solution to the problem of improved global competitiveness for U.S. manufacturing, a critical industrial sector. Similar cases are made for strategic investments in intelligent robotics for field applications, construction, and service industries such as health care. The scope of the country's problems and needs is beyond the capability of the private sector alone, government alone, or academia alone to solve independently of the others. National cooperative programs in intelligent robotics are needed with the private sector supplying leadership direction and aerospace and non-aerospace industries conducting the development. Some necessary elements of such programs are outlined. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) can be key players in such national cooperative programs in intelligent robotics for several reasons: (1) human space exploration missions require supervised intelligent robotics as enabling tools and, hence must develop supervised intelligent robotic systems; (2) intelligent robotic technology is being developed for space applications at JSC (but has a strong crosscutting or generic flavor) that is advancing the state of the art and is producing both skilled personnel and adaptable developmental infrastructure such as integrated testbeds; and (3) a NASA JSC Technology Investment Program in Robotics has been proposed based on commercial partnerships and collaborations for precompetitive, dual-use developments.

  2. The Rise of Robots and the Implications for Military Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    development channels and sustain the overall development of robots. Benefits of robots may also be realized earlier though the diversification of their... livelihood of humans is threatened by robots. Despite the potentially serious and disruptive consequences of the long term impact of robots on military...humans to military organizations will be questioned and the livelihood of humans threatened. There is, therefore, a need to establish a new

  3. Fiscal 1997 report on the cooperative research on the preservation and sustainable utilization of biological diversification; Seibutsu tayosei hozen to jizokuteki riyo nado ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku (1997 nendo hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Cooperative researches were conducted between Japan and Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia for the purpose of the technology development to make developing countries themselves preserve bioresources existing in tropical forests and use those sustainably. The research subjects for Thailand are a strategical study on eating of the primates, improvement of a microorganism culture collection system, preservation of biological diversification using an artificial ecosystem, bioresource utilization, etc. The subjects for Indonesia are a study of a microorganism culture collection system, study of plant preservation technology, study of microorganism utilization technology, study of plant utilization technology, promotion of the founding of the Indonesia tropical bioresource information center, etc. The subjects for Malaysia are biological diversification database and gene bank, assessment/monitoring of the ocean ecosystem, assessment and inventory of the ecosystem using hi-tech technology, search/separation of bioactive substances originated from microorganism/plant, etc. 26 refs., 24 figs., 81 tabs.

  4. Involving self-help groups in health-care institutions: the patients' contribution to and their view of 'self-help friendliness' as an approach to implement quality criteria of sustainable co-operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Stefan; Trojan, Alf; Kofahl, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The importance of patient participation and involvement is now widely acknowledged; in the past, few systematic health-care institution policies existed to establish sustainable co-operation. In 2004, in Germany, the initiative 'Self-Help Friendliness (SHF) and Patient-Centeredness in Health Care' was launched to establish and implement quality criteria related to collaboration with patient groups. The objective of this study was to describe (i) how patients were involved in the development of SHF by summarizing a number of studies and (ii) a new survey on the importance and feasibility of SHF. In a series of participative studies, SHF was shaped, tested and implemented in 40 health-care institutions in Germany. Representatives from 157 self-help groups (SHGs), 50 self-help organizations and 17 self-help clearing houses were actively involved. The second objective was reached through a survey of 74 of the 115 member associations of the biggest self-help umbrella organization at federal level (response rate: 64 %). Patient involvement included the following: identification of the needs and wishes of SHGs regarding co-operation, their involvement in the definition of quality criteria of co-operation, having a crucial role during the implementation of SHF and accrediting health-care institutions as self-help friendly. The ten criteria in total were positively valued and perceived as moderately practicable. Through the intensive involvement of self-help representatives, it was feasible to develop SHF as a systematic approach to closer collaboration of professionals and SHGs. Some challenges have to be taken into account involving patients and the limitations of our empirical study. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Delta robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Van der Wijk, V.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a delta robot comprising a stationary base (2) and a movable platform (3) that is connected to the base with three chains of links (4,5,6), and comprising a balancing system incorporating at least one pantograph (7) for balancing the robot's center of mass, wherein the at

  6. Robotics 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  7. Modeling and Control of Collaborative Robot System using Haptic Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekananda Shanmuganatha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When two robot systems can share understanding using any agreed knowledge, within the constraints of the system’s communication protocol, the approach may lead to a common improvement. This has persuaded numerous new research inquiries in human-robot collaboration. We have built up a framework prepared to do independent following and performing table-best protest object manipulation with humans and we have actualized two different activity models to trigger robot activities. The idea here is to explore collaborative systems and to build up a plan for them to work in a collaborative environment which has many benefits to a single more complex system. In the paper, two robots that cooperate among themselves are constructed. The participation linking the two robotic arms, the torque required and parameters are analyzed. Thus the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a modular robot system which can serve as a base on aspects of robotics in collaborative robots using haptics.

  8. Robot Control System based on Web Application and RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barenji Ali Vatankhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integration driven framework for enabling the RFID based identification of parts to perform robotic distributor operations in the random mix based parts control based on web application. The RFID technology senses newly arriving parts to be distribution robot, the robot is able to recognize them and perform cooperative distributing via web-based application. The developed web application control system is implemented in the educational robotic arm. RFID system sends real time information from parts to the web application and web based application makes a decision for control of the robot arm, controller of robot controls the robot as based on the decision from web application. The proposed control system has increases the reconfiguration and scalability of robot system.

  9. Towards safe robots approaching Asimov’s 1st law

    CERN Document Server

    Haddadin, Sami

    2014-01-01

    The vision of seamless human-robot interaction in our everyday life that allows for tight cooperation between human and robot has not become reality yet. However, the recent increase in technology maturity finally made it possible to realize systems of high integration, advanced sensorial capabilities and enhanced power to cross this barrier and merge living spaces of humans and robot workspaces to at least a certain extent. Together with the increasing industrial effort to realize first commercial service robotics products this makes it necessary to properly address one of the most fundamental questions of Human-Robot Interaction: How to ensure safety in human-robot coexistence? In this authoritative monograph, the essential question about the necessary requirements for a safe robot is addressed in depth and from various perspectives. The approach taken in this book focuses on the biomechanical level of injury assessment, addresses the physical evaluation of robot-human impacts, and isolates the major factor...

  10. Robot Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Ess, Charles Melvin; Bhroin, Niamh Ni

    The world's first robot teacher, Saya, was introduced to a classroom in Japan in 2009. Saya, had the appearance of a young female teacher. She could express six basic emotions, take the register and shout orders like 'be quiet' (The Guardian, 2009). Since 2009, humanoid robot technologies have...... developed. It is now suggested that robot teachers may become regular features in educational settings, and may even 'take over' from human teachers in ten to fifteen years (cf. Amundsen, 2017 online; Gohd, 2017 online). Designed to look and act like a particular kind of human; robot teachers mediate human...... existence and roles, while also aiming to support education through sophisticated, automated, human-like interaction. Our paper explores the design and existential implications of ARTIE, a robot teacher at Oxford Brookes University (2017, online). Drawing on an initial empirical exploration we propose...

  11. Robot Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Martin Marietta Aero and Naval Systems has advanced the CAD art to a very high level at its Robotics Laboratory. One of the company's major projects is construction of a huge Field Material Handling Robot for the Army's Human Engineering Lab. Design of FMR, intended to move heavy and dangerous material such as ammunition, was a triumph in CAD Engineering. Separate computer problems modeled the robot's kinematics and dynamics, yielding such parameters as the strength of materials required for each component, the length of the arms, their degree of freedom and power of hydraulic system needed. The Robotics Lab went a step further and added data enabling computer simulation and animation of the robot's total operational capability under various loading and unloading conditions. NASA computer program (IAC), integrated Analysis Capability Engineering Database was used. Program contains a series of modules that can stand alone or be integrated with data from sensors or software tools.

  12. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores cooperation as contradictory and therefore with a constant possibility for conflict. Consequently it is called conflictual cooperation. The notion is presented on the basis of a participatory observation in a control room of a district heating system. In the investigation......, cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...... on regulating who can use what in what way. Contradictions in the observed activity are discussed. It is argued that for the participants the connec- tions of acts appear in such contradictions in cooperation. This conception is dis- cussed in relationship to the notions of practice, as expounded by Bourdieu...

  13. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  14. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  15. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System

    OpenAIRE

    Wenshan Wang; Xiaoxiao Zhu; Liyu Wang; Qiang Qiu; Qixin Cao

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of ...

  16. 77 FR 39320 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Singapore Memorandum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...; (2) participating in regional initiatives on environmentally sustainable cities and sustainable.... For the 2013-2014 Plan of Action, we anticipate building upon cooperative work initiated under...

  17. Embodied Computation: An Active-Learning Approach to Mobile Robotics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, L. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a newly designed upper-level undergraduate and graduate course, Autonomous Mobile Robots. The course employs active, cooperative, problem-based learning and is grounded in the fundamental computational problems in mobile robotics defined by Dudek and Jenkin. Students receive a broad survey of robotics through lectures, weekly…

  18. Social Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us...... as individuals seems to be limited by our technical limitations and phantasy alone. This collection contributes to the field of social robotics by exploring its boundaries from a philosophically informed standpoint. It constructively outlines central potentials and challenges and thereby also provides a stable...

  19. Coordinating robots in water polo matches using modified snowdrift games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chen; Wu, Bin; Cao, Ming; Xie, Guangming

    2012-01-01

    One key research topic in the study of coordinating multiple robots is to understand under what conditions the synergy effect emerges. While most of the previous work on cooperative robots confirms the existence of synergy effects, less is known about how to quantify them and more importantly, how

  20. Reducing robotic guidance during robot-assisted gait training improves gait function: a case report on a stroke survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Kotsapouikis, Despina; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2013-06-01

    To test the feasibility of patient-cooperative robotic gait training for improving locomotor function of a chronic stroke survivor with severe lower-extremity motor impairments. Single-subject crossover design. Performed in a controlled laboratory setting. A 62-year-old man with right temporal lobe ischemic stroke was recruited for this study. The baseline lower-extremity Fugl-Meyer score of the subject was 10 on a scale of 34, which represented severe impairment in the paretic leg. However, the subject had a good ambulation level (community walker with the aid of a stick cane and ankle-foot orthosis) and showed no signs of sensory or cognitive impairments. The subject underwent 12 sessions (3 times per week for 4wk) of conventional robotic training with the Lokomat, where the robot provided full assistance to leg movements while walking, followed by 12 sessions (3 times per week for 4wk) of patient-cooperative robotic control training, where the robot provided minimal guidance to leg movements during walking. Clinical outcomes were evaluated before the start of the intervention, immediately after 4 weeks of conventional robotic training, and immediately after 4 weeks of cooperative control robotic training. These included: (1) self-selected and fast walking speed, (2) 6-minute walk test, (3) Timed Up & Go test, and (4) lower-extremity Fugl-Meyer score. Results showed that clinical outcomes changed minimally after full guidance robotic training, but improved considerably after 4 weeks of reduced guidance robotic training. The findings from this case study suggest that cooperative control robotic training is superior to conventional robotic training and is a feasible option to restoring locomotor function in ambulatory stroke survivors with severe motor impairments. A larger trial is needed to verify the efficacy of this advanced robotic control strategy in facilitating gait recovery after stroke. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  1. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...

  2. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  3. Space Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ellery

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this second of three short papers, I introduce some of the basic concepts of space robotics with an emphasis on some specific challenging areas of research that are peculiar to the application of robotics to space infrastructure development. The style of these short papers is pedagogical and the concepts in this paper are developed from fundamental manipulator robotics. This second paper considers the application of space manipulators to on-orbit servicing (OOS, an application which has considerable commercial application. I provide some background to the notion of robotic on-orbit servicing and explore how manipulator control algorithms may be modified to accommodate space manipulators which operate in the micro-gravity of space.

  4. Human Performance in Cooperative Virtual Environments: the Effect of Visual Aids and Oral Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Sehat; Richard, Paul; Otmane, Samir; Naud, Mickael; Mallem, Malik

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The Cooperative virtual environments, where users simultaneously manipulate objects, are one of the subfields of Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs). In this paper we simulate the use of two string based parallel robots in cooperative teleoperation task. Two users setting on separate machines connected through local network operate each robot. In this context, we investigate the effects of visual aids and oral communication on cooperation, co-presence and users p...

  5. [Robotic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Portillo, Mucio; Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Quiroz-Guadarrama, César David; Pachecho-Gahbler, Carlos; Rojano-Rodríguez, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Medicine has experienced greater scientific and technological advances in the last 50 years than in the rest of human history. The article describes relevant events, revises concepts and advantages and clinical applications, summarizes published clinical results, and presents some personal reflections without giving dogmatic conclusions about robotic surgery. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) defines robotic surgery as a surgical procedure using technology to aid the interaction between surgeon and patient. The objective of the surgical robot is to correct human deficiencies and improve surgical skills. The capacity of repeating tasks with precision and reproducibility has been the base of the robot´s success. Robotic technology offers objective and measurable advantages: - Improving maneuverability and physical capacity during surgery. - Correcting bad postural habits and tremor. - Allowing depth perception (3D images). - Magnifying strength and movement limits. - Offering a platform for sensors, cameras, and instruments. Endoscopic surgery transformed conceptually the way of practicing surgery. Nevertheless in the last decade, robotic assisted surgery has become the next paradigm of our era.

  6. Robot Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Tests with robots and the high-fidelity Hubble Space Telescope mockup astronauts use to train for servicing missions have convinced NASA managers it may be possible to maintain and upgrade the orbiting observatory without sending a space shuttle to do the job. In a formal request last week, the agency gave bidders until July 16 to sub-mit proposals for a robotic mission to the space telescope before the end of 2007. At a minimum, the mission would attach a rocket motor to deorbit the telescope safely when its service life ends. In the best case, it would use state-of-the- art robotics to prolong its life on orbit and install new instruments. With the space shuttle off-limits for the job under strict post-Columbia safety policies set by Administrator Sean O'Keefe, NASA has designed a "straw- man" robotic mission that would use an Atlas V or Delta N to launch a 20,ooO-lb. "Hubble Robotic Vehicle" to service the telescope. There, a robotic arm would grapple it, much as the shuttle does.

  7. Development and Control of Mine Detection Robot COMET-II and COMET-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonami, Kenzo; Huang, Qingjiu; Komizo, Daisuke; Fukao, Yoichiro; Asai, Yoshitomo; Shiraishi, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Masaki; Ikedo, Yosuke

    In this paper, we elucidate the development and the multitask cooperative control of humanitarian demining assistance robots. In particular, the aim in this paper is to propose the first platform robots for humanitarian demining as a global pioneering project. Here we propose two kinds of mine detection robots which consists of six-legged walking robots with two manipulators for added stability, mobility, and functionality. One of the proposed mine detection robots is the COMET-II which is a 120kg class robot driven by electric power. The other robot is the full autonomous mine detection robot the COMET-III which is a 1 ton class robot driven by hydraulic power with a gasoline engine. The COMET-III has a crawler and six legs and it can continue a mine detection operation for four hours. An improved version of this kind of robot will be engaged for mine detection operation in actual mine fields in the near future.

  8. Palmitoylation of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C is critical for its functional cooperation with SP-B to sustain compression/expansion dynamics in cholesterol-containing surfactant films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Florian; Ospina, Olga L; Mingarro, Ismael; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2010-11-17

    Recent data suggest that a functional cooperation between surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C may be required to sustain a proper compression-expansion dynamics in the presence of physiological proportions of cholesterol. SP-C is a dually palmitoylated polypeptide of 4.2 kDa, but the role of acylation in SP-C activity is not completely understood. In this work we have compared the behavior of native palmitoylated SP-C and recombinant nonpalmitoylated versions of SP-C produced in bacteria to get a detailed insight into the importance of the palmitic chains to optimize interfacial performance of cholesterol-containing surfactant films. We found that palmitoylation of SP-C is not essential for the protein to promote rapid interfacial adsorption of phospholipids to equilibrium surface tensions (∼22 mN/m), in the presence or absence of cholesterol. However, palmitoylation of SP-C is critical for cholesterol-containing films to reach surface tensions ≤1 mN/m at the highest compression rates assessed in a captive bubble surfactometer, in the presence of SP-B. Interestingly, the ability of SP-C to facilitate reinsertion of phospholipids during expansion was not impaired to the same extent in the absence of palmitoylation, suggesting the existence of palmitoylation-dependent and -independent functions of the protein. We conclude that palmitoylation is key for the functional cooperation of SP-C with SP-B that enables cholesterol-containing surfactant films to reach very low tensions under compression, which could be particularly important in the design of clinical surfactants destined to replacement therapies in pathologies such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Decentralized Sensor Fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M.; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, João; Spaan, Matthijs T.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

  10. The Information-Cost-Reward framework for understanding robot swarm foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Pitonakova, Lenka; Crowder, Richard; Bullock, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Demand for autonomous swarms, where robots can cooperate with each other without human intervention, is set to grow rapidly in the near future. Currently, one of the main challenges in swarm robotics is understanding how the behaviour of individual robots leads to an observed emergent collective performance. In this paper, a novel approach to understanding robot swarms that perform foraging is proposed in the form of the Information-Cost-Reward (ICR) framework. The framework relates the way i...

  11. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  12. Rehabilitation robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  14. Rehabilitation robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  15. Dynamic Coordination Of A Two-Arm Robotic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Sungbok

    1994-01-01

    Report presents study of dynamical and kinematical considerations guiding selection of configuration of self-reconfigurable, two-arm robotic manipulator. Two multiple-link arms cooperate in manipulating single object, reconfiguring their mutual, cooperative structure according to changing task requirements.

  16. Generic robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  17. Cooperative Exploration and Networking While Preserving Collision Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghoek

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring of large complex environments, such as underwater environments, is an important task in surveillance. An information (sensor) network can be built to achieve the task. To build an information network in an unknown workspace, we use multiple robots deploying information nodes. While robots build the network, they localize themselves as well as deployed nodes in the global coordinate system. Our multirobot networking strategy is as follows: each robot iteratively visits a frontier, which borders an unsensed area, until all areas are explored. As multiple robots explore the workspace, a robot must avoid colliding with another robot as well as with an obstacle. Hence, we introduce collision avoidance control laws and integrate the control laws with our cooperative networking strategy. Using MATLAB simulations, we verify the scalability and effectiveness of both our networking strategy and the collision avoidance control laws.

  18. Space Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ellery

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this first of three short papers, I introduce some of the basic concepts of space engineering with an emphasis on some specific challenging areas of research that are peculiar to the application of robotics to space development and exploration. The style of these short papers is pedagogical and this paper stresses the unique constraints that space application imposes. This first paper is thus a general introduction to the nature of spacecraft engineering and its application to robotic spacecraft. I consider the constraints and metrics used by spacecraft engineers in the design of spacecraft and how these constraints impose challenges to the roboticist. The following two papers consider specific robotics issues in more detail.

  19. Service Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Andersen, Kim Normann

    The position presented in this paper is that in order to understand how service robots shape, and are being shaped by, the physical and social contexts in which they are used, we need to consider both work/organizational analysis and interaction design. We illustrate this with qualitative data...... and personal experiences to generate discussion about how to link these two traditions. This paper presents selected results from a case study that investigated the implementation and use of robot vacuum cleaners in Danish eldercare. The study demonstrates interpretive flexibility with variation...... in the perceived nature of technology, technology strategy, and technology use between key stakeholders in eldercare. The case study approach and results is then briefly contrasted to the authors’ first hand experiences with appropriating robot vacuums in the home. The aim is to generate discussion of how...

  20. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  1. Robot Choreography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Heath, Damith

    2016-01-01

    We propose a robust framework for combining performance paradigms with human robot interaction (HRI) research. Following an analysis of several case studies that combine the performing arts with HRI experiments, we propose a methodology and “best practices” for implementing choreography and other...... performance paradigms in HRI experiments. Case studies include experiments conducted in laboratory settings, “in the wild”, and live performance settings. We consider the technical and artistic challenges of designing and staging robots alongside humans in these various settings, and discuss how to combine...

  2. Medical robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    In this book, we present medical robotics, its evolution over the last 30 years in terms of architecture, design and control, and the main scientific and clinical contributions to the field. For more than two decades, robots have been part of hospitals and have progressively become a common tool for the clinician. Because this domain has now reached a certain level of maturity it seems important and useful to provide a state of the scientific, technological and clinical achievements and still open issues. This book describes the short history of the domain, its specificity and constraints, and

  3. Cooperation Forms in the Aeronautics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela MOCENCO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of the world economy and the globally accelerated diversification of production led to the need of widening the economic cooperation. The need of cooperation increased in various sectors of the global economy, such as the transport industry, IT and commercial sector. The aeronautics industry is a representative sector of cooperation, where the exchange of knowledge and technology, the cooperation between universities, industries, research organizations, small and medium enterprises (SMEs, etc. and the free flow of ideas are crucial factors for the implementation and sustainability of a unique innovation system. The main objective of this paper is to identify the main forms of cooperation in the aircraft industry. The paper includes two important parts: the first part contains an analysis of the US and Europe aeronautics industry evolution, highlighting the cooperation forms and fields that emerged over time; and the second part comprises an analysis of the Romanian aircraft industry cooperation.

  4. Robotic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  5. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    , Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  6. ROBOSIM, a simulator for robotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Elaine M.; Fernandez, Ken; Cook, George E.

    1991-01-01

    ROBOSIM, a simulator for robotic systems, was developed by NASA to aid in the rapid prototyping of automation. ROBOSIM has allowed the development of improved robotic systems concepts for both earth-based and proposed on-orbit applications while significantly reducing development costs. In a cooperative effort with an area university, ROBOSIM was further developed for use in the classroom as a safe and cost-effective way of allowing students to study robotic systems. Students have used ROBOSIM to study existing robotic systems and systems which they have designed in the classroom. Since an advanced simulator/trainer of this type is beneficial not only to NASA projects and programs but industry and academia as well, NASA is in the process of developing this technology for wider public use. An update on the simulators's new application areas, the improvements made to the simulator's design, and current efforts to ensure the timely transfer of this technology are presented.

  7. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Liyu; Qiu, Qiang; Cao, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods. PMID:27446206

  8. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods.

  9. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshan; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Liyu; Qiu, Qiang; Cao, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods.

  10. Heterogeneous Context-Aware Robots Providing a Personalized Building Tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hristoskova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing robot guides offer a tour of a building, such as a museum or science centre, to one or more visitors. Usually the tours are predefined and lack support for dynamic interactions between the different robots. This paper focuses on the distributed collaboration of multiple heterogeneous robots (receptionist, companion guiding visitors through a building. Semantic techniques support the formal definition of tour topics, the available content on a specific topic, and the robot and person profiles including interests and acquired knowledge. The robot guides select topics depending on their participants' interests and prior knowledge. Whenever one guide moves into the proximity of another, the guides automatically exchange participants, optimizing the amount of interesting topics. Robot collaboration is realized through the development of a software module that allows a robot to transparently include behaviours performed by other robots into its own set of behaviours. The multi-robot visitor guide application is integrated into an extended distributed heterogeneous robot team, using a receptionist robot that was not originally designed to cooperate with the guides. Evaluation of the implemented algorithms presents a 90% content coverage of relevant topics for the participants.

  11. Laws on Robots, Laws by Robots, Laws in Robots : Regulating Robot Behaviour by Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, R.E.; Lucivero, F.

    2015-01-01

    Speculation about robot morality is almost as old as the concept of a robot itself. Asimov’s three laws of robotics provide an early and well-discussed example of moral rules robots should observe. Despite the widespread influence of the three laws of robotics and their role in shaping visions of

  12. Cooperative sentry vehicles and differential GPS leapfrog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEDDEMA,JOHN T.; LEWIS,CHRISTOPHER L.; LAFARGE,ROBERT A.

    2000-06-07

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of using a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter, perform a surround task, and travel extended distances. This paper describes the authors most recent activities. In particular, this paper highlights the development of a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) leapfrog capability that allows two or more vehicles to alternate sending DGPS corrections. Using this leapfrog technique, this paper shows that a group of autonomous vehicles can travel 22.68 kilometers with a root mean square positioning error of only 5 meters.

  13. A remote integrated testbed for cooperating objects

    CERN Document Server

    Dios, Jose Ramiro Martinez-de; Bernabe, Alberto de San; Ollero, Anibal

    2013-01-01

    Testbeds are gaining increasing relevance in research domains and also in industrial applications. However, very few books devoted to testbeds have been published. To the best of my knowledge no book on this topic has been published. This book is particularly interesting for the growing community of testbed developers. I believe the book is also very interesting for researchers in robot-WSN cooperation.This book provides detailed description of a system that can be considered the first testbed that allows full peer-to-peer interoperability between heterogeneous robots and ubiquitous systems su

  14. LARM PKM solutions for torso design in humanoid robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Human-like torso features are essential in humanoid robots. In this paper problems for design and operation of solutions for a robotic torso are discussed by referring to experiences and designs that have been developed at Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics (LARM) in Cassino, Italy. A new solution is presented with conceptual views as waist-trunk structure that makes a proper partition of the performance for walking and arm operations as sustained by a torso.

  15. ENGAGING ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ROBOTICS THROUGH HUMMINGBIRD KIT WITH SNAP! VISUAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Newley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe how Hummingbird robotics kit with Snap! programing language was used to introduce basics of robotics to elementary and middle school students. Each student in the robotics program built a robot. The robot building process was open ended. Any specific robotics challenge was not provided to the students. Students’ knowledge about robots and programming language were measured through pre, post, and delayed posttests. Results indicated that students improved their knowledge about robotics and programing language at the end of the robotics program. Delayed posttest results indicated that the students were able to sustain their improved knowledge two months after the posttest. Formal data about student motivation and interest in STEM learning were not collected; however, it was observed that students expressed interest to participate in more advanced robotics programs in the future.

  16. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...... if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...

  17. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  18. New trends in medical and service robots challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Pisla, Doina; Bleuler, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    This volume describes new frontiers in medical and service robotics in the light of recent developments in technology to advance robot design and implementation. In particular, the work looks at advances in design, development and implementation of contemporary surgical, rehabilitation and biorobots. Surgical robots allow surgeons greater access to areas under operation using more precise and less invasive methods. Rehabilitation robots facilitate and support the lives of the infirm, elderly people, or those with dysfunction of body parts affecting movement. These robots are also used for rehabilitation and related procedures, such as training and therapy. Biorobots are designed to imitate the cognition of humans and animals. The need to substitute humans working on delicate, tiresome and monotonous tasks, or working with potentially health-damaging toxic materials, requires intelligent, high-performance service robots with the ability to cooperate, advanced communication and sophisticated perception and cogn...

  19. Towards Bio-Inspired Chromatic Behaviours in Surveillance Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar Karutaa Gnaniar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of Robotics is ever growing at the same time as posing enormous challenges. Numerous works has been done in biologically inspired robotics emulating models, systems and elements of nature for the purpose of solving traditional robotics problems. Chromatic behaviours are abundant in nature across a variety of living species to achieve camouflage, signaling, and temperature regulation. The ability of these creatures to successfully blend in with their environment and communicate by changing their colour is the fundamental inspiration for our research work. In this paper, we present dwarf chameleon inspired chromatic behaviour in the context of an autonomous surveillance robot, “PACHONDHI”. In our experiments, we successfully validated the ability of the robot to autonomously change its colour in relation to the terrain that it is traversing for maximizing detectability to friendly security agents and minimizing exposure to hostile agents, as well as to communicate with fellow cooperating robots.

  20. Micro Robotics Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our research is focused on the challenges of engineering robotic systems down to sub-millimeter size scales. We work both on small mobile robots (robotic insects for...

  1. Presentation robot Advee

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Věchet, Stanislav; Hrbáček, J.; Ripel, T.; Ondroušek, V.; Hrbáček, R.; Schreiber, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, 5/6 (2012), s. 307-322 ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : mobile robot * human- robot interface * localization Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robot ics

  2. Towards Sociable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    This thesis studies aspects of self-sufficient energy (energy autonomy) for truly autonomous robots and towards sociable robots. Over sixty years of history of robotics through three developmental ages containing single robot, multi-robot systems, and social (sociable) robots, the main objective...... of roboticists mostly focuses on how to make a robotic system function autonomously and further, socially. However, such approaches mostly emphasize behavioural autonomy, rather than energy autonomy which is the key factor for not only any living machine, but for life on the earth. Consequently, self......-sufficient energy is one of the challenges for not only single robot or multi-robot systems, but also social and sociable robots. This thesis is to deal with energy autonomy for multi-robot systems through energy sharing (trophallaxis) in which each robot is equipped with two capabilities: self-refueling energy...

  3. Demonstrating sustainable energy: A review-based model of sustainable energy demonstration projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a model of sustainable energy demonstration projects, based on a review of 229 scientific publications on demonstrations in renewable and sustainable energy. The model addresses the basic organizational characteristics (aim, cooperative form, and physical location) and learning

  4. Distributed Robotics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Distributed robotics takes many forms, for instance, multirobots, modular robots, and self-reconfigurable robots. The understanding and development of such advanced robotic systems demand extensive knowledge in engineering and computer science. In this paper, we describe the concept of a distributed educational system as a valuable tool for introducing students to interactive parallel and distributed processing programming as the foundation for distributed robotics and human-robot interaction...

  5. The Future of Human Space Exploration: Toward Cooperation or Competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    ELDO European Launch Development Organization ERA European Robotic Arm ESA European Space Agency ESOC European Space Operations Centre ESRO...Patterns of International Cooperation in Space, The Chinese Space Program: A Mystery Within a Maze , and ―Will China overtake America in space?‖ In...six member permanent crew originally planned.83 Canada was called on again for its advanced robotics . Unlike the other partners, Canada would not

  6. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics....... Nanoscale resolutions enable optical scientists to assess ever more accurate information. However, scientific hypothesis testing demands tools, not only for observing nanoscopic phenomena, but also for reaching into and manipulating nanoscale constituents. Taking an applications focus, this book explores...

  7. Robot Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    tools developed within existing APT systems for specifying robot motions. This approach is particularly attractive for domains , such as aircraft...notions. 2. New vs. old. Is it better to design a new language or extend an old one? A new one can be tailored to the need of the new domain . An old one...kinematic, and physical models of other object’s must be provided for each new task, however. The underlying assumption in task-level langauges is that

  8. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the friendly network robotics in fiscal 1996. This research assumes an android robot as an ultimate robot and the future robot system utilizing computer network technology. The robot aiming at human daily work activities in factories or under extreme environments is required to work under usual human work environments. The human robot with similar size, shape and functions to human being is desirable. Such robot having a head with two eyes, two ears and mouth can hold a conversation with human being, can walk with two legs by autonomous adaptive control, and has a behavior intelligence. Remote operation of such robot is also possible through high-speed computer network. As a key technology to use this robot under coexistence with human being, establishment of human coexistent robotics was studied. As network based robotics, use of robots connected with computer networks was also studied. In addition, the R-cube (R{sup 3}) plan (realtime remote control robot technology) was proposed. 82 refs., 86 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  10. A packet loss compliant logic-based communication alogoritham for cooperative path following control

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rego, F.; Aguiar, A.P.; Pascoal, A.M.

    the overall closed loop system is input-to-state practically stable. The communication logic is applied to a cooperative path-following control system of multiple underactuated autonomous marine robots. Simulation results are presented and discussed...

  11. Stability Analysis of Cohesion Properties of Cooperative Agents with Limited Sensor Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yanfei

    2003-01-01

    .... Multiple robots can be designed to coordinate to accomplish certain tasks. Their cooperative behaviors resemble, to a certain extent, those of bacteria, bees and birds that work together for food in the biological world...

  12. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Samani, Hooman; Saadatian, Elham; Pang, Natalie; Polydorou, Doros; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Nakatsu, Ryohei; Koh, Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...

  13. Calibration of Robot Reference Frames for Enhanced Robot Positioning Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Frank Shaopeng

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discussed the importance and methods of conducting robot workcell calibration for enhancing the accuracy of the robot TCP positions in industrial robot applications. It shows that the robot frame transformations define the robot geometric parameters such as joint position variables, link dimensions, and joint offsets in an industrial robot system. The D-H representation allows the robot designer to model the robot motion geometry with the four standard D-H parameters. The robot k...

  14. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...... al, 2007; Nguyen, 2007; Mweemba, C.E. 2007). The purpose of these overviews was to position the research findings on the extent and nature of local-level water-related conflict and cooperation in the context of ongoing efforts to improve the policy, legal and administrative water governance framework...

  15. UAV-UGV Cooperation For Objects Transportation In An Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    HARIK, el Houssein Chouaib; Guérin, François; Guinand, Frédéric; Brethé, Jean-François; Pelvillain, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    International audience; — We present in this paper a decentralized multi-robot (aerial and ground) cooperation scheme for objects transportation. A team of ground mobile robots guided by a drone and a human operator moves in a coordinated way keeping a predefined formation in order to carry objects (tools, gas masks,...) in unsafe industrial areas. One ground mobile robot (leader) navigates among obstacles thanks to the waypoints provided by the drone and the human operator. The other ground ...

  16. Educational Robotics as Mindtools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Bellou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    Although there are many studies on the constructionist use of educational robotics, they have certain limitations. Some of them refer to robotics education, rather than educational robotics. Others follow a constructionist approach, but give emphasis only to design skills, creativity and collaboration. Some studies use robotics as an educational…

  17. Evolutionary humanoid robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Eaton, Malachy

    2015-01-01

    This book examines how two distinct strands of research on autonomous robots, evolutionary robotics and humanoid robot research, are converging. The book will be valuable for researchers and postgraduate students working in the areas of evolutionary robotics and bio-inspired computing.

  18. Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  19. Robotic air vehicle. Blending artificial intelligence with conventional software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnulty, Christa; Graham, Joyce; Roewer, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The Robotic Air Vehicle (RAV) system is described. The program's objectives were to design, implement, and demonstrate cooperating expert systems for piloting robotic air vehicles. The development of this system merges conventional programming used in passive navigation with Artificial Intelligence techniques such as voice recognition, spatial reasoning, and expert systems. The individual components of the RAV system are discussed as well as their interactions with each other and how they operate as a system.

  20. Next generation light robotic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Palima, Darwin; Banas, Andrew Rafael

    2017-01-01

    with so-called automatons but, rather, to create robots that can work alongside human operators. These new robots are intended to collaborate with humans—extending their abilities—from assisting workers on the factory floor to rehabilitating patients in their homes. In medical robotics, robot......-assisted surgery imbibes surgeons with superhuman abilities and gives the expression “surgical precision” a whole new meaning. Still in its infancy, much remains to be done to improve human-robot collaboration both in realizing robots that can operate safely with humans and in training personnel that can work...... proficiently with the collaborative robots...

  1. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Angelkova, Tanja; Koteski, Cane; Jakovlev, Zlatko; Mitrevska, Elizabeta

    2011-01-01

    Tourism is an activity that can have a really big impact on sustainable development. Sustainability of tourism involves extensive cooperation between tourist companies, tourist destinations and national, regional and local authorities in order to cover a broad group of challenges and at the same time to remain competitive. Opportunities for sustainable tourism development and preservation of its competitiveness, largely influenced by the quality of the environment, preserved and attractive...

  2. Modular Robotic Wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this concept paper we trace the contours and define a new approach to robotic systems, composed of interactive robotic modules which are somehow worn on the body. We label such a field as Modular Robotic Wearable (MRW). We describe how, by using modular robotics for creating wearable....... Finally, by focusing on the intersection of the combination modular robotic systems, wearability, and bodymind we attempt to explore the theoretical characteristics of such approach and exploit the possible playware application fields....

  3. Robotic sacrocolpopexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L Danforth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a prevalent condition with 1 in 9 women seeking surgical treatment by the age of 80 years. Goals of treatment are relief and prevention of symptoms, and restoration of pelvic floor support. The gold standard for surgical treatment of POP has been abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC. However, emerging technologies have allowed for more minimally invasive approach including the use of laparoscopic assisted sacrocolpopexy and robotic assisted sacrocolpopexy (RASC. We performed a PubMed literature search for sacrocolpopexy, "robotic sacrocolpopexy" and "RASC" and reviewed all retrospective, prospective and randomized controlled trials. The techniques, objective and subjective outcomes and complications are discussed. The most frequent technique involves a polypropylene Y mesh attached to the anterior and posterior walls of the vagina with the single arm attached to the sacrum. Multiple concomitant procedures have been described including hysterectomy, anti-incontinence procedures and concomitant vaginal prolapse repairs. There are few studies comparing RASC to ASC, with the longest follow-up data showing no difference in subjective and objective outcomes. Anatomic success rates have been reported at 79-100% with up to 9% of patients requiring successive surgery for recurrence. Subjective success is poorly defi ned, but has been reported at 88-97%. Most common complications are urinary retention, urinary tract infection, bladder injury and vaginal mucosal injury. Mesh exposure is reported in up to 10% of patients. RASC allows for a minimally invasive approach to treatment of POP with comparable outcomes and low complication rates.

  4. Hexapod Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    The project I am working on at NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is a hexapod robot. This project was started by various engineers at the Trick Lab. The goal of this project is to have the hexapod track a yellow ball or possibly another object from left to right and up/down. The purpose is to have it track an object like a real creature. The project will consist of using software and hardware. This project started with a hexapod robot which uses a senor bar to track a yellow ball but with a limited field of vision. The sensor bar acts as the robots "head." Two servos will be added to the hexapod to create flexion and extension of the head. The neck and head servos will have to be programmed to be added to the original memory map of the existing servos. I will be using preexisting code. The main programming language that will be used to add to the preexisting code is C++. The trick modeling and simulation software will also be used in the process to improve its tracking and movement. This project will use a trial and error approach, basically seeing what works and what does not. The first step is to initially understand how the hexapod works. To get a general understanding of how the hexapod maneuvers and plan on how to had a neck and head servo which works with the rest of the body. The second step would be configuring the head and neck servos with the leg servos. During this step, limits will be programmed specifically for the each servo. By doing this, the servo is limited to how far it can rotate both clockwise and counterclockwise and this is to prevent hardware damage. The hexapod will have two modes in which it works in. The first mode will be if the sensor bar does not detect an object. If the object it is programmed to look for is not in its view it will automatically scan from left to right 3 times then up and down once. The second mode will be if the sensor bar does detect the object. In this mode the hexapod will track the object from left to

  5. Mesofluidic controlled robotic or prosthetic finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Randall F; Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J

    2013-11-19

    A mesofluidic powered robotic and/or prosthetic finger joint includes a first finger section having at least one mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a first actuator, a second mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a second actuator and a second prosthetic finger section pivotally connected to the first finger section by a joint pivot, wherein the first actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger to provide a first mechanical advantage relative to the joint point and wherein the second actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger section to provide a second mechanical advantage relative to the joint point.

  6. Graph Based Distributed Control for Adaptive Multi RobotPatrolling through Local Formation Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-09

    In this paper, we present experiments with three real robots performing a cooperative patrolling task in multiple scenarios designed to represent...Transformation algorithm. Experiments with real robots are presented in Section IV. We draw conclusions in Section V. II. CONTROL METHODOLOGY A. Graph Theory and...achieve consensus. 1724 Fig. 4: Robots used in the experiments . The functions in Equation (11) satisfy the constraints discussed in Remark 1 and Remark 2

  7. Control Algorithm Trajectory Planning for Dual Cooperative Manipulators with Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve cooperation of multi-robots simultaneously, this paper presents an approach of Trajectory planning for two decoupled robots with six degrees of freedom (DOF each to execute packing task. The Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H representation is used to model robot links and solve the transformation matrices of each joint. The inverse kinematics solution using for a 6- DOF Robotic arm is presented, for given initial and final configurations of the robots, the robots are placed so that their workspaces overlap. An algorithm successfully finds a set of configurations to ensure, collision free transition from start to end configuration. Simulation and experiments based on 6-dof robot are carried out and the results verified the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Piezoresistive pressure sensor array for robotic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Fahad; Sahasrabuddhe, Ritvij R.; Baptist, Joshua R.; Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.; Lee, Woo H.; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    Robots are starting to transition from the confines of the manufacturing floor to homes, schools, hospitals, and highly dynamic environments. As, a result, it is impossible to foresee all the probable operational situations of robots, and preprogram the robot behavior in those situations. Among human-robot interaction technologies, haptic communication is an intuitive physical interaction method that can help define operational behaviors for robots cooperating with humans. Multimodal robotic skin with distributed sensors can help robots increase perception capabilities of their surrounding environments. Electro-Hydro-Dynamic (EHD) printing is a flexible multi-modal sensor fabrication method because of its direct printing capability of a wide range of materials onto substrates with non-uniform topographies. In past work we designed interdigitated comb electrodes as a sensing element and printed piezoresistive strain sensors using customized EHD printable PEDOT:PSS based inks. We formulated a PEDOT:PSS derivative ink, by mixing PEDOT:PSS and DMSO. Bending induced characterization tests of prototyped sensors showed high sensitivity and sufficient stability. In this paper, we describe SkinCells, robot skin sensor arrays integrated with electronic modules. 4x4 EHD-printed arrays of strain sensors was packaged onto Kapton sheets and silicone encapsulant and interconnected to a custom electronic module that consists of a microcontroller, Wheatstone bridge with adjustable digital potentiometer, multiplexer, and serial communication unit. Thus, SkinCell's electronics can be used for signal acquisition, conditioning, and networking between sensor modules. Several SkinCells were loaded with controlled pressure, temperature and humidity testing apparatuses, and testing results are reported in this paper.

  9. 4th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karray, Fakhri; Jo, Jun; Sincak, Peter; Myung, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of robot intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving researchers and practitioners with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on robot intelligence technology and its applications, based on a collection of papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications (RiTA), held in Bucheon, Korea, December 14 - 16, 2015. For better readability, this edition has the total of 49 article...

  10. 3rd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Weimin; Jo, Jun; Sincak, Peter; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of robot intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving researchers and practitioners with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on robot intelligence technology and its applications, based on a collection of papers presented at the 3rd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications (RiTA), held in Beijing, China, November 6 - 8, 2014. For better readability, this edition has the total 74 papers group...

  11. Distributed Synchronization Control to Trajectory Tracking of Multiple Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Bouteraa

    2011-01-01

    while tracking a common desired trajectory. Based on the well-known consensus algorithm, the control strategy consists in synchronizing the joint position and the velocity of each robot in the network with respect to neighboring robots' joints and velocities. Modeled by an undirected graph, the cooperative robot network requires just local neighbor-to-neighbor information exchange between manipulators. So, it does not assume the existence of an explicit leader in the team. Based above all on combination of Lyapunov direct method and cross-coupling strategy, the proposed decentralized control law is extended to an adaptive synchronization control taking into account parameter uncertainties. To address the time delay problems in the network communication channels, the suggested synchronization control law robustly synchronizes robots to track a given trajectory. To this end, Krasovskii functional method has been used to deal with the delay-dependent stability problem. A real-time software simulator is developed to visualize the robot manipulators coordination.

  12. Olfaction and hearing based mobile robot navigation for odor/sound source search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Liu, Qi; Wang, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Bionic technology provides a new elicitation for mobile robot navigation since it explores the way to imitate biological senses. In the present study, the challenging problem was how to fuse different biological senses and guide distributed robots to cooperate with each other for target searching. This paper integrates smell, hearing and touch to design an odor/sound tracking multi-robot system. The olfactory robot tracks the chemical odor plume step by step through information fusion from gas sensors and airflow sensors, while two hearing robots localize the sound source by time delay estimation (TDE) and the geometrical position of microphone array. Furthermore, this paper presents a heading direction based mobile robot navigation algorithm, by which the robot can automatically and stably adjust its velocity and direction according to the deviation between the current heading direction measured by magnetoresistive sensor and the expected heading direction acquired through the odor/sound localization strategies. Simultaneously, one robot can communicate with the other robots via a wireless sensor network (WSN). Experimental results show that the olfactory robot can pinpoint the odor source within the distance of 2 m, while two hearing robots can quickly localize and track the olfactory robot in 2 min. The devised multi-robot system can achieve target search with a considerable success ratio and high stability.

  13. Olfaction and Hearing Based Mobile Robot Navigation for Odor/Sound Source Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bionic technology provides a new elicitation for mobile robot navigation since it explores the way to imitate biological senses. In the present study, the challenging problem was how to fuse different biological senses and guide distributed robots to cooperate with each other for target searching. This paper integrates smell, hearing and touch to design an odor/sound tracking multi-robot system. The olfactory robot tracks the chemical odor plume step by step through information fusion from gas sensors and airflow sensors, while two hearing robots localize the sound source by time delay estimation (TDE and the geometrical position of microphone array. Furthermore, this paper presents a heading direction based mobile robot navigation algorithm, by which the robot can automatically and stably adjust its velocity and direction according to the deviation between the current heading direction measured by magnetoresistive sensor and the expected heading direction acquired through the odor/sound localization strategies. Simultaneously, one robot can communicate with the other robots via a wireless sensor network (WSN. Experimental results show that the olfactory robot can pinpoint the odor source within the distance of 2 m, while two hearing robots can quickly localize and track the olfactory robot in 2 min. The devised multi-robot system can achieve target search with a considerable success ratio and high stability.

  14. Computer-controlled wall servicing robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefkowitz, S. [Pentek, Inc., Corapolis, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    After four years of cooperative research, Pentek has unveiled a new robot with the capability to automatically deliver a variety of cleaning, painting, inspection, and surveillance devices to large vertical surfaces. The completely computer-controlled robot can position a working tool on a 50-foot tall by 50-foot wide vertical surface with a repeatability of 1/16 inch. The working end can literally {open_quotes}fly{close_quotes} across the face of a wall at speed of 60 per minute, and can handle working loads of 350 pounds. The robot was originally developed to decontaminate the walls of reactor fueling cavities at commercial nuclear power plants during fuel outages. If these cavities are left to dry after reactor refueling, contamination present in the residue could later become airborne and move throughout the containment building. Decontaminating the cavity during the refueling outage reduces the need for restrictive personal protective equipment during plant operations to limit the dose rates.

  15. A survey on dielectric elastomer actuators for soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2017-01-23

    Conventional industrial robots with the rigid actuation technology have made great progress for humans in the fields of automation assembly and manufacturing. With an increasing number of robots needing to interact with humans and unstructured environments, there is a need for soft robots capable of sustaining large deformation while inducing little pressure or damage when maneuvering through confined spaces. The emergence of soft robotics offers the prospect of applying soft actuators as artificial muscles in robots, replacing traditional rigid actuators. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are recognized as one of the most promising soft actuation technologies due to the facts that: i) dielectric elastomers are kind of soft, motion-generating materials that resemble natural muscle of humans in terms of force, strain (displacement per unit length or area) and actuation pressure/density; ii) dielectric elastomers can produce large voltage-induced deformation. In this survey, we first introduce the so-called DEAs emphasizing the key points of working principle, key components and electromechanical modeling approaches. Then, different DEA-driven soft robots, including wearable/humanoid robots, walking/serpentine robots, flying robots and swimming robots, are reviewed. Lastly, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for the further studies in terms of mechanism design, dynamics modeling and autonomous control.

  16. Emergent of Burden Sharing of Robots with Emotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Takuya; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    Cooperated multi robots system has much dominance in comparison with single robot system. Multi robots system is able to adapt to various circumstances and has a flexibility for variation of tasks. Robots are necessary that build a cooperative relations and acts as an organization to attain a purpose in multi robots system. Then, group behavior of insects which doesn't have advanced ability is observed. For example, ants called a sociality insect emerge systematic activities by the interaction with using a very simple way. Though ants make a communication with chemical matter, a human plans a communication by words and gestures. In this paper, we paid attention to the interaction based on psychological viewpoint. And a human's emotion model was used for the parameter which became a base of the motion planning of robots. These robots were made to do both-way action in test field with obstacle. As a result, a burden sharing like guide or carrier was seen even though those had a simple setup.

  17. An information economic rationale for cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We consider how to organise the processing and marketing of an agricultural product when farming costs are known only by the individual farmers. We show that when marginal costs are uncorrelated, the market for final goods is competitive, and the market for processing is non-competitive, the soci......-competitive, the socially optimal production levels are sustained by a cooperative and a cooperative only. We show also that the cooperative form is particularly useful when the cost uncertainty is large and the net average revenue product is small....

  18. Robotic intelligence kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  19. Humanoid Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Strawser, Phillip A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); hide

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, two hands, a neck, and a head. The torso extends along a primary axis and presents a pair of shoulders. The pair of arms movably extend from a respective one of the pair of shoulders. Each of the arms has a plurality of arm joints. The neck movably extends from the torso along the primary axis. The neck has at least one neck joint. The head movably extends from the neck along the primary axis. The head has at least one head joint. The shoulders are canted toward one another at a shrug angle that is defined between each of the shoulders such that a workspace is defined between the shoulders.

  20. Decentralized Cooperative Localization Approach for Autonomous Multirobot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumeera R. Wanasinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the use of a split covariance intersection algorithm (Split-CI for decentralized multirobot cooperative localization. In the proposed method, each robot maintains a local cubature Kalman filter to estimate its own pose in a predefined coordinate frame. When a robot receives pose information from neighbouring robots, it employs a Split-CI based approach to fuse this received measurement with its local belief. The computational and communicative complexities of the proposed algorithm increase linearly with the number of robots in the multirobot systems (MRS. The proposed method does not require fully connected synchronous communication channels between robots; in fact, it is applicable for MRS with asynchronous and partially connected communication networks. The pose estimation error of the proposed method is bounded. As the proposed method is capable of handling independent and interdependent information of the estimations separately, it does not generate overconfidence state estimations. The performance of the proposed method is compared with several multirobot localization approaches. The simulation and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the single-robot localization algorithms and achieves approximately the same estimation accuracy as the centralized cooperative localization approach, but with reduced computational and communicative cost.

  1. Robotics for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  2. Multigait soft robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert F; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A; Stokes, Adam A; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M

    2011-12-20

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion.

  3. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced mechanics in robotic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nava Rodríguez, Nestor Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Illustrates original and ambitious mechanical designs and techniques for the development of new robot prototypes Includes numerous figures, tables and flow charts Discusses relevant applications in robotics fields such as humanoid robots, robotic hands, mobile robots, parallel manipulators and human-centred robots

  5. Developmental Robotics: From Babies to Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Cangelosi, A.; Schlesinger, M.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental robotics is a collaborative and interdisciplinary approach to robotics that is directly inspired by the developmental principles and mechanisms observed in children’s cognitive development. It builds on the idea that the robot, using a set of intrinsic developmental principles regulating the real-time interaction of its body, brain, and environment, can autonomously acquire an increasingly complex set of sensorimotor and mental capabilities. This volume, drawing on insights from...

  6. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  7. Multi-robot searching with sparse binary cues and limited space perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of searching for a source that releases particles in a turbulent medium with searchers having binary sensors and limited space perception.To this aim, we extend an information-theoric strategy to multiple searchers and demonstrate its efficiency both in simulation and robotic experiments. The search time is found to decay as $1/n$ for $n$ cooperative robots as compared to $1/sqrt{n}$ for independent robots so that significant gains in the search time are obtained with a small number of robots, {it e.g.} $n=3$. Search efficiency results from pooling sensory information between robots to improve individual decision-making (three detections on average per searcher were sufficient to reach the source. The methods is robust to odometry errors and is thus relevant to robots searching in low visibility conditions, {it e.g.} firefighter robots exploring smoky environments.

  8. Robotics_MobileRobot Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots and rovers exploring planets need to autonomously navigate to specified locations. Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) and the University of Minnesota...

  9. Robots Social Embodiment in Autonomous Mobile Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Duffy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at demonstrating the inherent advantages of embracing a strong notion of social embodiment in designing a real-world robot control architecture with explicit ?intelligent? social behaviour between a collective of robots. It develops the current thinking on embodiment beyond the physical by demonstrating the importance of social embodiment. A social framework develops the fundamental social attributes found when more than one robot co-inhabit a physical space. The social metaphors of identity, character, stereotypes and roles are presented and implemented within a real-world social robot paradigm in order to facilitate the realisation of explicit social goals.

  10. Space Robotics: Robotic Rovers for Planetary Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ellery

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this third of three short papers, I introduce some of the basic concepts of planetary rovers with an emphasis on some specific challenging areas of research that are peculiar to planetary robotics and not usually associated with terrestrial mobile robotics. The style of these short papers is pedagogical and this paper stresses the issue of rover-terrain interaction as an important consideration. Soil-vehicle interaction originates from military vehicle research but may be regarded as part of the dynamical approach to mobile robotics. For hostile planetary surfaces, this is essential in order to design a robotic rover with sufficient tractive capability to traverse planetary surfaces.

  11. Exhaustive geographic search with mobile robots along space-filling curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spires, S.V.; Goldsmith, S.Y.

    1998-03-01

    Swarms of mobile robots can be tasked with searching a geographic region for targets of interest, such as buried land mines. The authors assume that the individual robots are equipped with sensors tuned to the targets of interest, that these sensors have limited range, and that the robots can communicate with one another to enable cooperation. How can a swarm of cooperating sensate robots efficiently search a given geographic region for targets in the absence of a priori information about the target`s locations? Many of the obvious approaches are inefficient or lack robustness. One efficient approach is to have the robots traverse a space-filling curve. For many geographic search applications, this method is energy-frugal, highly robust, and provides guaranteed coverage in a finite time that decreases as the reciprocal of the number of robots sharing the search task. Furthermore, it minimizes the amount of robot-to-robot communication needed for the robots to organize their movements. This report presents some preliminary results from applying the Hilbert space-filling curve to geographic search by mobile robots.

  12. Robots in the introductory physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary; Moore, Howard; Langrall, Edwin; Gehrman, Chuck

    2008-10-01

    We have incorporated robots into the introductory undergraduate physics laboratory to introduce a creative component and to show some applications of physics principles in a way that strongly engages student interest. We have developed low-cost mobile platforms and navigation methods suitable for large numbers of introductory level students. Radio remote control was the dominant navigation method implemented in the classroom, but autonomous navigation was also achieved. We discuss robot construction, the organization of the lab, student reactions, and our experiences in sustaining the program.

  13. Lightweight Robotic Excavation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight robotic excavators address the need for machines that dig, collect, transport and dump lunar soil. Robust and productive small robots enable mining rich...

  14. Robot skills for manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Rath; Nalpantidis, Lazaros; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    Due to a general shift in manufacturing paradigm from mass production towards mass customization, reconfigurable automation technologies, such as robots, are required. However, current industrial robot solutions are notoriously difficult to program, leading to high changeover times when new......-asserting robot skills for manufacturing. We show how a relatively small set of skills are derived from current factory worker instructions, and how these can be transferred to industrial mobile manipulators. General robot skills can not only be implemented on these robots, but also be intuitively concatenated...... to program the robots to perform a variety of tasks, through the use of simple task-level programming methods. We demonstrate various approaches to this, extensively tested with several people inexperienced in robotics. We validate our findings through several deployments of the complete robot system...

  15. Open middleware for robotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namoshe, M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in recent years, autonomous multi-robot systems remain classed as complex systems, because control and coordination of these systems remain a challenging task. Autonomous mobile robot houses heterogeneous sets of connected modular...

  16. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  17. Project ROBOTICS 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    Mathematical modelling of Alto Robot, direct- and inverse kinematic transformation,simulation and path control applying MATLAB/SIMULINK.......Mathematical modelling of Alto Robot, direct- and inverse kinematic transformation,simulation and path control applying MATLAB/SIMULINK....

  18. Service Robotics in Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Bock

    2008-01-01

    Service robots in construction move from cleaning of the construction site and diagnosing of the building fa?ade as security, logistic and assistive robots into the building and apartment and will in the future share urban environment with humans.

  19. TARDEC's robotics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsich, David J.; Gerhart, Grant R.; Muench, Paul L.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) recently opened a 5000 square foot robotics laboratory known as the TARDEC Robotics Laboratory. The focus of the lab is on robotics research, both basic and applied, in the area of robot mobility. Mobility is the key problem for light weight robotic systems, and the TARDEC Robotics Lab will develop innovative ways to deal with the mobility issues. The lab will also test and evaluate robotic systems in all aspects of mobility and control. The lab has the highest concentration of senior researchers at TARDEC, and is committed to maintaining in- house research talent so that new combat concepts using robots can be evaluated effectively by the Army. This paper serves as an introduction to the lab, its missions, goals, capabilities and programs.

  20. CMS cavern inspection robot

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Robots which are immune to the CMS cavern environment, wirelessly controlled: -One actuated by smart materials (Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites and Macro Fiber Composites) -One regular brushed DC rover -One servo-driven rover -Stair-climbing robot

  1. Springer handbook of robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Khatib, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of this handbook provides a state-of-the-art cover view on the various aspects in the rapidly developing field of robotics. Reaching for the human frontier, robotics is vigorously engaged in the growing challenges of new emerging domains. Interacting, exploring, and working with humans, the new generation of robots will increasingly touch people and their lives. The credible prospect of practical robots among humans is the result of the scientific endeavour of a half a century of robotic developments that established robotics as a modern scientific discipline. The ongoing vibrant expansion and strong growth of the field during the last decade has fueled this second edition of the Springer Handbook of Robotics. The first edition of the handbook soon became a landmark in robotics publishing and won the American Association of Publishers PROSE Award for Excellence in Physical Sciences & Mathematics as well as the organization’s Award for Engineering & Technology. The second edition o...

  2. Subgame consistent cooperation a comprehensive treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, David W K

    2016-01-01

    Strategic behavior in the human and social world has been increasingly recognized in theory and practice. It is well known that non-cooperative behavior could lead to suboptimal or even highly undesirable outcomes. Cooperation suggests the possibility of obtaining socially optimal solutions and the calls for cooperation are prevalent in real-life problems. Dynamic cooperation cannot be sustainable if there is no guarantee that the agreed upon optimality principle at the beginning is maintained throughout the cooperation duration. It is due to the lack of this kind of guarantees that cooperative schemes fail to last till its end or even fail to get started. The property of subgame consistency in cooperative dynamic games and the corresponding solution mechanism resolve this “classic” problem in game theory. This book is a comprehensive treatise on subgame consistent dynamic cooperation covering the up-to-date state of the art analyses in this important topic. It sets out to provide the theory, solution tec...

  3. Strenghtening local curricular capacity in international development cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, C.K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Many curriculum development interventions carried out in international development cooperation lack sustainable outcomes, often as a result of a too narrow focus on curriculum and its development. Implementation of effective and encompassing approaches with an aligned focus on capacity development

  4. Evolution of robotic arms

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond th...

  5. Robots in the Roses

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    2014-04 Robots in the Roses A CRUSER Sponsored Event. The 4th Annual Robots in the Roses provides a venue for Faculty & NPS Students to showcase unmanned systems research (current or completed) and recruit NPS Students to join in researching on your project. Posters, robots, vehicles, videos, and even just plain humans welcome! Families are welcome to attend Robots in the Roses as we'll have a STEM activity for children to participate in.

  6. Sistem Multi-robot Denngan Nxt Mindstorms Robot Menggunakan Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Adriansyah, Andi

    2013-01-01

    Teknologi dan aplikasi robot terus berkembang secara cepat. Pada dekade ini, telah terjadi pergeseran yang signifikan pada bidang fokus penyelidikan tentang robot dimana para peneliti mulai mengarahkan arah penelitiannya, dari investigasi sistem robot tunggal kepada koordinasi sistem multi-robot. Hal ini dikarenakan sistem multi-robot memiliki beberapa kentungan. Dalam konteks sistem multi-robot, komunikasi sistem multi-robot menjadi bagian yang signifikan. Penelitian ini mengimplementasikan ...

  7. Robot 2015 : Second Iberian Robotics Conference : Advances in Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreira, António; Lima, Pedro; Montano, Luis; Muñoz-Martinez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers accepted for presentation and discussion at ROBOT 2015: Second Iberian Robotics Conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, November 19th-21th, 2015. ROBOT 2015 is part of a series of conferences that are a joint organization of SPR – “Sociedade Portuguesa de Robótica/ Portuguese Society for Robotics”, SEIDROB – Sociedad Española para la Investigación y Desarrollo de la Robótica/ Spanish Society for Research and Development in Robotics and CEA-GTRob – Grupo Temático de Robótica/ Robotics Thematic Group. The conference organization had also the collaboration of several universities and research institutes, including: University of Minho, University of Porto, University of Lisbon, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, University of Aveiro, University of Zaragoza, University of Malaga, LIACC, INESC-TEC and LARSyS. Robot 2015 was focussed on the Robotics scientific and technological activities in the Iberian Peninsula, although open to research and delegates from other...

  8. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  9. Robots de servicio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Aracil

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El término Robots de Servicio apareció a finales de los años 80 como una necesidad de desarrollar máquinas y sistemas capaces de trabajar en entornos diferentes a los fabriles. Los Robots de Servicio tenían que poder trabajar en entornos noestructurados, en condiciones ambientales cambiantes y con una estrecha interacción con los humanos. En 1995 fue creado por la IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, el Technical Committee on Service Robots, y este comité definió en el año 2000 las áreas de aplicación de los Robots de Servicios, que se pueden dividir en dos grandes grupos: 1 sectores productivos no manufactureros tales como edificación, agricultura, naval, minería, medicina, etc. y 2 sectores de servicios propiamente dichos: asistencia personal, limpieza, vigilancia, educación, entretenimiento, etc. En este trabajo se hace una breve revisión de los principales conceptos y aplicaciones de los robots de servicio. Palabras clave: Robots de servicio, robots autónomos, robots de exteriores, robots de educación y entretenimiento, robots caminantes y escaladores, robots humanoides

  10. Robotic hand and fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    2017-06-06

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  11. Learning robotics using Python

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Lentin

    2015-01-01

    If you are an engineer, a researcher, or a hobbyist, and you are interested in robotics and want to build your own robot, this book is for you. Readers are assumed to be new to robotics but should have experience with Python.

  12. "Integrative Social Robotics"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibt, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    . On the ISR approach research in social robotics turns on what social robots can and should do--design and development are from the very beginning informed by value-theoretic and cultural research. ISR thus is a form of research organization that integrates robotics with empirical, conceptual, and value...

  13. Introduction to robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Bajd, Tadej; Munih, Marko

    2013-01-01

    This book is focused on geometrical models of robot mechanisms. Rotation and orientation of an object are described by Rodrigues's formula, rotation matrix and quaternions. Pose and displacement of an object are mathematically dealt with homogenous transformation matrices. The geometrical robot model is based on Denavit Hartenberg parameters. Direct and inverse model of six degrees of freedom anthropomorphic industrial robots are also presented.

  14. Sustainability of farming enterprise -understanding, governance, evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    BACHEV H.

    2016-01-01

    This article gives answers to following important questions: "what is sustainability of farming enterprises" such as individual and family farms, agri-firms of different types, agri-cooperatives, etc.", "what are the mechanisms and modes of governance of sustainability of farming enterprises", and "how to evaluate the sustainability level of farming enterprise and efficiency of its governance". First, evolution of the "concept" of sustainability of farming enterprise is discussed and more ade...

  15. Robotics-Instrumentation and Control in Robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Robotics - Instrumentation and Control in Robotics. J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 66-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/03/0066-0076 ...

  16. Making Robot Planes Useful for Scientific Investigation of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennison, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph slides presentation reviews the program to use unmanned aerial vehicles to gather information to study the Earth, the changes to the climate, and to protect the Earth. Several robot planes are shown, and cooperative programs with other agencies of the U.S. Government are highlighted. Including one with the United States Forest Service, that is planned to assist in locating fires

  17. Distributed consensus with visual perception in multi-robot systems

    CERN Document Server

    Montijano, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This monograph introduces novel responses to the different problems that arise when multiple robots need to execute a task in cooperation, each robot in the team having a monocular camera as its primary input sensor. Its central proposition is that a consistent perception of the world is crucial for the good development of any multi-robot application. The text focuses on the high-level problem of cooperative perception by a multi-robot system: the idea that, depending on what each robot sees and its current situation, it will need to communicate these things to its fellows whenever possible to share what it has found and keep updated by them in its turn. However, in any realistic scenario, distributed solutions to this problem are not trivial and need to be addressed from as many angles as possible. Distributed Consensus with Visual Perception in Multi-Robot Systems covers a variety of related topics such as: ·         distributed consensus algorithms; ·         data association and robustne...

  18. Multi-robot team design for real-world applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-10-01

    Many of these applications are in dynamic environments requiring capabilities distributed in functionality, space, or time, and therefore often require teams of robots to work together. While much research has been done in recent years, current robotics technology is still far from achieving many of the real world applications. Two primary reasons for this technology gap are that (1) previous work has not adequately addressed the issues of fault tolerance and adaptivity in multi-robot teams, and (2) existing robotics research is often geared at specific applications and is not easily generalized to different, but related, applications. This paper addresses these issues by first describing the design issues of key importance in these real-world cooperative robotics applications: fault tolerance, reliability, adaptivity, and coherence. We then present a general architecture addressing these design issues (called ALLIANCE) that facilities multi-robot cooperation of small- to medium-sized teams in dynamic environments, performing missions composed of loosely coupled subtasks. We illustrate an implementation of ALLIANCE in a real-world application, called Bounding Overwatch, and then discuss how this architecture addresses our key design issues.

  19. Towards a Hybrid Approach to Context Reasoning for Underwater Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies have been widely used to facilitate semantic interoperability and serve as a common information model in many applications or domains. The Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs project, aiming to facilitate coordination and cooperation between heterogeneous underwater vehicles, also adopts ontologies to formalize information that is necessarily exchanged between vehicles. However, how to derive more useful contexts based on ontologies still remains a challenge. In particular, the extreme nature of the underwater environment introduces uncertainties in context data, thus imposing more difficulties in context reasoning. None of the existing context reasoning methods could individually deal with all intricacies in the underwater robot field. To this end, this paper presents the first proposal applying a hybrid context reasoning mechanism that includes ontological, rule-based, and Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN reasoning methods to reason about contexts and their uncertainties in the underwater robot field. The theoretical foundation of applying this reasoning mechanism in underwater robots is given by a case study on the oil spill monitoring. The simulated reasoning results are useful for further decision-making by operators or robots and they show that the consolidation of different reasoning methods is a promising approach for context reasoning in underwater robots.

  20. A robotic system for researching social integration in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Griparić

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel robotic system developed for researching collective social mechanisms in a biohybrid society of robots and honeybees. The potential for distributed coordination, as observed in nature in many different animal species, has caused an increased interest in collective behaviour research in recent years because of its applicability to a broad spectrum of technical systems requiring robust multi-agent control. One of the main problems is understanding the mechanisms driving the emergence of collective behaviour of social animals. With the aim of deepening the knowledge in this field, we have designed a multi-robot system capable of interacting with honeybees within an experimental arena. The final product, stationary autonomous robot units, designed by specificaly considering the physical, sensorimotor and behavioral characteristics of the honeybees (lat. Apis mallifera, are equipped with sensing, actuating, computation, and communication capabilities that enable the measurement of relevant environmental states, such as honeybee presence, and adequate response to the measurements by generating heat, vibration and airflow. The coordination among robots in the developed system is established using distributed controllers. The cooperation between the two different types of collective systems is realized by means of a consensus algorithm, enabling the honeybees and the robots to achieve a common objective. Presented results, obtained within ASSISIbf project, show successful cooperation indicating its potential for future applications.

  1. Robotic Exploration of Moon and Mars: Thematic Education Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J S.; Tobola, K. W.; Lowes, L. L.; Betrue, R.

    2008-01-01

    Safe, sustained, affordable human and robotic exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond is a major NASA goal. Robotic exploration of the Moon and Mars will help pave the way for an expanded human presence in our solar system. To help share the robotic exploration role in the Vision for Space Exploration with classrooms, informal education groups, and the public, our team researched and consolidated the thematic story components and associated education activities into a useful education materials set for educators. We developed the set of materials for a workshop combining NASA Science Mission Directorate and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate engineering, science, and technology to train informal educators on education activities that support the robotic exploration themes. A major focus is on the use of robotic spacecraft and instruments to explore and prepare for the human exploration of the Moon and Mars.

  2. Creating and maintaining chemical artificial life by robotic symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Parrilla, Juan M; Nicholson, Arwen; Yanev, Kliment; Stoy, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior of the droplet that it creates. The robot can then use this categorization to autonomously detect the current state of the droplet and respond. The robot is programmed to visually track the droplet and either inject more chemical fuel to sustain a motile state or introduce a new chemical component that results in a state change (e.g., division). Coupling inexpensive open source hardware with sensing and feedback allows for replicable real-time manipulation and monitoring of nonequilibrium systems that would be otherwise tedious, expensive, and error-prone. This system is a first step towards the practical confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life.

  3. Cost-Efficient and sustainable deployment of renewable energy sources towards the 20% target by 2020, and beyond. D3.3. Off Shore wind energy - Case study of cooperation mechanisms design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Pade Hansen, L.-L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Management Engineering, Roskilde (Denmark); Jansen, J. [ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    Denmark is projected to have by 2020 a large excess potential for offshore wind capacity in the North Sea at shallow and near to the coast locations. The Netherlands on the other hand has low and expensive RES potentials for its 2020 RES target obligations. Therefore offshore wind potentials in Denmark constitute a possible cost reduction for the Netherlands in meeting its 2020 RES target. This case study examines a large amount of 2 GW offshore wind capacity in the Danish North Sea area. Cooperation unfolds in a joint project type with state to state negotiation and settlement. Different timing and implementation options are described with the possibility to implement a series of 200 MW joint projects with negotiation for each separate phase. The case study is focusing on the area around Horns Rev, where wind conditions are good, the distance to shore is 20-30 km and water depth is around 25 m. With these conditions the cost level will be around 12 c Euro/kWh and that is at least a 3 c Euro/kWh cost advantage to the expansion with offshore wind in the Netherlands. Joint project cooperation is a simple form of cooperation that does not involve a restructuring of national support schemes and legislator changes that can take a long time to implement and affect a lot of entities in the host country. Projects are negotiated between the host and the user country, with the major task to settle a transfer price for the credits transferred in 2020. The design of cooperation assigns the entire project risk to the host country as the host is the party that enters into the contract with the investors in renewable energy capacity. This case study identifies the main barriers for the joint project cooperation and concludes that the main barriers to cooperation between Denmark and the Netherlands is the missing detailed knowledge on the penalty for non-compliance with the 2020 targets, and the lack of post 2020 targets in the EU policy. The missing knowledge on the penalty may

  4. Robotic technology in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D; Challacombe, B; Khan, M S; Dasgupta, P

    2006-01-01

    Urology has increasingly become a technology‐driven specialty. The advent of robotic surgical systems in the past 10 years has led to urologists becoming the world leaders in the use of such technology. In this paper, we review the history and current status of robotic technology in urology. From the earliest uses of robots for transurethral resection of the prostate, to robotic devices for manipulating laparoscopes and to the current crop of master–slave devices for robotic‐assisted laparoscopic surgery, the evolution of robotics in the urology operating theatre is presented. Future possibilities, including the prospects for nanotechnology in urology, are awaited. PMID:17099094

  5. [Robotics in pediatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, J I

    2011-10-01

    Despite the extensive use of robotics in the adult population, the use of robotics in pediatrics has not been well accepted. There is still a lack of awareness from pediatric surgeons on how to use the robotic equipment, its advantages and indications. Benefit is still controversial. Dexterity and better visualization of the surgical field are one of the strong values. Conversely, cost and a lack of small instruments prevent the use of robotics in the smaller patients. The aim of this manuscript is to present the controversies about the use of robotics in pediatric surgery.

  6. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  7. Advances in robot kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Khatib, Oussama

    2014-01-01

    The topics addressed in this book cover the whole range of kinematic analysis, synthesis and design and consider robotic systems possessing serial, parallel and cable driven mechanisms. The robotic systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained.  The fifty-six contributions report the latest results in robot kinematics with emphasis on emerging areas such as design and control of humanoids or humanoid subsystems. The book is of interest to researchers wanting to bring their knowledge up to date regarding modern topics in one of the basic disciplines in robotics, which relates to the essential property of robots, the motion of mechanisms.

  8. Robots and Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design of an undergraduate course in art and robotics that aims to integrate basic concepts of computer science, robotics and art installation for undergraduate students within the problem-based learning model. Our methodology aims to bridge the gap that separates humanities from...... computer science and engineering education to prepare students to address real world problems in robotics, including human-robotic interaction and HCI. Given the proliferation of interactive, systems-based art works and the continued interest in human-centered factors in robotics research (such...

  9. Cooperation with Externalities and Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Habis, Helga; Csercsik, Dávid

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new class of cooperative games where the worth of a coalition depends on the behavior of other players and on the state of nature as well. we allow for coalitions to form both before and after the resolution of uncertainty, hence agreements must be stable against both types of deviations. The appropriate extension of the classicakl core concept, the Sustainable Core, is defined for this new setup to test the stability of allocations in such a complex environment. A prominent ap...

  10. Robots and lattice automata

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The book gives a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research and engineering in theory and application of Lattice Automata in design and control of autonomous Robots. Automata and robots share the same notional meaning. Automata (originated from the latinization of the Greek word “αυτόματον”) as self-operating autonomous machines invented from ancient years can be easily considered the first steps of robotic-like efforts. Automata are mathematical models of Robots and also they are integral parts of robotic control systems. A Lattice Automaton is a regular array or a collective of finite state machines, or automata. The Automata update their states by the same rules depending on states of their immediate neighbours. In the context of this book, Lattice Automata are used in developing modular reconfigurable robotic systems, path planning and map exploration for robots, as robot controllers, synchronisation of robot collectives, robot vision, parallel robotic actuators. All chapters are...

  11. An Adaptive Robot Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...... to the behavior of the interacting person. This paper presents a simple ball game between a single player and a mobile robot platform. The algorithm has been validated using simulation and real world experiments....

  12. Space robotics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  13. Cloud Robotics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Mester

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Robotics was born from the merger of service robotics and cloud technologies. It allows robots to benefit from the powerful computational, storage, and communications resources of modern data centres. Cloud robotics allows robots to take advantage of the rapid increase in data transfer rates to offload tasks without hard real time requirements. Cloud Robotics has rapidly gained momentum with initiatives by companies such as Google, Willow Garage and Gostai as well as more than a dozen active research projects around the world. The presentation summarizes the main idea, the definition, the cloud model composed of essential characteristics, service models and deployment models, planning task execution and beyond. Finally some cloud robotics projects are discussed.

  14. Community participation in sustainable land management in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for sustainable land management implying that the potentials of farmer cooperatives have not been explored, fully. Hence, suggestions have been made for exploring farmer cooperatives to enhance community participation for sustainable land management. Ghana Journal of Development Studies Vol. 2(2) 2005: 32-43 ...

  15. Hand gesture guided robot-assisted surgery based on a direct augmented reality interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Rong; Tay, Wei-Liang; Nguyen, Binh P; Chng, Chin-Boon; Chui, Chee-Kong

    2014-09-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a good alternative to hepatic resection for treatment of liver tumors. However, accurate needle insertion requires precise hand-eye coordination and is also affected by the difficulty of RF needle navigation. This paper proposes a cooperative surgical robot system, guided by hand gestures and supported by an augmented reality (AR)-based surgical field, for robot-assisted percutaneous treatment. It establishes a robot-assisted natural AR guidance mechanism that incorporates the advantages of the following three aspects: AR visual guidance information, surgeon's experiences and accuracy of robotic surgery. A projector-based AR environment is directly overlaid on a patient to display preoperative and intraoperative information, while a mobile surgical robot system implements specified RF needle insertion plans. Natural hand gestures are used as an intuitive and robust method to interact with both the AR system and surgical robot. The proposed system was evaluated on a mannequin model. Experimental results demonstrated that hand gesture guidance was able to effectively guide the surgical robot, and the robot-assisted implementation was found to improve the accuracy of needle insertion. This human-robot cooperative mechanism is a promising approach for precise transcutaneous ablation therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SUSTAINABLE INSURANCE AS A KEY FACTOR OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Volokhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of the insurance sector in the sustainability development support was determined and the possible measures of economic and social loss reduction, based on risk management, risk transfer, and sustainable investment, were proposed. A crucial necessity of the community resilience improvement and cooperation with other stakeholders was indicated. Sustainable insurance sector plays a determinant role in the process of sustainable development as it possess vital leverages to enable and facilitate community resilience, and, therefore, to reduce the possible loss from Economic, Social and Governance issues (ESG issues. First of all, this could be achieved by the means of proper risk management, namely risk assessment and risk reduction. Second, risk transfer will help communities to cope with actual damage made and cover the loss. Finally, sustainable investment activity may be used to make sure that business sector respects the key principles of sustainable development in its day-to-day activity. Cooperation with all the stakeholders of sustainable development, especially governments and communities, will help to develop a better expertize of risk management and create more effective tools for risk reduction. Implementing principles of sustainable investment into the core of their business values, insurance companies are likely to enjoy the improvement of their image and status, higher quality of their investment portfolio, and smaller refund sums payed on claims.

  17. Cooperative Behaviours with Swarm Intelligence in Multirobot Systems for Safety Inspections in Underground Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Yinka-Banjo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground mining operations are carried out in hazardous environments. To prevent disasters from occurring, as often as they do in underground mines, and to prevent safety routine checkers from disasters during safety inspection checks, multirobots are suggested to do the job of safety inspection rather than human beings and single robots. Multirobots are preferred because the inspection task will be done in the minimum amount of time. This paper proposes a cooperative behaviour for a multirobot system (MRS to achieve a preentry safety inspection in underground terrains. A hybrid QLACS swarm intelligent model based on Q-Learning (QL and the Ant Colony System (ACS was proposed to achieve this cooperative behaviour in MRS. The intelligent model was developed by harnessing the strengths of both QL and ACS algorithms. The ACS optimizes the routes used for each robot while the QL algorithm enhances the cooperation between the autonomous robots. A description of a communicating variation within the QLACS model for cooperative behavioural purposes is presented. The performance of the algorithms in terms of without communication, with communication, computation time, path costs, and the number of robots used was evaluated by using a simulation approach. Simulation results show achieved cooperative behaviour between robots.

  18. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  19. Rice-obot 1: An intelligent autonomous mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defigueiredo, R.; Ciscon, L.; Berberian, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Rice-obot I is the first in a series of Intelligent Autonomous Mobile Robots (IAMRs) being developed at Rice University's Cooperative Intelligent Mobile Robots (CIMR) lab. The Rice-obot I is mainly designed to be a testbed for various robotic and AI techniques, and a platform for developing intelligent control systems for exploratory robots. Researchers present the need for a generalized environment capable of combining all of the control, sensory and knowledge systems of an IAMR. They introduce Lisp-Nodes as such a system, and develop the basic concepts of nodes, messages and classes. Furthermore, they show how the control system of the Rice-obot I is implemented as sub-systems in Lisp-Nodes.

  20. Scheduling a Single Mobile Robot Incorporated into Production Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2013-01-01

    . This chapter deals with the problem of finding optimal operating sequence in a manufacturing cell of a mobile robot with manipulation arm that feeds materials to feeders. The “Bartender Concept” is discussed to show the cooperation between the mobile robot and industrial environment. The performance criterion...... to the challenges of issues such as energy conservation and pollution preventions. Facing the central tension between manufacturing and environmental drivers is difficult, but critical to develop new technologies, particularly mobile robots, that can be incorporated into production to achieve holistic solutions...... is to minimize total traveling time of the robot with the smallest consumed amount of battery energy in a given planning horizon. A mixed-integer programming (MIP) model is developed to find the optimal solutions for the problem. Two case studies are implemented at an impeller production line to demonstrate...

  1. Research on Associative Memory Models of Emotional Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Associative memory is essential to realize man-machine cooperation in the natural interaction between humans and robots. The establishment of associative memory model is to solve the problem. First, based on the theory of emotional energy, mood spontaneous metastasis model and stimulate metastasis model are put forward. Then we can achieve affective computing on the external excitation combining with Markov chain model which is about emotions of spontaneous metastasis and HMM model which is about stimulating metastasis. Second, based on the neural network, the associative memory model which is applied in emotional robots is put forward by calculating the emotional state of the robot's dynamic change of mind and considering their own needs at the same time. Finally, the model was applied to the emotional robot platform which we developed. The effect is validated better.

  2. 2nd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric; Myung, Hyun; Xu, Peter; Karray, Fakhri

    2014-01-01

    We are facing a new technological challenge on how to store and retrieve knowledge and manipulate intelligence for autonomous services by intelligent systems which should be capable of carrying out real world tasks autonomously. To address this issue, robot researchers have been developing intelligence technology (InT) for “robots that think” which is in the focus of this book. The book covers all aspects of intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving resear...

  3. Experiments in Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Multi-Manipulator, Free-Flying Space Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent Wei-Kang

    1992-01-01

    Sophisticated robots can greatly enhance the role of humans in space by relieving astronauts of low level, tedious assembly and maintenance chores and allowing them to concentrate on higher level tasks. Robots and astronauts can work together efficiently, as a team; but the robot must be capable of accomplishing complex operations and yet be easy to use. Multiple cooperating manipulators are essential to dexterity and can broaden greatly the types of activities the robot can achieve; adding adaptive control can ease greatly robot usage by allowing the robot to change its own controller actions, without human intervention, in response to changes in its environment. Previous work in the Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) have shown the usefulness of a space robot with cooperating manipulators. The research presented in this dissertation extends that work by adding adaptive control. To help achieve this high level of robot sophistication, this research made several advances to the field of nonlinear adaptive control of robotic systems. A nonlinear adaptive control algorithm developed originally for control of robots, but requiring joint positions as inputs, was extended here to handle the much more general case of manipulator endpoint-position commands. A new system modelling technique, called system concatenation was developed to simplify the generation of a system model for complicated systems, such as a free-flying multiple-manipulator robot system. Finally, the task-space concept was introduced wherein the operator's inputs specify only the robot's task. The robot's subsequent autonomous performance of each task still involves, of course, endpoint positions and joint configurations as subsets. The combination of these developments resulted in a new adaptive control framework that is capable of continuously providing full adaptation capability to the complex space-robot system in all modes of operation. The new adaptive control algorithm easily handles free

  4. Determinants of public cooperation in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Federico; Perc, Matjaž; Latora, Vito

    2017-07-01

    Synergies between evolutionary game theory and statistical physics have significantly improved our understanding of public cooperation in structured populations. Multiplex networks, in particular, provide the theoretical framework within network science that allows us to mathematically describe the rich structure of interactions characterizing human societies. While research has shown that multiplex networks may enhance the resilience of cooperation, the interplay between the overlap in the structure of the layers and the control parameters of the corresponding games has not yet been investigated. With this aim, we consider here the public goods game on a multiplex network, and we unveil the role of the number of layers and the overlap of links, as well as the impact of different synergy factors in different layers, on the onset of cooperation. We show that enhanced public cooperation emerges only when a significant edge overlap is combined with at least one layer being able to sustain some cooperation by means of a sufficiently high synergy factor. In the absence of either of these conditions, the evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks is determined by the bounds of traditional network reciprocity with no enhanced resilience. These results caution against overly optimistic predictions that the presence of multiple social domains may in itself promote cooperation, and they help us better understand the complexity behind prosocial behavior in layered social systems.

  5. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  6. 2011 Ground Robotics Capabilities Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Indoor & Outdoor demos of cutting-edge robotics technologies” ARA Segway Charles Rivier Analytics SPAWAR Harris...RE2, Inc. ReconRobotics, Inc. Roboteam Robotic Research, LLC Robotics Technology Consortium - RTC Schafer Segway Robotics Silvus Technologies...Engineering Center Robotic Research, LLC iRobot Corporation Kairos Autonomi Applied Research Associates Stratom, Inc. Think-A-Move, Ltd. Segway Robotics

  7. Robotic endovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Stephanie; Ko, Koel; Tsang, Josephine; Chan, Yiu Che

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to compare conventional endovascular procedures and the robotic endovascular approach in aortic aneurysm repair. Despite advantages over open surgery, conventional endovascular surgery has limitations. To develop an alternative, efforts have been focused on robotic endovascular systems. Two of the 3 studies comparing procedure times demonstrated reduced procedure time in the robotic group, by 6 times (p robotic procedures reduced fluoroscopic exposure time by 12 minute (p robotic surgery was reduced up to 10 times (p robotic performance score showed a better performance score in the robotic endovascular group (p = 0.007). These results demonstrate that the robotic technique has multiple advantages over the conventional procedure, including improved catheter stability, a shorter learning curve, reduced procedure time, and better performance in cannulating tortuous vessels. However, robotic endovascular technology may be limited by the cost of the system, the size of the catheter, and the setup time required preoperatively. Further comparative studies between conventional and robotic approaches regarding cost-effectiveness, safety, and performance in cases involving complex anatomy and fenestrated stent grafts are essential. Nevertheless, this revolutionary technology is increasingly popular and may be the next milestone in endovascular surgery.

  8. Is Ethics of Robotics about Robots? Philosophy of Robotics Beyond Realism and Individualilsm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2011-01-01

    If we are doing ethics of robotics, what exactly is the object of our inquiry? This paper challenges 'individualist' robot ontology and 'individualist' social philosophy of robots. It is argued that ethics of robotics should not study and evaluate robotics exclusively in terms of individual

  9. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  10. Delta robotsrobots for high speed manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Poppeová, Viera; Uríček, Juraj; Bulej, Vladimír; Šindler, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper is oriented to parallel kinematic robots definition, description of their specific application, comparison of robots made by different producers and determination of velocity and acceleration parameters, kinematic analysis – inverse and forward kinematic. It brings information about development of Delta robots at Academia, including the University of Žilina and Delta robots in the market. Two models of Delta robots called M-1iA and M-3iA have been developed by FANUC Robotics during...

  11. Design, analysis and control of cable-suspended parallel robots and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zi, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an essential overview of the authors’ work in the field of cable-suspended parallel robots, focusing on innovative design, mechanics, control, development and applications. It presents and analyzes several typical mechanical architectures of cable-suspended parallel robots in practical applications, including the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae, hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robots, and cooperative cable parallel manipulators for multiple mobile cranes. It also addresses the fundamental mechanics of cable-suspended parallel robots on the basis of their typical applications, including the kinematics, dynamics and trajectory tracking control of the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae. In addition it proposes a novel hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robot that uses integrated mechanism design methods to improve the performance of traditional cable-suspended parallel robots. A comparative study on error and performance indices of hybr...

  12. Humanlike robots: the upcoming revolution in robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-08-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  13. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  14. Mars Robotics in the Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, D.

    2003-05-01

    Kenneth E. Little Elementary is a public school grades Pre-K to 5th in Bacliff, Texas. It has an ethnically diverse population of one-thousand boys and girls. It is a Title 1 school with eighty-six percent of the students receiving free or reduced meals. K.E. Little has a large at-risk population with a thirty-three percent transition rate. The Young Astronauts @ K.E. Little is an on-going afterschool space science program in it's third year of operation. Thirty students,fourth and fifth grade, were involved in our spring robotics program. Each co-operative group was assigned a LEGO robotics kit to inventory,organize, and familiarize themselves with. Each team made decisions, by consensus, concerning the robots design and capabilities. Students used the Dell Computer Lab on campus to program their robots. Although time did not permit the construction of a simulated Martian landscape, future Young Astronauts will continue this project in January 2004.

  15. Space Robotics: Robotic Rovers for Planetary Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Ellery

    2004-01-01

    In this third of three short papers, I introduce some of the basic concepts of planetary rovers with an emphasis on some specific challenging areas of research that are peculiar to planetary robotics and not usually associated with terrestrial mobile robotics. The style of these short papers is pedagogical and this paper stresses the issue of rover-terrain interaction as an important consideration. Soil-vehicle interaction originates from military vehicle research but may be regarded as part ...

  16. Interactive robot Robot acting on human intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Bremnes, Trym

    2017-01-01

    As the world's population ages, demands for health services continues to increase and robotics can be part of the solutions to this problem. One particular area of medicine, ultrasound, can be helped by robotics, especially for doctors who would otherwise suffer long term health implications. The primary purpose of this study is to construct a system designed to be useful and low cost in the context of an ultrasound procedure. An equally important goal is to determine if the proposed solution...

  17. Mobile Robot Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Robots will soon take part in everyone’s daily life. In industrial production this has been the case for many years, but up to now the use of mobile robots has been limited to a few and isolated applications like lawn mowing, surveillance, agricultural production and military applications....... The research is now progressing towards autonomous robots which will be able to assist us in our daily life. One of the enabling technologies is navigation, and navigation is the subject of this thesis. Navigation of an autonomous robot is concerned with the ability of the robot to direct itself from...... validation of the implemented solutions and the ability of the methods to solve real world problems. The amount of software needed by an autonomous robot can be overwhelming. Software reuse and distributed development are therefore important issues. The thesis describes a new component architecture...

  18. Robot Games for Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg

    2011-01-01

    improve a person’s overall health, and this thesis investigates how games based on an autonomous, mobile robot platform, can be used to motivate elderly to move physically while playing. The focus of the investigation is on the development of games for an autonomous, mobile robot based on algorithms using...... spatio-temporal information about player behaviour - more specifically, I investigate three types of games each using a different control strategy. The first game is based on basic robot control which allows the robot to detect and follow a person. A field study in a rehabilitation centre and a nursing...... home shows how the robot operates autonomously in in a real-world scenario although the elderly use different assistive tools. The elderly express a low degree of rejection of playing with the robot and tend to treat it as a living creature, i.e. talking to it as if it was a young boy or a dog...

  19. Grasping in Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Grasping in Robotics contains original contributions in the field of grasping in robotics with a broad multidisciplinary approach. This gives the possibility of addressing all the major issues related to robotized grasping, including milestones in grasping through the centuries, mechanical design issues, control issues, modelling achievements and issues, formulations and software for simulation purposes, sensors and vision integration, applications in industrial field and non-conventional applications (including service robotics and agriculture).   The contributors to this book are experts in their own diverse and wide ranging fields. This multidisciplinary approach can help make Grasping in Robotics of interest to a very wide audience. In particular, it can be a useful reference book for researchers, students and users in the wide field of grasping in robotics from many different disciplines including mechanical design, hardware design, control design, user interfaces, modelling, simulation, sensors and hum...

  20. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  1. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Calisti, M.; Picardi, G.; Laschi, C.

    2017-01-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human���robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human���robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This p...

  2. Robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Presents new, cutting-edge algorithms for robot/camera calibration, sensor fusion and sensor calibration Explores the main challenges for accurate coil positioning, such as head motion, and outlines how active robotic motion compensation can outperform hand-held solutions Analyzes how a robotized system in medicine can alleviate concerns with a patient's safety, and presents a novel fault-tolerant algorithm (FTA) sensor for system safety

  3. Evidence for robots

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy Ravikiran; Nathwani Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Robots have been successfully used in commercial industry and have enabled humans to perform tasks which are repetitive, dangerous and requiring extreme force. Their role has evolved and now includes many aspects of surgery to improve safety and precision. Orthopaedic surgery is largely performed on bones which are rigid immobile structures which can easily be performed by robots with great precision. Robots have been designed for use in orthopaedic surgery including joint arthroplasty and sp...

  4. FCJ-210 Falling Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Lian Loke

    2016-01-01

    Falling is not usually viewed as a desirable act for humanoid robots, as it can lead to damage and injury of people, things and the robot itself. This article explores how falling can be viewed as an aesthetic, creative act, through positioning it within dance. Strategies for falling safely in dance are compared with engineering approaches to controlling falling for bipedal robots, through the language of automatic reflex, righting reaction and equilibrium response patterns in relation to gra...

  5. Raspberry Pi robotics projects

    CERN Document Server

    Grimmett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This book is for enthusiasts who want to use the Raspberry Pi to build complex robotics projects. With the aid of the step-by-step instructions in this book, you can construct complex robotics projects that can move, talk, listen, see, swim, or fly. No previous Raspberry Pi robotics experience is assumed, but even experts will find unexpected and interesting information in this invaluable guide.

  6. Robots as Confederates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of robots in experimental research for the study of human language, human interaction, and human nature. It is argued that robots make excellent confederates that can be completely controlled, yet which engage human participants in interactions that allow us to study...... numerous linguistic and psychological variables in isolation in an ecologically valid way. Robots thus combine the advantages of observational studies and of controlled experimentation....

  7. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains br...

  8. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Matthew Oley; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Mckay, Mark D; Willis, Walter David; Gunderson, R.W.; Flann, N.S.

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University’s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in realtime. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  9. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.D. McKay; M.O. Anderson; N.S. Flann (Utah State University); R.A. Kinoshita; R.W. Gunderson; W.D. Willis (INEEL)

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University�s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in real-time. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  10. An Informationally Structured Room for Robotic Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuo Tsuji

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of assistive technologies for elderly people is one of the most promising and interesting scenarios for intelligent technologies in the present and near future. Moreover, the improvement of the quality of life for the elderly is one of the first priorities in modern countries and societies. In this work, we present an informationally structured room that is aimed at supporting the daily life activities of elderly people. This room integrates different sensor modalities in a natural and non-invasive way inside the environment. The information gathered by the sensors is processed and sent to a centralized management system, which makes it available to a service robot assisting the people. One important restriction of our intelligent room is reducing as much as possible any interference with daily activities. Finally, this paper presents several experiments and situations using our intelligent environment in cooperation with our service robot.

  11. Robotic Mission Simulation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes a software tool to predict robotic mission performance and support supervision of robotic missions even when environments and...

  12. Advanced robot locomotion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  13. Robotic assisted laparoscopic colectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pandalai, S

    2010-06-01

    Robotic surgery has evolved over the last decade to compensate for limitations in human dexterity. It avoids the need for a trained assistant while decreasing error rates such as perforations. The nature of the robotic assistance varies from voice activated camera control to more elaborate telerobotic systems such as the Zeus and the Da Vinci where the surgeon controls the robotic arms using a console. Herein, we report the first series of robotic assisted colectomies in Ireland using a voice activated camera control system.

  14. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  15. Autonomous military robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief reveals the latest techniques in computer vision and machine learning on robots that are designed as accurate and efficient military snipers. Militaries around the world are investigating this technology to simplify the time, cost and safety measures necessary for training human snipers. These robots are developed by combining crucial aspects of computer science research areas including image processing, robotic kinematics and learning algorithms. The authors explain how a new humanoid robot, the iCub, uses high-speed cameras and computer vision algorithms to track the objec

  16. Low cost submarine robot

    OpenAIRE

    Ponlachart Chotikarn; Werapong Koedsin; Boonlua Phongdara; Pattara Aiyarak

    2010-01-01

    A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-rin...

  17. [Robots and intellectual property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  18. Minimally Actuated Serial Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Moshe P.; Damti, Lior; Zarrouk, David

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel type of serial robot with minimal actuation. The robot is a serial rigid structure consisting of multiple links connected by passive joints and of movable actuators. The novelty of this robot is that the actuators travel over the links to a given joint and adjust the relative angle between the two adjacent links. The joints passively preserve their angles until one of the actuators moves them again. This actuation can be applied to any serial robot with two o...

  19. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  20. Research on Multirobot Pursuit Task Allocation Algorithm Based on Emotional Cooperation Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofu Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots’ individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on emotional cooperation factor. Combined with the two-step auction algorithm recruiting team leaders and team collaborators, set up pursuit teams, and finally use certain strategies to complete the pursuit task. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, some comparing experiments have been done with the instantaneous greedy optimal auction algorithm; the results of experiments show that the total pursuit time and total team revenue can be optimized by using this algorithm.

  1. Ignorance Is Bliss, But for Whom? The Persistent Effect of Good Will on Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Farjam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Who benefits from the ignorance of others? We address this question from the point of view of a policy maker who can induce some ignorance into a system of agents competing for resources. Evolutionary game theory shows that when unconditional cooperators or ignorant agents compete with defectors in two-strategy settings, unconditional cooperators get exploited and are rendered extinct. In contrast, conditional cooperators, by utilizing some kind of reciprocity, are able to survive and sustain cooperation when competing with defectors. We study how cooperation thrives in a three-strategy setting where there are unconditional cooperators, conditional cooperators and defectors. By means of simulation on various kinds of graphs, we show that conditional cooperators benefit from the existence of unconditional cooperators in the majority of cases. However, in worlds that make cooperation hard to evolve, defectors benefit.

  2. Enhancing maya women's development through cooperative associations : what factors support or restrict the contribution of cooperatives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio Vazquez, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of contributing to the development of Mayan women living in the Yucatan Peninsula, this research focused on determine the factors that support or inhibit the sustainability of micro-businesses cooperatives, which are organizations with innovative elements that allow Mayan women to work

  3. IMPORTANCIA DE LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS COMO MEDIO PARA CONTRIBUIR AL DESARROLLO ECONÓMICO, SOCIAL Y MEDIOAMBIENTAL, DE FORMA SOSTENIBLE Y RESPONSABLE/COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES IN THE FACE OF NEW SOURCES OF EMPLOYMENT AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS A MEANS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel PUENTES POYATOS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años hemos asistido a una gran transformación de la sociedad como consecuencia de cambios socio-económicos que han influido, por un lado, en la aparición de nuevas actividades económicas (Nuevos Yacimientos de Empleo que cubran las nuevas necesidades sociales sin comprometer las de las generaciones futuras y, por otro, en el florecimiento de nuevos valores en la sociedad que reclaman un comportamiento socialmente responsable (Responsabilidad Social Corporativa por parte de las empresas que contribuya a conseguir un desarrollo económico, social y medioambiental, sostenible y responsable. En este contexto, el objetivo del artículo es poner de relieve la importancia de las sociedades cooperativas como medio para contribuir al desarrollo sostenible, en la medida que su actividad se fundamenta en la utilización de recursos endógenos de la zona, por su naturaleza económico-social son apropiadas para el lanzamiento de las actividades de Nuevos Yacimientos de Empleo, y funcionan de forma socialmente responsable, conforme a unos valores y principios cooperativos./In recent years we have witnessed a major transformation of society, as a result of socio-economic changes that have influenced one hand, the emergence of new economic activities (new sources of employment to cover the new needs of society without compromising those of future generations and, secondly, in the flowering of new values in society which calls for a development economically, socially and environmentally sustainable and responsible. In this context, the objective of the article is to highlight the importance of cooperative societies as a way to contribute to sustainable development, to the extent that its activity is based on the use of endogenous resources of the area, by its nature economic - Social are appropriate for launching the activities of new sources of employment and work in a socially responsible way, according to cooperative principles and values.

  4. Cooperative control of multi-agent systems optimal and adaptive design approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Frank L; Hengster-Movric, Kristian; Das, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    Task complexity, communication constraints, flexibility and energy-saving concerns are all factors that may require a group of autonomous agents to work together in a cooperative manner. Applications involving such complications include mobile robots, wireless sensor networks, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), spacecraft, and so on. In such networked multi-agent scenarios, the restrictions imposed by the communication graph topology can pose severe problems in the design of cooperative feedback control systems.  Cooperative control of multi-agent systems is a challenging topic for both control theorists and practitioners and has been the subject of significant recent research. Cooperative Control of Multi-Agent Systems extends optimal control and adaptive control design methods to multi-agent systems on communication graphs.  It develops Riccati design techniques for general linear dynamics for cooperative state feedback design, cooperative observer design, and cooperative dynamic output feedback design.  B...

  5. Total Robotic Hysterectomy: Thailand’s First Case Report of Gynecologic Robotic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korakot Sirimai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to report the feasibility, trouble shooting and surgical technique in the total robotic hysterectomy for the patient with adenomyoma uteri. Methods: A 51 year-old patient was diagnosed with adenomyosis. Total robotic hysterectomy was performed. Results: Total operating time was 350 min, estimated blood loss was 50 ml, and length of hospitalization was 6 days. The pathologic section revealed adenomyosis with myoma uteri. The intraoperative and post-operative complications were unremarkable. The patient was in good conditions at 6th week, 3rd, 6th, 12th and 24th month. Conclusion: Total robotic hysterectomy for benign gynecologic condition, such as adenomyosis, is safe and feasible. However, the sustained high consuming cost must be weighted with the patient’s advantages.

  6. Service robotics: do you know your new companion? Framing an interdisciplinary technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michael; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Dreier, Thomas; Fischer, Martin; Gutmann, Mathias; Ott, Ingrid; Spiecker Genannt Döhmann, Indra

    2011-11-01

    Service-Robotic-mainly defined as "non-industrial robotics"-is identified as the next economical success story to be expected after robots have been ubiquitously implemented into industrial production lines. Under the heading of service-robotic, we found a widespread area of applications reaching from robotics in agriculture and in the public transportation system to service robots applied in private homes. We propose for our interdisciplinary perspective of technology assessment to take the human user/worker as common focus. In some cases, the user/worker is the effective subject acting by means of and in cooperation with a service robot; in other cases, the user/worker might become a pure object of the respective robotic system, for example, as a patient in a hospital. In this paper, we present a comprehensive interdisciplinary framework, which allows us to scrutinize some of the most relevant applications of service robotics; we propose to combine technical, economical, legal, philosophical/ethical, and psychological perspectives in order to design a thorough and comprehensive expert-based technology assessment. This allows us to understand the potentials as well as the limits and even the threats connected with the ongoing and the planned implementation of service robots into human lifeworld-particularly of those technical systems displaying increasing grades of autonomy.

  7. Friendship, cliquishness, and the emergence of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Henrich, Joseph

    2006-03-07

    The evolution of cooperation is a central problem in biology and the social sciences. While theoretical work using the iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) has shown that cooperation among non-kin can be sustained among reciprocal strategies (i.e. tit-for-tat), these results are sensitive to errors in strategy execution, cyclical invasions by free riders, and the specific ecology of strategies. Moreover, the IPD assumes that a strategy's probability of playing the PD game with other individuals is independent of the decisions made by others. Here, we remove the assumption of independent pairing by studying a more plausible cooperative dilemma in which players can preferentially interact with a limited set of known partners and also deploy longer-term accounting strategies that can counteract the effects of random errors. We show that cooperative strategies readily emerge and persist in a range of noisy environments, with successful cooperative strategies (henceforth, cliquers) maintaining medium-term memories for partners and low thresholds for acceptable cooperation (i.e. forgiveness). The success of these strategies relies on their cliquishness-a propensity to defect with strangers if they already have an adequate number of partners. Notably, this combination of medium-term accounting, forgiveness, and cliquishness fits with empirical studies of friendship and other long-term relationships among humans.

  8. Multi-robot control interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  9. Canadian space robotic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  10. Implementation of small robot autonomy in an integrated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry J.; Sadler, Laurel

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (CISD) has long been involved in autonomous asset control, specifically as it relates to small robots. Over the past year, CISD has been making strides in the implementation of three areas of small robot autonomy, namely platform autonomy, Soldier-robot interface, and tactical behaviors. It is CISD's belief that these three areas must be considered as a whole in order to provide Soldiers with useful capabilities. In addressing these areas, CISD has integrated a COTS LADAR into the head of an iRobot PackBot Explorer, providing ranging information with minimal disruption to the physical characteristics of the platform. Using this range data is an implementation of obstacle detection and avoidance (OD/OA), leveraged from an existing autonomy software suite, running on the platform's native processor. These capabilities will serve as the foundation of our targeted behaviorbased control methodologies. The first behavior is guarded tele-operation that augments the existing ARL robotic control infrastructure. The second is the implementation of a multi-robot cooperative mapping behavior. Developed at ARL, collaborative simultaneous localization and mapping (CSLAM) will allow multiple robots to build a common map of an area, providing the Soldier operator with a singular view of that area. This paper will describe the hardware and software integration of the LADAR sensor into the ARL robotic control system. Further, the paper will discuss the implementation of the small robot OD/OA and CSLAM software components performed by ARL, as well as results on their performance and benefits to the Soldier.

  11. Peer pressure: Enhancement of cooperation through mutual punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    An open problem in evolutionary game dynamics is to understand the effect of peer pressure on cooperation in a quantitative manner. Peer pressure can be modeled by punishment, which has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. We investigate a symmetric punishment strategy, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might intuitively expect the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Utilizing the prisoner's dilemma game as a prototypical model of interactions at the individual level, we find, through simulation and theoretical analysis, that proper punishment, when even symmetrically imposed on individuals, can enhance cooperation. Also, we find that the initial density of cooperators plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation driven by mutual punishment.

  12. Biomass feeds vegetarian robot; Biomassa voedt vegetarische robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Brandt, M. [Office for Science and Technology, Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Washington (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This brief article addresses the EATR robot (Energetically Autonomous Tactical Robot) that was developed by Cyclone Power and uses biomass as primary source of energy for propulsion. [Dutch] Een kort artikel over de door Cyclone Power ontwikkelde EATR-robot (Energetically Autonomous Tactical Robot) die voor de voortdrijving biomassa gebruikt als primaire energiebron.

  13. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  14. Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-582 Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Information Program Name Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) DoD Component Navy Joint Participants United States Marine Corps; United...dated June 16, 2004 CEC December 2015 SAR March 17, 2016 12:13:59 UNCLASSIFIED 5 Mission and Description Mission The Cooperative Engagement Capability

  15. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  16. Robot adventures at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Imagine if the CERN robots had an end-of-year party... From retrieving data tapes to handling material safely, the robots at CERN fulfill numerous tasks. Find out more: http://cern.ch/go/VjX7 Produced by: CERN Video Productions Director: Christoph M. Madsen Copyright © 2015 CERN. Terms of use: http://copyright.web.cern.ch/

  17. Robots of the Future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/07/0061-0078. Keywords. Autonomous robots; machine intelligence; smart structures; universal computers; artificial evolution; personal robots. Author Affiliations. V K Wadhawan1. Raja Ramanna Fellow (DAE), Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ...

  18. Robotics in endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibansky, David; Rothstein, Richard I

    2012-09-01

    The increasing complexity of intralumenal and emerging translumenal endoscopic procedures has created an opportunity to apply robotics in endoscopy. Computer-assisted or direct-drive robotic technology allows the triangulation of flexible tools through telemanipulation. The creation of new flexible operative platforms, along with other emerging technology such as nanobots and steerable capsules, can be transformational for endoscopic procedures. In this review, we cover some background information on the use of robotics in surgery and endoscopy, and review the emerging literature on platforms, capsules, and mini-robotic units. The development of techniques in advanced intralumenal endoscopy (endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection) and translumenal endoscopic procedures (NOTES) has generated a number of novel platforms, flexible tools, and devices that can apply robotic principles to endoscopy. The development of a fully flexible endoscopic surgical toolkit will enable increasingly advanced procedures to be performed through natural orifices. The application of platforms and new flexible tools to the areas of advanced endoscopy and NOTES heralds the opportunity to employ useful robotic technology. Following the examples of the utility of robotics from the field of laparoscopic surgery, we can anticipate the emerging role of robotic technology in endoscopy.

  19. Robotics in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  20. Odico Formwork Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    , however, does robotics afford beyond operational effectiveness explicitly for the practice of architecture? What is the potential for the serial production of non–standard elements as well as for varied construction processes? In order to scale up and advance the application of robotics, for both...