WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable agricultural landscapes

  1. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  2. Identifying the characteristic of SundaParahiyangan landscape for a model of sustainable agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, M. Z.; Nurhayati, H. S. A.; Mugnisjah, W. Q.

    2017-10-01

    This study was an explorative study of the various forms of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of Sundanese people in the context of sustainable agriculture. The qualitative method was used to identify SundaParahiyangan landscape by using Rapid Participatory Rural Appraisal throughsemi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field survey. The Landscape Characteristic Assessment and Community Sustainability Assessment were used to analyze the characteristic of landscape to achieve the sustainable agricultural landscape criteria proposed by US Department of Agriculture. The results revealed that the SundaParahiyangan agricultural landscape has a unique characteristic as a result of the long-term adaptation of agricultural society to theirlandscape through a learning process for generations. In general, this character was reflected in the typical of Sundanese’s agroecosystems such as forest garden, mixed garden, paddy field, and home garden. In addition, concept of kabuyutan is one of the TEKs related to understanding and utilization of landscape has been adapted on revitalizing the role of landscape surrounding the agroecosystem as the buffer zone by calculating and designating protected areas. To support the sustainability of production area, integrated practices of agroforestry with low-external-input and sustainable agriculture (LEISA) system can be applied in utilizing and managing agricultural resources.

  3. Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species. PMID:15814357

  4. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  5. Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes: A Spatially Explicit Approach to Support Sustainable Soil Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Forouzangohar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation has been associated with a lack of adequate consideration of soil ecosystem services. We demonstrate a broadly applicable method for mapping changes in the supply of two priority soil ecosystem services to support decisions about sustainable land-use configurations. We used a landscape-scale study area of 302 km2 in northern Victoria, south-eastern Australia, which has been cleared for intensive agriculture. Indicators representing priority soil services (soil carbon sequestration and soil water storage were quantified and mapped under both a current and a future 25-year land-use scenario (the latter including a greater diversity of land uses and increased perennial crops and irrigation. We combined diverse methods, including soil analysis using mid-infrared spectroscopy, soil biophysical modelling, and geostatistical interpolation. Our analysis suggests that the future land-use scenario would increase the landscape-level supply of both services over 25 years. Soil organic carbon content and water storage to 30 cm depth were predicted to increase by about 11% and 22%, respectively. Our service maps revealed the locations of hotspots, as well as potential trade-offs in service supply under new land-use configurations. The study highlights the need to consider diverse land uses in sustainable management of soil services in changing agricultural landscapes.

  6. Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes: A Spatially Explicit Approach to Support Sustainable Soil Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Neville D.; MacEwan, Richard J.; Wallace, D. Dugal; Bennett, Lauren T.

    2014-01-01

    Soil degradation has been associated with a lack of adequate consideration of soil ecosystem services. We demonstrate a broadly applicable method for mapping changes in the supply of two priority soil ecosystem services to support decisions about sustainable land-use configurations. We used a landscape-scale study area of 302 km2 in northern Victoria, south-eastern Australia, which has been cleared for intensive agriculture. Indicators representing priority soil services (soil carbon sequestration and soil water storage) were quantified and mapped under both a current and a future 25-year land-use scenario (the latter including a greater diversity of land uses and increased perennial crops and irrigation). We combined diverse methods, including soil analysis using mid-infrared spectroscopy, soil biophysical modelling, and geostatistical interpolation. Our analysis suggests that the future land-use scenario would increase the landscape-level supply of both services over 25 years. Soil organic carbon content and water storage to 30 cm depth were predicted to increase by about 11% and 22%, respectively. Our service maps revealed the locations of hotspots, as well as potential trade-offs in service supply under new land-use configurations. The study highlights the need to consider diverse land uses in sustainable management of soil services in changing agricultural landscapes. PMID:24616632

  7. Scenarios reveal pathways to sustain future ecosystem services in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiangxiao; Carpenter, Stephen R; Booth, Eric G; Motew, Melissa; Zipper, Samuel C; Kucharik, Christopher J; Chen, Xi; Loheide, Steven P; Seifert, Jenny; Turner, Monica G

    2018-01-01

    Sustaining food production, water quality, soil retention, flood, and climate regulation in agricultural landscapes is a pressing global challenge given accelerating environmental changes. Scenarios are stories about plausible futures, and scenarios can be integrated with biophysical simulation models to explore quantitatively how the future might unfold. However, few studies have incorporated a wide range of drivers (e.g., climate, land-use, management, population, human diet) in spatially explicit, process-based models to investigate spatial-temporal dynamics and relationships of a portfolio of ecosystem services. Here, we simulated nine ecosystem services (three provisioning and six regulating services) at 220 × 220 m from 2010 to 2070 under four contrasting scenarios in the 1,345-km2 Yahara Watershed (Wisconsin, USA) using Agro-IBIS, a dynamic model of terrestrial ecosystem processes, biogeochemistry, water, and energy balance. We asked (1) How does ecosystem service supply vary among alternative future scenarios? (2) Where on the landscape is the provision of ecosystem services most susceptible to future social-ecological changes? (3) Among alternative future scenarios, are relationships (i.e., trade-offs, synergies) among food production, water, and biogeochemical services consistent over time? Our results showed that food production varied substantially with future land-use choices and management, and its trade-offs with water quality and soil retention persisted under most scenarios. However, pathways to mitigate or even reverse such trade-offs through technological advances and sustainable agricultural practices were apparent. Consistent relationships among regulating services were identified across scenarios (e.g., trade-offs of freshwater supply vs. flood and climate regulation, and synergies among water quality, soil retention, and climate regulation), suggesting opportunities and challenges to sustaining these services. In particular, proactive land

  8. Linking ecology and aesthetics in sustainable agricultural landscapes: Lessons from the Palouse region of Washington, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda R. Klein; William G. Hendrix; Virginia I. Lohr; Jolie B. Kaytes; Rodney D. Sayler; Mark E. Swanson; William J. Elliot; John P. Reganold

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by international escalation in agricultural sustainability debates, we explored the promise of landscape-scale conservation buffers to mitigate environmental damage, improve ecological function, and enhance scenic quality. Although the ecological benefits of buffer vegetation are well established by plot- and field-scale research, buffer adoption by farmers is...

  9. Sustainable agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...

  10. Ditch network sustains functional connectivity and influences patterns of gene flow in an intensive agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Bac, L; Mony, C; Ernoult, A; Burel, F; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-02-01

    In intensive agricultural landscapes, plant species previously relying on semi-natural habitats may persist as metapopulations within landscape linear elements. Maintenance of populations' connectivity through pollen and seed dispersal is a key factor in species persistence in the face of substantial habitat loss. The goals of this study were to investigate the potential corridor role of ditches and to identify the landscape components that significantly impact patterns of gene flow among remnant populations. Using microsatellite loci, we explored the spatial genetic structure of two hydrochorous wetland plants exhibiting contrasting local abundance and different habitat requirements: the rare and regionally protected Oenanthe aquatica and the more commonly distributed Lycopus europaeus, in an 83 km(2) agricultural lowland located in northern France. Both species exhibited a significant spatial genetic structure, along with substantial levels of genetic differentiation, especially for L. europaeus, which also expressed high levels of inbreeding. Isolation-by-distance analysis revealed enhanced gene flow along ditches, indicating their key role in effective seed and pollen dispersal. Our data also suggested that the configuration of the ditch network and the landscape elements significantly affected population genetic structure, with (i) species-specific scale effects on the genetic neighborhood and (ii) detrimental impact of human ditch management on genetic diversity, especially for O. aquatica. Altogether, these findings highlighted the key role of ditches in the maintenance of plant biodiversity in intensive agricultural landscapes with few remnant wetland habitats.

  11. Glossary on agricultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in

  12. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  13. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  14. Towards sustainable and multifunctional agriculture in farmland landscapes: Lessons from the integrative approach of a French LTSER platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretagnolle, Vincent; Berthet, Elsa; Gross, Nicolas; Gauffre, Bertrand; Plumejeaud, Christine; Houte, Sylvie; Badenhausser, Isabelle; Monceau, Karine; Allier, Fabrice; Monestiez, Pascal; Gaba, Sabrina

    2018-02-01

    Agriculture is currently facing unprecedented challenges: ensuring food, fiber and energy production in the face of global change, maintaining the economic performance of farmers and preserving natural resources such as biodiversity and associated key ecosystem services for sustainable agriculture. Addressing these challenges requires innovative landscape scale farming systems that account for changing economic and environmental targets. These novel agricultural systems need to be recognized, accepted and promoted by all stakeholders, including local residents, and supported by public policies. Agroecosystems should be considered as socio-ecological systems and alternative farming systems should be based on ecological principles while taking societal needs into account. This requires an in-depth knowledge of the multiple interactions between sociological and ecological dynamics. Long Term Socio-Ecological Research platforms (LTSER) are ideal for acquiring this knowledge as they (i) are not constrained by traditional disciplinary boundaries, (ii) operate at a large spatial scale involving all stakeholders, and (iii) use systemic approaches to investigate biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study presents the socio-ecological research strategy from the LTSER "Zone Atelier Plaine & Val de Sèvre" (ZA PVS), a large study area where data has been sampled since 1994. Its global aim is to identify effective solutions for agricultural development and the conservation of biodiversity in farmlands. Three main objectives are targeted by the ZAPVS. The first objective is intensive monitoring of landscape features, the main taxa present and agricultural practices. The second objective is the experimental investigation, in real fields with local farmers, of important ecosystem functions and services, in relation to pesticide use, crop production and farming socio-economic value. The third aim is to involve stakeholders through participatory research, citizen science and

  15. The Challenge of Governing Africa’s New Agricultural Investment Landscapes: An Analysis of Policy Arrangements and Sustainability Outcomes in Ethiopia and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Schoneveld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization, market liberalization, and deregulation, many African governments are embracing the potential of private agricultural investment to address structural issues within their agricultural economies. Sustainably integrating these investments into target landscapes, however, poses a number of governance challenges since it requires careful reconciliation of competing needs, priorities, and land uses. This paper examines the effectiveness of existing policy arrangements in managing these conflicts within two environmentally significant investment landscapes, the Oban-Korup Forest Block, Nigeria, and Lower Baro-Akobo River Basin, Ethiopia. Findings reveal that investments tend to conflict with socially and environmentally valuable land uses, largely as a result of institutional failings. The paper identifies a number of underlying institutional challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve sustainable development objectives within Africa’s many emerging investment landscapes. Findings have relevance for the development of sustainable landscape governance systems and the alignment of global governance innovations with landscape-level policy arrangements.

  16. Landscape agronomy : a new field for addressing agricultural landscape dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Marraccini, Élisa; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Galli, Mariassunta; Lardon, Sylvie; Rapey, Hélène; Thenail, Claudine; Bonari, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Landscape dynamics increasingly challenge agronomists to explain how and why agricultural landscapes are designed and managed by farmers. Nevertheless, agronomy is rarely included in the wide range of disciplines involved in landscape research. In this paper, we describe how landscape agronomy can help explain the relationship between farming systems and agricultural landscape dynamics. For this, we propose a conceptual model of agricultural landscape dynamics that illustrates the specific co...

  17. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  18. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  19. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Caporali

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006), a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. ...

  20. Sustainability through precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    As population and standard of living increase in many parts of the world, so will the need for food and other agriculturally-based products. To be sustainable, these increases in production must occur with minimum impact on the environment and with efficient use of production resources, including la...

  1. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  2. Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

  3. Monitoring of Agricultural Landscape in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, H. G.; Engan, G.

    2012-07-01

    An overall societal aim is to ensure a sustainable use and management of agricultural landscapes. This requires continuous delivery of reliable and up-to-date information to decision-makers. To be able to deliver this information, a monitoring program for agricultural landscapes was initiated in Norway 13 years ago. The program documents and reports on land use / land cover changes from data captured through interpretation of true colour aerial photos using stereo instruments. The monitoring programme is based on a sample of 1000 squares of 1 × 1 km and the entire sample of squares is photographed over a five-year period. Each square is then mapped repeatedly every fifth year to record changes. Aerial photo interpretation is based on a custom classification system which is built up hierarchically, with three levels. The first level comprises seven land type classes: Agricultural land, Bare ground, Semi-natural open vegetation, Unforested wetland vegetation, Forest, Urban areas and Water. These land classes are further divided into 24 land types at level two, and approximately 100 land types at level 3. In addition to land type units we map both line elements like stone fences and point elements like buildings and solitary threes. By use of indicators that describe status and change focusing on themes of particular policy interest, we can report on whether policy aims are being fulfilled or not. Four indicator themes have been in focus hitherto: landscape spatial structure, biological diversity, cultural heritage and accessibility. Our data is stored in databases and most of the data quality check/structure process and analyses are now being made in open source software like PostGIS and PostSQL. To assess the accuracy of the photo-interpretation, ground truthing is carried out on 10 % of the squares. The results of this operation document the benefits of having access to photos of the same area from two different years. The program is designed first and foremost to

  4. Sustainable intensification of agriculture for human prosperity and global sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockström, Johan; Williams, John; Daily, Gretchen; Noble, Andrew; Matthews, Nathanial; Gordon, Line; Wetterstrand, Hanna; DeClerck, Fabrice; Shah, Mihir; Steduto, Pasquale; de Fraiture, Charlotte; Hatibu, Nuhu; Unver, Olcay; Bird, Jeremy; Sibanda, Lindiwe; Smith, Jimmy

    2017-02-01

    There is an ongoing debate on what constitutes sustainable intensification of agriculture (SIA). In this paper, we propose that a paradigm for sustainable intensification can be defined and translated into an operational framework for agricultural development. We argue that this paradigm must now be defined-at all scales-in the context of rapidly rising global environmental changes in the Anthropocene, while focusing on eradicating poverty and hunger and contributing to human wellbeing. The criteria and approach we propose, for a paradigm shift towards sustainable intensification of agriculture, integrates the dual and interdependent goals of using sustainable practices to meet rising human needs while contributing to resilience and sustainability of landscapes, the biosphere, and the Earth system. Both of these, in turn, are required to sustain the future viability of agriculture. This paradigm shift aims at repositioning world agriculture from its current role as the world's single largest driver of global environmental change, to becoming a key contributor of a global transition to a sustainable world within a safe operating space on Earth.

  5. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  6. Sustainability in the Agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Forgács

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study will examine the possible ways of integrating sustainability indicators in assessing the performance of agriculture. We are examining the appropriate ways of calculating the output of the sector including the damages caused by and the benefits of agricultural production. The involvment of environmental pressure into the assessment of agricultural performance does not show significant changes in values.

  7. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  8. Agricultural sustainability: concepts, principles and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules

    2008-02-12

    Concerns about sustainability in agricultural systems centre on the need to develop technologies and practices that do not have adverse effects on environmental goods and services, are accessible to and effective for farmers, and lead to improvements in food productivity. Despite great progress in agricultural productivity in the past half-century, with crop and livestock productivity strongly driven by increased use of fertilizers, irrigation water, agricultural machinery, pesticides and land, it would be over-optimistic to assume that these relationships will remain linear in the future. New approaches are needed that will integrate biological and ecological processes into food production, minimize the use of those non-renewable inputs that cause harm to the environment or to the health of farmers and consumers, make productive use of the knowledge and skills of farmers, so substituting human capital for costly external inputs, and make productive use of people's collective capacities to work together to solve common agricultural and natural resource problems, such as for pest, watershed, irrigation, forest and credit management. These principles help to build important capital assets for agricultural systems: natural; social; human; physical; and financial capital. Improving natural capital is a central aim, and dividends can come from making the best use of the genotypes of crops and animals and the ecological conditions under which they are grown or raised. Agricultural sustainability suggests a focus on both genotype improvements through the full range of modern biological approaches and improved understanding of the benefits of ecological and agronomic management, manipulation and redesign. The ecological management of agroecosystems that addresses energy flows, nutrient cycling, population-regulating mechanisms and system resilience can lead to the redesign of agriculture at a landscape scale. Sustainable agriculture outcomes can be positive for food

  9. Farm multifunctional diversification and agricultural landscape trasformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Chiodo

    Full Text Available The work aims to analyze changes in agricultural landscape linked to transformations in agricultural productive system. The territory for analysis is situated along the “internal Marche ridge” of the Apennines, in the province of Ancona (Marche region, partly included in the Regional Natural Park “Gola della Rossa e Frassassi”. The work aims at elaborating an investigative methodology which can highlight the transformation of territorial structures and the dynamics that influence management of the territory and landscape in order to provide operative instructions for an integrated elaboration of instruments for urban planning and economic programming, specially for agricultural policies. Multi-functionality and diversification in agriculture are the instruments that can help agriculture to improve the economic value of products and at the same time to improve the quality of territory and landscape.

  10. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  11. From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherr Sara J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For agricultural systems to achieve climate-smart objectives, including improved food security and rural livelihoods as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, they often need to be take a landscape approach; they must become ‘climate-smart landscapes’. Climate-smart landscapes operate on the principles of integrated landscape management, while explicitly incorporating adaptation and mitigation into their management objectives. Results An assessment of climate change dynamics related to agriculture suggests that three key features characterize a climate-smart landscape: climate-smart practices at the field and farm scale; diversity of land use across the landscape to provide resilience; and management of land use interactions at landscape scale to achieve social, economic and ecological impacts. To implement climate-smart agricultural landscapes with these features (that is, to successfully promote and sustain them over time, in the context of dynamic economic, social, ecological and climate conditions requires several institutional mechanisms: multi-stakeholder planning, supportive landscape governance and resource tenure, spatially-targeted investment in the landscape that supports climate-smart objectives, and tracking change to determine if social and climate goals are being met at different scales. Examples of climate-smart landscape initiatives in Madagascar’s Highlands, the African Sahel and Australian Wet Tropics illustrate the application of these elements in contrasting contexts. Conclusions To achieve climate-smart landscape initiatives widely and at scale will require strengthened technical capacities, institutions and political support for multi-stakeholder planning, governance, spatial targeting of investments and multi-objective impact monitoring.

  12. Dilemmas in sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, I argue that agriculture and food production processes are subject to what I refer to as 'dilemmatic situations'. These dilemmatic situations are rather new, and require a new orientation in ethics to account for them. Ethics has to give up long-cherished ideals, such as: (a) the

  13. Governing agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Carro-Ripalda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Although GM crops are seen by their advocates as a key component of the future of world agriculture and as part of the solution for world poverty and hunger, their uptake has not been smooth nor universal: they have been marred by controversy and all too commonly their regulation has been

  14. Sustainable intensification in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, Paul C.; Kuijper, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is required to feed the growing and increasingly demanding human population. Intensification is associated with increasing use of resources, applied as efficiently as possible, i.e. with a concurrent increase in both resource use and resource use efficiency. Resource use

  15. REDD+ and Climate Smart Agriculture in landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvini, G.

    2016-01-01

    Global challenges posed by an increasing food demand and climate change call for innovative mechanisms that consider both agriculture and forests. Agriculture and forests are deeply interconnected in mosaic landscapes, just as multiple pieces of the same puzzle. These pieces are handled by numerous

  16. Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovac, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    ISBN: 978-94-6257-443-4 Author: Catarina C. Jakovac Title: Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification Swidden cultivation is the traditional agricultural system in riverine Amazonia, which supports local livelihoods and

  17. [Organic agriculture and sustainable development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Wang, Gang

    2004-12-01

    Basing on the research and practice of organic agriculture at home and abroad, this paper discussed the objectives of developing green food and the principles that must be persisted in the practice in China. In the light of the arguments concerning with sustainable agriculture, we also discussed the significance of "alternative agriculture" in theory and practice. Compared with conventional high-intensity agriculture, the production approaches of organic alternatives can improve soil fertility and have fewer detrimental effects on the environment. It is unclear whether conventional agriculture can be sustained because of the shortcomings presented in this paper, and it has taken scientists approximately one century to research and practice organic farming as a representative of alternative agriculture. The development of green food in China has only gone through more than ten years, and there would be some practical and theoretical effects on the development of China's green food if we exploit an environment-friendly production pattern of organic agriculture which majors in keeping human health and maintaining sustainable agriculture.

  18. Sustainable agricultural development in a rural area in the Netherlands? Assessing impacts of climate and socio-economic change at farm and landscape level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Bakker, M.M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Alam, S.J.; Paas, W.H.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, technology, policy and prices affect agricultural and rural development. To evaluate whether this development is sustainable, impacts of these multiple drivers need to be assessed for multiple indicators. In a case study area in the Netherlands, a bio-economic farm model, an

  19. Sustainable agricultural water management across climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVincentis, A.

    2016-12-01

    Fresh water scarcity is a global problem with local solutions. Agriculture is one of many human systems threatened by water deficits, and faces unique supply, demand, quality, and management challenges as the global climate changes and population grows. Sustainable agricultural water management is paramount to protecting global economies and ecosystems, but requires different approaches based on environmental conditions, social structures, and resource availability. This research compares water used by conservation agriculture in temperate and tropical agroecosystems through data collected from operations growing strawberries, grapes, tomatoes, and pistachios in California and corn and soybeans in Colombia. The highly manipulated hydrologic regime in California has depleted water resources and incited various adaptive management strategies, varying based on crop type and location throughout the state. Operations have to use less water more efficiently, and sometimes that means fallowing land in select groundwater basins. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the largely untouched landscape in the eastern plains of Colombia are rapidly being converted into commercial agricultural operations, with a unique opportunity to manage and plan for agricultural development with sustainability in mind. Although influenced by entirely different climates and economies, there are some similarities in agricultural water management strategies that could be applicable worldwide. Cover crops are a successful management strategy for both agricultural regimes, and moving forward it appears that farmers who work in coordination with their neighbors to plan for optimal production will be most successful in both locations. This research points to the required coordination of agricultural extension services as a critical component to sustainable water use, successful economies, and protected environments.

  20. Global Aspects of Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clive; Pimentel, David

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Barriers to longterm sustainability * Loss of Land and Soils * Need for Adequate Water Resources * Energy Shortfalls * Potential Climate Change and Global Warming * Possible improvements in agricultural sustanability * Retardation of Soil Loss * Control of Water Supplies and Irrigation * New Sources of Renewable Energy * Biological Pest Control * Biological Inputs to Soil Fertility * Conclusions * References

  1. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.

  2. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.

    2016-01-01

    . Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution......, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. Hence devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns....

  3. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; van der Horst, Dan; Schleyer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the socialecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes......, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage...... Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape...

  4. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the social-ecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1 that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2 that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3 that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus on drivers of landscape change are needed; and (4 that managing landscapes for ecosystem services provision may benefit from a social-ecological resilience perspective.

  5. Sustainable energy landscapes : designing, planning, and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Dobbelsteen, van den A.

    2013-01-01

    In the near future the appearance and spatial organization of urban and rural landscapes will be strongly influenced by the generation of renewable energy. One of the critical tasks will be the re-integration of these sustainable energy landscapes into the existing environment—which people value and

  6. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  7. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms 'sustainable' and 'intensification' is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural-environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and incentives necessary for the wider adoption of

  8. Sustaining Agriculture and the Rural Environment; governance, policy and multifunctionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Apart from food and raw materials, agriculture can also provide ancillary benefits such as landscapes, biodiversity, cultural heritage and thriving rural communities. This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of strategies for sustainable management practices and their implementation through the

  9. Agriculture and land management: the landscape monitoring system in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marinai

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the reduced weight in the Gross National Product (GDP and the continuous decrease in manpower which has been recorded in the last decades, an important role is recognized to the rural sector in the current developmetn model which justify the heavy financial committment of Europe and Italy to sustain european agriculture.Within this role, land preservation has an important role for the sector competitiveness, the rural space quality and the citizen’s life quality, and this role is nowadays recognized even by the politics for landscape defined for the Piano strategico nazionale 2007-20131. Both action definitions and planning and development of landscape resources firstly require to define landscape monitoring systems pointing out trends, and critical and strength points represented by the great historical and environmental differences of Italian landscapes. This study is a synthesis of the results from a 5 year project aimed to the definition of a landscape monitoring system in Tuscany, ranging from 1800 and 2000 and based on study areas covering around 1% of the regional territory, which will soon be implemented. The first recorded results show a strong decrease of landscape diversity (40-50% in the investigated time period. This study want to be an example for the implementation of the future monitoring system of this resource.

  10. Landscape practise and key concepts for landscape sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2013-01-01

    time, the practice behind such conceptual frameworks has survived in many land use systems, being a fundamental source of inspiration for the modern challenge of landscape sustainability. Here, the concept and practice of carrying capacity is used as an example. We provide a modern interpretation...

  11. Landscape aesthetics for sustainable architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Jauslin, D.

    2012-01-01

    No, No and No. Three times No is the answer to the question: is there currently such a thing as aesthetics in sustainable architecture? This answer is drawn from the discussions of three architects who are acclaimed practitioners and thinkers in the field. If we assume that aesthetics is something that all architects pursue in one form or another, it would appear that, currently, sustainability is not an integral part of it.

  12. Urban landscape architecture design under the view of sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, WeiLin

    2017-08-01

    The concept of sustainable development in modern city landscape design advocates landscape architecture, which is the main development direction in the field of landscape design. They are also effective measures to promote the sustainable development of city garden. Based on this, combined with the connotation of sustainable development and sustainable design, this paper analyzes and discusses the design of urban landscape under the concept of sustainable development.

  13. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural......Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...

  14. Sustainable Landscapes Assessment for the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver Agoncillo; Jennifer Conje; Susan Cordell; James Halperin; Roopa Karia; Beth. Lebow

    2011-01-01

    As part of their development of a new Country Development Strategy, and with potential for incoming Sustainable Landscapes funding, USAID/Philippines commissioned the U.S. Forest Service to work with them on an assessment of efforts aimed at Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) in the Philippines, including the role of conservation,...

  15. Landscape aesthetics for sustainable architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.

    2012-01-01

    No, No and No. Three times No is the answer to the question: is there currently such a thing as aesthetics in sustainable architecture? This answer is drawn from the discussions of three architects who are acclaimed practitioners and thinkers in the field. If we assume that aesthetics is something

  16. Ecological intensification of agriculture - sustainable by nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Strategies towards agricultural intensification differ on the definitions of sustainability and the variables included in its evaluation. Different notions of the qualifiers of intensification (ecological, sustainable, durable, etc.) need to be unpacked. This paper examines conceptual differences

  17. Agricultural Urbanism in the Context of Landscape Ecological Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, I. N.; Kaganovich, N. N.; Mindiyrova, T. N.

    2017-11-01

    The article analyzes some of the fundamental aspects of cities sustainable development connected in many respects with the concept of ecological architecture. One of the main concepts of sustainability is considered in detail: the city as an eco-sustainable and balanced system, architectural objects as a full-fledged part of this system, which, most likely, will be determined by one of the directions of this development - the development of landscape architecture as an tool for integration of nature into the urban environment. At the same time, the variety of its functional forms and architectural methods in the system of organization of internal and external space is outlined as well as its interrelation with energy-saving architecture defining them as the two most important components of eco-sustainable development. The development forms of landscape architecture are considered in the review of analogs, as an example (agricultural urbanism object) a thesis on the topic “Vertical Farm Agroindustrial Complex” is presented.

  18. Agroparks - The European Landscape Convention and a European way to regional sustainable landscape development through land use integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    , South East Asia and South America and the urban sprawl around our megacities are examples of this global tendency. The segregation trend has had a long history in Europe and has traditionally been balanced by the establishment of nature protection zones, designed to conserve valuable landscape resources...... of production activities. These landscapes integrate nature protection, agriculture, settlement and recreation in complex structures of management. They could serve as an example for future sustainable landscape planning at a larger scale, supported by regional regulation. The European Landscape Convention (ELC...

  19. Interacting effects of landscape context and habitat quality on flower visiting insects in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Langevelde, van F.

    2006-01-01

    Landscape context and habitat quality may have pronounced effects on the diversity of flower visiting insects. We investigated whether the effects of landscape context and habitat quality on flower visiting insects interact in agricultural landscapes in the Netherlands. Landscape context was

  20. Organic fields sustain weed metacommunity dynamics in farmland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, Laura; Börger, Luca; Meiss, Helmut; Gaba, Sabrina; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Agro-ecosystems constitute essential habitat for many organisms. Agricultural intensification, however, has caused a strong decline of farmland biodiversity. Organic farming (OF) is often presented as a more biodiversity-friendly practice, but the generality of the beneficial effects of OF is debated as the effects appear often species- and context-dependent, and current research has highlighted the need to quantify the relative effects of local- and landscape-scale management on farmland biodiversity. Yet very few studies have investigated the landscape-level effects of OF; that is to say, how the biodiversity of a field is affected by the presence or density of organically farmed fields in the surrounding landscape. We addressed this issue using the metacommunity framework, with weed species richness in winter wheat within an intensively farmed landscape in France as model system. Controlling for the effects of local and landscape structure, we showed that OF leads to higher local weed diversity and that the presence of OF in the landscape is associated with higher local weed biodiversity also for conventionally farmed fields, and may reach a similar biodiversity level to organic fields in field margins. Based on these results, we derive indications for improving the sustainable management of farming systems. PMID:25994672

  1. Organic fields sustain weed metacommunity dynamics in farmland landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, Laura; Börger, Luca; Meiss, Helmut; Gaba, Sabrina; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2015-06-07

    Agro-ecosystems constitute essential habitat for many organisms. Agricultural intensification, however, has caused a strong decline of farmland biodiversity. Organic farming (OF) is often presented as a more biodiversity-friendly practice, but the generality of the beneficial effects of OF is debated as the effects appear often species- and context-dependent, and current research has highlighted the need to quantify the relative effects of local- and landscape-scale management on farmland biodiversity. Yet very few studies have investigated the landscape-level effects of OF; that is to say, how the biodiversity of a field is affected by the presence or density of organically farmed fields in the surrounding landscape. We addressed this issue using the metacommunity framework, with weed species richness in winter wheat within an intensively farmed landscape in France as model system. Controlling for the effects of local and landscape structure, we showed that OF leads to higher local weed diversity and that the presence of OF in the landscape is associated with higher local weed biodiversity also for conventionally farmed fields, and may reach a similar biodiversity level to organic fields in field margins. Based on these results, we derive indications for improving the sustainable management of farming systems. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Landscape practise and key concepts for landscape sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual frameworks which have seen man and nature as being an integrated whole were widespread before they became suppressed by developments within both capitalism and socialism. Therefore an idealistic use of such concepts in scientific work has often had limited practical value. At the same...... time, the practice behind such conceptual frameworks has survived in many land use systems, being a fundamental source of inspiration for the modern challenge of landscape sustainability. Here, the concept and practice of carrying capacity is used as an example. We provide a modern interpretation...... of accessibility and its related conflicts, and opportunities for a sustainable development of tourism in and around the protected areas. It is concluded that the concept of carrying capacity cannot meaningfully be used for sustainability studies at an abstract conceptual level, but proves its relevance through...

  3. Inventions for future sustainable development in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Beers, P.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is directed to the importance of different inventions as driver for sustainable development of agriculture. Inventions are defined as radical new ideas, perspectives and technologies that hold the potential to trigger a change in sustainable agriculture. Innovation is based on one or

  4. Farmers on the move towards sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.; Verstegen, J.A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The transition towards sustainability is an important issue in Dutch agriculture of today. Farmers play an important role in this transition. They must be able and willing to convert to more sustainable agricultural methods. But they are also confronted with an existing institutional environment,

  5. An integrated approach to monitoring ecosystem services and agriculture: implications for sustainable agricultural intensification in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Melissa F; Bonham, Curan A; Dempewolf, Jan; Arakwiye, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining the long-term sustainability of human and natural systems across agricultural landscapes requires an integrated, systematic monitoring system that can track crop productivity and the impacts of agricultural intensification on natural resources. This study presents the design and practical implementation of a monitoring framework that combines satellite observations with ground-based biophysical measurements and household surveys to provide metrics on ecosystem services and agricultural production at multiple spatial scales, reaching from individual households and plots owned by smallholder farmers to 100-km 2 landscapes. We developed a set of protocols for monitoring and analyzing ecological and agricultural household parameters within two 10 × 10-km landscapes in Rwanda, including soil fertility, crop yield, water availability, and fuelwood sustainability. Initial results suggest providing households that rely on rainfall for crop irrigation with timely climate information and improved technical inputs pre-harvest could help increase crop productivity in the short term. The value of the monitoring system is discussed as an effective tool for establishing a baseline of ecosystem services and agriculture before further change in land use and climate, identifying limitations in crop production and soil fertility, and evaluating food security, economic development, and environmental sustainability goals set forth by the Rwandan government.

  6. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  7. Crop farmers use of environmentally sustainable agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to assess crop farmers' use of environmentally sustainable agricultural practices in Ogun State. Multi – Stage-sampling and simple random sampling procedure was employed to select two hundred (200) farmers from villages selected from the four agricultural zones of Ogun State Agricultural ...

  8. Time, Space and the History of Agricultural Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    Agricultural land use constitutes one of the main forces of anthropogenic change in most European countries, especially since the agricultural reforms in the beginning of the 19 th century. Researching the history of these landscapes is an important task in the present European environmental...... to the physical structure of landscapes has a fixed temporal nature depicting the landscape at time of record, often at different spatial scales. This creates a challenge for Environmental history of European agricultural landscapes to produce a framework, which can incorporate these differences in temporal...... and spatial scales together with traditional written sources. This paper investigates the potential of sources to the environmental history of the agricultural landscape across different spatial and temporal scales in a small case study of the landscape history of five parishes in Jutland, Denmark. The paper...

  9. Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

    Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural

  10. Sustainable agriculture: a challenge in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Faroque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. Government is pursuing efforts to promote sustainable agriculture with emphasis on better use of on-farm resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper presents four dimensions of agricultural sustainability as productivity, environmental stability, economical profitability, and social and economic equity. Six characters were selected to evaluate sustainability. Significant differences were found between the two systems (conventional and sustainable agriculture in crop diversification, soil fertility management, pests and diseases management, use of agro-chemicals and environmental issues. However, no significant variations were found in other indicators such as land-use pattern, crop yield and stability, risk and uncertainties, and food security. Although crop yield and financial return were found to be slightly higher in the conventional system, the economic return and value addition per unit of land did not show any difference. It can be suggested that sustainable agriculture has a tendency towards becoming environmental, economically and socially more sound than conventional agriculture, as it requires considerably less agro-chemicals, adds more organic matter to the soil, provides balanced food, and requires higher local inputs without markedly compromising output and financial benefits. Broad-policy measures, including the creation of mass awareness of adverse health effects of agrochemical-based products, are outlined for the promotion of sustainable agriculture.

  11. Integration Research for Shaping Sustainable Regional Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Brunckhorst

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and social systems are complex and entwined. Complex social-ecological systems interact in a multitude of ways at many spatial scales across time. Their interactions can contribute both positive and negative consequences in terms of sustainability and the context in which they exist affecting future landscape change. Non-metropolitan landscapes are the major theatre of interactions where large-scale alteration occurs precipitated by local to global forces of economic, social, and environmental change. Such regional landscape effects are critical also to local natural resource and social sustainability. The institutions contributing pressures and responses consequently shape future landscapes and in turn influence how social systems, resource users, governments, and policy makers perceive those landscapes and their future. Science and policy for “sustainable” futures need to be integrated at the applied “on-ground” level where products and effects of system interactions are fully included, even if unobserved. Government agencies and funding bodies often consider such research as “high-risk.” This paper provides some examples of interdisciplinary research that has provided a level of holistic integration through close engagement with landholders and communities or through deliberately implementing integrative and innovative on-ground experimental models. In retrospect, such projects have to some degree integrated through spatial (if not temporal synthesis, policy analysis, and (new or changed institutional arrangements that are relevant locally and acceptable in business, as well as at broader levels of government and geography. This has provided transferable outcomes that can contribute real options and adaptive capacity for suitable positive futures.

  12. A sustainable landscape ecosystem design: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei-Chang; Ye, Shu-Hong; Gu, Xun; Cao, Fu-Cun; Fan, Zheng-Qiu; Wang, Xiang-Rong; Wu, Ya-Sheng; Wang, Shou-Bing

    2010-05-01

    Landscape planning is clearly ecologically and socially relevant. Concern about sustainability between human and environment is now a driving paradigm for this professional. However, the explosion of the sustainable landscape in China is a very recent phenomenon. What is the sustainable landscape? How is this realized in practice? In this article, on the basis of the reviews of history and perplexities of Chinese landscape and nature analysis of sustainable landscape, the ecothinking model, an implemental tool for sustainable landscape, was developed, which applies ecothinking in vision, culture, conservation and development of site, and the process of public participation for a harmonious relationship between human and environment. And a case study of the south entrance of TongNiuling Scenic Area was carried out, in which the most optimum scenario was chosen from among three models according to the ecothinking model, to illustrate the construction of the ecothinking model and how to achieve a sustainable landscape.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Sustainable Landscapes Initiative 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Leah [Environmental Landscape Design Associates; Rogers, Sam [Environmental Landscape Design Associates; Sipes, James L. [Sand County Studios

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the ORNL Sustainable Landscapes Initiative 2020 is to provide a framework that guides future environmental resources and sustainable landscape practices on the ORNL campus. This document builds on the 2003 ORNL Conceptual Landscape Plan and is presented in the context of embracing new opportunities.

  14. Mapping agricultural landscapes and characterizing adaptive capacity in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M. B.; Imbach, P. A.; Bouroncle, C.; Donatti, C.; Leguia, E.; Martinez, M.; Medellin, C.; Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Shamer, S.; Zamora, J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in developing adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in developing countries is that of a data-poor environment, where spatially-explicit information about where the most vulnerable smallholder communities are located is lacking. Developing countries tend to lack consistent and reliable maps on agricultural land use, and have limited information available on smallholder adaptive capacity. We developed a novel participatory and expert mapping process to overcome these barriers and develop detailed national-scale maps that allow for a characterization of unique agricultural landscapes based on profiles of adaptive capacity for smallholder agriculture in each area. This research focuses specifically on the Central American nations of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras, where our focus is on coffee and basic grains as the two main cropping systems. Here we present the methodology and results of a series of in-depth interviews and participatory mapping sessions with experts working within the broader agricultural sector in each country. We held individual interviews and mapping sessions with approximately thirty experts from each country, and used a detailed survey instrument for each mapping session to both spatially identify distinct agricultural landscapes, and to further characterize each area based on specific farm practices and social context. The survey also included a series of questions to help us assess the relative adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture within each landscape. After all expert mapping sessions were completed in each country we convened an expert group to assist in both validating and refining the set of landscapes already defined. We developed a characterization of adaptive capacity by aggregating indicators into main assets-based criteria (e.g. land tenure, access to credit, access to technical assistance, sustainable farm practices) derived from further expert weighting of indicators through an online

  15. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE New practices bring lasting food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-16

    Nov 16, 2010 ... Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the developing world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment.

  16. Sustainable Agriculture Course Delivered Nationally via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, R. J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an instructional model for a sustainable agriculture telecourse offered nationally by Iowa State University. Includes preproduction activities; technology employed; budget; time requirements; course content; student postevaluation results. Provides information and suggestions for individuals and institutions considering production or…

  17. The Educational Approach for Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Suparman Abdullah; Dwia A. Tina Pulubuhu; Arsyad Genda; Syaiful Cangara; Muh. Irfan Said; Ria Renita Abbas; Seniwati

    2017-01-01

    - This study focuses on the educational approaches for sustainable agriculture through the development, application and research of teaching and learning practices. These approaches serve and connect educators such as lecturers, students; decision makers such as regent, mayor or village head and local people who focus on the teaching and learning of sustainable agriculture. This research conducted in Turatea District, Jeneponto Region, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. People of the district in g...

  18. Drawing conclusions: perceptions of the New Zealand agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy West

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available When I made the decision to finish my undergraduate education in New Zealand, I was barraged with comments about 'the beautiful natural landscapes', 'Oh you'll love the natural beauty' and 'They have such a diverse wild landscape'. However it was the aversion to comments about the agriculture which interested me. 'There are more sheep than people' is what I heard, yet where was the talk about the land which these sheep occupied? So began my quest, both as a landscape architect and as an artist, to record what there was to the New Zealand agricultural landscapes.

  19. Comparative review of multifunctionality and ecosystem services in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiao; Tichit, Muriel; Poulot, Monique; Darly, Ségolène; Li, Shuangcheng; Petit, Caroline; Aubry, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Two scientific communities with broad interest in sustainable agriculture independently focus on multifunctional agriculture or ecosystem services. These communities have limited interaction and exchange, and each group faces research challenges according to independently operating paradigms. This paper presents a comparative review of published research in multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services. The motivation for this work is to improve communication, integrate experimental approaches, and propose areas of consensus and dialog for the two communities. This extensive analysis of publication trends, ideologies, and approaches enables formulation of four main conclusions. First, the two communities are closely related through their use of the term "function." However, multifunctional agriculture considers functions as agricultural activity outputs and prefers farm-centred approaches, whereas ecosystem services considers ecosystem functions in the provision of services and prefers service-centred approaches. Second, research approaches to common questions in these two communities share some similarities, and there would be great value in integrating these approaches. Third, the two communities have potential for dialog regarding the bundle of ecosystem services and the spectrum of multifunctional agriculture, or regarding land sharing and land sparing. Fourth, we propose an integrated conceptual framework that distinguishes six groups of ecosystem services and disservices in the agricultural landscape, and combines the concepts of multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services. This integrated framework improves applications of multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services for operational use. Future research should examine if the framework can be readily adapted for modelling specific problems in agricultural management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sustainability of Agricultural Systems: Concept to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture not only feeds the planet, it also is the biggest overall factor affecting the environment. Thus, innovative sustainable farming systems that produce healthy food and protect the environment at the same time are very much needed. We, as agricultural engineers, need ...

  1. Agricultural Drought Analysis for Sustainable Smallholder Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agricultural systems (Ahmed et al., 2011). However ... therefore recommended that water management practices be put in place immediately to support productive ... and water resources both immediately and under future climate change to ensure sustainable agricultural production. Methods. Description of the study area.

  2. Urban agriculture in Tanzania : issues of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Sofer, M.; Mlozi, M.

    2004-01-01

    This book, the result of a collaborative study carried out by researchers from Tanzania, Israel and the Netherlands, assesses the sustainability of urban agriculture in two medium-sized towns in Tanzania: Morogoro and Mbeya. It first gives an overview of urban agriculture in Tanzania and a

  3. Agricultural carbon sequestration, poverty, and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the potential impacts of payments for agricultural soil carbon sequestration on poverty of farm households and on the sustainability of agricultural systems, using economic theory combined with evidence from three case studies in Kenya, Peru, and Senegal. The case studies

  4. INVESTIGATING THE SUSTAINABLE ASPECTS OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURJA CAMELIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the sustainability in the farming sector is a core objective of the European Union which generates important consequences on the life’s quality. The sustainable agriculture has to bring an own contribution to the raising of the food safety and security, development and revitalize rural areas, environmental protection.In Romania improving the sustainability features of the agricultural practices is an ongoing preoccupation of the making cisional factors, the sustainable development being introduced in the national strategies and implemented in the practice by the agricultural holdings. This paper investigates the main characteristics of sustainability of Romanian agriculture having in view the three pillars of sustainable development, namely, economic aspects, social aspects and environmental aspects. For achieving this purpose it is carried out a dynamic analysis of the holdings’ economy which have a commercial profile from Romania and the other EU new member states. The analysis results reveal the contribution of some production factors on the economic efficiency to sustainable growth of holdings. The study findings suggest the action directions that have to be addressed by the decisional factors in order to consolidate the sustainability of farming practices.

  5. Sustainability Assessment and Reporting in Agriculture Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Kassem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment is a mainstream business activity that demonstrates the link between the organization’s strategy and commitment to a sustainable global economy. Sustainability indicators describe the environmental, social, economic and governance performance of Small and Medium‑sized Businesses/Enterprises (SMB/SME. Unfortunately, their implementations in the Czech Republic show a low level of engagement in sustainability assessment. The paper presents the results of the authors’ research in sustainability assessment of SMB/SMEs in the agriculture sector of the Czech Republic. An appropriate set of key performance indicators (KPIs in four dimensions (economy, environment, social and governance was developed to suit the SMB/SMEs sustainability assessment in the agriculture sector. A set of KPIs is proposed to help SMB/SMEs to avoid the barriers of sustainability assessment. These indicators are based mainly on Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture, Global Reporting Initiatives Frameworks and on current research state‑of‑the‑art. They have been created following the analysis of a number of agricultural enterprises over the world, particularly within European countries.

  6. Sustainable agriculture: Developing a common understanding for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of sustainability has become central to all sectors all over the world, from agriculture to environment to business, engineering and industrialization. The principle of sustainability is the same all over these sectors. However, the understanding of the term may vary from sector to sector depending on how it may be ...

  7. Soil biodiversity for agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, L.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Brown, G.G.

    2007-01-01

    We critically highlight some evidence for the importance of soil biodiversity to sustaining (agro-)ecosystem functioning and explore directions for future research. We first deal with resistance and resilience against abiotic disturbance and stress. There is evidence that soil biodiversity does

  8. From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Scherr Sara J; Shames Seth; Friedman Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background For agricultural systems to achieve climate-smart objectives, including improved food security and rural livelihoods as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, they often need to be take a landscape approach; they must become ‘climate-smart landscapes’. Climate-smart landscapes operate on the principles of integrated landscape management, while explicitly incorporating adaptation and mitigation into their management objectives. Results An assessment of climate ch...

  9. The nexus of population change, agricultural expansion, landscape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It reveals the pattern of change in landscape and how that corresponds to human factors such as increased population, demand for food and consequent expansion in agricultural activity in the modification of Landscape. The period under consideration (1970-2007) witnessed an increase in population size and household ...

  10. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971,in the Meadows report (1972 and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987. The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In such conditions we are obliged to follow a twin-track strategy: (1livestock systems with high productivity potentials; (2traditional pastoral systems and organic agriculture, on marginal lands, which allow the utilisation of extensive grazing lands, the conservation of environment, genetic resources, landscape, the minimisation of the use of non-renewable resources and the production of "natural foods".

  11. MAIN NATURAL RESOURCES SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion, SCURTU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the process of agricultural production we are using natural resources, human resources and capital. Responsible management of natural resources will allow the development of sustainable agriculture with the possibility of agricultural products to satisfy both quantitatively and qualitatively food requirements of the population. Natural resources that are irreplaceable in agricultural production are soil and water and now must be taken global measures for slowing and stopping global warming and climate change, which could jeopardize the attainment of agricultural production. In the paper reference is made to the quality of agricultural soils of Romania, the existence of water resources and measures to be taken to preserve soil fertility and combating drought.

  12. The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter R; Sayre, Ken; Gupta, Raj

    2008-02-12

    The paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till, NT) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. Cultivation and tillage play an important role in agriculture. The benefits of tillage in agriculture are explored before introducing conservation tillage (CT), a practice that was borne out of the American dust bowl of the 1930s. The paper then describes the benefits of CA, a suggested improvement on CT, where NT, mulch and rotations significantly improve soil properties and other biotic factors. The paper concludes that CA is a more sustainable and environmentally friendly management system for cultivating crops. Case studies from the rice-wheat areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia and the irrigated maize-wheat systems of Northwest Mexico are used to describe how CA practices have been used in these two environments to raise production sustainably and profitably. Benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on global warming are also discussed. The paper concludes that agriculture in the next decade will have to sustainably produce more food from less land through more efficient use of natural resources and with minimal impact on the environment in order to meet growing population demands. Promoting and adopting CA management systems can help meet this goal.

  13. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  14. Antalya le:notre landscape forum : Sustainable tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuijsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Bell, S. and Brinkhuijsen. M. (eds, 2013) Sustainable tourism. In: Stiles, R. et al (2103) Antalya’s landscape. LE:NOTRE Landscape Forum 2012. LE:NOTRE Landscape Monographs ISBN 978-90-820558-0-1 p.145-181.

  15. Ants as tools in sustainable agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    1. With an expanding human population placing increasing pressure on the environment, agriculture needs sustainable production that can match conventional methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) is more sustainable, but not necessarily as efficient as conventional non-sustainable measures. 2...... in multiple crops. Their efficiency is comparable to chemical pesticides or higher, while at lower costs. They provide a rare example of documented efficient conservation biological control. 3. Weaver ants share beneficial traits with almost 13 000 other ant species and are unlikely to be unique...... of agricultural systems, this review emphasizes the potential of managing ants to achieve sustainable pest management solutions. The synthesis suggests future directions and may catalyse a research agenda on the utilization of ants, not only against arthropod pests, but also against weeds and plant diseases...

  16. Mitigation/Adaptation: landscape architecture meets sustainable energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.

    2009-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to renewable energy sources are among the emerging fields of activity in landscape architecture. If landscape architects recognize the need for sustainable development on the basis of renewable energy sources, then how can we contribute to sustainable and

  17. Challenges facing the agricultural extension landscape in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of the South African Society for Agricultural Extension (SASAE) in the way forward will be to: Determine continuously what the agricultural extension landscape will need in 10 years' time; establish and implement a Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Committee to ensure continuing professional ...

  18. Sustaining a Korean Traditional Rural Landscape in the Context of Cultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Joon Jung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional rural landscapes emerged from the long term interaction of the natural and anthropogenic environment. These landscapes are now threatened by drastic social-ecological changes. Recent international trends on sustaining cultural landscapes place great emphasis on understanding of multiple values, presented in the landscape, by considering various stakeholder perspectives. It is now recognized that strong community engagement with the landscape should be translated into conservation and management practices. This paper aims to examine the recent conservation activities around endangered traditional rural landscapes in Korea through a case study of Gacheon village. In this village, since 2000, a series of central administrative measures have been implemented to revive the local community, and to conserve its distinctive landscape. By analyzing challenges to the site, by discussing conservation experience and lessons, and by recommending future strategies for sustaining its cultural landscapes, this paper is expected to provide a basis for future policy-making for safeguarding traditional rural landscapes.

  19. Patterns and drivers of scattered tree loss in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Mantel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees...... of high nature conservation value) for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance...... in agricultural landscapes that would be prioritized in conservation efforts....

  20. Reptile assemblages across agricultural landscapes: where does biodiversity hide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biaggini, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from traditional to intensive farming, aimed at large–scale production, has rapidly altered agricultural landscapes, leading to the reduction and fragmentation of natural habitats and to the consequent loss of biodiversity. Herpetofauna is seriously threatened by agriculture intensification worldwide, but less is known about its distribution in agro–ecosystems, especially at field scale. We analysed reptile abundance and diversity in eight agricultural and semi–natural land uses, and inside vegetated buffer strips interspersed among fields. Interestingly, most reptiles were recorded in the buffer strips while intensive crops and pastures hosted just one lizard species. Richness of individuals and species increased when strips were connected to semi–natural areas, independently of their width and vegetation structure. In view of our results, that highlight the role of minor landscape features for the presence of vertebrates in intensive agro–ecosystems, we recommend the implementation of buffer strips among the measures for vertebrate conservation in agricultural landscapes.

  1. Protection, landscaping and regulation of agricultural land in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Popov Danica

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this article is protection, landscaping and regulation on agricultural land, based on The Agriculture Land Law in Serbia. Land is besides water and air the basic component of the environment. Bearing in mind the long-term processes of creation and development, land is the conditionally renewable resources. Land use, particularly in agricultural production, there is often a balance disorder of certain factors, which inevitably leads of damage. Land is in the nature of a slow lea...

  2. Landscape Diversity as a Screening Tool to Assess Agroecosystems Sustainability; Preliminary Study in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visicchio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of agricultural activities has strongly modified agricultural landscapes. Intensive agriculture, with the increased use of inorganic fertiliser and density of livestock, affects water quality discharging nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies. Nutrients in rivers, subsequently, are excellent indicators to assess sustainability/ land-use intensity in agroecosystems. Landscape, however, is a dynamic system and is the product of interaction amongst the natural environment and human activities, including farming which is a main driving force. At present not much has been investigated on the predictive role of landscape on land-use intensity. Aim of this study is to determine if, in Italian agroecosystem, landscape complexity can be related to land-use intensity. Indexes of landscape complexity (i.e. edge density, number of patches, Shannon’s diversity index, Interspersion-Juxtaposition index derived by processing Corine Land Cover data (level IV, 1:25.000 of Lazio Region, were related with landuse intensity (values of compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus and other parameters found in rivers monitored in accordance to European Directives on Waste Water. Results demonstrate that some landscape indexes were related to some environment parameters. Consequently landscape complexity, with further investigation, could be an efficient screening tool, at large scale, to assess water quality and ultimately agroecosystems sustainability in the absence of monitoring stations.

  3. Characterizing European cultural landscapes: Accounting for structure, management intensity and value of agricultural and forest landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J.E.; Levers, Christian; Lieskovský, Juraj; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Plieninger, Tobias; Verburg, Peter H.

    Abstract Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural

  4. Landscape services as a bridge between landscape ecology and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termorshuizen, J.W.; Opdam, P.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape ecology is in a position to become the scientific basis for sustainable landscape development. When spatial planning policy is decentralised, local actors need to collaborate to decide on the changes that have to be made in the landscape to better accommodate their perceptions of value.

  5. Agricultural genomics and sustainable development: perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    representative microbial, insect, animal and plant genomes. The research .... existence of heritable genetic or molecular (usually DNA) markers that are .... to manipulate or improve plant traits for agricultural uses in an environmentally sustainable manner. One key trait that has defied scientific unravelling is the phenomenon.

  6. Holistic Sustainability Assessment of Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a methodology for holistic sustainability assessment of green infrastructure, applied to agricultural rainwater harvesting (RWH) in the Albemarle-Pamlico river basin. It builds upon prior work in the region through the use of detailed, crop-level management information...

  7. Farmers' Attitudes and Behavior toward Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzelka, Peggy; Korsching, Peter F.; Malia, James E.

    1996-01-01

    A mail survey of Iowa farmers with membership in Practical Farmers of Iowa (PFI), a sustainable agriculture organization, was used to examine the attitude-behavior relationship of these farmers and the role social influences played in this relationship. Results indicate that when controlling explanatory factors, the attitude-behavior relationship…

  8. Introduction: Features of environmental sustainability in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Ferrari, S; Rambonilaza, M

    2006-01-01

    This introductive paper aims to address the features of environmental sustainability in agriculture. Recent developments of the concept, which are discussed here, emphasise its multi-faceted nature and lead to various definitions as well as to different implications for policy measures in society...

  9. Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment: Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    environment are changed, sustainable agricultural practices as conceived in the present form appear to be a distant dream ... At the same time the government in Rwanda is continuously under pressure to work towards ...... aspects perceived in this fashion (agrarian structure changes) would go a long way in addressing the ...

  10. Monitoring agricultural landscape changes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Danish rural landscapes was collected in 1986, 1991 and 1996 as part of the national small biotope monitoring system. In 2008 and 2014 land cover maps at a similar scale were developed, based on a combination of remote sensed LiDAR data and field scale land use data from administrative registers (the Dan......Cover maps). On this basis a time series of landscape change for the entire period was constructed for selected areas. In addition, a single sample area was mapped using field methods in 2008, making it possible to directly compare the two datasets for the same area and year. Tendencies in the data...

  11. Genetically Modified Crops: Towards Agricultural Growth, Agricultural Development, or Agricultural Sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Azadi, Hossein; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghuchani, Omid M.; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Hajivand, Roghaye Y.; Dogot, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The present debate on how to increase global food production in a sustainable way has focused on arguments over the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) crops. Scientists in both public and private sectors clearly regard GM technology as a major new set of tools, whereas industry sees it as an opportunity for increased profits. However, it remains questionable whether GM crops can contribute to agricultural growth, agricultural development, and agricultural sustainability. This review p...

  12. Sustainable multifunctional landscapes: a review to implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Farrell, PJ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Historic land use practices have dramatically altered landscapes across all scales, homogenising them and restricting opportunities for humans and wildlife. The need for multifunctional landscapes which simultaneously provide food security...

  13. Drawing conclusions: perceptions of the New Zealand agricultural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Amy West

    1996-01-01

    When I made the decision to finish my undergraduate education in New Zealand, I was barraged with comments about 'the beautiful natural landscapes', 'Oh you'll love the natural beauty' and 'They have such a diverse wild landscape'. However it was the aversion to comments about the agriculture which interested me. 'There are more sheep than people' is what I heard, yet where was the talk about the land which these sheep occupied? So began my quest, both as a landscape architect and as an artis...

  14. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-02-03

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement.

  15. How Landscape Ecology Can Promote the Development of Sustainable Landscapes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Antrop, Marc; Ramos, Isabel Loupa

    2013-01-01

    related concepts. International cooperation demands a certain harmonization of these concepts for better mutual understanding. The 2000 European Landscape Convention provided an important momentum to rethink research, policy and management of landscapes from the perspective of sustainable development...... and participatory planning. Landscape ecology as a transdisciplinary science with a dynamic and holistic perspective on landscape offers a great potential for an integrative approach. The specificity of the European landscape research rests on its long history and on the great diversity of the landscapes......, the creation of a specific European Association for Landscape Ecology (IALE-Europe), in addition to the existing International Association (IALE) and its national chapters, became justified by the need to address the specific problems of landscapes in Europe and to stimulate cooperation between landscape...

  16. From Forest Landscape to Agricultural Landscape in the Developing Tropical Country of Malaysia: Pattern, Process, and Their Significance on Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops—rubber and oil palm plantations—has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900-1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s-1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s-1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country’s “health” and sustainability

  17. The Role of Geographical Landscape Studies for Sustainable Territorial Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Franch-Pardo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of physical geography is to determine how natural phenomena produce specific territorial patterns. Therefore, physical geography offers substantial scientific input into territorial planning for sustainability. A key area where physical geography can contribute to land management is in the delimitation of landscape units. Such units are fundamental to formal socio-economic zoning and management in territorial planning. However, numerous methodologies—based on widely varying criteria—exist to delineate and map landscapes. We have selected five consolidated methodologies with current applications for mapping the landscape to analyse the different role of physical geography in each: (1 geomorphological landscape maps based on landforms; (2 geosystemic landscape maps; (3 Landscape Character Assessment; (4 landscape studies based on visual landscape units; (5 landscape image-pair test. We maintain that none of these methodologies are universally applicable, but that each contributes important insights into landscape analysis for land management within particular biogeophysical and social contexts. This work is intended to demonstrate that physical geography is ubiquitous in contemporary landscape studies intended to facilitate sustainable territorial planning, but that the role it plays varies substantially with the criteria prioritized.

  18. Building on resilience principles for sustainable agriculture : a draft framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, W.J.M.; Koopmans, C.J.; Erisman, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces and explores the possibilities of a concept that may bridge apparent divergences within the sustainable agriculture approach. Sustainable agriculture concepts may depart from different paradigms, varying from securing global and local resource availability, to maintaining

  19. Brownfields Recommendations for Sustainable Site Design — Green Landscape Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment of conditions contained in this report focuses on site-specific environmental and soil conditions that might affect recommendations related to sustainable landscaping and site design, stormwater management, and stormwater reuse.

  20. Pathogen population dynamics in agricultural landscapes: the Ddal modelling framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaïx, Julien; Adamczyk-Chauvat, Katarzyna; Bouvier, Annie; Kiêu, Kiên; Touzeau, Suzanne; Lannou, Christian; Monod, Hervé

    2014-10-01

    Modelling processes that occur at the landscape scale is gaining more and more attention from theoretical ecologists to agricultural managers. Most of the approaches found in the literature lack applicability for managers or, on the opposite, lack a sound theoretical basis. Based on the metapopulation concept, we propose here a modelling approach for landscape epidemiology that takes advantage of theoretical results developed in the metapopulation context while considering realistic landscapes structures. A landscape simulator makes it possible to represent both the field pattern and the spatial distribution of crops. The pathogen population dynamics are then described through a matrix population model both stage- and space-structured. In addition to a classical invasion analysis we present a stochastic simulation experiment and provide a complete framework for performing a sensitivity analysis integrating the landscape as an input factor. We illustrate our approach using an example to evaluate whether the agricultural landscape composition and structure may prevent and mitigate the development of an epidemic. Although designed for a fungal foliar disease, our modelling approach is easily adaptable to other organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transforming river basins: Post-livelihood transition agricultural landscapes and implications for natural resource governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, K G; Madhusoodhanan, C G; Eldho, T I

    2015-08-15

    The agricultural and livelihood transitions post globalization are redefining resource relations and redrawing landscapes in the Global South and have major implications for nascent natural resource governance regimes such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). A mosaic of divergent reciprocations in resource relations were noticed due to livelihood transitions in the rural areas where previous resource uses and relations had been primarily within agriculture. The reconstitution of rural spaces and the attendant changes in the resource equations are observed to be creating new sites of conformity, contestation and conflicts that often move beyond local spaces. This paper critically reviews studies across the Global South to explore the nature and extent of changes in resource relations and agricultural landscapes post livelihood diversification and the implication and challenges of these changes for natural resource governance. Though there is drastic reduction in agricultural livelihoods throughout the Global South, changes in agricultural area are found to be inconsistent and heterogeneous in the region. Agriculture continues in the countrysides but in widely differentiated capacities and redefined value systems. The transformed agrarian spaces are characterized by a mosaic of scenarios from persistence and sustainable subsistence to differentiation and exploitative commercial practices to abandonment and speculation. The reconfigured resource relations, emergent multiple and multi-scalar interest groups, institutional and policy changes and altered power differentials in these diversified landscapes are yet to be incorporated into natural resource governance frameworks such as IRBM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Habitat connectivity and fragmented nuthatch populations in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.

    1999-01-01

    In agricultural landscapes, the habitat of many species is subject to fragmentation. When the habitat of a species is fragmented and the distances between patches of habitat are large relative to the movement distances of the species, it can be expected that the degree of habitat

  3. Improving landscape and nature values in organic agriculture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Hendriks, K.; Elsen, van T.

    1998-01-01

    Organic agriculture can show that the production of a healthy crop and environment for plant and animal can merge with an increase in abundance, diversity and quality of habitats on farms, and a high potential for showing spatial and temporal coherences and more landscape diversity. Therefore it is

  4. Achieving production and conservation simultaneously in tropical agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renwick, Anna R.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Potts, Simon G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing population size and demand for food in the developing world is driving the intensification of agriculture, often threatening the biodiversity within the farmland itself and in the surrounding landscape. This paper quantifies bird and tree species richness, tree carbon and farmer's gross...

  5. Land Evaluation of an Agricultural Landscape in Dingyadi District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: A semi-detailed survey was conducted to evaluate the soils of an agricultural landscape in Dingyadi area of Sokoto State. Three soil mapping units TLL1, TUP2 and TUP3 were identified on the basis of land forms and surface texture. USDA land capability classification, Fertility capability classification and land ...

  6. Assessing the habitat suitability of agricultural landscapes for characteristic breeding bird guilds using landscape metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Friederike; Glemnitz, Michael; Schultz, Alfred; Stachow, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Many of the processes behind the decline of farmland birds can be related to modifications in landscape structure (composition and configuration), which can partly be expressed quantitatively with measurable or computable indices, i.e. landscape metrics. This paper aims to identify statistical relationships between the occurrence of birds and the landscape structure. We present a method that combines two comprehensive procedures: the "landscape-centred approach" and "guild classification". Our study is based on more than 20,000 individual bird observations based on a 4-year bird monitoring approach in a typical agricultural area in the north-eastern German lowlands. Five characteristic bird guilds, each with three characteristic species, are defined for the typical habitat types of that area: farmland, grassland, hedgerow, forest and settlement. The suitability of each sample plot for each guild is indicated by the level of persistence (LOP) of occurrence of three respective species. Thus, the sample plots can be classified as "preferred" or "less preferred" depending on the lower and upper quartiles of the LOP values. The landscape structure is characterized by 16 different landscape metrics expressing various aspects of landscape composition and configuration. For each guild, the three landscape metrics with the strongest rank correlation with the LOP values and that are not mutually dependent were identified. For four of the bird guilds, the classification success was better than 80%, compared with only 66% for the grassland bird guild. A subset of six landscape metrics proved to be the most meaningful and sufficiently classified the sample areas with respect to bird guild suitability. In addition, derived logistic functions allowed the production of guild-specific habitat suitability maps for the whole landscape. The analytical results show that the proposed approach is appropriate to assess the habitat suitability of agricultural landscapes for characteristic

  7. Monitoring agricultural landscape changes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper

    in situ fieldwork was the dominant methodology. This raises a number of questions related to the way in which information on land use and land cover are combined in current monitoring projects, what role fieldwork methods should play and on what grounds traditional field-based time series data can...... Danish rural landscapes was collected in 1986, 1991 and 1996 as part of the national small biotope monitoring system. In 2008 and 2014 land cover maps at a similar scale were developed, based on a combination of remote sensed LiDAR data and field scale land use data from administrative registers (the Dan......During the last decade we have seen a shift from land cover and land use surveys based principally on fieldwork and aerial surveys, to methodologies based completely or primarily on combinations of remote sensed imagery. This development has fostered great advances in terms of spatial coverage...

  8. Avian Species and Functional Diversity in Agricultural Landscapes: Does Landscape Heterogeneity Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myung-Bok; Martin, James A.

    2017-01-01

    While the positive relationship between avian diversity and habitat heterogeneity is widely accepted, it is primarily based on observed species richness without accounting for imperfect detection. Other facets of diversity such as functional diversity are also rarely explored. We investigated the avian diversity-landscape heterogeneity relationship in agricultural landscapes by considering two aspects of diversity: taxonomic diversity (species richness) estimated from a multi-species dynamic ...

  9. Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture and Future Developments of the CAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted Nielsen, Helle; Branth Pedersen, Anders; Christensen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    in the world market could increase pressure to slacken regulatory requirements on agriculture. Thus, the question of whether liberalization will hinder or promote environmentally sustainable production methods in agriculture is unresolved. This paper analyses different scenarios of agricultural policy...... development and examines their consequences for the promotion of environmentally sustainable agriculture in the EU....

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF Land use and land protection IN DANGEROUS EROSION AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tymoshevskyi

    2017-05-01

    properties of the land for future generations. Providing an integrated approach to planning land use and protection, including protection of soil in the context of sustainable development is one of the basic key of "Agenda XXI", "Strategy for sustainable development of Ukraine - 2020" and "Sustainable development of Ukraine during 2016-2030". In the context of a new climate agreement established by Paris conference where marked action by conservation and increasing absorbent of greenhouse gases, an important role as a ground like controller carbon and nitrogen cycles. High capacity for carbon sequestration are degraded soils in the process of restoring their properties. Potential of soil for absorption and retention of carbon can be increased by soil-reproduction techniques, including erosion control measures. Land management is quite a tool that has evolved to a multi-role that should provide a basis for decision-making in all areas related with land and land use. Therefore, development and implementation of land management projects of land use and protection can be and should be the basis for the implementation of safety land use in dangerous erosion agricultural landscapes. These projects will provide slowing and stopping anthropogenically accelerated erosion processes from one hand, and ensure efficient economic activity from other. Land management projects should include land zoning for allotment of eco-technology groups of arable land, according to which a decision on further land use and development of agricultural landscapes and placing shelterbelts, which should be an essential component of landscapes. Therefore, for safety land use in dangerous erosion agricultural landscapes consider the following: the differential use of agricultural land depending of soil cover and relief; observance of safe slope drainage of runoff; meadow slopes along drainage channels; shelterbelts placement systems for water and wind regulatory.

  11. Weed sustainable managment in agricultral and non-agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Arcangeli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture is a way to assure the availability of natural resources for future generations.Weed managementin cultivated and not cultivated areas is part of sustainable agriculture as well, and has to face three important challenges:economical (to increase income and competitiveness of farm sector, social (give rural areas opportunity of economicdevelopment and improvement of living conditions, environmental (promote good agricultural practices andpreserve habitats, biodiversity and landscape. The first two challenges involve the in-depth study of models, the economicthreshold of intervention, the management of herbicide resistance phenomena, the study and development ofnew herbicide molecules, or even modern formulations, leading to the optimization of treatments with possible reductionof distributed doses per hectare. Environmental issues must be set in the studies to assess and manage the factorsleading to phenomena of diffuse or point pollution (i.e. water volumes, soil, etc.. However, a sustainable agricultureproduction must take into account consumers’ needs and concerns, especially about food health and safety withrespect to production methods (traditional, integrated and biological. In this context, the results obtained by the developmentof more advanced active principles, the spread of public and private Integrated Production Specifications(Disciplinari di Produzione Integrata and the greater and greater commitment by the institutions in charge of monitoringthe agro-pharmaceutical residues in agro-food products, can be set. The SIRFI SIRFI (Società Italiana per laRicerca sulla Flora Infestante, thanks to the multi-disciplinarity of the structures supporting it, always takes an activepart into innovation especially aimed to the identification of tools implementing farm activity sustainability.

  12. Sustainable agriculture and protection of the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemianowska, Ewa; Wesołowski, Andrzej; Skibniewska, Krystyna A.; Tyburski, Józef; Gurzyński, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    The economic, environmental and social development should not degrade the environment but it should leave it for the next generations in the state that it is presently or even better. The principle of sustainable agriculture is to cover the human needs for food without damage to the environment. The aim of the article was to research the farmers' awareness of the principle of sustainable agriculture and balanced fertilization and their influence on the environment. Among 100 farmers of the Tczew district (Poland) there was done questionnaire research on the determination rates of nitrogen fertilizers and on the regulation of fertilizers usage in Poland. Most of farmers declared a good knowledge of good agricultural practices and of balanced fertilization and the awareness of threats issuing from their activities. At the same time in Poland since the announcement of the Nitrate Directive of the former European Common Market (1992) up till now (2013) the application of nitrogen fertilizers doubled and the yield of wheat increased only by 15%, which means the increase of environmental burden with this chemical element.

  13. Sustainable agriculture and protection of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siemianowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic, environmental and social development should not degrade the environment but it should leave it for the next generations in the state that it is presently or even better. The principle of sustainable agriculture is to cover the human needs for food without damage to the environment. The aim of the article was to research the farmers’ awareness of the principle of sustainable agriculture and balanced fertilization and their influence on the environment. Among 100 farmers of the Tczew district (Poland there was done questionnaire research on the determination rates of nitrogen fertilizers and on the regulation of fertilizers usage in Poland. Most of farmers declared a good knowledge of good agricultural practices and of balanced fertilization and the awareness of threats issuing from their activities. At the same time in Poland since the announcement of the Nitrate Directive of the former European Common Market (1992 up till now (2013 the application of nitrogen fertilizers doubled and the yield of wheat increased only by 15%, which means the increase of environmental burden with this chemical element.

  14. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought.

  15. Planning-Based Approaches for Supporting Sustainable Landscape Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Albert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Planning often yields only limited influence on policy making. This paper explores how planning could address this challenge and support most effectively transitions towards sustainable landscape change. In merging insights from sustainability science research and nine recently concluded case studies of landscape planning, the paper reflects upon the applicability of the concept of “transition support”, discusses planning approaches and their perceived effectiveness to induce change in landscape governance, and identifies lessons learned. The paper’s outcomes include insights and potentially useful approaches that can be attributed to four emerging cross-cutting themes: approaches for (i dealing with the high degree of complexity and uncertainty of landscape systems, (ii integrating the various perspectives of experts, decision makers, and stakeholders in the assessment process (transdisciplinarity, (iii enhancing policy influence, and (iv initiating and sustaining learning and adaptive governance.

  16. Agricultural innovations for sustainable crop production intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production intensification should be the first strategic objective of innovative agronomic research for the next 40 years. A range of options exist (often very location specific for farming practices, approaches and technologies that ensure sustainability, while at the same time improving crop production. The main challenge is to encourage farmers in the use of appropriate technologies,  and  to  ensure  that  knowledge  about  sound  production  practices  is  increasingly accepted and applied by farmers. There is a huge, but underutilized potential to link farmers’ local knowledge with science-based innovations, through favourable institutional arrangements.  The same  holds  for  the  design,  implementation  and  monitoring  of  improved  natural  resource management  that  links  community  initiatives  to  external  expertise.  It is also suggested that a comprehensive effort be undertaken to measure different stages of the innovation system, including technological adoption and diffusion at the farm level, and to investigate the impact of agricultural policies on technological change and technical efficiency. This paper provides a brief review of agronomic management practices that support sustainable crop production system and evidence on developments  in the selection of crops and cultivars; describes farming systems for crop which take a predominantly ecosystem approach; discusses the scientific application of ecosystem principles for the management of pest and weed populations; reviews the  improvements in fertilizer and nutrient management that explain productivity growth; describes the benefits and constraints of irrigation technologies; and suggests a way forward. Seven changes in the context for agricultural development are proposed that heighten the need to examine how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector.

  17. Sustainable landscaping practices for enhancing vegetation establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Soil compaction can severely limit the success of vegetation establishment. Current grading and landscaping : practices commonly produce compacted soils of varied textures and profiles within SHA medians and roadsides, : resulting in limited capacity...

  18. Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Agronomy, sustainability and good agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliman Jean-Pierre

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable palm oil production needs to be based on the application of a code of good practices, respecting a certain number of criteria related to economic, environmental and social aspects. We focus here on economic and environmental aspects, attempting to take stock of the current situation regarding the management of inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, and of oil mill waste (empty fruit bunches, effluent. We also take a look at the main agricultural research required if we are to be able to assess the situation on different scales and see how it is evolving, and also provide assistance for rational management that is compatible with farmers’ production targets.

  20. High trees increase sunflower seed predation by birds in an agricultural landscape of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eSchäckermann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural habitats in agricultural landscapes promote agro-ecosystem services but little is known about negative effects (dis-services derived by natural habitats such as crop seed predation. Birds are important seed predators and use high landscape structures to perch and hide. High trees in agricultural landscapes may therefore drive seed predation. We examined if the presence, the distance and the percentages of high trees (tree height >5 m and the percentages of natural habitat surrounding sunflower fields, increased seed predation by birds in Israel. At the field scale, we assessed seed predation across a sample grid of an entire field. At the landscape scale, we assessed seed predation at the field margins and interiors of 20 sunflower fields. Seed predation was estimated as the percentage of removed seeds from sunflower heads. Distances of sample points to the closest high tree and percentage of natural habitat and of high trees in a 1km radius surrounding the fields were measured.We found that seed predation increased with decreasing distance to the closest high tree at the field and landscape scale. At the landscape scale, the percentage of high trees and natural habitat did not increase seed predation. Seed predation in the fields increased by 37 %, with a maximum seed predation of 92 %, when a high tree was available within zero to 50 m to the sunflower fields. If the closest high tree was further away, seed predation was less than 5 %. Sunflower seed predation by birds can be reduced, when avoiding sowing sunflowers within a radius of 50 m to high trees. Farmers should plan to grow crops, not sensitive to bird seed predation, closer to trees to eventually benefit from ecosystem services provided by birds, such as predation of pest insects, while avoiding these locations for growing crops sensitive to bird seed predation. Such management recommendations are directing towards sustainable agricultural landscapes.

  1. Protection, landscaping and regulation of agricultural land in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is protection, landscaping and regulation on agricultural land, based on The Agriculture Land Law in Serbia. Land is besides water and air the basic component of the environment. Bearing in mind the long-term processes of creation and development, land is the conditionally renewable resources. Land use, particularly in agricultural production, there is often a balance disorder of certain factors, which inevitably leads of damage. Land is in the nature of a slow learner, but in the process of degradation quickly destroyed. The main impact on land, recognized in the EU and candidate countries include erosion, reduction in organic matter, contamination (local and diffuse, occupation of land by building (buildings road, compaction floods and avalanches, reduction of soil biodiversity and salinization. Inventory of the state of pollution and damage to land, the establishment of permanent monitoring and reporting system requirement for developing strategies and selection of measures of quality care and prevention of negative processes. The measures of landscaping in The Agricultural land Law are: linking of land plots, voluntary grouping of lad plots and melioration of land. The owner of agricultural land has an obligation to cultivate the land in accordance with the code of good agricultural practice, prescribed by the Law.

  2. Remote sensing and GIS in support of sustainable agricultural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Dennis Correa

    Over the coming decades it is expected that the vast amounts of area currently in agricultural production will face growing pressure to intensify as world populations continue to grow, and the demand for a more Western-based diet increases. Coupled with the potential consequences of climate change, and the increasing costs involved with current energy-intensive agricultural production methods, meeting goals of environmental and socioeconomic sustainability will become ever more challenging. At a minimum, meeting such goals will require a greater understanding of rates of change, both over time and space, to properly assess how present demand may affect the needs of future generations. As agriculture represents a fundamental component of modern society, and the most ubiquitous form of human induced landscape change on the planet, it follows that mapping and tracking changes in such environments represents a crucial first step towards meeting the goal of sustainability. In anticipation of the mounting need for consistent and timely information related to agricultural development, this thesis proposes several advances in the field of geomatics, with specific contributions in the areas of remote sensing and spatial analysis: First, the relative strengths of several supervised machine learning algorithms used to classify remotely sensed imagery were assessed using two image analysis approaches: pixel-based and object-based. Second, a feature selection process, based on a Random Forest classifier, was applied to a large data set to reduce the overall number of object-based predictor variables used by a classification model without sacrificing overall classification accuracy. Third, a hybrid object-based change detection method was introduced with the ability to handle disparate image sources, generate per-class change thresholds, and minimize map updating errors. Fourth, a spatial disaggregation procedure was performed on coarse scale agricultural census data to render

  3. Dairy Chains: Consumer Foodways and Agricultural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Wessell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Food is significant as an agent of social change as well as being the subject of activism. The focus of this paper is on nature’s “perfect food”, milk, in the 1950s, a period of social transition that offers fertile space for reconstructing food activism and giving it a history. Australia’s dairy industry is the country’s largest processed food industry and the fourth largest of the nation’s rural industries. Milk is a fruitful site to consider the relationship between people and their food, production and consumption, the intimate way we bring our food into our bodies and the experience of farmers with personal connections to the ecosystems in which they live. Dense networks connect farm producers and consumers. The dairy industry will be considered as a site of production and consumption where considerable political activity was concentrated in the 1950s. These themes are illuminated in the paper by briefly considering two groups of women caught up in very different family labour systems defined by their relationship to milk – housewives active in the state associations campaigning around milk prices and quality and farm women. The transformation of rural life, home and food culture during this period impacted on both groups of women, it was from their work that they expressed a position and identified, and both engaged in complex processes of negotiation that, I argue, have generated and sustained other movements.

  4. Agricultural landscapes dynamic at the North-West of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The process of reduction of agrolandscapes has taken place some decades in the North-Western European Russia. During 100 last years the area of agricultural lands have reduced in 1,4 times on the Karelian Isthmus. The most part of it had been abandoned after change of State border after of the Second World War. The processes of overgrowing of the former agricultural lands are studied on the landscapes base. The types of landscapes are distinguished on the based of the morphological relief symptoms, characteristics of the structure rock and the humid regime. Agricultural lands occupy landscapes such as kames, sandy, sandy-loam, clayey plains, sometimes with excess moistening, sandy fluvioglacial plains, loamy morainic plains, mesotrophic and evtrophic peat-bogs. Four stages can be revealed. I - (period to 20 years after termination of agricultural use) - grass-herb meadow with unclosed brush II - (20 - 40) - shrub layer with closed or low-closed canopy and unclosed or low closed small-leaved regrowth III - (40 - 80) - closed small-leaved forest, sometime including the coniferous trees IY - predomination of the coniferous on small-leaved trees Reestablish vegetation successions can be realised by different ways, with different rate, including various trees and ecological groups of species in different landscapes. In the different sites many traits in common are discovered during this processes. The processes taking place in soil of abandoned agricultural lands are expressed more poorly than in vegetation as soil is more "conservative" element of landscape. Now most area occupies former agricultural lands, inhering on III stage and presenting itself small-leaved forest. Over the last decade because of a change in the socio-political situation there has emerged a tendency towards an increase in the area of the cultivated land in the Karelian Isthmus including the secondary development of previously abandoned lands. However, this process is going on spontaneously; there

  5. Landscape, community, countryside: linking biophysical and social scales in US Corn Belt agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan C. Atwell; Lisa A. Schulte; Lynne M. Westphal

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between ecological and social factors across multiple scales is integral to landscape change initiatives in productive agricultural regions such as the rural US Corn Belt. We investigated the cultural context surrounding the use of perennial cover types--such as stream buffers, wetlands, cellulosic bioenergy stocks, and diverse cropping...

  6. TMDL implementation in agricultural landscapes: a communicative and systemic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nicholas R; Slotterback, Carissa Schively; Cadieux, Kirsten Valentine; Mulla, David J; Pitt, David G; Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2011-07-01

    Increasingly, total maximum daily load (TMDL) limits are being defined for agricultural watersheds. Reductions in non-point source pollution are often needed to meet TMDL limits, and improvements in management of annual crops appear insufficient to achieve the necessary reductions. Increased adoption of perennial crops and other changes in agricultural land use also appear necessary, but face major barriers. We outline a novel strategy that aims to create new economic opportunities for land-owners and other stakeholders and thereby to attract their voluntary participation in land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Our strategy has two key elements. First, focused efforts are needed to create new economic enterprises that capitalize on the productive potential of multifunctional agriculture (MFA). MFA seeks to produce a wide range of goods and ecosystem services by well-designed deployment of annual and perennial crops across agricultural landscapes and watersheds; new revenue from MFA may substantially finance land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Second, efforts to capitalize on MFA should use a novel methodology, the Communicative/Systemic Approach (C/SA). C/SA uses an integrative GIS-based spatial modeling framework for systematically assessing tradeoffs and synergies in design and evaluation of multifunctional agricultural landscapes, closely linked to deliberation and design processes by which multiple stakeholders can collaboratively create appropriate and acceptable MFA landscape designs. We anticipate that application of C/SA will strongly accelerate TMDL implementation, by aligning the interests of multiple stakeholders whose active support is needed to change agricultural land use and thereby meet TMDL goals.

  7. Restoration of degraded agricultural terraces: rebuilding landscape structure and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFevor, M C

    2014-06-01

    The restoration of severely degraded cropland to productive agricultural capacity increases food supply, improves soil and water conservation, and enhances environmental and ecological services. This article examines the key roles that long-term maintenance plays in the processes of repairing degraded agricultural land. Field measurements from Tlaxcala, Mexico stress that restoring agricultural structures (the arrangements of landforms and vegetation) is alone insufficient. Instead, an effective monitoring and maintenance regime of agricultural structures is also crucial if the efforts are to be successful. Consequently, methods of wildland restoration and agricultural restoration may differ in the degree to which the latter must plan for and facilitate a sustained human involvement. An improved understanding of these distinctions is critical for environmental management as restoration programs that employ the technologies of intensive agriculture continue to grow in number and scope. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Land use as a driver of soil fertility and biodiversity across an agricultural landscape in the Central Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valença, De Anne W.; Vanek, Steven J.; Meza, Katherin; Ccanto, Raul; Olivera, Edgar; Scurrah, Maria; Lantinga, Egbert A.; Fonte, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Land use change and intensification in agricultural landscapes of the Andean highlands have resulted in widespread soil degradation and a loss in soil-based ecosystem services and biodiversity. This trend threatens the sustainability of farming communities in the Andes, with important

  9. Conventionalization, Civic Engagement, and the Sustainability of Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed that organic farming is synonymous with sustainable agriculture. The broad goals of sustainable agriculture include economic profitability, environmental stewardship, and community vitality. However, the "question of sustainability" (Ikerd, 2008) can be asked of any type of farming, including organic production. One…

  10. The Role of Ergonomics in Sustainable Agricultural Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the role of ergonomics on sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. Agriculture plays a key role in the Nigerian economy and hence the need for sustained development within the sector. Ergonomic intervention in Nigeria was identified as a key driver for sustainable development while fostering ...

  11. Sustainable energy landscapes: The power of imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.

    2012-01-01

    Resource depletion and climate change motivate a transition to sustainable energy systems that make effective use of renewable sources. Sustainable energy transition necessitates a transformation of large parts of the existing built environment and presents one of the great challenges of present-day

  12. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  13. Burhanpur Cultural Landscape Conservation: Inspiring Quality for Sustainable Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Wahurwagh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heritage landscape of Burhanpur has an architectural and horticultural composition, consisting of many historic gardens, a unique water management system, a sustainable planning and design framework, the use of landscape and topography with numerous heritage components and historical monuments, temples, tombs and mosques that are locally, regionally and nationally significant. Conserving Burhanpur as an inspirational model for other sites is not only a cultural heritage objective, but it is also a crucial component of the heritage-based sustainable regeneration of the landscape, because it is directly linked to environmental integrity, economic efficiency and resources for present and future generations. Although the last decade has witnessed vigorous efforts by the municipal corporation to preserve and develop Burhanpur by designating it as one of the heritage cities of the UNESCO—Indian Heritage Cities Network (in 2006, a coherent, holistic and sustainable heritage outcome has not been achieved. This paper proposes to harness the cultural landscape as an approach for the sustainable regeneration of Burhanpur heritage and takes a holistic approach to the interpretation of the historic district and natural landscape of the city, where historic buildings are located.

  14. The sustainable management of the landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-David Gerber

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le paysage est de plus en plus perçu comme une ressource. À ce titre, il est nécessaire de trouver des instruments juridiques, politiques ou économiques susceptibles de gérer cette « ressource-paysage » sur le long terme. Le gouvernement suisse a introduit récemment l’instrument des parcs naturels régionaux, organisés selon le modèle français, dans sa législation de protection de la nature et du paysage. Une mise en regard des nouveaux parcs avec des structures de gestion beaucoup plus anciennes, les bourgeoisies et les corporations, permet de mettre en évidence les forces et les faiblesses de chacun de ces instruments dans leur contribution à résoudre les rivalités d’usage entre acteurs utilisant ou influençant la ressource paysage. Cette comparaison permet de formuler des recommandations pratiques concernant la gestion de cette ressource.The landscape is increasingly perceived as a resource. For this reason, it is necessary to find legal, political and economic instruments that will succeed in managing this "resource landscape" in the long term. The Swiss government recently introduced the instrument of regional nature parks into the legislation governing nature and landscape preservation; the proposed parks are organized on the basis of the French model. The examination of the new parks from the perspective of much older management structures, i.e. the civic municipalities (bourgeoisies and corporations, makes it possible to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these instruments in their contribution to the resolution of use rivalries between actors who use or influence the resource landscape. This comparison also enables the formulation of practical recommendations regarding the management of this resource.

  15. Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E P

    2013-06-05

    The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes.

  16. Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes. PMID:23610175

  17. Precision Agriculture with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for SMC estimations – Towards a more Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Hafsal, Leif Peder

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis is reviewing the latest published research on remote sensing technology in the agricultural sector, for soil moisture estimations towards a more sustainable precision agriculture. Modern, exciting new technological innovations will also be presented, along with the sustainable aspect of conventional agriculture with more precise agricultural practices. The synergy between UAS, SMC and sustainability are the focus of attention for this review thesis, as the po...

  18. Students' Knowledge of and Expected Impact from Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David L.

    2000-01-01

    High school agricultural students in Iowa (n=386) rated their knowledge of sustainable agriculture as limited. They expected it to have high impact environmentally and socially. Results provide a basis for curriculum development in this area. (SK)

  19. Study of agricultural waste treatment in China and Russia-based on the agriculture environment sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyaeva, Victoria A.; Teng, Xiuyi; Sergio

    2017-06-01

    China and Russia are both agriculture countries, agricultural environment sustainable development is very important for them. The paper studies three main agricultural wastes: straw, organic waste and plastic waste, and analyzes their treatments with the view of agricultural sustainable development.

  20. Avian Species and Functional Diversity in Agricultural Landscapes: Does Landscape Heterogeneity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Bok; Martin, James A

    2017-01-01

    While the positive relationship between avian diversity and habitat heterogeneity is widely accepted, it is primarily based on observed species richness without accounting for imperfect detection. Other facets of diversity such as functional diversity are also rarely explored. We investigated the avian diversity-landscape heterogeneity relationship in agricultural landscapes by considering two aspects of diversity: taxonomic diversity (species richness) estimated from a multi-species dynamic occupancy model, and functional diversity (functional evenness [FEve] and divergence [FDiv]) based on traits of occurring species. We also assessed how agricultural lands enrolled in a conservation program managed on behalf of declining early successional bird species (hereafter CP38 fields, an agri-environment scheme) influenced avian diversity. We analyzed breeding bird data collected at CP38 fields in Mississippi, USA, during 2010-2012, and two principal components of environmental variables: a gradient of heterogeneity (Shannon's landscape diversity index) and of the amount of CP38 fields (percent cover of CP38 fields; CP38). FEve did not show significant responses to environmental variables, whereas FDiv responded positively to heterogeneity and negatively to CP38. However, most FDiv values did not significantly differ from random expectations along an environmental gradient. When there was a significant difference, FDiv was lower than that expected. Unlike functional diversity, species richness showed a clear pattern. Species richness increased with increasing landscape heterogeneity but decreased with increasing amounts of CP38 fields. Only one species responded negatively to heterogeneity and positively to CP38. Our results suggest that the relationships between avian diversity and landscape heterogeneity may vary depending on the aspect of diversity considered: strong positive effects of heterogeneity on taxonomic diversity, but weakly positive or non

  1. Complexity of human and ecosystem interactions in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Richard H.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of human interaction in the commercial agricultural landscape and the resulting impacts on the ecosystem services of water quality and quantity is largely ignored by the current agricultural paradigm that maximizes crop production over other ecosystem services. Three examples at different spatial scales (local, regional, and global) are presented where human and ecosystem interactions in a commercial agricultural landscape adversely affect water quality and quantity in unintended ways in the Delta of northwestern Mississippi. In the first example, little to no regulation of groundwater use for irrigation has caused declines in groundwater levels resulting in loss of baseflow to streams and threatening future water supply. In the second example, federal policy which subsidizes corn for biofuel production has encouraged many producers to switch from cotton to corn, which requires more nutrients and water, counter to national efforts to reduce nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico and exacerbating groundwater level declines. The third example is the wholesale adoption of a system for weed control that relies on a single chemical, initially providing many benefits and ultimately leading to the widespread occurrence of glyphosate and its degradates in Delta streams and necessitating higher application rates of glyphosate as well as the use of other herbicides due to increasing weed resistance. Although these examples are specific to the Mississippi Delta, analogous situations exist throughout the world and point to the need for change in how we grow our food, fuel, and fiber, and manage our soil and water resources.

  2. How could companies engage in sustainable landscape management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.; Steingröver, E.G.

    2018-01-01

    Current concepts that aim to align economic development with sustainability, such as the circular and green economy, often consider natural systems as externalities. We extend the green economy concept by including the landscape as the provider of social, economic and environmental values. Our aim

  3. Pedo-environmental evolution and agricultural landscape transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmo Vianello

    different ecosystems are now “imposed” through investments and the use of considerable energy resources, where little account is taken of the actual sustainability of soil use or the progressive loss of natural fertility; moreover, the rural landscape, by virtue of an increasingly intense and localised single-crop specialisation, has become organised into areas displaying a uniform, regular and often monotonous appearance. However, the greatest source of worry lies in the progressive consumption of soil, which particularly affects flatlands and low hills. This phenomenon is tied not only to the relentless expansion of developed areas, but also to an irrational distribution of residential, industrial and commercial property, resulting in the segmentation and fragmentation of farmland. An irreversible trend that risks destroying the already fragile identity of the rural landscape completely.

  4. Scale-Aware Pansharpening Algorithm for Agricultural Fragmented Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lillo-Saavedra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing (RS has played an important role in extensive agricultural monitoring and management for several decades. However, the current spatial resolution of satellite imagery does not have enough definition to generalize its use in highly-fragmented agricultural landscapes, which represents a significant percentage of the world’s total cultivated surface. To characterize and analyze this type of landscape, multispectral (MS images with high and very high spatial resolutions are required. Multi-source image fusion algorithms are normally used to improve the spatial resolution of images with a medium spatial resolution. In particular, pansharpening (PS methods allow one to produce high-resolution MS images through a coherent integration of spatial details from a panchromatic (PAN image with spectral information from an MS. The spectral and spatial quality of source images must be preserved to be useful in RS tasks. Different PS strategies provide different trade-offs between the spectral and the spatial quality of the fused images. Considering that agricultural landscape images contain many levels of significant structures and edges, the PS algorithms based on filtering processes must be scale-aware and able to remove different levels of detail in any input images. In this work, a new PS methodology based on a rolling guidance filter (RGF is proposed. The main contribution of this new methodology is to produce artifact-free pansharpened images, improving the MS edges with a scale-aware approach. Three images have been used, and more than 150 experiments were carried out. An objective comparison with widely-used methodologies shows the capability of the proposed method as a powerful tool to obtain pansharpened images preserving the spatial and spectral information.

  5. URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: A CHALLENGE TO EFFECTIVE LANDSCAPING IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anifowose M. O. Atolagbe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The poor quality of the Nigerian urban environment has been attributed partly to the inadequate%2C misuse and mis- management of the urban open spaces. This%2C according to various researchers%2C has exerted a major strain on the physical outlook of the environment and a negative effect on the welfare and productivity of the residents. This has called for the need to identify and analyze the open spaces in the urban environment and assess the implications of their landscape planning on the status of the city and the development of a healthy and sustainable environment. This study therefore discusses the concept of sustainability%2C particularly within the built environment. It looks into the principles and indicators for sustainability of the environment and the resulting problems. Furthermore%2C a case study of Akure urban core was carried out to assess the uses and landscape status of the open spaces. The results when statistically analysed showed the inadequacies in the provision and management of the open spaces in the study area. It therefore recommends attainable policies for the effective sustainability of the environment. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : urban environment%2C sustainability%2C landscaping.

  6. Stream Metabolism and Aquatic Vegetation in Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, M. D.; Bales, J. D.; Waite, I.

    2013-12-01

    Forty-six streams across 7 agricultural areas of the United States were assessed using 2-station whole-stream metabolism techniques and aquatic vegetation measurements. Land use was dominated by agriculture, ranging from 0.1 to 92 percent (mean = 44 percent), with agricultural practices ranging from low intensity pasture to high intensity irrigated agriculture. Streams represented a gradient of nutrient concentrations for TN (0.07- 9.0 mg/L) and TP (0.002-1.7 mg/L). Measures of aquatic vegetation included benthic algal biomass (chlorophyll a/m2) and percent macrophyte cover. Additional data included stream and riparian habitat and basin features. Gross primary production (GPP) ranged from 0.1 to 12 g O2/ m2/ d, with highest production occurring in macrophyte-dominated streams in Idaho and Minnesota, and benthic periphyton-dominated streams in the Ozarks (Arkansas and Missouri). GPP was positively correlated with macrophyte cover (r=0.35), but not with algal biomass. Macrophyte driven systems occurred almost exclusively in open canopy systems where canopy was less than 27 percent. Nutrient concentrations in streams were not determined to be important explanatory variables for GPP; however, modeled estimates of nitrogen and phosphorous inputs to the watershed were related to benthic algal biomass and macrophyte cover in specific agricultural areas. Habitat played a key role in GPP, benthic algal biomass, and macrophyte cover, with indicators of light (for example, canopy cover or suspended sediment), often determined to be significant explanatory variables. Approximately 75 percent of sites had negative net ecosystem production indicating heterotrophic metabolism; intensive agriculture dominated many of these streams. Nutrient management strategies in agricultural landscapes require an understanding of nutrient sources, transport mechanisms, habitat condition, and ecosystem processes in order to make sound decisions on land use practices.

  7. Gender Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Practices by Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable agricultural practices describe the effort of farmers at protecting and enhancing the environment to preserve it for further exploitation. Therefore both men and women have important roles to play in preserving their environment. This paper analyzed the gender roles in the use of sustainable agricultural practices ...

  8. Transgenic Crops: Implications for Biodiversity and Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria Alice; Altieri, Miguel A.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for genetically modified (GM) crops to threaten biodiversity conservation and sustainable agriculture is substantial. Megadiverse countries and centers of origin and/or diversity of crop species are particularly vulnerable regions. The future of sustainable agriculture may be irreversibly jeopardized by contamination of in situ…

  9. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Professionals' Attitudes toward Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarovic, Rosanne E.; Mueller, J. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 369 of 500 extension professionals reflected a shared vision for sustainable agriculture and recognition of a need for environmentally sound farming practices. There was less unanimity about endorsing the social aspects of sustainable agriculture, though they agreed on the need for more systems research. (SK)

  10. Nepal's agriculture, sustainability and intervention : looking for new directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basnyat, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    This study focuses on intervention processes that support sustainable agriculture. It argues that we know very little about how to intervene for sustainable agriculture, particularly for those areas where the Green Revolution has passed almost unnoticed and where degradation of natural

  11. Soil Degradation, Policy Intervention and Sustainable Agricultural Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasmal, J.; Weikard, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural growth in developing countries is jeopardized by soil degradation consequent upon intensive cultivation and use of increasing doses of chemical inputs. To pave the way to sustainable agricultural growth we develop a model that incorporates organic fertilizer into the

  12. A paradigm shift in sustainability governance? The emergence of sustainable landscape initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Hospes, O.

    2016-01-01

    During the last two decades, multinational business and international NGOs from the North have initiated global roundtables, standards and certification programs to promote sustainable cropping in the South. In recent years, new programs and projects have emerged to promote sustainable landscapes,

  13. Impact of Azotobacter exopolysaccharides on sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauri, Samiran S; Mandal, Santi M; Pati, Bikas R

    2012-07-01

    Recently, increasing attention have lead to search other avenue of biofertilizers with multipurpose activities as a manner of sustainable soil health to improve the plant productivity. Azotobacter have been universally accepted as a major inoculum used in biofertilizer to restore the nitrogen level into cultivated field. Azotobacter is well characterized for their profuse production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). Several reviews on biogenesis and multifunctional role of Azotobacter EPS have been documented with special emphasis on industrial applications. But the impact of Azotobacter EPS in plant growth promotion has not received adequate attention. This review outlines the evidence that demonstrates not only the contribution of Azotobacter EPS in global nutrient cycle but also help to compete successfully in different adverse ecological and edaphic conditions. This also focuses on new insights and concepts of Azotobacter EPS which have positive effects caused by the biofilm formation on overall plant growth promotion with other PGPRs. In addition, their potentials in agricultural improvement are also discussed. Recent data realized that Azotobacter EPS have an immense agro-economical importance including the survivability and maintenance of microbial community in their habitat. This leads us to confirm that the next generation Azotobacter inoculum with high yielding EPS and high nitrogen fixing ability can be utilized to satisfy the future demand of augmented crop production attributed to increase plant growth promoting agents.

  14. Utilizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Agricultural Education to Promote Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David L.; Muchena, Olivia N.

    1991-01-01

    Understanding and appreciation of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) are essential for promoting sustainable agriculture development. IKS provides a cultural basis for nonformal agricultural programs that is absent in technology transfer approaches. (SK)

  15. Sustainable Management of Resource Consumption Agriculture - Enlightenment from Organic Agriculture of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Fang; Xu, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the content of organic agriculture, sustainable management of agriculture in Japan is analyzed from four aspects. Firstly, organization and management institutions and relevant laws and regulations of organic agriculture in Japan are introduced. Secondly, certification procedure of organic agricultural products is briefly described, that is, determining production plan, reorganizing cultivation and management records, making certification application, on-site inspection, offering cer...

  16. Toward malaysian sustainable agriculture in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramnia, K.; Shariff, A. R. M.; Rahim, A. Abdul; Mansor, S.

    2014-02-01

    Sustainable agriculture should be able to meet various social goals and objectives so that it can be maintained for an indefinite period without significant negative impacts on environment and natural resources. A wide variety of agricultural activities are running in Malaysia. Maintaining high quality of agricultural products with lower environmental impacts through a sustainable economic viability and life satisfaction of farmers and community are important factors helping to meet sustainable agriculture. Human resources are playing key role in directing the community toward sustainable development. The trend of improving the human development index in Malaysia is highest in the East Asia and the Pacific, high human development countries and the world, since 2000. Precision agriculture is providing strong tools to achieve sustainable agriculture. Different types of sensors, positioning and navigation systems, GIS, software and variable rate technology are well known components of precision agriculture. Drones and robots are promising tools that enabling farmers and managers to collect information or perform particular actions in remote areas or tough conditions. According to a survey, forestry and timber, rubber production and oil palm estates are three main agricultural divisions that precision agriculture may improve the productivity in respect to area of cropland/worker. Main factors affecting the adoption of precision agriculture in Malaysia are: a) Political and legal supports, b) Decision support systems and user interfaces c) Experienced research team works d) National educational policy e) Success in commercialization of precision agriculture system.

  17. Strategies for feeding the world more sustainably with organic agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Adrian; Schader, Christian; El-Hage Scialabba, Nadia; Brüggemann, Judith; Isensee, Anne; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Smith, Pete; Klocke, Peter; Leiber, Florian; Stolze, Matthias; Niggli, Urs

    2017-11-14

    Organic agriculture is proposed as a promising approach to achieving sustainable food systems, but its feasibility is also contested. We use a food systems model that addresses agronomic characteristics of organic agriculture to analyze the role that organic agriculture could play in sustainable food systems. Here we show that a 100% conversion to organic agriculture needs more land than conventional agriculture but reduces N-surplus and pesticide use. However, in combination with reductions of food wastage and food-competing feed from arable land, with correspondingly reduced production and consumption of animal products, land use under organic agriculture remains below the reference scenario. Other indicators such as greenhouse gas emissions also improve, but adequate nitrogen supply is challenging. Besides focusing on production, sustainable food systems need to address waste, crop-grass-livestock interdependencies and human consumption. None of the corresponding strategies needs full implementation and their combined partial implementation delivers a more sustainable food future.

  18. Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, P.V.; Hartshorn, A.S.; Chadwick, O.A.; Vitousek, P.M.; Sherrod, D.R.; Coil, J.; Holm, L.; Sharp, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km2) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the most important influence on Polynesian farming and settlement practices in an agriculturally marginal landscape. Interactions between lava flows, whose ages range from 3,000 to 226,000 years, and differences in rainfall create an environmental mosaic that constrained precontact Polynesian farming practices to a zone defined by aridity at low elevation and depleted soil nutrients at high elevation. Within this productive zone, however, large-scale agriculture was concentrated on older, tephra-blanketed lava flows; younger flows were reserved for residential sites, small ritual gardens, and agricultural temples.

  19. Farmers' Perception of Sustainable Agriculture in South- Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KENNY

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, 2015. Farmers' Perception of Sustainable Agriculture in South-. Western Nigeria: Implications for Rural Economy. *Adeola, R. G. And Adetunbi, S. I.. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development,. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, ...

  20. Diffuse pollution from intensive agriculture: sustainability, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, M R

    2007-01-01

    Global expansion and intensification of industrialized agriculture during the last 50 years was facilitated by the replacement of labor by imported chemicals and energy, thus changing the economics and the social fabric of rural communities as well as impairing water, air, and soil resources essential to sustaining food and fiber production in a world with an increasing appetite. To effectively understand and solve complex problems resulting from this agricultural revolution, expanded communications are needed at a variety of levels. It is critical for the technical community to communicate through greater interdisciplinary research among agronomists, soil scientists, hydrologists, ecologists, and others to reduce diffuse pollution from agriculture. Also, more effective translations of technical problems and solutions are needed to influence policy. Accurate advice is needed in spite of the uncertainties that scientists too often use to obscure useful information. Education will be needed for producers and conservationists to gain confidence that promised environmental responses will occur if solutions are to be implemented at more than experimental or demonstration scales. The search for comprehensive solutions to environmental degradation will require understanding the ultimate causes of pollution, not just the proximal causes. The ultimate causes will only be found by examining the systems that facilitate the release of contaminants to the environment such as the wholesale landscape changes that replaced grazing land with annual crops leading to increased leaching and runoff. Research and demonstration projects increasingly need collaborations among agronomists, livestock scientists, soil scientists, hydrologists, economists, sociologists and others who have a stake in the study of diffuse pollution and the outcomes of any proposed solutions. Partnerships developed at the working level where basic principles can be shared will help avoid the pursuit of

  1. An Economic Analysis of Agricultural Sustainability in Orissa

    OpenAIRE

    Hatai, L.D.; Sen, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    The development of a method for generating Sustainable Livelihood Security Index (SLSI) for agricultural sustainability and evaluating the existing status has been reported. Some measures have been suggested to promote sustainable agriculture of Orissa. This state has been selected since it faces wide inequality, improper management and over-exploitation of natural resources and explosion of population. These have created a threat to ecological balance and economic as well as social status of...

  2. Landscape patterns and soil organic carbon stocks in agricultural bocage landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaud, Valérie; Lacoste, Marine; Michot, Didier; Walter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) has a crucial impact on global carbon storage at world scale. SOC spatial variability is controlled by the landscape patterns resulting from the continuous interactions between the physical environment and the society. Natural and anthropogenic processes occurring and interplaying at the landscape scale, such as soil redistribution in the lateral and vertical dimensions by tillage and water erosion processes or spatial differentiation of land-use and land-management practices, strongly affect SOC dynamics. Inventories of SOC stocks, reflecting their spatial distribution, are thus key elements to develop relevant management strategies to improving carbon sequestration and mitigating climate change and soil degradation. This study aims to quantify SOC stocks and their spatial distribution in a 1,000-ha agricultural bocage landscape with dairy production as dominant farming system (Zone Atelier Armorique, LTER Europe, NW France). The site is characterized by high heterogeneity on short distance due to a high diversity of soils with varying waterlogging, soil parent material, topography, land-use and hedgerow density. SOC content and stocks were measured up to 105-cm depth in 200 sampling locations selected using conditioned Latin hypercube sampling. Additive sampling was designed to specifically explore SOC distribution near to hedges: 112 points were sampled at fixed distance on 14 transects perpendicular from hedges. We illustrate the heterogeneity of spatial and vertical distribution of SOC stocks at landscape scale, and quantify SOC stocks in the various landscape components. Using multivariate statistics, we discuss the variability and co-variability of existing spatial organization of cropping systems, environmental factors, and SOM stocks, over landscape. Ultimately, our results may contribute to improving regional or national digital soil mapping approaches, by considering the distribution of SOC stocks within each modeling unit and

  3. Toward a whole-landscape approach for sustainable land use in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, R; Rosenzweig, C

    2010-11-16

    Increasing food production and mitigating climate change are two primary but seemingly contradictory objectives for tropical landscapes. This special feature examines synergies and trade-offs among these objectives. Four themes emerge from the papers: the important roles of both forest and agriculture sectors for climate mitigation in tropical countries; the minor contribution from deforestation-related agricultural expansion to overall food production at global and continental scales; the opportunities for synergies between improved food production and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions through diversion of agricultural expansion to already-cleared lands, improved soil, crop, and livestock management, and agroforestry; and the need for targeted policy and management interventions to make these synergistic opportunities a reality. We conclude that agricultural intensification is a key factor to meet dual objectives of food production and climate mitigation, but there is no single panacea for balancing these objectives in all tropical landscapes. Place-specific strategies for sustainable land use emerge from assessments of current land use, demographics, and other biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics, using a whole-landscape, multisector perspective.

  4. Opportunities and challenges of sustainable agricultural development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Luo, Qishan; Deng, Hongbing; Yan, Yan

    2008-02-27

    This paper introduces the concepts and aims of sustainable agriculture in China. Sustainable agricultural development comprises sustainability of agricultural production, sustainability of the rural economy, ecological and environmental sustainability within agricultural systems and sustainability of rural society. China's prime aim is to ensure current and future food security. Based on projections of China's population, its economy, societal factors and agricultural resources and inputs between 2000 and 2050, total grain supply and demand has been predicted and the state of food security analysed. Total and per capita demand for grain will increase continuously. Total demand will reach 648 Mt in 2020 and 700 Mt in 2050, while total grain yield of cultivated land will reach 470 Mt in 2010, 585 Mt in 2030 and 656 Mt in 2050. The per capita grain production will be around 360kg in the period 2000-2030 and reach 470kg in 2050. When productivities of cultivated land and other agricultural resources are all taken into consideration, China's food self-sufficiency ratio will increase from 94.4% in 2000 to 101.3% in 2030, suggesting that China will meet its future demand for food and need for food security. Despite this positive assessment, the country's sustainable agricultural development has encountered many obstacles. These include: agricultural water-use shortage; cultivated land loss; inappropriate usage of fertilizers and pesticides, and environmental degradation.

  5. The residence time of intensively managed agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Laura; Cherkauer, Keith; Chiu, Chun-mei; Rahman, Sanoar

    2015-04-01

    Much of the agricultural landscape across the Midwestern United States is intensively managed through numerous surface and subsurface drainage improvements, and the growing extraction of groundwater resources. The relatively recent glaciation of the North Central region means that the landscape is less dissected and hydrologically connected than older till areas. Low topographic gradients and underlying dense till which restricts vertical water movement, as well as kettle depressions, have led to poorly drained soils and extensive wetlands within the landscape. Large areas of this land could only be farmed once the excess water was removed through artificial surface and subsurface drainage. Conventional wisdom in the region maintains that subsurface tile drainage reduces the occurrence of peak flow events by increasing soil water storage capacity. At the watershed scale, this view does not take into account the coincident increase in surface drainage and reduction in residence time in surface depressions. This paper explores to what degree water management and irrigation has changed surface and subsurface water storage and residence time over the last century and how this has impacted flow duration throughout the Wabash River system in Indiana, USA. The effects of subsurface tile drains, wetlands and aquifer storage are explicitly represented within the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model. We maintain a focus on the entire Wabash River, a river system of historic importance that is also representative of many similar areas in the till plain region of the agricultural Midwest, which contribute to water quality and flood dynamics of the Mississippi river system. By lowering the water table, surface and subsurface drainage improvements have increased the subsurface storage capacity at the beginning of rain events, but this is overwhelmed by the decrease in surface storage capacity for intermediate to large events, decreasing the current

  6. Sustainable development of agriculture in karst areas, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhua Song

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposed carbonate rocks aged from Sinian to Mid-Triassic Periods cover an area of 500,000 Km2 in south-west China. In karst areas with spectacular landscapes characterized by magnificent tower karst and conical karst, rare surface drainage systems and prevalent subsurface drainage systems, the environment is ecologically very fragile. The rapid increase of population, over deforested and cultivated lands, worsted the ecological system, causing a higher frequency of draught, flood and various disasters, backward economic development, low living standard of the people. In order to improve the sustainability of the agriculture the experience shows that the following operations should be adopted: (1 serious control of the population increase, emigration, extra labours and improvement of the environmental education of the local inhabitants; (2 terracing of the slopes (shi jala di as to improve the cultivated land quality, to preserve the water, soil and fertiliser and ameliorate the effective utilisation of the land; (3 development of new rural energies such as the solar energy and gas energy, and expansion of the saving-fuel stoves to reduce the load of bio-energy; (4 reforestation and bounding the hills and mountains; the ecological, economic and fuel forests model has been developed in fengcong-depression areas: the tree species with high ecological, economical and energetic characteristics, should be chosen, such as the bamboo, wild grapes, Sapium rotundifolium etc.; (5 better utilisation of the ram water and karst water resource to solve the water supply problems. The karst landscape is well developed in the 500,000 km2 carbonate terrain in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, west Hunan and south Sichuan provinces in south-west China, where 100 million habitants live (Song, 1997. The large population and its high density, serious deforestation, over-cultivation and fragile ecological system make the environmental problems very serious and about 30

  7. Chlorate origin and fate in shallow groundwater below agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrocicco, Micòl; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Vincenzi, Fabio; Colombani, Nicolò; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

    2017-09-12

    In agricultural lowland landscapes, intensive agricultural is accompanied by a wide use of agrochemical application, like pesticides and fertilizers. The latter often causes serious environmental threats such as N compounds leaching and surface water eutrophication; additionally, since perchlorate can be present as impurities in many fertilizers, the potential presence of perchlorates and their by-products like chlorates and chlorites in shallow groundwater could be a reason of concern. In this light, the present manuscript reports the first temporal and spatial variation of chlorates, chlorites and major anions concentrations in the shallow unconfined aquifer belonging to Ferrara province (in the Po River plain). The study was made in 56 different locations to obtain insight on groundwater chemical composition and its sediment matrix interactions. During the monitoring period from 2010 to 2011, in June 2011 a nonpoint pollution of chlorates was found in the shallow unconfined aquifer belonging to Ferrara province. Detected chlorates concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 38 mg/l with an average value of 2.9 mg/l. Chlorates were found in 49 wells out of 56 and in all types of lithology constituting the shallow aquifer. Chlorates concentrations appeared to be linked to NO3(-), volatile fatty acids (VFA) and oxygen reduction potential (ORP) variations. Chlorates behaviour was related to the biodegradation of perchlorates, since perchlorates are favourable electron acceptors for the oxidation of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in groundwater. Further studies must take into consideration to monitor ClO4(-) in pore waters and groundwater to better elucidate the mass flux of ClO4(-) in shallow aquifers belonging to agricultural landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GIGLIO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology and “normal data” (physiology for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation. Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. KEY WORDS: agricultural landscape, vegetation, landscape ecology, landscape health, Biological Integrated Landscape Ecology, Landscape Biological Survey of vegetation.

  9. Public-Private Partnerships and Sustainable Agricultural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Castle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in Africa is not sustainable because average yields have been stagnating for decades due to underinvestment, especially in the development of agricultural markets, crop improvement and the sustainable management of agricultural systems. Low public sector funding for agricultural research and lack of incentives for the private sector to operate in areas where there is no market largely explain the yield gap in many food-importing developing countries. Yet, there are effective ways in which the public and the private sector could work together and jointly improve agricultural sustainability in poor countries. The public sector provides a favorable institutional environment for the development of agricultural markets and investment in rural infrastructure, facilitates local business development and funds research with local relevance. The private sector, in return, brings its considerable expertise in product development and deployment. This article illustrates how new forms of public-private partnerships (PPPs for agricultural development can work in challenging environments. It discusses three promising examples of PPPs in which the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture (SFSA is actively involved, and shows that an experimental approach can sometimes be more effective than social planning in efforts to achieve sustainable agriculture.

  10. Soil governance in the agricultural landscapes of New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A Webb

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a valuable natural resource. In the state of New South Wales, Australia, the governance of soil has evolved since Federation in 1901. Following rapid agricultural development, and in the face of widespread soil degradation, the establishment of the Soil Conservation Service marked a turning point in the management of soil. Throughout the 20th century, advances in knowledge were translated into evolving governance frameworks that were largely reactionary but saw progressive reforms such as water pollution legislation and case studies of catchment-scale land and vegetation management. In the 21st century, significant reforms have embedded sustainable use of agricultural soils within catchment- and landscape-scale legislative and institutional frameworks. What is clear, however, is that a multitude of governance strategies and models are utilised in NSW. No single governance model is applicable to all situations because it is necessary to combine elements of several different mechanisms or instruments to achieve the most desired outcomes. Where an industry, such as the sugar industry, has taken ownership of an issue such as acid sulfate soil management, self-regulation has proven to be extremely effective. In the case of co-managing agricultural soils with other landuses, such as mining, petroleum exploration and urban development, regulation, compliance and enforcement mechanisms have been preferred. Institutional arrangements in the form of independent commissioners have also played a role. At the landscape or total catchment level, it is clear that a mix of mechanisms is required. Fundamental, however, to the successful evolution of soil governance is strategic investment in soil research and development that informs the ongoing productive use of agricultural landscapes while preventing land degradation or adverse environmental effects.

  11. Sustainability and tourism in the cultural landscapes of industrialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Pardo Abad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Old mining and industrial areas, many of them already abandoned after prolonged extractive and productive activity, often put up good experiences associated with recovery heritage and landscapes. Initially promoted by public administrations, particularly municipal bodies, with the active participation of private companies and the local community, nowadays these projects are an extraordinary reference for valuing a peculiar legacy that offers extensive possibilities for reuse under the indispensable perspective of sustainable development.

  12. Sustainability and Agenda 21: teaching sustainability ideology and landscape design practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jones

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the 'Issues in Landscape Sustainability' subject/project that has been devised by Adelaide University's School of Architecture, Landscape Architecture and Urban Design. It has been successfully run in the townships of Strathalbyn (University of Adelaide 1997, Loxton (University of Adelaide 1998, Port Broughton (University of Adelaide 1999a, and Lobethal (University of Adelaide 2000. The subject/project was recently recognised by the Royal Australian Planning Institute (SA Group with a Student Project Award in their 1999 State Awards of Excellence: 'Issues in Landscape Sustainability' is a project that introduces tertiary students to concepts of urban design, community planning, and landscape design with economic implications, woven around the concept of sustainability as contained in the State Government's Agenda 21 Strategy (Anon 1999 p 19. Agenda 21 is about devising policy and practical ideas to address sustainability objectives in communities. This project has focused upon rural communities as a vehicle to involve community and municipal representatives actively, to expose students to both theory and practice, and to serve as an introduction to landscape design principles at a medium level.

  13. Agricultural genomics and sustainable development: perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greatest ultimate impact will be in agricultural genomics, especially for marker assisted selection and breeding programs in crop and animal agriculture, development of animal disease diagnostics and vaccines, crop genetic engineering to overcome abiotic and biotic stresses and for improvement of the nutritional ...

  14. Agricultural landscape and pesticide effects on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) biological traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were placed in four different agricultural landscapes in order to study the in situ effects of the agricultural and pesticide exposure on honeybee health. Colonies were located in three different agricultural areas with varying levels of agricultural in...

  15. Indicators for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes: a pan-European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, R.; Liira, J.; Bailey, D.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Arens, P.F.P.; Augenstein, I.; Aviron, S.; Baudry, J.; Bukacek, R.; Burel, F.; Cerny, M.; Blust, de G.; Cock, de R.; Diekotter, T.; Dietz, H.; Dirksen, J.; Dormann, C.; Durka, W.; Frenzel, M.; Hamersky, R.; Hendrickx, F.; Herzog, F.; Klotz, S.; Koolstra, B.J.H.; Lausch, A.; Coeur, Le D.; Maelfait, J.P.; Opdam, P.; Roubalova, M.; Schermann, A.; Schermann, N.; Schmidt, T.; Schweiger, O.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Speelmans, M.; Simova, P.; Verboom, J.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Zobel, M.; Edwards, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. In many European agricultural landscapes, species richness is declining considerably. Studies performed at a very large spatial scale are helpful in understanding the reasons for this decline and as a basis for guiding policy. In a unique, large-scale study of 25 agricultural landscapes in seven

  16. Plant strategies and agricultural landscapes : survival in spatially and temporally fragmented habitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsema, W.; Opdam, P.F.M.; Kropff, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In agricultural landscapes many plant species are limited to the network of landscape elements that are not used for agricultural production. This habitat is fragmented in space and time due to anthropogenic, biotic and abiotic factors. Therefore, plant populations are spatially sub-divided and

  17. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  18. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Loos

    Full Text Available European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation

  19. Agroecology as a Science of Integration for Sustainability in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge contribution is provided in order to understand agroecology as both a scientific discipline and a philosophical paradigm for promoting sustainability in agriculture. The peculiar character of agroecology as an applied science based on the systems paradigm is explored in the fields of research and tuition. As an organisational capability of connecting different hierarchical levels in accordance with the goal of sustainability, integration is shown as an emergent property of the evolution of agriculture as a human activity system.

  20. Re-wilding Europe's traditional agricultural landscapes: Values and the link between science and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2014-01-01

    Landscape and Urban Planning encourages multiple perspectives and approaches to help understand landscapes as social-ecological systems, with the goal that by building a robust science of landscape we can provide sustainable solutions for guiding its change. But the link between science and practice, or more simply put, between knowledge and action, is not always clear...

  1. Economic sustainability of agricultural holdings in Poland in the context of their environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Wioletta Wrzaszcz; Józef St. Zegar

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability of agriculture and agricultural farms is the subject of increasing interests of society and researchers. The main problem of this issue is appropriate methodology of measuring agriculture sustainability, due to its complexity. Different proposals are presented and discussed, and still, there is no generally accepted measures of agriculture sustainability. This problem also concerns agricultural holdings` economic and environment sustainability examination. The particular dilemm...

  2. Development of Bioelectrochemical Systems to Promote Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may be applied to treat the waste/wastewater from agricultural production, minimizing contaminants, producing bioenergy, and recovering useful nutrients. BES can also be used to supply irrigation water via desalinating brackish water or producing reclaimed water from wastewater. The energy generated in BES can be used as a power source for wireless sensors monitoring the key parameters for agricultural activities. The importance of BES to sustainable agriculture should be recognized, and future development of this technology should identify proper application niches with technological advancement.

  3. Transition to Sustainable Fertilisation in Agriculture, A Practices Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttunen, Suvi; Oosterveer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    It is argued that sustainability transition in agriculture requires a shift from a regime oriented towards increasing agricultural productivity to a regime in which the environmental and social effects of production are regarded as central. Practice theories represent an emerging perspective on

  4. Agricultural Extension Ideologies and the Quest for A Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper makes an attempt at reviewing agricultural extension ideologies or perspectives and their influence on stakeholder's world-view in relation to sustainable agriculture. Specifically, the paper brings together several perspectives that have been suggested to encourage farmers to do things differently in the interest of ...

  5. The Costs of Using Draft Animals for Sustainable Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Costs of Using Draft Animals for Sustainable. Agricultural Production in Tanzania. S.M. Mpanduji*, Z.M. Mganilwa, P.J. Makungu and H.O. Dihenga. Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O Box 3003, Morogoro, Tanzania. Abstract. This study was carried out to determine the annual costs oj owning and using a pair oj draJt ...

  6. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  7. Adding Professional Ethics to an Introductory Course on Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Gary W.

    1996-01-01

    Presents the details and evaluation of a laboratory exercise that introduces professional and agricultural ethics into a course on sustainable agriculture. Concludes that including material on ethics in existing courses appears to be an effective way to increase the ethical content of a curriculum and emphasizes ethical decision making as an…

  8. Sustainable intensification of agricultural systems in the Central African Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Marc; Asten, van Piet; Okafor, Chris; Hicintuka, Cyrille; Mapatano, Sylvain; Nabahungu, Nsharwasi Léon; Kagabo, Desire; Muchunguzi, Perez; Njukwe, Emmanuel; Dontsop-Nguezet, Paul M.; Sartas, Murat; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies entry points for innovation for sustainable intensification of agricultural systems. An agricultural innovation systems approach is used to provide a holistic image of (relations between) constraints faced by different stakeholder groups, the dimensions and causes of these

  9. INSPIA project: European Index for Sustainable and Productive Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Tarradas, Paula; Jesús González-Sánchez, Emilio; Gómez-Ariza, Manuel; Rass, Gerard; Gardette, Sophie; Whitmore, Gavin; Dyson, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    The concept of sustainable development has evolved from a mere perception for the protection of the environment, to a holistic approach, seeking to preserve not only the environment, but also to achieve sustainability in economics and social wellbeing. Globally, there is a major challenge to face in the agricultural sector: to produce more food, feed and other raw materials to satisfy the increasing demand of a growing population, whilst also contributing to economic prosperity, climate change mitigation / adaptation, social wellbeing and preserving natural capital such as soil, water, biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nowadays, conventional approaches to agriculture are under threat. A more productive and resource efficient agriculture that integrates natural resource protection into its approach will help to meet all these challenges, enabling us to have more of everything - more food, more feed, more non-food crops, more biodiversity and natural habitats - while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, INSPIA is an innovative approach that has worked since 2013 towards demonstration that sustainable productive agriculture is possible thanks to the implementation of a host of best management practices (BMPs) capable of delivering the above achievements. The purpose on INSPIA is to make visible with European decision makers that a sustainable and productive agricultural model exists in a small scale in Europe and that wider dissemination is possible with enabling legislation. INSPIA is demonstrating sustainable agriculture through the implementation of BMPs and the measurement and monitoring of a set of defined indicators (economic, social and environmental ones). INSPIA promotes sustainable practices that protect biodiversity, soils and water and contribute towards maintaining ecosystems services. This holistic sustainable system of productive agriculture is based on the combination of Conservation Agriculture (CA) and Integrated Pest

  10. Agroforestry and conservation agriculture: Complementary practices for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, B; Friedrich, Theodor; Kassam, Amir H.; Kienzle, J.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper explores how conservation agriculture and agroforestry can be complementary approaches for increasing agricultural sustainability. Developing a discussion of how both systems are designed to mimic the natural environment through the maintenance of a 'natural' ground cover and the complimentary production of crops which utilize different soil nutrients. Benefits of conservation agriculture and agroforestry systems are accrued in several primary areas: efficie...

  11. Nanotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Prasad; Atanu Bhattacharyya; Quang D. Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy lif...

  12. A landscape project for the coexistence of agriculture and nature: a proposal for the coastal area of a Natura 2000 site in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Riguccio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many rural coastal Mediterranean areas suffer from great anthropomorphic pressure. This is due to intensive agriculture, and construction for residential, tourism and industrial uses. The present work investigates the idea of using a landscape project in the Gulf of Gela in South Sicily to recover the dunes and the area behind them. The method used is based on the literature and will evaluate and interpret the dynamics of the landscape, so as to draw up a landscape plan, which can be used to help sustain the assets of the area, in a way, which is compatible with conserving nature. This method was tested in the LIFE11-Leopoldia project, funded by the European Union. The results of the study form part of the landscape project. This project is aimed at connecting the different productive zones in the area, protecting the natural environments and the rural historical patrimony, through combining the modern road networks with the older slower, historic infrastructure. Three different levels of landscape management are proposed: total protection (the dunes, high-level protection (the area behind the dunes where traditional agriculture is practised, buffer areas and ecological connecting areas, medium levels of protection (sustainable agriculture, green connections and ecological corridors. The key aims of the project are as follows: transversality - repairing the agricultural fabric and the relationship between the land and the sea; sustainability - recovering the environmental system and traditional activities; flexibility - agriculture with only minor environmental impact.

  13. Linking knowledge and action through mental models of sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew; Lubell, Mark; Hillis, Vicken

    2014-09-09

    Linking knowledge to action requires understanding how decision-makers conceptualize sustainability. This paper empirically analyzes farmer "mental models" of sustainability from three winegrape-growing regions of California where local extension programs have focused on sustainable agriculture. The mental models are represented as networks where sustainability concepts are nodes, and links are established when a farmer mentions two concepts in their stated definition of sustainability. The results suggest that winegrape grower mental models of sustainability are hierarchically structured, relatively similar across regions, and strongly linked to participation in extension programs and adoption of sustainable farm practices. We discuss the implications of our findings for the debate over the meaning of sustainability, and the role of local extension programs in managing knowledge systems.

  14. Exploitation of endophytes for sustainable agricultural intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cocq, Kate; Gurr, Sarah J; Hirsch, Penny R; Mauchline, Tim H

    2017-04-01

    Intensive agriculture, which depends on unsustainable levels of agrochemical inputs, is environmentally harmful, and the expansion of these practices to meet future needs is not economically feasible. Other options should be considered to meet the global food security challenge. The plant microbiome has been linked to improved plant productivity and, in this microreview, we consider the endosphere - a subdivision of the plant microbiome. We suggest a new definition of microbial endophyte status, the need for synergy between fungal and bacterial endophyte research efforts, as well as potential strategies for endophyte application to agricultural systems. © 2016 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY PUBLISHED BY BRITISH SOCIETY FOR PLANT PATHOLOGY AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. An insight into space and remote sensing technologies concerning agriculture and landscape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Branka; Barazzetti, Luigi; Brumana, Raffaella; Previtali, Mattia

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing and space technologies are increasingly called to offer innovative solutions for current challenges induced by climatic and global change. One of the main priorities of the European Space Policy regards the economic independence of the old continent in this sector. In terms of research and innovation this inevitably leads to numerous attempts in having independent market of services that would tackle specific needs of the citizens. Agriculture, for example, is one of the sectors majorly subsidized by European funds on national, regional and local level, with the aim to foster a more productive and sustainable development. Due to a large territorial scale at which agricultural phenomena are observed, and thus the spatial resolution required, it is also one of the main sectors that has been monitored from space over the past 30 years. In fact, one of the main missions of USA Landsat satellites was to provide a continuous and systematic overview of the globe for the purposes of an effective monitoring of the environment. This paper represents an overview of the ongoing initiatives in Space research done for the field of agriculture and landscape monitoring. In particular, the paper looks into the future possibilities that will be offered by full, open and free-of-charge data arriving from ongoing Copernicus missions and the contribution of Sentinel satellites to the agricultural sector.

  16. Landscape scale assessment of soil and water salinization processes in agricultural coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen Bless, Aplena; Follain, Stéphane; Coiln, François; Crabit, Armand

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinization is among main land degradation process around the globe. It reduces soil quality, disturbs soil function, and has harmful impacts on plant growth that would threaten agricultural sustainability, particularly in coastal areas where mostly susceptible on land degradation because of pressure from anthropogenic activities and at the same time need to preserve soil quality for supporting food production. In this presentation, we present a landscape scale analysis aiming to assess salinization process affecting wine production. This study was carried out at Serignan estuary delta in South of France (Languadoc Roussillon Region, 43˚ 28'N and 3˚ 31'E). It is a sedimentary basin near coastline of Mediterranean Sea. Field survey was design to characterize both space and time variability of soil and water salinity through water electrical conductivity (ECw) and soil 1/5 electrical conductivity (EC1/5). For water measurements, Orb River and groundwater salinity (piezometers) were determined and for soil 1737 samples were randomly collected from different soil depths (20, 50, 80, and 120 cm) between year 2012 and 2016 and measured. In order to connect with agricultural practices observations and interviews with farmers were conducted. We found that some areas combining specific criteria presents higher electrical conductivity: positions with lower elevation (a.s.l), Cambisols (Calcaric) / Fluvisols soil type (WRB) and dominated clay textures. These observations combined with geochemical determination and spatial analysis confirm our first hypothesis of sea salt intrusion as the main driven factor of soil salinity in this region. In this context, identification of salinization process, fine determination of pedological specificities and fine understanding of agricultural practices allowed us to proposed adaptation strategies to restore soil production function. Please fill in your abstract text. Key Words: Salinity, Coastal Agriculture, Landscape, Soil, Water

  17. Agricultural drought analysis for sustainable smallholder maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates dry spell occurrence in the Mabogini Village—located within a semi-arid area in Tanzania—using a water balance approach with nineteen years of historical daily precipitation data. The water balance equation was related to crop water requirements to evaluate both the prevalence of agricultural dry ...

  18. Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Present concerns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanotechnology is a promising field of interdisciplinary research. It opens up a wide array of opportunities in various fields like medicine, pharmaceuticals, electronics and agriculture. The potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology are enormous. The current global population is nearly 7 */billion with 50% living in Asia.

  19. Fertilizer inaccessibility, rural livelihood and sustainable agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A participatory appraisal methodology was adopted. The analysis shows that inaccessibility to chemical fertilizer has negative impact on rural livelihood by causing low yield. However, it has a positive effect by inducing the adoption of organic fertilizer, which is deemed environment-friendly agriculture. The conclusion is that ...

  20. Beginning Farmer Sustainable Agriculture Project. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Rural Affairs, Hartington, NE.

    This project increases opportunities for beginning farmers to learn about and implement sustainable farming methods through mutual-help discussion groups and continuing education opportunities. Local groups established in six areas in northeast Nebraska in 1991 constitute the Beginning Farmer Support Network (BFSN). At workshops held throughout…

  1. Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research and development can no longer be the exclusive domain of scientists. To find sustainable solutions to development problems, a wider range of actors must be involved. It is crucial, for example, that local stakeholders provide input to the process. Participatory research and development (PR&D) offers such an ...

  2. Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The sourcebook captures and examines PR&D experiences from over 30 countries, illustrating applications in sustainable crop and animal production, forest and watershed management, soil and ... Their goal is to reduce the vulnerability of Colombia's smallholder coffee growers to the climate-related challenges posing a.

  3. Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment: Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    spurt in the environmental awareness in Rwanda is partly induced by donor agencies .... due to increase in fertilizer consumption with increasing soil salinisation and pollution. Many countries claiming green revolution (e.g. India) had this trade-off. ..... thus create conditions later livelihood-intensive and sustainable human.

  4. Sustainable landscape approach: Evaluation of xeriscape landscape design in KTU Kanuni Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Bayramoğlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant elements in landscape as well as all living beings have been affected from the global warming and drought in the last decade. With consideration the sustainable landscaping approach in order to reduce the negative effects of drought in planning and landscape, xeriscape approach has brought in issues of water use management. This study was conducted to determine the sustainability of grass and refuge plant for xeriscape around the road axis in the campus of Karadeniz Technical University and has led to some noticeably proposals solutions. According to the results achieved, 10 plant species from 53 species were determined with low water request, 13 of them dedicated a middle amount of water demand, and finally 4 of them requested high amount of water. Although water request of plants found in the area is low, natural species which are more effective for the xeriscape approach were not used in the site. In spite of some factors such as type of grass mixture used, capacity of water saving, and being strong to drought as well as dense surface which are important in xeriscape planning approaches , this study emphasizes that it is more appropriate to use natural ground cover in the xeriscape approaches.

  5. Rationale for Research on Including Sustainable Agriculture in the High School Agricultural Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David L.; Dollisso, Awoke D.

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is a multidisciplinary approach to food and fiber problems. Its inclusion in the secondary curriculum would enrich and align it with social concerns. Research is needed in the scholarship functions of discovery, integrative approaches, and teaching. (SK)

  6. Climate change, society issues and sustainable agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Despite its prediction 100 years ago by scientists studying CO2, man-made climate change has been officially recognised only in 2007 by the Nobel prize committee. Climate changes since the industrial revolution have already deeply impacted ecosystems. I report major impacts of climate change on waters, terrestrial ecosystems, agriculture, and economy in Europe. The lesson of the climate change story is that humans do not learn from scientists until it really hurts. Furthermore, all society is...

  7. The Impact of Landscape Complexity on Invertebrate Diversity in Edges and Fields in an Agricultural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tracy R; Mahoney, Meredith J; Cashatt, Everett D; Noordijk, Jinze; de Snoo, Geert; Musters, C J M

    2016-02-03

    Invertebrate diversity is important for a multitude of ecosystem services and as a component of the larger ecological food web. A better understanding of the factors influencing invertebrate taxonomic richness and diversity at both local and landscape scales is important for conserving biodiversity within the agricultural landscape. The aim of this study was to determine if invertebrate richness and diversity in agricultural field interiors and edges in central Illinois, USA, were related to the complexity of the surrounding landscape. Our results show taxonomic richness and diversity in field edges is positively related to large scale landscape complexity, but the relationship is negative for field interiors. These unexpected results need further study.

  8. Earth Observation for Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Heike; Mauser, Wolfram; Gernot, Klepper

    2016-08-01

    The global and regional potentials of Earth Observation (EO) to contribute to food security and sustainable agriculture in the 2050-timeframe were analysed in the ESA study EO4Food, whose outcome will be presented (www.EO4Food.org). Emphasis was put on the global societal, economic, environmental and technological megatrends that will create demand for food and shape the future societies. They will also constitute the background for developments in EO for food security and sustainable agriculture. The capabilities of EO in this respect were critically reviewed with three perspectives 1) the role of EO science for society, 2) observables from space and 3) development of future science missions.It was concluded that EO can be pivotal for the further development of food security and sustainable agriculture. EO allows to support the whole economic and societal value chain from farmers through food industry to insurance and financial industry in satisfying demands and at the same time to support society in governing sustainable agriculture through verifyable rules and regulations. It has the potential to become the global source of environmental information that is assimilated into sophisticated environmental management models and is used to make agriculture sustainable.

  9. Towards Developing Sustainable Agriculture In Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Homaidan Noueddine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural development is progressively seen as an important for solution for expanding the financial viability of large areas stimulating social recovery and enhancing the life style of rural groups. Many countries try to eliminate rural neediness and to have substantial potential in attracting visitors and social development looking for new progress. This paper argues that the social event of sustainable activities and attractions and the development of rural life empowers co-operation and organizations between groups and government. Meaningful community participation together with public sector support presents opportunities for the development of small-scale original sustainable and community projects in less developed areas. This paper interrogates the development of rural routes in Lebanon and highlights factors critical to its success.

  10. Nanotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Nguyen, Quang D

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nanotools for the controlling of rapid disease diagnostic, enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients among others. The significant interests of using nanotechnology in agriculture includes specific applications like nanofertilizers and nanopesticides to trail products and nutrients levels to increase the productivity without decontamination of soils, waters, and protection against several insect pest and microbial diseases. Nanotechnology may act as sensors for monitoring soil quality of agricultural field and thus it maintain the health of agricultural plants. This review covers the current challenges of sustainability, food security and climate change that are exploring by the researchers in the area of nanotechnology in the improvement of agriculture.

  11. Nanotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nanotools for the controlling of rapid disease diagnostic, enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients among others. The significant interests of using nanotechnology in agriculture includes specific applications like nanofertilizers and nanopesticides to trail products and nutrients levels to increase the productivity without decontamination of soils, waters, and protection against several insect pest and microbial diseases. Nanotechnology may act as sensors for monitoring soil quality of agricultural field and thus it maintain the health of agricultural plants. This review covers the current challenges of sustainability, food security and climate change that are exploring by the researchers in the area of nanotechnology in the improvement of agriculture.

  12. Agroecological practices for sustainable agriculture. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wezel, Alexander; Casagrande, Marion; Celette, Florian; Vian, Jean-François; Ferrer, Aurélie; Peigné, Joséphine

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The forecasted 9.1 billion population in 2050 will require an increase in food production for an additional two billion people. There is thus an active debate on new farming practices that could produce more food in a sustainable way. Here, we list agroecological cropping practices in temperate areas. We classify practices according to efficiency, substitution, and redesign. We analyse their advantages and drawbacks with emphasis on diversification. We evaluate the pot...

  13. LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE SUPPLIES OF BIOENERGY FEEDSTOCK AND ENHANCED SOIL QUALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2012-09-01

    Agriculture can simultaneously address global food, feed, fiber, and energy challenges provided our soil, water, and air resources are not compromised in doing so. As we embark on the 19th Triennial Conference of the International Soil and Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO), I am pleased to proclaim that our members are well poised to lead these endeavors because of our comprehensive understanding of soil, water, agricultural and bio-systems engineering processes. The concept of landscape management, as an approach for integrating multiple bioenergy feedstock sources, including biomass residuals, into current crop production systems, is used as the focal point to show how these ever-increasing global challenges can be met in a sustainable manner. Starting with the 2005 Billion Ton Study (BTS) goals, research and technology transfer activities leading to the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Revised Billion Ton Study (BT2) and development of a residue management tool to guide sustainable crop residue harvest will be reviewed. Multi-location USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP) team research and on-going partnerships between public and private sector groups will be shared to show the development of landscape management strategies that can simultaneously address the multiple factors that must be balanced to meet the global challenges. Effective landscape management strategies recognize the importance of nature’s diversity and strive to emulate those conditions to sustain multiple critical ecosystem services. To illustrate those services, the soil quality impact of harvesting crop residues are presented to show how careful, comprehensive monitoring of soil, water and air resources must be an integral part of sustainable bioenergy feedstock production systems. Preliminary analyses suggest that to sustain soil resources within the U.S. Corn Belt, corn (Zea mays L.) stover should not be harvested if average grain

  14. The Network Of Shelterbelts As An Agroforestry System Controlling The Water Resources And Biodiversity In The Agricultural Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędziora, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Long-term human activity has led to many unfavourable changes in landscape structure. The main negative effect has been a simplification of landscape structure reflecting the removal of stable ecosystems, such as forests, shelterbelts, strips of meadows and so on, which were converted into unstable ecosystems, mainly farmlands. Thanks to these changes, serious threats have been posed to the sustainable development of rural areas. The most hazardous of these involve a deteriorating of water balance, increased surface and ground water pollution, and impoverishment of biodiversity. An agroforestry system can serve as a toolkit which allows counteracting such negative changes in the landscape. This paper presents the main findings emerge from long-term investigations on the above issues carried out by the Institute for the Agricultural and Forest Environment of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  15. Perceptions of Iowa Secondary School Agricultural Education Teachers and Students Regarding Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David L.; Wise, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    Responses from 41 of 60 Iowa secondary agriculture teachers and 464 11th- and 12th-grade students indicated both teachers and students had high perceptions of sustainable agriculture and its impact on the environment. Both groups felt the need to learn more about it. (SK)

  16. Spatial heterogeneity in landscape structure influences dispersal and genetic structure: empirical evidence from a grasshopper in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffre, Bertrand; Mallez, Sophie; Chapuis, Marie-Pierre; Leblois, Raphael; Litrico, Isabelle; Delaunay, Sabrina; Badenhausser, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Dispersal may be strongly influenced by landscape and habitat characteristics that could either enhance or restrict movements of organisms. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity in landscape structure could influence gene flow and the spatial structure of populations. In the past decades, agricultural intensification has led to the reduction in grassland surfaces, their fragmentation and intensification. As these changes are not homogeneously distributed in landscapes, they have resulted in spatial heterogeneity with generally less intensified hedged farmland areas remaining alongside streams and rivers. In this study, we assessed spatial pattern of abundance and population genetic structure of a flightless grasshopper species, Pezotettix giornae, based on the surveys of 363 grasslands in a 430-km² agricultural landscape of western France. Data were analysed using geostatistics and landscape genetics based on microsatellites markers and computer simulations. Results suggested that small-scale intense dispersal allows this species to survive in intensive agricultural landscapes. A complex spatial genetic structure related to landscape and habitat characteristics was also detected. Two P. giornae genetic clusters bisected by a linear hedged farmland were inferred from clustering analyses. This linear hedged farmland was characterized by high hedgerow and grassland density as well as higher grassland temporal stability that were suspected to slow down dispersal. Computer simulations demonstrated that a linear-shaped landscape feature limiting dispersal could be detected as a barrier to gene flow and generate the observed genetic pattern. This study illustrates the relevance of using computer simulations to test hypotheses in landscape genetics studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Beyond the edge: Linking agricultural landscapes, stream networks, and best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, Rebecca M.; Thoms, Martin C.; Richardson, William B.

    2018-01-01

    Despite much research and investment into understanding and managing nutrients across agricultural landscapes, nutrient runoff to freshwater ecosystems is still a major concern. We argue there is currently a disconnect between the management of watershed surfaces (agricultural landscape) and river networks (riverine landscape). These landscapes are commonly managed separately, but there is limited cohesiveness between agricultural landscape-focused research and river science, despite similar end goals. Interdisciplinary research into stream networks that drain agricultural landscapes is expanding but is fraught with problems. Conceptual frameworks are useful tools to order phenomena, reveal patterns and processes, and in interdisciplinary river science, enable the joining of multiple areas of understanding into a single conceptual–empirical structure. We present a framework for the interdisciplinary study and management of agricultural and riverine landscapes. The framework includes components of an ecosystems approach to the study of catchment–stream networks, resilience thinking, and strategic adaptive management. Application of the framework is illustrated through a study of the Fox Basin in Wisconsin, USA. To fully realize the goal of nutrient reduction in the basin, we suggest that greater emphasis is needed on where best management practices (BMPs) are used within the spatial context of the combined watershed–stream network system, including BMPs within the river channel. Targeted placement of BMPs throughout the riverine landscape would increase the overall buffering capacity of the system to nutrient runoff and thus its resilience to current and future disturbances.

  18. Understanding robustness as an image of sustainable agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Goede, de, J.

    2014-01-01

      The general aim of the research described in this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the conceptualisation of robustness in agricultural science as well as its relevance to sustainability. Robustness rapidly gained attention as a potential solution for a variety of problems that characterize modern agriculture. The Dutch innovation programme “TransForum” considered robustness an important societal value that needed to be developed in relation to innovation...

  19. THE KNOWLEDGE OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana DOBRE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture, a key component of the structure of economic branches, should be addressed directly related to the maintenance of natural resources and their exploitation in a controlled way or the enhancement of their own, without resorting to inconsistent stimulus elements that can in time generate dysfunctions in products and the environment. Looking at things from this perspective, there is a need for a sustainable agriculture approach, given its social, ecological and economic representativeness, with active and continuous character.

  20. Room for Sustainable Agriculture. Part 1 Advice. Part 2 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    An outline is given of the social dilemmas associated with agriculture and horticulture in the Netherlands. Ongoing innovation and accelerated sustainable development are essential to resolve these dilemmas. Given the importance of the Dutch agriculture and horticulture sector, there is every reason for the central government to play its part and help remove the obstacles to the continuing sustainable development of the sector. The Council recommends that the central government continues developing the Council's vision for agriculture and horticulture with the parties concerned, allows scope for the development of different agricultural business models, applies knowledge and innovation as drivers of continuing sustainable development, amends laws and regulations as necessary, and facilitates a permanent dialogue between the sector and society. The advisory report also sets out the Council's vision concerning the political and public debate on agriculture and horticulture. This debate is most clearly characterised by major and seemingly insurmountable differences of opinion. The Council hopes that its report will induce a shift in thinking about Dutch agriculture among politicians and society at large, so that the transitions considered necessary by the Council can be implemented more rapidly.

  1. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-01-01

    The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971),in the Meadows report (1972) and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987). The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In...

  2. Does sustainability require new skills for change agents in agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Cerf, Marianne; Guillot, Marie-Noëlle; Orly, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability is an ill-defined concept. Many actors make claims about what sustainability should be, and farmers react to such claims in different ways. How do change agents and their managers deal with this diversity of farmers’ attitudes towards change and towards the future of agriculture? How do they themselves cope with change and understand their role as change agents? We chose a comprehensive, action-training approach to answer such questions. This approach enabled the agents to ackn...

  3. Reducing sedimentation of depressional wetlands in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, S.K.; Melcher, Cynthia; Haukos, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Depressional wetlands in agricultural landscapes are easily degraded by sediments and contaminants accumulated from their watersheds. Several best management practices can reduce transport of sediments into wetlands, including the establishment of vegetative buffers. We summarize the sources, transport dynamics, and effect of sediments, nutrients, and contaminants that threaten wetlands and the current knowledge of design and usefulness of grass buffers for protecting isolated wetlands. Buffer effectiveness is dependent on several factors, including vegetation structure, buffer width, attributes of the surrounding watershed (i.e., area, vegetative cover, slope and topography, soil type and structure, soil moisture, amount of herbicides and pesticides applied), and intensity and duration of rain events. To reduce dissolved contaminants from runoff, the water must infiltrate the soil where microbes or other processes can break down or sequester contaminants. But increasing infiltration also diminishes total water volume entering a wetland, which presents threats to wetland hydrology in semi-arid regions. Buffer effectiveness may be enhanced significantly by implementing other best management practices (e.g., conservation tillage, balancing input with nutrient requirements for livestock and crops, precision application of chemicals) in the surrounding watershed to diminish soil erosion and associated contaminant runoff. Buffers require regular maintenance to remove sediment build-up and replace damaged or over-mature vegetation. Further research is needed to establish guidelines for effective buffer width and structure, and such efforts should entail a coordinated, regional, multi-scale, multidisciplinary approach to evaluate buffer effectiveness and impacts. Direct measures in "real-world" systems and field validations of buffer-effectiveness models are crucial next steps in evaluating how grass buffers will impact the abiotic and biotic variables attributes that

  4. Climate‐Smart Landscapes: Opportunities and Challenges for Integrating Adaptation and Mitigation in Tropical Agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, Celia A; Chacón, Mario; Donatti, Camila I; Garen, Eva; Hannah, Lee; Andrade, Angela; Bede, Lucio; Brown, Douglas; Calle, Alicia; Chará, Julian; Clement, Christopher; Gray, Elizabeth; Hoang, Minh Ha; Minang, Peter; Rodríguez, Ana María; Seeberg‐Elverfeldt, Christina; Semroc, Bambi; Shames, Seth; Smukler, Sean; Somarriba, Eduardo; Torquebiau, Emmanuel; Etten, Jacob; Wollenberg, Eva

    2014-01-01

    .... Here, we demonstrate that many tropical agricultural systems can provide both mitigation and adaptation benefits if they are designed and managed appropriately and if the larger landscape context is considered...

  5. Effects of landscape evolution on soil organic carbon dynamics in intensively managed agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q.; Kumar, P.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a critical role in nutrient dynamics and carbon sequestration. Significant research has been done to predict changes of organic carbon and nitrogen in the soil by studying the interaction between soil, climate, and vegetation. However, an important factor in this system, the landscape evolution (LE), which interacts extensively with the soil, climate, and vegetation over a longer time scale, is usually not represented in such studies. Natural and anthropogenic drivers change the surface topography. Agricultural practices, such as fertilizer application and tillage episodically disturb the system. Here we simulate this system by coupling chemically based C-N model with physically based hydro-geomorphologic model at hillslope scale to understand 1) how LE impacts C-N dynamics; 2) how SOM affects LE; 3) how farming activities modify the interaction between LE and SOM dynamics. Our results show that LE plays a dominant role in SOC both above- and below-ground. Contrary to an assumption used in many models that a vertical profile of SOC concentration decreases exponentially, we find that in many situations SOC concentration below-ground could be higher than the one at the surface in both deposition and erosion sites. Tillage mixes the SOC in top 5cm-30cm of the soil. On one hand, tillage enhances the SOC storage by increasing below ground SOC concentration; On the other hand, tillage could accelerate soil erosion, which increase SOC loss. In general, tillage causes the soil vertical profile to become more uniform. Our model also shows that tillage can change the C-N oscillation cycle and then increase the time to reach a dynamic equilibrium. The SOC measured in the field site of Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IMLCZO) is consistent with our model results. This study not only helps us understand the natural carbon-nitrogen cycle, but also serve as an instrument to develop practical means for reducing soil erosion

  6. Visualizing land-use and management complexity within biogeochemical cycles of an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Nils Nitzsche; Gernot Verch; Katrin Premke; Arthur Gessler; Zachary. Kayler

    2016-01-01

    Crop fields are cultivated across continuities of soil, topography, and local climate that drive biological processes and nutrient cycling at the landscape scale; yet land management and agricultural research are often performed at the field scale, potentially neglecting the context of the surrounding landscape. Adding to this complexity is the overlap of ecosystems...

  7. Use of topographic variability for assessing plant diversity in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, G.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Edwards, P.J.; Szerencsits, E.; Wagner, H.H.; Herzog, F.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between plant diversity and topographic variability in agricultural landscapes was investigated, with the aim of determining whether sampling landscape units of 1 km(2) (LUs) across a gradient of topographic variability is more efficient than a random design for assessing the range

  8. Minor modifications in agricultural landscapes for promoting biodiversity through floral provisioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing interest in IPM programs and habitat management to combat the decline in diversity of beneficial arthropods in agricultural landscapes caused by habitat simplification and intensive management practices. Addition of floral resources to the landscape can help offset these effects. We...

  9. The Impact of Landscape Complexity on Invertebrate Diversity in Edges and Fields in an Agricultural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Tracy R.; Mahoney, Meredith J.; Cashatt, Everett D.; Noordijk, Jinze; de Snoo, Geert; Musters, C. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrate diversity is important for a multitude of ecosystem services and as a component of the larger ecological food web. A better understanding of the factors influencing invertebrate taxonomic richness and diversity at both local and landscape scales is important for conserving biodiversity within the agricultural landscape. The aim of this study was to determine if invertebrate richness and diversity in agricultural field interiors and edges in central Illinois, USA, were related to ...

  10. Railway embankments - a refuge areas for food flora, and pollinators in agricultural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Wrzesień Małgorzata; Jachuła Jacek; Denisow Bożena

    2016-01-01

    In a modern agricultural landscape the assurance of food resources is a key issue in the maintaince and control of food niche for pollinators. In the present study we evaluated bee forage flora composition and diversity within railway embankments located in the agricultural landscape, SE Poland. We also analysed the abundance of pollinators that use food resources along railway embankments and recognized insect visitors preference for selected plant species. Railway embankments represent valu...

  11. Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Landscape and Hymenoptera Biodiversity at Cianjur Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHERWANDI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is one of the four largest insect order (the other three are Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera. There are curerently over 115 000 described Hymenoptera species. It is clear that Hymenoptera is one of the major components of insect biodiversity. However, Hymenoptera biodiversity is affected by ecology, environment, and ecosystem management. In an agricultural areas, the spatial structure, habitat diversity, and habitat composition may vary from cleared landscapes to structurally rich landscape. Thus, it is very likely that such large-scale spatial patterns (landscape effects may influence local biodiversity and ecological functions. Therefore, the objective of this research were to study diversity and configuration elements of agricultural landscapes at Cianjur Watershed with geographical information sytems (GIS and its influence on Hymenoptera biodiversity. The structural differences between agricultural landscapes of Nyalindung, Gasol, and Selajambe were characterized by patch analyst with ArcView 3.2 of digital land use data. Results indicated that class of land uses of Cianjur Watershed landscape were housing, mixed gardens, talun and rice, vegetable, and corn fields. Landscape structure influenced the biodiversity of Hymenoptera. Species richness and the species diversity were higher in Nyalindung landscape compare to Gasol and Selajambe landscape.

  12. Time, Space and the History of Agricultural Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    history, especially as the rate of changes in cultural landscapes has increased during the last 40 years as the result of the development in the agro-industrial sector. However landscape changes rarely occur as abrupt and sudden breaks, but more as gradual process over long time periods corresponding...

  13. Biodiversity and agriculture in dynamic landscapes: Integrating ground and remotely-sensed baseline surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Andrew N; Asner, Gregory P; Fernandes, Erick C M; Mafalacusser, Jacinto; Banze, Aurélio; Izidine, Samira; da Fonseca, Ambrósio R; Pacate, Hermenegildo

    2016-07-15

    Sustainable biodiversity and land management require a cost-effective means of forecasting landscape response to environmental change. Conventional species-based, regional biodiversity assessments are rarely adequate for policy planning and decision making. We show how new ground and remotely-sensed survey methods can be coordinated to help elucidate and predict relationships between biodiversity, land use and soil properties along complex biophysical gradients that typify many similar landscapes worldwide. In the lower Zambezi valley, Mozambique we used environmental, gradient-directed transects (gradsects) to sample vascular plant species, plant functional types, vegetation structure, soil properties and land-use characteristics. Soil fertility indices were derived using novel multidimensional scaling of soil properties. To facilitate spatial analysis, we applied a probabilistic remote sensing approach, analyzing Landsat 7 satellite imagery to map photosynthetically active and inactive vegetation and bare soil along each gradsect. Despite the relatively low sample number, we found highly significant correlations between single and combined sets of specific plant, soil and remotely sensed variables that permitted testable spatial projections of biodiversity and soil fertility across the regional land-use mosaic. This integrative and rapid approach provides a low-cost, high-return and readily transferable methodology that permits the ready identification of testable biodiversity indicators for adaptive management of biodiversity and potential agricultural productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Romanian Farms through Organic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the development of any sector involves respecting the principles of sustainability, which means economic, social and environmental development. Moreover, organic farming is a very important field for ensuring sustainable development. Romania has great potential for the development of organic agriculture, especially due to the large number of available farmland and reduced use of fertilizers and other chemicals. However, the development of organic farming in Romania is in an early stage, due to the numerous problems that Romanian agriculture is still facing. Concern for the environment should be reflected at the level of production processes and consumption. As market demand influences and stimulates production, we can ask the question to what extent stimulating the consumption of organic products through green marketing can boost organic agriculture development and competitiveness of Romanian farms. Using several methods of research, such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, statistical methods and by calling on studies, reports and data series on organic farming in the EU and Romania, this paper highlights Romania's position in terms of the level of development of organic agriculture and recommends several ways to improve the outcomes obtained by Romania in the field. Moreover, based on regression equations, the trend of convergence of Romanian organic agriculture development in relation to the EU countries is analysed. The paper demonstrates that one of the measures that can be taken by Romanian farms is green marketing strategy development that can stimulate both consumption and production of organic products. Therefore, with increasing interest in the development of organic agriculture in Romania, green marketing can play an increasingly important role in promoting the benefits of consuming organic products, thus contributing to business development of organic products as well as to the development of Romanian agriculture

  15. Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture. 8th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jane Potter

    This directory provides information on over 200 institutions and organizations that are involved in organic, alternative, or sustainable agriculture and that also focus on education, training, or provision of information. The directory was compiled by the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC), which is 1 of 10 information centers…

  16. Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture. 5th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jane Potter

    This directory lists 151 programs in alternative farming systems (systems that aim at maintaining agricultural productivity and profitability, while protecting natural resources, especially sustainable, low-input, regenerative, biodynamic or organic farming and gardening). It includes programs conducted by colleges and universities, research…

  17. Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable Extension Practice in Nigeria. ... The expanded scope could include marketing extension, non-farm rural micro enterprise development, service to farmers' associations, technical extension service and urban extension. These services should be provided at ...

  18. Sustaining the Earth's watersheds, agricultural research data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS water resources program has developed a web-based data system, STEWARDS: Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data System to support research that encompasses a broad range of topics such as water quality, hydrology, conservation, land use, and soils. The data syst...

  19. Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture. 7th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jane Potter

    This directory contains information about institutions and organizations involved in organic, alternative, or sustainable agriculture, and its focus is on education, training, and provision of information. The directory contains program and contact information for 122 institutions, associations, centers, universities, and foundations; and 4…

  20. Facilitating North-South Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…

  1. Innovating towards Sustainable Agriculture: A Greek Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsouris, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Agronomists (scientists and extensionists), despite the emergence of interactive approaches, still have troubles with (the introduction of) innovations, such as sustainable forms of agriculture. This article critically addresses such difficulties based on the evaluation of a project mainly concerning the introduction of Integrated Crop Management…

  2. Understanding robustness as an image of sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de D.M.

    2014-01-01

      The general aim of the research described in this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the conceptualisation of robustness in agricultural science as well as its relevance to sustainability. Robustness rapidly gained attention as a potential solution for a variety of problems

  3. Irrigated agriculture and environmental sustainability: an alignment perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özerol, Gül; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a key policy issue in many countries since it is the major user of water and land resources while it also threatens environmental sustainability due to the overexploitation, degradation and pollution of water and soil resources. Given its cross-cutting, unstructured and

  4. Agricultural sustainability in the semi-arid Near East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hole

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture began in the eastern Mediterranean Levantine Corridor about 11000 years ago toward the end of the Younger Dryas when aridity had diminished wild food resources. During the subsequent Climatic Optimum, agricultural villages spread rapidly but subsequent climatic changes on centennial to millennial scales resulted in striking oscillations in settlement, especially in marginal areas. Natural climate change thus alternately enhanced and diminished the agricultural potential of the land. Growing populations and more intensive land us, both for agriculture and livestock, have led to changes in the structure of vegetation, hydrology, and land quality. Over the millennia, political and economic interventions, warfare and incursions by nomadic herding tribes all impacted sustainability of agriculture and the ability of the land to supports its populations. In much of the region today, agricultural land use is not sustainable given existing technology and national priorities. The Near Eastern case is instructive because of the quality of information, the length of the record, and the pace of modern change.

  5. Facilitating smallholder tree farming in fragmented tropical landscapes: Challenges and potentials for sustainable land management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Roshetko, James M; Healey, John Robert

    2017-08-01

    Under changing land use in tropical Asia, there is evidence of forest product diversification through implementation of tree-based farming by smallholders. This paper assesses in two locations, West Java, Indonesia and eastern Bangladesh, current land use conditions from the perspective of smallholder farmers, the factors that facilitate their adoption of tree farming, and the potential of landscape-scale approaches to foster sustainable land management. Data were collected through rapid rural appraisals, focus group discussions, field observations, semi-structured interviews of farm households and key informant interviews of state agricultural officers. Land at both study sites is typically fragmented due to conversion of forest to agriculture and community settlement. Local land use challenges are associated with pressures of population increase, poverty, deforestation, shortage of forest products, lack of community-scale management, weak tenure, underdeveloped markets, government decision-making with insufficient involvement of local people, and poor extension services. Despite these challenges, smallholder tree farming is found to be successful from farmers' perspectives. However, constraints of local food crop cultivation traditions, insecure land tenure, lack of capital, lack of knowledge, lack of technical assistance, and perceived risk of investing in land due to local conflict (in Bangladesh) limit farmers' willingness to adopt this land use alternative. Overcoming these barriers to adoption will require management at a landscape scale, including elements of both segregation and integration of land uses, supported by competent government policies and local communities having sufficiently high social capital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ˜22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  7. Agroforestry-based management of salt-affected croplands in irrigated agricultural landscape in Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamzina, Asia; Kumar, Navneet; Heng, Lee

    2017-04-01

    In the lower Amu Darya River Basin, the decades of intensive irrigation led to elevated groundwater tables, resulting in ubiquitous soil salinization and adverse impact on crop production. Field-scale afforestation trials and farm-scale economic analyses in the Khorezm region have determined that afforestation can be an environmentally and financially attractive land-use option for degraded croplands because it combines a diversified agricultural production, carbon sequestration, an improved soil health and minimizes the use of irrigation water. We examined prospects for upscaling afforestation activity for regional land-use planning considering prevailing constraints in irrigated agriculture landscape. Assessment of salinity-induced cropland productivity decline using satellite imagery of multiple spatial and temporal resolution revealed that 18-38% of the marginally productive or abandoned cropland might be considered for conversion to agroforestry. Furthermore, a regional-scale water balance suggests that most of these marginal croplands are characterized by sufficient surface water supplies for irrigating the newly planted saplings, before they are able to rely on the groundwater alone. However, the 10-year monitoring of soil salt dynamics in the afforestation trials reveals increasing salinity levels due to the salt exclusion from the root water uptake by the trees. Further study focuses on enhancing long-term sustainability of afforestation as a management option for highly saline lands by examining salt tolerance of candidate species using 13C isotopic signature as the indicator of water and salt stress, salt leaching needs and implications for regional scale planning.

  8. Sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoups, Gerrit; Hopmans, Jan W; Young, Chuck A; Vrugt, Jasper A; Wallender, Wesley W; Tanji, Ken K; Panday, Sorab

    2005-10-25

    The sustainability of irrigated agriculture in many arid and semiarid areas of the world is at risk because of a combination of several interrelated factors, including lack of fresh water, lack of drainage, the presence of high water tables, and salinization of soil and groundwater resources. Nowhere in the United States are these issues more apparent than in the San Joaquin Valley of California. A solid understanding of salinization processes at regional spatial and decadal time scales is required to evaluate the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. A hydro-salinity model was developed to integrate subsurface hydrology with reactive salt transport for a 1,400-km(2) study area in the San Joaquin Valley. The model was used to reconstruct historical changes in salt storage by irrigated agriculture over the past 60 years. We show that patterns in soil and groundwater salinity were caused by spatial variations in soil hydrology, the change from local groundwater to snowmelt water as the main irrigation water supply, and by occasional droughts. Gypsum dissolution was a critical component of the regional salt balance. Although results show that the total salt input and output were about equal for the past 20 years, the model also predicts salinization of the deeper aquifers, thereby questioning the sustainability of irrigated agriculture.

  9. Enabling a sustainable and prosperous future through science and innovation in the bioeconomy at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sara F; Poon, Jacquelyne S; Lepage, Etienne; Bilecki, Lori; Girard, Benoit

    2018-01-25

    Science and innovation are important components underpinning the agricultural and agri-food system in Canada. Canada's vast geographical area presents diverse, regionally specific requirements in addition to the 21st century agricultural challenges facing the overall sector. As the broader needs of the agricultural landscape have evolved and will continue to do so in the next few decades, there is a trend in place to transition towards a sustainable bioeconomy, contributing to reducing greenhouse gas emission and our dependency on non-renewable resources. We highlight some of the key policy drivers on an overarching national scale and those specific to agricultural research and innovation that are critical to fostering a supportive environment for innovation and a sustainable bioeconomy. As well, we delineate some major challenges and opportunities facing agriculture in Canada, including climate change, sustainable agriculture, clean technologies, and agricultural productivity, and some scientific initiatives currently underway to tackle these challenges. The use of various technologies and scientific efforts, such as Next Generation Sequencing, metagenomics analysis, satellite image analysis and mapping of soil moisture, and value-added bioproduct development will accelerate scientific development and innovation and its contribution to a sustainable and prosperous bioeconomy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges for Sustainable Land Management through Climate-Smart Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougill, Andrew; Stringer, Lindsay

    2017-04-01

    There are increasing pushes for agricultural land management to be both sustainable and climate-smart (in terms of increasing productivity, building resilience to climate change and enhancing carbon storage). Climate-smart agriculture initiatives include conservation agriculture, based on minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover and crop rotation, and agroforestry. Such efforts address key international goals of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), but as yet have not seen widespread uptake. Based on analyses of different project interventions from across a range of southern African countries, we outline the inter-related challenges that are preventing adoption of climate-smart agriculture initiatives. We then identify routes to building multi-stakeholder partnerships and empowering communities through participatory monitoring with the aim of increasing uptake of such sustainable land management practices. Good practice examples remain largely restricted to local-level project interventions with significant donor (or private-sector) support, aligned to short-term community priorities relating to access to inputs or reduced labour requirements. Scaling-up to district- and national-level initiatives is yet to be widely successful due to problems of: limited policy coherence; a lack of communication between stakeholders at different levels; and limited understanding of long-term benefits associated with changes in agricultural practices. We outline opportunities associated with improved communication of climate information, empowerment of district-level adaptation planning and diversification of agricultural livelihood strategies as key routes to guide farmers towards more sustainable, and climate-smart, land management practices. Recent experiences in Malawi, which has experienced significant floods and an El Niño drought year in the last two years, are used to

  11. The effects of erosional and management history on soil organic carbon stores in ephemeral wetlands of hummocky agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedard-Haughn, A.; Jongbloed, F.; Akkennan, J.; Uijl, A.; Jong, de E.; Yates, T.; Pennock, D.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon sequestration by agricultural soils has been widely promoted as a means of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. In many regions agricultural fields are just one component of a complex landscape matrix and understanding the interactions between agricultural fields and other landscape

  12. Beyond the Edge: Linking Agricultural Landscapes, Stream Networks, and Best Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, R M; Thoms, M C; Richardson, W B

    2018-01-01

    Despite much research and investment into understanding and managing nutrients across agricultural landscapes, nutrient runoff to freshwater ecosystems is still a major concern. We argue there is currently a disconnect between the management of watershed surfaces (agricultural landscape) and river networks (riverine landscape). These landscapes are commonly managed separately, but there is limited cohesiveness between agricultural landscape-focused research and river science, despite similar end goals. Interdisciplinary research into stream networks that drain agricultural landscapes is expanding but is fraught with problems. Conceptual frameworks are useful tools to order phenomena, reveal patterns and processes, and in interdisciplinary river science, enable the joining of multiple areas of understanding into a single conceptual-empirical structure. We present a framework for the interdisciplinary study and management of agricultural and riverine landscapes. The framework includes components of an ecosystems approach to the study of catchment-stream networks, resilience thinking, and strategic adaptive management. Application of the framework is illustrated through a study of the Fox Basin in Wisconsin, USA. To fully realize the goal of nutrient reduction in the basin, we suggest that greater emphasis is needed on where best management practices (BMPs) are used within the spatial context of the combined watershed-stream network system, including BMPs within the river channel. Targeted placement of BMPs throughout the riverine landscape would increase the overall buffering capacity of the system to nutrient runoff and thus its resilience to current and future disturbances. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. The Sustainable Expression of Ecological Concept in the Urban Landscape Environment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junyan; Zhou, Tiejun; Xin, Lisen; Tan, Yuetong; Wang, Zhigang

    2018-02-01

    Urbanization is an inevitable trend of development of human society, also the inevitable outcome of economic development and scientific and technological progress, while urbanization process in promoting the development of human civilization, also no doubt, urban landscape has been a corresponding impact. Urban environment has suffered unprecedented damage, the urban population density, traffic congestion, shortage of resources, environmental pollution, ecological degradation, has become the focus of human society. In order to create an environment of ecological and harmonious, beautiful, sustainable development in the urban landscape, This paper discusses the concept of ecological design combined with the urban landscape design and sustainable development of urban landscape design.

  14. Reading the Farm-Training Agricultural Professionals in Whole Farm Analysis for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Ellen; White, Charles; Morris, Thomas; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Reading the Farm is a 2- to 3-day professional development program that brings together agricultural service providers from a range of agencies, with various expertise and levels of experience, to explore whole-farm systems and sustainability through in-depth study of two case-study farms. Over 90% of past participants reported that the program…

  15. Bioprospecting bacterial and fungal volatiles for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Maffei, Massimo E

    2015-04-01

    Current agricultural practice depends on a wide use of pesticides, bactericides, and fungicides. Increased demand for organic products indicates consumer preference for reduced chemical use. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel sustainable strategies for crop protection and enhancement that do not rely on genetic modification and/or harmful chemicals. An increasing body of evidence indicates that bacterial and fungal microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) might provide an alternative to the use of chemicals to protect plants from pathogens and provide a setting for better crop welfare. It is well known that MVOCs can modulate the physiology of plants and microorganisms and in this Opinion we propose that MVOCs can be exploited as an ecofriendly, cost-effective, and sustainable strategy for agricultural practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Why Go Native? Landscaping for Biodiversity and Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermath, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that campus and urban landscaping has important connections to biodiversity conservation, perceptions of natural heritage, sense-of-place, ecological literacy and the role of campus landscapes in the larger community. It also aims to show how campus landscapes express values and perform as a…

  17. Sustainable commercialization of new crops for the agricultural bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diversification of agroecological systems to enhance agrobiodiversity is likely to be critical to advancing environmental, economic, and social sustainability of agriculture. Temperate-zone agroecological systems that are currently organized for production of summer-annual crops can be diversified by integration of fallow-season and perennial crops. Integration of such crops can improve sustainability of these agroecological systems, with minimal interference with current agricultural production. Importantly, these crops can provide feedstocks for a wide range of new bio-products that are forming a new agricultural bioeconomy, potentially providing greatly increased economic incentives for diversification. However, while there are many fallow-season and perennial crops that might be used in such a “bioeconomic” strategy for diversification, most are not yet well adapted and highly-marketable. Efforts are underway to enhance adaptation and marketability of many such crops. Critically, these efforts require a strategic approach that addresses the inherent complexity of these projects. We outline a suitable approach, which we term “sustainable commercialization”: a coordinated innovation process that integrates a new crop into the agriculture of a region, while intentionally addressing economic, environmental and social sustainability challenges via multi-stakeholder governance. This approach centers on a concerted effort to coordinate and govern innovation in three critical areas: germplasm development, multifunctional agroecosystem design and management, and development of end uses, supply chains, and markets. To exemplify the approach, we describe an ongoing effort to commercialize a new fallow-season crop, field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L..

  18. Agricultural biodiversity, social-ecological systems and sustainable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo; Cogill, Bruce; Flichman, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    The stark observation of the co-existence of undernourishment, nutrient deficiencies and overweight and obesity, the triple burden of malnutrition, is inviting us to reconsider health and nutrition as the primary goal and final endpoint of food systems. Agriculture and the food industry have made remarkable advances in the past decades. However, their development has not entirely fulfilled health and nutritional needs, and moreover, they have generated substantial collateral losses in agricultural biodiversity. Simultaneously, several regions are experiencing unprecedented weather events caused by climate change and habitat depletion, in turn putting at risk global food and nutrition security. This coincidence of food crises with increasing environmental degradation suggests an urgent need for novel analyses and new paradigms. The sustainable diets concept proposes a research and policy agenda that strives towards a sustainable use of human and natural resources for food and nutrition security, highlighting the preeminent role of consumers in defining sustainable options and the importance of biodiversity in nutrition. Food systems act as complex social-ecological systems, involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Nutritional patterns and environment structure are interconnected in a mutual dynamic of changes. The systemic nature of these interactions calls for multidimensional approaches and integrated assessment and simulation tools to guide change. This paper proposes a review and conceptual modelling framework that articulate the synergies and tradeoffs between dietary diversity, widely recognised as key for healthy diets, and agricultural biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, crucial resilience factors to climate and global changes.

  19. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  20. Determinants of Sustainability Reporting in Food and Agriculture Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřebíček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 1990s, sustainability reporting (SR has become an increasingly relevant topic in business and academia. However, it is still limited in food and agriculture sector in the Czech Republic and the European Union and only little information of the latest developments have thus far been presented. This paper provides current information dating from 2010 to 2014 from publications related to food and agriculture sector. The objective of the paper is to identify what determinants of SR are examined in the world initiatives to identify (in consistencies, gaps, and opportunities for our future research of this field. The paper focuses to new G4 Guidelines of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI and the Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture (SAFA systems of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO of the United Nation. Finally, possible future research of SR including SR information systems are discussed by illuminating gaps and underexposed themes in the area of regulation and governance as well as stakeholder perception.

  1. Farmer’s motivation to adopt sustainable agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Menozzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2014-2020 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reform defines new rules for farmers including maintenance of the ecological focus area (EFA. Sustainability is also a requirement to meet consumer expectations and a competitive advantage for firms. This paper aims to evaluate the farmers’ intention to implement sustainable practices related to the EFA measure and to the private sustainability schemes proposed by the food industry. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was applied on a sample of durum wheat producers to analyse intentions 1 to maintain 7% of the arable land as an EFA, and 2 to implement the private sustainability scheme. Structural equation modelling was applied to test for the relative importance of intention determinants. The farmers’ attitude and past behaviour positively affect intentions to implement the EFA, while perceived behavioural control and attitudes predict intentions to adopt the private sustainability scheme. These results suggest possible interventions that public authorities and supply chain leaders might implement to stimulate farmers’ sustainable behaviours. 

  2. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area.

  3. [Towards a renewable and sustainable agriculture. Biological agriculture: from marginal vanguard to spearhead of the agriculture of the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diek Van Mansvelt, J

    1992-01-01

    This work seeks to demonstrate how different types of organic agriculture can meet the need for renewable and sustainable agriculture, rural development, and management of the land and water resources. An obstacle to the spread of organic agriculture is the widespread perception that without intensive factors of production, demographic growth will necessarily outstrip the available food resources. Calculation of economic costs and benefits at present carries greater weight in planning than do soil erosion, deforestation, extinction of species, disappearance of habitats, and similar environmental damage. The different types of organic agriculture do not follow rigid rules and are not defined solely by the nonuse of nitrogenous fertilizers and pesticides. One of the main principles or organic agriculture is to respect local soil and climatic conditions. Self-sufficiency regarding external factors of production and an emphasis on recycling and optimal use of natural resources were concept ahead of their time when they initially were introduced in the 1920s. The specialization which restructured agriculture over the past century has seriously damaged the system of mixed agriculture and the chain of food production. The solution will be to seek for each region an appropriate balance linking animals and agricultural production in an organic process. The objective of organic agriculture, also known as autonomous ecosystem management, is to preserve as far as possible the balance between needs for food and fiber on the 1 hand and the potential of local ecosystems on the other. General principles of organic agriculture include mixed exploitation in which both plants and animals have specific functions in the context of their local soil and climatic characteristics. Different types of crop rotation are practiced to optimize mutual interactions between crops, and the varied organic cycles are also optimized within the framework of anorganic management in accord with nature

  4. Landscapes and ethno-knowledge in the Ticuna and Cocama agriculture at upper River Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra do Nascimento Noda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The units of landscape in the Cocama and Ticuna agriculture, in the upper River Solimões, are characterized by productionarrangements and management of natural resources. This paper aims to characterize these agro-ecological based practices,the landscaped results and its regional applicability. The survey was conducted in Novo Paraíso, at Bom Intento Island,and in Nova Aliança, both located in the municipality of Benjamin Constant, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The social andeconomic organization of Ticuna and Cocama Peoples is founded on kinship and communal ownership of natural resources,including spaces for gathering. Family units, despite their weak linkages with the market and its rules, have in the logicof reciprocity the motivation for the production, transmission and management of resources and factors of production.The landscapes are reconstructed by agro-ecological production derived from ethno-knowledge and correspond to theinherent processes of management and conservation of flora and fauna. This process allows the existence of compleximbrications of constantly changing landscapes in which forms of production are recreated for sufficiency and sustainability.

  5. SOME ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT AGRICULTURAL LAND USE AREAS WITHIN THE TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapinos N.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Land Fund in Ukraine is experiencing excessive human impact, which is reflected in its performance exceeding the allowable agricultural development and land structure imbalance. The environmental condition of land resources close to critical. Among the largest land area occupied by agricultural land (71% of which - 76% is arable land. Violation environmentally acceptable ratio of arable land, natural grasslands and forests negatively affected the sustainability of agricultural landscapes. Throughout the widespread land degradation processes, among which the most ambitious is the erosion (about 57.5% of the territory, pollution (20% of the territory, flooding (about 12% of the territory. Sustainable (balanced land is one of the key factors of sustainable nature of territorial entities and may be formed of a priority, taking into account environmental factors. In ecological optimization based on value criteria ekolohostabilizuyuchyh and anthropogenic pressures lands should necessarily provide for withdrawal of intensive land use, which in its modal properties can not ensure sustainability of land use. However, today in Ukraine within the territories of communities no project development to optimize land use on the basis of sustainable development. Accordingly, the purpose of the article was the study of certain aspects of Land Management sustainable development of agricultural land within the territories of local communities. The current structure of the land fund of Ukraine was actually formed in the Soviet period, under the influence of policies of extensive agricultural development. Violation environmentally acceptable ratio of arable land, natural grasslands and forests negatively affected the stability and condition of land, which is confirmed by relevant research. In such circumstances, balancing the land proposed to carry out in two stages - the ecological and economic. In ecological optimization criteria based on land value necessarily

  6. Agriculture for improved nutrition: the current research landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rachel; Hawkes, Corinna; Jeff, Waage; Ferguson, Elaine; Haseen, Farhana; Homans, Hilary; Hussein, Julia; Johnston, Deborah; Marais, Debbi; McNeill, Geraldine; Shankar, Bhavani

    2013-12-01

    Concern about food security and its effect on persistent undernutrition has increased interest in how agriculture could be used to improve nutritional outcomes in developing countries. Yet the evidence base for the impact of agricultural interventions targeted at improved nutrition is currently poor. To map the extent and nature of current and planned research on agriculture for improved nutrition in order to identify gaps where more research might be useful. The research, which was conducted from April to August 2012, involved developing a conceptual framework linking agriculture and nutrition, identifying relevant research projects and programs, devising and populating a "template" with details of the research projects in relation to the conceptual framework, classifying the projects, and conducting a gap analysis. The study identified a large number of research projects covering a broad range of themes and topics. There was a strong geographic focus on sub-Saharan Africa, and many studies were explicitly concerned with nutritional impacts on women and children. Although the study revealed a diverse and growing body of research, it also identified research gaps. Few projects consider the entire evidence chain linking agricultural input or practice to nutritional outcomes. There is comparatively little current research on indirect effects of agriculture on nutrition, or the effect of policies or governance, rather than technical interventions. Most research is focused on undernutrition and small farmer households, and few studies target consumers generally, urban populations, or nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. There is very little work on the cost-effectiveness of agricultural interventions. On the basis of these findings, we make suggestions for research investment and for broader engagement of researchers and disciplines in developing approaches to design and evaluate agricultural programs for improved nutrition.

  7. Climatic impacts of managed landscapes for sustainable biofuel feedstocks production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Kravchenko, A. N.; Hamilton, S. K.; Jackson, R. D.; Thelen, K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2016-12-01

    Sustainable production of biofuels cannot be achieved without multiple-use landscapes where food, feed, and fuel can be co-produced without environmental harm. Here we use field level measurements in seven biofuel feedstock production systems grown under similar climatic conditions, but on different soils in two Midwestern (USA) states to understand their relative climatic impacts. We studied annual corn stover, and 6 perennial ecosystems including three polycultures: successional vegetation, restored prairie and a 3-species grass mix; and 3 monocultures: poplar, switchgrass, and miscanthus. All studied ecosystems were grown in replicated plots on moderately fertile soils of SW Michigan and highly fertile soils of central Wisconsin. We measured components of greenhouse gas (GHG) balances over 6 years. On the fertile soil perennial monocultures had GHG emission reductions potentials of 53% relative to fossil fuels, while polycultures had 64% reduction; corn stover had an 84% emissions reduction. Net sequestration ranged from 0.6 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1 (successional vegetation) to 3.1 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1, (corn stover). Among feedstocks produced on less fertile soils, perennial monocultures had GHG emissions reduction of 80%, and polycultures had emission reduction of 54%; miscanthus and poplar exhibited the largest sequestration potentials of 5.9 and 3.9 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1 respectively, while polycultures sequestered less then 1.0 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1 on average and corn stover was intermediate with 1.4 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1. All studied systems averaged energy production of 30 GJ ha-1 yr-1, except miscanthus (71 GJ ha-1 yr-1) and successional vegetation (20 GJ ha-1 yr-1). Our results inform the design of multiple-use landscapes: more fertile soils could produce food and feed with residuals collected for bioethanol production and more marginal soils could be used for various poly- or mono-cultures of purpose grown biofuel feedstocks but with differential climate benefits.

  8. A Need for Education in Water Sustainability in the Agricultural Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study draws upon the definition of water sustainability from the National Water Research Institute as the continual supply of clean water for human uses and for other living beings without compromising the water welfare of future generations. Currently, the greatest consumer of water resources worldwide is irrigation. The move from small-scale, family farms towards corporately owned and market driven, mass scale operations have drastically increased corn production and large-scale factory hog farming in the American Midwest—and the water quality related costs associated with this shift are well-documented. In the heart of the corn belt, the state of Iowa has dealt with issues over the past two decades ranging from flooding of historic proportions, to yield destroying droughts. Most recently, the state's water quality is intensely scrutinized due to nutrient levels higher than almost anywhere else in the world. While the changed agricultural landscape is ultimately responsible for these environmental costs, they can be mitigated if the farmers adopt practices that support water sustainability. However, many Iowa farmers have yet to embrace these necessary practices because of a lack of proper education in this context. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore how water sustainability is being conceptualized within the agricultural realm, and ultimately, how the issues are being communicated and understood within various subgroups in Iowa, such as the farmers, the college students, and the general public.

  9. European landscape character areas : typologies, cartography and indicators for the assessment of sustainable landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Landscape Character Assessment (LCA) is designed to describe landscape character. It can be applied at a range of scales, from the national, though to the regional and local. It may also integrate landscape character analysis with biodiversity assessments, the analysis of historical character, air,

  10. Agricultural Landscape and Pesticide Effects on Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Biological Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Steckel, Sandra J; Williams, Matthew T; Skinner, John A; Tarpy, David R; Meikle, William G; Adamczyk, John; Stewart, Scott D

    2017-06-01

    Sixteen honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were placed in four different agricultural landscapes to study the effects of agricultural landscape and exposure to pesticides on honey bee health. Colonies were located in three different agricultural areas with varying levels of agricultural intensity (AG areas) and one nonagricultural area (NAG area). Colonies were monitored for their performance and productivity for one year by measuring colony weight changes, brood production, and colony thermoregulation. Palynological and chemical analyses were conducted on the trapped pollen collected from each colony and location. Our results indicate that the landscape's composition significantly affected honey bee colony performance and development. Colony weight and brood production were significantly greater in AG areas compared to the NAG area. Better colony thermoregulation in AG areas' colonies was also observed. The quantities of pesticides measured in the trapped pollen were relatively low compared to their acute toxicity. Unexplained queen and colony losses were recorded in the AG areas, while colony losses because of starvation were observed in the NAG area. Our results indicate that landscape with high urban activity enhances honey bee brood production, with no significant effects on colony weight gain. Our study indicates that agricultural crops provide a valuable resource for honey bee colonies, but there is a trade-off with an increased risk of exposure to pesticides. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Using Nanotechnology to Identify and Characterize Hydrological Flowpaths in Agricultural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. N.; Luo, D.; Regan, J. M.; Walter, M.

    2008-12-01

    Applying the power of nanoscale technology to answer landscape-scale questions constitutes an exciting new frontier in science and engineering. In this project, we propose a possible method of reducing the "nonpoint" problem associated with nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, a problem that has hampered agricultural sustainability and water quality protection for decades. We are developing superparamagnetic polylactic acid (PLA) microspheres incorporating DNA "nanobarcodes" as potential tracers. The eventual goal of this project is to develop technologies for identifying and characterizing different flowpaths at field and watershed scales by using multiple sets of polymer microspheres, each coded with unique DNA sequences, of which there are essentially limitless combinations, i.e., many flowpaths can be uniquely coded. Our ultimate vision is to have the capacity of introducing microsphere-encapsulated DNA at different points in a watershed and collecting these microspheres elsewhere in the watershed; using quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction targeted at the specific DNA, we would be able to determine the hydrological linkages and transport times between the collection point(s) and the points of DNA introduction. The potential advantages of this nanotechnology strategy compared to conventional tracers are the elimination of background interferences, the ability to segregate superimposed flowpaths through the design of strictly unique DNA tracers and the biodegradability of the tracers. This presentation highlights recent advances, new challenges, and potential applications for this tracer technology.

  12. Plant genetics, sustainable agriculture and global food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Pamela

    2011-05-01

    The United States and the world face serious societal challenges in the areas of food, environment, energy, and health. Historically, advances in plant genetics have provided new knowledge and technologies needed to address these challenges. Plant genetics remains a key component of global food security, peace, and prosperity for the foreseeable future. Millions of lives depend upon the extent to which crop genetic improvement can keep pace with the growing global population, changing climate, and shrinking environmental resources. While there is still much to be learned about the biology of plant-environment interactions, the fundamental technologies of plant genetic improvement, including crop genetic engineering, are in place, and are expected to play crucial roles in meeting the chronic demands of global food security. However, genetically improved seed is only part of the solution. Such seed must be integrated into ecologically based farming systems and evaluated in light of their environmental, economic, and social impacts-the three pillars of sustainable agriculture. In this review, I describe some lessons learned, over the last decade, of how genetically engineered crops have been integrated into agricultural practices around the world and discuss their current and future contribution to sustainable agricultural systems.

  13. Interpretation of 798: Changes in Power of Representation and Sustainability of Industrial Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncheng Dai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of economic transformation and urban renewal, the protection and sustainable development of urban industrial landscapes has become an important practical issue, and how to maintain the unique local culture of these landscapes is key to solving the problem. By integrating the concept of “layer” and regarding the landscape as text, this paper will investigate the representation of industrial landscapes and the process of changes in power represented by different actors through different texts from the perspective of representation. The paper selected Beijing 798 as the research area to explore the shaping of changes in the industrial landscape of 798 from a weapon manufacturing area to an arts district, creative industry park and the “pan 798” by the factory owners, government, management committee, artists, media and tourists through different presentation forms, revealing the game process of representation of powers among the coalition between artists, management committee and the government. The paper points out that in fact, the representation of industrial landscape by different actors through different texts is a process that continues to explore and define the value of landscape. However, we need to look at this when the value of the industrial landscape is no longer given by localized life practices, but rather depends on different actors to produce and reproduce the value of landscape by representation, and thereby affecting the sustainable development of industrial landscape.

  14. Sustainable Land-Use Planning to Improve the Coastal Resilience of the Social-Ecological Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of land-use transitions decrease the coastal resilience of the social-ecological landscape (SEL, particularly in light of the fact that it is necessary to analyze the causal relationship between the two systems because operations of the social system and the ecological system are correlated. The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamics of the coastal SEL and create a sustainable land-use planning (SLUP strategy to enhance coastal resilience. The selected study site was Shindu-ri, South Korea, where land-use transitions are increasing and coastal resilience is therefore decreasing. Systems thinking was used to analyze the study, which was performed in four steps. First, the issues affecting the coastal area in Shindu-ri were defined as coastal landscape management, the agricultural structure, and the tourism industry structure. Second, the main variables for each issue were defined, and causal relationships between the main variables were created. Third, a holistic causal loop diagram was built based on both dynamic thinking and causal thinking. Fourth, five land-uses, including those of the coastal forest, the coastal grassland, the coastal dune, the agricultural area, and developed sites, were selected as leverage points for developing SLUP strategies to increase coastal resilience. The results show that “decrease in the size of the coastal forest”, “decrease in the size of the coastal dune”, and “increase in the size of the coastal grasslands” were considered parts of a land-use plan to enhance the resilience of the Shindu-ri SEL. This study developed integrated coastal land-use planning strategies that may provide effective solutions for complex and dynamic issues in the coastal SEL. Additionally, the results may be utilized as basic data to build and implement coastal land-use planning strategies.

  15. Norse agriculture in Greenland? Farming in a remote medieval landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter Steen

    The aim of the project Norse Farming in Greenland: Agriculture on the edge was to determine whether the Norse farmers actually cultivated crops in Greenland during colonisation in the Viking age and the medieval period. This was investigated by analysing macrofossils extracted from soil samples...

  16. Industrial Archaeology, Landscapes, and Historical Knowledge of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald L. Hardesty

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of industrial life support systems in the last three centuries dramatically changed humanenvironmental relationships. Industrial landscapes are repositories of historical knowledge about this ecological revolution. The key components of industrial landscapes include landforms (for example, waste rock dumps from mines), industrial buildings and structures...

  17. Biofertilizers and sustainable agriculture: exploring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igiehon, Nicholas O; Babalola, Olubukola O

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide agricultural food production has to double in 2050 so as to feed the global increasing population while reducing dependency on conventional chemical fertilizers plus pesticides. To accomplish this objective, there is the need to explore the several mutualistic interactions between plant roots and rhizosphere microbiome. Biofertilization is the process of boosting the abundance of microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the natural plant rhizosphere which depicts a beneficial alternative to chemical fertilization practices. Mineral nutrients uptake by AMF are plausible by means of transporters coded for by different genes and example include phosphate transporter. These fungi can be produced industrially using plant host and these, including the possibility of AMF contamination by other microorganism, are factors militating against large scale production of AMF. AMF isolates can be inoculated in the greenhouse or field, and it has been shown that AMF survival and colonization level were enhanced in soybeans grown on land that was previously cultivated with the same plant. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is now used to gain insight into how AMF interact with indigenous AMF and screen for beneficial microbial candidates. Besides application as biofertilizers, novel findings on AMF that could contribute to maintenance of agricultural development include AMF roles in controlling soil erosion, enhancing phytoremediation, and elimination of other organisms that may be harmful to crops through common mycelia network. The combination of these potentials when fully harnessed under agricultural scenario will help to sustain agriculture and boost food security globally.

  18. Agroforestry—The Next Step in Sustainable and Resilient Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heron Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture faces the unprecedented task of feeding a world population of 9 billion people by 2050 while simultaneously avoiding harmful environmental and social effects. One effort to meet this challenge has been organic farming, with outcomes that are generally positive. However, a number of challenges remain. Organic yields lag behind those in conventional agriculture, and greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching remain somewhat problematic. In this paper, we examine current organic and conventional agriculture systems and suggest that agroforestry, which is the intentional combination of trees and shrubs with crops or livestock, could be the next step in sustainable agriculture. By implementing systems that mimic nature’s functions, agroforestry has the potential to remain productive while supporting a range of ecosystem services. In this paper, we outline the common practices and products of agroforestry as well as beneficial environmental and social effects. We address barriers to agroforestry and explore potential options to alter policies and increase adoption by farmers. We conclude that agroforestry is one of the best land use strategies to contribute to food security while simultaneously limiting environmental degradation.

  19. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan C; Aaron, Debra K; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Soil management: The key to soil quality and sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Gottlieb; Barão, Lúcia; Soares, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Today, after the International Year of Soils in 2015 and the proclamation by the International Union of Soil Sciences of the International Decade of Soils 2015-2020, much attention is paid to soil quality. Often used interchangeably, both terms, soil quality and soil health, refer to dynamic soil properties such as soil organic matter or pH, while soil quality also includes inherent soil properties such as texture or mineral composition. However, it is the dynamic or manageable properties that adequate soil management can influence and thus contribute to a well-functioning soil environment capable to deliver the soil-mediated provisioning, regulating and supporting ecosystem services and soil functions. This contribution intends to highlight the key principles of sustainable soil management and provide evidence that they are compliant with a productive, resource efficient and ecologically friendly agriculture. Paradoxically, and despite benefitting from good soil quality, agriculture itself when based on conventional, especially intensive tillage-based soil management practices contributes decisively to soil degradation and to several of the soil threats as identified by the Soil Thematic Strategy, being soil erosion and soil organic matter decline the most notorious ones. To mitigate soil degradation, the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy has introduced conservation measures, mainly through cross-compliance measures supposed to guarantee minimum soil cover, to limit soil erosion and to maintain the levels of soil organic matter. However, it remains unclear to what extent EU member states apply these 'Good Agricultural and Environmental Condition' (GAEC) measures to their utilized agricultural areas. Effective and cost-efficient soil management systems able to conserve or to restore favourable soil conditions, to minimize soil erosion and to invert soil organic matter and soil biodiversity decline and improve soil structure are those capable to mimic as

  1. Integrated analysis of the effects of agricultural management on nitrogen fluxes at landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, J.; Frumeau, K.F.A.; Hensen, A.; Vries, de W.

    2011-01-01

    The integrated modelling system INITIATOR was applied to a landscape in the northern part of the Netherlands to assess current nitrogen fluxes to air and water and the impact of various agricultural measures on these fluxes, using spatially explicit input data on animal numbers, land use,

  2. Effects of farm heterogeneity and methods for upscaling on modelled nitrogen losses in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Dragosits, U

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to illustrate the importance of farm scale heterogeneity on nitrogen (N) losses in agricultural landscapes. Results are exemplified with a chain of N models calculating farm-N balances and distributing the N-surplus to N-losses (volatilisation, denitrification, leaching...

  3. Arthropods Biodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes: Effects of Land Use and Anthropization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Leis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The greatest proportion of Po river plain is occupied by arable lands. Negative effects of modern intensive agriculture on biodiversity can derive from various phenomena operating at different spatial scales, from local to regional ones. If agricultural fields are subjected to periodical disturbances by farming practices, also landscape structure can influence community structure in the fields providing refugial areas or alternative trophic resources. In the same way in perennial habitats, such as strips and meadows, community structure and composition may be linked to both local factors and surrounding land use, that can influence organism persistence and dispersal mechanisms. We studied some natural and anthropized habitats in a wide agricultural area in the province of Ferrara (conventional annual and perennial fields, herbaceous strips, hedgerows and meadows to investigate relationships between arthropod community structure and both local impact factors (habitat type, management and surronding landscape structure and use. Results from uni and multivariate analysis showed a great influence on trophic and taxonomic structure of habitat type and quality.A less complex landscape had only slightly influence on trophic structure, leading to higher abundance and richness of generalist taxa. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of maintaining high-quality habitats to enhance arthopod diversity in agricultural landscapes.

  4. Pervasive effects of dispersal limitation on within- and among-community species richness in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, F.; Maelfait, J.P.; Desender, K.; Aviron, S.; Bailey, D.; Diekotter, T.; Lens, L.; Liira, J.; Schweiger, O.; Speelmans, M.; Vandomme, V.; Bugter, R.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine whether the effect of habitat fragmentation and habitat heterogeneity on species richness at different spatial scales depends on the dispersal ability of the species assemblages and if this results in nested species assemblages. Location Agricultural landscapes distributed over

  5. Hedgerows Have a Barrier Effect and Channel Pollinator Movement in the Agricultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Felix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification and the subsequent fragmentation of semi-natural habitats severely restrict pollinator and pollen movement threatening both pollinator and plant species. Linear landscape elements such as hedgerows are planted for agricultural and conservation purposes to increase the resource availability and habitat connectivity supporting populations of beneficial organisms such as pollinators. However, hedgerows may have unexpected effects on plant and pollinator persistence by not just channeling pollinators and pollen along, but also restricting movement across the strip of habitat. Here, we tested how hedgerows influence pollinator movement and pollen flow. We used fluorescent dye particles as pollen analogues to track pollinator movement between potted cornflowers Centaurea cyanus along and across a hedgerow separating two meadows. The deposition of fluorescent dye was significantly higher along the hedgerow than across the hedgerow and into the meadow, despite comparable pollinator abundances. The differences in pollen transfer suggest that hedgerows can affect pollinator and pollen dispersal by channeling their movement and acting as a permeable barrier. We conclude that hedgerows in agricultural landscapes can increase the connectivity between otherwise isolated plant and pollinator populations (corridor function, but can have additional, and so far unknown barrier effects on pollination services. Functioning as a barrier, linear landscape elements can impede pollinator movement and dispersal, even for highly mobile species such as bees. These results should be considered in future management plans aiming to enhance the persistence of threatened pollinator and plant populations by restoring functional connectivity and to ensure sufficient crop pollination in the agricultural landscape.

  6. Trait-based approaches for guiding the restoration of degraded agricultural landscapes in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Winowiecki, Leigh; Aynekulu, Ermias; Okia, Clement; Vågen, Tor Gunnar

    2018-01-01

    Functional ecology provides a framework that can link vegetation characteristics of various land uses with ecosystem function. However, this application has been mostly limited to [semi-]natural systems and small spatial scales. Here, we apply functional ecology to five agricultural landscapes in

  7. Effects of landscape structure on genetic diversity of Geum urbanum L. populations in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, T.; Arens, P.F.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Billeter, R.; Liira, J.; Augenstein, I.; Durka, W.

    2009-01-01

    Plant species in fragmented populations are affected by landscape structure because persistence within and migration among inhabited patches may be influenced by the identity and configuration of surrounding habitat elements. This may also be true for species of the semi-natural vegetation in

  8. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: A literature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    We summarize current knowledge about grass buffers for protecting small, isolated wetlands in agricultural contexts, including information relevant to protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants, and information on how buffers may affect densities and productivity of grassland birds. Land-uses surrounding the approximately 60,000 playas within the Playa Lakes Region (PLR), including intensive agriculture, feedlots, and oil extraction, can contribute to severe degradation of playas. Farming and grazing can lead to significant sedimentation in nearby playas, eliminating their ability to hold water, support the region’s biodiversity, or adequately recharge aquifers. Contaminants further degrade habitats and threaten the water quality of underlying aquifers, including the Ogallala Aquifer.

  9. High-Resolution Biogeochemical Simulation Identifies Practical Opportunities for Bioenergy Landscape Intensification Across Diverse US Agricultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J.; Adler, P. R.; Evans, S.; Paustian, K.; Marx, E.; Easter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The sustainability of biofuel expansion is strongly dependent on the environmental footprint of feedstock production, including both direct impacts within feedstock-producing areas and potential leakage effects due to disruption of existing food, feed, or fiber production. Assessing and minimizing these impacts requires novel methods compared to traditional supply chain lifecycle assessment. When properly validated and applied at appropriate spatial resolutions, biogeochemical process models are useful for simulating how the productivity and soil greenhouse gas fluxes of cultivating both conventional crops and advanced feedstock crops respond across gradients of land quality and management intensity. In this work we use the DayCent model to assess the biogeochemical impacts of agricultural residue collection, establishment of perennial grasses on marginal cropland or conservation easements, and intensification of existing cropping at high spatial resolution across several real-world case study landscapes in diverse US agricultural regions. We integrate the resulting estimates of productivity, soil carbon changes, and nitrous oxide emissions with crop production budgets and lifecycle inventories, and perform a basic optimization to generate landscape cost/GHG frontiers and determine the most practical opportunities for low-impact feedstock provisioning. The optimization is constrained to assess the minimum combined impacts of residue collection, land use change, and intensification of existing agriculture necessary for the landscape to supply a commercial-scale biorefinery while maintaining exiting food, feed, and fiber production levels. These techniques can be used to assess how different feedstock provisioning strategies perform on both economic and environmental criteria, and sensitivity of performance to environmental and land use factors. The included figure shows an example feedstock cost-GHG mitigation tradeoff frontier for a commercial-scale cellulosic

  10. Can conservation trump impacts of climate change and extremes on soil erosion in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preservation of top soil is critical for the long term sustainability of agricultural productivity, food security, and biodiversity. However, today’s growing population and increasing demand for food and fiber is stressing the agricultural soil and water resources. Climate change imposes additional ...

  11. Pedagogy for Addressing the Worldview Challenge in Sustainable Development of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nicholas R.; Bawden, Richard J.; Bergmann, Luke

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is offering new forms of support to society, as evidenced by rapid development of an agricultural "bio-economy," and increasing emphasis on production of ecological services in farmed landscapes. The advent of these innovations will engage agricultural professionals in critical civic debates about matters that are complex and…

  12. Designing sustainable landscapes in the Northeast Region, Phase 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this project was to assess the capability of current and potential future landscapes to provide integral ecosystems and suitable habitat for a suite...

  13. Sustainable landscaping practices for enhancing vegetation establishment : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This research supports the integration of new practices and procedures to improve soil : structure that will help turf, meadow, forest and landscape plantings to thrive. It sought : to (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of innovative soil decompaction...

  14. Agricultural Landscapes in urban environments by the example of Christchurch, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Tóth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has diverse forms in the intra-urban and peri-urban area of Christchurch, the capitol of the Canterbury Region, New Zealand. These agricultural landscapes are productive components of the urban green infrastructure and provide important environmental, social and economic services. Within the Reciprocal Short Term Scientific Mission supported by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology, diverse patterns of urban agriculture have been analysed according to their spatial and structural characteristics and considering their significance for building a resilient urban food system. The aim of this paper is to introduce and analyse different patterns of urban agriculture by four case studies in the intra-urban area and two case studies in the peri-urban area of Christchurch. The intra-urban agricultural landscapes are represented by the Okeover Community Garden at the University of Canterbury, the Christchurch Farmers Market at the Riccarton House, The Agropolis Urban Farm and an urban production garden. The agriculture in the peri-urban area of the city is introduced as large-scale agriculture and a specific form of urban sprawl and arable land consumption is presented by the example of lifestyle blocks.

  15. Globalisation, sustainable development and competencies of landscape change in a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    During the last 10 years the collective goals connected with the agenda of sustainable development has been challenged by the globalisation agenda furthering a global liberalised market with the individual producer and consumer in focus. Only in the local planning and management of the concrete...... the perspectives of a globalisation vs. sustainability agenda, focusing on the support for different geographical competences for landscape change devoted to different population groups in the rural community. It is concluded that support for a local sustainable landscape development is depending heavily...... of a liberalized globalisation....

  16. Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Ghana: What Governance System Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Bogweh Nchanji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban farming takes advantage of its proximity to market, transport and other urban infrastructure to provide food for the city and sustain the livelihoods of urban and peri-urban dwellers. It is an agricultural activity which employs more than 50% of the local urban population with positive and negative impacts on local and national development. Urban agriculture is an informal activity not supported by law but in practice is regulated to a certain extent by state institutions, traditional rulers, farmers and national and international non-governmental organisations. Tamale’s rapid population growth, exacerbated by the unplanned development system and institutional conflicts, are factors contributing to the present bottlenecks in the urban agricultural system. In this paper, these bottlenecks are conceptualised as problems of governance. These issues will be illustrated using ethnographic data from land sales, crop-livestock competition, waste-water irrigation, and markets. I will explain how conflicts which arise from these different situations are resolved through the interactions of various governance systems. Informal governance arrangements are widespread, but neither they nor formal systems are always successful in resolving governance issues. A participatory governance does not seem possible due to actors’ divergent interests. A governance solution for this sector is not yet apparent, contributing to food and nutritional insecurity.

  17. CLIMATE CHANGE, VARIABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN ZIMBABWE'S RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gukurume Simbarashe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of climate change and variability on agricultural productivity in the communal area of Bikita. The article further examines the adaptation and mitigation strategies devised by farmers to deal with the vagaries of climate change and variability. The sustainability of these is also interrogated in this article. This study juxtaposed qualitative and quantitative methodologies albeit with more bias on the former. A total of 40 farmers were sampled for unstructured interviews and focus group discussions. This article argues that the adverse impacts of climate change and variability are felt heavily by the poor communal farmers who are directly dependent on agriculture for livelihood. From the study, some of the widely reported signs of climate variability in Bikita included late and unpredictable rains, high temperatures (heat waves, successive drought, shortening rainfall seasons and seasonal changes in the timing of rainfall. The paper argues that climate change has compounded the vulnerability of peasant farmers in the drought - prone district of Bikita plunging them into food insecurity and abject poverty. It emerged in the study that some of effects of climate variability felt by communal farmers in Bikita included failure of crops, death of livestock and low crop yields, all of which have led to declining agricultural productivity. Findings in this study however established that communal farmers have not been passive victims of the vagaries of climate change and variability. They have rationally responded to it through various adaptation and mitigation strategies both individually and collectively.

  18. Sustainable Agriculture as a Recruitment Tool for Geoscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, K. P.; Gilbert, L. A.; McGillis, A.

    2014-12-01

    Small-scale agriculture has exploded with popularity in recent years, as teenagers and college students gain interest in local food sources. Outdoor experiences, including gardening and farming, are often among the motivations for students to take their first geoscience courses in college. The methods and theories of small agriculture translate well into geologic research questions, especially in the unique setting of college campus farms and gardens. We propose an activity or assignment to engage student-farmers in thinking about geosciences, and connect them with geoscience departments as a gateway to the major and career field. Furthermore, the activity will encourage a new generation of passionate young farmers to integrate the principles of earth science into their design and implementation of more sustainable food systems. The activity includes mapping, soil sampling, and interviewing professionals in agriculture and geology, and results in the students writing a series of recommendations for their campus or other farm. The activity includes assessment tools for instructors and can be used to give credit for a summer farming internship or as part of a regular course. We believe reaching out to students interested in farming could be an important recruitment tool for geosciences and helps build interdisciplinary and community partnerships.

  19. Integrated Systems Mitigate Land Degradation and Improve Agricultural System Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Rain-fed agricultural production supported by exogenous inputs is not sustainable because a continuous influx of expensive inputs (fertilizer, chemicals, fossil fuel, labor, tillage, and other) is required. Alternatives to traditional management allow natural occurring dynamic soil processes to provide the necessary microbial activity that supports nutrient cycling in balance with nature. Research designed to investigate the potential for integrated systems to replace expensive inputs has shown that healthy soils rich in soil organic matter (SOM) are the foundation upon which microbial nutrient cycling can reduce and eventually replace expensive fertilizer. No-till seed placement technology effectively replaces multiple-pass cultivation conserving stored soil water in semi-arid farming systems. In multi-crop rotations, cool- and warm-season crops are grown in sequence to meet goals of the integrated farming and ranching system, and each crop in the rotation complements the subsequent crop by supplying a continuous flow of essential SOM for soil nutrient cycling. Grazing animals serve an essential role in the system's sustainability as non-mechanized animal harvesters that reduce fossil fuel consumption and labor, and animal waste contributes soil nutrients to the system. Integrated systems' complementarity has contributed to greater soil nutrient cycling and crop yields, fertilizer reduction or elimination, greater yearling steer grazing net return, reduced cow wintering costs grazing crop residues, increased wildlife sightings, and reduced environmental footprint. Therefore, integrating crop and animal systems can reverse soil quality decline and adopting non-traditional procedures has resulted in a wider array of opportunities for sustainable agriculture and profitability.

  20. A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Kennedy, Christina M; Kremen, Claire; Batáry, Péter; Berendse, Frank; Bommarco, Riccardo; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Snyder, William E; Williams, Neal M; Winfree, Rachael; Klatt, Björn K; Åström, Sandra; Benjamin, Faye; Brittain, Claire; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Clough, Yann; Danforth, Bryan; Diekötter, Tim; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Ekroos, Johan; Elle, Elizabeth; Freitas, Breno M; Fukuda, Yuki; Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Grab, Heather; Gratton, Claudio; Holzschuh, Andrea; Isaacs, Rufus; Isaia, Marco; Jha, Shalene; Jonason, Dennis; Jones, Vincent P; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Krauss, Jochen; Letourneau, Deborah K; Macfadyen, Sarina; Mallinger, Rachel E; Martin, Emily A; Martinez, Eliana; Memmott, Jane; Morandin, Lora; Neame, Lisa; Otieno, Mark; Park, Mia G; Pfiffner, Lukas; Pocock, Michael J O; Ponce, Carlos; Potts, Simon G; Poveda, Katja; Ramos, Mariangie; Rosenheim, Jay A; Rundlöf, Maj; Sardiñas, Hillary; Saunders, Manu E; Schon, Nicole L; Sciligo, Amber R; Sidhu, C Sheena; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja; Veselý, Milan; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Wilson, Julianna K; Crowder, David W

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems. What remains unclear is the extent to which farm management schemes affect biodiversity components other than species richness, and whether impacts differ across spatial scales and landscape contexts. Using a global metadataset, we quantified the effects of organic farming and plant diversification on abundance, local diversity (communities within fields), and regional diversity (communities across fields) of arthropod pollinators, predators, herbivores, and detritivores. Both organic farming and higher in-field plant diversity enhanced arthropod abundance, particularly for rare taxa. This resulted in increased richness but decreased evenness. While these responses were stronger at local relative to regional scales, richness and abundance increased at both scales, and richness on farms embedded in complex relative to simple landscapes. Overall, both organic farming and in-field plant diversification exerted the strongest effects on pollinators and predators, suggesting these management schemes can facilitate ecosystem service providers without augmenting herbivore (pest) populations. Our results suggest that organic farming and plant diversification promote diverse arthropod metacommunities that may provide temporal and spatial stability of ecosystem service provisioning. Conserving diverse plant and arthropod communities in farming systems therefore requires sustainable practices that operate both within fields and across landscapes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Students' Experiential Learning and Use of Student Farms in Sustainable Agriculture Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Damian M.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Student farms, developed largely out of student efforts, have served as centers for the development of experiential learning and sustainable agriculture and food systems educational activities on land-grant colleges of agriculture well before most formal sustainable agriculture and food systems programs were proposed. This study explored students'…

  2. Seeds of Knowledge: The Evolution of the Louis Bromfield Sustainable Agriculture Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Laurie L.

    The Louis Bromfield Sustainable Agriculture Library is located in Lucas, Ohio, at Malabar Farm State Park. Established in 1992, the library is jointly maintained by the Ohio State University Sustainable Agriculture Program and the Ohio Department of Agriculture. The library's namesake, Louis Bromfield, was a Pulitzer Prize-winning author and noted…

  3. Analysis of the effects of agricultural land use change on rural environment and landscape through historical cartography and GIS tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Statuto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human activities and the social and economic transformations occurred during the last century led modifications in the agro-forestry areas. This paper shows a study case study in which the dynamics of land use are analysed using a geographic information system applied to historical maps in order to evaluate the consequences of these land transformations over the last 179 years on the rural environment and landscape. The use of three-dimensional reconstructions, obtained through the creation of different digital terrain model, has allowed to appreciate the landscape modifications, in term of morphological and vegetation variation, determining its aesthetic quality. The analysis shows a common dynamic present in many rural areas of Southern Italy, i.e., the increase of agricultural areas replacing forested surfaces in an older period followed by the further phenomenon of spontaneous re-naturalisation of many of these areas, due to the abandonment of extensive cultivated areas. Moreover, through comparison with historical documents, it was possible to analyse how the agricultural activities influenced the quality of the forest ecosystem. The methodology employed in this study allows a detailed analysis of the processes that occurred in different rural context and the creation of appropriate tools for sustainable land management.

  4. Investigating biodiversity trajectories using scenarios--lessons from two contrasting agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindborg, Regina; Stenseke, Marie; Cousins, Sara A O; Bengtsson, Jan; Berg, Ake; Gustafsson, Tomas; Sjödin, N Erik; Eriksson, Ove

    2009-01-01

    Agriculture is the major land use at a global scale. In addition to food production, multifunctionality of landscapes, including values and ecosystem services like biodiversity, recreation and culture, is now focus for management. This study explores how a scenario approach, involving different stakeholders, may help to improve landscape management for biodiversity conservation. Local farmers and executives at the County Administrative Board were invited to discuss rural development and conditions for farmland biodiversity in two Swedish landscapes. The potential biodiversity for three future land use scenarios for the two landscapes was discussed: nature conservation, outdoor recreation and energy production, and compared with current and historical landscapes in each region. Analyses of habitat areas, connectedness and landscape diversity suggested that the energy and recreation scenarios had a negative impact on farmland biodiversity, whereas the nature conservation scenario, the current and historically reconstructed landscapes had a higher potential for biodiversity. The farmers appreciated the nature conservation scenario, but also the energy production scenario and they highlighted the need of increased subsidies for management of biodiversity. The farmers in the high production area were less interested in nature quality per se. The executives had similar opinions as the farmers, but disagreed on the advantages with energy production, as this would be in conflict with the high biodiversity and recreational values. The local physical and socio-economical conditions differ between landscapes and potentially shaped the stakeholders emotional attachment to the local environment, their opinions and decisions on how to manage the land. We stress the importance of incorporating local knowledge, visions and regional prerequisites for different land uses in conservation, since site and landscape specific planning for biodiversity together with a flexible subsidy

  5. Strategic planning for sustainable spatial, landscape and tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of the expected role of spatial and environmental planning in coordination and integration with strategic planning for sustainable spatial/territorial, landscape and tourism development. The application of an integrated approach to sustainable territorial development planning and management in the European Union is also analyzed in the context of problems associated with and possibilities to enhance the European Landscape Convention and Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European tourism implementation. We have analyzed the contributions of reforms that have so far been implemented in current legislation and of planning bases to the establishment of coordinated sustainable territorial development planning and management in Serbia and to the procurement of support for the integration of sustainable tourism development and landscape planning and management into the process of spatial, environmental and sectoral planning. The approach to and problems of landscape protection and sustainable tourism development occurring in the practice in spatial planning are analyzed through examples of a new generation of spatial plans - the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia, and a spatial plan of the special-purpose area for the Nature Park and Tourism Region of Stara Planina Mountain. Through the example of Mt Stara Planina, the role of strategic environmental assessment in coordination with spatial and sectoral planning is analyzed, as well as potential contribution to landscape integration and sustainable tourism development in the process of planning. The possibilities for better coordination of Serbian strategic planning in achieving the sustainable spatial and tourism development, and possibilities to integrate landscapes into the planning process are indicated.

  6. Population genetic structure in a social landscape: barley in a traditional Ethiopian agricultural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samberg, Leah H; Fishman, Lila; Allendorf, Fred W

    2013-12-01

    Conservation strategies are increasingly driven by our understanding of the processes and patterns of gene flow across complex landscapes. The expansion of population genetic approaches into traditional agricultural systems requires understanding how social factors contribute to that landscape, and thus to gene flow. This study incorporates extensive farmer interviews and population genetic analysis of barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare) to build a holistic picture of farmer-mediated geneflow in an ancient, traditional agricultural system in the highlands of Ethiopia. We analyze barley samples at 14 microsatellite loci across sites at varying elevations and locations across a contiguous mountain range, and across farmer-identified barley types and management strategies. Genetic structure is analyzed using population-based and individual-based methods, including measures of population differentiation and genetic distance, multivariate Principal Coordinate Analysis, and Bayesian assignment tests. Phenotypic analysis links genetic patterns to traits identified by farmers. We find that differential farmer management strategies lead to markedly different patterns of population structure across elevation classes and barley types. The extent to which farmer seed management appears as a stronger determinant of spatial structure than the physical landscape highlights the need for incorporation of social, landscape, and genetic data for the design of conservation strategies in human-influenced landscapes.

  7. Support of the landscape amenity function of agriculture and trade liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kubíčková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent agricultural policy and trade discussions have given increasing attention to “multifunctionality”, the notion, that agriculture provides multiple outputs that include public goods (such as landscape amenities as well as privately traded commodities. A frequent point of contention is also whether payment for the provision of non-commodity outputs distorts trade by giving domestic farmers a competitive advantage over foreign competitors. The paper reviews some requirements for environmental policy design and the role of property rights for the justification of the development of compensation programs targeted to landscape protection. The second part of the paper illustrates the possibilities, how to use results of Contingent Valuation (CV study of landscape amenity benefits of agriculture to prove eligibility for agri-environmental payments in the case of the Protected Landscape Area White Carpathians (Bílé Karpaty. It is documented in the paper, that Contingent Valuation can provide useful information about genuine concern and overall efficiency of compensation programs as well as people’s views about alternative ethical ends, besides human well-being, that policy makers should take in consideration.

  8. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  9. Sustainability of terraced paddy fields in traditional satoyama landscapes of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukamachi, Katsue

    2017-11-01

    Terraced paddy fields are essential components of the traditional cultural landscape of Japan, the satoyama landscape. They have been sustainably cultivated in a variety of ecological and social environments through time, and are highly valued as local resources with multiple functions. This paper reviews the recent nationwide movement for conservation of satoyama landscapes and shows that over the last decades, the government has increasingly created policies based on national regulation or international frameworks that concern the culture and environment in rural areas. Recent measures for the sustainability of terraced paddy fields do not only focus on rice terraces, but are directed at each satoyama landscape as a whole under careful consideration of how landscape elements are connected while taking into account the unique features of each area. Nevertheless, it has become difficult to ensure the continued use and maintenance of terraced rice paddies both in depopulated and suburban satoyama landscapes. The motivation for conserving satoyama landscapes, including those with terraced rice paddies, can be found in the awareness and appreciation of the unique characteristics of each locality that offer opportunities that can only be experienced in that particular area. A satoyama landscape that offers such opportunities allows continuity of traditional practices while integrating necessary changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  11. Juggling land retirement objectives on an agricultural landscape: coordination, conflict, or compromise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth P; Homans, Frances R

    2006-07-01

    Strategic land retirement in agricultural settings has been used as one way to achieve a combination of social objectives, which include ameliorating water quality problems and enhancing existing systems of wildlife habitat. This study uses a simulation model operating on a virtual landscape, along with the compromise programming method, to illustrate the implications of alternative weighting schemes for the long-term performance of the landscape toward various objectives. The analysis suggests that particular spatial patterns may be related to how various objectives are weighted. The analysis also illustrates the inevitable trade-offs among objectives, although it may be tempting to present retirement strategies as "win-win."

  12. Pollinator interactions with yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) across urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Kremen, Claire; Roderick, George K

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1) rates of bee visitation, 2) viable seed set, and 3) the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set). We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services.

  13. Managing Nitrogen in Croplands: Implications for Increasing Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L.

    2011-12-01

    Many agricultural landscapes in the temperate zone are dominated by agroecosystems that are managed with high inputs of agrochemicals, including synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers. The process of agricultural intensification increases crop production per unit area, but also often results in loss of environmental quality (such as N contamination of waters, eutrophication, atmospheric N deposition, and emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas). Loss of biodiversity and its 'functional homogenization' is another concern. Not only does little land in these landscapes remain in natural ecosystems, but there are negative off-site impacts of intensive agriculture on non-target organisms. Segregating agroecosystems with high-input agricultural production from natural ecosystems (land sparing) is one view to support both food security and biodiversity conservation. But proponents of land sparing rarely address the loss of other ecosystem services, such as those related to environmental quality, health, and human well-being (e.g., livelihoods and cultural values). An emerging view is that increased reliance on ecological processes in agroecosystems ('ecological intensification') is more feasible when the landscape mosaic includes planned and unplanned biodiversity. This requires research on how to support multiple ecosystem services through the integration of agricultural production and biodiversity conservation in the same landscape, and how ecological and physico-chemical processes at various spatial scales are interlinked. It is an enormous challenge to increase reliance on ecological processes for N availability for crop productivity. There are skeptics who think that this will be detrimental for food security, despite benefits for other types of ecosystem services. Using examples from agricultural landscapes in California, mechanisms for ecologically-based N cycling will be discussed, such as: 1) increasing the reservoir of soil organic N and the

  14. An exhaustive inventory of coniferous trees in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselet, Jérôme; Roques, Alain; Garcia, Jacques; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Various species of forest trees are commonly used for ornamental purposes and are therefore frequently found in non-forest ecosystems. These trees constitute a significant component of the trees outside forests (TOF). Although increasingly recognized as prominent feature of agricultural lands and built-up areas, not much is known, however, about TOF since they are generally absent from forest inventories. In the present study, we focus on the coniferous tree species that constitute potential hosts for a forest defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoeapityocampa Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae). We carried out an exhaustive inventory of all pines (Pinus spp.), cedars (Cedrus spp.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugamenziesii) in a 22 × 22 km study window located in the open-field region of Beauce in the centre of France. We recorded a total of 3834 individuals or small groups host trees corresponding a density of 7.9 occurrences per 100 ha. We provide the spatial coordinates of the points without differentiation between tree species.

  15. Water resource management for sustainable agriculture in Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rajan; Kaushal, Mohinder; Kaur, Samanpreet; Farmaha, Bhupinder

    2009-01-01

    The state of Punjab comprising 1.5% area of the country has been contributing 40-50% rice and 60-65% wheat to the central pool since last three decades. During last 35 years The area under foodgrains has increased from 39,200 sq km ha to 63,400 sq km and the production of rice and wheat has increased from 0.18 to 0.32 kg/m2 and 0.22 to 0.43 kg/m2 respectively. This change in cropping pattern has increased irrigation water requirement tremendously and the irrigated area has increased from 71 to 95% in the state. Also the number of tube wells has increased from 0.192 to 1.165 million in the last 35 years. The excessive indiscriminate exploitation of ground water has created a declining water table situation in the state. The problem is most critical in central Punjab. The average rate of decline over the last few years has been 55 cm per year. The worst affected districts are Moga, Sangrur, Nawanshahar, Ludhiana and Jalandhar. This has resulted in extra power consumption, affects the socio-economic conditions of the small farmers, destroy the ecological balance and adversely affect the sustainable agricultural production and economy of the state. Therefore, in this paper attempt has been made to analyse the problem of declining water table, possible factors responsible for this and suggest suitable strategies for arresting declining water table for sustainable agriculture in Punjab. The strategies include shift of cropping pattern, delay in paddy transplantation, precision irrigation and rainwater harvesting for artificial groundwater recharge.

  16. How will the changing industrial forest landscape affect forest sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Craig Loehle

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale divestiture of commercial forestlands is occurring in the United States. Furthermore, increasing demand for cellulose for bioenergy may modify forest management practices widely enough to impact the spatial characteristics of forested landscapes. We used the HARVEST timber harvest simulator to investigate the potential consequences of divestiture and...

  17. Challenges for sustainable food systems in metropolitan landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsjens, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Metropolitan landscapes are facing the challenge to find a balance between urban development on the one hand and the preservation of farmland and natural resources on the other. Conventional land use planning approaches are often not up to this complex challenge and many regions are in need for

  18. Sustainable Land Use Evaluation on Steep Landscapes and Flood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slope was derived from digital elevation model (DEM) and spatially analyzed with land-use/cover information generated from satellite data. The performance of existing land-use was compared with expected land-use performance criteria for steep landscapes and flood plains. Steep slopes and areas within 100 m of the ...

  19. Utilizing Cocoa Rind as Organic Fertilizer to Support Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Chaniago

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main key in choosing manure is the level of ripeness, the ratio of Carbon and Nitrogen (C/N and the Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPPt contents. So far, the farmers have not effectively utilized organic materials as fertilizers in agricultural lands. Organic materials which can be used include agricultural waste and animal waste. The existence of alternative fertilizers and in order to support the development of sustainable agriculture, utilizing agricultural waste as the materials to make organic fertilizers is encouraged. Organic fertilizers can be in the forms of manure, compost, and the combination of both. The research was aimed to study the NPPt content in compost from cocoa rind and cow waste. This research was done in May – September 2015 in Sub-district Luwuk, District Banggai and in the Laboratory of Chemistry and Soil Fertility, Department of Soil Science Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, Makassar. The experiment was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The experiment contained one factor with three treatments, which were repeated 3 times; thus, there were 9 treatments units. The treatments were comparison dosages of cocoa rind and cow waste, i.e. P1 = 50 kg of cocoa rind : 10 kg of cow waste; P2 = 50 kg of cocoa rind : 20 kg cow of waste; P3 = 50 kg of cocoa rind : 30 kg of cow waste. Data were analysed by comparing the average of NPPt element in cocoa rind compost and cow waste. Data was then analyzed statistically by One Way Anova (One Way Variant Analysis by using SPSS 19.0 for Windows and further analyzed by Least Significant Difference (LSD 1% by using Microsoft Excel Windows 7. The results showed that the highest macro nutrients content was in P2 with N = 0.25%; P = 3.91%; K = 5.23% and the lowest was in P3 with N = 0.19% and P = 3.33% as well as in P1 with K = 4.16%.

  20. Experimental learning projects address contemporary issues related to energy, environment, and sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “Bio-Fuel, sustainability, and geospatial information technologies to enhance experiential learning paradigm for precision agriculture project”, recently funded by USDA extends the environmental stewardship archetype of the preceding project titled “Environmentally conscious precision agricultur...

  1. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-01-01

    .... For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale...

  2. Evaluating agricultural trade-offs in the age of sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanter, David R.; Musumba, Mark; Wood, Sylvia L.R.; Palm, Cheryl; Antle, John; Balvanera, Patricia; Dale, Virginia H.; Havlik, Petr; Kline, Keith L.; Scholes, R.J.; Thornton, Philip; Tittonell, Pablo; Andelman, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    A vibrant, resilient and productive agricultural sector is fundamental to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Bringing about such a transformation requires optimizing a range of agronomic, environmental and socioeconomic outcomes from agricultural systems – from crop yields, to

  3. Assessment of the foraging and nesting conditions for solitary bees and bumblebees, and their distribution in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    In a survey April through November 1997, a total of 72 solitary bee species and 19 bumblebee species were recorded in the semi-natural habitats of a Danish conventional agricultural landscape. The majority of the solitary non-inquiline bee species (59) were polylectic, but four oligoleges of Salix...... all ones that may sustain a species rich but polylecticly dominated bee fauna. Abundance of solitary bees and bumblebees were correlated with mellitophilous plant coverage in south-facing areas, whereas no correlation was found for honeybees. Furthermore, abundance of honeybees was not correlated...... with abundance of other bees. Bee species richness could not be explained by plant species richness or coverage in a multiple regression. Habitat parameters in a generalised linear model were able to predict abundance of males and inquilines, a measure of nest abundances in the habitats....

  4. Antimony bioavailability: knowledge and research perspectives for sustainable agricultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2015-05-30

    The increasing interest in urban agriculture highlights the crucial question of crop quality. The main objectives for environmental sustainability are a decrease in chemical inputs, a reduction in the level of pollutants, and an improvement in the soil's biological activity. Among inorganic pollutants emitted by vehicle traffic and some industrial processes in urban areas, antimony (Sb) is observed on a global scale. While this metalloid is known to be potentially toxic, it can transfer from the soil or the atmosphere to plants, and accumulate in their edible parts. Urban agriculture is developing worldwide, and could therefore increasingly expose populations to Sb. The objective of this review was in consequences to gather and interpret actual knowledge of Sb uptake and bioaccumulation by crops, to reveal investigative fields on which to focus. While there is still no legal maximal value for Sb in plants and soils, light has to be shed on its accumulation and the factors affecting it. A relative absence of data exists about the role of soil flora and fauna in the transfer, speciation and compartmentation of Sb in vegetables. Moreover, little information exists on Sb ecotoxicity for terrestrial ecosystems. A human risk assessment has finally been reviewed, with particular focus on Sb bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The new Green Revolution: Sustainable intensification of agriculture by intercropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Guay, Marc-Olivier; Paquette, Alain; Dupras, Jérôme; Rivest, David

    2018-02-15

    Satisfying the nutritional needs of a growing population whilst limiting environmental repercussions will require sustainable intensification of agriculture. We argue that intercropping, which is the simultaneous production of multiple crops on the same area of land, could play an essential role in this intensification. We carried out the first global meta-analysis on the multifaceted benefits of intercropping. The objective of this study was to determine the benefits of intercropping in terms of energetic, economic and land-sparing potential through the framework of the stress-gradient hypothesis. We expected more intercropping benefits under stressful abiotic conditions. From 126 studies that were retrieved from the scientific literature, 939 intercropping observations were considered. When compared to the same area of land that was managed in monoculture, intercrops produced 38% more gross energy (mean relative land output of 1.38) and 33% more gross incomes (mean relative land output of 1.33) on average, whilst using 23% less land (mean land equivalent ratio of 1.30). Irrigation and the aridity index in non-irrigated intercrops did not affect land equivalent ratio, thereby indicating that intercropping remains beneficial, both under stressful and non-stressful contexts concerning moisture availability. Fertilisation and intercropping patterns (rows and strips vs. mixed) did not affect land equivalent ratio. Although intercropping offers a great opportunity for intensification of existing agricultural lands, many challenges need to be tackled by experts from multiple disciplines to ensure its feasible implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chitosan nanoparticle based delivery systems for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Xiang, Xu; Heiden, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Development of technologies that improve food productivity without any adverse impact on the ecosystem is the need of hour. In this context, development of controlled delivery systems for slow and sustained release of agrochemicals or genetic materials is crucial. Chitosan has emerged as a valuable carrier for controlled delivery of agrochemicals and genetic materials because of its proven biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and adsorption abilities. The major advantages of encapsulating agrochemicals and genetic material in a chitosan matrix include its ability to function as a protective reservoir for the active ingredients, protecting the ingredients from the surrounding environment while they are in the chitosan domain, and then controlling their release, allowing them to serve as efficient gene delivery systems for plant transformation or controlled release of pesticides. Despite the great progress in the use of chitosan in the area of medical and pharmaceutical sciences, there is still a wide knowledge gap regarding the potential application of chitosan for encapsulation of active ingredients in agriculture. Hence, the present article describes the current status of chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery systems in agriculture, and to highlight challenges that need to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. GM Crops, Organic Agriculture and Breeding for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate about the use of genetically-modified (GM crops in agriculture has largely focused on food safety and genetic contamination issues. Given that the majority of GM crops have been produced to respond to the problem of crop yield reductions caused by diseases, insects and weeds, the paper argues that in those cases, the currently used GM crops are an unstable solution to the problem, because they represent such a strong selection pressure, that pests rapidly evolve resistance. Organic agriculture practices provide a more sustainable way of producing healthy food; however, the lower yields often associated with those practices, making the resultant healthy food more expensive, open the criticism that such practices will not be able to feed human populations. Evolutionary plant breeding offers the possibility of using the evolutionary potential of crops to our advantage by producing a continuous flow of varieties better adapted to organic systems, to climate change and to the ever changing spectrum of pests, without depending on chemical control.

  8. Strategies and models for agricultural sustainability in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2008-02-27

    The green revolution of the 1960s and 1970s which resulted in dramatic yield increases in the developing Asian countries is now showing signs of fatigue in productivity gains. Intensive agriculture practiced without adherence to the scientific principles and ecological aspects has led to loss of soil health, and depletion of freshwater resources and agrobiodiversity. With progressive diversion of arable land for non-agricultural purposes, the challenge of feeding the growing population without, at the same time, annexing more forestland and depleting the rest of life is indeed daunting. Further, even with food availability through production/procurement, millions of marginal farming, fishing and landless rural families have very low or no access to food due to lack of income-generating livelihoods. Approximately 200 million rural women, children and men in India alone fall in this category. Under these circumstances, the evergreen revolution (pro-nature, pro-poor, pro-women and pro-employment/livelihood oriented ecoagriculture) under varied terms are proposed for achieving productivity in perpetuity. In the proposed 'biovillage paradigm', eco-friendly agriculture is promoted along with on- and non-farm eco-enterprises based on sustainable management of natural resources. Concurrently, the modern ICT-based village knowledge centres provide time- and locale-specific, demand-driven information needed for evergreen revolution and ecotechnologies. With a system of 'farm and marine production by masses', the twin goals of ecoagriculture and eco-livelihoods are addressed. The principles, strategies and models of these are briefly discussed in this paper.

  9. [Dynamic changes of land desertification landscape pattern in agriculture and pasturage interlaced zone of northern Shaanxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ke-Li; Chang, Qing-Rui

    2007-09-01

    By using the 1986, 1993 and 2003 Landsat TM images and with the help of GIS, the dynamic changes of land desertification landscape pattern in agriculture and pasturage interlaced zone of northern Shaanxi in 1986-2003 were analyzed. The results showed that in the past 17 years, the desertification area in the zone decreased by 206,655.2 hm2, with the patches in landscape structure reduced and fragmentation abated. Fortunately, the desertification degree decreased obviously, and moderate and light desertification took the leading position. From 1986 to 2003, the spatial centroid of desertification landscape patches expanded southwestward and northeastward, giving serious threat to the ecological safety of the southeast and northeast loess gully and hilly areas.

  10. Alternative scenarios of bioenergy crop production in an agricultural landscape and implications for bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Peter J; Williams, Carol L; Sample, David W; Meehan, Timothy D; Turner, Monica G

    2016-01-01

    Increased demand and government mandates for bioenergy crops in the United States could require a large allocation of agricultural land to bioenergy feedstock production and substantially alter current landscape patterns. Incorporating bioenergy landscape design into land-use decision making could help maximize benefits and minimize trade-offs among alternative land uses. We developed spatially explicit landscape scenarios of increased bioenergy crop production in an 80-km radius agricultural landscape centered on a potential biomass-processing energy facility and evaluated the consequences of each scenario for bird communities. Our scenarios included conversion of existing annual row crops to perennial bioenergy grasslands and conversion of existing grasslands to annual bioenergy row crops. The scenarios explored combinations of four biomass crop types (three potential grassland crops along a gradient of plant diversity and one annual row crop [corn]), three land conversion percentages to bioenergy crops (10%, 20%, or 30% of row crops or grasslands), and three spatial configurations of biomass crop fields (random, clustered near similar field types, or centered on the processing plant), yielding 36 scenarios. For each scenario, we predicted the impact on four bird community metrics: species richness, total bird density, species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) density, and SGCN hotspots (SGCN birds/ha ≥ 2). Bird community metrics consistently increased with conversion of row crops to bioenergy grasslands and consistently decreased with conversion of grasslands to bioenergy row crops. Spatial arrangement of bioenergy fields had strong effects on the bird community and in some cases was more influential than the amount converted to bioenergy crops. Clustering grasslands had a stronger positive influence on the bird community than locating grasslands near the central plant or at random. Expansion of bioenergy grasslands onto marginal agricultural lands will

  11. Measuring and monitoring linear woody features in agricultural landscapes through earth observation data as an indicator of habitat availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasher, J.; McGovern, M.; Putinski, V.

    2016-02-01

    The loss of natural habitats and the loss of biological diversity is a global problem affecting all ecosystems including agricultural landscapes. Indicators of biodiversity can provide standardized measures that make it easier to compare and communicate changes to an ecosystem. In agricultural landscapes the amount and variety of available habitat is directly correlated with biodiversity levels. Linear woody features (LWF), including hedgerows, windbreaks, shelterbelts as well as woody shrubs along fields, roads and watercourses, play a vital role in supporting biodiversity as well as serving a wide variety of other purposes in the ecosystem. Earth observation can be used to quantify and monitor LWF across the landscape. While individual features can be manually mapped, this research focused on the development of methods using line intersect sampling (LIS) for estimating LWF as an indicator of habitat availability in agricultural landscapes. The methods are accurate, efficient, repeatable and provide robust results. Methods were tested over 9.5 Mha of agricultural landscape in the Canadian Mixedwood Plains ecozone. Approximately 97,000 km of LWF were estimated across this landscape with results useable both at a regional reporting scale, as well as mapped across space for use in wildlife habitat modelling or other landscape management research. The LIS approach developed here could be employed at a variety of scales in particular for large regions and could be adapted for use as a national scale indicator of habitat availability in heavily disturbed agricultural landscape.

  12. Species composition and diversity of non-forest woody vegetation along roads in the agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Attila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-forest woody vegetation represents an important component of green infrastructure in the agricultural landscape, where natural and semi-natural forest cover has only a low land use proportion. This paper focuses on linear woody vegetation structures along roads in the agricultural landscape and analyses them in three study areas in the Nitra Region, Slovakia. We evaluate species composition and diversity, species occurrence frequency or spatial distribution, their structure according to relatively achievable age and origin. For the evaluation of occurrence frequency, a Frequency Factor was proposed and applied. This factor allows a better comparison of different study areas and results in more representative findings. The study areas were divided into sectors based on visual landscape features, which are easily identifiable in the field, such as intersections and curves in roads, and intersections of roads with other features, such as cadastral or land boundaries, watercourses, etc. Based on the species abundance, woody plants present within the sectors were categorised into 1 predominant, 2 complementary and 3 mixed-in species; and with regard to their origin into 1 autochthonous and 2 allochthonous. Further, trees were categorised into 1 long-lived, 2 medium-lived and 3 short-lived tree species. The main finding is that among trees, mainly allochthonous species dominated. Robinia pseudoacacia L. was the predominant tree species in all three study areas. It was up to 4 times more frequent than other predominant tree species. Introduced tree species prevailed also among complementary and mixed-in species. Among shrubs, mainly native species dominated, while non-native species had a significantly lower proportion and spatial distribution. Based on these findings, several measures have been proposed to improve the overall ecological stability, the proportion and spatial distribution of native woody plant species. The recommendations and

  13. Nocturnal Risks-High Bat Activity in the Agricultural Landscape Indicates Potential Pesticide Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Stahlschmidt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although agriculture dominates much of Europe's landscape, there is virtually no information on foraging activity of bats in different crops. Additionally little is known about pesticide exposure of bats and related effects and there are currently no specific regulatory requirements to include bats in European Union pesticide risk assessments for the registration of these chemicals although other mammals are considered. To evaluate the potential pesticide exposure of bats, we studied bat diversity and activity as well as the availability of aerial prey insects in different crops and semi-natural habitats in south-western Germany in a landscape dominated by agriculture. In 300 accumulated sampling nights more than 24,000 bat call sequences were acoustically recorded and, in parallel, almost 110,000 insects of suitable prey sizes were sampled by light traps. A total of 14 bat species were recorded, among them the locally rare and for Germany critically endangered northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii and the barbastelle (Barbastella barbastellum, all of them also occurring over agricultural fields. In comparison to agricultural habitats, higher activity levels in forest sites were only found for Myotis species but not for species of the genera Pipistrellus, Eptesicus and Nyctalus. There were no significant differences in the availability of aerial nocturnal insects between forest, meadow and agricultural habitats. Comparing the different agricultural crops, significantly fewer bat call sequences and lower numbers of nocturnal insects were collected above the vineyards compared to orchards, cereal and vegetable fields. Highest activity levels of all bat species were recorded above agricultural fields situated next to forests. Given the high bat activity levels recorded at several agricultural sites, among them orchard and vegetable fields both known for their high pesticide inputs, and the availability of suitable prey insects, we conclude that

  14. Agricultural intensification and drought frequency increases may have landscape-level consequences for ephemeral ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J; Dalu, Mwazvita T B

    2017-03-01

    Ephemeral wetlands in arid regions are often degraded or destroyed through poor land-use practice long before they are ever studied or prioritized for conservation. Climate change will likely also have implications for these ecosystems given forecast changes in rainfall patterns in many arid environments. Here, we present a conceptual diagram showing typical and modified ephemeral wetlands in agricultural landscapes and how modification impacts on species diversity and composition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Conservation of Pollinators in Traditional Agricultural Landscapes - New Challenges in Transylvania (Romania) Posed by EU Accession and Recommendations for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó; Földesi, Rita; Mózes, Edina; Szirák, Ádám; Fischer, Joern; Hanspach, Jan; Báldi, András

    2016-01-01

    Farmland biodiversity is strongly declining in most of Western Europe, but still survives in traditional low intensity agricultural landscapes in Central and Eastern Europe. Accession to the EU however intensifies agriculture, which leads to the vanishing of traditional farming. Our aim was to describe the pollinator assemblages of the last remnants of these landscapes, thus set the baseline of sustainable farming for pollination, and to highlight potential measures of conservation. In these traditional farmlands in the Transylvanian Basin, Romania (EU accession in 2007), we studied the major pollinator groups-wild bees, hoverflies and butterflies. Landscape scale effects of semi-natural habitats, land cover diversity, the effects of heterogeneity and woody vegetation cover and on-site flower resources were tested on pollinator communities in traditionally managed arable fields and grasslands. Our results showed: (i) semi-natural habitats at the landscape scale have a positive effect on most pollinators, especially in the case of low heterogeneity of the direct vicinity of the studied sites; (ii) both arable fields and grasslands hold abundant flower resources, thus both land use types are important in sustaining pollinator communities; (iii) thus, pollinator conservation can rely even on arable fields under traditional management regime. This has an indirect message that the tiny flower margins around large intensive fields in west Europe can be insufficient conservation measures to restore pollinator communities at the landscape scale, as this is still far the baseline of necessary flower resources. This hypothesis needs further study, which includes more traditional landscapes providing baseline, and exploration of other factors behind the lower than baseline level biodiversity values of fields under agri-environmental schemes (AES).

  16. Altered Landscapes and Groundwater Sustainability — Exploring Impacts with Induced Polarization, DC Resistivity, and Thermal Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, C.; Caldwell, R.; Wheeler, J.; McCarthy, P.; Binley, A. M.; Constantz, J. E.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenically impacted landscapes constitute rising proportions of the Earth’s surface that are characterized by generally elevated nutrient and sediment loadings concurrent with increased consumptive water withdrawals. In recent years a growing number of hydraulically engineered riparian habitat restoration projects have attempted to ameliorate negative impacts of land use on groundwater-surface water systems resulting, e.g., from agricultural practices and urban development. Often the nature of groundwater-surface water interactions in pre- and minimally altered systems is poorly known, making it difficult to assess the impacts of land use and restoration projects on groundwater sustainability. Traditional assessments of surface water parameters (flow, temperature, dissolved oxygen, biotic composition, etc.) can be complemented by hydraulic and thermal measurements to better understand the important role played by groundwater-surface water interactions. Hydraulic and thermal measurements are usually limited to point samples, however, making non-invasive and spatially extensive geophysical characterizations an attractive additional tool. Groundwater-surface water interactions along the Smith River, a tributary to the Missouri River in Montana, and Fish Creek and Flat Creek, tributaries to the Snake River in Wyoming, are being examined using a combination of hydraulic measurements, thermal tracing, and electrical-property imaging. Ninety-two direct-current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization cross sections were obtained at stream transects covering a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings ranging from shallow bedrock to thick alluvial sequences, nature of groundwater-surface water interactions (always gaining, always losing, or seasonally varying) and anthropogenic impacts (minimal low-intensity agriculture to major landscape engineering, including channel reconstruction). DC resistivity and induced polarization delineated mutually distinct features

  17. Sustainable agriculture for Alaska and the circumpolar north: Part 1. Development and status of northeren agriculture and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska is food insecure, importing an estimated 95% of all agricultural products and 50 commodities and only maintaining a year round food supply of about three to five days. We 51 review the history, development and current state of sustainable agriculture at high-latitudes, 52 especially Alaska, a...

  18. Impact of Sustainable Agriculture on Secondary School Agricultural Education Teachers and Programs in the North Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaje, Kehinde Aderemi Ajaiyeoba; Martin, Robert A.; Williams, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 298 of 600 secondary agriculture teachers in north central United States revealed limited impact of sustainable agriculture. Most teachers had neutral perceptions; a moderate number taught it, but not from a systems perspective. However, related agronomy topics were taught, providing a possible foundation for future inclusion of…

  19. Expedition agroparks : research by design into sustainable development and agriculture in network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the result of several years of expedition into the development of metropolitan FoodClusters. The authors fascination for the agricultural landscapes in and around metropolises led him to the conclusion that improving the efficiency of agriculture is the most effective way to safeguard

  20. Using Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probes to Monitor Landscape Scale Soil Water Content in Mixed Land Use Agricultural Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franz, Trenton E; Wahbi, Ammar; Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Weltin, Georg; Heng, Lee; Oismueller, Markus; Strauss, Peter; Dercon, Gerd; Desilets, Darin

    2016-01-01

    .... In this work, we explore the use of the newly established Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) and method to monitor landscape average SWC in a mixed agricultural land use system in northeast Austria...

  1. Landscape diversity and the resilience of agricultural returns: a portfolio analysis of land-use patterns and economic returns from lowland agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abson David J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional agriculture is increasingly based on highly specialized, highly productive farms. It has been suggested that 1 this specialization leads to farms that lack resilience to changing market and environmental conditions; and 2 that by decreasing agricultural diversity, the resilience of the farming system also decreases. Methods We used agricultural gross margin (GM forecasts from 1966 to 2010 and remote sensing data from agricultural landscapes in the lowland UK, in conjunction with modern portfolio theory, to test the hypothesis that decreasing land-use diversity results in landscapes that provide higher, but more volatile, economic returns. We considered the role of spatial scale on the expected levels of volatility and resilience of agricultural returns. Results We found that: 1 there was a strong linear trade-off between expected GMs and the expected volatility of those GMs in real lowland agricultural landscapes in the UK; 2 land-use diversification was negatively correlated with expected GMs from agriculture, and positively correlated with decreasing expected volatility in GMs; 3 the resilience of agricultural returns was positively correlated with the diversity of agricultural land use, and the resilience of agricultural returns rose quickly with increased land-holding size at small spatial extents, but this effect diminished after landholdings reached 12,000 hectares. Conclusions Land-use diversity may have an important role in ensuring resilient agricultural returns in the face of uncertain market and environmental conditions, and land-holding size plays a pivotal role in determining the relationships between resilience and returns at a landscape scale. Creating finer-grained land-use patterns based on pre-existing local land uses may increase the resilience of individual farms, while maintaining aggregate yield across landscapes.

  2. Towards an integral approach to sustainable agriculture and healthy nutrition : vision of the Scientific Council for Integral Sustainable Agriculture and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijden, van der W.J.; Huber, M.A.S.; Jetten, T.H.; Blom, P.; Egmond, Van N.D.; Lauwers, L.; Ommen, van B.; Vilsteren, van A.; Wijffels, H.H.F.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture and healthy nutrition are high on the social agenda. Work is now being done to face both challenges, often with measurable success. However, huge changes are still needed and some problems have even been exacerbated. Although agriculture and nutrition are closely linked, both

  3. Comparative landscape genetics of two frugivorous bats in a biological corridor undergoing agricultural intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Katherine A; Waits, Lisette P; Finegan, Bryan

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural intensification in tropical landscapes poses a new threat to the ability of biological corridors to maintain functional connectivity for native species. We use a landscape genetics approach to evaluate impacts of expanding pineapple plantations on two widespread and abundant frugivorous bats in a biological corridor in Costa Rica. We hypothesize that the larger, more mobile Artibeus jamaicensis will be less impacted by pineapple than the smaller Carollia castanea. In 2012 and 2013, we sampled 735 bats in 26 remnant forest patches surrounded by different proportions of forest, pasture, crops and pineapple. We used 10 microsatellite loci for A. jamaicensis and 16 microsatellite loci for C. castanea to estimate genetic diversity and gene flow. Canonical correspondence analyses indicate that land cover type surrounding patches has no impact on genetic diversity of A. jamaicensis. However, for C. castanea, both percentage forest and pineapple surrounding patches explained a significant proportion of the variation in genetic diversity. Least-cost transect analyses (LCTA) and pairwise G″st suggest that for A. jamaicensis, pineapple is more permeable to gene flow than expected, while as expected, forest is the most permeable land cover for gene flow of C. castanea. For both species, LCTA indicate that development may play a role in inhibiting gene flow. The current study answers the call for landscape genetic research focused on tropical and agricultural landscapes, highlights the value of comparative landscape genetics in biological corridor design and management and is one of the few studies of biological corridors in any ecosystem to implement a genetic approach to test corridor efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Predicted avian responses to bioenergy development scenarios in an intensive agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; McCoy, Tim D.; Guan, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of native prairie to agriculture has increased food and bioenergy production but decreased wildlife habitat. However, enrollment of highly erodible cropland in conservation programs has compensated for some grassland loss. In the future, climate change and production of second-generation perennial biofuel crops could further transform agricultural landscapes and increase or decrease grassland area. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is an alternative biofuel feedstock that may be economically and environmentally superior to maize (Zea mays) grain for ethanol production on marginally productive lands. Switchgrass could benefit farmers economically and increase grassland area, but there is uncertainty as to how conversions between rowcrops, switchgrass monocultures and conservation grasslands might occur and affect wildlife. To explore potential impacts on grassland birds, we developed four agricultural land-use change scenarios for an intensively cultivated landscape, each driven by potential future climatic changes and ensuing irrigation limitations, ethanol demand, commodity prices, and continuation of a conservation program. For each scenario, we calculated changes in area for landcover classes and predicted changes in grassland bird abundances. Overall, birds responded positively to the replacement of rowcrops with switchgrass and negatively to the conversion of conservation grasslands to switchgrass or rowcrops. Landscape context and interactions between climate, crop water use, and irrigation availability could influence future land-use, and subsequently, avian habitat quality and quantity. Switchgrass is likely to provide higher quality avian habitat than rowcrops but lower quality habitat than conservation grasslands, and therefore, may most benefit birds in heavily cultivated, irrigation dependent landscapes under warmer and drier conditions, where economic profitability may also encourage conversions to drought tolerant bioenergy feedstocks.

  5. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND SUSTAINABILITY: EVIDENCE FROM LOW INPUT FARMING IN ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    de Prada, Jorge D.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Shah, Farhed A.

    2003-01-01

    The tradeoff between short-term agricultural productivity and sustainability is examined with a statistical analysis of evidence from low input agriculture in Argentina. Estimation results show that more intensive land use, corporate leasing of land, and larger farm size are likely to increase current revenues, but at the cost of sustainability.

  6. Teaching the Nature of Science in a Course in Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessna, Stephen; Neufeld, Douglas Graber; Horst, S. Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Claims of the (non-)sustainability of a given agricultural practice generally hinge on scientific evidence and the reliability of that evidence, or at least the perception of its reliability. Advocates of sustainable agriculture may dismiss science as purely subjective, or at the other extreme, may inappropriately elevate scientific findings to…

  7. Spectral tensor parameters for wind turbine load modeling from forested and agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Segalini, A.

    2015-01-01

    A velocity spectral tensor model was evaluated from the single-point measurements of wind speed. The model contains three parameters representing the dissipation rate of specific turbulent kinetic energy, a turbulence length scale and the turbulence anisotropy. Sonic anemometer measurements taken...... over a forested and an agricultural landscape were used to calculate the model parameters for neutral, slightly stable and slightly unstable atmospheric conditions for a selected wind speed interval. The dissipation rate above the forest was nine times that at the agricultural site. No significant...... differences were observed in the turbulence length scales between the forested and agricultural areas. Only a small difference was observed in the turbulence anisotropy at the two sites, except near the surface, where the forest turbulence was more isotropic. The turbulence anisotropy remained more or less...

  8. Multifunctional Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Land Use Planning in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Taylor Lovell

    2010-01-01

    Urban agriculture offers an alternative land use for integrating multiple functions in densely populated areas. While urban agriculture has historically been an important element of cities in many developing countries, recent concerns about economic and food security have resulted in a growing movement to produce food in cities of developed countries including the United States. In these regions, urban agriculture offers a new frontier for land use planners and landscape designers to become i...

  9. New concept of aging care architecture landscape design based on sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    As the aging problem becoming serious in China, Aging care is now one of the top issuer in front of all of us. Lots of private and public aging care architecture and facilities have been built. At present, we only pay attention to the architecture design and interior design scientific, ecological and sustainable design on aged care architecture landscape. Based on the social economy, population resources, mutual coordination and development of the environment, taking the elderly as the special group, this paper follows the principles of the sustainable development, conducts the comprehensive design planning of aged care landscape architecture and makes a deeper understanding and exploration through changing the form of architectural space, ecological landscape planting, new materials and technology, ecological energy utilization.

  10. Long-term sustainability of the landscape in new climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubeckova, D.; Krocova, S.

    2017-10-01

    The long-term sustainability of the landscape and its natural environment must be the decisive task of the public administration and, in the wider concept, of every citizen. In new climatic conditions, this need has intensified. The following article suggests in a basic scope whether the above-mentioned task can be accomplished, and what means of solution should be used.

  11. Simulating the cumulative effects of multiple forest management strategies on landscape measures of forest sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; David E. Lytle; Randy Swaty; Craig Loehle

    2007-01-01

    While the cumulative effects of the actions of multiple owners have long been recognized as critically relevant to efforts to maintain sustainable forests at the landscape scale, few studies have addressed these effects. We used the HARVEST timber harvest simulator to predict the cumulative effects of four owner groups (two paper companies, a state forest and non-...

  12. Sustainable Small-Scale Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Spielmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For at least the past 8000 years, small-scale farmers in semi-arid environments have had to mitigate shortfalls in crop production due to variation in precipitation and stream flow. To reduce their vulnerability to a shortfall in their food supply, small-scale farmers developed short-term strategies, including storage and community-scale sharing, to mitigate inter-annual variation in crop production, and long-term strategies, such as migration, to mitigate the effects of sustained droughts. We use the archaeological and paleoclimatic records from A.D. 900-1600 in two regions of the American Southwest to explore the nature of variation in the availability of water for crops, and the strategies that enhanced the resilience of prehistoric agricultural production to climatic variation. Drawing on information concerning contemporary small-scale farming in semi-arid environments, we then suggest that the risk coping and mitigation strategies that have endured for millennia are relevant to enhancing the resilience of contemporary farmers' livelihoods to environmental and economic perturbations.

  13. Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Practices Through Remote Sensing Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driese, K. L.; Sivanpillai, R.

    2007-12-01

    Ever increasing demand for food and fiber calls for farm management strategies such as effective use of chemicals and efficient water use that will maximize productivity while reducing adverse impacts on the environment. Remotely sensed data collected by satellites are a valuable resource for farmers and ranchers for gaining insights about farm and ranch productivity. While researchers in universities and agencies have made tremendous advances, technology transfer to end-users has lagged, preventing the farmers from taking advantage of this valuable resource. To overcome this barrier, the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), a NASA funded program headed by the University of North Dakota, has been working with end-users to promote the use of remote sensing technology for sustainable agricultural practices. We will highlight the UMAC activities in Wyoming aimed at promoting this technology to sugar-beet farmers in the Big Horn Basin. To assist farmers who might not have a computer at home, we provide them to local county Cooperative Extension Offices pre-loaded with relevant imagery. Our targeted outreach activities have resulted in farmers requesting and using new and old Landsat images to identify growth anomalies and trends which have enabled them to develop management zones within their croplands.

  14. Eumedion in the Dutch Corporate Governance and Sustainability Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Hooghiemstra, Reggy; van Veen, Kees

    2016-01-01

    Eumedion is a Dutch foundation representing the interests of Dutch and foreign institutional investors with investments in Dutch listed companies. In particular, it represents the interests of these participants in the field of corporate governance and sustainability. The foundation was established

  15. Sustainable Energy Landscape: Implementing Energy Transition in the Physical Realm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the concept of “energy landscape” is being discussed by academia from the environmental design domain while more and more practitioners have been contributing to sustainable energy transition. Yet, there remains some ambiguity as to what exactly is meant

  16. A Landscape Vision for Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feedstock production for biofuel and other bioproducts is poised to rejuvenate rural economies, but may lead to long-term degradation of soil resources or other adverse and unintended environmental consequences if the practices are not developed in a sustainable manner. This presentation will examin...

  17. Critical Zone Services as Environmental Assessment Criteria in Intensively Managed Agricultural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; Kumar, P.

    2016-12-01

    The critical zone (CZ) includes the biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. CZ services provide a measure for the goods and benefits derived from CZ processes. In intensively managed landscapes (IML), the provisioning, supporting, and regulating services are altered through anthropogenic energy inputs to derive more productivity, as agricultural products, from these landscapes than would be possible under natural conditions. However, the energy or cost equivalents of alterations to CZ functions within landscape profiles are unknown. The valuation of CZ services in energy or monetary terms provides a more concrete tool for characterizing seemingly abstract environmental damages from agricultural production systems. A multi-layer canopy-root-soil model is combined with nutrient and water flux models to simulate the movement of nutrients throughout the soil system. This data enables the measurement of agricultural anthropogenic impacts to the CZ's nutrient cycling supporting services and atmospheric stabilizing regulating services defined by the flux of carbon and nutrients. Such measurements include soil carbon storage, soil carbon respiration, nitrate leaching, and nitrous oxide flux into the atmosphere. Additionally, the socioeconomic values of corn feed and ethanol define the primary productivity supporting services of each crop use.In the debate between feed production and corn-based ethanol production, measured nutrient CZ services can cost up to four times more than traditionally estimated CO2 equivalences for the entire bioenergy production system. Energy efficiency in addition to environmental impacts demonstrate how the inclusion of CZ services is necessary in accounting for the entire life cycle of agricultural production systems. These results conclude that feed production systems are more energy efficient and less environmentally costly than corn-based ethanol systems.

  18. Birds in agricultural mosaics: the influence of landscape pattern and countryside heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslem, Angie; Bennett, Andrew F

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural environments are critical to the conservation of biota throughout the world. Efforts to identify key influences on the conservation status of fauna in such environments have taken complementary approaches. Many studies have focused on the role of remnant or seminatural vegetation and emphasized the influence on biota of spatial patterns in the landscape. Others have recognized that many species use diverse "countryside" elements within farmland, and emphasize the benefits of landscape heterogeneity for conservation. Here, we investigated the effect of independent measures of both the spatial pattern (extent and configuration) and heterogeneity of elements (i.e., land uses/vegetation types) on bird occurrence in farm-scale agricultural mosaics in southeastern Australia. Birds were sampled in all types of elements in 27 mosaics (each 1 x 1 km) selected to incorporate variation in cover of native vegetation and the number of different element types in the mosaic. We used an information-theoretic approach to identify the mosaic properties that most strongly influenced bird species richness. Subgroups of birds based on habitat requirements responded most strongly to the extent of preferred elements in mosaics. Woodland birds were richer in mosaics with higher cover of native vegetation while open-tolerant species responded to the extent of scattered trees. In contrast, for total species richness, mosaic heterogeneity (richness of element types) and landscape context (cover of native vegetation in surrounding area) had the greatest influence. These results showed that up to 76% of landscape-level variation in richness of bird groups is attributable to mosaic properties directly amenable to management by landowners. Key implications include (1) conservation goals for farm landscapes must be carefully defined because the richness of different faunal components is influenced by different mosaic properties; (2) the extent of native vegetation is a critical

  19. Biogeosystem technique as a base of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik

    2016-04-01

    The world water strategy is to be changed because the current imitational gravitational frontal isotropic-continual paradigm of irrigation is not sustainable. This paradigm causes excessive consumption of fresh water - global deficit - up to 4-15 times, adverse effects on soils and landscapes. Current methods of irrigation does not control the water spread throughout the soil continuum. The preferable downward fluxes of irrigation water are forming, up to 70% and more of water supply loses into vadose zone. The moisture of irrigated soil is high, soil loses structure in the process of granulometric fractions flotation decomposition, the stomatal apparatus of plant leaf is fully open, transpiration rate is maximal. We propose the Biogeosystem technique - the transcendental, uncommon and non-imitating methods for Sustainable Natural Resources Management. New paradigm of irrigation is based on the intra-soil pulse discrete method of water supply into the soil continuum by injection in small discrete portions. Individual volume of water is supplied as a vertical cylinder of soil preliminary watering. The cylinder position in soil is at depth form 10 to 30 cm. Diameter of cylinder is 1-2 cm. Within 5-10 min after injection the water spreads from the cylinder of preliminary watering into surrounding soil by capillary, film and vapor transfer. Small amount of water is transferred gravitationally to the depth of 35-40 cm. The soil watering cylinder position in soil profile is at depth of 5-50 cm, diameter of the cylinder is 2-4 cm. Lateral distance between next cylinders along the plant raw is 10-15 cm. The soil carcass which is surrounding the cylinder of non-watered soil remains relatively dry and mechanically stable. After water injection the structure of soil in cylinder restores quickly because of no compression from the stable adjoining volume of soil and soil structure memory. The mean soil thermodynamic water potential of watered zone is -0.2 MPa. At this potential

  20. The potential and sustainability of agricultural land use in a changing ecosystem in southern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Matthias; Caviezel, Chatrina; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2015-04-01

    Southern Greenland currently experiences an increase in summer temperatures and a prolonged growing season (Masson-Delmotte et al. 2012), resulting in an increased potential regarding agricultural land use. Subsequently, the agricultural sector is expected to grow. Thereby, a higher hay production and grazing capacity is pursued by applying more efficient farming practices (Greenland Agriculture Advisory Board 2009). However, agricultural potential at borderline ecotones is not only influenced by factors like temperature and growing season but also by other ecologic parameters. In addition, the intensification of land use in the fragile boreal - tundra border ecotone has various environmental impacts (Perren et al. 2012; Normand et al. 2013). Already the Norse settlers practiced animal husbandry in southern Greenland between 986-1450 AD. Several authors mention the unadapted land use as main reason for the demise of the Norse in Greenland, as grazing pressure exceeded the resilience of the landscape and pasture economy failed (Fredskild 1988; Perren et al. 2012). During the field work in summer 2014, we compared the pedologic properties of already used hay fields, grazed land, birch woodland and barren, unused land around Igaliku (South Greenland), in order to estimate the potential and the sustainability of the land use in southern Greenland. Beside physical soil properties, nutrient condition of the different land use types, the shrub woodland and barren areas was analyzed. The results of the study show that the most suitable areas for intensive agricultural activity are mostly occupied. Further on, the fields, which were used by the Norse, seem to be the most productive sites nowadays. Less productive hay fields are characterized by a higher coarse fraction, leading to a reduced ability to store water and to an unfavorable nutrient status. An intensification of the agricultural land use by applying fertilizer would lead to an increased environmental impact

  1. The influence of plants on atmospheric methane in an agriculture-dominated landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Lee, Xuhui; Griffis, Timothy J; Baker, John M; Erickson, Matt D; Hu, Ning; Xiao, Wei

    2014-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to clarify the influence of crop plants on atmospheric methane (CH4) in an agriculture-dominated landscape in the Upper Midwest of the United States. Measurements were carried out at two contrasting scales. At the plant scale, CH4 fluxes from soybean and corn plants were measured with a laser-based plant chamber system. At the landscape scale, the land surface flux was estimated with a modified Bowen ratio technique using measurements made on a tall tower. The chamber data revealed a diurnal pattern for the plant CH4 flux: it was positive (an emission rate of 0.4±0.1 nmol m(-2) s(-1), average of soybean and corn, in reference to the unit ground area) during the day, and negative (an uptake rate of -0.8±0.8 nmol m(-2) s(-1)) during the night. At the landscape scale, the flux was estimated to be 14.8 nmol m(-2) s(-1) at night and highly uncertain during the day, but the available references and the flux estimates from the equilibrium methods suggested that the CH4 flux during the entire observation period was similar to the estimated nighttime flux. Thus, soybean and corn plants have a negligible role in the landscape-scale CH4 budget.

  2. Sustainability of irrigated agriculture under salinity pressure – A study in semiarid Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Bouksila, Fethi

    2011-01-01

    In semiarid and arid Tunisia, water quality and agricultural practices are the major contributing factors to the degradation of soil resources threatening the sustainability of irrigation systems and agricultural productivity. Nowadays, about 50% of the total irrigated areas in Tunisia are considered at high risk for salinization. The aim of this thesis was to study soil management and salinity relationships in order to assure sustainable irrigated agriculture in areas under salin...

  3. Carbon dioxide exchange over agricultural landscape using eddy correlation and footprint modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, H.; Jensen, N.O.; Bøgh, E.

    2003-01-01

    Within an agricultural landscape of western Denmark, the carbon dioxide exchange was studied throughout a year (April 1998-March 1999). During the growing season, five eddy correlation systems were operated in parallel over some of the more important crops (winter wheat, winter barley, spring...... barley, maize and grass). A sixth system was mounted on top of a 48 m mast to enable landscape-wide flux measurements both in summer and winter. The spatial distribution of the different crop types was mapped by use of satellite images (Landsat TM and SPOT). A very large diversity in carbon functioning...... is observed when comparing the carbon dioxide fluxes from the different fields. In the middle of the growing season, May-June, the daytime CO2 fluxes range from a net emission of 5 g C m(-2) per day to a carbon assimilation of 12 g C m(-2) per day. Due to differences in canopy development this range...

  4. Farm ponds make a contribution to the biodiversity of aquatic insects in a French agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Antonio; Céréghino, Régis; Figuerola, Jordi; Marty, Pierre; Angélibert, Sandrine

    2008-04-01

    Manmade ecosystems provide a variety of resources that have strong economic values. We assessed the importance of 37 farm ponds for the biodiversity of Odonata in an agricultural landscape lacking natural wetlands in southwestern France. Farm ponds captured 40% of the regional species pool, including both common and rare species. The species assemblages were not correlated with pond use (e.g., cattle watering, duck farming, etc.) or to landscape variable. Species richness was correlated with pond area, suggesting that community diversity was primarily driven by autoecological processes. Farm ponds thus made a positive contribution to the maintenance of aquatic biodiversity. This added value for biodiversity should be considered when calculating the costs and benefits of constructing water bodies for human activities.

  5. Amphibian malformations and body condition across an agricultural landscape of northwest Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Cecilia; Aráoz, Ezequiel

    2016-09-26

    Agricultural landscapes support large amphibian populations because they provide habitat for many species, although agriculture affects amphibians through various mechanisms. Pollution with agrochemicals is the major threat to amphibian populations after habitat loss, as chemicals alter the ecophysiology of amphibians, putting their health and survival at risk. We aimed to assess the effect of different environments, sites, width of forest buffers and sampling years on the health of amphibians, which was estimated through the prevalence of malformations and body condition. During 3 yr of pitfall trapping, we captured 4491 amphibians. The prevalence of malformations was higher in the croplands than in the forests, while the body condition was better within forests. The prevalence of malformations was higher in the narrower forest site than in the wider forest site. The prevalence of malformations and the body condition were higher in the third year. The prevalence of malformations differed by species. We found 11 types of malformation, which mainly affected limbs and were unilateral or bilaterally asymmetrical. Our results showed that the prevalence of malformations and body condition reflect different aspects of the health of amphibians and that forest individuals are healthier than those from croplands. The results also highlight the importance of spatial configuration besides the conservation of natural habitats to preserve healthy amphibians in agricultural landscapes. The types of malformation that we found suggest that agrochemicals could be an important cause of malformations.

  6. Socio-economic and land cover changes analysis in a landscape with agricultural matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Viscosi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The research involved the application of CORINE Land Cover categories in order to analyse changes in land cover and in the socio-economic system over the last 50 years in Molise (Southern Italy. The boundaries of the study area corresponded to those of six local councils: Guglionesi, Montecilfone, Montenero di Bisaccia, Petacciato, San Giacomo degli Schiavoni and Termoli. It is an area which has undergone a great anthropic agricultural impact after the II World War, but, however, still has natural settings worth preserving, as can be seen by the presence of seven Sites of Community Interest (sensu “Habitat Directive” 92/43/EC. For the analyses of the land cover changes, geo-databases were consulted or specially constructed. The aerial photographs from GAI 1954-55 flight, appropriately georectified, and the aerial photograph ITA2000 and AGEA 2004 flights were adopted to draw up the land use/cover maps at a scale of 1.10.000.The study of vegetation was performed using the phytosociological method. In brief, the results show that the landscape of the study area has become more fragmented due mostly to effects of continuous human disturbances and agricultural improvement during the study period. Overall, the landscape is today characterised by the predominance of agricultural use and the sparse colonization of the natural vegetation, mainly by linear vegetational formations (mainly riparian woods.

  7. The influence of mistletoes on birds in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuria, Iriana; Castellanos, Ignacio; Gates, J. Edward

    2014-11-01

    Mistletoes are hemiparasitic flowering plants that function as keystone resources in forests and woodlands of temperate regions, where a positive relationship between mistletoe density and avian species richness has been observed. Mistletoes have been less studied in tropical regions and the relationship between birds and mistletoes has seldom been explored in tropical agricultural systems. Therefore, we studied the presence of infected trees and infection prevalence (i.e., number of parasitized trees/total number of trees) by Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes in 23 hedgerows located in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico during the dry and rainy seasons, and investigated the relationship between bird species richness and abundance and the abundance of mistletoes. We found a mean of 74 mistletoe plants per 100-m transect of only one species, Psittacanthus calyculatus. Thirty-one percent of the trees surveyed were infected and tree species differed in infection prevalence, mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) being the most infected species with 86% of the surveyed trees infected. For both seasons, we found a positive and significant association between bird species richness and number of mistletoe plants. The same pattern was observed for total bird abundance. Many resident and Neotropical migratory birds were observed foraging on mistletoes. Our results show that mistletoes are important in promoting a higher bird species richness and abundance in tropical agricultural landscapes.

  8. Urban Agriculture in the Framework of Sustainable Urbanism

    OpenAIRE

    Nadal Fuentes, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture represents a crucial phase in the development of mankind. Although cities initially had close ties with agriculture, which was a key element in ancient civilisations, in modern twentieth-century urban plans, such as Le Corbusier's Chandigarh or Lucio Costa's Brazilia, agriculture was banished from large cities. The demographic growth of urban areas today and its predictions for the short and long term have increased the value of urban agriculture.

  9. Sustainable development of agriculture: contribution of farm-level assessment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde, de Evelien

    2017-01-01

    Current environmental, economic and social challenges urge agriculture to change to more sustainable modes of production. Insight in the impact of a system or a potential innovation on sustainability could support decision makers in identifying actions towards sustainable development. Over the past

  10. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in a landscape dominated by agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin; Vandever, Mark; Battaglin, William A; Hladik, Michelle L; Pierce, Clay L

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1,500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and implementing

  11. Measurement, collaborative learning and research for sustainable use of ecosystem services: landscape concepts and Europe as laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Grodzynskyi, Michael; Andersson, Kjell; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Khoroshev, Alexander; Kruhlov, Ivan; Naumov, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    Policies at multiple levels pronounce the need to encompass both social and ecological systems in governance and management of natural capital in terms of resources and ecosystems. One approach to knowledge production and learning about landscapes as social-ecological systems is to compare multiple case studies consisting of large spaces and places. We first review the landscape concepts' biophysical, anthropogenic, and intangible dimensions. Second, we exemplify how the different landscape concepts can be used to derive measurable variables for different sustainability indicators. Third, we review gradients in the three dimensions of the term landscape on the European continent, and propose to use them for the stratification of multiple case studies of social-ecological systems. We stress the benefits of the landscape concepts to measure sustainability, and how this can improve collaborative learning about development toward sustainability in social-ecological systems. Finally, analyses of multiple landscapes improve the understanding of context for governance and management.

  12. Nitrogen, sustainable agriculture and food security. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of modern agriculture on natural resources has become a major global concern. Population growth and expanding demand for agricultural products constantly increase the pressure on land and water resources. A major point of concern for many intensively managed agricultural systems with high

  13. Nitrogen, sustainable agriculture and food security: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of modern agriculture on natural resources has become a major global concern. Population growth and expanding demand for agricultural products constantly increase the pressure on land and water resources. A major point of concern for many intensively managed agricultural systems with high

  14. The Optimization of Rural Landscape in the Light of the Idea of Sustainable Development – The Example of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobala Michał

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rural landscapes in Poland are being changed intensively and adversely. These changes lead to landscape disharmony, spatial disorder, the blurring of individual and specific features and disruption to the ecological equilibrium. This article aims to present general rules for the optimization of rural landscapes. It discusses the causes and consequences of unfavourable changes within Poland’s rural landscapes which constitute a threat to their sustainable development. The authors attempt to identify the major factors to be considered in taking steps aimed at landscape optimization. Landscape equilibrium may be assessed through the sustainable development dimensions: ethical, ecological, social, economic, technical, political and legal. Landscape optimization consists in maintaining the balance within these dimensions.

  15. SOIL CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES IN OIL PALM CULTIVATION FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halus Satriawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many have been concerned with the oil palm cultivation since it may also put land resources in danger and bring about environmental damage. Poor practices in managing agricultural land very often occur due to the inadequate knowledge of soil conservation. Application of soil and water conservation is to maintain the productivity of the land and to prevent further damage by considering land capability classes. This research was aimed at obtaining soil and water conservation techniques which are the most appropriate and optimal for oil palm cultivation areas based on land capability classes which can support sustainable oil palm cultivation. Several soil conservation techniques had been treated to each different class III, IV, and VI of the studied area. These treatment had been performed by a standard plot erosion. The results showed for the land capability class III, Cover plants + Manure was able to control runoff, erosion and reduce leaching of N (LSD P≤0,05, in which soil conservation produced the lowest erosion (3,73t/ha, and N leaching (0,25%. On land capability class IV, Sediment Trap + cover plants+ manure was able to control runoff, erosion and reduce organic C and P leaching (LSD P≤0,05, in which soil conservation produced the lowest runoff (127,77 m3/ha, erosion (12,38t/ha, organic C leaching (1,14 %, and P leaching (1,28 ppm. On land capability class VI, there isn’t significant effect of soil conservation, but Bench Terrace + cover plants +manure has the lowest runoff, erosion and soil nutrient leaching.

  16. Solving water quality problems in agricultural landscapes: New approaches for these nonlinear, multiprocess, multiscale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Patrick; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    Changes in climate and agricultural practices are putting pressure on agroenvironmental systems all over the world. Predicting the effects of future management or conservation actions has proven exceptionally challenging in these complex landscapes. We present a perspective, gained from a decade of research and stakeholder involvement in the Minnesota River Basin, where research findings have influenced solutions and policy in directions not obvious at the outset. Our approach has focused on identifying places, times, and processes of accelerated change and developing reduced complexity predictive frameworks that can inform mitigation actions.

  17. Which regional features of Danish agriculture favour the corn bunting in the contemporary farming landscape?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Corn buntings Miliaria calandra were abundant throughout arable agricultural landscapes in Europe, but have catastrophically declined since the mid 1970s with changes in farming practice and now give serious conservation cause for concern. Corn buntings declined in Denmark during 1976...... on land use correlation and bird surveillance, these results show an association between mixed farming and favourable conservation status of a species now red-listed throughout much of Europe. Further investigations of habitat use at small spatial scales and throughout the annual cycle are urgently...

  18. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in narrow hedgerows in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, G. L.; Magura, T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of hedgerows in supporting ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Danish agricultural landscape was examined. Nine old, well established single-row hedges were selected for the study, three each of a native species (hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna), a non-native deciduous one (rowan...... Sorbus intermedia), and the non-native spruce (Picea spp.). We hypothesised that hedgerows with deciduous trees harbour more diverse ground beetle assemblages than hedges composed of non-native conifer trees. We also investigated which vegetation structure characteristics might influence the ground...

  19. Relationships between bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes and flowers in the Bulgarian agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The species composition and number of visitations of food plants by bees were studied in refuge sites in agricultural landscapes and in selected crops. The habitat fragments of interest are characterised in terms of pollinator diversity at genus level and the use of food plants by individual genera. Trophic and temporal niche overlap is described for individual genera and the honey bee Apis mellifera in different habitat types. Factors influencing the manner of use of individual plant species by pollinating insects are identified

  20. Knowledge production and learning for sustainable landscapes: forewords by the researchers and stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Elbakidze, Marine; Axelsson, Robert; Koch, Niels Elers; Tyupenko, Tatiana I; Mariev, Alexandr N; Myhrman, Lennart

    2013-03-01

    This special issue of AMBIO presents a new approach to sustainability science that goes beyond interdisciplinary research. Using coupled natural and human systems, or landscapes, as multiple case studies in Europe's East and West knowledge production and learning toward transdisciplinary research was applied in Sweden, countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and Russia. First, the research group Forest-Landscape-Society summarizes the research program (2005-2012) behind this special issue of AMBIO and its development to participate in transdisciplinary research. Second, stakeholders at multiple levels provide their views on the new approach presented and reported.

  1. Shifting agriculture: the main cause of landscape degradation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasanta, Teodoro; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Errea, Paz

    2017-04-01

    Cereal agriculture occupied large areas in the Spanish Pyrenees to feed the population in a socio-economic system of limited exchanges with the outside. In the Western valleys, shifting agriculture constitutes the dominant field pattern, representing almost three-quarters of the traditional agricultural space (Lasanta et al., in press). These were cultivated at times of heavy population growth, necessitating steep and stony hillsides with poor soil to be tilled, or the ones that were far away from the village. The fields were created by clearing the vegetation from a slope, then burning it to use the ash as a fertilizer. Cereal was grown for 3-4 years, after which they were abandoned for 20-30 years to recover fertility, and the cycle was repeated. Almost all the fields (99%) using shifting agriculture had been abandoned by the 1950s. This study analyzes the role of the shifting agriculture in soil erosion and landscape degradation. For this purpose, (i) experimental plots, which reproduce the traditional agriculture in the Pyrenees and the abandonment processes, and (ii) the cartography made from the SIOSE (2009), which shows the present land cover 50 years after cropland abandonment, were used. The results show that shifting agriculture caused higher soil losses than other agricultural uses (1.36 kg m-2 yr-1): fallow land (0.87 kg m-2 yr-1), chemically fertilized cereal (0.86 kg m-2 yr-1) and meadow (0.14 kg m-2 yr-1). Also, after land abandonment, soil losses are higher in shifting agriculture (0.78 kg m-2 yr-1) than cereal lands (0.73 kg m-2 yr-1). The burning of the shrub cover and the use of ashes as fertilizer did not contribute to improve the soil quality, which explains both the higher soil losses during the cultivated period and after the abandonment, since slower plant succession occurs. The results obtained from the SIOSE confirm that the change from meadows to shrubland is relatively fast, as a consequence of the low relationship with livestock

  2. BARRIERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INSTRUMENTS ASSISTING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard KATA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides identification and assessment of barriers to the implementation of the instruments of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP that support sustainable development of agriculture. This issue has been studied on the example of individual farms of south-eastern Poland, which benefited from programs to support sustainable agriculture in 2004-2013. The introduction of agriculture on the path of sustainable development depends on institutional factors (including political, which can induce farmers to take into account the environment and future generations in their microeconomic decisions. It has been shown that the most important barriers to the efficient and effective implementation of programs in support of sustainable agriculture are financial and information and education constraints.

  3. Sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition--a patent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, Kohila P; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    The paper discusses the patents that have been filed in the areas of sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition and use of natural resources in achieving this goal. A large number of patents deal with the production of fertilizers from animal manure, plant sources and other organic wastes, which are more sustainable that the chemical fertilizers that are being currently used. Sustainability in agriculture is achieved in developing processes for the manufacture of biopesticides/insecticides and bioactive agricultural products. Development of novel sustainable agricultural processes has also been the focus of researchers and technologists. Plant derived nutritious food products are sustainable and can cater for the growing population burden. This has been the focus of several patents. Processes for enhancing the nutrition in food also serve the purpose of catering for the under nourished population.

  4. Exergy landscapes: Exploration of second-law thinking towards sustainable landscape design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Dobbelsteen, van den A.; Koh, J.

    2011-01-01

    Depletion of fossil fuels and climate change necessitate a transition to sustainable energy systems that make efficient use of renewable energy sources. During recent decades, the Second Law of Thermodynamics has helped to increase energy efficiencies. More recently, the disciplines of building

  5. Cross-Cultural Understanding for Global Sustainability: Messages and Meanings from Asian Cultural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.

    2013-11-01

    Concept of 'multifunctionality' of cultural landscapes is a reflection of imbued meaning and aesthetics inherent there and also human manifestation of this spirit through existence and aliveness by human creation, love and continuance in various cultures and traditions. This sense helps envisioning landscapes that cross urban-rural divides in sustainable and an integrated way - characterised by wholeness and ecospirituality that developed in the cultural history of landscape sustainability. That is how, the idea of 'wholeness' (cosmality) is transformed into 'holiness' (sacrality) ― evolved and represented with sacred ecology and visualised through the cosmic frames of sacredscapes in Asian region that survived there as part of lifeworld. Understanding, feeling, living with, practicing and passing on these inherent meanings and aesthetics provide peace, solace and deeper feelings to human mind which are the ethereal breathe of sustainability. The rethinking should be based on the foundational value ― the reasoning that underlies the ethical sense of deeper understanding of Man-Nature Interrelatedness, the basic philosophy of coexistence ― referred in different cultures in their own ways, like multicultural co-living ('Old-comer') in Korea, harmonious coexistence (tabunka kyosei) in Japan, harmonious society (xiaokang) in China, wahi tapu (sacred places) in Maori's New Zealand, global family (vasudhaiva kutumbakam) in Indian thought, and also African humanism (ubuntu) in South Africa. Think universally, see globally, behave regionally, act locally but insightfully; this is an appeal for shared wisdom for global sustainability in making our cultural landscapes mosaic of happy, peaceful and sustainable places crossing all the borders and transitions, especially interwoven links among Korea, Japan, China, and India.

  6. Multifunctional Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Land Use Planning in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Taylor Lovell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture offers an alternative land use for integrating multiple functions in densely populated areas. While urban agriculture has historically been an important element of cities in many developing countries, recent concerns about economic and food security have resulted in a growing movement to produce food in cities of developed countries including the United States. In these regions, urban agriculture offers a new frontier for land use planners and landscape designers to become involved in the development and transformation of cities to support community farms, allotment gardens, rooftop gardening, edible landscaping, urban forests, and other productive features of the urban environment. Despite the growing interest in urban agriculture, urban planners and landscape designers are often ill-equipped to integrate food-systems thinking into future plans for cities. The challenge (and opportunity is to design urban agriculture spaces to be multifunctional, matching the specific needs and preferences of local residents, while also protecting the environment. This paper provides a review of the literature on urban agriculture as it applies to land use planning in the United States. The background includes a brief historical perspective of urban agriculture around the world, as well as more recent examples in the United States. Land use applications are considered for multiple scales, from efforts that consider an entire city, to those that impact a single building or garden. Barriers and constraints to urban agriculture are discussed, followed by research opportunities and methodological approaches that might be used to address them. This work has implications for urban planners, landscape designers, and extension agents, as opportunities to integrate urban agriculture into the fabric of our cities expand.

  7. How Reliable is the MODIS Land Cover Product for Crop Mapping Sub-Saharan Agricultural Landscapes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Leroux

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate cropland maps at the global and local scales are crucial for scientists, government and nongovernment agencies, farmers and other stakeholders, particularly in food-insecure regions, such as Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we aim to qualify the crop classes of the MODIS Land Cover Product (LCP in Sub-Saharan Africa using FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation and AGRHYMET (AGRiculture, Hydrology and METeorology statistical data of agriculture and a sample of 55 very-high-resolution images. In terms of cropland acreage and dynamics, we found that the correlation between the statistical data and MODIS LCP decreases when we localize the spatial scale (from R2 = 0.86 *** at the national scale to R2 = 0.26 *** at two levels below the national scale. In terms of the cropland spatial distribution, our findings indicate a strong relationship between the user accuracy and the fragmentation of the agricultural landscape, as measured by the MODIS LCP; the accuracy decreases as the crop fraction increases. In addition, thanks to the Pareto boundary method, we were able to isolate and quantify the part of the MODIS classification error that could be directly linked to the performance of the adopted classification algorithm. Finally, based on these results, (i a regional map of the MODIS LCP user accuracy estimates for cropland classes was produced for the entire Sub-Saharan region; this map presents a better accuracy in the western part of the region (43%–70% compared to the eastern part (17%–43%; (ii Theoretical user and producer accuracies for a given set of spatial resolutions were provided; the simulated future Sentinel-2 system would provide theoretical 99% user and producer accuracies given the landscape pattern of the region.

  8. New concepts of energy supply for sustainable agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Frerichs

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of future agricultural production systems requires innovative approaches. For creating a more productive, resource-efficient and low-emission agriculture the systemic development of the agricultural processes, the operating conditions and the organizational processes is necessary. Fundamentally new approaches can be found by defining scenarios. Such a hypothetic concept does field operation without using internal combustion engines. Instead of this the power supply of performant machines can be done by electric direct supply systems or for small machines by battery systems with charging points. However, all this requires the electrical energy supply of agricultural fields. A direct electric energy supply utilizing the Center Pivot approach via rotating structures enables new production systems. Using innovative technologies new solutions with great potential for automation and a productive precision agriculture can be designed. This paper highlights an unconventional approach stimulating the discussion about future developments in agricultural engineering.

  9. Mapping and determinism of soil microbial community distribution across an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constancias, Florentin; Terrat, Sébastien; Saby, Nicolas P A; Horrigue, Walid; Villerd, Jean; Guillemin, Jean-Philippe; Biju-Duval, Luc; Nowak, Virginie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Ranjard, Lionel; Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Despite the relevance of landscape, regarding the spatial patterning of microbial communities and the relative influence of environmental parameters versus human activities, few investigations have been conducted at this scale. Here, we used a systematic grid to characterize the distribution of soil microbial communities at 278 sites across a monitored agricultural landscape of 13 km². Molecular microbial biomass was estimated by soil DNA recovery and bacterial diversity by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Geostatistics provided the first maps of microbial community at this scale and revealed a heterogeneous but spatially structured distribution of microbial biomass and diversity with patches of several hundreds of meters. Variance partitioning revealed that both microbial abundance and bacterial diversity distribution were highly dependent of soil properties and land use (total variance explained ranged between 55% and 78%). Microbial biomass and bacterial richness distributions were mainly explained by soil pH and texture whereas bacterial evenness distribution was mainly related to land management. Bacterial diversity (richness, evenness, and Shannon index) was positively influenced by cropping intensity and especially by soil tillage, resulting in spots of low microbial diversity in soils under forest management. Spatial descriptors also explained a small but significant portion of the microbial distribution suggesting that landscape configuration also shapes microbial biomass and bacterial diversity. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A landscape genetic analysis of important agricultural pest species in Tunisia: The whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdelkrim, Ahmed; Hattab, Tarek; Fakhfakh, Hatem; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Gorsane, Faten

    2017-01-01

    Combining landscape ecology and genetics provides an excellent framework to appreciate pest population dynamics and dispersal. The genetic architectures of many species are always shaped by environmental constraints. Because little is known about the ecological and genetic traits of Tunisian whitefly populations, the main objective of this work is to highlight patterns of biodiversity, genetic structure and migration routes of this pest. We used nuclear microsatellite loci to analyze B. tabaci populations collected from various agricultural areas across the country and we determine their biotype status. Molecular data were subsequently interpreted in an ecological context supplied from a species distribution model to infer habitat suitability and hereafter the potential connection paths between sampling localities. An analysis of landscape resistance to B. tabaci genetic flow was thus applied to take into account habitat suitability, genetic relatedness and functional connectivity of habitats within a varied landscape matrix. We shed light on the occurrence of three geographically delineated genetic groups with high levels of genetic differentiation within each of them. Potential migration corridors of this pest were then established providing significant advances toward the understanding of genetic features and the dynamic dispersal of this pest. This study supports the hypothesis of a long-distance dispersal of B. tabaci followed by infrequent long-term isolations. The Inference of population sources and colonization routes is critical for the design and implementation of accurate management strategies against this pest.

  11. A landscape genetic analysis of important agricultural pest species in Tunisia: The whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ben Abdelkrim

    Full Text Available Combining landscape ecology and genetics provides an excellent framework to appreciate pest population dynamics and dispersal. The genetic architectures of many species are always shaped by environmental constraints. Because little is known about the ecological and genetic traits of Tunisian whitefly populations, the main objective of this work is to highlight patterns of biodiversity, genetic structure and migration routes of this pest. We used nuclear microsatellite loci to analyze B. tabaci populations collected from various agricultural areas across the country and we determine their biotype status. Molecular data were subsequently interpreted in an ecological context supplied from a species distribution model to infer habitat suitability and hereafter the potential connection paths between sampling localities. An analysis of landscape resistance to B. tabaci genetic flow was thus applied to take into account habitat suitability, genetic relatedness and functional connectivity of habitats within a varied landscape matrix. We shed light on the occurrence of three geographically delineated genetic groups with high levels of genetic differentiation within each of them. Potential migration corridors of this pest were then established providing significant advances toward the understanding of genetic features and the dynamic dispersal of this pest. This study supports the hypothesis of a long-distance dispersal of B. tabaci followed by infrequent long-term isolations. The Inference of population sources and colonization routes is critical for the design and implementation of accurate management strategies against this pest.

  12. Traditional farming landscapes for sustainable living in Scandinavia and Japan: global revival through the Satoyama initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Björn E; Kitagawa, Junko; Lagerås, Per; Nakamura, Koji; Sasaki, Naoko; Yasuda, Yoshinori

    2014-09-01

    Traditional, pre-industrial farming was adapted to the natural environment-topography, geology, hydrology, climate, and biota. Traditional land use systems are still to be traced in Scandinavia as an "infield/outland landscape", and in Japan as a "Satoyama landscape." There are obvious similarities and differences in land use-the main difference being that pasturing of cattle and sheep has been less important in Japan. These land use systems can be traced back to early sedentary settlements 1500-2500 years ago. In both regions, traditional management almost ceased in the mid-twentieth century leading to afforestation and decreased biological diversity. Today, there is in Japan a growing movement for landscape restoration and promotion of a sustainable living countryside based on local agrarian and forestry production, local energy, tourism, etc. With this background, the so-called Satoyama Initiative has been organized and introduced as a global socio-ecological project with ecosystem services for human well-being.

  13. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adamo

    Full Text Available Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. With respect to management of contamination with potentially toxic elements, an approach based on the identification and quantification of the various forms or, at least, the main pools, in which contaminants occur in soil, is envisaged. The residence time of an element in soil depends, indeed, by the mobility of its predominant forms. Speciation studies provide information on the mobility and biological availability of contaminants, and seek to assess not simply the contamination level, but rather the risk/toxicity of a polluted soil and to predict its reduction after application of remediation techniques. Soil degradation is often associated with a decrease in the organic matter content, mainly caused by soil use change and global warming. Improving the accumulation of organic matter in soil or contrasting its reduction has positive effects on soil and water quality, crop yields, biodiversity and climate leading to a reduction of green-house gas emissions from soil to the atmosphere. In order to obtain a real accumulation of organic matter in soil, it is not sufficient to temporarily increase its total content, but it is necessary to favour the main processes which govern organic matter stabilization. This requires an approach at both molecular and multidisciplinary level. The reforestation of agricultural and highly degraded soils or conservative agronomic practices, such as the use of humified compounds characterized by

  14. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adamo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. With respect to management of contamination with potentially toxic elements, an approach based on the identification and quantification of the various forms or, at least, the main pools, in which contaminants occur in soil, is envisaged. The residence time of an element in soil depends, indeed, by the mobility of its predominant forms. Speciation studies provide information on the mobility and biological availability of contaminants, and seek to assess not simply the contamination level, but rather the risk/toxicity of a polluted soil and to predict its reduction after application of remediation techniques. Soil degradation is often associated with a decrease in the organic matter content, mainly caused by soil use change and global warming. Improving the accumulation of organic matter in soil or contrasting its reduction has positive effects on soil and water quality, crop yields, biodiversity and climate leading to a reduction of green-house gas emissions from soil to the atmosphere. In order to obtain a real accumulation of organic matter in soil, it is not sufficient to temporarily increase its total content, but it is necessary to favour the main processes which govern organic matter stabilization. This requires an approach at both molecular and multidisciplinary level. The reforestation of agricultural and highly degraded soils or conservative agronomic practices, such as the use of humified compounds characterized by

  15. Railway embankments - a refuge areas for food flora, and pollinators in agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrzesień Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a modern agricultural landscape the assurance of food resources is a key issue in the maintaince and control of food niche for pollinators. In the present study we evaluated bee forage flora composition and diversity within railway embankments located in the agricultural landscape, SE Poland. We also analysed the abundance of pollinators that use food resources along railway embankments and recognized insect visitors preference for selected plant species. Railway embankments represent valuable refuge areas for bee forage flora (307 species, i.e. 76.1% of total flora and pollinators (in total 4172 insect visits from 9 taxonomic groups. However, the richness and abundance of bee forage flora significantly differed between types of the railway distinguished by traffic volume. The highest diversity of bee forage flora is noted along the railway with intermediate traffic volume. Approx. 25% and 40% less bee forage species was identified along railways with low and high traffic volume. Likewise, bee forage flora differed considerably between microhabitat types, i.e. top vs. slope vs. bottom of the embankment. Providing support (e.g. mowing seems to be an important management type in order to strengthen the native bee forage flora particularly on railway embankments along low and high traffic volume tracks. Such activity is crucial to counteract the spread of aggressive non-forage species (e.g. Calamagrostis epigejos, Artemisia vulgaris, Phragmites communis and invasive species (e.g. Bunias orientalis, Solidago gigantea.

  16. Land use types influenced avian assemblage structure in a forest-agriculture landscape in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deikumah, Justus Precious; Kwafo, Richard; Konadu, Vida Asieduwaa

    2017-11-01

    The conservation of biodiversity within tropical forest regions does not lie only in the maintenance of natural forest areas, but on conservation strategies directed toward agricultural land types within which they are embedded. This study investigated variations in bird assemblages of different functional groups of forest-dependent birds in three agricultural land types, relative to distance from the interior of 34 tropical forest patches of varying sizes. Point counts were used to sample birds at each study site visited. Data from counts were used to estimate species richness, species evenness, and Simpson's diversity of birds. Mean species richness, evenness, and diversity were modeled as responses and as a function of agricultural land type, distance from the forest interior and three site-scale vegetation covariates (density of large trees, fruiting trees, and patch size) using generalized linear mixed-effect models. Mean observed species richness of birds varied significantly within habitat types. Mean observed species richness was highest in forest interior sites while sites located in farm centers recorded the lowest mean species richness. Species richness of forest specialists was strongly influenced by the type of agricultural land use. Fallow lands, density of large trees, and patch size strongly positively influenced forest specialists. Insectivorous and frugivorous birds were more species-rich in fallow lands while monoculture plantations favored nectarivorous birds. Our results suggest that poor agricultural practices can lead to population declines of forest-dependent birds particularly specialist species. Conservation actions should include proper land use management that ensures heterogeneity through retention of native tree species on farms in tropical forest-agriculture landscapes.

  17. Ignoring Ecosystem-Service Cascades Undermines Policy for Multifunctional Agricultural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Nilsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over and above food, agricultural landscapes provide citizens with crucial public-good ecosystem services, such as biodiversity conservation, cultural values, recreational opportunities, and food security. Because continuing agricultural intensification undermines the ability of landscapes to provide public goods, policies have been implemented to preserve landscape multifunctionality, but with limited success. We suggest that one reason for this lack of success is that the cascading nature of ecosystem services has not been sufficiently addressed. While different definitions of multifunctionality emphasize different parts of the service cascades, we argue that efficient policies targeting multifunctionality simultaneously need to consider ecosystem services along the entire cascade, i.e., both intermediate and final ones. By understanding how multiple final ecosystem services are promoted by single measures with effects on multiple intermediate ecosystem services or by single intermediate ecosystem services with effects on multiple final ecosystem services, measures can be identified that simultaneously benefit private and public goods, allowing the latter to hitchhike on management for the former. Even if such synergistic solutions are less efficient in terms of promoting yields compared to non-synergistic solutions, policies such as payment for ecosystem services to promote them may be cost-efficient since the private benefit reduces the need for public payment. Furthermore, by focusing on the ecosystem service cascade, social-ecological scale-mismatches along the cascade hampering the implementation of synergistic solutions can be identified and targeted by policy. We exemplify our reasoning with the potential benefit to biodiversity conservation from yield-enhancing ecosystem services.

  18. Factors Affecting Sustainability Of Wetland Agriculture Within Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, the high rate of conversion of wetlands for agriculture has raised environmental concerns in Uganda. A study was therefore conducted to identify issues that need to be addressed if communities are to continue deriving livelihoods from wetland agriculture, without causing stress to the wetlands of Lake ...

  19. Calculating Distribution and Intensity of Agricultural Traffic for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, A.; Louwsma, M.A.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.; Kuiper, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Land from many holdings is dispersed, which compels farmers to use public roads to access distant parcels. Agricultural traffic is different from other traffic with its large and heavy vehicles. When agricultural traffic mixes with other traffic, safety issues may arise. Another issue of

  20. Promoting urban agriculture for sustainable poverty alleviation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing spate of rural-urban migration has remained a critical issue with far-reaching consequences on the agricultural and national development. Several policies guiding extension service delivery have focused primarily on the rural sector since agriculture has been recognized as a rural industry. This paper takes ...

  1. Assessing the sustainability of agriculture: a case of Mae Chaem Catchment, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praneetvatakul, S; Janekarnkij, P; Potchanasin, C; Prayoonwong, K

    2001-09-01

    Sustainability is not a new concept but rather a prominent concept at the present time. Researchers have categorized sustainability indicators into economic, social, and ecological aspects. Sustainability of agriculture in the context of development efforts has to meet production efficiency, resilience of ecosystems, appropriate technology, maintenance of the environment, cultural diversity, and satisfaction of the basic needs. The research objective of this study is to determine the critical indicators of agricultural sustainability in the Mae Chaem Catchment, northern Thailand. In assessing sustainability, the authors applied the sustainability indicator analysis developed by FAO. The results of the study show that food sufficiency in the Wat Chan subcatchment is the most sustainable aspect of agriculture. The least sustainable facets of agriculture in the Wat Chan subcatchment are land holding size, land tenure, and water shortage. While expansion of agricultural land in the watershed area is not legally permitted, a practice of agroforestry is recommended. Insecure land tenure may result in reduced incentives to improve land productivity. Thus, official recognition of land ownership is required. As the problem of water shortage is most critical in the lower reaches, increased participation in the allocation scheme by downstream villagers should be encouraged. Finally, the construction of a small-scale water storage in the lower part of the catchment to increase water supply should be considered.

  2. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the formation of economic sustainability of agricultural enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Dyachenko, V.

    2014-01-01

    The features of the economic sustainability of agricultural enterprises have been determined. The factors of its formation have been identified. Algorithm research of economic stability and recommendations for its formation have been suggested.

  3. Mechanization and new technologies for the control and the sustainability of agricultural and forestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Editors

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Book of the Congress:Mechanization and new technologies for the control and the sustainability of agricultural and forestry systems Alghero, Italy, 29th May - 1st June 2016

  4. Human Constraints to Sustainable Agriculture in the Arid Regions of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvel, G. H.; Botha, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 79 South African farmers in arid regions showed that their conservation practices were influenced by such human factors as needs, perceptions, and knowledge. Direct influence on adoption behaviors was recommended to encourage sustainable agriculture practices. (SK)

  5. Agroecology as a means of sustainability for family-based agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiane Fernandes dos Santos; Elisabete Stradiotto Siqueira; Iriane Teresa de Araújo; Zildenice Matias Guedes Maia

    2014-01-01

    ... Agroecological Producers Association) family farmers, who commercialize their production at the Agroecological Fair, intending to analyze whether or not such practices provide sustainable development of family-based agriculture...

  6. Learning to change, changing to learn : managing natural resources for sustainable agriculture in the Philippine uplands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campilan, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The study explores problem situations in natural resource management in the Philippine uplands. It examines, through a knowledge systems perspective, the changing nature of development intervention that is required as sustainability becomes an important criterion of agricultural

  7. Transdisciplinary Challenges for Sustainable Management of Mediterranean Landscapes in the Global Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev Naveh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The present chaotic transformation from the industrial to the global information society is accelerating the ecological, social and economic unsustainability. The rapidly growing unsustainable, fossil energy powered urbanindustrial technosphere and their detrimental impacts on nature and human well-being are threatening the solar energy powered natural and seminatural biosphere landscapes and their vital ecosystem services. A sustainability revolution is therefore urgently needed, requiring a shift from the „fossil age“ to the „solar age“ of a new world economy, coupled with more sustainable lifestyles and consumption patterns. The sustainable future of viable multifunctional biosphere landscapes of the Mediterranean Region and elsewhere and their biological and cultural richness can only be ensured by a post-industrial symbiosis between nature and human society. For this purpose a mindset shift of scientists and professionals from narrow disciplinarity to transdisciplinarity is necessary, dealing with holistic land use planning and management, in close cooperation with land users and stakeholders. To conserve and restore the rapidly vanishing and degrading Mediterranean uplands and highest biological ecological and cultural landscape ecodiversity, their dynamic homeorhetic flow equilibrium, has to be maintained by continuing or simulating all anthropogenic processes of grazing, browsing by wild and domesticated ungulates. Catastrophic wildfires can be prevented only by active fire and fuel management, converting highly inflammable pine forests and dense shrub thickets into floristically enriched, multi- layered open woodlands and recreation forests.

  8. AGRICULTURE MARKETING: A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVES IN THE FAR WESTERN REGION OF NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Nepal, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Nepal is a developing country with the resources and prospects to flourish in the agricultural sector. Agriculture contributes the largest share of the GDP in Nepal. The effective production and marketing of agricultural products in the various regions of Nepal could bring significant changes to the economic development of the nation. To develop the agricultural sector, many foreign nations and their development agencies are assisting Nepal in various development programs. One of them is the ...

  9. Floral resource limitation severely reduces butterfly survival, condition and flight activity in simplified agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural intensification has a strong negative impact on farmland biodiversity (including flower-visiting insects), but understanding the mechanisms involved in this requires experimental work. We document the impact of nectar limitation on the performance of a flower-visiting insect, the meadow brown butterfly Maniola jurtina. We conducted two types of experiments: a field experiment in agricultural landscapes with grasslands of different management intensity and an experiment in outdoor flight cages in which the nectar supply was simulated. For the field experiment, we introduced an array of nectar resources in intensively managed, nectar-poor meadows and in extensively managed, flower-rich grasslands and counted flower visitors. Despite higher butterfly abundance in the extensive meadows, our introduced nectar sources were more frequently visited in intensive meadows, indicating the lack of floral resources. The 48-h confinement under nectar-poor conditions in the flight cages had a strong negative effect on body condition, flight activity and lifetime survival compared to butterflies under nectar-rich conditions. Female lifespan was reduced by 22% and male lifespan even by 43%. Agricultural landscapes that provide limited amounts of floral nectar, and no high-quality, preferred nectar sources relative to the needs of the flower-visiting species, may create ecological sinks. Regards an insect's performance, the simple presence of nectar is not necessarily functionally adequate. The effectiveness of agri-environmental schemes for flower-visiting insects (e.g. flower strips) could be improved based on ecological and evolutionary insights on the effects of specific nectar quantities and qualities.

  10. Tightly-Coupled Plant-Soil Nitrogen Cycling: Comparison of Organic Farms across an Agricultural Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Timothy M; Hollander, Allan D; Steenwerth, Kerri; Jackson, Louise E

    2015-01-01

    How farming systems supply sufficient nitrogen (N) for high yields but with reduced N losses is a central challenge for reducing the tradeoffs often associated with N cycling in agriculture. Variability in soil organic matter and management of organic farms across an agricultural landscape may yield insights for improving N cycling and for evaluating novel indicators of N availability. We assessed yields, plant-soil N cycling, and root expression of N metabolism genes across a representative set of organic fields growing Roma-type tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in an intensively-managed agricultural landscape in California, USA. The fields spanned a three-fold range of soil carbon (C) and N but had similar soil types, texture, and pH. Organic tomato yields ranged from 22.9 to 120.1 Mg ha-1 with a mean similar to the county average (86.1 Mg ha-1), which included mostly conventionally-grown tomatoes. Substantial variability in soil inorganic N concentrations, tomato N, and root gene expression indicated a range of possible tradeoffs between yields and potential for N losses across the fields. Fields showing evidence of tightly-coupled plant-soil N cycling, a desirable scenario in which high crop yields are supported by adequate N availability but low potential for N loss, had the highest total and labile soil C and N and received organic matter inputs with a range of N availability. In these fields, elevated expression of a key gene involved in root N assimilation, cytosolic glutamine synthetase GS1, confirmed that plant N assimilation was high even when inorganic N pools were low. Thus tightly-coupled N cycling occurred on several working organic farms. Novel combinations of N cycling indicators (i.e. inorganic N along with soil microbial activity and root gene expression for N assimilation) would support adaptive management for improved N cycling on organic as well as conventional farms, especially when plant-soil N cycling is rapid.

  11. Agricultural biology in the 3rd millennium: nutritional food security & specialty crops through sustainable agriculture and biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food security and agricultural sustainability are of prime concern in the world today in light of the increasing trends in population growth in most parts of the globe excepting Europe. The need to develop capacity to produce more to feed more people is complicated since the arable land is decreasin...

  12. KEYNOTE ADDRESS: The roles of agriculture and mining in pro-poor sustainable development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mogae, Festus G.

    2013-01-01

    Africa has an abundance of energy and mineral assets and agricultural land. In spite of the variety of outlooks across its numerous countries there is a common understanding that these natural resources need to be used carefully and thoughtfully if there is to be sustainable development across Africa as a whole, especially pro-poor sustainable development. Botswana has poor soils and climate for agricultural production, but it has developed some of its other resources. That development, combi...

  13. Place-Based Education in the Architectural Design Studio: Agrarian Landscape as a Resource for Sustainable Urban Lifestyle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Nikezic; Dragan Markovic

    2015-01-01

    .... The study shows results of Masters Students' research on situating a housing complex in the context of the agrarian landscape of Vojvodina, Serbia, considering it as a resource for a new sustainable urban lifestyle...

  14. Contrasting perceptions of anthropogenic coastal agricultural landscape meanings and management in Italy and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targetti, Stefano; Sherren, Kate; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept entails the idea that humans have become the most influential driving factor on the environment. In this context, it is useful to get insights from coastal areas that are affected by a huge impact of human activities in shaping the territory, are prone to several threats linked with climate change, and featured by interlinked economic, cultural and social systems. We compare evidence from three different methods focusing on the perceptions of coastal agricultural landscapes: i) a survey focusing on residents' perceptions of local rural landscape elements; ii) an expert-elicitation multicriteria exercise (Analytic Network Process) focusing on the relationship between economic actors, ecosystem services and local competitiveness; and iii) a Q-methodology survey to identify public discourses concerning management alternatives. The methods were applied in two coastal case studies characterized by land drainage, shoreline barriers and coastal armoring that represent high cultural heritage; created by humans they rely on active management to persist. Moreover, in both the case studies concerns have been raised about the role of agriculture in the rural development context and the perspectives of local stakeholders towards the management of the reclaimed lands. The first area is located on the southern side of the Po River Delta (Emilia Romagna, Italy). The area was reclaimed during the 19th and 20th centuries for agricultural production and is now characterized by intensive agriculture in the hinterlands, an urbanised coastal area with a developed tourism sector, and the presence of remnant wetlands which are mostly included in the Po Delta Natural Park (covering around 30% of the case study). The second area is located in the dykelands of the Bay of Fundy (Nova Scotia, Canada) whose origins go back to the 17th Century when French settlers built the first dykes to reclaim salt marshes for farmland. While some are still farmed, a range of

  15. REVITALISATION OF THE AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE, ON THE ISLAND OF KORČULA – Cay study municipality Blato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Aničić

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultural landscapes of the Mediterranean should become one among the bearers of the regional and national identity and in this way give their contribution to tourism and economic progress because of their recognizability and rarity. Since the importance of these landscapes is not currently recognized and designated the aim of this paper, containing the Blato example, on the island of Korčula, is to defi ne a procedure and a possibility of their protection and revitalization. This site is selected due to its natural, cultural and structural diversity, the revitalization of which one can realize, i.e. restore the landscape of an outstanding value. Apart from revitalization of the landscape and the landscape diversity, agriculture can manifest itself as something visually attractive what is positively refl ected in the potential of further tourism development on the island.

  16. Development of anti-slip sustainable tiles from agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkefli, Zainordin Firdaus; Zainol, Mohd Remy Rozainy Mohd Arif; Osman, Norhayati

    2017-04-01

    In general of 80% the human activities is located in the building. Buildings constructed should be in line with full functions and optimum safety features. Aspects to be emphasized is the slip on the floor of the building. The selection of tiles must have anti-slip characteristics and achieve standard strength stress. This study is conducted to develop anti-slip tiles modification using agricultural waste. The material used is agricultural waste such rice husks, palm fibre and saw dusk mixed into the clay and then baked at a temperature of 900-1185 C °. Agricultural waste mixture ratio is 5%, 10% and 15%. The samples of tiles are produced for experiments. The results of agricultural waste tiles show that the strength is higher than standard strength, the water absorption less than standard tiles and pendulum value test is exceeds 36.

  17. Sustainable commercialization of new crops for the agricultural bioeconomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, N.R; Dorn, K; Runck, B; Ewing, P; Williams, A; Anderson, K.A; Felice, L; Haralson, K; Goplen, J; Altendorf, K; Fernandez, A; Phippen, W; Sedbrook, J; Marks, M; Wolf, K; Wyse, D; Johnson, G

    2016-01-01

    .... Importantly, these crops can provide feedstocks for a wide range of new bio-products that are forming a new agricultural bioeconomy, potentially providing greatly increased economic incentives for diversification...

  18. Quantifying the main sediment sources in agricultural landscapes of Southern Brazil cultivated with conventional and conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Le Gall, Marion; Tiecher, Tales; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Laceby, J. Patrick; Ayrault, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural expansion that occurred in the 1960s in Southern Brazil significantly increased soil erosion and sediment supply to the river networks. To limit the deleterious impacts of soil erosion, conservation practices were progressively implemented in the 1990s, including the direct sowing of crops on a soil densely covered with plant residues, contour farming, the installation of ponds to trap sediment in the landscape and the use of crop rotations. However, there remains a lack of observational data to investigate the impact of these conservation practices on soil erosion and sediment supply. This data is crucial to protect soil resources and maintain the sustainability of food production systems in this region of the world characterized by a rapidly increasing population. Accordingly, sediment sources were investigated in the Guaporé catchment (2,032 km2) representative of the cultivated environments found in this part of the world. In the upper catchment, the landscape is characterized by gentle slopes and deep soils (Ferralsols, Nitisols) corresponding to the edge of the basaltic plateau. Soybean, corn and wheat under direct sowing are the main crops in this area. In contrast, steep and shallow soils (Luvisols, Acrisols, Leptosols) highly connected to the rivers are found in the lower catchment, where tobacco and corn fields are cultivated with conventional ploughing. These soil types were characterized by elemental geochemistry and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Sediment sources were then modelled using the optimal suite of properties (87Sr/86Sr ratios, K, Ti, Co, As, Ba, and Pb). The results demonstrate that sediment collected at the catchment outlet during two hydrological years (2012-2014) mainly originated from downstream soils (Luvisols, Acrisols, Leptosols; 92±3%), with this proportion remaining stable throughout the monitoring period. This research indicates that conservation practices implemented in the upper catchment are effective and that similar methods

  19. Do Smallholder, Mixed Crop-Livestock Livelihoods Encourage Sustainable Agricultural Practices? A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Rudel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As calls for bolstering ecosystem services from croplands have grown more insistent during the past two decades, the search for ways to foster these agriculture-sustaining services has become more urgent. In this context we examine by means of a meta-analysis the argument, proposed by Robert McC. Netting, that small-scale, mixed crop-livestock farming, a common livelihood among poor rural peoples, leads to environmentally sustainable agricultural practices. As predicted, mixed crop-livestock farms exhibit more sustainable practices, but, contrary to predictions, a small scale of operation does not predict sustainability. Many smallholders on mixed crop-livestock farms use sustainable practices, but other smallholders practice a degrading, input-scarce agriculture. Some large farm operators use soil-conserving, minimum-tillage techniques while other large operators ignore soil-conserving techniques and practice an industrialized, high chemical input agriculture. The strength and pervasiveness of the link in the data between mixed crop-livestock farming and sustainable agricultural practices argues for agricultural policies that promote mixed crop-livestock livelihoods.

  20. Land Cover Classification in Complex and Fragmented Agricultural Landscapes of the Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eggen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is a largely agrarian country with nearly 85% of its employment coming from agriculture. Nevertheless, it is not known how much land is under cultivation. Mapping land cover at finer resolution and global scales has been particularly difficult in Ethiopia. The study area falls in a region of high mapping complexity with environmental challenges which require higher quality maps. Here, remote sensing is used to classify a large area of the central and northwestern highlands into eight broad land cover classes that comprise agriculture, grassland, woodland/shrub, forest, bare ground, urban/impervious surfaces, water, and seasonal water/marsh areas. We use data from Landsat spectral bands from 2000 to 2011, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and its temporal mean and variance, together with a digital elevation model, all at 30-m spatial resolution, as inputs to a supervised classifier. A Support Vector Machines algorithm (SVM was chosen to deal with the size, variability and non-parametric nature of these data stacks. In post-processing, an image segmentation algorithm with a minimum mapping unit of about 0.5 hectares was used to convert per pixel classification results into an object based final map. Although the reliability of the map is modest, its overall accuracy is 55%—encouraging results for the accuracy of agricultural uses at 85% suggest that these methods do offer great utility. Confusion among grassland, woodland and barren categories reflects the difficulty of classifying savannah landscapes, especially in east central Africa with monsoonal-driven rainfall patterns where the ground is obstructed by clouds for significant periods of time. Our analysis also points out the need for high quality reference data. Further, topographic analysis of the agriculture class suggests there is a significant amount of sloping land under cultivation. These results are important for future research and environmental monitoring in

  1. IMPACTS OF DRYNESS AND DROUGHT PHENOMENA ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN THE TITU PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAVRIŞ LOREDANA-ELENA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the dryness and drought phenomena in one of the subsidence areas of the Romanian Plain, namely Titu Plain, located in its central-north part, a region frequently affected by such phenomena, under the influence of persistent continental antyciclones. The topic approached in this study is in line with the current concerns of agriculture stakeholders to undertake climate change adaptation measures for a better management of water resources for crops in the the main agricultural regions of the country. In this paper we focused mainly on the impact of dryness and drought on agricultural landscape, although their direct and indirect effects affect not only agriculture, but also the whole economic activity of the region. The impact of these phenomena was assessed by using relevant statistical-climatological methods (e.g. the Helmann method, the Walter-Lieth climatic diagrams, applied on the monthly temparature and precipitation datasets from four weather stations located in the study region covering a 47-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2007: Târgovişte, Ploieşti, Titu şi Videle. The distribution of elements at risk within the Titu Plain region, included in the vulnerability analysis, was determined using land use map of the region extracted from CLC (Corine Land Cover, 2006, by reclassifying the primary land use classes under GIS, resulting six categories of vulnerable items to dryness and drought. Among these items, the agricultural lands have a share of 66.5% across the study region, the main crops being represented by cereals (wheat and corn, potatoes and sunflowers.

  2. What Do We Need to Know to Enhance the Environmental Sustainability of Agricultural Production? A Prioritisation of Knowledge Needs for the UK Food System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Sutherland

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns about global environmental change and food security have focused attention on the need for environmentally sustainable agriculture. This is agriculture that makes efficient use of natural resources and does not degrade the environmental systems that underpin it, or deplete natural capital stocks. We convened a group of 29 ‘practitioners’ and 17 environmental scientists with direct involvement or expertise in the environmental sustainability of agriculture. The practitioners included representatives from UK industry, non-government organizations and government agencies. We collaboratively developed a long list of 264 knowledge needs to help enhance the environmental sustainability of agriculture within the UK or for the UK market. We refined and selected the most important knowledge needs through a three-stage process of voting, discussion and scoring. Scientists and practitioners identified similar priorities. We present the 26 highest priority knowledge needs. Many of them demand integration of knowledge from different disciplines to inform policy and practice. The top five are about sustainability of livestock feed, trade-offs between ecosystem services at farm or landscape scale, phosphorus recycling and metrics to measure sustainability. The outcomes will be used to guide on-going knowledge exchange work, future science policy and funding.

  3. Changes in soil fungal communities across a landscape of agricultural soil land-uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, S. T.; Buckley, D. H.; Drinkwater, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural management is a major driver of changes in soils and their resident microbial communities, but we do not yet have a clear picture of how agriculture affects soil fungi. This is an important gap in our knowledge since fungi play an important role in many soil processes. Previous research has suggested that organic management practices can lead to an increase in soil fungal community diversity, which could have impacts on soil processes and alter the long term trajectory of soil quality in agricultural systems. Also, the relationship between management effects, biogeography, and soil fungi is not clear. The biogeography of macroscopic species is well described by taxa-area relationships and distance decay models, and recent research has suggested that certain subsets of fungi (e.g. AMF, litter sapotrophs) demonstrate similar patterns. However there is little information on how soil fungi as a whole are distributed across a landscape with soils under different managements. The goal of this project was to examine how different management practices alter soil fungal communities across a landscape of agricultural fields in upstate NY. We asked several specific questions: 1) Do different types of agricultural land-uses lead to divergent or convergent communities of soil fungi? 2) If soil type is held constant, do soil fungal communities diverge with geographic distance? 3) What are the major fungal groups that change in response to soil management, and are they cosmopolitan or endemic across the landscape? We studied these questions across agricultural fields in upstate NY that ranged from conventional corn, organic grains/corn, and long-term pasture. We sampled four fields (conventional, 10 and 20 year organic, and pasture) that had identical soils types and ranged from 100 m to 4 km apart. We utilized a multiplexed pyrosequencing approach on genomic DNA to analyze the structure of the soils' fungal communities. This approach allowed us to study soil fungi

  4. Comparative assessment of smallholder sustainability using an agricultural sustainability framework and a yield based index insurance: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi, Mehrdad; Adla, Soham; Pande, Saket; Disse, Markus; Savenije, Hubert

    2017-04-01

    The concept of sustainability is central to smallholder agriculture as subsistence farming is constantly impacted by livelihood insecurity and is constrained by access to capital, water technology and alternative employment opportunities. This study compares two approaches which aim at quantifying smallholder sustainability but differ in their underlying principles, methodologies for assessment and reporting, and applications. The yield index based insurance can protect the smallholder agriculture and help it to more economic sustainability because the income of smallholder depends on selling crops and this insurance scheme is based on crop yields. In this research, the trigger of this insurance sets on the basis of yields in previous years. The crop yields are calculated every year through socio-hydrology modeling and smallholder can get indemnity when crop yields are lower than average of previous five years (a crop failure). The FAO Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture (SAFA) is an inclusive and comprehensive framework for sustainability assessment in the food and agricultural sector. It follows the UN definition of the 4 dimensions of sustainability (good governance, environmental integrity, economic resilience and social well-being) and includes 21 themes and 58 sub-themes with a multi-indicator approach. The direct sustainability corresponding to the FAO SAFA economic resilience dimension is compared with the indirect notion of sustainability derived from the yield based index insurance. A semi-synthetic comparison is conducted to understand the differences in the underlying principles, methodologies and application of the two approaches. Both approaches are applied to data from smallholder regions of Marathwada in Maharashtra (India) which experienced a severe rise in farmer suicides in the 2000s which has been attributed to a combination of socio-hydrological factors.

  5. Adoption of sustainable agriculture practices: evidence from a semi-arid region of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, M.; Zikhali, P.; Manjur, K.; Edwards, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the resource constraints for external farm inputs faced by farmers in developing countries, sustainable agriculture practices that rely on renewable local or farm resources present desirable options for enhancing agriculture productivity. In this study, plot-level data from the

  6. Where the Grass Grows Again: Knowledge Exchange in the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Neva; Kloppenburg, Jack R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Intensive rotational grazing by Wisconsin dairy farmers represents a local expression of the sustainable agriculture movement. Contrary to interpretations that view local knowledge in agriculture as idiosyncratic, these graziers use horizontal forms of organizing and information exchange to overcome the limits of personal experience and share…

  7. Perceptions of Sustainable Agriculture: A Longitudinal Study of Young and Potential Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, Julia A.; Scofield, Gaylan G.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of an older group of agricultural producers (n=45), young producers (n=102) , and potential producers (n=77) showed the following: potential producers were more positive about sustainable agriculture, younger and potential groups were more likely than older to use dealers as information sources, and potentials were more likely to be…

  8. Sustainable land management : strategies to cope with the marginalisation of agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.; Rheenen, van T.; Dhillion, S.; Elgersma, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In large parts of the world, the reduction in the viability of agriculture and rural areas is an escalating problem. "Sustainable Land Management" offers a contemporary overview of the strategies employed to cope with the marginalisation of agriculture, through analyses of case studies and regional

  9. A mutli-factor analysis of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated m...

  10. Agri-environment schemes do not effectively protect biodiversity in Dutch agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijn, D; Berendse, F; Smit, R; Gilissen, N

    2001-10-18

    Roughly 20% of the European Union's farmland is under some form of agri-environment scheme to counteract the negative impacts of modern agriculture on the environment. The associated costs represent about 4% (1.7 billion euros) of the European Union's total expenditure on the Common Agricultural Policy and are expected to rise to 10% in the near future. Although agri-environment schemes have been implemented in various countries for well over a decade, to date no reliable, sufficiently replicated studies have been performed to test whether such measures have the presumed positive effects on biodiversity. Here we present the results of a study evaluating the contribution of agri-environment schemes to the protection of biodiversity in intensively used Dutch agricultural landscapes. We surveyed plants, birds, hover flies and bees on 78 paired fields that either had agri-environment schemes in the form of management agreements or were managed conventionally. Management agreements were not effective in protecting the species richness of the investigated species groups: no positive effects on plant and bird species diversity were found. The four most common wader species were observed even less frequently on fields with management agreements. By contrast, hover flies and bees showed modest increases in species richness on fields with management agreements. Our results indicate that there is a pressing need for a scientifically sound evaluation of agri-environment schemes.

  11. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  12. Sustainable Agriculture in Print: Current Books. Special Reference Briefs: SRB 95-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD.

    Prepared by the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) staff and volunteers, this annotated bibliography provides a list of 85 recently published books pertaining to sustainable agriculture. AFSIC focuses on alternative farming systems (e.g., sustainable, low-input, regenerative, biodynamic, and organic) that maintain agricultural…

  13. Assessing the Sustainability of Agricultural and Urban Forests in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy Robertson; Andy. Mason

    2016-01-01

    The Forest Service, an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), published the National Report on Sustainable Forests-2010 (USDA Forest Service 2011) (hereafter, National Report) several years ago and will be releasing a subsequent version of the report in 2017. Based on the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators for Forest Sustainability, the National...

  14. The preparation of the labor relations landscape of South Africa (1994-2008: an environmental perspective for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braam (АА Rust

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes a review of the literature that examines the highlights and changes in specific external environmental factors (Ecology, Economy, Politics, Legislation and legal structures, and Society, between1994 and 2008 in South Africa, with the aim to ascertain how these factors affect the day-to-day labour relations in the workplace and add to sustainable development. These factors form the landscape for labour relations. Changes to them have consequences on the quality of labour relations, that is, inter alia, the frequency, and intensity of conflicts, disputes, demands and industrial actions. It is also evident that with its power and through the political system, the South African trade union was enhanced to shape the labour relations landscape. Labour laws were particularly designed to be worker friendly and to ensure that trade unions could use a fair collective bargaining system to spread the wealth of the mining industry, agriculture and other industries more evenly. Also, because of the alliance that exists between Labour and the ruling party (ANC, the economy was influenced so that economic policies could to a certain extent guide and steer economic growth, unemployment, inflation, interest rates and exchange rates. Trade unions were instruments in ensuring that formal changes in laws and policies did, in fact, reach and positively impact families and households within the social environment. Lastly, trade unions were the most effective instrument for heralding change within South Africa in the environmental fields of ecology, economy, politics, legislation and legal structures, as well as within society. Furthermore, these fields have interchangeably affected the labour relations landscape thereby indelibly shaping it between 1994 and 2008.

  15. Navigating the sustainability landscape: a systematic review of sustainability approaches in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, L; Maher, L; Reed, J

    2018-02-09

    Improvement initiatives offer a valuable mechanism for delivering and testing innovations in healthcare settings. Many of these initiatives deliver meaningful and necessary changes to patient care and outcomes. However, many improvement initiatives fail to sustain to a point where their full benefits can be realised. This has led many researchers and healthcare practitioners to develop frameworks, models and tools to support and monitor sustainability. This work aimed to identify what approaches are available to assess and influence sustainability in healthcare and to describe the different perspectives, applications and constructs within these approaches to guide their future use. A systematic review was carried out following PRISMA guidelines to identify publications that reported approaches to support or influence sustainability in healthcare. Eligibility criteria were defined through an iterative process in which two reviewers independently assessed 20% of articles to test the objectivity of the selection criteria. Data were extracted from the identified articles, and a template analysis was undertaken to identify and assess the sustainability constructs within each reported approach. The search strategy identified 1748 publications with 227 articles retrieved in full text for full documentary analysis. In total, 62 publications identifying a sustainability approach were included in this review (32 frameworks, 16 models, 8 tools, 4 strategies, 1 checklist and 1 process). Constructs across approaches were compared and 40 individual constructs for sustainability were found. Comparison across approaches demonstrated consistent constructs were seen regardless of proposed interventions, setting or level of application with 6 constructs included in 75% of the approaches. Although similarities were found, no approaches contained the same combination of the constructs nor did any single approach capture all identified constructs. From these results, a consolidated

  16. Biofertilizers: a potential approach for sustainable agriculture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Trishna; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Goswami, Madhurankhi; Bhattacharyya, Purnita; Das, Bannhi; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Tribedi, Prosun

    2017-02-01

    The worldwide increase in human population raises a big threat to the food security of each people as the land for agriculture is limited and even getting reduced with time. Therefore, it is essential that agricultural productivity should be enhanced significantly within the next few decades to meet the large demand of food by emerging population. Not to mention, too much dependence on chemical fertilizers for more crop productions inevitably damages both environmental ecology and human health with great severity. Exploitation of microbes as biofertilizers is considered to some extent an alternative to chemical fertilizers in agricultural sector due to their extensive potentiality in enhancing crop production and food safety. It has been observed that some microorganisms including plant growth promoting bacteria, fungi, Cyanobacteria, etc. have showed biofertilizer-like activities in the agricultural sector. Extensive works on biofertilizers have revealed their capability of providing required nutrients to the crop in sufficient amounts that resulted in the enhancement of crop yield. The present review elucidates various mechanisms that have been exerted by biofertilizers in order to promote plant growth and also provides protection against different plant pathogens. The aim of this review is to discuss the important roles and applications of biofertilizers in different sectors including agriculture, bioremediation, and ecology.

  17. Sustainable City Regions: Re-localising Landscapes in a Globalising World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Thayer Jnr

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasises physical, technological and economic variables in a globalising world, and how they might influence local economies and local landscapes. With the expected 'big rollover' in demand versus supply of oil in the next decade, the scale of the landscape will change in response to a permanent rise in the price of transportation and shipping fuels. Air travel will become less accessible, as will shipping of high mass, low value-added materials and goods. This will necessitate the re-establishment of more local supplies and shorter transport distances for people and goods, and for the first time in human history the perceived size of the world will expand. In response, the 'grain' of the landscape will become finer. More people will populate the rural landscape, while cities and towns will become more compact. The landscape is influenced by the three major operative technological systems (matter, energy and information. While the depletion of oil will greatly affect matter and energy, it will have less influence on information, which is relatively immune from entropic thermodynamic effects. While source-to-end-use distances will shorten, world per-capita energy expenditures will fall, and more local goods will be created and consumed, it remains to be seen whether this contraction in the scale of the instrumental landscape will be matched by more localised ownership, or by continued globalisation of corporate systems of production and distribution. Assuming the former is preferable, the paper concludes by suggesting that the bioregion, or natural 'life place', is the appropriate location for the protection of biodiversity, sustained use of resources, and identity and life satisfaction of local inhabitants.

  18. Sustainable agriculture: possible trajectories from mutualistic symbiosis and plant neodomestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, Marie; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Food demand will increase concomitantly with human population. Food production therefore needs to be high enough and, at the same time, minimize damage to the environment. This equation cannot be solved with current strategies. Based on recent findings, new trajectories for agriculture and plant breeding which take into account the belowground compartment and evolution of mutualistic strategy, are proposed in this opinion article. In this context, we argue that plant breeders have the opportunity to make use of native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in an innovative ecologically intensive agriculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation Of The Two Model Biocorridors In Soth-West Part Of Slovakia In Agricultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Debnáriková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to evaluate two different models of biocorridors in south-west part of Slovakia in intensively utilized agricultural landscape. The first biocorridor is a part of fragmented alluvial softwood forest along the Žitava’s river in its unregulated part in cadastral territory Horný Ohaj, district Vráble. This biocorridor should be the representative biocorridor by its structure and plant composition in its area. The second biocorridor is biocorridor composed by Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the village Báb, district Nitra. The research analyzes the structure of the selected biocorridors by using the methods of phytocoenology, evaluate functional integrity by monitoring of their spatial parameters in terrain and by processing maps in the AutoCAD program. At the base of phytocoenological report evaluates occurence of alien species.

  20. Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  1. Organic Farming Benefits Local Plant Diversity in Vineyard Farms Located in Intensive Agricultural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  2. Refining the definition of sustainable agriculture: An inclusive perspective from Malaysian vegetable sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Sheng Tey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Skepticism about the longevity of conventional agriculture has resulted in the quest for sustainable agriculture. Like many developing countries, a homogenous definition of the term ‘sustainable agriculture’ is yet to be developed in Malaysia. To fill this gap, using an inclusive perspective, this study posits a refined definition of ‘sustainable agriculture’ for Malaysia.Cognizant of relevant past studies, which were built on rather narrow viewpoints, this study integrates qualitative insights from selected up-stream stakeholders in Malaysian vegetable sector. The structured results suggest that sustainable agriculture can be defined as the process by which anintegrative balanced agricultural system is realised through a dynamic set of practices that are (1 environmentally enhancing, (2 resource optimal, (3 economically viable, (4 socially justifiable and (5 functionally feasible over time. Though derived from Malaysia, this definition can be adapted to fit local nuances in other countries and sectoral emphases in agriculture. With these five inter-related operational attributes, which are capable of enhancement and/or modification periodically, this flexible definition can progressively provide potential direction towards academic understanding and development of agricultural sustainability.

  3. Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Landscape: The Role of Isotopic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Mohammad; Nguyen, Minh Long

    2014-05-01

    A review of studies from agricultural landscapes indicate that intensification of agricultural activities, inefficient use of reactive nitrogen (N) fertilizers and irrigation water, increasing human population and changes in their diet (more protein demand), high stocking rate (number of grazing livestock per hectare) and intensive cultivation are the major influencing factors for nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions into the atmosphere. Nitrification (both autotrophic and heterotrophic), denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are the three major microbial processes that produce greenhouse N2O and non-greenhouse gas (N2) and can sometimes occur concurrently in a given soil system. The contribution of N2O production from each of these microbial processes is inconclusive because of the complex interactions between various microbial processes and the physical and chemical conditions in soil microsite (s). Nitrous oxide emissions across an agricultural landscape from different N inputs (chemical fertilizers and animal manure) and soil types are also extremely variable both temporally and spatially and range from 1-20% of the applied N and could therefore represent agronomic loss. The available conventional methods such as acetylene (C2H2) inhibition and helium (He) cannot accurately measure both N2O and N2 and their ratio in a given soil. The use of 15N stable isotopic technique offers the best option to measure both N2O and N2 and to identify their source (nitrification and denitrification) with a greater accuracy. Manipulating soil and fertilizer management practices can minimise these gaseous N losses. For example the combined use of urease inhibitor like (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) (trade name Agrotain®) and nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) with urea (100 kg N ha-1) or animal urine (600 kg N ha-1) was shown to reduce N losses by 39-53 % via denitrification-nitrification-DNRA processes. Other farm management

  4. Effects of woodland islets introduced in a Mediterranean agricultural landscape on local bird communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Razola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses whether the afforestation approach consisting in the introduction of woodland islets in “agricultural seas” can reconcile the restoration of woody vegetation and the persistence of open-habitat bird populations, providing further opportunities for other forest species to enrich bird diversity at the landscape level. We compared the species richness and abundance of bird communities in a field with 16 introduced woodland islets and in a nearby abandoned field located in central Spain during spring and winter time. The woodland islets presented higher accumulated species richness as well as a higher probability of finding new species if sampling effort were increased only in winter time. These trends were the opposite during spring time. Mean species richness and mean bird abundance were lower at the woodland islets than at the abandoned field in both seasons. We found a higher abundance of open-habitat specialist species in the abandoned field. Woodland islets favoured the wintering of chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita. We did not find any effects on the only forest specialist species (blue tit Parus caeruleus in spring. Bird richness and abundance were higher in edge islets than in inner islets. The introduction of larger and mixed plantations connected by hedgerows and a management that favoured the development of big trees, a lower tree density and a diverse shrub layer could promote bird diversity, allowing forest specialists and open-habitat species to coexist at the landscape scale.

  5. Relationships among multiple aspects of agriculture's environmental impact and productivity: a meta-analysis to guide sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Richard N; Thompson, Catherine E; Benton, Tim G

    2017-05-01

    Given the pressures on land to produce ever more food, doing it 'sustainably' is growing in importance. However, 'sustainable agriculture' is complex to define, not least because agriculture impacts in many different ways and it is not clear how different aspects of sustainability may be in synergy or trade off against each other. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationships between multiple measures of sustainability using novel analytical methods, based around defining the efficiency frontier in the relationship between variables, as well as using correlation analysis. We define 20 grouped variables of agriculture's impact (e.g. on soil, greenhouse gas, water, biodiversity) and find evidence of both strong positive and negative correlations between them. Analysis based on the efficiency frontier suggests that trade-offs can be 'softened' by exploiting the natural between-study variation that arises from a combination of farming best practice and context. Nonetheless, the literature provides strong evidence of the relationship between yields and the negative externalities created by farming across a range of measures. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Railway embankments as new habitat for pollinators in an agricultural landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Moroń

    Full Text Available Pollinating insect populations, essential for maintaining wild plant diversity and agricultural productivity, rely on (seminatural habitats. An increasing human population is encroaching upon and deteriorating pollinator habitats. Thus the population persistence of pollinating insects and their associated ecosystem services may depend upon on man-made novel habitats; however, their importance for ecosystem services is barely understood. We tested if man-made infrastructure (railway embankments in an agricultural landscape establishes novel habitats that support large populations of pollinators (bees, butterflies, hoverflies when compared to typical habitats for these insects, i.e., semi-natural grasslands. We also identified key environmental factors affecting the species richness and abundance of pollinators on embankments. Species richness and abundance of bees and butterflies were higher for railway embankments than for grasslands. The occurrence of bare (non-vegetated ground on embankments positively affected bee species richness and abundance, but negatively affected butterfly populations. Species richness and abundance of butterflies positively depended on species richness of native plants on embankments, whereas bee species richness was positively affected by species richness of non-native flowering plants. The density of shrubs on embankments negatively affected the number of bee species and their abundance. Bee and hoverfly species richness were positively related to wood cover in a landscape surrounding embankments. This is the first study showing that railway embankments constitute valuable habitat for the conservation of pollinators in farmland. Specific conservation strategies involving embankments should focus on preventing habitat deterioration due to encroachment of dense shrubs and maintaining grassland vegetation with patches of bare ground.

  7. Landscape conditions predisposing grizzly bears to conflicts on private agricultural lands in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.M.; Madel, M.J.; Mattson, D.J.; Graham, J.M.; Merrill, T.

    2006-01-01

    We used multiple logistic regression to model how different landscape conditions contributed to the probability of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural ranch lands. We used locations of livestock pastures, traditional livestock carcass disposal areas (boneyards), beehives, and wetland-riparian associated vegetation to model the locations of 178 reported human-grizzly bear conflicts along the Rocky Mountain East Front, Montana, USA during 1986-2001. We surveyed 61 livestock producers in the upper Teton watershed of north-central Montana, to collect spatial and temporal data on livestock pastures, boneyards, and beehives for the same period, accounting for changes in livestock and boneyard management and beehive location and protection, for each season. We used 2032 random points to represent the null hypothesis of random location relative to potential explanatory landscape features, and used Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC/AICC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics for model selection. We used a resulting "best" model to map contours of predicted probabilities of conflict, and used this map for verification with an independent dataset of conflicts to provide additional insights regarding the nature of conflicts. The presence of riparian vegetation and distances to spring, summer, and fall sheep or cattle pastures, calving and sheep lambing areas, unmanaged boneyards, and fenced and unfenced beehives were all associated with the likelihood of human-grizzly bear conflicts. Our model suggests that collections of attractants concentrated in high quality bear habitat largely explain broad patterns of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural land in our study area. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Appropriate Technology for Sustainable Agriculture in Akwa Ibom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria is characterised with compact land mass and traditional farming practices with rudimentary farm tools and implements. Bush fallowing, constitutes the main farm management technique. Expansion of production can only be achieved through agricultural intensification rather than through ...

  9. The Costs of Using Draft Animals for Sustainable Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... technology is more suitable both socially and economically viable for farmers with tradition in animal keeping. Other technologies such as the use of single axle tractors should be thought for agricultural production in areas without tradition in animal keeping. Keywords: Draft animal, Oxen, Costs, Mechanization. Tanzania

  10. Transformation and sustainability in agriculture : connecting practice with social theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.

    2011-01-01

    Public pressure and societal changes induce interventions and policies, which aim to transform agriculture and food provision. This book shows that for upscaling novel practices and organizational models it is important to include meso-level regime aspects in analysis and practice. The argument

  11. Challenges and opportunities in supporting sustainable agriculture and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, August, 2014) included a symposium on “Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology” to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included i) ...

  12. Farmers' Perception of Sustainable Agriculture in South-Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1-2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Environmental Education, Sustainable Agriculture, and CGIAR: History and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelles, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is a global network of 15 specialized centers employing around 2,000 international scientists and 6,000 national staff in over 100 countries. CGIAR educational approaches to environmental issues have varied amid conflicting perspectives. Inadequate policies, learning resources,…

  14. The role of genetic diversity in sustainable agriculture | Oppong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The depletion of plant biodiversity with the rapid development of agriculture has attracted growing interest in recent years. This paper discusses the evolutionary consequences of monoculture with emphasis on the buffering effects of genetic heterogeneity on disease. The use of host plant resistance and systemic fungicides ...

  15. The Impact of Agriculture and Tourism Potentials on Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rural areas, which inhabit the greater proportion of the population, mostly in developing nations, are the main sources of primary products (agriculture and minerals) for urban and industrial areas, hence the rural dwellers are regarded as the set of population that provide engine of in the development process of a nation ...

  16. The footprint of marginal agriculture in the Mediterranean mountain landscape: An analysis of the Central Spanish Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasanta, T; Nadal-Romero, E; Errea, M P

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture forms an essential part of the mountains of the Mediterranean. For centuries, large areas were cultivated to feed the local population, with highly marginal slopes being tilled at times of heavy demographic pressure, using the shifting agriculture system. A great deal of agricultural land was abandoned during the 20th century, giving rise to secondary succession processes that tend to eliminate the agricultural footprint. However, revegetation is a highly complex process leading to areas with dense, well-structured plant cover, and other open areas of scrubland. This article studies the role of traditional agriculture in the deterioration of the landscape. By using experimental plots in the Central Pyrenees to reproduce traditional agriculture and abandonment, maps of field types, and current uses and ground cover, it could be confirmed that shifting agriculture has caused very heavy soil loss, which explains the deterioration of the landscape on several slopes. Burning scrub and adding the ash to the soil as a fertilizer did not greatly help to improve soil quality, but caused high rates of erosion and a very slow process of regrowth. The average data obtained from the shifting experimental plots recorded losses of 1356kgha -1 years -1 , 1.6 times more than the plot of fertilized cereal, and 8.2 times more than the dense scrub plot. Following abandonment, losses in the shifting agriculture plot were almost three times higher than the abandoned sloping field plot. Traditional shifting agriculture in the Pyrenees is the main cause of the deterioration of the landscape 50-70years after agriculture ceased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  18. Landscape configuration is the primary driver of impacts on water quality associated with agricultural expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Hamel, Perrine; Sharp, Richard; Kowal, Virgina; Wolny, Stacie; Sim, Sarah; Mueller, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Corporations and other multinational institutions are increasingly looking to evaluate their innovation and procurement decisions over a range of environmental criteria, including impacts on ecosystem services according to the spatial configuration of activities on the landscape. We have developed a spatially explicit approach and modeled a hypothetical corporate supply chain decision representing contrasting patterns of land-use change in four regions of the globe. This illustrates the effect of introducing spatial considerations in the analysis of ecosystem services, specifically sediment retention. We explored a wide variety of contexts (Iowa, USA; Mato Grosso, Brazil; and Jiangxi and Heilongjiang in China) and these show that per-area representation of impacts based on the physical characterization of a region can be misleading. We found two- to five-fold differences in sediment export for the same amount of habitat conversion within regions characterized by similar physical traits. These differences were mainly determined by the distance between land use changes and streams. The influence of landscape configuration is so dramatic that it can override wide variation in erosion potential driven by physical factors like soil type, slope, and climate. To minimize damage to spatially-dependent ecosystem services like water purification, sustainable sourcing strategies should not assume a direct correlation between impact and area but rather allow for possible nonlinearity in impacts, especially in regions with little remaining habitat and highly variable hydrological connectivity.

  19. Evaluating governance for sustainable development - Insights from experiences in the Dutch fen landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Uyl, Roos M; Driessen, Peter P J

    2015-11-01

    Prominent strands of discussion in the literature on governance for sustainable development debate how change can be induced to enhance sustainability, and how to evaluate the interventions aimed at prompting such change. Strikingly, there are few contributions about how prominent ideas of inducing change deal with multiple governance criteria for pursuing sustainable development. Moreover, the way ideas about inducing change relate to criteria of governance for sustainable development is not yet studied in an empirical context. This paper therefore comparatively analyses how three prominent modes of sustainable development governance - adaptive management, transition management and payments for environmental services - relate to a set of five prominent criteria reported in the literature, namely: equity, democracy, legitimacy, the handling of scale issues and the handling of uncertainty issues. It finds that the academic debates on these three modes address these criteria with varying attention and rather fragmented, while in the empirical setting of the Dutch fen landscape several aspects relating to the studied criteria were present and substantially influenced the functioning of the three modes of sustainable development. Together, the analysis of the literature debate and the empirical data are able to show that a narrow evaluation perspective may fail to diagnose and capture relevant struggles and complexities coming along with governance for sustainable development relevant issues. The study shows that in order to advance our understanding of governance for sustainable development, it is indeed important to include multiple criteria in studying these modes. Moreover, the study shows the importance of including empirical experiences which manifest when different modes for sustainable development are applied in real-world settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel: The role of agricultural cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels have been criticized in academic and activist circles not only for their environmental consequences but also for their social impacts on food availability and on small-scale family farming. Meanwhile (global) initiatives and policies have been developed to stimulate "sustainable biofuels".

  1. Sustainability of agricultural production in communal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies to improve food security should receive priority to support sustainable resource management, increase access to finance and suitable inputs on credit to be worked out and soil fertility conservation to be exercised with particular focus on organic farming. Emphasis should be placed on environmental management ...

  2. An Assessment Of Landscape Segments Suitable For Agriculture In Kerang Volcanic Area Of Jos Plateau Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohotden Christopher Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was carried out to investigate the landscape segments suitable for agricultural purpose in a volcanic land catena of Kerang Area on the Jos Plateau. A reconnaissance survey of the study area was carried out and three different slope segments were identified a total of 41 surface soil samples were taken from the three segments using a stratified systematic sampling. These soils were then analyzed for the physical and chemical properties. The result of the analyses revealed that the organic matter total nitrogen soil PH and exchangeable Ca Mg decline down slope however potassium K and sodium Na increase down slope. Co-efficient of variation of the soil properties for the three different slope segments showed low variability for the upper slope crest and shoulder exception being that phosphorus 43.10 and potassium 41.10 exhibited moderate variability. At the middle slope the co-efficient of variation exhibited by soil properties is predominantly moderate exception being that sodium 75 varies at high proportion at this slope segment. At the lower slope majority of the soil properties exhibited low variability. On the other hand total nitrogen available phosphorous and potassium have values of co-efficient of variation 23.10 65.60 and 23.10 respectively. This indicates that available phosphorus exhibited high variability while total nitrogen and exchangeable potassium have intermediate variability. The between or over all co-efficient or variation for the soil properties are predominantly moderate for most variable except PHH2O 11.80 and PH Cad2 10.60 that have low variability and phosphorous 78 has high variability. Differences in the degree of variation of soil variables from one segment to another can be attributed to soil erosion as affected by slope nature of soil parent materials and soil management technique. The study also revealed that some of the properties determining soil fertility total Nitrogen Available Phosphorus

  3. The fate of soil organic carbon upon erosion, transport and deposition in agricultural landscapes - A review of different concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkels, F. M S A; Cammeraat, L. H.; Kuhn, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    Erosion and deposition redistribute large quantities of sediment and soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural landscapes. In the perspective of global carbon cycling, the coupling between erosion processes and the fate of SOC is of particular interest. However, different concepts have been proposed

  4. The role of local government in promoting sustainable urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marian Szasz; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    comprehensive and formalized regulatory tools to draw from. Different cities around the world are now deciding how to fit urban agriculture into the urban agenda; however, in many places urban agriculture continues to operate in the absence of legitimization due to its relatively mobile and dynamic nature...... to the conservation of existing urban agriculture and future initiatives. The findings suggest that municipal recognition and institutional support for urban agriculture is an important component in increasing the sustainability of related initiatives. Local and central government plays a role in the legitimization...

  5. Turning points towards sustainability: integrative science and policy for novel (but real landscape futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Brunckhorst

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-metropolitan landscapes are the major theatre of interactions where large-scale alteration occurs precipitated by local to global forces of economic, social and environmental change. However, these regional landscape effects are critical also to local natural resource and social sustainability, ecosystem health through to larger scales of biospheric functioning. The institutions contributing pressures and responses consequently shape future landscapes and in turn influence how social systems, resource users, governments and policy makers perceive those landscapes and their future. These are, in essence, complex social-ecological systems intertwined in a multitude of ways at many spatial scales across time. Over time, the cycles of complex social-ecological systems also reach crossroads, which might be crisis points at which future options are no longer available (possibly because of resource degradation or loss, or turning points where opportunities arise when it is easier to change direction towards more sustainable activities. This paper provides some examples of interdisciplinary research that has provided a holistic integration through close engagement with residents and communities or through deliberately implementing integrative high-risk ‘on-ground’ experimental models to ‘learn by doing’. In the final analysis, each project has characteristically, however, sought to integrate through spatial (if not temporal synthesis, policy analysis and (new or changed institutional arrangements that are relevant locally and corporately, as well as at broader levels of government and geography. This has provided transferable outcomes that can contribute real options and adaptive capacity for suitable positive futures.

  6. Researching sustainable agriculture: The role of values in systemic science

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a specific perspective on the science demarcation issue, the perspective of systemic science. A systemic science is a science that influences its own subject area. Agricultural science is an example of such a science - a point that is particularly evident in connection with research in organic farming, which forms the practical context of this paper. Far from the ideal of being 'value-free' and objective, the systemic science must, upon recognising itself as systemic, ack...

  7. GM Crops, Organic Agriculture and Breeding for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing debate about the use of genetically-modified (GM) crops in agriculture has largely focused on food safety and genetic contamination issues. Given that the majority of GM crops have been produced to respond to the problem of crop yield reductions caused by diseases, insects and weeds, the paper argues that in those cases, the currently used GM crops are an unstable solution to the problem, because they represent such a strong selection pressure, that pests rapidly evolve resistance...

  8. Elimination Method of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA: A Simple Methodological Approach for Assessing Agricultural Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byomkesh Talukder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present world context, there is a need to assess the sustainability of agricultural systems. Various methods have been proposed to assess agricultural sustainability. Like in many other fields, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA has recently been used as a methodological approach for the assessment of agricultural sustainability. In this paper, an attempt is made to apply Elimination, a MCDA method, to an agricultural sustainability assessment, and to investigate its benefits and drawbacks. This article starts by explaining the importance of agricultural sustainability. Common MCDA types are discussed, with a description of the state-of-the-art method for incorporating multi-criteria and reference values for agricultural sustainability assessment. Then, a generic description of the Elimination Method is provided, and its modeling approach is applied to a case study in coastal Bangladesh. An assessment of the results is provided, and the issues that need consideration before applying Elimination to agricultural sustainability, are examined. Whilst having some limitations, the case study shows that it is applicable for agricultural sustainability assessments and for ranking the sustainability of agricultural systems. The assessment is quick compared to other assessment methods and is shown to be helpful for agricultural sustainability assessment. It is a relatively simple and straightforward analytical tool that could be widely and easily applied. However, it is suggested that appropriate care must be taken to ensure the successful use of the Elimination Method during the assessment process.

  9. Sustainable agriculture, soil management and erosion from prehistoric times to 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, Tom; Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Infante Amate, Juan; González Molina, Manuel; Fernández, David Soto; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Laguna, Ana; Giráldez, Juan Vicente

    2015-04-01

    The rational use of soil requires the selection of management practices to take profit of the beneficial functions of plant growth, water and nutrient storage, and pollutants removal by filtering and decomposition without altering its properties. However, the first evidence of important and widespread erosion peaks can generally be found with the arrival of the first farmers all over the world. In areas with a long land-use history such as the Mediterranean, clear signs indicating the advanced degradation status of the landscape, such as heavily truncated soils, are visible throughout. Soil conservation practices are then aimed at reducing erosion to geological rates, in equilibrium with long-term soil formation rates, while maximizing agricultural production. The adoption of such practices in most areas of the world are as old as the earliest soil erosion episodes themselves. This work firstly reviews historical evidence linking soil management and soil erosion intensity, with examples from N Europe and the Mediterranean. In particular, work by the authors in olive orchards will be presented that shows how significant variations in soil erosion rates between could be linked to the historical soil management. The potential of historical documents for calibrating a soil erosion model is shown as the model, in this case RUSLE-based and combining tillage and water erosion, adequately represents the measured erosion rate dynamics. Secondly, results from present-day, long-term farm experiments in the EU are reviewed to evaluate the effect of different soil management practices on physical soil properties, such as bulk density, penetration resistance, aggregate stability, runoff coefficient or sediment yield. Finally, we reflect upon model and field data that indicate how future global climate change is expected to affect soil management and erosion and how the examples used above hold clues about sustainable historical management practices that can be used successfully

  10. Water for Agriculture: the Convergence of Sustainability and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, Sarah M; Ingram, David; Kniel, Kalmia E; Sharma, Manan

    2017-05-01

    Agricultural water is a precious and limited resource. Increasingly more water types and sources are being explored for use in irrigation within the United States and across the globe. As outlined in this chapter, the Produce Safety Rule (PSR) in the Food Safety and Modernization Act (FSMA) provide irrigation water standards for application of water to fruits and vegetables consumed raw. These rules for production and use of water will continue to develop and be required as the world experiences aspects of a changing climate including flooding as well as drought conditions. Research continues to assess the use of agricultural water types. The increased use of reclaimed water in the United States as well as for selected irrigation water needs for specific crops may provide increased water availability. The use of surface water can be used in irrigation as well, but several studies have shown the presence of some enteric bacterial pathogens (enterohemorrhagic E. coli , Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes ) in these waters that may contaminate fruits and vegetables. There have been outbreaks of foodborne illness in the U.S., South America, Europe, and Australia related to the use of contaminated water in fruit and vegetable irrigation or washing. Unreliable water supplies, more stringent microbial water standards, mitigation technologies and expanded uses of reclaimed waters have all increased interest in agricultural water.

  11. Research priorities for harnessing plant microbiomes in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Soman, Chinmay; Wagner, Maggie R; Friesen, Maren L; Kremer, James; Bennett, Alison; Morsy, Mustafa; Eisen, Jonathan A; Leach, Jan E; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2017-03-01

    Feeding a growing world population amidst climate change requires optimizing the reliability, resource use, and environmental impacts of food production. One way to assist in achieving these goals is to integrate beneficial plant microbiomes-i.e., those enhancing plant growth, nutrient use efficiency, abiotic stress tolerance, and disease resistance-into agricultural production. This integration will require a large-scale effort among academic researchers, industry researchers, and farmers to understand and manage plant-microbiome interactions in the context of modern agricultural systems. Here, we identify priorities for research in this area: (1) develop model host-microbiome systems for crop plants and non-crop plants with associated microbial culture collections and reference genomes, (2) define core microbiomes and metagenomes in these model systems, (3) elucidate the rules of synthetic, functionally programmable microbiome assembly, (4) determine functional mechanisms of plant-microbiome interactions, and (5) characterize and refine plant genotype-by-environment-by-microbiome-by-management interactions. Meeting these goals should accelerate our ability to design and implement effective agricultural microbiome manipulations and management strategies, which, in turn, will pay dividends for both the consumers and producers of the world food supply.

  12. Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilman, David; Balzer, Christian; Hill, Jason; Befort, Belinda L

    2011-12-13

    Global food demand is increasing rapidly, as are the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. Here, we project global demand for crop production in 2050 and evaluate the environmental impacts of alternative ways that this demand might be met. We find that per capita demand for crops, when measured as caloric or protein content of all crops combined, has been a similarly increasing function of per capita real income since 1960. This relationship forecasts a 100-110% increase in global crop demand from 2005 to 2050. Quantitative assessments show that the environmental impacts of meeting this demand depend on how global agriculture expands. If current trends of greater agricultural intensification in richer nations and greater land clearing (extensification) in poorer nations were to continue, ~1 billion ha of land would be cleared globally by 2050, with CO(2)-C equivalent greenhouse gas emissions reaching ~3 Gt y(-1) and N use ~250 Mt y(-1) by then. In contrast, if 2050 crop demand was met by moderate intensification focused on existing croplands of underyielding nations, adaptation and transfer of high-yielding technologies to these croplands, and global technological improvements, our analyses forecast land clearing of only ~0.2 billion ha, greenhouse gas emissions of ~1 Gt y(-1), and global N use of ~225 Mt y(-1). Efficient management practices could substantially lower nitrogen use. Attainment of high yields on existing croplands of underyielding nations is of great importance if global crop demand is to be met with minimal environmental impacts.

  13. Management Strategies for Transition to Sustainable Agricultural Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfeld, D.; Mulligan, K.; Brown, C. M.; Yang, Y. E.

    2011-12-01

    In many agricultural regions of the world, aquifer overdrafting for agricultural irrigation continues. Management strategies are investigated that transition from this unsustainable use of water to a future, diminished use of irrigation. Complications arising from climate change and volatile energy prices are considered. A command and control strategy is modeled using combined simulation and optimization techniques. This strategy is compared with market based mechanisms such as cap and trade and Pigouvian pricing that are modeled using agent based methods. The formulations are designed to model the effects of different management strategies including those that seek to avoid rapid changes in basin-wide water utilization (considered a surrogate for agricultural production) over this time period. Formulations also include limits on total reduction in aquifer storage and controls on streamflow in the basin. The management formulations used in this study are developed for planning horizons of 50 to 100 years and use the Republican River Basin in the High Plains Aquifer as a case study. Historical and climate-adjusted recharge patterns are considered. Spatial and temporal variation in total irrigated acreage and the aquifer storage change determined by the solutions of the management formulations are analyzed and presented.

  14. Nitrogen transport within an agricultural landscape: insights on how hydrology, biogeochemistry, and the landscape intersect to control the fate and transport of nitrogen in the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kröger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a ubiquitous contaminant throughout agricultural landscapes due to both the application of inorganic and organic fertilizers to agricultural fields and the general persistence of nitrate (NO3 ) in oxygenated aqueous environments (Denver et al. 2010; Domagalski et al. 2008; Green et al. 2008; Coupe 2001; Nolan and Stoner 2000). In order to understand why excess N occurs various hydrologic systems (environments), it is important to consider potential sources, the locations of these sources in the watershed, and the timing of the application of sources with respect to the movement of water. To learn how to manage N in a watershed, it is necessary to identify and quantify flow paths and biogeochemical conditions, which ultimately combine to determine transport and fate. If sources, transport mechanisms, and biogeochemical controls were uniformly distributed, it would be possible to manage N uniformly throughout a watershed. However, uniform conditions are rare to nonexistent in the natural world and in the landscape altered for agricultural production. In order to adjust management activities on the landscape to have the greatest effect, it is important to understand the fate and transport N within the intersection of hydrology and biogeochemistry, that is, to understand the extent and duration of the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls as N is routed through and among each hydrologic compartment.

  15. Landscape fragmentation and pollinator movement within agricultural environments: a modelling framework for exploring foraging and movement ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Rands

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator decline has been linked to landscape change, through both habitat fragmentation and the loss of habitat suitable for the pollinators to live within. One method for exploring why landscape change should affect pollinator populations is to combine individual-level behavioural ecological techniques with larger-scale landscape ecology. A modelling framework is described that uses spatially-explicit individual-based models to explore the effects of individual behavioural rules within a landscape. The technique described gives a simple method for exploring the effects of the removal of wild corridors, and the creation of wild set-aside fields: interventions that are common to many national agricultural policies. The effects of these manipulations on central-place nesting pollinators are varied, and depend upon the behavioural rules that the pollinators are using to move through the environment. The value of this modelling framework is discussed, and future directions for exploration are identified.

  16. Landscape fragmentation and pollinator movement within agricultural environments: a modelling framework for exploring foraging and movement ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rands, Sean A

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator decline has been linked to landscape change, through both habitat fragmentation and the loss of habitat suitable for the pollinators to live within. One method for exploring why landscape change should affect pollinator populations is to combine individual-level behavioural ecological techniques with larger-scale landscape ecology. A modelling framework is described that uses spatially-explicit individual-based models to explore the effects of individual behavioural rules within a landscape. The technique described gives a simple method for exploring the effects of the removal of wild corridors, and the creation of wild set-aside fields: interventions that are common to many national agricultural policies. The effects of these manipulations on central-place nesting pollinators are varied, and depend upon the behavioural rules that the pollinators are using to move through the environment. The value of this modelling framework is discussed, and future directions for exploration are identified.

  17. Tightly-Coupled Plant-Soil Nitrogen Cycling: Comparison of Organic Farms across an Agricultural Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M Bowles

    Full Text Available How farming systems supply sufficient nitrogen (N for high yields but with reduced N losses is a central challenge for reducing the tradeoffs often associated with N cycling in agriculture. Variability in soil organic matter and management of organic farms across an agricultural landscape may yield insights for improving N cycling and for evaluating novel indicators of N availability. We assessed yields, plant-soil N cycling, and root expression of N metabolism genes across a representative set of organic fields growing Roma-type tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. in an intensively-managed agricultural landscape in California, USA. The fields spanned a three-fold range of soil carbon (C and N but had similar soil types, texture, and pH. Organic tomato yields ranged from 22.9 to 120.1 Mg ha-1 with a mean similar to the county average (86.1 Mg ha-1, which included mostly conventionally-grown tomatoes. Substantial variability in soil inorganic N concentrations, tomato N, and root gene expression indicated a range of possible tradeoffs between yields and potential for N losses across the fields. Fields showing evidence of tightly-coupled plant-soil N cycling, a desirable scenario in which high crop yields are supported by adequate N availability but low potential for N loss, had the highest total and labile soil C and N and received organic matter inputs with a range of N availability. In these fields, elevated expression of a key gene involved in root N assimilation, cytosolic glutamine synthetase GS1, confirmed that plant N assimilation was high even when inorganic N pools were low. Thus tightly-coupled N cycling occurred on several working organic farms. Novel combinations of N cycling indicators (i.e. inorganic N along with soil microbial activity and root gene expression for N assimilation would support adaptive management for improved N cycling on organic as well as conventional farms, especially when plant-soil N cycling is rapid.

  18. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  19. Silicate weathering and CO2 consumption within agricultural landscapes, the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Welch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Myriad studies have shown the extent of human alteration to global biogeochemical cycles. Yet, there is only a limited understanding of the influence that humans have over silicate weathering fluxes; fluxes that have regulated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and global climate over geologic timescales. Natural landscapes have been reshaped into agricultural ones to meet food needs for growing world populations. These processes modify soil properties, alter hydrology, affect erosion, and consequently impact water-soil-rock interactions such as chemical weathering. Dissolved silica (DSi, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3–, and total alkalinity were measured in water samples collected from five small (0.0065 to 0.383 km2 gauged watersheds at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW near Coshocton, Ohio, USA. The sampled watersheds in this unglaciated region include: a forested site (70+ year stand, mixed agricultural use (corn, forest, pasture, an unimproved pasture, tilled corn, and a recently (−2 yr–1 were similar to the median of annual averages between 1979–2009 for the much larger Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (2560 kg km−2 yr–1. Corn watersheds, which only had surface runoff, had substantially lower DSi yields (−2 yr–1 than the perennial-flow watersheds. The lack of contributions from Si-enriched groundwater largely explained their much lower DSi yields with respect to sites having baseflow. A significant positive correlation between the molar ratio of (Ca2++Mg2+/alkalinity to DSi in the tilled corn and the forested site suggested, however, that silicate minerals weathered as alkalinity was lost via enhanced nitrification resulting from fertilizer additions to the corn watershed and from leaf litter decomposition in the forest. This same relation was observed in the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin where dominant landuse types include both agricultural lands receiving nitrogenous fertilizers and forests. Greater gains in DSi with

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural landscapes: quantification tools, policy development, and opportunities for improved management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonitto, C.; Gurwick, N. P.

    2012-12-01

    Policy initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have promoted the development of agricultural management protocols to increase SOC storage and reduce GHG emissions. We review approaches for quantifying N2O flux from agricultural landscapes. We summarize the temporal and spatial extent of observations across representative soil classes, climate zones, cropping systems, and management scenarios. We review applications of simulation and empirical modeling approaches and compare validation outcomes across modeling tools. Subsequently, we review current model application in agricultural management protocols. In particular, we compare approaches adapted for compliance with the California Global Warming Solutions Act, the Alberta Climate Change and Emissions Management Act, and by the American Carbon Registry. In the absence of regional data to drive model development, policies that require GHG quantification often use simple empirical models based on highly aggregated data of N2O flux as a function of applied N - Tier 1 models according to IPCC categorization. As participants in development of protocols that could be used in carbon offset markets, we observed that stakeholders outside of the biogeochemistry community favored outcomes from simulation modeling (Tier 3) rather than empirical modeling (Tier 2). In contrast, scientific advisors were more accepting of outcomes based on statistical approaches that rely on local observations, and their views sometimes swayed policy practitioners over the course of policy development. Both Tier 2 and Tier 3 approaches have been implemented in current policy development, and it is important that the strengths and limitations of both approaches, in the face of available data, be well-understood by those drafting and adopting policies and protocols. The reliability of all models is contingent on sufficient observations for model development and validation. Simulation models applied without site-calibration generally