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Sample records for sustainability model asm

  1. Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Gujer, W.; Mino, T.

    This book has been produced to give a total overview of the Activated Sludge Model (ASM) family at the start of 2000 and to give the reader easy access to the different models in their original versions. It thus presents ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3 together for the first time.Modelling of activated...... sludge processes has become a common part of the design and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Today models are being used in design, control, teaching and research.ContentsASM3: Introduction, Comparison of ASM1 and ASM3, ASM3: Definition of compounds in the model, ASM3: Definition of processes...... in the Model, ASM3: Stoichiometry, ASM3: Kinetics, Limitations of ASM3, Aspects of application of ASM3, ASM3C: A Carbon based model, Conclusion ASM 2d: Introduction, Conceptual Approach, ASM 2d, Typical Wastewater Characteristics and Kinetic and Stoichiometric Constants, Limitations, Conclusion ASM 2...

  2. Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Gujer, W.; Mino, T.

    : Introduction, ASM 2, Typical Wastewater Characteristics and Kinetic and Stoichiometric Constants, Wastewater Characterization for Activated Sludge Processes, Calibration of the ASM 2, Model Limitations, Conclusion, Bibliography ASM 1: Introduction, Method of Model Presentation, Model Incorporating Carbon......This book has been produced to give a total overview of the Activated Sludge Model (ASM) family at the start of 2000 and to give the reader easy access to the different models in their original versions. It thus presents ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3 together for the first time.Modelling of activated...... in the Model, ASM3: Stoichiometry, ASM3: Kinetics, Limitations of ASM3, Aspects of application of ASM3, ASM3C: A Carbon based model, Conclusion ASM 2d: Introduction, Conceptual Approach, ASM 2d, Typical Wastewater Characteristics and Kinetic and Stoichiometric Constants, Limitations, Conclusion ASM 2...

  3. Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Gujer, W.; Mino, T.

    sludge processes has become a common part of the design and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Today models are being used in design, control, teaching and research.ContentsASM3: Introduction, Comparison of ASM1 and ASM3, ASM3: Definition of compounds in the model, ASM3: Definition of processes......: Introduction, ASM 2, Typical Wastewater Characteristics and Kinetic and Stoichiometric Constants, Wastewater Characterization for Activated Sludge Processes, Calibration of the ASM 2, Model Limitations, Conclusion, Bibliography ASM 1: Introduction, Method of Model Presentation, Model Incorporating Carbon...

  4. Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Gujer, W.; Mino, T.

    This book has been produced to give a total overview of the Activated Sludge Model (ASM) family at the start of 2000 and to give the reader easy access to the different models in their original versions. It thus presents ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3 together for the first time.Modelling of activated......: Introduction, ASM 2, Typical Wastewater Characteristics and Kinetic and Stoichiometric Constants, Wastewater Characterization for Activated Sludge Processes, Calibration of the ASM 2, Model Limitations, Conclusion, Bibliography ASM 1: Introduction, Method of Model Presentation, Model Incorporating Carbon...... Oxidation Nitrification and Denitrification, Characterization of Wastewater and Estimation of Parameter Values, Typical Parameter Ranges, Default Values, and Effects of Environmental Factors, Assumptions, Restrictions and Constraints, Implementation of the Activated Sludge Model...

  5. Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Gujer, W.; Mino, T.

    : Introduction, ASM 2, Typical Wastewater Characteristics and Kinetic and Stoichiometric Constants, Wastewater Characterization for Activated Sludge Processes, Calibration of the ASM 2, Model Limitations, Conclusion, Bibliography ASM 1: Introduction, Method of Model Presentation, Model Incorporating Carbon...... Oxidation Nitrification and Denitrification, Characterization of Wastewater and Estimation of Parameter Values, Typical Parameter Ranges, Default Values, and Effects of Environmental Factors, Assumptions, Restrictions and Constraints, Implementation of the Activated Sludge Model...... sludge processes has become a common part of the design and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Today models are being used in design, control, teaching and research.ContentsASM3: Introduction, Comparison of ASM1 and ASM3, ASM3: Definition of compounds in the model, ASM3: Definition of processes...

  6. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs......). This extension of ASM2 allows for improved modeling of the processes, especially with respect to the dynamics of nitrate and phosphate. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Abelian Sandpile Model (ASM) and Infinite Volume Limit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abelian Sandpile Model (ASM) and. Infinite Volume Limit. Infinite volume limit for the stationary distribution of Abelian sandpile models. http://www.isid.ac.in/ athreya/Research. Joint work with Antal Jarai. To Appear in Communications in Mathematical Physics ...

  8. Simulation of the performance of aerobic granular sludge SBR using modified ASM3 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Man; Gong, Jianyu; Yang, Changzhu; Pu, Wenhong

    2013-01-01

    The activated sludge model No. 3 (ASM3) was modified to describe the biological reactions in aerobic granular sludge SBR. The simultaneous storage and growth, nitrification and denitrification were all accounted for in modified model. The sensitivities of effluent COD, NH(4)(+) -N, and TN toward the stoichiometric and kinetic coefficients were analyzed. A standard set of parameters obtained from a combination of literature data was chosen for the model. The experimental results for the time profile of COD, NH(4)(+) -N, and TN in a typical cycle were used to verify the ASM3 model. The verification results show the model established is applicable for simulating the perfo rmance of an aerobic granule-based SBR. A comparison of the measured and predicted values of substrate removal for both the modified ASM3 and the original ASM3 was also performed. The verification and comparison results show the modified ASM3 model describes the aerobic granule-based SBR better and more mechanistically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reaction invariant-based reduction of the activated sludge model ASM1 for batch applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santa Cruz, Judith A.; Mussati, Sergio F.; Scenna, Nicolás J.

    2016-01-01

    to batch activated sludge processes described by the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) for carbon and nitrogen removal. The objective of the model reduction is to describe the exact dynamics of the states predicted by the original model with a lower number of ODEs. This leads to a reduction...

  10. Parameter subset selection for the dynamic calibration of activated sludge models (ASMs): experience versus systems analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruano, MV; Ribes, J; de Pauw, DJW

    2007-01-01

    In this work we address the issue of parameter subset selection within the scope of activated sludge model calibration. To this end, we evaluate two approaches: (i) systems analysis and (ii) experience-based approach. The evaluation has been carried out using a dynamic model (ASM2d) calibrated...

  11. Linearization of the activated sludge model ASM1 for fast and reliable predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Ilse Y; Haegebaert, Jeroen V; Carrette, Ronald; Van Impe, Jan F

    2003-04-01

    In this paper a strategy is proposed to reduce the complexity of the activated sludge model no. 1 (ASM1) which describes the biotransformation processes in a common activated sludge process with N-removal. The key feature of the obtained reduced model is that it combines high predictive value (all state variables keep their biological interpretation) with very low computation time. Therefore, this model is a valuable tool in a risk assessment environment (designed for the evaluation of wastewater treatment plants facing stricter effluent norms) as well as in on-line (MPC) control strategies. The complexity reduction procedure consists of four steps. In the first step representative input/output data sets are generated by simulating the full ASM1 model. In the second step the ASM1 model is rewritten in state space format with linear approximations of the nonlinear (kinetic) terms. In the third step the unknown parameters in the linear terms are identified based on the generated input/output data. To reduce the amount of parameter sets that have to be identified (to cover the full operation range of the plant), a Multi-Model interpolation procedure is introduced as a last step.

  12. Biological phosphorus removal in an extended ASM2 model: Roles of extracellular polymeric substances and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan-Shan; Pang, Ji-Wei; Guo, Wan-Qian; Yang, Xiao-Yin; Wu, Zhong-Yang; Ren, Nan-Qi; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an extended ASM2 model for the modeling and calibration of the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in phosphorus (P) removal in an anaerobic-aerobic process. In this extended ASM2 model, two new components, the bound EPS (XEPS) and the soluble EPS (SEPS), are introduced. Compared with the ASM2, 7.71, 8.53, and 9.28% decreases in polyphosphate (polyP) were observed in the extended ASM2 in three sequencing batch reactors feeding with different COD/P ratios, indicating that 7.71-9.28% of P in the liquid was adsorbed by EPS. Sensitive analysis indicated that, five parameters were the significant influential parameters and had been chosen for further model calibration by using the least square method to simulate by MATLAB. This extended ASM2 has been successfully established to simulate the output variables and provides a useful reference for the mathematic simulations of the role of EPS in biological phosphorus removal process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. GC-ASM: Synergistic Integration of Graph-Cut and Active Shape Model Strategies for Medical Image Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjian; Udupa, Jayaram K; Alavi, Abass; Torigian, Drew A

    2013-05-01

    Image segmentation methods may be classified into two categories: purely image based and model based. Each of these two classes has its own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we propose a novel synergistic combination of the image based graph-cut (GC) method with the model based ASM method to arrive at the GC-ASM method for medical image segmentation. A multi-object GC cost function is proposed which effectively integrates the ASM shape information into the GC framework. The proposed method consists of two phases: model building and segmentation. In the model building phase, the ASM model is built and the parameters of the GC are estimated. The segmentation phase consists of two main steps: initialization (recognition) and delineation. For initialization, an automatic method is proposed which estimates the pose (translation, orientation, and scale) of the model, and obtains a rough segmentation result which also provides the shape information for the GC method. For delineation, an iterative GC-ASM algorithm is proposed which performs finer delineation based on the initialization results. The proposed methods are implemented to operate on 2D images and evaluated on clinical chest CT, abdominal CT, and foot MRI data sets. The results show the following: (a) An overall delineation accuracy of TPVF > 96%, FPVF segmentation step compared to GC which requires seed specification and improves on the accuracy of GC. (e) One disadvantage of GC-ASM is its increased computational expense owing to the iterative nature of the algorithm.

  14. Modeling Nitrous Oxide Production during Biological Nitrogen Removal via Nitrification and Denitrification: Extensions to the General ASM Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N2O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N2O...

  15. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Chang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The American Society for Microbiology (ASM established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation Biology Scholars Program (BSP to promote undergraduate education reform by 1 supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2 engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3 participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL to more than 270 participants (“scholars” from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER. To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010­–2014 scholars (n = 127 and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life

  16. Towards a consensus-based biokinetic model for green microalgae – The ASM-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Valverde Pérez, Borja; Sæbø, Mariann

    2016-01-01

    developed to predict microalgal growth. However, none of these models can effectively describe all the relevant processes when microalgal growth is coupled with nutrient removal and recovery from wastewaters. Here, we present a mathematical model developed to simulate green microalgal growth (ASM-A) using...... the systematic approach of the activated sludge modelling (ASM) framework. The process model – identified based on a literature review and using new experimental data – accounts for factors influencing photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microalgal growth, nutrient uptake and storage (i.e. Droop model) and decay...... and substrate availability can introduce significant variability on parameter values for predicting the reaction rates for bulk nitrate and the intracellularly stored nitrogen state-variables, thereby requiring scenario specific model calibration. ASM-A was identified using standard cultivation medium...

  17. Linearization in ASM1 model for the solution of pollutants transport equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyva Maria Lopes Romeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to reduce the complexity existing in non-linear BIOMOC and ASM1 models using Taylor’s frst-order series expansion in the terms whose reactive processes are non-linear. One of the advantages of linear models is the conservation of non-linear model variables. However, the main characteristic of this methodology refers to the computational time obtained in the numeral simulations, which is much shorter than that concerning the non-linear model results. Numerical results are presented, showing the effciency, precision and solidity of the proposed technique in well-known cases in the literature, using the semi-discrete method of finite elements.

  18. Modelling waste stabilisation ponds with an extended version of ASM3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, T; Silva, J D; Kehl, O; Castilhos, A B; Costa, R H R; Uhlenhut, F; Alex, J; Horn, H; Wichern, M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an extended version of IWA's Activated Sludge Model No 3 (ASM3) was developed to simulate processes in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). The model modifications included the integration of algae biomass and gas transfer processes for oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia depending on wind velocity and a simple ionic equilibrium. The model was applied to a pilot-scale WSP system operated in the city of Florianópolis (Brazil). The system was used to treat leachate from a municipal waste landfill. Mean influent concentrations to the facultative pond of 1,456 g(COD)/m(3) and 505 g(NH4-N)/m(3) were measured. Experimental results indicated an ammonia nitrogen removal of 89.5% with negligible rates of nitrification but intensive ammonia stripping to the atmosphere. Measured data was used in the simulations to consider the impact of wind velocity on oxygen input of 11.1 to 14.4 g(O2)/(m(2) d) and sun radiation on photosynthesis. Good results for pH and ammonia removal were achieved with mean stripping rates of 18.2 and 4.5 g(N)/(m(2) d) for the facultative and maturation pond respectively. Based on measured chlorophyll a concentrations and depending on light intensity and TSS concentration it was possible to model algae concentrations.

  19. Dynamic experiments with high bisphenol-A concentrations modelled with an ASM model extended to include a separate XOC degrading microorganism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    with the endocrine disrupting XOC bisphenol-A (BPA) in an activated sludge process with real wastewater were used to hypothesize an ASM-based process model including aerobic growth of a specific BPA-degrading microorganism and sorption of BPA to sludge. A parameter estimation method was developed, which...

  20. Optimization of A(2)O BNR processes using ASM and EAWAG Bio-P models: model performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shorbagy, Walid E; Radif, Nawras N; Droste, Ronald L

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the performance of an optimization model for a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system using the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)O) process. The formulated model simulates removal of organics, nitrogen, and phosphorus using a reduced International Water Association (IWA) Activated Sludge Model #3 (ASM3) model and a Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG) Bio-P module. Optimal sizing is attained considering capital and operational costs. Process performance is evaluated against the effect of influent conditions, effluent limits, and selected parameters of various optimal solutions with the following results: an increase of influent temperature from 10 degrees C to 25 degrees C decreases the annual cost by about 8.5%, an increase of influent flow from 500 to 2500 m(3)/h triples the annual cost, the A(2)O BNR system is more sensitive to variations in influent ammonia than phosphorus concentration and the maximum growth rate of autotrophic biomass was the most sensitive kinetic parameter in the optimization model.

  1. Removal of Antibiotics in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems—A Critical Assessment Using the Activated Sludge Modeling Framework for Xenobiotics (ASM-X)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    ), (iii) fractions sorbed onto solids, and (iv) dynamics in influent and effluent loading. A recently developed methodology was used, relying on the comparison of removal efficiency predictions (obtained with the Activated Sludge Model for Xenobiotics (ASM-X)) with representative measured data from...

  2. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  3. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  4. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  5. An activated sludge modeling framework for xenobiotic trace chemicals (ASM-X): assessment of diclofenac and carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plósz, Benedek Gy; Langford, Katherine H; Thomas, Kevin V

    2012-11-01

    Conventional models for predicting the fate of xenobiotic organic trace chemicals, identified, and calibrated using data obtained in batch experiments spiked with reference substances, can be limited in predicting xenobiotic removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). At stake is the level of model complexity required to adequately describe a general theory of xenobiotic removal in WWTPs. In this article, we assess the factors that influence the removal of diclofenac and carbamazepine in activated sludge, and evaluate the complexity required for the model to effectively predict their removal. The results are generalized to previously published cases. Batch experimental results, obtained under anoxic and aerobic conditions, were used to identify extensions to, and to estimate parameter values of the activated sludge modeling framework for Xenobiotic trace chemicals (ASM-X). Measurement and simulation results obtained in the batch experiments, spiked with the diclofenac and carbamazepine content of preclarified municipal wastewater shows comparably high biotransformation rates in the presence of growth substrates. Forward dynamic simulations were performed using full-scale data obtained from Bekkelaget WWTP (Oslo, Norway) to evaluate the model and to estimate the level of re-transformable xenobiotics present in the influent. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that xenobiotic loading conditions can significantly influence the removal capacity of WWTPs. We show that the trace chemical retransformation in upstream sewer pipes can introduce considerable error in assessing the removal efficiency of a WWTP, based only on parent compound concentration measurements. The combination of our data with those from the literature shows that solids retention time (SRT) can enhance the biotransformation of diclofenac, which was not the case for carbamazepine. Model approximation of the xenobiotic concentration, detected in the solid phase, suggest that between

  6. Comparative study of diverse model building strategies for 3D-ASM segmentation of dynamic gated SPECT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobon-Gomez, C.; Butakoff, C.; Ordas, S.; Aguade, S.; Frangi, A. F.

    2007-03-01

    Over the course of the last two decades, myocardial perfusion with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has emerged as an established and well-validated method for assessing myocardial ischemia, viability, and function. Gated-SPECT imaging integrates traditional perfusion information along with global left ventricular function. Despite of these advantages, inherent limitations of SPECT imaging yield a challenging segmentation problem, since an error of only one voxel along the chamber surface may generate a huge difference in volume calculation. In previous works we implemented a 3-D statistical model-based algorithm for Left Ventricle (LV) segmentation of in dynamic perfusion SPECT studies. The present work evaluates the relevance of training a different Active Shape Model (ASM) for each frame of the gated SPECT imaging acquisition in terms of their subsequent segmentation accuracy. Models are subsequently employed to segment the LV cavity of gated SPECT studies of a virtual population. The evaluation is accomplished by comparing point-to-surface (P2S) and volume errors, both against a proper Gold Standard. The dataset comprised 40 voxel phantoms (NCAT, Johns Hopkins, University of of North Carolina). Monte-Carlo simulations were generated with SIMIND (Lund University) and reconstructed to tomographic slices with ASPIRE (University of Michigan).

  7. Evaluation of an ASM1 Model Calibration Precedure on a Municipal-Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Britta; Gernaey, Krist; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the calibrated model determines how to approach a model calibration, e.g. which information is needed and to which level of detail the model should be calibrated. A systematic model calibration procedure was therefore defined and evaluated for a municipal–industrial wastewater trea...

  8. Using the activated sludge model 2d (ASM2d) to understand and predict the phosphorus accumulating organisms mechanism in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in relation to disintegrated sludge as a carbon source

    OpenAIRE

    Boontian, Nittaya

    2012-01-01

    Carbon sources are considered as one of the most important factors in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Disintegrated sludge (DS) can act as carbon source to increase the efficiency of EBPR. This research explores the influence of DS upon phosphorus removal efficiency using mathematical simulation modeling. Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) is one of the most useful of activated sludge (AS) models. This is because ASM2d can express the integrated mechanisms...

  9. An activated sludge model for xenobiotic organic micro-pollutants (ASM-X)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plósz, Benedek; Lehnberg, K.; Dott, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an evaluation of the process model developed by Plósz et al. (2010a) to predict the fate of antibiotics xenobiotic organic micro-pollutants (XOMs) in activated sludge systems. Instead of spiking the batch reactors with reference substances, observations were made using t...

  10. Udvidelser til ASM Process Modeller til at bestemme lattergas emission fra renseanlæg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Barth F.

    Lattergas (N2O) er en betydningsfuld drivhusgas idet opvarmningspotentialet for et N2O molekyle er omkring 300 gange større end for CO2. Lattergas dannes under fjernelsen af kvælstof i biologiske rensningsanlæg. Vi har udviklet den første matematiske model der beskriver lattergas produktion og fo...

  11. Cisco ASM Router

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    One of the two "ASM/2-32EM" boxes installed in 1988, from "Cisco Systems Inc." - then an unknown 20-employee company in Menlo Park, California (USA). This is one of the first two Cisco boxes to appear in Switzerland, and possibly Europe. The 220v power supply was a special modification made for use at CERN. They supported IP address filtering, which seemed just what CERN needed to help protect the new Cray XMP-48 super computer from network hackers. The two ASM boxes were both routers and terminal servers. They protected a secure private Ethernet segment used by the Cray project, as well as providing secure terminal connections to that segment, including CERN's first dialback terminal service, which allowed Cray and CERN system analysts to work on the machine from home, using another Cisco feature called TACACS. (Kindly offered by B. Segal who discovered this company while at a Usenix Conference in Phoenix, Arizona in June 1987.)

  12. Integrating Sustainability in Organisations: An Activity-Based Sustainability Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Rodríguez-Olalla; Carmen Aviles-Palacios

    2017-01-01

    .... Although global integration models address sustainability in organisations, these models present shortcomings and limitations and do not describe how to achieve the integration of sustainability...

  13. AsmL Specification of a Ptolemy II Scheduler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lázaro Cuadrado, Daniel; Koch, Peter; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2003-01-01

    Ptolemy II is a tool that combines different computational models for simulation and design of embedded systems. AsmL is a software specification language based on the Abstract State Machine formalism. This paper reports on development of an AsmL model of the Synchronous Dataflow domain scheduler...

  14. Firm Sustainability Performance Index Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed Radzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to bring a model for firm sustainability performance index by applying both classical and Bayesian structural equation modeling (parametric and semi-parametric modeling. Both techniques are considered to the research data collected based on a survey directed to the China, Taiwan, and Malaysia food manufacturing industry. For estimating firm sustainability performance index we consider three main indicators include knowledge management, organizational learning, and business strategy. Based on the both Bayesian and classical methodology, we confirmed that knowledge management and business strategy have significant impact on firm sustainability performance index.

  15. Towards Sustainable Growth Business Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp-Roelands, N.; Balkenende, J.P.; Van Ommen, P.

    2012-03-15

    The Dutch Sustainable Growth Coalition (DSGC) has the following objectives: The DSGC aims to pro-actively drive sustainable growth business models along three lines: (1) Shape. DSGC member companies aim to connect economic profitability with environmental and social progress on the basis of integrated sustainable growth business models; (2) Share. DSGC member companies aim for joint advocacy of sustainable growth business models both internationally and nationally; and (3) Stimulate. DSGC member companies aim to stimulate and influence the policy debate on enabling sustainable growth - with a view to finding solutions to the environmental and social challenges we are facing. This is their first report. The vision, actions and mission of DSGC are documented in the Manifesto in Chapter 2 of this publication. Chapter 3 contains an overview of key features of an integrated sustainable growth business model and the roadmap towards such a model. In Chapter 4, project examples of DSGC members are presented, providing insight into the hands-on reality of implementing the good practices. Chapter 5 offers an overview of how the Netherlands provides an enabling environment for sustainable growth business models. Chapter 6 offers the key conclusions.

  16. Modeling Sustainment Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    BASIS. CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY MAKES NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, AS TO ANY MATTER INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTY...WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH RESPECT TO FREEDOM FROM PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT . This material has been approved for public release...forecast the consequences of various alternatives? Sustainment Investment: the Problem Operations Supplying the fleet, customer support, etc

  17. Integrating Sustainability in Organisations: An Activity-Based Sustainability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez-Olalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Organisations have become interested in using integral management systems to increase their sustainable value. Although global integration models address sustainability in organisations, these models present shortcomings and limitations and do not describe how to achieve the integration of sustainability. This paper proposes an Activity-Based Sustainability (ABS integration model that complements other models from an inside-out perspective. Its assessment follows a procedure similar to that proposed by the Activity-Based Costing (ABC model of cost accounting. The model assigns impacts from activities in the value chain of a process to the objects of impact (products, services, clients, or markets that must be managed in terms of sustainability. The main limitations of the ABS model are the need to identify and describe processes, to locate every activity that constitutes the value chain, and to quantify the impacts of these activities. The ABS model is presented as an alternative to link sustainable management accounting and sustainable communication, as well as sustainable management control and sustainability assessment. It connects these sustainable elements through the bilateral identification of the linkages among skills, processes, and practices. It also links these aspects with the contribution to sustainable development and the development of competitive advantages.

  18. A framework for sustainable interorganizational business model

    OpenAIRE

    Neupane, Ganesh Prasad; Haugland, Sven A.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on literature on business model innovations and sustainability, this paper develops a framework for sustainable interorganizational business models. The aim of the framework is to enhance the sustainability of firms’ business models by enabling firms to create future value by taking into account environmental, social and economic factors. The paper discusses two themes: (1) application of the term sustainability to business model innovation, and (2) implications of integrating sustain...

  19. Linking Complexity and Sustainability Theories: Implications for Modeling Sustainability Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camaren Peter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deploy a complexity theory as the foundation for integration of different theoretical approaches to sustainability and develop a rationale for a complexity-based framework for modeling transitions to sustainability. We propose a framework based on a comparison of complex systems’ properties that characterize the different theories that deal with transitions to sustainability. We argue that adopting a complexity theory based approach for modeling transitions requires going beyond deterministic frameworks; by adopting a probabilistic, integrative, inclusive and adaptive approach that can support transitions. We also illustrate how this complexity-based modeling framework can be implemented; i.e., how it can be used to select modeling techniques that address particular properties of complex systems that we need to understand in order to model transitions to sustainability. In doing so, we establish a complexity-based approach towards modeling sustainability transitions that caters for the broad range of complex systems’ properties that are required to model transitions to sustainability.

  20. 76 FR 36231 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No... 50 RIN 3150-AI35 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code... 2004 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1; 2007 ASME Boiler and Pressure...

  1. Smart Cities and Sustainability Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In our age cities are complex systems and we can say systems of systems. Today locality is the result of using information and communication technologies in all departments of our life, but in future all cities must to use smart systems for improve quality of life and on the other hand for sustainable development. The smart systems make daily activities more easily, efficiently and represent a real support for sustainable city development. This paper analysis the sus-tainable development and identified the key elements of future smart cities.

  2. 77 FR 3073 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...-AI35 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases... addenda to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, and the ASME Code for Operation and... on their use) ASME B&PV Code Cases N-722-1 and N-770-1. This document is necessary to correct...

  3. Toward a Romanian NPOs Sustainability Model: Determinants of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian-Ion Ceptureanu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations (NPOs have become increasingly important in the last decade for Romanian society since the state often failed to fulfill some of its social responsibilities. Romania’s economic and financial crisis several years ago hardly hit non-profit sector because it led to a significant drop in public spending at the government level and cuts of financing programs from companies, two main donors for NPOs while simultaneously has amplified society’s problems and gave rise to new target groups requiring support. This led to an acute need to address sustainability at organizational level since existing sustainability models in the literature are hardly adequate for Romanian context. We developed a model based on literature survey and Romanian experts’ interviews, which allow us to identify relevant factors for Romanian non-profit sustainability. Three determinants were considered: Cognitive competence (nine items analyzed, Social awareness (seven items analyzed and Financial vulnerability (four items analyzed, as well as two types of results: economic and social. The model was tested through an empirical research on 103 Romanian NPOs and on two sub-samples (nongovernment organizations and community based organizations and found, using univariate and bivariate analysis, that the three considered determinants are correlated and statistically influence Romanian NPOs sustainability.

  4. Modeling Sustainability Maturity in Corporate Real Estate

    OpenAIRE

    Rasita Masalskyte; Mia Andelin; Anna-Liisa Sarasoja

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - Sustainability in Corporate Real Estate has lately become a concurrent part of almost every enterprise. However the extent of activity may extremely differ in various industries. Sustainable Real Estate Practices have been broadly analyzed in the recent studies, but the holistic approach to the issue is missing. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and systematize the current activities and propose a generic Sustainability Maturity Model in Corporate Real Estate. Methodology - ...

  5. Sustainable Business Models through Service Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prendeville, S.M.; Bocken, N.M.P.

    2017-01-01

    In the face of growing sustainability challenges, pressure on businesses to decouple environmental impacts from growth is mounting. New sustainable business models can be a systemic driver for change in industry and the wider business innovation literature suggests that strategic design approaches

  6. An Entangled Model for Sustainability Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pável Vázquez

    Full Text Available Nowadays the challenge for humanity is to find pathways towards sustainable development. Decision makers require a set of sustainability indicators to know if the sustainability strategies are following those pathways. There are more than one hundred sustainability indicators but they differ on their relative importance according to the size of the locality and change on time. The resources needed to follow these sustainability indicators are scarce and in some instances finite, especially in smaller regions. Therefore strategies to select set of these indicators are useful for decision makers responsible for monitoring sustainability. In this paper we propose a model for the identification and selection of a set of sustainability indicators that adequately represents human systems. In developing this model, we applied evolutionary dynamics in a space where sustainability indicators are fundamental entities interconnected by an interaction matrix. we used a fixed interaction that simulates the current context for the city of Cuernavaca, México as an example. We were able to identify and define relevant sets indicators for the system by using the Pareto principle. In this case we identified a set of sixteen sustainability indicators with more than 80% of the total strength. This set presents resilience to perturbations. For the Tangled Nature framework we provided a manner of treating different contexts (i.e., cities, counties, states, regions, countries, continents or the whole planet, dealing with small dimensions. This model provides decision makers with a valuable tool to select sustainability indicators set for towns, cities, regions, countries, continents or the entire planet according to a coevolutionary framework. The social legitimacy can arise from the fact that each individual indicator must be selected from those that are most important for the subject community.

  7. Country brand equity model: Sustainability perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of country brand equity that incorporates the issue of sustainability in determining destination brand equity. In particular, the model includes elements of sustainability as its core dimensions and promotes the concept of the country sustainability promise that transforms destination resources into the positive perception and experience. The theoretical model is empirically tested using global secondary data confirming that country image is the most important element followed by sustainability and loyalty. Also, the analysis suggests the existence of the higher order construct confirming the country brand equity concept. Based on the research findings, the article offers some implications to the destination managers by suggesting the direction for further development and strategy implementation.

  8. Models for Sustainable Regional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2008-01-01

    The chapter presents a model for integrated cross-cultural knowledge building and entrepreneurship. In addtion, narrative and numeric simulations methods are suggested to promote a further development and implementation of the model in China.......The chapter presents a model for integrated cross-cultural knowledge building and entrepreneurship. In addtion, narrative and numeric simulations methods are suggested to promote a further development and implementation of the model in China....

  9. Creep-Fatigue Damage Evaluation of a Model Reactor Vessel and Reactor Internals of Sodium Test Facility according to ASME-NH and RCC-MRx Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong-Won; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Son, Seok-Kwon; Kim, Jong-Bum; Jeong, Ji-Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of the STELLA-2 is to support the specific design approval for PGSFR by synthetic reviews of key safety issues and code validations through the integral effect tests. Due to its high temperature operation in SFRs (and in a testing facility) up to 550 °C, thermally induced creep-fatigue damage is very likely in components including a reactor vessel, reactor internals (interior structures), heat exchangers, pipelines, etc. In this study, structural integrity of the components such as reactor vessel and internals in STELLA-2 has been evaluated against creep-fatigue failures at a concept-design step. As 2D analysis yields far conservative results, a realistic 3D simulation is performed by a commercial software. A design integrity guarding against a creep-fatigue damage failure operating at high temperature was evaluated for the reactor vessel with its internal structure of the STELLA-2. Both the high temperature design codes were used for the evaluation, and results were compared. All the results showed the vessel as a whole is safely designed at the given operating conditions, while the ASME-NH gives a conservative evaluation.

  10. A Dynamic Model of Sustainment Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    dynamics model calcu- lation. A dataset to be used with the Vensim ® commercial tool is available for readers interested in seeing all layers and all...Sustainment Work processes. ® Vensim is a registered trademark of Ventana Systems, Inc. CMU/SEI-2015-TR-003 | 11 Figure 6: Sustainment System...sessment values generated by running the Vensim simulation many times, with values of training level and threat level ranging from low to high. The

  11. 75 FR 24323 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Regulatory Commission 10 CFR Part 50 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 85 / Tuesday, May 4, 2010... Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  12. Agent-based modeling of sustainable behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Maroño, Noelia; Fontenla-Romero, Oscar; Polhill, J; Craig, Tony; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Using the O.D.D. (Overview, Design concepts, Detail) protocol, this title explores the role of agent-based modeling in predicting the feasibility of various approaches to sustainability. The chapters incorporated in this volume consist of real case studies to illustrate the utility of agent-based modeling and complexity theory in discovering a path to more efficient and sustainable lifestyles. The topics covered within include: households' attitudes toward recycling, designing decision trees for representing sustainable behaviors, negotiation-based parking allocation, auction-based traffic signal control, and others. This selection of papers will be of interest to social scientists who wish to learn more about agent-based modeling as well as experts in the field of agent-based modeling.

  13. Hydroeconomic modeling of sustainable groundwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Duncan; Cayar, Mesut; Taghavi, Ali; Mitchell, David; Hatchett, Steve; Howitt, Richard

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, California passed legislation requiring the sustainable management of critically overdrafted groundwater basins, located primarily in the Central Valley agricultural region. Hydroeconomic modeling of the agricultural economy, groundwater, and surface water systems is critically important to simulate potential transition paths to sustainable management of the basins. The requirement for sustainable groundwater use by 2040 is mandated for many overdrafted groundwater basins that are decoupled from environmental and river flow effects. We argue that, for such cases, a modeling approach that integrates a biophysical response function from a hydrologic model into an economic model of groundwater use is preferable to embedding an economic response function in a complex hydrologic model as is more commonly done. Using this preferred approach, we develop a dynamic hydroeconomic model for the Kings and Tulare Lake subbasins of California and evaluate three groundwater management institutions—open access, perfect foresight, and managed pumping. We quantify the costs and benefits of sustainable groundwater management, including energy pumping savings, drought reserve values, and avoided capital costs. Our analysis finds that, for basins that are severely depleted, losses in crop net revenue are offset by the benefits of energy savings, drought reserve value, and avoided capital costs. This finding provides an empirical counterexample to the Gisser and Sanchez Effect.

  14. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  15. Demonstrating sustainable energy: A review-based model of sustainable energy demonstration projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a model of sustainable energy demonstration projects, based on a review of 229 scientific publications on demonstrations in renewable and sustainable energy. The model addresses the basic organizational characteristics (aim, cooperative form, and physical location) and learning

  16. Improvement of ASME NH for Grade 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard Riou

    2007-10-09

    This report has been prepared in the context of Task 3 of the ASME/DOE Gen IV material project. It has been identified that creep-fatigue evaluation procedures presently available in ASME (1) and RCC-MR (2) have been mainly developed for austenitic stainless steels and may not be suitable for cyclic softening materials such as mod 9 Cr 1 Mo steel (grade 91). The aim of this document is, starting from experimental test results, to perform a review of the procedures and, if necessary, provide recommendations for their improvements.

  17. Holonic Crisis Handling Model for Corporate Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Bakos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The new approaches of risk and crisis management of organizations point to corporate responsibility and corporate sustainability. In the ‘Internet of Everything’ era, when the new media and social networks create the possibility to ruin in a few seconds the reputation of a company built in decades, it is important to afford the maximum attention to risk management and crisis communication. Long-term sustainability requires a transparent, trustful communication in due time. In our study, we propose a crisis management model that leads to sustainable corporate behaviour. We consider organizations as complex systems, and we use the holonic multiagent modelling concept to depict the emergent behaviour of these systems. This theoretical paper has as its main result a crisis communication model, based on the adaptability feature of holons. In our non-linear approach for unpredictable situations we merged some findings of sustainability theory, corporate social responsibility (CSR management, crisis communication, the holonic manufacturing concept and the latest security standards in computer communication.

  18. Sustainable facilities management through building information modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonari, Giulia; Jones, Keith G.

    2014-01-01

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is an approach to improving the efficiency of the building process and potentially providing the key data set needed by facilities managers to operate buildings in a more sustainable manner. Whilst the design/construction phase of BIM is well advanced, the facilities management phase is not. Although attempts to develop similar facilities management models have been tried before, they have failed because of the complexity of data analysis and the inadequac...

  19. JMBE Supports 20 Years of Teaching Excellence at ASMCUE and Offers ASM Laboratory Safety Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Woolverton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, JMBE has included the abstracts from the ASM Conference for Undergraduate Educators (ASMCUE, providing authors a citation for their work in biology education. This year ASM celebrates the 20th anniversary of the ASMCUE, so congratulations to the abstract authors published in this issue for being a part of this significant milestone. Also of note is the Biosafety Guidelines for Teaching Laboratories, authored by Elizabeth A. B. Emmert and the ASM Task Committee on Laboratory Biosafety. Two enhancements to ensure the long-term sustainability of the journal were introduced with this issue: easy to follow training videos that complement the printed guidelines for authors and reviewers, and opportunities for print and online advertising.

  20. Activated sludge model No. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage...

  1. Modelling of green microalgal growth and algal storage processes using wastewater resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Plósz, Benedek G.; Valverde Pérez, Borja

    2017-01-01

    Recent research focuses on the recovery of nutrients, water and energy from wastewater. Microalgal cultivation on wastewater resources is considered as a more sustainable means to produce fertilizers or biofuels. Innovative systems that incorporate microalgal cultivation into conventional wastewa...... have been developed according to the activated sludge modelling (ASM) framework to facilitate the integration with existing modelling frameworks in water treatment. This chapter presents in detail the recently developed ASM-A biokinetic green microalgal process model. The model includes...

  2. 78 FR 37848 - ASME Code Cases Not Approved for Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... COMMISSION ASME Code Cases Not Approved for Use AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1233, ``ASME Code Cases not Approved for Use.'' This regulatory guide lists the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code Cases that the NRC has...

  3. The KONVERGENCE Model for Sustainable Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Thomas A; Dakins, Maxine; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Nitschke, Robert Leon; Piet, Steven James

    2002-08-01

    The KONVERGENCE Model for Sustainable Decisions is a new way of viewing, developing, organizing, and evaluating alternatives for decisions that may affect a wide range of interests and that must factor in long timeframes, enduring hazards, and/or continuing responsibilities. It differs from other models in that it addresses the need for decisions to continue to "work" over long time periods in an ever-changing decision environment. The authors show that the model contains three major universes - knowledge, values, and resources (the K, V, and R in KONVERGENCE)- that interact and overlap throughout the effective lifetime of a decision. They discuss how decision-makers and decision participants can use the model to craft and analyze decisions and decision processes that stand the test of time. The authors use the U.S. moon-landing program as an example of a major decision process that was sustained over time. They use the model to explain why events unfolded in the way that they did - and why we are where we are today in that program. The authors believe that this model will be especially useful in long-term decision processes such as those that address contamination cleanup programs, long-term environmental stewardship, and the initial siting of facilities with long-term objectives. Companion papers describe the KONVERGENCE Model process steps and implications for intractable cleanup decisions.

  4. Sustainable supply chain management through enterprise resource planning (ERP): a model of sustainable computing

    OpenAIRE

    Broto Rauth Bhardwaj

    2015-01-01

    Green supply chain management (GSCM) is a driver of sustainable strategy. This topic is becoming increasingly important for both academia and industry. With the increasing demand for reducing carbon foot prints, there is a need to study the drivers of sustainable development. There is also need for developing the sustainability model. Using resource based theory (RBT) the present model for sustainable strategy has been developed. On the basis of data collected, the key drivers of sustainabili...

  5. Fuzzy logic marketing models for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Constantin ENACHE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic offers a different approach to describe economic and marketing phenomena. By providing a replacement for crisp values the fuzzy sets proved to be efficient alternatives for customer behaviour analysis. These advantages can provide a new way to address sustainable development issues. The present paper aims at presenting the main characteristics of fuzzy models and their main advantages. Evidence on how to implement a fuzzy model and what are its strong points are provided based on previous research and published scientific papers. It is concluded that fuzzy logic gives a different view on a wide range of topics

  6. Maturity models in supply chain sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Elisabete; Carvalho, Helena; Azevedo, Susana G.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope......; and the main characteristics associated with their design. The literature review was performed based on journal articles and conference papers from 2000 to 2015 using the SCOPUS, Emerald Insight, EBSCO andWeb of Science databases. Most of the analysed papers have as main objective the development of maturity...... on a specific process (eco-design and new product development) and without a broad SC perspective. The dominant characteristics associated with the design of the maturity models are the maturity grids and a continuous representation. In addition, results do not allow identifying a trend for a specific number...

  7. Nanomechanics and Multiscale Modeling of Sustainable Concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani Zadeh, Vahid

    The work presented in this dissertation is aimed to implement and further develop the recent advances in material characterization for porous and heterogeneous materials and apply these advances to sustainable concretes. The studied sustainable concretes were concrete containing fly ash and slag, Kenaf fiber reinforced concrete, and lightweight aggregate concrete. All these cement-based materials can be categorized as sustainable concrete, by achieving concrete with high strength while reducing cement consumption. The nanoindentation technique was used to infer the nanomechanical properties of the active hydration phases in bulk cement paste. Moreover, the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) of lightweight aggregate, normal aggregate, and Kenaf fibers were investigated using nanoindentation and imagine techniques, despite difficulties regarding characterizing this region. Samples were also tested after exposure to high temperature to evaluate the damage mechanics of sustainable concretes. It has been shown that there is a direct correlation between the nature of the nanoscale structure of a cement-based material with its macroscopic properties. This was addressed in two steps in this dissertation: (i) Nanoscale characterization of sustainable cementitious materials to understand the different role of fly ash, slag, lightweight aggregate, and Kenaf fibers on nanoscale (ii) Link the nanoscale mechanical properties to macroscale ones with multiscale modeling. The grid indentation technique originally developed for normal concrete was extended to sustainable concretes with more complex microstructure. The relation between morphology of cement paste materials and submicron mechanical properties, indentation modulus, hardness, and dissipated energy is explained in detail. Extensive experimental and analytical approaches were focused on description of the materials' heterogeneous microstructure as function of their composition and physical phenomenon. Quantitative

  8. Developing a Model for Sustainable Hotels in Northern Cyprus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soad Abokhamis Mousavi; Ercan Hoşkara; Kyle M Woosnam

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a sustainable hotel building model (SHBM) that will allow for the measurement of sustainability in determining what conditions are most ideal for hotels in Northern Cyprus...

  9. Linking knowledge and action through mental models of sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew; Lubell, Mark; Hillis, Vicken

    2014-09-09

    Linking knowledge to action requires understanding how decision-makers conceptualize sustainability. This paper empirically analyzes farmer "mental models" of sustainability from three winegrape-growing regions of California where local extension programs have focused on sustainable agriculture. The mental models are represented as networks where sustainability concepts are nodes, and links are established when a farmer mentions two concepts in their stated definition of sustainability. The results suggest that winegrape grower mental models of sustainability are hierarchically structured, relatively similar across regions, and strongly linked to participation in extension programs and adoption of sustainable farm practices. We discuss the implications of our findings for the debate over the meaning of sustainability, and the role of local extension programs in managing knowledge systems.

  10. The Bioeconomy Model in Future Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipate Nicolae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The future of sustainable development is the bioeconomy with the ―global‖ solution; both global and local action for developed the renewable energy generation. When local solutions are implemented is being laid for global solutions are positive affect the national economy. The implementation of the bioeconomy strategy used by society to prevent urgent problems, such as increasing competition for natural resources, climate change, rural sustainable development. The bioeconomy is a new economic and social order and promotes systemic change from using non-renewable resources to renewables. Bioeconomy reveals that production, which involves the transformation of a limited stock of matter and energy, but respecting the same laws that govern entropy closed systems, the entropy or unavailable matter and energy in the forms tend to increase continuously. Economic growth not only increases the apparent output per unit of inputs, which is performed using finite stock of matter and energy in the world. The current economy is based on fossil fuels and other material inputs suffering entropic degradation, both in the raw material extraction and pollution. The production, even if technical progress leads to lower overall yields. The idea of a steady state as the final economic growth that perpetuated indefinitely pendulum model is an impossibility

  11. Modelling Transition Towards Sustainable Transportation Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson

    2016-01-01

    In a transition towards 100% renewable energy system, transportation sector is rarely dealt withusing the holistic approach and measuring its impact on the whole energy system. Furthermore, assolutions for power and heat sectors are clearer, it is a tendency of the researchers to focus on thelatter...... two energy sectors. In order to deal with the raised issue, authors of this paper developed amethodology for calculation of the transition towards sustainable transport sector, focusing on thesolutions that are already available. Furthermore, as a part of the model, a detailed mapping ofresources...... needed has been carried out for each of the alternatives. It was shown that theelectrification of the transportation sector is a crucial point in transition, while for the transportmodes that cannot be electrified, or shifted to different transportation modes, four alternatives weredefined: synthetic...

  12. ASM Based Synthesis of Handwritten Arabic Text Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Laslo; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Elzobi, Moftah; El-Etriby, Sherif; Ghoneim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Document analysis tasks, as text recognition, word spotting, or segmentation, are highly dependent on comprehensive and suitable databases for training and validation. However their generation is expensive in sense of labor and time. As a matter of fact, there is a lack of such databases, which complicates research and development. This is especially true for the case of Arabic handwriting recognition, that involves different preprocessing, segmentation, and recognition methods, which have individual demands on samples and ground truth. To bypass this problem, we present an efficient system that automatically turns Arabic Unicode text into synthetic images of handwritten documents and detailed ground truth. Active Shape Models (ASMs) based on 28046 online samples were used for character synthesis and statistical properties were extracted from the IESK-arDB database to simulate baselines and word slant or skew. In the synthesis step ASM based representations are composed to words and text pages, smoothed by B-Spline interpolation and rendered considering writing speed and pen characteristics. Finally, we use the synthetic data to validate a segmentation method. An experimental comparison with the IESK-arDB database encourages to train and test document analysis related methods on synthetic samples, whenever no sufficient natural ground truthed data is available.

  13. ASM Based Synthesis of Handwritten Arabic Text Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laslo Dinges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Document analysis tasks, as text recognition, word spotting, or segmentation, are highly dependent on comprehensive and suitable databases for training and validation. However their generation is expensive in sense of labor and time. As a matter of fact, there is a lack of such databases, which complicates research and development. This is especially true for the case of Arabic handwriting recognition, that involves different preprocessing, segmentation, and recognition methods, which have individual demands on samples and ground truth. To bypass this problem, we present an efficient system that automatically turns Arabic Unicode text into synthetic images of handwritten documents and detailed ground truth. Active Shape Models (ASMs based on 28046 online samples were used for character synthesis and statistical properties were extracted from the IESK-arDB database to simulate baselines and word slant or skew. In the synthesis step ASM based representations are composed to words and text pages, smoothed by B-Spline interpolation and rendered considering writing speed and pen characteristics. Finally, we use the synthetic data to validate a segmentation method. An experimental comparison with the IESK-arDB database encourages to train and test document analysis related methods on synthetic samples, whenever no sufficient natural ground truthed data is available.

  14. ASM Based Synthesis of Handwritten Arabic Text Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Elzobi, Moftah; El-etriby, Sherif; Ghoneim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Document analysis tasks, as text recognition, word spotting, or segmentation, are highly dependent on comprehensive and suitable databases for training and validation. However their generation is expensive in sense of labor and time. As a matter of fact, there is a lack of such databases, which complicates research and development. This is especially true for the case of Arabic handwriting recognition, that involves different preprocessing, segmentation, and recognition methods, which have individual demands on samples and ground truth. To bypass this problem, we present an efficient system that automatically turns Arabic Unicode text into synthetic images of handwritten documents and detailed ground truth. Active Shape Models (ASMs) based on 28046 online samples were used for character synthesis and statistical properties were extracted from the IESK-arDB database to simulate baselines and word slant or skew. In the synthesis step ASM based representations are composed to words and text pages, smoothed by B-Spline interpolation and rendered considering writing speed and pen characteristics. Finally, we use the synthetic data to validate a segmentation method. An experimental comparison with the IESK-arDB database encourages to train and test document analysis related methods on synthetic samples, whenever no sufficient natural ground truthed data is available. PMID:26295059

  15. Sustainability Reporting Process Model using Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Alxneit, Thorsten Julius

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability including the reporting requirements is one of the most relevant topics for companies. In recent years, many software providers have launched new software tools targeting companies committed to implementing sustainability reporting. But it’s not only companies willing to use their Business Intelligence (BI) solution, there are also basic principles such as the single source of truth and tendencies to combine sustainability reporting with the financial reporting (...

  16. The Sustainability Cycle and Loop: models for a more unified understanding of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Laura; Duffy, Alex; Whitfield, R I

    2014-01-15

    In spite of the considerable research on sustainability, reports suggest that we are barely any closer to a more sustainable society. As such, there is an urgent need to improve the effectiveness of human efforts towards sustainability. A clearer and more unified understanding of sustainability among different people and sectors could help to facilitate this. This paper presents the results of an inductive literature investigation, aiming to develop models to explain the nature of sustainability in the Earth system, and how humans can effectively strive for it. The major contributions are two general and complementary models, that may be applied in any context to provide a common basis for understanding sustainability: the Sustainability Cycle (S-Cycle), and the Sustainability Loop (S-Loop). Literature spanning multiple sectors is examined from the perspective of three concepts, emerging as significant in relation to our aim. Systems are shown to provide the context for human action towards sustainability, and the nature of the Earth system and its sub-systems is explored. Activities are outlined as a fundamental target that humans need to sustain, since they produce the entities both needed and desired by society. The basic behaviour of activities operating in the Earth system is outlined. Finally, knowledge is positioned as the driver of human action towards sustainability, and the key components of knowledge involved are examined. The S-Cycle and S-Loop models are developed via a process of induction from the reviewed literature. The S-Cycle describes the operation of activities in a system from the perspective of sustainability. The sustainability of activities in a system depends upon the availability of resources, and the availability of resources depends upon the rate that activities consume and produce them. Humans may intervene in these dynamics via an iterative process of interpretation and action, described in the S-Loop model. The models are briefly

  17. Undergraduates in a Sustainability Semester: Models of Social Change for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hannah K.

    2016-01-01

    Interdisciplinary sustainability programs are emerging globally, but little is known about the learning in these educational contexts. This qualitative case study examined undergraduates' experience in a Sustainability Semester, using the agency/structure dialectic as a theoretical lens. Before the semester, students' models of change for…

  18. Participatory Systems Modeling to Explore Sustainable ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decision makers often need assistance in understanding dynamic interactions and linkages among economic, environmental and social systems in coastal watersheds. They also need scientific input to better evaluate potential costs and benefits of alternative policy interventions. The US EPA is applying sustainability science to address these needs. Triple Value (3V) Scoping and Modeling projects bring a systems approach to understand complex environmental problems, incorporate local knowledge, and allow decision-makers to explore policy scenarios. This leads to better understanding of feedbacks and outcomes to both human and environmental systems. The Suffolk County, NY (eastern Long Island) 3V Case uses SES interconnections to explore possible policy options and scenarios for intervention to mitigate the effects of excess nitrogen (N) loading to ground, surface, and estuarine waters. Many of the environmental impacts of N pollution negatively affect social and economic well-being and productivity. Key are loss of enjoyment and recreational use of local beach environments and loss of income and revenues from tourism and local fisheries. Stakeholders generated this Problem Statement: Suffolk County is experiencing widespread degradation to groundwater and the coastal marine environment caused by excess nitrogen. How can local stakeholders and decision makers in Suffolk County arrest and reverse this degradation, restore conditions to support a healthy thriving ecos

  19. Teaching through Modeling: Four Schools' Experiences in Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Amy Lyons; McMillan, Victoria M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine how 4 innovative secondary schools model sustainable practices to their students. During school visits, the authors conducted interviews, observed daily life, and reviewed school documents. They found that modeling is a valuable approach to sustainability education, promoting both learning about sustainability…

  20. Is our economic model compatible with sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2003-01-01

    The paper concerns the contradictions between sustainability and the present economic growth model. The discussion relates to the work of Jan Otto Andersson.......The paper concerns the contradictions between sustainability and the present economic growth model. The discussion relates to the work of Jan Otto Andersson....

  1. FY16 ASME High Temperature Code Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, M. J. [Chromtech Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, R. I. [R. I Jetter Consulting, Pebble Beach, CA (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    One of the objectives of the ASME high temperature Code activities is to develop and validate both improvements and the basic features of Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). The overall scope of this task is to develop a computer program to be used to assess whether or not a specific component under specified loading conditions will satisfy the elevated temperature design requirements for Class A components in Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). There are many features and alternative paths of varying complexity in HBB. The initial focus of this task is a basic path through the various options for a single reference material, 316H stainless steel. However, the program will be structured for eventual incorporation all the features and permitted materials of HBB. Since this task has recently been initiated, this report focuses on the description of the initial path forward and an overall description of the approach to computer program development.

  2. Ecotourism – model of sustainable tourist development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Stefanica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the tendency in the tourism industry was that of return towards nature and towards the authentic cultural values. Among all the forms of tourism, ecotourism distinguishes itself through the strongest connection with the natural and cultural environment, representing the most valuable form of manifestation of sustainable tourism, with the fastest growth rhythm worldwide. Integrated in the sustainable development, ecotourism involves activities that directly contribute to the nature protection and to keeping the old human creations unaltered.

  3. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-inspired, multi-agent-based method. The sustainability and performance assessment of process operating points is carried out using the U.S. E.P.A.’s GREENSCOPE assessment tool that provides scores for the selected economic, material management, environmental and energy indicators. The indicator results supply information on whether the implementation of the controller is moving the process towards a more sustainable operation. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study of a continuous bioethanol fermentation process whose dynamics are characterized by steady-state multiplicity and oscillatory behavior. This book chapter contribution demonstrates the application of novel process control strategies for sustainability by increasing material management, energy efficiency, and pollution prevention, as needed for SHC Sustainable Uses of Wastes and Materials Management.

  4. Dynamic simulation of sustainable farm development scenarios using cognitive modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuzhyk Kateryna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation of sustainable farm development scenarios using cognitive modeling. The paper presents a dynamic simulation system of sustainable development scenarios on farms using cognitive modeling. The system incorporates relevant variables which affect the sustainable development of farms. Its user provides answers to strategic issues connected with the level of farm sustainability over a long-term perspective of dynamic development. The work contains a description of the model structure as well as the results of simulations carried out on 16 farms in northern Ukraine. The results show that the process of sustainability is based mainly on the potential for innovation in agricultural production and biodiversity. The user is able to simulate various scenarios for the sustainable development of a farm and visualize the influence of factors on the economic and social situation, as well as on environmental aspects. Upon carrying out a series of simulations, it was determined that the development of farms characterized by sustainable development is based on additional profit, which serves as the main motivation for transforming a conventional farm into a sustainable one. Nevertheless, additional profit is not the only driving force in the system of sustainable development. The standard of living, market condition, and legal regulations as well as government support also play a significant motivational role.

  5. Sustainable Business Models for Data Repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodson, Simon; Dearry, Allan; Dillo, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Research has benefitted enormously from the digital revolution through the ability to communicate and analyse digital data. A key enabler, a sine qua non, of this development is a robust and sustainable data infrastructure. The benefits of open data are widely recognized but they pose challenges for

  6. Sustainability Assessment Model in Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Omar, Badrul

    2017-08-01

    Faster and more efficient development of innovative and sustainable products has become the focus for manufacturing companies in order to remain competitive in today’s technologically driven world. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. Furthermore, consumers, investors, shareholders and even competitors are basing their decisions on what to buy or invest in, from whom, and also on what company report, and sustainability is one of a critical component. In this research, a new methodology of sustainability assessment in product development for Malaysian industry has been developed using integration of green project management, new scale of “Weighting criteria” and Rough-Grey Analysis. This method will help design engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable design concept evaluation, enable them to make better-informed decisions before finalising their choice and consequently create value to the company or industry. The new framework is expected to provide an alternative to existing methods.

  7. Business models and information systems for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Shishkov, Boris; Shishkov, B.B.

    Businesses are expected to explore market opportunities in the area of sustainable development, thus contributing to finding solutions aiming at sustainable quality of life. This will require adaptation and innovation of business models and information systems, with challenges of particular interest

  8. A discrete choice model of transitions to sustainable technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeppini, P.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a discrete choice model of sustainable transitions from dirty to clean technologies. Agents can adopt one technology or the other, under the influence of social interactions and network externalities. Sustainable transitions are addressed as a multiple equilibria problem. A pollution tax

  9. Developing a holistic framework to understand the contribution of sustainable public procurement to the development of more sustainable business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, S.; Lozano, R.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development has encouraged companies to re-asses the 9 way they do business. The integration of sustainability requirements into the 10 procurement process, leading to sustainable procurement, can motivate companies to 11 develop more sustainable business models. 12

  10. Airline Sustainability Modeling: A New Framework with Application of Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salarzadeh Jenatabadi, Hashem; Babashamsi, Peyman; Khajeheian, Datis; Seyyed Amiri, Nader

    2016-01-01

      There are many factors which could influence the sustainability of airlines. The main purpose of this study is to introduce a framework for a financial sustainability index and model it based on structural equation modeling (SEM...

  11. Model of sustainability of vernacular kampongs within Ngadha culture, Flores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susetyarto, M. B.

    2018-01-01

    In the indigenous people of Ngadha, Flores (8°52’40.45”South, 120°59’8.18”East), the phenomenon of sustainability could be seen in its very interesting architectural traces in the setting of local factors. The sustainability phenomenon had a high value in their life and it was clearly indicated in daily activities as well as farmers, weavers, or carpenters. The phenomenon was unique and has been successfully created as a model. The research has been done by qualitative method in inductive paradigm. The data collection and comprehensive analysis have done in the field by occasional discussions with some sources of Ngadha traditional experts, vernacular architecture researchers, sociologists, anthropologists, and others. The result was a model of sustainability of vernacular kampongs within Ngadha culture, namely Tuku nunga lo’a ghera adha Ngadha. The concept of sustainability was a cultural event that synergizes the five factors supporting continuously sustainability until the optimum momentum of sustainability occurred in those synergistic conditions. The five factors were natural environment (one nua), indigenous community (mesu mora), vernacular architecture (sa’o bhaga ngadhu ture), economy (ngo ngani), and Ngadha culture (adha Ngadha). The significance and impact of the research were to provide input for the completeness of sustainability knowledge, especially the vernacular kampongs sustainability model.

  12. Communicating Sustainability: An Operational Model for Evaluating Corporate Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Siano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest in corporate sustainability has increased rapidly in recent years and has encouraged organizations to adopt appropriate digital communication strategies, in which the corporate website plays a key role. Despite this growing attention in both the academic and business communities, models for the analysis and evaluation of online sustainability communication have not been developed to date. This paper aims to develop an operational model to identify and assess the requirements of sustainability communication in corporate websites. It has been developed from a literature review on corporate sustainability and digital communication and the analysis of the websites of the organizations included in the “Global CSR RepTrak 2015” by the Reputation Institute. The model identifies the core dimensions of online sustainability communication (orientation, structure, ergonomics, content—OSEC, sub-dimensions, such as stakeholder engagement and governance tools, communication principles, and measurable items (e.g., presence of the materiality matrix, interactive graphs. A pilot study on the websites of the energy and utilities companies included in the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index 2015 confirms the applicability of the OSEC framework. Thus, the model can provide managers and digital communication consultants with an operational tool that is useful for developing an industry ranking and assessing the best practices. The model can also help practitioners to identify corrective actions in the critical areas of digital sustainability communication and avoid greenwashing.

  13. Sustainability in care through an ethical practice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Linda; Salmela, Susanne; Nyström, Lisbet; Koskinen, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    While sustainability is a key concept in many different domains today, it has not yet been sufficiently emphasized in the healthcare sector. Earlier research shows that ethical values and evidence-based care models create sustainability in care practice. The aim of this study was to gain further understanding of the ethical values central to the realization of sustainability in care and to create an ethical practice model whereby these basic values can be made perceptible and active in care practice. Part of the ongoing "Ethical Sustainable Caring Cultures" research project, a hermeneutical application research design was employed in this study. Dialogues were used, where scientific researchers and co-researchers were given the opportunity to reflect on ethical values in relation to sustainability in care. An ethical practice model with ethos as its core was created from the results of the dialogues. In the model, ethos is encircled by the ethical values central to sustainability: dignity, responsibility, respect, invitation, and vows. The model can be used as a starting point for ethical conversations that support carers' reflections on the ethical issues seen in day-to-day care work and the work community, allowing ethical values to become visible throughout the entire care culture. It is intended as a tool whereby carers can more deeply understand an organization's common basic values and what they entail in regard to sustainability in care.

  14. A Model for Sustainable Humanitarian Engineering Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The engineering profession should embrace a new mission statement—to contribute to the building of a more sustainable, stable, and equitable world. Recently, engineering students and professionals in the United States have shown strong interest in directly addressing the needs of developing communities worldwide. That interest has taken the form of short-and medium-term international trips through Engineers Without Borders—USA and similar organizations. There are also several instances where this kind of outreach work has been integrated into engineering education at various US institutions such as the University of Colorado at Boulder. This paper addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with balancing two goals in engineering for humanitarian development projects: (i effective sustainable community development, and (ii meaningful education of engineers. Guiding principles necessary to meet those two goals are proposed.

  15. Auriculoterapia en pacientes asmáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo González Salvador

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio para evaluar la eficacia de la auriculopuntura en 30 asmáticos del área de salud de Aguada de Pasajeros, durante los meses de noviembre de 1992 a abril de 1993. El tratamiento se aplicó durante un mes, con seguimiento durante los 5 meses posteriores. Se observó una disminución en la frecuencia, intensidad y duración de las crisis de asma; la mayoría de los pacientes tuvo una evolución satisfactoria y no se presentaron complicaciones. Se concluye que la auriculoterapia es un método útil en pacientes con asma bronquial debido a su eficacia e inocuidadA study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of auriculopuncture in 30 asthmatic patients from the health area of Aguada de Pasajeros between November, 1992, and April, 1993. The treatment was applied for a month, with a follow-up during the next 5 months. It was observed a reduction in the frequency, intensity and duration of the asthma crises. Most of the patients had a satisfactory evolution and there were no complications. It is concluded that auriculotherapy is a useful method for patients with bronchial asthma due to its effectiveness and innocuousness.

  16. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...... optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...

  17. A model for 'sustainable' US beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Shaket, Taga; Cotler, Brett D; Gilutz, Stav; Giddings, Daniel; Raymo, Maureen E; Milo, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Food production dominates land, water and fertilizer use and is a greenhouse gas source. In the United States, beef production is the main agricultural resource user overall, as well as per kcal or g of protein. Here, we offer a possible, non-unique, definition of 'sustainable' beef as that subsisting exclusively on grass and by-products, and quantify its expected US production as a function of pastureland use. Assuming today's pastureland characteristics, all of the pastureland that US beef currently use can sustainably deliver ≈45% of current production. Rewilding this pastureland's less productive half (≈135 million ha) can still deliver ≈43% of current beef production. In all considered scenarios, the ≈32 million ha of high-quality cropland that beef currently use are reallocated for plant-based food production. These plant items deliver 2- to 20-fold more calories and protein than the replaced beef and increase the delivery of protective nutrients, but deliver no B 12 . Increased deployment of rapid rotational grazing or grassland multi-purposing may increase beef production capacity.

  18. Criteria Assessment Model for Sustainable Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Turan, Faiz; Johan, Kartina; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    The instability in today's market and the ever increasing and emerging demands for mass customized and hybrid products by customers, are driving companies and decision makers to seek for cost effective and time efficient improvements in their product development process. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points in product development. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. This has led to real pressure for the adaptation of new developmental architecture and operational parameters to remain competitive in the market. In this paper, a new integrated design concept evaluation based on fuzzy-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (Fuzzy-TOPSIS) is presented, and it also attempts to incorporate sustainability practices in assessing the criteria. Prior to Fuzzy-TOPSIS, a new scale of “Weighting criteria” for survey process is developed to quantify the evaluation criteria. This method will help engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable product development. Case example from industry is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. The result of the example shows that the new integrated method provides an alternative to existing methods of design concept evaluation.

  19. Studying, Teaching and Applying Sustainability Visions Using Systems Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Iwaniec

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of articulating sustainability visions through modeling is to enhance the outcomes and process of visioning in order to successfully move the system toward a desired state. Models emphasize approaches to develop visions that are viable and resilient and are crafted to adhere to sustainability principles. This approach is largely assembled from visioning processes (resulting in descriptions of desirable future states generated from stakeholder values and preferences and participatory modeling processes (resulting in systems-based representations of future states co-produced by experts and stakeholders. Vision modeling is distinct from normative scenarios and backcasting processes in that the structure and function of the future desirable state is explicitly articulated as a systems model. Crafting, representing and evaluating the future desirable state as a systems model in participatory settings is intended to support compliance with sustainability visioning quality criteria (visionary, sustainable, systemic, coherent, plausible, tangible, relevant, nuanced, motivational and shared in order to develop rigorous and operationalizable visions. We provide two empirical examples to demonstrate the incorporation of vision modeling in research practice and education settings. In both settings, vision modeling was used to develop, represent, simulate and evaluate future desirable states. This allowed participants to better identify, explore and scrutinize sustainability solutions.

  20. An integrated model for sustainable food logistics management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Food supply chains (FSCs) require different quantitative models for aiding management decisions, mainly because of the perishability of the product. Addition of sustainability concerns makes models for the FSCs more challenging. In this study, we develop a generic MILP model for the logistics

  1. Automatic Generation of 3D Building Models for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sugihara, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    3D city models are important in urban planning for sustainable development. Urban planners draw maps for efficient land use and a compact city. 3D city models based on these maps are quite effective in understanding what, if this alternative plan is realized, the image of a sustainable city will be. However, enormous time and labour has to be consumed to create these 3D models, using 3D modelling software such as 3ds Max or SketchUp. In order to automate the laborious steps, a GIS and CG inte...

  2. Sustainable Logistics Network Modeling for Enterprise Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of the study about green logistics, sustainable supply chain management (SSCM has appeared as a new concept in current economic circumstance. This paper studies the sustainability optimization of enterprise logistics network from a strategic perspective and proposes a multiobjective sustainable logistics optimization model considering three dimensions of sustainability: economy, environment, and society. In this model, the environment factor was measured with a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method based on Chinese Life Cycle Database (CLCD, while for social factors, Sustainability Reporting Guidelines (GRI are utilized to quantify the social performance. Moreover, the model was solved with an adapted version of the ε-constraint method named augment constraint algorithm (AUGMENCON through GAMS software. The numerical experiment results of a computer manufacturer supply chain show that the proposed model is able to integrate all dimensions of sustainability and simultaneously prove the capability of AUGMENCON in providing a set of trade-off solutions for the decision makers to make different decisions under different environment and social requirements.

  3. Modeling Factors with Influence on Sustainable University Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Dumitrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.

  4. Modelling vertical human walking forces using self-sustained oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prakash; Kumar, Anil; Racic, Vitomir; Erlicher, Silvano

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of a self-sustained oscillator which can generate reliably the vertical contact force between the feet of a healthy pedestrian and the supporting flat rigid surface. The model is motivated by the self-sustained nature of the walking process, i.e. a pedestrian generates the required inner energy to sustain its repetitive body motion. The derived model is a fusion of the well-known Rayleigh, Van der Pol and Duffing oscillators. Some additional nonlinear terms are added to produce both the odd and even harmonics observed in the experimentally measured force data. The model parameters were derived from force records due to twelve pedestrians walking on an instrumented treadmill at ten speeds using a linear least square technique. The stability analysis was performed using the energy balance method and perturbation method. The results obtained from the model show a good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Conceptual model for partnership and sustainability in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffers, Jeanne; Mitchell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Although nursing has a long history of service to the global community, the profession lacks a theoretical and empirical base for nurses to frame their global practice. A study using grounded theory methodology to investigate partnership and sustainability for global health led to the development of a conceptual model. Interviews were conducted with 13 global health nurse experts. Themes from the interviews were: components for engagement, mutual goal setting, cultural bridging, collaboration, capacity building, leadership, partnership, ownership, and sustainability. Next, the identified themes were reviewed in the literature in order to evaluate their conceptual relationships. Finally, careful comparison of the interview transcripts and the supporting literature led to the Conceptual Framework for Partnership and Sustainability in Global Health Nursing. The model posits that engagement and partnership must precede any planning and intervention in order to create sustainable interventions. This conceptual framework will offer nurses important guidance for global health nursing practice. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hierarchical Model Predictive Control for Sustainable Building Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Mayer; Michaela Killian; Martin Kozek

    2017-01-01

    A hierarchicalmodel predictive controller (HMPC) is proposed for flexible and sustainable building automation. The implications of a building automation system for sustainability are defined, and model predictive control is introduced as an ideal tool to cover all requirements. The HMPC is presented as a development suitable for the optimization of modern buildings, as well as retrofitting. The performance and flexibility of the HMPC is demonstrated by simulation studies of a modern office bu...

  7. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE POULTRY SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA; Alexandru NEDELEA

    2013-01-01

    Now a day, sustainable supply chain is the crucially considerable matter for future focused industries. As a result, attention in supply chain management has increasingly amplified since the 1980s when firms discovered its benefits of mutual relationships within and beyond their own organization. This is why, concern researchers are trying hard to develop new theory or model which might help the corporate sector for achieving sustainability in their supply chains. This kind of reflection can ...

  8. Generating sustainable towns from Chinese villages: a system modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Richard S; Hughes, Michael T; Ryan Mather, Casey; Yanarella, Ernest J

    2008-04-01

    The great majority of China's developing towns will be extensions of already existing villages. With the prospect of hundreds of millions of Chinese farmers projected to leave their villages to become industrial workers in new and expanded towns within the next few years, new challenges will be faced. As expansion and modernization progress, this development moves from the traditional village model that operates not far from resource sustainability to increasingly unsustainable patterns of commerce, urban development, and modern life. With such an unprecedented mass migration and transformation, how can Chinese culture survive? What is to become of the existing million plus agricultural villages? How can these massively unsustainable new industrial towns survive? In the European Commission sponsored research program SUCCESS, researchers worked from the scale of the Chinese village to find viable answers to these questions. To address these issues, the Center for Sustainable Cities, one of the SUCCESS teams, studied the metabolism of several small villages. In these studies, system dynamics models of a village's metabolism were created and then modified so that inherently unsustainable means were eliminated from the model (fossil fuels, harmful agricultural chemicals, etc.) and replaced by sustainability-oriented means. Small Chinese farming villages are unlikely to survive in anything like their present form or scale, not least because they are too small to provide the range of life opportunities to which the young generation of educated Chinese aspires. As a response to this realization as well as to the many other threats to the Chinese village and its rural way of life, it was proposed that one viable path into the future would be to enlarge the villages to become full service towns with sufficient diversity of opportunity to be able to attract and keep many of the best and brightest young people who are now migrating to the larger cities. Starting with the

  9. Modelling Sustainable Development Scenarios of Croatian Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pašičko, Robert; Stanić, Zoran; Debrecin, Nenad

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of power system sustainable development is to provide the security of electricity supply required to underpin economic growth and increase the quality of living while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. New challenges such as deregulation, liberalization of energy markets, increased competition on energy markets, growing demands on security of supply, price insecurities and demand to cut CO2 emissions, are calling for better understanding of electrical systems modelling. Existing models are not sufficient anymore and planners will need to think differently in order to face these challenges. Such a model, on the basis on performed simulations, should enable planner to distinguish between different options and to analyze sustainability of these options. PLEXOS is an electricity market simulation model, used for modeling electrical system in Croatia since 2005. Within this paper, generation expansion scenarios until 2020 developed for Croatian Energy Strategy and modeled in PLEXOS. Development of sustainable Croatian energy scenario was analyzed in the paper - impacts of CO2 emission price and wind generation. Energy Strategy sets goal for 1200 MW from wind power plants in 2020. In order to fully understand its impacts, intermittent nature of electricity generation from wind power plant was modeled. We conclude that electrical system modelling using everyday growing models has proved to be inevitable for sustainable electrical system planning in complex environment in which power plants operate today.

  10. Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Educational Institutions: A Suggested Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a model of factors critical to establishing and maintaining sustainable competitive advantage for education-services enterprises in international markets. The model, which combines industrial economics, management theory, and services marketing, seeks to explain the strategic decision-making environment in which the education exporter…

  11. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  12. A probabilistic model for sustainable wine growing

    OpenAIRE

    Abbal, Philippe; Cargnello, G.; Carbonneau, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Objectively evaluating the quality of a vineyard in the context of climate change is not always simple. Bayesian networks are widely used for knowledge representation and reasoning under uncertainty in natural resource management. There is a rising interest for this methodology as tools for ecological and agronomic modelling. We designed a probabilistic model that takes into account the parameters defining the status of a vineyard with their associated interactions. No such mod...

  13. A Review of Cloud Business Models and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, V; Wills, G; De Roure, D

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews current cloud computing business models and presents proposals on how organisations can achieve sustainability by adopting appropriate models. Using the Jericho Forum's Cloud Cube Model (CCM), we classify cloud computing business models into eight types: (1) Service Provider and Service Orientation; (2) Support and Services Contracts; (3) In-House Private Clouds; (4) All-In-One Enterprise Cloud; (5) One-Stop Resources and Services; (6) Government Funding; (7) Venture Capita...

  14. Navigating disciplinary challenges to global sustainability science: an archaeological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hudson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current threats posed by anthropogenic climate change, biodiversity loss, the degradation of ecosystem services, and other related impacts of human activity require a concerted res- ponse through a global science of sustainability. The threats faced by humanity are so extensive that all academic disciplines are affected in some way and all have a role to play in developing potential responses. Given that few academic disciplines have traditionally focused on issues of ecology or sustainability, however, major challenges remain with respect to how we might build a global science of sustainability that can support concrete policy and interventions. This paper proposes a developmental model with five levels of research and practice required for an effective global sustainability science and examines some of the challenges faced by archaeology in moving up these levels.

  15. Sustaining Culture Change: Experiences in the Green House Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Barbara; Nolet, Kimberly; Jacobson, Nora

    2016-02-01

    To describe conditions that influence how Green House (GH) organizations are sustaining culture change principles and practices in a sample of GH skilled nursing homes. Primary data were collected at 11 skilled nursing GH organizations from 2012 to 2014. These organizations have adopted the comprehensive and prescriptive GH model of culture change. To develop an understanding of sustainability from the perspective of staff who are immersed in GH daily work, grounded theory qualitative methods were used. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 166 staff and observation of house meetings and daily operations. Data were analyzed using grounded dimensional analysis. Organizations varied in their ability to sustain GH principles and practices. An organization's approach to problem solving was central to sustaining the model. Key conditions influenced reinforcement or erosion of GH principles and practices. Reinforcing the GH model requires a highly skilled team of staff with the ability to frequently and collaboratively solve both mundane and complex problems in ways that are consistent with the GH model. This raises questions about the type of human resources practices and policy supports that could assist organizations in sustaining culture change. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. A Model for Enquiry of Sustainable Homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2014-01-01

    . Projektet kredser om Active House visionen og tre demonstration huse i brug, der er udviklet inden for rammerne af det VELUX baserede Model Home 2020-projekt. Formålet med denne afhandling er at udvikle en model til undersøgelse af bæredygtige boliger. Formålet er at etablere multi-perspektive undersøgelse....... Projektet kredser om Active House visionen og tre demonstration huse i brug, der er udviklet inden for rammerne af det VELUX baserede Model Home 2020-projekt. Formålet med denne afhandling er at udvikle en model til undersøgelse af bæredygtige boliger. Formålet er at etablere multi-perspektive undersøgelse...... af beboede bæredygtige boliger baseret på intentioner om at fange flere aspekter af bæredygtig livsform, end blot de teknisk målbare som udvikling af bæredygtig arkitektur er primært drevet af i dag. Det primære forskningsspørgsmål er: I. Hvordan kan en model til undersøgelse af bæredygtige boliger...

  17. Quantitative models for sustainable supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandenburg, M.; Govindan, Kannan; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    and reverse logistics has been effectively reviewed in previously published research. This situation is in contrast to the understanding and review of mathematical models that focus on environmental or social factors in forward supply chains (SC), which has seen less investigation. To evaluate developments...

  18. High Sustained G-Tolerance Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-23

    Three-dimensional mathematical model of human hemodynamics”, Cybernetics and Computing Tecnology , N.Y., 1986, No.70, pp. 54-58. 17. Grigoryan R.D. “A...methods and tools or optimize the use of existing tools. In addition, the “PILACCEL” may be used as an educational tool able to show students – pilots

  19. Sustainable development model for nautical tourism ports

    OpenAIRE

    Alen Jugović; Mirjana Kovačić; Ana Hadžić

    2011-01-01

    Nautical tourism ports make an open, dynamic and complex system which has been rapidly evolving; this is the reason why the development of this system requires continual monitoring and research. The existing models and development plans concerning nautical tourism ports do not provide for a systematic qualitative and quantitative development of nautical tourism, thus contributing to economical inefficiency likely to cause even ecological imbalance. The more so if nautical ports are regarded a...

  20. Future direction of ASME nuclear codes and standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennis, Kevin; Sheehan, Mark E. [Codes and Standards ASME international, New York(United States)

    2003-04-01

    While the nuclear power industry in the US is in a period of stasis, there continues to be a great deal of activity in the ASME nuclear standards development arena. As plants age, the need for new approaches in standardization changes with the changing needs of the industry. New tools are becoming available in the form of risk analysis, and this is finding its way into more and more of ASME's standards activities. This paper will take a look at the direction that ASME nuclear Codes and Standards are heading in this and other areas, as well as taking a look at some advance reactor concepts and plans for standards to address new technologies.

  1. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  2. Sustainable deforestation evaluation model and system dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C W; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  3. A Model for sustainable biomass electricity generation in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, A. K. M. S.

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh, where only 20% of the total population are connected to grid electricity, has a promising scope to utilise biomass for decentralised electricity generation. In this study, sustainable biomass electricity generation model was developed for the country, by combining tech no-econometric and optimisation modelling techniques. The developed model addresses the biomass generation and availability, feasible technologies, cost and efficiency correlations, economic plant siz...

  4. Mathematical model of innovative sustainability “green” construction object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slesarev Michail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of finding sustainability of “green” innovative processes in interaction between construction activities and the environment. The problem of today’s construction science is stated as comprehensive integration and automation of natural and artificial intellects within systems that ensure environmental safety of construction based on innovative sustainability of “green” technologies in the life environment, and “green” innovative products. The suggested solution to the problem should formalize sustainability models and methods for interpretation of optimization mathematical modeling problems respective to problems of environmental-based innovative process management, adapted to construction of “green” objects, “green” construction technologies, “green” innovative materials and structures.

  5. Sustainability in Clusters: Proposal of a Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Larentis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing industrial restructure and movements of cooperation, increase pressures by reducing costs and increasing productivity, thus it has generated the formation of new arrangements between the companies, with focus on clusters. The clusters are formed when the similar areas and geographical aspects are concentrated and where the expertise and innovation are essential for companies to reach markets beyond their borders. On the other hand, one of the challenges in developing a cluster is related to its sustainability, in the economic, social and environmental dimensions. Thus, in this essay, we propose a conceptual model that addresses the relationship between clusters and sustainability, taking into account the perspective of networks. Such a model, spiral shaped, involves basic (actors, governance mechanisms, resources and location, intermediate (cluster strength and openness, integration and adaptation, knowledge creation / inventory and movement, exploitation and exploration actions and resulting aspects (performance and sustainability of the cluster, in a context of life cycle and environmental dynamics.

  6. Reactive or proactive approach towards sustainability? A conceptual framework based on sustainable business models to increase stakeholders' sustainable value capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Francesco; Morioka, Sandra; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly

    2016-01-01

    to stakeholders' expectations is supported by motivations derived from marketing, corporate social responsibility, international standards, sustainability reporting, labelling, etc. However, these demands are not always aligned with sustainability, creating tensions between stakeholder satisfaction and corporate...... sustainability. In this sense, a proactive approach to foster sustainable value capture can complement the reactive approach by delivering value beyond stakeholders' expectations. In this case, companies use their capabilities to identify opportunities to create and deliver sustainable value that stakeholders...

  7. Multi-scale modeling for sustainable chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Kai; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Herrgård, Markus J

    2013-09-01

    With recent advances in metabolic engineering, it is now technically possible to produce a wide portfolio of existing petrochemical products from biomass feedstock. In recent years, a number of modeling approaches have been developed to support the engineering and decision-making processes associated with the development and implementation of a sustainable biochemical industry. The temporal and spatial scales of modeling approaches for sustainable chemical production vary greatly, ranging from metabolic models that aid the design of fermentative microbial strains to material and monetary flow models that explore the ecological impacts of all economic activities. Research efforts that attempt to connect the models at different scales have been limited. Here, we review a number of existing modeling approaches and their applications at the scales of metabolism, bioreactor, overall process, chemical industry, economy, and ecosystem. In addition, we propose a multi-scale approach for integrating the existing models into a cohesive framework. The major benefit of this proposed framework is that the design and decision-making at each scale can be informed, guided, and constrained by simulations and predictions at every other scale. In addition, the development of this multi-scale framework would promote cohesive collaborations across multiple traditionally disconnected modeling disciplines to achieve sustainable chemical production. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Characterizing the sustainable problem in an exhaustible resource model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitra, T.; Asheim, G.; Buchholz, W.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a general condition under which consumption can be sustained indefinitely bounded away from zero in the continuous time Dasgupta-Heal-Solow-Stiglitz model, by letting augmentable capital substitute for a non-renewable resource. The assumptions made on the production function are mild,

  9. Sustainable business models for the state-owned African airlines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ssamula, B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available that will be analysed vary from growing the network though mergers to investor funding models for capital, etc. The survival and sustainability of African airlines within today's aviation market lies their ability to operate cost effectively and prudently to adopt low...

  10. Connecting customers’ satisfaction to sustainable development. A Marketing models perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Constantin ENACHE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase information quantity and availability has generated transformations in customer behaviour, by having almost immediately access to huge amounts of data the customers’ process of buying a product or service is using more information regarding the product characteristics. This situation generates changes on each step of buying process. The customer satisfaction is harder to reach and the sustainable development of a marketing strategy needs to take into consideration more factors. The article aims at providing new information on customer satisfaction and sustainable development by using a marketing models framework.

  11. Hierarchical Model Predictive Control for Sustainable Building Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mayer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchicalmodel predictive controller (HMPC is proposed for flexible and sustainable building automation. The implications of a building automation system for sustainability are defined, and model predictive control is introduced as an ideal tool to cover all requirements. The HMPC is presented as a development suitable for the optimization of modern buildings, as well as retrofitting. The performance and flexibility of the HMPC is demonstrated by simulation studies of a modern office building, and the perfect interaction with future smart grids is shown.

  12. Bioprocesses: Modelling needs for process evaluation and sustainability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Gonzaléz, Concepcion; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    development such that they can also be used to evaluate processes against sustainability metrics, as well as economics as an integral part of assessments. Finally, property models will also be required based on compounds not currently present in existing databases. It is clear that many new opportunities...... of process system engineering and life cycle inventory and assessment in the design, development and improvement of sustainable bioprocesses are explored. The existing process systems engineering software tools will prove essential to assist this work. However, the existing tools will also require further...

  13. What Hybrid Business Models can Teach Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy L.

    2017-01-01

    . This chapter reflects on research that looked at the literature on hybrid business models and social entrepreneurship in order to bridge these streams of literature to literature on sustainable supply chain management. Following the literature analysis, case-based research that related specifically to social......Integrating triple bottom line (TBL; economic, social and environmental) sustainability into supply chains is a major challenge. Progress has been made to address the economic and environmental dimensions in supply chain management research however, the social dimension is still underrepresented...... management....

  14. Multi-scale modeling for sustainable chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Kai; Bakshi, Bhavik R.; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    associated with the development and implementation of a su stainable biochemical industry. The temporal and spatial scales of modeling approaches for sustainable chemical production vary greatly, ranging from metabolic models that aid the design of fermentative microbial strains to material and monetary flow......, chemical industry, economy, and ecosystem. In addition, we propose a multi-scale approach for integrating the existing models into a cohesive framework. The major benefit of this proposed framework is that the design and decision-making at each scale can be informed, guided, and constrained by simulations...... and predictions at every other scale. In addition, the development of this multi-scale framework would promote cohesive collaborations across multiple traditionally disconnected modeling disciplines to achieve sustainable chemical production....

  15. Dynamic Systems Modeling for Sustainable Economic Empowerment in Cilacap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Anwar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic problem of living system in Kampung Laut, Cilacap, whichincludes social problems and ecological changes. The paper uses a dynamic system model to structurethe problems. The model simulates various feasible scenarios, from which the best becomesthe base to impose a policy to empower their sustainable economy. The model conceptualizes variablesrelated to the problem to build a figure of Causal Loop Diagram (CLD, which is then simulatedusing Powersim 2.5 software package. Using the scenario of intensification and populationcontrol, the paper finds that it can increase the people’s income, with positive trend until the end ofsimulation.Keywords: Dynamic modelling, sustainable economic empowerment, causal loop diagram

  16. Barriers in Sustainable Knowledge Management Model in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiela Dana BOCA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper present a comprehensive model in education using the data base collected from 101 students from Turkey. The target group was students involved in academic life system. Results are used to design a model where education transfer of knowledge it is investigated in function of possible barriers as internal, external and knowledge management factors of influence in education selection and students vision for education development. As a conclusion, the evaluation of the barriers in sustainable knowledge management in education present a cross-educational model which seems to indicate its highly effective resource for environmental education focused on sustainability, and favours the development of knowledge, attitudes and future intentions of inspiring educational environment. The model can be useful on passing of knowledge from one generation to the next generation, managing succession and distributing the competencies and responsibilities to a repetitive change.

  17. Towards a Model of Sustainable Competitiveness of Health Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Catalina Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, around the world, the concept of competitiveness was long debated by economists (and others, widely used and even sometimes overused. Although at the theoretical level, a number of determinant factors of health care organizations’ competitiveness have been proposed, their diversity and the little empirical data available argues for the need to create and validate a model of competitiveness of health organizations. The purpose of this paper is (considering the theoretical approach to shape a model of sustainable competitiveness of health organizations. In this respect, a 51 item questionnaire was designed and applied on a sample of 291 respondents from 12 Romanian health organizations. The exploratory factor analysis undertaken recovered more than 69% of the common variability of the initial 51 variables and revealed four factors/dimensions of sustainable competitiveness of health organizations (Economic Dimension, Quality Dimension, Social Dimension, and Strategic Dimension. Among the results of the exploratory factor analysis is also the empirical evidence on the contribution of leadership and managerial processes to enhance the influence of all other factors/dimensions in increasing the sustainable competitiveness of health organizations, thus bringing into focus the concept of sustainable management and leadership. Being just in the exploratory phase of our research, the proposed model can, and should, be improved, thus opening up further research directions.

  18. Advancing Integrated Systems Modelling Framework for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Halog

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrated methodological framework for sustainability assessment has been widely discussed and is urgent due to increasingly complex environmental system problems. These problems have impacts on ecosystems and human well-being which represent a threat to economic performance of countries and corporations. Integrated assessment crosses issues; spans spatial and temporal scales; looks forward and backward; and incorporates multi-stakeholder inputs. This study aims to develop an integrated methodology by capitalizing the complementary strengths of different methods used by industrial ecologists and biophysical economists. The computational methodology proposed here is systems perspective, integrative, and holistic approach for sustainability assessment which attempts to link basic science and technology to policy formulation. The framework adopts life cycle thinking methods—LCA, LCC, and SLCA; stakeholders analysis supported by multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA; and dynamic system modelling. Following Pareto principle, the critical sustainability criteria, indicators and metrics (i.e., hotspots can be identified and further modelled using system dynamics or agent based modelling and improved by data envelopment analysis (DEA and sustainability network theory (SNT. The framework is being applied to development of biofuel supply chain networks. The framework can provide new ways of integrating knowledge across the divides between social and natural sciences as well as between critical and problem-solving research.

  19. Computational Sustainability Tools Illuminating the Triple Value Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Research Council (NRC) report Sustainability and the U.S. EPA recommends development of a "sustainability toolbox" to address challenges associated with implementing sustainability at the EPA. The three pillars of sustainability - industrial, social, and en...

  20. A CONCEPTUAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODEL FOR ASSESSING SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukaina Al-Nasrawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Smart Sustainable Cities (SSC is gaining increasing attention by the countries around the globe, particularly in response to potential future environmental challenges and increased proportion of populations living in cities. Several countries claim to have implemented or in the process of implementing SSCs, and there are many models that can be used to measure how 'smart' the initiatives and cities are. This paper critically evaluates the main models to measure city smartness and identifies deficiencies, namely that they are not sensitive to the needs, resources, priorities and wider context for individual cities. The paper suggests a multidimensional methodological model that assists in evaluating the smartness level of a city while being sensitive to its context. It provides further contribution by combining sustainable and smart attributes of a city

  1. A mental model proposed to address sustainability and terrorism issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Richard

    2002-06-01

    I have assembled traditional ways to think about human needs and power along with empirical data to support a mental model of human values. The hierarchy of needs from the world of psychology and the hierarchy of power from the world of diplomacy provide a structure for the model. The empirical data collected from several nations over the last three decades support the structure. Furthermore, an examination of specific trends in this data for specific values indicates that it is not impossible to achieve a sustainable world driven by sustainable values. A world that will be defined by its successful movement toward the "triple bottom line," a term articulated by John Elkington, is a world in which economic prosperity, environmental protection, and social equity are aligned. To say that the model allows one to address terrorism is based on the assumption that the lack of social equity or the perception of that lack determines the likelihood of terrorism.

  2. Integration of LUTI models into sustainable urban mobility plans (SUMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Gavanas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A literature review indicates that there is an increasing number of Land Use/Transport Interaction (LUTI models being used in policy analysis and support of urban land use, transport and environmental planning. In this context, LUTI models are considered to be useful for the development of scenarios during the preparatory stage of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs. A SUMP can be defined as a strategic planning framework, proposed by the European Commission, for planning and design of an urban multimodal transport system, which combines multi-disciplinary policy analysis and decision making. The objective of a SUMP is to achieve sustainable urban mobility, i.e. accessibility for all, safety and security, reduction in emissions and energy consumption, efficient and cost-effective transport and an improvement in the urban environment. Based on the overall conceptual and methodological framework of LUTI models (Geurs and van Wee 2004, the scope of the proposed research is to fully integrate a LUTI model into a contemporary transport planning framework and, more specifically, into the SUMP structure. This paper focuses on the configuration of the integration pattern, according to which a LUTI model may evolve and interact with the planning process throughout the eleven elements of the SUMP, as well as the evaluation of the benefits and drawbacks from the implementation of the proposed pattern for the enhancement of SUMP and overall promotion of sustainable urban planning.

  3. A Network Analysis Model for Selecting Sustainable Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsung Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most companies develop technologies to improve their competitiveness in the marketplace. Typically, they then patent these technologies around the world in order to protect their intellectual property. Other companies may use patented technologies to develop new products, but must pay royalties to the patent holders or owners. Should they fail to do so, this can result in legal disputes in the form of patent infringement actions between companies. To avoid such situations, companies attempt to research and develop necessary technologies before their competitors do so. An important part of this process is analyzing existing patent documents in order to identify emerging technologies. In such analyses, extracting sustainable technology from patent data is important, because sustainable technology drives technological competition among companies and, thus, the development of new technologies. In addition, selecting sustainable technologies makes it possible to plan their R&D (research and development efficiently. In this study, we propose a network model that can be used to select the sustainable technology from patent documents, based on the centrality and degree of a social network analysis. To verify the performance of the proposed model, we carry out a case study using actual patent data from patent databases.

  4. Maturity Models in Supply Chain Sustainability: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope; and the main characteristics associated with their design. The literature review was performed based on journal articles and conference papers from 2000 to 2015 using the SCOPUS, Emerald Insight, EBSCO and Web of Science databases. Most of the analysed papers have as main objective the development of maturity models and their validation. The case study is the methodology that is most widely used by researchers to develop and validate maturity models. From the sustainability perspective, the scope of the analysed maturity models is the Triple Bottom Line (TBL and environmental dimension, focusing on a specific process (eco-design and new product development and without a broad SC perspective. The dominant characteristics associated with the design of the maturity models are the maturity grids and a continuous representation. In addition, results do not allow identifying a trend for a specific number of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models in sustainability. Various aspects associated with the maturity models (i.e., research objectives, research methods, scope and characteristics of the design of models are explored to contribute to the evolution and significance of this multidimensional area.

  5. Empirical Study on Sustainable Opportunities Recognition. A Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC Joinery Industry Analysis Using Augmented Sustainable Development Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard-Gabriel Ceptureanu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes factors influencing recognition of sustainable opportunities by using an augmented sustainability process model. The conceptual model used two main factors, Knowledge and Motivation, and one moderating variable, Social embeddedness. We investigated entrepreneurs from PVC joinery industry and concluded that while market orientation and sustainable entrepreneurial orientation definitely and positively influence sustainable opportunity recognition, others variables like knowledge of the natural/communal environment, awareness of sustainable development or focus on success have less support. Among all variables analyzed, perception of the threat of the natural/communal environment and altruism toward others have the poorest impact on opportunity recognition. Finally, we concluded that social embeddedness has a moderating effect on sustainable opportunity recognition, even though the results were mixed.

  6. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section... AND BRAZING General Requirements § 57.02-2 Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. (a) The... accordance with section IX of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited, modified...

  7. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2003-10-03

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

  8. Creation of sustainable leadership development: conceptual model validation:

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovski, Vlado; Penger, Sandra; Peterlin, Judita

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual paper addresses the research question: How can leadership development be managed within organizations? Our proposed answer is presented in the form of conceptual model of sustainable leadership development, based on the theory of multiple intelligences by Howard Gardner and applied to leadership through appreciative inquiry, meaning that leaders possess multiple intelligences which differentiate in their individual profiles and are able to develop a wide span of intelligences durin...

  9. Sustainable business models for wind and solar energy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichifor Maria Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy has become a crucial element for the business environment as the need for new energy resources and the degree of climate change are increasing. As developed economies strive towards greater progress, sustainable business models are of the essence in order to maintain a balance between the triple bottom line: people, planet and profit. In recent years, European Union countries have installed important capacities of renewable energy, especially wind and solar energy to achieve this purpose. The objective of this article is to make a comparative study between the current sustainable business models implemented in companies that are active in the wind and solar energy sector in Romania. Both sectors underwent tremendous changes in the last two years due to changing support schemes which have had a significant influence on the mechanism of the renewable energy market, as well as on its development. Using the classical Delphi method, based on questionnaires and interviews with experts in the fields of wind and solar energy, this paper offers an overview of the sustainable business models of wind and solar energy companies, both sectors opting for the alternative of selling electricity to trading companies as a main source of revenue until 2013 and as the main future trend until 2020. Furthermore, the participating wind energy companies noted a pessimistic outlook of future investments due to legal instability that made them to reduce their projects in comparison to PV investments, which are expected to continue. The subject of the article is of interest to scientific literature because sustainable business models in wind and photovoltaic energy have been scarcely researched in previous articles and are essential in understanding the activity of the companies in these two fields of renewable energy.

  10. Sustainable theory of a logistic model - Fisher information approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saffar, Avan; Kim, Eun-Jin

    2017-03-01

    Information theory provides a useful tool to understand the evolution of complex nonlinear systems and their sustainability. In particular, Fisher information has been evoked as a useful measure of sustainability and the variability of dynamical systems including self-organising systems. By utilising Fisher information, we investigate the sustainability of the logistic model for different perturbations in the positive and/or negative feedback. Specifically, we consider different oscillatory modulations in the parameters for positive and negative feedback and investigate their effect on the evolution of the system and Probability Density Functions (PDFs). Depending on the relative time scale of the perturbation to the response time of the system (the linear growth rate), we demonstrate the maintenance of the initial condition for a long time, manifested by a broad bimodal PDF. We present the analysis of Fisher information in different cases and elucidate its implications for the sustainability of population dynamics. We also show that a purely oscillatory growth rate can lead to a finite amplitude solution while self-organisation of these systems can break down with an exponentially growing solution due to the periodic fluctuations in negative feedback. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Internal noise-sustained circadian rhythms in a Drosophila model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianshu; Lang, Xiufeng

    2008-03-15

    Circadian rhythmic processes, mainly regulated by gene expression at the molecular level, have inherent stochasticity. Their robustness or resistance to internal noise has been extensively investigated by most of the previous studies. This work focuses on the constructive roles of internal noise in a reduced Drosophila model, which incorporates negative and positive feedback loops, each with a time delay. It is shown that internal noise sustains reliable oscillations with periods close to 24 h in a region of parameter space, where the deterministic kinetics would evolve to a stable steady state. The amplitudes of noise-sustained oscillations are significantly affected by the variation of internal noise level, and the best performance of the oscillations could be found at an optimal noise intensity, indicating the occurrence of intrinsic coherence resonance. In the oscillatory region of the deterministic model, the coherence of noisy circadian oscillations is suppressed by internal noise, while the period remains nearly constant over a large range of noise intensity, demonstrating robustness of the Drosophila model for circadian rhythms to intrinsic noise. In addition, the effects of time delay in the positive feedback on the oscillations are also investigated. It is found that the time delay could efficiently tune the performance of the noise-sustained oscillations. These results might aid understanding of the exploitation of intracellular noise in biochemical and genetic regulatory systems.

  12. A model of destination competitiveness/sustainability: Brazilian perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Brent Ritchie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the understanding I have gained from several years of research, and from several more years of ongoing discussions with industry leaders regarding the nature of competitiveness among tourism destinations. This understanding has been captured, in summary form, in the model of Destination Competitiveness/Sustainability (Ritchie and Crouch, 2003. This model contains seven (7 components which we have found to play a major role, from a policy perspective, in determining the competitiveness/sustainability of a tourism destination. In addition to the valuable understanding which these seven components provide from a policy perspective, the specific elements of each the major components provide a more useful/practical guidance to those who are responsible for the ongoing management of a DMO (Destination Management Organization. With this overview in mind, this paper will provide a detailed review and explanation of the model that I have developed with colleague, Dr. Geoffrey I. Crouch of Latrobe University in Melbourne, Australia. Based on previous presentations throughout the world, it has proven very helpful to both academics and practitioners who seek to understand the complex nature of tourism destination competitiveness/sustainability.

  13. A Review on Quantitative Models for Sustainable Food Logistics Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soysal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades food logistics systems have seen the transition from a focus on traditional supply chain management to food supply chain management, and successively, to sustainable food supply chain management. The main aim of this study is to identify key logistical aims in these three phases and analyse currently available quantitative models to point out modelling challenges in sustainable food logistics management (SFLM. A literature review on quantitative studies is conducted and also qualitative studies are consulted to understand the key logistical aims more clearly and to identify relevant system scope issues. Results show that research on SFLM has been progressively developing according to the needs of the food industry. However, the intrinsic characteristics of food products and processes have not yet been handled properly in the identified studies. The majority of the works reviewed have not contemplated on sustainability problems, apart from a few recent studies. Therefore, the study concludes that new and advanced quantitative models are needed that take specific SFLM requirements from practice into consideration to support business decisions and capture food supply chain dynamics.

  14. Scalability of Sustainable Business Models in Hybrid Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jabłoński

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of change in modern business create new mechanisms for company management to determine their pursuit and the achievement of their high performance. This performance maintained over a long period of time becomes a source of ensuring business continuity by companies. An ontological being enabling the adoption of such assumptions is such a business model that has the ability to generate results in every possible market situation and, moreover, it has the features of permanent adaptability. A feature that describes the adaptability of the business model is its scalability. Being a factor ensuring more work and more efficient work with an increasing number of components, scalability can be applied to the concept of business models as the company’s ability to maintain similar or higher performance through it. Ensuring the company’s performance in the long term helps to build the so-called sustainable business model that often balances the objectives of stakeholders and shareholders, and that is created by the implemented principles of value-based management and corporate social responsibility. This perception of business paves the way for building hybrid organizations that integrate business activities with pro-social ones. The combination of an approach typical of hybrid organizations in designing and implementing sustainable business models pursuant to the scalability criterion seems interesting from the cognitive point of view. Today, hybrid organizations are great spaces for building effective and efficient mechanisms for dialogue between business and society. This requires the appropriate business model. The purpose of the paper is to present the conceptualization and operationalization of scalability of sustainable business models that determine the performance of a hybrid organization in the network environment. The paper presents the original concept of applying scalability in sustainable business models with detailed

  15. A Designed Model of Sustainable Competitiveness for Slovak Industrial Companies in the Global Context of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božiková, Lucia; Šnircová, Jana

    2016-06-01

    In this article we introduce a model of sustainable competitiveness, which we created on the basis of a long term study of literature and analysis. This article is divided into several parts. In the first part, we will introduce the problem of competitiveness and sustainable competitiveness. The second part is focused on the basic aspects for the creation of the model. In the third part the model itself is introduced and also an explanation and description of the mode is given.

  16. Sustainable business models and the automotive industry: A commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wells

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary reviews the position articulated in an article published in 2004 that the business model prevalent in the automotive industry was inadequate to meeting the challenge of sustainability, and reviews the key developments since then. The most noticeable developments the commentary traces are the growth in academic interest in business models, a more responsive government policy particularly in respect of new technologies, and the practical application of the concepts and ideas mooted in the original paper, notably with respect to electric vehicles.

  17. The Dutch sustainable building policy: A model for developing countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchert, Luciana [Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Lago, 876, CEP 05508.900, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    This article explores the institutionalization of environmental policies in the Dutch building sector and the applicability of the current model to developing countries. First, it analyzes the transition of sustainable building practices in the Netherlands from the 1970s until today, exploring how these were originally embedded in a discourse on 'de-modernization', which attempted to improve the environmental performance of building stocks by means of self-sufficient technologies, whereas nowadays they adopt a framework of 'ecological modernization', with integrative approaches seeking to improve the environmental performance of building stocks through more efficient-rather than self-sufficient-technologies. The study subsequently shows how the current Dutch sustainable building framework has thereby managed to achieve a pragmatic and widely accepted rationale, which can serve to orient the ecological restructuring of building stocks in developing countries. (author)

  18. Bibliometric Analyses Reveal Patterns of Collaboration between ASMS Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmblad, Magnus; van Eck, Nees Jan

    2018-01-01

    We have explored the collaborative network of the current American Society for Mass Spectrometry (ASMS) membership using bibliometric methods. The analysis shows that 4249 members are connected in a single, large, co-authorship graph, including the majority of the most published authors in the field of mass spectrometry. The map reveals topographical differences between university groups and national laboratories, and that the co-authors with the strongest links have long worked together at the same location. We have collected and summarized information on the geographical distribution of members, showing a high coverage of active researchers in North America and Western Europe. Looking at research fields, we could also identify a number of new or `hot' topics among ASMS members. Interactive versions of the maps are available on-line at https://goo.gl/UBNFMQ (collaborative network) and https://goo.gl/WV25vm (research topics).

  19. Bibliometric Analyses Reveal Patterns of Collaboration between ASMS Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmblad, Magnus; van Eck, Nees Jan

    2018-01-05

    We have explored the collaborative network of the current American Society for Mass Spectrometry (ASMS) membership using bibliometric methods. The analysis shows that 4249 members are connected in a single, large, co-authorship graph, including the majority of the most published authors in the field of mass spectrometry. The map reveals topographical differences between university groups and national laboratories, and that the co-authors with the strongest links have long worked together at the same location. We have collected and summarized information on the geographical distribution of members, showing a high coverage of active researchers in North America and Western Europe. Looking at research fields, we could also identify a number of new or 'hot' topics among ASMS members. Interactive versions of the maps are available on-line at https://goo.gl/UBNFMQ (collaborative network) and https://goo.gl/WV25vm (research topics). Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Exploring the Relationship Between Business Model Innovation, Corporate Sustainability, and Organisational Values within the Fashion Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum; Gwozdz, Wencke; Hvass, Kerli Kant

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between business model innovation, corporate sustainability, and the underlying organisational values. Moreover, the paper examines how the three dimensions correlate with corporate financial performance. It is concluded that companies...... with innovative business models are more likely to address corporate sustainability and that business model innovation and corporate sustainability alike are typically found in organisations rooted in values of flexibility and discretion. Business model innovation and corporate sustainability thus seem to have...

  1. ASME Evaluation on Grid Mobile E-Commerce Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Chang; Wei Liao

    2012-01-01

    With the development of E-commerce, more scholars have paid attention to research on Mobile E-commerce and mostly focus on the optimization and evaluation of existing process. This paper researches the evaluation of Mobile E-commerce process with a method called ASME. Based on combing and analyzing current mobile business process and utilizing the grid management theory, mobile business process based on grid are constructed. Firstly, the existing process, namely Non-grid Mobile E-commerce, an...

  2. Integrated water resources modelling for assessing sustainable water governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikaris, Charalampos; Ganoulis, Jacques; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Makropoulos, Christos; Gkatzogianni, Eleni; Michas, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    Climatic variations and resulting future uncertainties, increasing anthropogenic pressures, changes in political boundaries, ineffective or dysfunctional governance of natural resources and environmental degradation are some of the most fundamental challenges with which worldwide initiatives fostering the "think globally, act locally" concept are concerned. Different initiatives target the protection of the environment through sustainable development; Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Transboundary Water Resources Management (TWRM) in the case of internationally shared waters are frameworks that have gained wide political acceptance at international level and form part of water resources management planning and implementation on a global scale. Both concepts contribute in promoting economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability. Inspired by these holistic management approaches, the present work describes an effort that uses integrated water resources modelling for the development of an integrated, coherent and flexible water governance tool. This work in which a sequence of computer based models and tools are linked together, aims at the evaluation of the sustainable operation of projects generating renewable energy from water as well as the sustainability of agricultural demands and environmental security in terms of environmental flow under various climatic and operational conditions. More specifically, catchment hydrological modelling is coupled with dams' simulation models and thereafter with models dedicated to water resources management and planning,while the bridging of models is conducted through geographic information systems and custom programming tools. For the case of Mesta/Nestos river basin different priority rules in the dams' operational schedule (e.g. priority given to power production as opposed to irrigation needs and vice versa), as well as different irrigation demands, e.g. current water demands as opposed to

  3. The Open Access Association? EAHIL's new model for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSean, Tony; Jakobsson, Arne

    2009-12-01

    To discover a governance structure and a business model for the European Association for Health Information and Libraries (EAHIL) which will be economically sustainable in the medium term, arresting a long-term gradual decline in membership numbers and implementing new revenue streams to sustain association activity. Reviewed survival strategies of other professional associations, investigated potential of emerging interactive web technologies, investigated alternative revenue streams based around the 'franchise' of the annual EAHIL conferences and workshops. A fully worked-through and costed alternative structure was produced, based on abolition of the subscription, web-based procedures and functions, increased income from advertising and sponsorship and a large measure of member participation and engagement. Statutes and Rules of Procedure were rewritten to reflect the changes. This plan was put through the Association's approval cycle and implemented in 2005. The new financial model has proved itself sustainable on the basis of the first 2 years' operations. The long-term gradual decline in membership was reversed, with membership numbers trebling across the EAHIL region. The software worked with minimal problems, including the online electoral process. With no identified precedent from other professional associations, the changes represented a considerable risk, which was justifiable because long-term projections made it clear that continuing the traditional model was not viable. The result is a larger, healthier association with a stronger link to its membership. Long-term risks include the high level of member commitment and expertise. There are also important questions about scalability-diseconomies of scale probably limit the applicability of the overall open access model to larger associations.

  4. Harnessing Data Flow and Modelling Potentials for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim S Mwitondi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tackling the global challenges relating to health, poverty, business, and the environment is heavily dependent on the flow and utilisation of data. However, while enhancements in data generation, storage, modelling, dissemination, and the related integration of global economies and societies are fast transforming the way we live and interact, the resulting dynamic, globalised, information society remains digitally divided. On the African continent in particular, this division has resulted in a gap between the knowledge generation and its transformation into tangible products and services. This paper proposes some fundamental approaches for a sustainable transformation of data into knowledge for the purpose of improving the people's quality of life. Its main strategy is based on a generic data sharing model providing access to data utilising and generating entities in a multi-disciplinary environment. It highlights the great potentials in using unsupervised and supervised modelling in tackling the typically predictive-in-nature challenges we face. Using both simulated and real data, the paper demonstrates how some of the key parameters may be generated and embedded in models to enhance their predictive power and reliability. The paper's conclusions include a proposed implementation framework setting the scene for the creation of decision support systems capable of addressing the key issues in society. It is expected that a sustainable data flow will forge synergies among the private sector, academic, and research institutions within and among countries. It is also expected that the paper's findings will help in the design and development of knowledge extraction from data in the wake of cloud computing and, hence, contribute towards the improvement in the people's overall quality of life. To avoid running high implementation costs, selected open source tools are recommended for developing and sustaining the system.

  5. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  6. The Extension Model of Sustainable Management of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr N. Kuzminov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of assessing the sustainability of an industrial enterprise in the context of a balanced use of limited resources. As a conceptual model approach is adopted to «3S» consider enterprise as a space that allows to combine different approaches to the sustainable development of enterprises at all stages of the life cycle. It is shown that the stability of viewing each space element is methodologically advisable to rely on system constraints, describing the boundary condition of temporary equilibrium, the achievement of which the local period synergistically causes some balance the allocation of limited resources of the enterprise. Financial stability, reflecting the nominal effective use of resources at all stages of the life cycle can be one of the proxy indicators for rapid assessment of the interaction of all subsystems, which optimality criterion proposed system coenoses restrictions. The above statement of the problem made it possible to formulate the basic requirements for the content criteria-based device diagnosis of possible states and justify the use coenosis sustainability as a synthetic approach that allows mathematically describe the self-organizing systems in the dynamics within the limits of survival. The algorithm of the mathematical and statistical evaluation of the financial resources of states, reflecting the degree of stability of the company as a consumer of scarce resources over time is offered.

  7. Modeling Coherent Strategies for the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B.; Obersteiner, M.; Herrero, M.; Riahi, K.; Fritz, S.; van Vuuren, D.; Havlik, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity and inclusivity. Societies have largely responded to this call with siloed strategies capable of making progress on selected subsets of these goals. However, agendas crafted specifically to alleviate poverty, hunger, deforestation, biodiversity loss, or other ills may doom the SDG agenda, as policies and strategies designed to accomplish one or several goals can impede and in some cases reverse progress toward others at national, regional, and global levels. We adopt a comprehensive modeling approach to understand the basis for tradeoffs among environmental conservation initiatives (goals 13-15) and food prices (goal 2). We show that such tradeoffs are manifestations of policy-driven pressure in land (i.e. agricultural and environmental) systems. By reducing total land system pressure, Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP, goal 12) policies minimize tradeoffs and should therefore be regarded as necessary conditions for achieving multiple SDGs. SDG strategies constructed around SCP policies escape problem-shifting, which has long placed global development and conservation agendas at odds. We expect that this and future systems analyses will allow policymakers to negotiate tradeoffs and exploit synergies as they assemble sustainable development strategies equal in scope to the ambition of the SDGs.

  8. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  9. Predictive model for sustaining biodiversity in tropical countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Chase D; Sekercioglu, Cagan H; Brenes, Federico Oviedo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Daily, Gretchen C

    2011-09-27

    Growing demand for food, fuel, and fiber is driving the intensification and expansion of agricultural land through a corresponding displacement of native woodland, savanna, and shrubland. In the wake of this displacement, it is clear that farmland can support biodiversity through preservation of important ecosystem elements at a fine scale. However, how much biodiversity can be sustained and with what tradeoffs for production are open questions. Using a well-studied tropical ecosystem in Costa Rica, we develop an empirically based model for quantifying the "wildlife-friendliness" of farmland for native birds. Some 80% of the 166 mist-netted species depend on fine-scale countryside forest elements (≤ 60-m-wide clusters of trees, typically of variable length and width) that weave through farmland along hilltops, valleys, rivers, roads, and property borders. Our model predicts with ∼75% accuracy the bird community composition of any part of the landscape. We find conservation value in small (≤ 20 m wide) clusters of trees and somewhat larger (≤ 60 m wide) forest remnants to provide substantial support for biodiversity beyond the borders of tropical forest reserves. Within the study area, forest elements on farms nearly double the effective size of the local forest reserve, providing seminatural habitats for bird species typically associated with the forest. Our findings provide a basis for estimating and sustaining biodiversity in farming systems through managing fine-scale ecosystem elements and, more broadly, informing ecosystem service analyses, biodiversity action plans, and regional land use strategies.

  10. Application of the active shape model in a commercial medical device for bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Rosholm, Anders

    2003-01-01

    . This paper describes how this was solved using the active shape model (ASM). Standard ASM is unable to locate the metacarpal shafts in the direction along the bones. Therefore ASM was extended with a translation operator, which solved the problem. A hierarchical filtering method was used to construct...... a sufficient list of initial guesses for the ASM. The performance of ASM and the experience with the integration of ASM in a commercial medical device is reported. The ASM achieves 99.5% reconstruction success and is able to validate its own reconstruction in 97% of the cases. The system (Pronosco X...

  11. Sustainable logistics and transportation optimization models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos

    2017-01-01

    Focused on the logistics and transportation operations within a supply chain, this book brings together the latest models, algorithms, and optimization possibilities. Logistics and transportation problems are examined within a sustainability perspective to offer a comprehensive assessment of environmental, social, ethical, and economic performance measures. Featured models, techniques, and algorithms may be used to construct policies on alternative transportation modes and technologies, green logistics, and incentives by the incorporation of environmental, economic, and social measures. Researchers, professionals, and graduate students in urban regional planning, logistics, transport systems, optimization, supply chain management, business administration, information science, mathematics, and industrial and systems engineering will find the real life and interdisciplinary issues presented in this book informative and useful.

  12. Sustainable crop models for fruit, vegetable and flower quality productions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inglese Paolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a paradigm that has evolved over the time, since the ideas of socially acceptable and compatible development, on which it was originally based, are now supported by the more recent notions of ecological equilibria and production process economy, both of which need to be also preserved. Environmental and health safety, rational use of the natural resources and technological tools, upkeep of high social growth rates and respect of a social equity are the basis of the sustainability for any production process, including the agriculture. The new globalization framework has penalized small farms and, at the same time, has put serious constraints to the development of stronger economic systems (medium/large farms, as well. As consequence, the EU has outlined several strategic programs to support small agricultural systems in marginal areas by: 1 strengthening all the quality- related aspects of agricultural production, including nutritional and cultural traits associated to local, typical and in some cases to neglected crops; 2 improving traditional cultural practices by adapting the cropping cycles and fomenting new partnerships between the different parts of the production chain, as for example; promotion of small horticultural chains. Specific political actions for the horticultural production sector have also been developed. Some of these policies are specifically addressed to preserve the biodiversity and to create quality labels certifying typical and/or organic products. All of these are possible strategies that may counteract and cope with the globalization process and increase the competitiveness of many production systems especially those performed by local and small entrepreneurs. New sustainable development models are required by both the market and the implicit requirements of the production system, inside a context on which Europe must face with new emerging economies with lower production costs, by increasing

  13. A Designed Model of Sustainable Competitiveness for Slovak Industrial Companies in the Global Context of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božiková Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a model of sustainable competitiveness, which we created on the basis of a long term study of literature and analysis. This article is divided into several parts. In the first part, we will introduce the problem of competitiveness and sustainable competitiveness. The second part is focused on the basic aspects for the creation of the model. In the third part the model itself is introduced and also an explanation and description of the mode is given.

  14. Computer Program of SIE ASME-NH (Revision 1.0) Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, J. H

    2008-01-15

    In this report, the SIE ASME (Structural Integrity Evaluations by ASME-NH) (Revision 1.0), which has a computerized implementation of ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Code Section III Subsection NH rules, is developed to apply to the next generation reactor design subjecting to the elevated temperature operations over 500 .deg. C and over 30 years design lifetime, and the user's manual for this program is described in detail.

  15. ORGEST: Regional guidelines and silvicultural models for sustainable forest management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqué, Míriam; Vericat, Pau; Beltrán, Mario

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: To develop regional guidelines for sustainable forest management. Area of the study: Forests of Catalonia (NE Spain). Material and methods: The process of developing the forest management guidelines (FMG) started by establishing a thorough classification of forest types at stand level. This classification hinges on two attributes: tree species composition and site quality based on ecological variables, which together determine potential productivity. From there, the management guidelines establish certain objectives and silvicultural models for each forest type. The forest type classifications, like the silvicultural models, were produced using both existing and newly-built growth models based on data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) and expert knowledge. The effort involved over 20 expert working groups in order to better integrate the expertise and vision of different sectorial agents. Main results: The FMG consist in quantitative silvicultural models that include typical silvicultural variables, technical descriptions of treatments and codes of good practice. Guidelines now cover almost all forest types in Catalonia (spanning up to 90% of the Catalan forest area). Different silvicultural models have been developed for pure and mixed stands, different site quality classes (2–3 classes per species), and even- and multi-aged stands. Research highlights: FMG: i) orient the management of private and public forests, (ii) provide a technical scaffold for efficient allocation/investment of public subsidies in forest management, and (iii) bridge forest planning instruments at regional (strategic-tactical) and stand (operational) level.

  16. Net-Zero-Energy Model for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peng; Qin, Rong-Cong; Guo, Jin-Song; Yu, Qiang; Li, Zhe; Chen, You-Peng; Shen, Yu; Fang, Fang

    2017-01-17

    A large external energy input prevents wastewater treatment from being environmentally sustainable. A net-zero-energy (NZE) wastewater treatment concept based on biomass energy recycling was proposed to avoid wasting resources and to promote energy recycling in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Simultaneously, a theoretical model and boundary condition based on energy balance were established to evaluate the feasibility of achieving NZE in WWTPs; the model and condition were employed to analyze data from 20 conventional WWTPs in China. A total of six WWTPs can currently export excess energy, eight WWTPs can achieve 100% energy self-sufficiency by adjusting the metabolic material allocation, and six municipal WWTPs cannot achieve net-zero energy consumption based on the evaluation of the theoretical model. The NZE model offset 79.5% of the electricity and sludge disposal cost compared with conventional wastewater treatment. The NZE model provides a theoretical basis for the optimization of material regulation for the effective utilization of organic energy from wastewater and promotes engineering applications of the NZE concept in WWTPs.

  17. Lunar exploration and development--a sustainable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A long-term goal of space exploration is the development of a lunar settlement that will not only be largely self-sufficient but also contribute to the economy of the Earth-Moon system. Proposals for lunar mining and materials processing developments, as well as tourism-based applications, have appeared in the literature for many years. However, so great are the technical and financial difficulties associated with sustained lunar development that, more than 30 years after the end of the Apollo programme, there have been no practical advances towards this goal. While this may soon be remedied by a series of proposed unmanned orbiters, landers and rovers, the philosophy of lunar exploration and development remains the same as it has for decades: conquer, exploit, and ignore the consequences. By contrasting the well-recognised problems of Earth orbital debris and the barely recognised issue of intentional spacecraft impacts on the lunar surface, this paper illustrates the need for a new model for lunar exploration and development. This new paradigm would assign a value to the lunar environment and provide a balance between protection and exploitation, creating, in effect, a philosophy of sustainable development for the Moon. It is suggested that this new philosophy should be an integral part of any future strategy for lunar colonisation. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lunar exploration and development—A sustainable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark

    2005-07-01

    A long-term goal of space exploration is the development of a lunar settlement that will not only be largely self-sufficient but also contribute to the economy of the Earth Moon system. Proposals for lunar mining and materials processing developments, as well as tourism-based applications, have appeared in the literature for many years. However, so great are the technical and financial difficulties associated with sustained lunar development that, more than 30 years after the end of the Apollo programme, there have been no practical advances towards this goal. While this may soon be remedied by a series of proposed unmanned orbiters, landers and rovers, the philosophy of lunar exploration and development remains the same as it has for decades: conquer, exploit, and ignore the consequences. By contrasting the well-recognised problems of Earth orbital debris and the barely recognised issue of intentional spacecraft impacts on the lunar surface, this paper illustrates the need for a new model for lunar exploration and development. This new paradigm would assign a value to the lunar environment and provide a balance between protection and exploitation, creating, in effect, a philosophy of sustainable development for the Moon. It is suggested that this new philosophy should be an integral part of any future strategy for lunar colonisation.

  19. Sustainable Landuse Model at Upper Cikapundung River – North Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darsiharjo Darsiharjo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use in upper catchment of Cikapundung progressively do not in control, so that many land use disagree with required condition. The objectives of the research were to: 1 evaluating of existing land use suitability with to its land suitability; and 2 compiling simulation land use model which have been formulated to study the expense of conservation, beneficial crop type and conservation action alternative. In this research made three submodel (erosion submodel use USLE and Arsyad, runoff submodel use Bransby and Williams, and social economic submodel use B/C ratio and NPV; and than integrated to become one land use model in upper catchment by using computer program package “Poersim Version 2.5c”. The model is simulation by considering aspect land suitability, is then obtained by form land use sustainable. Land use in Cikapundung upper catchment equal to 70,52% disagree with land condition. The rate of occured erosion in dry land, pine forest and plantation of quinine have is abysmal of permissible erosion, while in natural forest, rice field, and grass land still is normal. Run off coefficient from all region per year go up equal to 0,3878%. And B/C dry land equal to 3,33. To maintain thickness of land and reducing runoff coefficient but admiting of to support life  farmer, minimum 10% from rest of obtained production in using to defray activity of conservation. Crop vegetable type which still profit is potato, chickpea, and pepper so long as minimizing 5% from rest of obtained production to be used for the activity of conservation, appropriate action conservation type is credit terrace because can be done step by step every process farm so that farm can be exploited on an sustainable.

  20. ZEBRAFISH AS AN IN VIVO MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Pamela D; Garcia, Gloria R; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-12-21

    Heightened public awareness about the many thousands of chemicals in use and present as persistent contaminants in the environment has increased the demand for safer chemicals and more rigorous toxicity testing. There is a growing recognition that the use of traditional test models and empirical approaches is impractical for screening for toxicity the many thousands of chemicals in the environment and the hundreds of new chemistries introduced each year. These realities coupled with the green chemistry movement have prompted efforts to implement more predictive-based approaches to evaluate chemical toxicity early in product development. While used for many years in environmental toxicology and biomedicine, zebrafish use has accelerated more recently in genetic toxicology, high throughput screening (HTS), and behavioral testing. This review describes major advances in these testing methods that have positioned the zebrafish as a highly applicable model in chemical safety evaluations and sustainable chemistry efforts. Many toxic responses have been shown to be shared among fish and mammals owing to their generally well-conserved development, cellular networks, and organ systems. These shared responses have been observed for chemicals that impair endocrine functioning, development, and reproduction, as well as those that elicit cardiotoxicity and carcinogenicity, among other diseases. HTS technologies with zebrafish enable screening large chemical libraries for bioactivity that provide opportunities for testing early in product development. A compelling attribute of the zebrafish centers on being able to characterize toxicity mechanisms across multiple levels of biological organization from the genome to receptor interactions and cellular processes leading to phenotypic changes such as developmental malformations. Finally, there is a growing recognition of the links between human and wildlife health and the need for approaches that allow for assessment of real world

  1. Applying sustainability theory to transport infrastructure assessment using a multiplicative ahp decision support model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryn, Marie Ridley; Cornet, Yannick; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    of sustainability supported by ecological economists. This conceptualisation is operationalized by the use of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and a multiplicative version of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The planning and decision-making process related to a new connection across the Roskilde Fjord...... to sustainability based on the nested model is therefore presented seeking to provide an alternative approach to sustainable transportation assessment, namely the SUSTAIN Decision Support System (DSS) model. This model is based on a review of basic notions of sustainability presented by the Brundtland Commission...

  2. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plants{close_quotes}. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O&M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O&M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion.

  3. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  4. Sustainable development education, practice, and research: an indigenous model of sustainable development at the College of Menominee Nation, Keshena, WI, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Dockry; Katherine Hall; William Van Lopik; Christopher M. Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The College of Menominee Nation Sustainable Development Institute's theoretical model (SDI model) conceptualizes sustainable development as the process of maintaining the balance and reconciling the inherent tensions among six dimensions of sustainability: land and sovereignty; natural environment #including human beings); institutions; technology; economy; and...

  5. Sustainable Organic Farming For Environmental Health A Social Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijun Rijwan Susanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study the researcher attempted 1 to understand the basic features of organic farming in The Paguyuban Pasundans Cianjur 2 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community 3 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize and applied the values of benefits of organic farming in support of environmental health on their lived experiences in the community 4 The purpose was to describe and understand how the stakeholders who are able to articulate their ideas regarding the model of sustainable organic farming 5 The Policy Recommendation for Organic Farming. The researcher employed triangulation thorough finding that provides breadth and depth to an investigation offering researchers a more accurate picture of the phenomenon. In the implementation of triangulation researchers conducted several interviews to get saturation. After completion of the interview results are written compiled and shown to the participants to check every statement by every participant. In addition researchers also checked the relevant documents and direct observation in the field The participants of this study were the stakeholders namely 1 The leader of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic Farmer Cianjur PPOFC 2 Members of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic FarmersCianjur 3 Leader of NGO 4 Government officials of agriculture 5 Business of organic food 6 and Consumer of organic food. Generally the findings of the study revealed the following 1 PPOFC began to see the reality as the impact of modern agriculture showed in fertility problems due to contaminated soil by residues of agricultural chemicals such as chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides. So he wants to restore the soil fertility through environmentally friendly of farming practices 2 the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community farmers did not

  6. CREATING AND EVALUATING SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS MODELS – A CROSS-INDUSTRY CASE STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    of understanding, creating and evaluating businesses and their business models. The objective of this article is to explore how sustainable business models can be created and evaluated across different companies and industrial contexts. Although many authors have stressed the business potentials of sustainable......Sustainability has become a new premise for doing business - moving it from political discourses into company boardrooms (Dryzek, 2005; Bisgaard, 2009; Aagaard, 2016). However, applying business model innovation as a way to create sustainable value requires several alterations of our ways...... innovation and business models, little theoretical and empirical knowledge exists of the concepts and the implications, drivers and challenges, as stressed by Weisenfeld (2012) and Parmentier & Gandia (2013)...

  7. Matrix Model for Choosing Green Marketing Sustainable Strategic Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Sitnikov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing examines the symbiotic role played by marketing in ensuring sustainable business, exploring issues concerning the environment and the way strategic decisions can influence it. At present, the environmental issues concern more and more the competitive approach any organization can implement. Based on this approach, organizations can gain competitive advantage by managing environmental variables and by developing and implementing green marketing strategies. Considering the importance and impact of green marketing, by using theoretical concepts and defining a set of research directions, the paper and the research conducted were focused on creating a matrix model for choosing the optimal green marketing strategy, oriented towards competitive advantage. The model is based on the correlation that can be established among the generic strategies of competitive advantage, the variables of extended marketing mix (7Ps and the green marketing strategy matrix. There are also analyzed the implications that may be generated within a company by the adoption of a green marketing strategy and its role in promoting the environmental benefits of products.

  8. Developing alternative models to acquire land sustainably in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land redistribution must be accompanied by the relevant resources required for sustainable farming production and its beneficiaries must be capacitated before being settled on farms. Then farming productions must be monitored and evaluated for sustainability. Then, livelihood improvement on land reform beneficiaries ...

  9. Structural model for sustainable consumption and production adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan; Mangla, Sachin Kumar

    2017-01-01

    and to improve sustainability aspects in the supply chain scenario under uncertain environments. Initially, fourteen drivers related to sustainable consumption and production adoption were selected from the literature and expert feedback. Then, the grey based Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory...

  10. Corporate sustainability and asset pricing models: empirical evidence for the Brazilian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Gonçalves de Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper investigates the impact of corporate sustainability on asset prices. For that purpose, we develop a novel corporate sustainability factor and test the extent to which this factor is priced in an augmented four-factor version of the traditional Fama & French (1993 asset pricing model. The corporate sustainability factor is based on a zero-investment portfolio which is long in stocks with high sustainability and short in stocks with low sustainability. We use data on the Brazilian stock market to estimate alternative model specifications with different combinations of four explanatory variables: the corporate sustainability premium, the market risk factor premium, the size factor premium and the book-to-market factor premium. Our results indicate that corporate sustainability is priced and helps to explain the variability in the cross-section of expected stock returns.

  11. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  12. Encapsulating connections on SoC designs using ASM++ charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Santiago; Herrero, Luis C.; Martínez, Fernando; Rey, Alexis B.

    This article presents a methodology to encapsulate, not only the functionality of several SoC modules, but also the connections between those modules. To achieve these results, the possibilities of Algorithmic State Machines (ASM charts) have been extended to develop a compiler. Using this approach, a SoC design becomes a set of chart boxes and links: several boxes describe parameterized modules in a hierarchical fashion, other boxes encapsulate their connections, and all boxes are linked together using simple lines. At last, a compiler processes all required files and generates the corresponding VHDL or Verilog code, valid for simulation and synthesis. A small SoC design with two DSP processors is shown as an example.

  13. Sustainable Entrepreneurship (SE): A Revised Model Based on Triple Bottom Line (TBL)

    OpenAIRE

    Izaidin Abdul Majid; Wei-Loon Koe

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the years, researchers have suggested several fields of entrepreneurship studies, such as regular entrepreneurship, green entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship and sustainable entrepreneurship. This literature review focused on sustainable entrepreneurship, in which a definition was proposed. Then, based upon the concept of triple bottom line, a revised model of sustainable entrepreneurship was suggested at the end of paper. The model consisted of four domains, namely economica...

  14. ASME B89.4.19 Performance Evaluation Tests and Geometric Misalignments in Laser Trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishnan, B; Sawyer, D; Blackburn, C; Phillips, S; Borchardt, B; Estler, W T

    2009-01-01

    Small and unintended offsets, tilts, and eccentricity of the mechanical and optical components in laser trackers introduce systematic errors in the measured spherical coordinates (angles and range readings) and possibly in the calculated lengths of reference artifacts. It is desirable that the tests described in the ASME B89.4.19 Standard [1] be sensitive to these geometric misalignments so that any resulting systematic errors are identified during performance evaluation. In this paper, we present some analysis, using error models and numerical simulation, of the sensitivity of the length measurement system tests and two-face system tests in the B89.4.19 Standard to misalignments in laser trackers. We highlight key attributes of the testing strategy adopted in the Standard and propose new length measurement system tests that demonstrate improved sensitivity to some misalignments. Experimental results with a tracker that is not properly error corrected for the effects of the misalignments validate claims regarding the proposed new length tests.

  15. A Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Sustainability Risk Evaluation of PPP Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libiao Bai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the sustainability risk level of public–private partnership (PPP projects can reduce project risk incidents and achieve the sustainable development of the organization. However, the existing studies about PPP projects risk management mainly focus on exploring the impact of financial and revenue risks but ignore the sustainability risks, causing the concept of “sustainability” to be missing while evaluating the risk level of PPP projects. To evaluate the sustainability risk level and achieve the most important objective of providing a reference for the public and private sectors when making decisions on PPP project management, this paper constructs a factor system of sustainability risk of PPP projects based on an extensive literature review and develops a mathematical model based on the methods of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model (FCEM and failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA for evaluating the sustainability risk level of PPP projects. In addition, this paper conducts computational experiment based on a questionnaire survey to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of this proposed model. The results suggest that this model is reasonable for evaluating the sustainability risk level of PPP projects. To our knowledge, this paper is the first study to evaluate the sustainability risk of PPP projects, which would not only enrich the theories of project risk management, but also serve as a reference for the public and private sectors for the sustainable planning and development. Keywords: sustainability risk eva

  16. Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongxi

    Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation infrastructure concern the development of strategic robust resource allocation strategies in an uncertain decision-making environment, considering both uncertain service availability and accessibility. The study explores the performances of different modeling approaches (i.e., deterministic, stochastic programming, and robust optimization) to reflect various risk preferences. The models are evaluated in a case study of Singapore and results demonstrate that stochastic modeling methods in general offers more robust allocation strategies compared to deterministic approaches in achieving high coverage to critical infrastructures under risks. This general modeling framework can be applied to other emergency service applications, such as, locating medical emergency services. The development of renewable energy infrastructure system development aims to answer the following key research questions: (1) is the renewable energy an economically viable solution? (2) what are the energy distribution and infrastructure system requirements to support such energy supply systems in hedging against potential risks? (3) how does the energy system adapt the dynamics from evolving technology and societal needs in the transition into a renewable energy based society? The study of Renewable Energy System Planning with Risk Management incorporates risk management into its strategic planning of the supply chains. The physical design and operational management are integrated as a whole in seeking mitigations against the

  17. Global Urban Mapping and Modeling for Sustainable Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Li, X.; Asrar, G.; Yu, S.; Smith, S.; Eom, J.; Imhoff, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In the past several decades, the world has experienced fast urbanization, and this trend is expected to continue for decades to come. Urbanization, one of the major land cover and land use changes (LCLUC), is becoming increasingly important in global environmental changes, such as urban heat island (UHI) growth and vegetation phenology change. Better scientific insights and effective decision-making unarguably require reliable science-based information on spatiotemporal changes in urban extent and their environmental impacts. In this study, we developed a globally consistent 20-year urban map series to evaluate the time-reactive nature of global urbanization from the nighttime lights remote sensing data, and projected future urban expansion in the 21st century by employing an integrated modeling framework (Zhou et al. 2014, Zhou et al. 2015). We then evaluated the impacts of urbanization on building energy use and vegetation phenology that affect both ecosystem services and human health. We extended the modeling capability of building energy use in the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) with consideration of UHI effects by coupling the remote sensing based urbanization modeling and explored the impact of UHI on building energy use. We also investigated the impact of urbanization on vegetation phenology by using an improved phenology detection algorithm. The derived spatiotemporal information on historical and potential future urbanization and its implications in building energy use and vegetation phenology will be of great value in sustainable urban design and development for building energy use and human health (e.g., pollen allergy), especially when considered together with other factors such as climate variability and change. Zhou, Y., S. J. Smith, C. D. Elvidge, K. Zhao, A. Thomson & M. Imhoff (2014) A cluster-based method to map urban area from DMSP/OLS nightlights. Remote Sensing of Environment, 147, 173-185. Zhou, Y., S. J. Smith, K. Zhao, M. Imhoff, A

  18. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  19. Mosque as a Model of Learning Principles of Sustainable Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adi, Swambodo Murdariatmo

    2016-01-01

    .... Awareness of the importance of effective space utilization and management of water resources wisely in support of the ritual apply the principles of sustainable architecture will have a positive...

  20. Collaborative business modeling for systemic and sustainability innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Konnertz, L.; Knab, S.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability innovations are characterized by a systemic nature, and require that multiple organizations act in an orchestrated fashion. To jointly identify opportunities and plan sustainability innovations, new methods and approaches are needed. In this article we describe a case study where 8...... and roadmapping. We find that CBM has its particular strengths in promoting creativity, dealing with uncertainty, and providing a platform for both strategic discussions and planning the future architecture of an emerging market....

  1. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the ASME..., and stamped in accordance with section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by...

  2. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler..., inspected, tested, and stamped in accordance with section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code...

  3. 76 FR 11191 - Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code AGENCY... the electronic availability of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers' (ASME) Boiler and... the ANPRM published on December 23, 2010 (ANPRM; 75 FR 80765). The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  4. 75 FR 80765 - Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code AGENCY... Code as it applies to the continuing qualification and maintenance of ASME stamped cargo tank motor vehicles, portable tanks, and multi-unit-tank car tanks (ton tanks) constructed to standards in ASME...

  5. Analytic network process model for sustainable lean and green manufacturing performance indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminuddin, Adam Shariff Adli; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Mohamed, Nik Mohd Zuki Nik

    2014-09-01

    Sustainable manufacturing is regarded as the most complex manufacturing paradigm to date as it holds the widest scope of requirements. In addition, its three major pillars of economic, environment and society though distinct, have some overlapping among each of its elements. Even though the concept of sustainability is not new, the development of the performance indicator still needs a lot of improvement due to its multifaceted nature, which requires integrated approach to solve the problem. This paper proposed the best combination of criteria en route a robust sustainable manufacturing performance indicator formation via Analytic Network Process (ANP). The integrated lean, green and sustainable ANP model can be used to comprehend the complex decision system of the sustainability assessment. The finding shows that green manufacturing is more sustainable than lean manufacturing. It also illustrates that procurement practice is the most important criteria in the sustainable manufacturing performance indicator.

  6. Strategies and models for agricultural sustainability in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2008-02-27

    The green revolution of the 1960s and 1970s which resulted in dramatic yield increases in the developing Asian countries is now showing signs of fatigue in productivity gains. Intensive agriculture practiced without adherence to the scientific principles and ecological aspects has led to loss of soil health, and depletion of freshwater resources and agrobiodiversity. With progressive diversion of arable land for non-agricultural purposes, the challenge of feeding the growing population without, at the same time, annexing more forestland and depleting the rest of life is indeed daunting. Further, even with food availability through production/procurement, millions of marginal farming, fishing and landless rural families have very low or no access to food due to lack of income-generating livelihoods. Approximately 200 million rural women, children and men in India alone fall in this category. Under these circumstances, the evergreen revolution (pro-nature, pro-poor, pro-women and pro-employment/livelihood oriented ecoagriculture) under varied terms are proposed for achieving productivity in perpetuity. In the proposed 'biovillage paradigm', eco-friendly agriculture is promoted along with on- and non-farm eco-enterprises based on sustainable management of natural resources. Concurrently, the modern ICT-based village knowledge centres provide time- and locale-specific, demand-driven information needed for evergreen revolution and ecotechnologies. With a system of 'farm and marine production by masses', the twin goals of ecoagriculture and eco-livelihoods are addressed. The principles, strategies and models of these are briefly discussed in this paper.

  7. Regulatory Safety Issues in the Structural Design Criteria of ASME Section III Subsection NH and for Very High Temperatures for VHTR & GEN IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William J. O’Donnell; Donald S. Griffin

    2007-05-07

    The objective of this task is to identify issues relevant to ASME Section III, Subsection NH [1], and related Code Cases that must be resolved for licensing purposes for VHTGRs (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concepts such as those of PBMR, Areva, and GA); and to identify the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code to cover the unresolved safety issues. Subsection NH was originally developed to provide structural design criteria and limits for elevated-temperature design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems and some gas-cooled systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) reviewed the design limits and procedures in the process of reviewing the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) for a construction permit in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and identified issues that needed resolution. In the years since then, the NRC and various contractors have evaluated the applicability of the ASME Code and Code Cases to high-temperature reactor designs such as the VHTGRs, and identified issues that need to be resolved to provide a regulatory basis for licensing. This Report describes: (1) NRC and ACRS safety concerns raised during the licensing process of CRBR , (2) how some of these issues are addressed by the current Subsection NH of the ASME Code; and (3) the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code and Code Cases to cover unresolved regulatory issues for very high temperature service.

  8. Exploring the relationship between sustainability and project success - conceptual model and expected relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Silvius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is one of the most important challenges of our time. Companies are integrating sustainability in their marketing, communication and their actions. Sustainability has more recently also been linked to project management. The logic behind this link is that sustainability needs change and projects are realizing change. Several studies explored how the concept of sustainability impact project management. The research project reported in this paper elaborates on these works by studying how sustainability affects project success. Project managers, logically, strive for project success and considering sustainability may influence this success. Based upon a review of relevant literature, the paper develops a conceptual model that provides a more detailed understanding of how considering different dimensions of sustainability may affect the individual criteria of project success. The study also provides a conceptual mapping of the different relationships between dimensions of sustainability and criteria of project success. This mapping shows that the most positive relationships are expected for the relationship between sustainability and the success criteria stakeholder satisfaction, future readiness and controlled project execution. The expected relationship between considering sustainability and completing the project on schedule and within budget is uncertain.

  9. Comparison of the Modeling Approach between Membrane Bioreactor and Conventional Activated Sludge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Tao; Sin, Gürkan; Spanjers, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Activated sludge models (ASM) have been developed and largely applied in conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems. The applicability of ASM to model membrane bioreactors (MBR) and the differences in modeling approaches have not been studied in detail. A laboratory-scale MBR was modeled using ASM...

  10. A practical model for sustainable operational performance; Een praktisch model voor duurzaam bedrijfspresteren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlek, C.A.J.; Steg, E.M.; Feenstra, D.; Gerbens-Leenis, W.; Lindenberg, S.; Moll, H.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.; Sijtsma, F.; Van Witteloostuijn, A. [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2002-07-12

    By means of a concrete model for sustainable operational performance enterprises can report uniformly on the sustainability of their contributions to the economy, welfare and the environment. The development and design of a three-dimensional monitoring system is presented and discussed. [Dutch] Ondernemingen zijn belangrijke pijlers voor een duurzame samenleving. Met een concreet model voor duurzaam bedrijfspresteren kunnen ondernemingen op uniforme wijze rapporteren over de duurzaamheid van hun bijdragen aan economie, welzijn en milieu. In dit artikel wordt de opzet van een driedimensionaal meetsysteem gepresenteerd. Vanuit de samenleving klinkt een aanzwellende roep om maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen, vaak ook duurzaam ondernemen genoemd'. Daarbij wordt meer aandacht gevraagd voor collectieve langetermijnbelangen van economie, welzijn en milieu. Ook internationaal wordt al jaren gediscussieerd over bedrijfsethiek en maatschappelijke verantwoordelijkheid. Sinds september 2000 wordt aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen een begripsmodel ontwikkeld, dat wordt uitgewerkt in een operationeel meetsysteem met diverse praktische functies.

  11. The Development of a GIS-Based Model for Campus Environmental Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability indicators and assessments are vital in promoting campus sustainability. Despite the plethora of indicator frameworks, campus sustainability assessment in developing countries encounters many challenges including lack of, or restricted access to, data and difficulties in measuring indicators. There is also a limited application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS in campus environmental sustainability assessment, although campus operations have spatial dimensions. This article proposes a GIS-based model for environmental sustainability assessment of campus operations and demonstrates its usefulness using King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia. The model applies spatial analysis techniques, including inverse distance weighted (IDW interpolation, to statistically assess the various campus operational activities by using land use data to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, water consumption, solid waste, and transportation. The integration of spatial dimension in the model facilitates the collection and measurement of spatially related indicators, helps identify hotspots of campus operations, and provides better visualization of the existing condition and future scenario of campus environmental sustainability status. This model can assist decision-makers to construct strategies for improving the overall environmental sustainability of university campuses. The paper concludes by highlighting how the model can address some challenges of campus sustainability assessment in developing countries.

  12. Airline Sustainability Modeling: A New Framework with Application of Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors which could influence the sustainability of airlines. The main purpose of this study is to introduce a framework for a financial sustainability index and model it based on structural equation modeling (SEM with maximum likelihood and Bayesian predictors. The introduced framework includes economic performance, operational performance, cost performance, and financial performance. Based on both Bayesian SEM (Bayesian-SEM and Classical SEM (Classical-SEM, it was found that economic performance with both operational performance and cost performance are significantly related to the financial performance index. The four mathematical indices employed are root mean square error, coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and mean absolute percentage error to compare the efficiency of Bayesian-SEM and Classical-SEM in predicting the airline financial performance. The outputs confirmed that the framework with Bayesian prediction delivered a good fit with the data, although the framework predicted with a Classical-SEM approach did not prepare a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between Classical and Bayesian predictions, as well as the potential advantages and caveats with the application of Bayesian approach in airline sustainability studies, are debated.

  13. The System Dynamics Model User Sustainability Explorer (SD-MUSE): a user-friendly tool for interpreting system dynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    System Dynamics (SD) models are useful for holistic integration of data to evaluate indirect and cumulative effects and inform decisions. Complex SD models can provide key insights into how decisions affect the three interconnected pillars of sustainability. However, the complexi...

  14. Bidding model for sustainable projects using the traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is quite daunting one, yet must be met if this planet earth and its inhabitants are not to be put in harm's way. Sustainability in development seeks to achieve the reduction of input-output ratio yet presenting qualitative and satisfactory products to end users. The traditional procurement method (TPM) is still widely used in ...

  15. Decision support modeling for sustainable food logistics management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary For the last two decades, food logistics systems have seen the transition from traditional Logistics Management (LM) to Food Logistics Management (FLM), and successively, to Sustainable Food Logistics Management (SFLM). Accordingly, food industry has been subject to the recent challenges of

  16. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  17. Decision support for sustainable forestry: enhancing the basic rational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.R. Ekbia; K.M. Reynolds

    2007-01-01

    Decision-support systems (DSS) have been extensively used in the management of natural resources for nearly two decades. However, practical difficulties with the application of DSS in real-world situations have become increasingly apparent. Complexities of decisionmaking, encountered in the context of ecosystem management, are equally present in sustainable forestry....

  18. Operational modeling of a sustainable gas supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof. dr. Wim van Gemert; Ton A. Broekhuis; Jan Bekkering

    2010-01-01

    Biogas production from codigestion of cattle manure and biomass can have a significant contribution to a sustainable gas supply when this gas is upgraded to specifications prescribed for injection into the national gas grid and injected into this grid. In this study, we analyzed such a gas supply

  19. Modelling the life-cycle of sustainable, living buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nederveen, S.; Gielingh, W.

    2009-01-01

    Credit-reductions by banks, as a consequence of the global monetary crisis, will hit the construction industry for many years to come. There are however still financing opportunities for building projects that are perceived as less risky. Buildings that are not only sustainable, but also flexible

  20. A Review on Quantitative Models for Sustainable Food Logistics Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades food logistics systems have seen the transition from a focus on traditional supply chain management to food supply chain management, and successively, to sustainable food supply chain management. The main aim of this study is to identify key logistical aims in these three phases

  1. Sustainable model for financial viability of decentralized biomass gasifier based power projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palit, D.; Malhotra, R.; Kumar, Atul

    2011-01-01

    This paper made a modest attempt for designing a sustainable model for financial viability of biomass gasifier power projects for enhancing electricity access in India and other developing countries. For long term sustainability of distributed generation projects in remote rural areas, viability

  2. Sustainability Attitudes and Behavioral Motivations of College Students: Testing the Extended Parallel Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Evan K.; Clark, Scott K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: A planet that can no longer sustain life is a frightening thought--and one that is often present in mass media messages. Therefore, this study aims to test the components of a classic fear appeal theory, the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and to determine how well its constructs predict sustainability behavioral intentions. This…

  3. How to use composite indicator and linear programming model for determine sustainable tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaabadi, Maryam; Malakootian, Mohammad; Zare Mehrjerdi, Mohammad Reza; Jalaee, Seied Abdolmajid; Mehrabi Boshrabadi, Hosein

    2017-01-01

    The tourism industry which is one of the most dynamic economic activities in today's world plays a significant role in the sustainable development. Therefore, in addition to paying attention to tourism, sustainable tourism must be taken into huge account; otherwise, the environment and its health will be damaged irreparably. To determine the level of sustainability in this study, indicators of sustainable tourism were first presented in three environmental health, economic and social aspects. Then, the levels of sustainable tourism and environmental sustainability were practically measured in different cities of Kerman Province using a composite indicator, a linear programming model, Delphi method and the questionnaire technique. Finally, the study cities (tourist attractions) were ranked. Result of this study showed that unfortunately the tourism opportunities were not used appropriately in these cities and tourist destinations, and that environmental aspect (health and environmental sustainability) had very bad situations compared to social and economic aspects. In other words, environmental health had the lowest levels of sustainability. The environment is a place for all human activities like tourism, social and economic issues; therefore, its stability and health is of great importance. Thus, it is necessary to pay more attention to sustainability of activities, management and environmental health in planning sustainable development in regional and national policy.

  4. Development models, sustainability and occupational and environmental health in the Americas: neoliberalism versus sustainable theories of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moure-Eraso Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the inherent contradiction between competitive capitalism and the pursuing of the "three bottom lines": 1 economic prosperity, 2 environmental quality (including the workplace and 3 social justice. An alternative, genuine, sustainable approach to development; the Integrated Human Ecosystem Approach will be described and contrasted with neoliberal development. The IHE approach was developed by The International Development Research Center of Canada in 2001. In this approach, the triple bottom line is not a simple tool for neoliberal development, but the focus of allocation and management of resources for sustainable development. The acquisition of only state power by governments opposed to neoliberalism is necessary but not sufficient condition to successfully find a human alternative to the market ideology. A road map needs to be developed in which a clear definition of technologies that permit the acquisition and implementation of an alternative ideology to achieve "social power." The IHE model provides developing countries with the basis for that ideology.

  5. Development models, sustainability and occupational and environmental health in the Americas: neoliberalism versus sustainable theories of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moure-Eraso

    Full Text Available This article describes the inherent contradiction between competitive capitalism and the pursuing of the "three bottom lines": 1 economic prosperity, 2 environmental quality (including the workplace and 3 social justice. An alternative, genuine, sustainable approach to development; the Integrated Human Ecosystem Approach will be described and contrasted with neoliberal development. The IHE approach was developed by The International Development Research Center of Canada in 2001. In this approach, the triple bottom line is not a simple tool for neoliberal development, but the focus of allocation and management of resources for sustainable development. The acquisition of only state power by governments opposed to neoliberalism is necessary but not sufficient condition to successfully find a human alternative to the market ideology. A road map needs to be developed in which a clear definition of technologies that permit the acquisition and implementation of an alternative ideology to achieve "social power." The IHE model provides developing countries with the basis for that ideology.

  6. Measuring sustainable development using a multi-criteria model: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Antonio; Cortina, Carla

    2010-11-01

    This paper shows how Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can help in a complex process such as the assessment of the level of sustainability of a certain area. The paper presents the results of a study in which a model for measuring sustainability was implemented to better aid public policy decisions regarding sustainability. In order to assess sustainability in specific areas, a methodological approach based on multi-criteria analysis has been developed. The aim is to rank areas in order to understand the specific technical and/or financial support that they need to develop sustainable growth. The case study presented is an assessment of the level of sustainability in different areas of an Italian Region using the MCDA approach. Our results show that MCDA is a proper approach for sustainability assessment. The results are easy to understand and the evaluation path is clear and transparent. This is what decision makers need for having support to their decisions. The multi-criteria model for evaluation has been developed respecting the sustainable development economic theory, so that final results can have a clear meaning in terms of sustainability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A fuzzy multi-objective optimization model for sustainable reverse logistics network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Paam, Parichehr; Abtahi, Amir Reza

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the environmental impact, increasing the degree of social responsibility, and considering the economic motivations of organizations are three significant features in designing a reverse logistics network under sustainability respects. Developing a model, which can simultaneously consider...... a multi-echelon multi-period multi-objective model for a sustainable reverse logistics network. To reflect all aspects of sustainability, we try to minimize the present value of costs, as well as environmental impacts, and optimize the social responsibility as objective functions of the model. In order...

  8. Design thinking to enhance the sustainable business modelling process - A workshop based on a value mapping process

    OpenAIRE

    Geissdoerfer, Martin; Bocken, Nancy MP; Hultink, Erik Jan

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier LtdSustainable business model innovation is an emerging topic, but only few tools are currently available to assist companies in sustainable business modelling. This paper works towards closing this gap by bringing together ‘design thinking’ and ‘sustainable business model innovation’ to refine the creative process of developing sustainable value propositions and improve the overall business modelling process. This paper proposes a new workshop framework based on a value mappi...

  9. A graphical representation model for telemedicine and telehealth center sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundim, Rosângela Simões; Chao, Wen Lung

    2011-04-01

    This study shows the creation of a graphical representation after the application of a questionnaire to evaluate the indicative factors of a sustainable telemedicine and telehealth center in São Paulo, Brazil. We categorized the factors into seven domain areas: institutional, functional, economic-financial, renewal, academic-scientific, partnerships, and social welfare, which were plotted into a graphical representation. The developed graph was shown to be useful when used in the same institution over a long period and complemented with secondary information from publications, archives, and administrative documents to support the numerical indicators. Its use may contribute toward monitoring the factors that define telemedicine and telehealth center sustainability. When systematically applied, it may also be useful for identifying the specific characteristics of the telemedicine and telehealth center, to support its organizational development.

  10. Modeling of Supersonic Combustion Systems for Sustained Hypersonic Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Neill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through Computational Fluid Dynamics and validation, an optimal scramjet combustor has been designed based on twin-strut Hydrogen injection to sustain flight at a desired speed of Mach 8. An investigation undertaken into the efficacy of supersonic combustion through various means of injection saw promising results for Hydrogen-based systems, whereby strut-style injectors were selected over transverse injectors based on their pressure recovery performance and combustive efficiency. The final configuration of twin-strut injectors provided robust combustion and a stable region of net thrust (1873 kN in the nozzle. Using fixed combustor inlet parameters and injection equivalence ratio, the finalized injection method advanced to the early stages of two-dimensional (2-D and three-dimensional (3-D scramjet engine integration. The overall investigation provided a feasible supersonic combustion system, such that Mach 8 sustained cruise could be achieved by the aircraft concept in a computational design domain.

  11. ASM Scientific Writing and Publishing Institute: Program Impacts and Future Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Hulede, Irene V.; Amy Chang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific writing is one of the most essential skills in science. Writing has numerous benefits and is a critical skill for writing grants, theses, and manuscripts.  The ability to publish research is as almost as important as conducting it. Writing and publishing scientific papers can be difficult for beginning researchers. To help trainees succeed in their efforts to publish, the ASM Committee on Graduate and Postdoctoral Education has offered the ASM Scientific Writing and Publishing Inst...

  12. Sustainable Business Models - The Case of Car Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Vaskelainen, Taneli

    2014-01-01

    Replacing actual ownership of a commodity with a service that allows for temporary customer use of the commodity has been shown to be a good way to make industries more sustainable while retaining or even improving customer experience. However these kinds of services are often unsuccessful, because breaking the existing regimes requires systemic change involving enabling technologies, favourable governmental regulation, a successful market adoption strategy and a profitable busine...

  13. Decision support modeling for sustainable food logistics management

    OpenAIRE

    Soysal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary For the last two decades, food logistics systems have seen the transition from traditional Logistics Management (LM) to Food Logistics Management (FLM), and successively, to Sustainable Food Logistics Management (SFLM). Accordingly, food industry has been subject to the recent challenges of reducing the amount of food waste and raising energy efficiency to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These additional challenges add to the complexity of logistics operations and require advanced de...

  14. Sustainability analysis of the Ahuachapan geothermal field: management and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterrosa, Manuel; Montalvo Lopez, Francisco E. [LaGeo S.A. de C.V., Reservoir Engineering, 15 Av. Sur, Colonia Utila, Santa Tecla, La Libertad (El Salvador)

    2010-12-15

    The Ahuachapan geothermal field (AGF) is located in north western El Salvador. To date, 53 wells (20 producers and 8 injectors) have been drilled in the Ahuachapan geothermal field and the adjacent Chipilapa area. Over the past 33 years, 550 Mtonnes have been extracted from the reservoir, and the reservoir pressure has declined by more than 15 bars. By 1985, the large pressure drawdown due to over-exploitation of the resource reduced the power generation capacity to only 45 MW{sub e}. Several activities were carried out in the period 1997-2005 as part of ''stabilization'' and ''optimization'' projects to increase the electric energy generation to 85 MW{sub e}, with a total mass extraction of 850 kg/s. LaGeo is assessing the sustainability of geothermal reservoir utilization. Preliminary results indicate the planned power production and mass extraction (95 MW, 900 kg/s) cannot be sustained for more than 50 years using current power plant technology. To sustain the exploitation for at least 100 years, the following changes should be implemented: (1) improve the gathering system using large-diameter steam pipelines, (2) expand the exploitation area to the southeast and southwest, and (3) reduce the inlet pressure of the turbines to less than 4 bars. (author)

  15. Soil mapping and processes modelling for sustainable land management: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Bradley; Smetanova, Anna; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Novara, Agata; Cerda, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil maps and models are fundamental for a correct and sustainable land management (Pereira et al., 2017). They are an important in the assessment of the territory and implementation of sustainable measures in urban areas, agriculture, forests, ecosystem services, among others. Soil maps represent an important basis for the evaluation and restoration of degraded areas, an important issue for our society, as consequence of climate change and the increasing pressure of humans on the ecosystems (Brevik et al. 2016; Depellegrin et al., 2016). The understanding of soil spatial variability and the phenomena that influence this dynamic is crucial to the implementation of sustainable practices that prevent degradation, and decrease the economic costs of soil restoration. In this context, soil maps and models are important to identify areas affected by degradation and optimize the resources available to restore them. Overall, soil data alone or integrated with data from other sciences, is an important part of sustainable land management. This information is extremely important land managers and decision maker's implements sustainable land management policies. The objective of this work is to present a review about the advantages of soil mapping and process modeling for sustainable land management. References Brevik, E., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Baumgarten, A., Jordán, A. (2016) Historical perspectives and future needs in soil mapping, classification and pedological modelling, Geoderma, 264, Part B, 256-274. Depellegrin, D.A., Pereira, P., Misiune, I., Egarter-Vigl, L. (2016) Mapping Ecosystem Services in Lithuania. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 23, 441-455. Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B., Smetanova, A., Depellegrin, D., Misiune, I., Novara, A., Cerda, A. (2017) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land management. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B

  16. Renewing and improving the business model toward sustainability in theory and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Del Baldo, Mara; Baldarelli, Maria-Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    The paper aims to analyse and discuss the evolution towards a sustainable business model and to focus on the motivations and the implications on the mission, the governance and the accountability of companies...

  17. The sustainability of urban water supply in low income countries: a livelihoods model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipuro, W.; Wiering, M.A.; Naerssen, A.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Urban water supply can be managed by public institutions, private companies, communities, or by combinations thereof. Controversy continues over which system can most effectively improve livelihoods. Responding to this discussion, an extended model of sustainable livelihoods analysis is proposed

  18. GLAMURS - Green Lifestyles, Alternative Models and Upscaling Regional Sustainability. Case Study Exchange

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adela Fofiu; Claudian Dobos

    2015-01-01

      In the period of 17-20 June 2015, the West University of Timisoara hosted the GLAMURS - Green Lifestyles, Alternative Models and Upscaling Regional Sustainability - Case Study Exchange Conference...

  19. Creating A Sustainable Model of Spine Care in Underserved Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta; Outerbridge, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    adequate care, World Spine Care (WSC) was established to "improve lives in underserved communities through sustainable, integrated, evidence-based, spinal care." WSC is comprised of volunteers and institutions from 6 continents and several countries, and incorporates a Board of Directors, an executive......) facilitation of opportunities for training graduate students in a variety of health-related fields. World Spine Care has (a) recognized the enormous need to establish clinical programs aimed at easing the suffering and disability associated with spinal disorders in resource-poor communities, (b) shown...

  20. Modelling management process of key drivers for economic sustainability in the modern conditions of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchulina E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is about issues concerning the management of driver for manufacturing enterprise economic sustainability and manufacturing enterprise sustainability assessment as the key aspect of the management of enterprise economic sustainability. The given issues become topical as new requirements for the methods of manufacturing enterprise management in the modern conditions of market economy occur. An economic sustainability model that is considered in the article is an integration of enterprise economic growth, economic balance of external and internal environment and economic sustainability. The method of assessment of economic sustainability of a manufacturing enterprise proposed in the study allows to reveal some weaknesses in the enterprise performance, and untapped reserves, which can be further used to improve the economic sustainability and efficiency of the enterprise. The management of manufacturing enterprise economic sustainability is one of the most important factors of business functioning and development in modern market economy. The relevance of this trend is increasing in accordance with the objective requirements of the growing volumes of production and sale, the increasing complexity of economic relations, changing external environment of an enterprise.

  1. A Model of the Temporal Dynamics of Knowledge Brokerage in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkinen, Janne I.

    2016-01-01

    I develop a conceptual model of the temporal dynamics of knowledge brokerage for sustainable development. Brokerage refers to efforts to make research and policymaking more accessible to each other. The model enables unbiased and systematic consideration of knowledge brokerage as part of policy evolution. The model is theoretically grounded in…

  2. A toolkit modeling approach for sustainable forest management planning: achieving balance between science and local needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Sturtevant; Andrew Fall; Daniel D. Kneeshaw; Neal P. P. Simon; Michael J. Papaik; Kati Berninger; Frederik Doyon; Don G. Morgan; Christian Messier

    2007-01-01

    To assist forest managers in balancing an increasing diversity of resource objectives, we developed a toolkit modeling approach for sustainable forest management (SFM). The approach inserts a meta-modeling strategy into a collaborative modeling framework grounded in adaptive management philosophy that facilitates participation among stakeholders, decision makers, and...

  3. Description of selected global models for scenario studies on environmentally sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkes JA; Grosskurt J; Ienburg AM; Rothman DS; Vuuren DP van; OECD; ICIS; MNV; ICIS; LAE

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a survey of past and present integrated models that have been used for the generation and analysis of global scenarios. It examines the usefulness of the models for scenario studies on environmentally sustainable development. It does so by evaluating the models in terms of inter

  4. Vernacular architecture as codified model for the contemporary sustainable project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Dipasquale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vernacular settlements present a high degree of flexibility and a good capacity of adaptation to the environmental, social, economic and cultural conditions of the contexts in which they develop. The “VerSus. Lessons from Vernacular Heritage to Sustainable Architecture” research project, financed within the European Culture 2007-2013 project, is aimed at the codification of the lessons of environmental, socio-economic and socio-cultural lessons derived from the vernacular heritage, with the purpose of establishing strategies, solutions and good practices that may be adapted and used in an innovative way in the recovery of historical centres and in the design and planning of an appropriate and resilient architecture capable of responding to the requirements of contemporary life.

  5. Sustainability of the integrated chronic disease management model at primary care clinics in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmall, Shaidah

    2016-01-01

    Background An integrated chronic disease management (ICDM) model consisting of four components (facility reorganisation, clinical supportive management, assisted self-supportive management and strengthening of support systems and structures outside the facility) has been implemented across 42 primary health care clinics in South Africa with a view to improve the operational efficiency and patient clinical outcomes. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the sustainability of the facility reorganisation and clinical support components 18 months after the initiation. Setting The study was conducted at 37 of the initiating clinics across three districts in three provinces of South Africa. Methods The National Health Service (NHS) Institute for Innovation and Improvement Sustainability Model (SM) self-assessment tool was used to assess sustainability. Results Bushbuckridge had the highest mean sustainability score of 71.79 (95% CI: 63.70–79.89) followed by West Rand Health District (70.25 (95% CI: 63.96–76.53)) and Dr Kenneth Kaunda District (66.50 (95% CI: 55.17–77.83)). Four facilities (11%) had an overall sustainability score of less than 55. Conclusion The less than optimal involvement of clinical leadership (doctors), negative staff behaviour towards the ICDM, adaptability or flexibility of the model to adapt to external factors and infrastructure limitation have the potential to negatively affect the sustainability and scale-up of the model. PMID:28155314

  6. Sustainability of the integrated chronic disease management model at primary care clinics in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Ozayr H; Asmall, Shaidah; Voce, Anna

    2016-11-17

    An integrated chronic disease management (ICDM) model consisting of four components (facility reorganisation, clinical supportive management, assisted self-supportive management and strengthening of support systems and structures outside the facility) has been implemented across 42 primary health care clinics in South Africa with a view to improve the operational efficiency and patient clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the sustainability of the facility reorganisation and clinical support components 18 months after the initiation. The study was conducted at 37 of the initiating clinics across three districts in three provinces of South Africa. The National Health Service (NHS) Institute for Innovation and Improvement Sustainability Model (SM) self-assessment tool was used to assess sustainability. Bushbuckridge had the highest mean sustainability score of 71.79 (95% CI: 63.70-79.89) followed by West Rand Health District (70.25 (95% CI: 63.96-76.53)) and Dr Kenneth Kaunda District (66.50 (95% CI: 55.17-77.83)). Four facilities (11%) had an overall sustainability score of less than 55. The less than optimal involvement of clinical leadership (doctors), negative staff behaviour towards the ICDM, adaptability or flexibility of the model to adapt to external factors and infrastructure limitation have the potential to negatively affect the sustainability and scale-up of the model.

  7. Towards an Agent Based Framework for Modelling Smart Self-Sustainable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomičić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-sustainability is a property of a system; a system is considered to be self-sustainable if it can sustain itself without external support in an observed period of time. If this property is mapped to a human settlement in context of resources (water, energy, food, etc., it would describe a human settlement which is independent of external resources (like the national electrical grid or a central water distribution system, where such external resources are either not available, or not desirable. This article contributes to presenting the state-of-the-art overview of self-sustainability-related research. While self-sustainability as in the above described form was not a direct subject of research, there are several fields which are either related to, or could be of significant value to the self-sustainability research in this context. The extensive literature overview also showed no frameworks for modeling self sustainable systems in the context of human settlements. Herein a motivation for using agent-based modeling and simulation techniques will be given.

  8. Sustainable Global Competitiveness Model as a New Strategic Opportunity for the Companies in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šnircová Jana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with global competitiveness is nowadays the strategic issue for the Slovak companies in context of sustainability. It means for managers of company to define new future strategic goals, to identify current position in global market, primarily to focus the strategy on sustainable global competitiveness and to assess the competitiveness in new way regarding sustainability and social corporate responsibility. The aim of this paper is to present the contribution to holistic micro and macro economical view on competitiveness of company in context of sustainable development in global environment. The introduced sustainable global competitiveness model is based on our experiences within the research in manufacturing companies in Slovakia. It is a visualization of enterprise as a system with all relation performing in its environment. Sustainable global competitiveness model comprises the three pillar principle of the sustainable development, modified Porter´s value chain, and economical environment represented with Global Competitiveness Index (GCI and other factors of environment which influence the company.

  9. The Role of Corporate Sustainability in a Low-Cost Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer; Pedersen, Maria Medelby; Clemmensen, Søren Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    This multi-level case study illustrates how corporate sustainability contributes to the low-cost business model of a Scandinavian fashion company. Contrary to parts of the extant literature, we do not find that corporate sustainability directly adds measurable value (e.g. a better brand image......); neither does it exert coercive control over critical supplier relationships. However, corporate sustainability minimizes the downside risk of the business model. It does so by (1) creating implicit contracts that reach beyond traditional ‘shareholder value’, (2) transferring risk to suppliers and (3......) improving leadership by motivating management and employees, and by directing their attention to critical issues. For companies, we offer the insight that corporate sustainability is a necessary complement to shareholder value, even if the relationship is not obvious at first sight. We also suggest...

  10. Structural model to evaluate the effect of participation and satisfaction on ecotourism sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kencana, Eka N.; Manutami, T.

    2017-10-01

    This paper is directed to study the effect of local community participation and visitors’ satisfaction on ecotourism sustainability at Badung regency of Bali province, Indonesia. Two important aspects regarding ecotourism sustainability had been studied, i.e. (a) economic benefits for local people and (b) tourists’ satisfaction. Applying variance-based structural equation modeling, data were collected in July 2015 from local community leaders of Kiadan Village at Badung regency and tourists whom visited this village, were analysed. Four latent variables, namely (a) community participation, (b) economic benefits, (c) tourists’ satisfaction, and (d) ecotourism sustainability, were used to build structural model. The results showed sustainability of Kiadan’s ecotourism was significantly affected by local community participation and visitors’ satisfaction although community participation’s effect slightly greater than tourists’ satisfaction with path values for participation and satisfaction as much as 0.651 and 0.627, respectively.

  11. The Opportunities and Challenges of Persuasive Technology in Creating Sustainable Innovation and Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Lindgren, Peter

    2015-01-01

    strength of NGO’s and the increasing sustainable agenda of global businesses. However, getting knowledge of the stakeholders and their behavior as well as the potentials in actively supporting more sustainable behaviors provides totally new and unique opportunities for radical and customer......-focused sustainable innovation and business model innovation, which is explored through a theoretical review and case examples in the present study. The findings reveal a number of key opportunities to pursue and a number of critical challenges to adjust to as presented in propositions.......The opportunities of persuasive technology in facilitating sustainable innovation and business model innovation have been witnessed continuously during the last decade. The unique ability of persuasive technology in interacting and mediating across users, customers, decisions makers and other...

  12. Institutional models of Bunaken National Park (BNP management to ensure sustainability of ecological and economic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunaken Marine Park is one of the world's most beautiful marine tourism which has a unique coral reefs, turtles and diversity of pelagic fish. Currently Bunaken Marine Park has become an excellent tourist attraction for diving. Since the number of visitors and community activities around the park are continues to increase; there have been severe damages to coral reefs as well as polluting the environment around the marine park. Therefore, the sustainability of economic and social benefits is threatened. To avoid damage to coral reefs and pollutions, it is necessary the institute manager which can ensure the sustainability of he sustainability of the tourism attraction. Interpretative Method Structure Modeling (ISM was chosen to design the institutional model appropriate to the conditions surrounding the object, which is able to manage Bunaken Marine Park as a sustainable tourist attraction.

  13. Embedding the concept of service oriented architecture into software sustainability evaluation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ruzita; Hussain, Azham; Baharom, Fauziah

    2017-10-01

    Software sustainability evaluation is a measurement mechanism which involved several criteria of software development through the characteristic and sub-characteristic with requirement to meet the needs at the present until to the future generation. The measurement mechanism can support to achieve developing software towards sustainability perspective such as environment, economic and social. This paper embedded the concept of Service-Oriented Architecture into sustainability evaluation model to support the measurement criteria in the way to build software flexibility, reusability and agility. The objective is to propose several characteristic of software development with utilizing the concept of sustainability and embedded with SOA concept. The mapping criteria of SOA and software development characteristic significantly improve the measurement criteria that can be addressed in the measurement model.

  14. ASME code considerations for the compact heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestell, James [MPR Associates Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States); Sham, Sam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-31

    robustness. Classic shell and tube designs will be large and costly, and may only be appropriate in steam generator service in the SHX where boiling inside the tubes occurs. For other energy conversion systems, all of these features can be met in a compact heat exchanger design. This report will examine some of the ASME Code issues that will need to be addressed to allow use of a Code-qualified compact heat exchanger in IHX or SHX nuclear service. Most effort will focus on the IHX, since the safety-related (Class A) design rules are more extensive than those for important-to-safety (Class B) or commercial rules that are relevant to the SHX.

  15. 46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other... ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES General § 56.01-5 Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and... accordance with ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), as limited, modified, or replaced...

  16. Reducing the operational energy demand in buildings using building information modeling tools and sustainability approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Shoubi, Mojtaba Valinejad; Shoubi, Masoud Valinejad; Bagchi, Ashutosh; Barough, Azin Shakiba

    2015-01-01

    A sustainable building is constructed of materials that could decrease environmental impacts, such as energy usage, during the lifecycle of the building. Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been identified as an effective tool for building performance analysis virtually in the design stage. The main aims of this study were to assess various combinations of materials using BIM and identify alternative, sustainable solutions to reduce operational energy consumption. The amount of energy con...

  17. Application of the SUSTAIN Model to a Watershed-Scale Case for Water Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Low impact development (LID is a relatively new concept in land use management that aims to maintain hydrological conditions at a predevelopment level without deteriorating water quality during land development. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA developed the System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis Integration model (SUSTAIN to evaluate the performance of LID practices at different spatial scales; however, the application of this model has been limited relative to LID modeling. In this study, the SUSTAIN model was applied to a Taiwanese watershed. Model calibration and verification were performed, and different types of LID facilities were evaluated. The model simulation process and the verified model parameters could be used in other cases. Four LID scenarios combining bioretention ponds, grass swales, and pervious pavements were designed based on the land characteristics. For the SUSTAIN model simulation, the results showed that pollution reduction was mainly due to water quantity reduction, infiltration was the dominant mechanism and plant interception had a minor effect on the treatment. The simulation results were used to rank the primary areas for nonpoint source pollution and identify effective LID practices. In addition to the case study, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters was performed, showing that the soil infiltration rate was the most sensitive parameter affecting the LID performance. The objectives of the study are to confirm the applicability of the SUSTAIN model and to assess the effectiveness of LID practices in the studied watershed.

  18. An Integrated Model Based on a Hierarchical Indices System for Monitoring and Evaluating Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulin Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of world’s population presently resides in cities, and this number is expected to rise to ~70% by 2050. Increasing urbanization problems including population growth, urban sprawl, land use change, unemployment, and environmental degradation, have markedly impacted urban residents’ Quality of Life (QOL. Therefore, urban sustainability and its measurement have gained increasing attention from administrators, urban planners, and scientific communities throughout the world with respect to improving urban development and human well-being. The widely accepted definition of urban sustainability emphasizes the balancing development of three primary domains (urban economy, society, and environment. This article attempts to improve the aforementioned definition of urban sustainability by incorporating a human well-being dimension. Major problems identified in existing urban sustainability indicator (USI models include a weak integration of potential indicators, poor measurement and quantification, and insufficient spatial-temporal analysis. To tackle these challenges an integrated USI model based on a hierarchical indices system was established for monitoring and evaluating urban sustainability. This model can be performed by quantifying indicators using both traditional statistical approaches and advanced geomatic techniques based on satellite imagery and census data, which aims to provide a theoretical basis for a comprehensive assessment of urban sustainability from a spatial-temporal perspective.

  19. Implications for modeling casualty sustainment during peacekeeping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Christopher G; Zhang, Jinjin; Walker, G Jay

    2002-10-01

    Projections of the casualties expected during peacekeeping operations allow medical planners to assess in advance the medical resources needed to support such operations. Data detailing fatalities incurred in previous peacekeeping operations were extracted from several U.N. sources. From these data, rates of killed-in-action were computed for the deployed forces. One hundred eighty-eight peacekeeping incidents in which casualties were sustained were also examined to derive wounded-in-action rates. The estimated mean wounded-in-action rate for these operations was 3.16 per 1,000 strength per year; the estimated wounded-in-action rate for individual operations ranged from 0.49 to 12.50. There were an average of 3.8 wounded and 0.86 killed in the 188 casualty incidents examined. Thirty-eight percent of the wounds were described as serious. The casualty incidence derived in this study can provide a basis for estimating the casualties likely in future peacekeeping operations.

  20. A Novel Approach for Assessing the Performance of Sustainable Urbanization Based on Structural Equation Modeling: A China Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudan Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization process has brought problems to China, such as traffic congestion, air pollution, water pollution and resources scarcity. Sustainable urbanization is commonly appreciated as an effective way to promote the sustainable development. The proper understanding of the sustainable urbanization performance is critical to provide governments with support in making urban development strategies and policies for guiding the sustainable development. This paper utilizes the method of Structural equation modeling (SEM to establish an assessment model for measuring sustainable urbanization performance. Four unobserved endogenous variables, economic variable, social variable, environment variable and resource variable, and 21 observed endogenous variables comprise the SEM model. A case study of the 31 provinces in China demonstrates the validity of the SEM model and the analysis results indicated that the assessment model could help make more effective policies and strategies for improving urban sustainability by recognizing the statue of sustainable urbanization.

  1. ASME B89.4.19 Performance Evaluation Tests and Geometric Misalignments in Laser Trackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralikrishnan, Bala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and unintended offsets, tilts, and eccentricity of the mechanical and optical components in laser trackers introduce systematic errors in the measured spherical coordinates (angles and range readings and possibly in the calculated lengths of reference artifacts. It is desirable that the tests described in the ASME B89.4.19 Standard [1] be sensitive to these geometric misalignments so that any resulting systematic errors are identified during performance evaluation. In this paper, we present some analysis, using error models and numerical simulation, of the sensitivity of the length measurement system tests and two-face system tests in the B89.4.19 Standard to misalignments in laser trackers. We highlight key attributes of the testing strategy adopted in the Standard and propose new length measurement system tests that demonstrate improved sensitivity to some misalignments. Experimental results with a tracker that is not properly error corrected for the effects of the misalignments validate claims regarding the proposed new length tests.

  2. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences

  3. Assessing the sustainability of wheat-based cropping systems using APSIM: Model parameterisation and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeller, C.; Pala, M.; Manschadi, A.M.; Meinke, H.B.; Sauerborn, J.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the sustainability of crop and soil management practices in wheat-based rotations requires a well-tested model with the demonstrated ability to sensibly predict crop productivity and changes in the soil resource. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) suite of models was

  4. Prototyping and farm system modelling - Partners on the road towards more sustainable farm systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, B.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Leeuwis, C.; Wijnands, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    Farm system modelling and prototyping are two research methods proposed to enhance the process of developing sustainable farm systems. Farm system models provide means to formalize, expand and refine expert knowledge and to integrate this with scientific agro-ecological knowledge at the farm level.

  5. Knee cartilage segmentation using active shape models and local binary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Germán.; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Segmentation of knee cartilage has been useful for opportune diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). This paper presents a semiautomatic segmentation technique based on Active Shape Models (ASM) combined with Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and its approaches to describe the surrounding texture of femoral cartilage. The proposed technique is tested on a 16-image database of different patients and it is validated through Leave- One-Out method. We compare different segmentation techniques: ASM-LBP, ASM-medianLBP, and ASM proposed by Cootes. The ASM-LBP approaches are tested with different ratios to decide which of them describes the cartilage texture better. The results show that ASM-medianLBP has better performance than ASM-LBP and ASM. Furthermore, we add a routine which improves the robustness versus two principal problems: oversegmentation and initialization.

  6. Conceptual Model Development of Sustainability Practices: The Case of Port Operations for Collaboration and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalwon Kang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability practices in port operations are critical issue to achieve port sustainability involving economic, social and environmental issues. To assist ports to successfully implant sustainability practices into their operations, this paper conceptualized the structure of sustainability practices in international port operations, by clustering the relevant issues, empirically. Using 203 samples collected from port stakeholders in the major ports in Northeast Asia, multi-measurement items were analyzed on exploratory factor analysis in SPSS 21. Results generated a structure that consists of five sub-dimensions conceptualizing sustainability practices in the context of port operations. As operative practices to accommodate current and future demands in a port, the five-factor model clustering the relevant issues incorporate environmental technologies, process and quality improvement, monitoring and upgrading, communication and cooperation, and active participation. Providing useful insights for strategic agenda to assist ports to incorporate sustainability practices in their operations, the five-factor model offer both a descriptive and diagnostic management tool for future improvement in port operations.

  7. The Integrated Model of Sustainability Perspective in Spermatophyta Learning Based on Local Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartadiyati, E.; Rizqiyah, K.; Wiyanto; Rusilowati, A.; Prasetia, A. P. B.

    2017-09-01

    In present condition, culture is diminished, the change of social order toward the generation that has no policy and pro-sustainability; As well as the advancement of science and technology are often treated unwisely so as to excite local wisdom. It is therefore necessary to explore intra-curricular local wisdom in schools. This study aims to produce an integration model of sustainability perspectives based on local wisdom on spermatophyta material that is feasible and effective. This research uses define, design and develop stages to an integration model of sustainability perspectives based on local wisdom on spermatophyta material. The resulting product is an integration model of socio-cultural, economic and environmental sustainability perspective and formulated with preventive, preserve and build action on spermatophyta material consisting of identification and classification, metagenesis and the role of spermatophyta for human life. The integration model of sustainability perspective in learning spermatophyta based on local wisdom is considered proven to be effective in raising sustainability’s awareness of high school students.

  8. Determining business models for financial sustainability in regional health information organizations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Roxana; Dunn, Kim

    2008-11-06

    While the promise and enthusiasm for regional health information organizations (RHIOs) are immense, a significant issue regarding this type of health information exchange, (HIE) remains unclear: financial sustainability. As of today, there is a clear lack of concrete business models implemented in RHIOs' projects. The purpose of this study is to conduct a literature review of the current state of RHIOs adaptation and implementation of business models for successful financial sustainability, as well as evaluate existing RHIOs financial situation to determine and recommend best models for economic uphold. This literature review will be the starting point for thorough analysis and understanding of the economic factors required for RHIOs to generate a return on investment (ROI) and become self-sustainable.

  9. Model Development on Awareness of Education for Sustainable Schools Development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifah Mahat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ἀis article aims to develope the Structural Equation Model (SEM on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD student awareness around Sustainable Schools in Malaysia. ἀe cluster sampling technique was used in selecting the school samples and the respondents were then also selected through simple random sampling among upper second-ary pupils. A questionnaire survey was administered for 447 pupils, to evaluate the aḀer eᴀects of the SLAAS. ἀe results showed that the model has been developed to provide an overview of each construct (knowledge on SLAAS Program, ESD content knowledge, ESD practices knowledge, attitudes of ESD and behavioral constructs of ESD formed a ᰀt model. ἀe implication of this article showed that SLAAS Program implemented in Malaysia can be an indicator for the achievement of sustainable school.

  10. Supporting the Development of Environmentally Sustainable PSS by Means of the Ecodesign Maturity Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2015-01-01

    for the integration of the new practices for PSS development into the EcoM2. In total, 17 best practices for PSS development were identified in this research, and integrated into the EcoM2. The proposed EcoM2 for PSS model has the potential to support the development of environmentally sustainable PSS.......Despite their substantial potential for enabling increased environmental performance, product/service-systems (PSS) are not intrinsically environmentally sustainable. In order to ensure increased sustainability performance, PSSand related business models needs to be developed taking into account...... best practice for ecodesign implementation and management. The Ecodesign Maturity Model (EcoM2) is a management framework that supports manufacturing companies to consistently and systematicallyimplement ecodesign, based on a step-by-step approach. EcoM2 contains a database containing more than 600...

  11. The Role of Systems Modeling for Sustainable Development Policy Analysis: the Case of Bio-Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Chan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic systems modeling technique has been developed to assess technologies according to the criterion of sustainability. In a case study, the potential contribution of bio-ethanol toward achieving Canada's commitment to the Kyoto targets for greenhouse gas reductions is analyzed. The analysis concludes that, although bio-ethanol may help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the technology by itself is insufficient to meet the Kyoto target. Applying the systems modeling approach to analyze sustainability helps highlight those policy issues that warrant more in-depth study. Although the systems model may not provide definitive answers, it raises relevant questions about physical constraints that might be encountered and estimates the extent to which sustainability targets may be met under various scenarios.

  12. Systematic Assessment Through Mathematical Model For Sustainability Reporting In Malaysia Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina

    2017-08-01

    Sustainability assessment have been studied and increasingly recognized as a powerful and valuable tool to measure the performance of sustainability in a company or industry. Nowadays, there are many existing tools that the users can use for sustainable development. There are various initiatives exists on tools for sustainable development, though most of the tools focused on environmental, economy and social aspects. Using the Green Project Management (GPM) P5 concept that suggests the firms not only needs to engage in mainly 3Ps principle: planet, profit, people responsible behaviours, but also, product and process need to be included in the practices, this study will introduce a new mathematical model for assessing the level of sustainability practice in the company. Based on multiple case studies, involving in-depth interviews with senior directors, feedback from experts, and previous engineering report, a systematic approach is done with the aims to obtain the respective data from the feedbacks and to be developed into a new mathematical model. By reviewing on the methodology of this research it comprises of several phases where it starts with the analyzation of the parameters and criteria selection according to the Malaysian context of industry. Moving on to the next step is data analysis involving regression and finally the normalisation process will be done to determine the result of this research either succeeded or not. Lastly, this study is expected to provide a clear guideline to any company or organization to assimilate the sustainability assessment in their development stage. In future, the better understanding towards the sustainability assessment is attained to be aligned unitedly in order to integrated the process approach into the systematic approach for the sustainability assessment.

  13. Application of mathematical modeling in sustained release delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    This review, presenting as starting point the concept of the mathematical modeling, is aimed at the physical and mathematical description of the most important mechanisms regulating drug delivery from matrix systems. The precise knowledge of the delivery mechanisms allows us to set up powerful mathematical models which, in turn, are essential for the design and optimization of appropriate drug delivery systems. The fundamental mechanisms for drug delivery from matrices are represented by drug diffusion, matrix swelling, matrix erosion, drug dissolution with possible recrystallization (e.g., as in the case of amorphous and nanocrystalline drugs), initial drug distribution inside the matrix, matrix geometry, matrix size distribution (in the case of spherical matrices of different diameter) and osmotic pressure. Depending on matrix characteristics, the above-reported variables may play a different role in drug delivery; thus the mathematical model needs to be built solely on the most relevant mechanisms of the particular matrix considered. Despite the somewhat diffident behavior of the industrial world, in the light of the most recent findings, we believe that mathematical modeling may have a tremendous potential impact in the pharmaceutical field. We do believe that mathematical modeling will be more and more important in the future especially in the light of the rapid advent of personalized medicine, a novel therapeutic approach intended to treat each single patient instead of the 'average' patient.

  14. Construction cost prediction model for conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Subhi Alshamrani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature lacks in initial cost prediction models for college buildings, especially comparing costs of sustainable and conventional buildings. A multi-regression model was developed for conceptual initial cost estimation of conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America. RS Means was used to estimate the national average of construction costs for 2014, which was subsequently utilized to develop the model. The model could predict the initial cost per square feet with two structure types made of steel and concrete. The other predictor variables were building area, number of floors and floor height. The model was developed in three major stages, such as preliminary diagnostics on data quality, model development and validation. The developed model was successfully tested and validated with real-time data.

  15. Modeling of Sustainable Base Production by Microbial Electrolysis Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Maxime; Sugnaux, Marc; Comninellis, Christos; Nealson, Kenneth; Fischer, Fabian

    2016-07-07

    A predictive model for the microbial/electrochemical base formation from wastewater was established and compared to experimental conditions within a microbial electrolysis cell. A Na2 SO4 /K2 SO4 anolyte showed that model prediction matched experimental results. Using Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a strong base (pH≈13) was generated using applied voltages between 0.3 and 1.1 V. Due to the use of bicarbonate, the pH value in the anolyte remained unchanged, which is required to maintain microbial activity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A pedagogical model for integrative training in conservation and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith Welch-Devine; Dean Hardy; J. Peter Brosius; Nik Heynen

    2014-01-01

    The benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary training are well documented, and several reviews have discussed the particular importance of interdisciplinary training for conservation scholars and practitioners. We discuss the progress within one university program to implement specific training models, elements, and tools designed to move beyond remaining barriers...

  17. A pedagogical model for integrative training in conservation and sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Welch-Devine

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary training are well documented, and several reviews have discussed the particular importance of interdisciplinary training for conservation scholars and practitioners. We discuss the progress within one university program to implement specific training models, elements, and tools designed to move beyond remaining barriers to graduate-level, interdisciplinary conservation education.

  18. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  19. Modelling habits as self-sustaining patterns of sensorimotor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Deems Egbert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent history of psychology and cognitive neuroscience, the notion of habit hasbeen reduced to a stimulus-triggered response probability correlation. In this paper we usea computational model to present an alternative theoretical view (with some philosophicalimplications, where habits are seen as self-maintaining patterns of behavior that shareproperties in common with self-maintaining biological processes, and that inhabit a complexecological context, including the presence and influence of other habits. Far from mechanicalautomatisms, this organismic and self-organizing concept of habit can overcome the dominatingatomistic and statistical conceptions, and the high temporal resolution effects of situatedness,embodiment and sensorimotor loops emerge as playing a more central, subtle and complex rolein the organization of behavior. The model is based on a novel iterant deformable sensorimotormedium (IDSM, designed such that trajectories taken through sensorimotor-space increasethe likelihood that in the future, similar trajectories will be taken. We couple the IDSM to sensorsand motors of a simulated body and environment and show that under certain conditions,the IDSM forms self-maintaining patterns of activity that operate across the IDSM, the body,and the environment. We present various environments and the resulting habits that form inthem. The model acts as an abstraction of habits at a much needed sensorimotor meso-scalebetween microscopic neuron-based models and macroscopic descriptions of behavior. Finally,we discuss how this model and extensions of it can help us understand aspects of behavioralself-organization, historicity and autonomy that remain out of the scope of contemporaryrepresentationalist frameworks.

  20. Modeling habits as self-sustaining patterns of sensorimotor behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Matthew D.; Barandiaran, Xabier E.

    2014-01-01

    In the recent history of psychology and cognitive neuroscience, the notion of habit has been reduced to a stimulus-triggered response probability correlation. In this paper we use a computational model to present an alternative theoretical view (with some philosophical implications), where habits are seen as self-maintaining patterns of behavior that share properties in common with self-maintaining biological processes, and that inhabit a complex ecological context, including the presence and influence of other habits. Far from mechanical automatisms, this organismic and self-organizing concept of habit can overcome the dominating atomistic and statistical conceptions, and the high temporal resolution effects of situatedness, embodiment and sensorimotor loops emerge as playing a more central, subtle and complex role in the organization of behavior. The model is based on a novel “iterant deformable sensorimotor medium (IDSM),” designed such that trajectories taken through sensorimotor-space increase the likelihood that in the future, similar trajectories will be taken. We couple the IDSM to sensors and motors of a simulated robot, and show that under certain conditions, the IDSM conditions, the IDSM forms self-maintaining patterns of activity that operate across the IDSM, the robot's body, and the environment. We present various environments and the resulting habits that form in them. The model acts as an abstraction of habits at a much needed sensorimotor “meso-scale” between microscopic neuron-based models and macroscopic descriptions of behavior. Finally, we discuss how this model and extensions of it can help us understand aspects of behavioral self-organization, historicity and autonomy that remain out of the scope of contemporary representationalist frameworks. PMID:25152724

  1. Designing sustainable and economically attractive brownfield revitalization options using an integrated assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, S; Morio, M; Bartke, S; Rohr-Zänker, R; Finkel, M

    2011-03-01

    We describe the development of an integrated assessment model which evaluates redevelopment options of large contaminated brownfields and we present the application of the model in a case study. Aiming to support efficient and sustainable revitalization and communication between stakeholders, the presented assessment model integrates three pinnacles of brownfield revitalization: (i) subsurface remediation and site preparation costs, (ii) market-oriented economic appraisal, and (iii) the expected contribution of planned future land use to sustainable community and regional development. For the assessment, focus is set on the early stage of the brownfield redevelopment process, which is characterized by limited data availability and by flexibility in land use planning and development scope. At this stage, revealing the consequences of adjustments and alterations in planning options can foster efficiency in communication between the involved parties and thereby facilitates the brownfield revitalization process. Results from the case-study application indicate that the integrated assessment provides help in the identification of land use options beneficial in both a sustainable and an economical sense. For the study site it is shown on one hand that brownfield redevelopment is not automatically in line with sustainable regional development, and on the other hand it is demonstrated that additional contributions to sustainability are not intrinsically tied to increased costs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustaining innovation collaboration models for a complex world

    CERN Document Server

    Carleton, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    In many ways, the process of innovation is a constant social dance, where the best dancers thrive by adapting new steps with multiple partners. The systematic and continuous generation of value in any innovation system relies on collaboration between different groups, who must overcome multiple, often competing agendas and needs to work together fruitfully over the long term. Featuring contributions from leading researchers, business leaders, and policymakers representing North America, Europe, India, Africa, and Australasia, this volume investigates different combinations of collaborative arrangements among innovation actors, many of which are changing conventional expectations of institutional relationships. Collectively, the authors demonstrate that no particular combination has emerged as the most dominant, or even resilient, model of innovation. Several authors expand on our understanding of the triple helix model, with both academics and practitioners looking to the quadruple helix (encompassing busines...

  3. Harnessing Data Flow and Modelling Potentials for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mwitondi, Kassim S; Bugrien, Jamal B

    2012-01-01

    Tackling some of the global challenges relating to health, poverty, business and the environment is known to be heavily dependent on the flow and utilisation of data. However, while enhancements in data generation, storage, modelling, dissemination and the related integration of global economies and societies are fast transforming the way we live and interact, the resulting dynamic, globalised and information society remains digitally divided. On the African continent, in particular, the divi...

  4. Probabilistic Design and Management of Sustainable Concrete Infrastructure Using Multi-Physics Service Life Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepech, Michael; Geiker, Mette; Michel, Alexander

    cycles in the broader architecture, engineering, construction (AEC) industry. Specifically, a probabilistic design framework for sustainable concrete infrastructure and a multi-physics service life model for reinforced concrete are presented as important points of integration for innovation between...... design, consists of concrete service life models and life cycle assessment (LCA) models. Both types of models (service life and LCA) are formulated stochastically so that the service life and time(s) to repair, as well as total sustainability impact, are described by a probability distribution. A central...... component of this framework is a newly developed multi-physics service life model of reinforced concrete members subjected to chloride-induced corrosion. The corrosion model is based on stringent physical laws describing thermodynamics and kinetics of electrochemical processes including various...

  5. Sustaining librarian vitality: embedded librarianship model for health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Mi, Misa

    2013-01-01

    With biomedical information widely accessible from anywhere at any time, health sciences libraries have become less centralized, and they are challenged to stay relevant and vital to the mission and strategic goals of their home institution. One solution is to embed librarians at strategic points in health professions' education, research, and patient care. This article discusses a proposed five-level model of embedded librarianship within the context of health sciences libraries and describes different roles, knowledge, and skills desirable for health sciences librarians working as embedded librarians.

  6. Developing a Sustainability Assessment Model to Analyze China’s Municipal Solid Waste Management Enhancement Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a sustainability assessment model for analysis and decision-making of the impact of China’s municipal solid waste management enhancement strategy options based on three waste treatment scenarios: landfill disposal, waste-to-energy incineration, and a combination of a material recovery facility and composting. The model employs life cycle assessment, health risk assessment, and full cost accounting to evaluate the treatment scenarios regarding safeguarding public health, protecting the environment and conserving resources, and economic feasibility. The model then uses an analytic hierarchy process for an overall appraisal of sustainability. Results suggest that a combination of material recovery and composting is the most efficient option. The study results clarify sustainable attributes, suitable predications, evaluation modeling, and stakeholder involvement issues in solid waste management. The demonstration of the use of sustainability assessment model (SAM provides flexibility by allowing assessment for a municipal solid waste management (MSWM strategy on a case-by-case basis, taking into account site-specific factors, therefore it has the potential for flexible applications in different communities/regions.

  7. Models of sustainable use of alder (Alnus acuminate Kunth hillside area in forest mist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco-Agudo Edilberto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Timber extractions non planned affect negatively in the reduction of forest cover, proper management and planned with minor extractions preserve the natural production allow for longer and sustainable forms a stand to benefit local populations and the same ecosystem. In the basin of Acero Marca has two stands Alnus acuminata that they are extracted continuously. With the purpose of planning the extraction of timber resourses were constructed and evaluated matrix models sustainable harvest of this species on the basis of structures of age. For this, two old structures we worked following a dendrochronological analysis and demographic model of the forestall mass, from making local information by transectos Gentry. According to the demographic model, the potential regression evidences significant differences (p 1 and could be the most appropriate for a planned extraction becoming sustainable over time. The second structure of age proved extremely sensitive to any change. To use the matrix models is not a simple path of going over. In spite of the results, the matrix models joined to ample experience of the observer would be able to present proposals of sustainable handling of the forestal resources.

  8. Extending the BSM platform with occurrence, transport and fate of micro-pollutants using the ASM-X framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Plósz, Benedek; Lindblom, Erik

    strategies in activated sludge systems is expanded with the ASM-X framework, to describe the behaviour of xenobiotic trace chemicals. In this paper, the capabilities of the BSM – ASM-X combined approach are illustrated with two cases studies. First, the occurrence of the antibiotic sulfamethaxole (SMX...

  9. The model of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kalchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the new "National security strategy of the Russian Federation, sustainable socio-economic development is the basis of national economic security. UN conceptual model of sustainable development is considered. The “Club of Rome” founder’s Aurelio Peccei point of view that world could be presented by interrelated but sufficiently stable elements: Nature, Man, Society, science-based Technique is mentioned (early 1980s. Today, sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is determined by: Nature, Man, Society, Technology, Economy and Infrastructure. To support this opinion, statements of leading scientists, politicians, business representatives are given: A. Aganbegian, M. Friedman, V. Sidorov, V. Inozemtsev, G. Gref. The author's model of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is presented. The position of Russia according to the “2016 Global R&D Funding Forecast”, compiled by well-known scientific periodical “R&DMagazine” is presented. Classification of indicators groups, taken from the Russian and foreign statistical data books (Russian Statistical Yearbook, IRI, R&D Magazine, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, CIA Factbook, OECD, according to the elements of an integrated system of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is given. Implementation aggregating partial indices into an integrated index for each group and their population as a whole is proposed. For each private indicator is proposed to develop three levels of threshold values (acceptable, marginal and critical for sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy and security. Since innovation is a key mechanism for the concept of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy in a new tenor of technology, the need for innovative development of all elements of the proposed integrated system is required.

  10. Sustainable Biomass Energy and Indigenous Cultural Models of Well-being in an Alaska Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munish Sikka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil-dependent indigenous communities in remote regions of Alaska and elsewhere are facing an unprecedented crisis. With the cost of fuel and transport skyrocketing, energy costs are crippling local economies, leading to increasing outmigration and concern for their very existence in the future. What can be done to address this energy crisis, and promote energy security, sustainability and resilience in rural forest communities? We examine the potential of developing a sustainable biomass-energy industry in Southeast Alaska, home to nearly 16,000 Alaska Natives in a dozen rural and two urban communities within the United States' largest national forest: The Tongass. Although the potential for biomass energy has long been touted, realization of the opportunity has been catalyzed only recently as part of a model of sustainable development being enacted by the region's largest Native corporation, Sealaska, and its subsidiary, Haa Aaní ("Our Land" L.L.C. In this paper we examine the unique nature of Alaska Native corporations and their potential as engines of sustainable development, particularly through Sealaska's emerging cultural model of sustainability in relation to social-ecological well-being. We assess the economic, ecological, and atmospheric emissions parameters of a wood-biomass energy industry at various scales according to the "triple bottom line" of sustainability. Finally, we address what additional policy and support measures may be necessary to nurture the successful transition to biomass energy at a sustainable scale to support rural indigenous communities, a more resilient, renewable energy system, and a lower carbon footprint.

  11. Heterogeneous world model and collaborative scenarios of transition to globally sustainable nuclear energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO is to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting global energy needs of the 21st century in a sustainable manner. The INPRO task titled “Global scenarios” is to develop global and regional nuclear energy scenarios that lead to a global vision of sustainable nuclear energy in the 21st century. Results of multiple studies show that the criteria for developing sustainable nuclear energy cannot be met without innovations in reactor and nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Combining different reactor types and associated fuel chains creates a multiplicity of nuclear energy system arrangements potentially contributing to global sustainability of nuclear energy. In this, cooperation among countries having different policy regarding fuel cycle back end would be essential to bring sustainability benefits from innovations in technology to all interested users. INPRO has developed heterogeneous global model to capture countries’ different policies regarding the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in regional and global scenarios of nuclear energy evolution and applied in a number of studies performed by participants of the project. This paper will highlight the model and major conclusions obtained in the studies.

  12. Integrated modelling for Sustainability Appraisal of urban river corridors: going beyond compartmentalised thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Rouquette, J R; Lerner, David N

    2013-12-15

    Sustainability Appraisal (SA) is a complex task that involves integration of social, environmental and economic considerations and often requires trade-offs between multiple stakeholders that may not easily be brought to consensus. Classical SA, often compartmentalised in the rigid boundary of disciplines, can facilitate discussion, but can only partially inform decision makers as many important aspects of sustainability remain abstract and not interlinked. A fully integrated model can overcome compartmentality in the assessment process and provides opportunity for a better integrative exploratory planning process. The objective of this paper is to explore the benefit of an integrated modelling approach to SA and how a structured integrated model can be used to provide a coherent, consistent and deliberative platform to assess policy or planning proposals. The paper discusses a participative and integrative modelling approach to urban river corridor development, incorporating the principal of sustainability. The paper uses a case study site in Sheffield, UK, with three alternative development scenarios, incorporating a number of possible riverside design features. An integrated SA model is used to develop better design by optimising different design elements and delivering a more sustainable (re)-development plan. We conclude that participatory integrated modelling has strong potential for supporting the SA processes. A high degree of integration provides the opportunity for more inclusive and informed decision-making regarding issues of urban development. It also provides the opportunity to reflect on their long-term dynamics, and to gain insights on the interrelationships underlying persistent sustainability problems. Thus the ability to address economic, social and environmental interdependencies within policies, plans, and legislations is enhanced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determining business models for financial sustainability in regional health information organizations (RHIOs): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Roxana; Burciago, Daniel; Dunn, Kim

    2009-10-01

    Regional health information organizations (RHIOs) have the potential to alleviate today's health care problems by granting providers access to a supported body of clinical information for all patients in a given region. While the promise of and enthusiasm for RHIOs is immense, the issue of their financial sustainability remains unclear. It has been said that the business model supporting a regional or national health information network is as essential, if not more essential, than the technology that makes it feasible. Currently, there is a clear lack of concrete business models implemented in RHIOs' projects. This article reports the results of a literature review of the current status of the adaptation and implementation of business models by RHIOs for successful financial sustainability. Based on the review, this article also attempts to evaluate the existing financial situation of RHIOs to determine and recommend the best models of economic sustainability. Significant findings include RHIOs' present financial environment, planning, and self-sustainability methods. Future studies will be needed as RHIOs continue to grow and move toward the implementation phase of their development.

  14. Sustained protective effects of 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside in an in vivo model of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Celle, T; Heeringa, P; Strzelecka, AE; Bast, A; Smits, JF; Janssen, BJ

    2004-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER), an antioxidant flavonoid, protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. In this study, we investigated potential sustained cardioprotective effects of monoHER in a model of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in mice. Ischemia was

  15. Developing a Sustainable Practical Model of Graduate Employability for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufai, Ahmed Umar; Bakar, Ab Rahim Bin; Rashi, Abdullah Bin Mat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evolve a sustainable practical model of employability skills that is sure to capture relevant learning aspects of a particular occupational discipline to be used as framework for Undergraduate students to develop their employability potentials. The study was conducted in three Universities and Polytechnics each with…

  16. Program (Re)design Model: A Sustainable, System-Level Approach to Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Debra; Macik, Maria L.; Sandoval, Carolyn L.; Bakenhus, Chelsea; MacWillie, Sherri

    2016-01-01

    Traditional professional development related to teaching is offered on a short-term basis and at the individual level. Recent experiences and research studies have led to an organizational level model in which the educational developer forms a sustained partnership with administrators, faculty, staff, and students in a department, offering…

  17. Sustainability Transdisciplinary Education Model: Interface of Arts, Science, and Community (STEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Barbara; Button, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the components of a sustainability transdisciplinary education model (STEM), a contemporary approach linking art, science, and community, that were developed to provide university and K-12 students, and society at large shared learning opportunities. The goals and application of the STEM curriculum…

  18. SDZ ASM 981: an emerging safe and effective treatment for atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luger, T; Van Leent, EJM; Graeber, M; Hedgecock, S; Thurston, M; Kandra, A; Berth-Jones, J; Bjerke, J; Christophers, E; Knulst, AC; Morren, M; Morris, A; Reitamo, S; Roed-Petersen, J; Schoepf, E; Thestrup-Pedersen, K; van der Valk, P. G. M.; Bos, JD

    Background SDZ ASM 981 is a selective inhibitor of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from T cells and mast cells in vitro. It is the first ascomycin macrolactam derivative under development for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. Objectives This study was: designed to determine

  19. SDZ ASM 981: an emerging safe and effective treatment for atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luger, T.; van Leent, E. J.; Graeber, M.; Hedgecock, S.; Thurston, M.; Kandra, A.; Berth-Jones, J.; Bjerke, J.; Christophers, E.; Knop, J.; Knulst, A. C.; Morren, M.; Morris, A.; Reitamo, S.; Roed-Petersen, J.; Schoepf, E.; Thestrup-Pedersen, K.; van der Valk, P. G.; Bos, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    SDZ ASM 981 is a selective inhibitor of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from T cells and mast cells in vitro. It is the first ascomycin macrolactam derivative under development for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. This study was designed to determine the safety and efficacy

  20. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Seismic Soil Structure Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of interest. The specific nonlinear soil behavior included in the NLSSI calculation presented in this report is gapping and sliding. Other NLSSI effects are not included in the calculation. The results presented in this report document initial model runs in the linear and nonlinear analysis process. Final comparisons between traditional and advanced SPRA will be presented in the September 30th deliverable.

  1. Models of care for traumatically injured patients at trauma centres in British Columbia: variability and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyp, Benjamin; Hassani, Kasra; Constable, Lisa; Haegert, Joseph

    2017-07-11

    Successful trauma systems employ a network of variably-resourced hospitals, staffed by experienced providers, to deliver optimal care for injured patients. The "model of care"-the manner by which inpatients are admitted and overseen, is an important determinant of patient outcomes. To describe the models of inpatient trauma care at British Columbia's (BC's) ten adult trauma centres, their sustainability, and their compatibility with accreditation guidelines. Questionnaires were distributed to the trauma medical directors at BC's ten Level I-III adult trauma centres. Follow-up semi-structured interviews clarified responses. Three different models of inpatient trauma care exist within BC. The "admitting trauma service" was a multidisciplinary team providing exclusive care for injured patients. The "on-call consultant" assisted with Emergency Department (ED) resuscitation before transferring patients to a non-trauma admitting service. The single "short-stay trauma unit" employed on-call consultants who also oversaw a 48-hour short-stay ward. Both level I trauma centres utilized the admitting trauma service model (2/2). All Level II sites employed an on-call consultant model (3/3), deviating from Level II trauma centre accreditation standards. Level III sites employed all three models in similar proportions. None of the on-call consultant sites believed their current care model was sustainable. Inadequate compensation, insufficient resources, and difficulty recruiting physicians were cited barriers to sustainability and accreditation compliance. Three distinct models of care are distributed inconsistently across BC's Level I-III trauma hospitals. Greater use of admitting trauma service and short-stay trauma unit models may improve the sustainability and accreditation compliance of our trauma system.

  2. Academic drug discovery centres: the economic and organisational sustainability of an emerging model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz Kirkegaard, Henriette; Valentin, Finn

    2014-11-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic and organisational sustainability. We take that angle in an in-depth study of four prominent ADDCs. Our findings indicate that there are clear similarities in the way sustainable centres are organised, managed and financed. We also identify factors in the frameworks of academia and research funding affecting their performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of sustainable development using business excellence model in used motor oil industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Hassanpour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Business and commerce are a chance to create wealth and economic development in companies and industries. Leader of companies must be containing a sense of relief and hope as one of the factors of production and wealth to enhance trust, cooperation between the organization and the community. In order to achieve at the Business Excellence (BE is emphasized to the need for the simultaneous measurement of organizational performance on the Critical Success Factors (CSFs, environmental, social issues and challenges. Objective of current study was to evaluate of sustainable development in used motor oil industry using BE models. Therefore, a framework was discussed as distinct from other common practices to measure performance of an industry. The models allow multi -dimensional focuses on different indicators of the organization's internal, external and CSFs. The check list method was used to collect data in site of industry in the present study. Then, obtained results were surveyed by models such as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA, European Federation for Quality Management (EFQM and Kanji’s Business Excellence Model (KBEM. Results of current analyze indicated that despite the fact that these models and approaches are different, but they are same in term of shared concepts. Finally, we can be able to say that the simultaneous implementation of these models and approaches can be a suitable process in the study of sustainable development of organizations. According to the obtained results of models, the case study industry was in sustainable development conditions.

  4. Exploring mechanisms for mobilising industrial sustainability models across different industrial locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ole Morten Noel Brings

    2009-01-01

    Industrial symbiosis is a model of sustainability which suggests that agglomerations of industries can achieve considerable environmental benefits by engaging in inter-organisational waste recycling, energy cascading and water recovery. This article considers how such a complex inter......-organisational model for environmental management can be mobilised across different industrial localities. It is suggested that companies engaged in industrial symbiosis activities at one production locality may be more inclined to engage in symbiotic activities when entering a new production locality. The industrial...... symbiosis model may in this way be mobilised across industrial localities as part of the global corporate search for marked access and cost reductions. This suggestion is supported by an illustrative case study shedding some light on the mechanisms for mobilising sustainability models across localities....

  5. Trade sustainability impact assessment - transformation and modelling: roles of the European Union and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Neimane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper as a theoretical perspective based on a literature study addresses trade sustainability impact assessments. They are defined and designed to enhance free trade agreements and conducted either by regional organizations or individual states. The paper includes sections on the historical background of the different generations of the impact assessments (sustainability impact assessment, human rights impact assessment used in the context of international trade, its impact on human rights and relation to environmental refugees, as well as, the influence of the European Union and Switzerland as the international players in shaping these assessments. The conclusion reached in this paper is that although diverse assessment tools are available, there is a need to encourage their greater adoption and use, based upon a holistic approach. The paper highlights the need for the use of theoretical models of trade sustainability impact assessment

  6. Reducing the operational energy demand in buildings using building information modeling tools and sustainability approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Valinejad Shoubi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable building is constructed of materials that could decrease environmental impacts, such as energy usage, during the lifecycle of the building. Building Information Modeling (BIM has been identified as an effective tool for building performance analysis virtually in the design stage. The main aims of this study were to assess various combinations of materials using BIM and identify alternative, sustainable solutions to reduce operational energy consumption. The amount of energy consumed by a double story bungalow house in Johor, Malaysia, and assessments of alternative material configurations to determine the best energy performance were evaluated by using Revit Architecture 2012 and Autodesk Ecotect Analysis software to show which of the materials helped in reducing the operational energy use of the building to the greatest extent throughout its annual life cycle. At the end, some alternative, sustainable designs in terms of energy savings have been suggested.

  7. Creating and implementing a model for sustainable development in tourism enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kernel, Pernille Kern

    2005-01-01

    The quest for sustainable tourism presents a challenge to integrate economic, social and environmental issues in tourism planning and—in order to implement this—to change attitudes and traditions among the different stakeholders within tourism. This calls for involvement of the different stakehol......The quest for sustainable tourism presents a challenge to integrate economic, social and environmental issues in tourism planning and—in order to implement this—to change attitudes and traditions among the different stakeholders within tourism. This calls for involvement of the different...... stakeholders in the change processes towards sustainable tourism and, accordingly, the creation of new patterns of interaction and collaboration between the stakeholders. This paper analyses how a project on sustainable tourism development in Mid- and North Jutland, Denmark, has engaged 26 small and medium......-step model for sustainable development in tourism enterprises. The question addressed is how to create a change process in the enterprises that is at the same time realistic and innovative....

  8. A Systems Model to Make, Market, and Lead Your Way towards Sustained Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar Agrawalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Business enterprises exist in a world that is fiercely competitive, tied with huge global uncertainties. They always encounter increasing pressure on prices and margins. Hence, irrespective of their domain of operations and industry, businesses are naturally concerned about their growth, specifically sustained profitable growth, in today’s world. Marketing is a key business function to market and lead a business towards sustained profitable growth but the problem is it lacks a systems perspective in its operations, strategy, and practice. Further, given the confluence and systemic interactions of various economic, digital, and competitive forces; the challenge for different business functions—including marketing—increases tremendously. In this context, it is important for business enterprises to have a systems perspective to find their ways to growth that will be sustained. This calls for a holistic approach to assimilate and steer the business functions in any enterprise. The present conceptual paper focuses on an important business function for sustained growth in a holistic way and presents a systems model, called ‘Value Based Business Approach (VBBA-marketing’, which has potential to guide and steer companies and business enterprises to create a path for their sustained profitable growth.

  9. Country Selection Model for Sustainable Construction Businesses Using Hybrid of Objective and Subjective Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Wook Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An important issue for international businesses and academia is selecting countries in which to expand in order to achieve entrepreneurial sustainability. This study develops a country selection model for sustainable construction businesses using both objective and subjective information. The objective information consists of 14 variables related to country risk and project performance in 32 countries over 25 years. This hybrid model applies subjective weighting from industrial experts to objective information using a fuzzy LinPreRa-based Analytic Hierarchy Process. The hybrid model yields a more accurate country selection compared to a purely objective information-based model in experienced countries. Interestingly, the hybrid model provides some different predictions with only subjective opinions in unexperienced countries, which implies that expert opinion is not always reliable. In addition, feedback from five experts in top international companies is used to validate the model’s completeness, effectiveness, generality, and applicability. The model is expected to aid decision makers in selecting better candidate countries that lead to sustainable business success.

  10. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 3. Future to be Asset Sustainment Process Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  11. 46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME... division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure vessels shall be designed, constructed, and inspected in accordance with section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  12. Modelling worker physical health and societal sustainability at farm level: an application to conventional and organic dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Farm-level modelling can be used to determine how farming systems and individual farm-management measures influence different sustainability indicators. Until now however, worker physical health and societal sustainability have been lacking in farm models. For this paper, we first selected

  13. An engineering approach to modelling, decision support and control for sustainable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, W; Audsley, E; Frost, A R

    2008-02-12

    Engineering research and development contributes to the advance of sustainable agriculture both through innovative methods to manage and control processes, and through quantitative understanding of the operation of practical agricultural systems using decision models. This paper describes how an engineering approach, drawing on mathematical models of systems and processes, contributes new methods that support decision making at all levels from strategy and planning to tactics and real-time control. The ability to describe the system or process by a simple and robust mathematical model is critical, and the outputs range from guidance to policy makers on strategic decisions relating to land use, through intelligent decision support to farmers and on to real-time engineering control of specific processes. Precision in decision making leads to decreased use of inputs, less environmental emissions and enhanced profitability-all essential to sustainable systems.

  14. Dynamics and forecast in a simple model of sustainable development for rural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, David; Angulo, Fabiola; Olivar, Gerard

    2015-02-01

    Society is becoming more conscious on the need to preserve the environment. Sustainable development schemes have grown rapidly as a tool for managing, predicting and improving the growth path in different regions and economy sectors. We introduce a novel and simple mathematical model of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in order to obtain a dynamical description for each one of the sustainability components (economy, social development and environment conservation), together with their dependence with demographic dynamics. The main part in the modeling task is inspired by the works by Cobb, Douglas, Brander and Taylor. This is completed through some new insights by the authors. A model application is presented for three specific geographical rural regions in Caldas (Colombia).

  15. The Dynamic Integrated Evaluation Model (DIEM): Achieving Sustainability in Organizational Intervention through a Participatory Evaluation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Lundmark, Robert; Hasson, Henna

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there have been calls to develop ways of using a participatory approach when conducting interventions, including evaluating the process and context to improve and adapt the intervention as it evolves over time. The need to integrate interventions into daily organizational practices, thereby increasing the likelihood of successful implementation and sustainable changes, has also been highlighted. We propose an evaluation model-the Dynamic Integrated Evaluation Model (DIEM)-that takes this into consideration. In the model, evaluation is fitted into a co-created iterative intervention process, in which the intervention activities can be continuously adapted based on collected data. By explicitly integrating process and context factors, DIEM also considers the dynamic sustainability of the intervention over time. It emphasizes the practical value of these evaluations for organizations, as well as the importance of their rigorousness for research purposes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Modeling analysis of the benefits of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for sustainable agriculture in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, M. S.; Vico, G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    In view of the pressing needs to sustainably manage water and soil resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, here we propose a new carbon assimilation model that couples a simple yet mechanistic description of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis to the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The model captures the full coupling of the CAM photosynthetic pathway with fluctuations in environmental conditions (cycles of light availability and air humidity, changes in soil moisture as driven by plant transpiration and rainfall occurrence). As such, the model is capable of reproducing the different phases of CAM, including daytime stomatal closure and photosynthesis from malic acid, afternoon stomatal opening for direct carbon assimilation, and nighttime stomatal opening for CO2 uptake and malic acid synthesis. Thanks to its versatility, our model allows us to relate CAM productivity, for both obligate and facultative CAM plants, to various soil moisture conditions including hydroclimatic scenarios of rainfall frequency and intensity as well as different night-time conditions of temperature, wind speed, and humidity. Our analyses show the potential productive benefits of CAM cultivation in dryland environments as feedstock and possible biofuel source, in terms of sustainable water use and economic benefits. In particular, the model is used to explore conditions where CAM plant resiliency to water stress makes these plants a more sustainable alternative to C3 and C4 species for potential deficit irrigation.

  17. A multi-objective model for sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdar Harijani, Ali; Mansour, Saeed; Karimi, Behrooz

    2017-04-01

    The efficient management of municipal solid waste is a major problem for large and populated cities. In many countries, the majority of municipal solid waste is landfilled or dumped owing to an inefficient waste management system. Therefore, an optimal and sustainable waste management strategy is needed. This study introduces a recycling and disposal network for sustainable utilisation of municipal solid waste. In order to optimise the network, we develop a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model in which the economic, environmental and social dimensions of sustainability are concurrently balanced. The model is able to: select the best combination of waste treatment facilities; specify the type, location and capacity of waste treatment facilities; determine the allocation of waste to facilities; consider the transportation of waste and distribution of processed products; maximise the profit of the system; minimise the environmental footprint; maximise the social impacts of the system; and eventually generate an optimal and sustainable configuration for municipal solid waste management. The proposed methodology could be applied to any region around the world. Here, the city of Tehran, Iran, is presented as a real case study to show the applicability of the methodology.

  18. Healthy Community and Healthy Commons: ‘Opensourcing’ as a Sustainable Model of Software Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damrongsak Naparat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many commercial software firms rely on opensourcing as a viable model of software production. Opensourcing is a specific form of interaction between firms and open source software (OSS communities for collaboratively producing software. The existing literature has identified opensourcing as a viable form of software production, which could be a substitute for “in-house” or “outsourced” software development. However, little is known about how opensourcing works or is sustained in the long term. The objective of this research is to explain the factors affecting the sustainability of opensourcing as a model of software production. The study employs a single case study of hospital software in Thailand to understand how firms and the communities can live symbiotically and sustain their collaboration to peer-produce vertical domain software. The analysis reveals six mechanisms (positive experience, trust in the leadership of the project leader, the demonstration of reciprocity, marketing the community, enriching knowledge, and face-to-face meetings and demonstrates how they operate in conjunction with each other to sustain opensourcing.

  19. Modelling the economic value of cross- and sustained-protection in vaccines against cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarteau, Nadia; Standaert, Baudouin

    2010-01-01

    Two human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are on the market. Based on expected differences in sustained- and cross-protection between the two vaccines, their long-term economic value is modelled and compared for France, Ireland and Italy. A Markov cohort model reproducing the natural history of HPV infections, screening and vaccination, is adapted to country-specific data. Two hypothetical HPV vaccines (VA and VB) are compared. At baseline VA provides lifetime protection against HPV-16 and 10-year protection against HPV-18 before waning. VB is the same as VA with a 10-year protection against HPV-6 and 11. Sustained- and cross-protection is varied over wide ranges in VA to define the levels that could make VA cost-effective or dominant compared with VB. Under baseline conditions VB dominates VA. VA becomes cost-effective when the difference in cross-protection alone reaches 13-15% (undiscounted), and 22-44% (discounted). A combination of sustained- and cross-protection is required for VA to dominate VB (discounted). The results are dependent upon country, the base-case value and the discount applied. Realistic additional sustained- and cross-protection in one HPV vaccine may confer benefits that offset the economic value of protection against low-risk HPV in the other. The results are country specific.

  20. Prerequisites for sustainable care improvement using the reflective team as a work model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte; Carlsson, Gunilla; Nyström, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Several work models for care improvement have been developed in order to meet the requirement for evidence-based care. This study examines a work model for reflection, entitled the reflective team (RT). The main idea behind RTs is that caring skills exist among those who work closest to the patients. The team leader (RTL) encourages sustainable care improvement, rooted in research and proven experience, by using a lifeworld perspective to stimulate further reflection and a developmental process leading to research-based caring actions within the team. In order to maintain focus, it is important that the RTL has a clear idea of what sustainable care improvement means, and what the prerequisites are for such improvement. The aim of the present study is, therefore, to explore the prerequisites for improving sustainable care, seeking to answer how RTLs perceive these and use RTs for concrete planning. Nine RTLs were interviewed, and their statements were phenomenographically analysed. The analysis revealed three separate qualitative categories, which describe personal, interpersonal, and structural aspects of the prerequisites. In the discussion, these categories are compared with previous research on reflection, and the conclusion is reached that the optimal conditions for RTs to work, when focussed on sustainable care improvement, occur when the various aspects of the prerequisites are intertwined and become a natural part of the reflective work.

  1. An Integrated Web-Based 3d Modeling and Visualization Platform to Support Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirebrahimi, S.; Rajabifard, A.

    2012-07-01

    Sustainable Development is found as the key solution to preserve the sustainability of cities in oppose to ongoing population growth and its negative impacts. This is complex and requires a holistic and multidisciplinary decision making. Variety of stakeholders with different backgrounds also needs to be considered and involved. Numerous web-based modeling and visualization tools have been designed and developed to support this process. There have been some success stories; however, majority failed to bring a comprehensive platform to support different aspects of sustainable development. In this work, in the context of SDI and Land Administration, CSDILA Platform - a 3D visualization and modeling platform -was proposed which can be used to model and visualize different dimensions to facilitate the achievement of sustainability, in particular, in urban context. The methodology involved the design of a generic framework for development of an analytical and visualization tool over the web. CSDILA Platform was then implemented via number of technologies based on the guidelines provided by the framework. The platform has a modular structure and uses Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). It is capable of managing spatial objects in a 4D data store and can flexibly incorporate a variety of developed models using the platform's API. Development scenarios can be modeled and tested using the analysis and modeling component in the platform and the results are visualized in seamless 3D environment. The platform was further tested using number of scenarios and showed promising results and potentials to serve a wider need. In this paper, the design process of the generic framework, the implementation of CSDILA Platform and technologies used, and also findings and future research directions will be presented and discussed.

  2. Curricular Reform: Systems Modeling and Sustainability in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Hayden, N. J.; Dewoolkar, M.; Neumann, M.; Lathem, S.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers at the University of Vermont were awarded a NSF-sponsored Department Level Reform (DLR) grant to incorporate a systems approach to engineering problem solving within the civil and environmental engineering programs. A systems approach challenges students to consider the environmental, social, and economic aspects within engineering solutions. Likewise, sustainability requires a holistic approach to problem solving that includes economic, social and environmental factors. Our reform has taken a multi-pronged approach in two main areas that include implementing: a) a sequence of three systems courses related to environmental and transportation systems that introduce systems thinking, sustainability, and systems analysis and modeling; and b) service-learning (SL) projects as a means of practicing the systems approach. Our SL projects are good examples of inquiry-based learning that allow students to emphasize research and learning in areas of most interest to them. The SL projects address real-world open-ended problems. Activities that enhance IT and soft skills for students are incorporated throughout the curricula. Likewise, sustainability has been a central piece of the reform. We present examples of sustainability in the SL and modeling projects within the systems courses (e.g., students have used STELLA™ systems modeling software to address the impact of different carbon sequestration strategies on global climate change). Sustainability in SL projects include mentoring home schooled children in biomimicry projects, developing ECHO exhibits and the design of green roofs, bioretention ponds and porous pavement solutions. Assessment includes formative and summative methods involving student surveys and focus groups, faculty interviews and observations, and evaluation of student work.

  3. Exploring implementation and sustainability of models of care: can theory help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Research on new models of care in health service provision is complex, as is the introduction and embedding of such models, and positive research findings are only one factor in whether a new model of care will be implemented. In order to understand why this is the case, research design must not only take account of proposed changes in the clinical encounter, but the organisational context that must sustain and normalise any changed practices. We use two case studies where new models of maternity care were implemented and evaluated via randomised controlled trials (RCTs to discuss how (or whether the use of theory might inform implementation and sustainability strategies. The Normalisation Process Model is proposed as a suitable theoretical framework, and a comparison made using the two case studies – one where a theoretical framework was used, the other where it was not. Context and approach In the maternity sector there is considerable debate about which model of care provides the best outcomes for women, while being sustainable in the organisational setting. We explore why a model of maternity care – team midwifery (where women have a small group of midwives providing their care – that was implemented and tested in an RCT was not continued after the RCT’s conclusion, despite showing the same or better outcomes for women in the intervention group compared with women allocated to usual care. We then discuss the conceptualisation and rationale leading to the use of the ‘Normalisation Process Model' as an aid to exploring aspects of implementation of a caseload midwifery model (where women are allocated a primary midwife for their care that has recently been evaluated by RCT. Discussion We demonstrate how the Normalisation Process Model was applied in planning of the evaluation phases of the RCT as a means of exploring the implementation of the caseload model of care. We argue that a theoretical understanding of

  4. Making change last: applying the NHS institute for innovation and improvement sustainability model to healthcare improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Cathal; Howe, Cathy; Woodcock, Thomas; Myron, Rowan; Phekoo, Karen; McNicholas, Chris; Saffer, Jessica; Bell, Derek

    2013-10-26

    The implementation of evidence-based treatments to deliver high-quality care is essential to meet the healthcare demands of aging populations. However, the sustainable application of recommended practice is difficult to achieve and variable outcomes well recognised. The NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement Sustainability Model (SM) was designed to help healthcare teams recognise determinants of sustainability and take action to embed new practice in routine care. This article describes a formative evaluation of the application of the SM by the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for Northwest London (CLAHRC NWL). Data from project teams' responses to the SM and formal reviews was used to assess acceptability of the SM and the extent to which it prompted teams to take action. Projects were classified as 'engaged,' 'partially engaged' and 'non-engaged.' Quarterly survey feedback data was used to explore reasons for variation in engagement. Score patterns were compared against formal review data and a 'diversity of opinion' measure was derived to assess response variance over time. Of the 19 teams, six were categorized as 'engaged,' six 'partially engaged,' and seven as 'non-engaged.' Twelve teams found the model acceptable to some extent. Diversity of opinion reduced over time. A minority of teams used the SM consistently to take action to promote sustainability but for the majority SM use was sporadic. Feedback from some team members indicates difficulty in understanding and applying the model and negative views regarding its usefulness. The SM is an important attempt to enable teams to systematically consider determinants of sustainability, provide timely data to assess progress, and prompt action to create conditions for sustained practice. Tools such as these need to be tested in healthcare settings to assess strengths and weaknesses and findings disseminated to aid development. This

  5. AsmL Specification of a Ptolemy II Scheduler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lázaro Cuadrado, Daniel; Koch, Peter; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2003-01-01

    of Ptolemy II. By building this model we can give precise semantics to the implementation. Furthermore it allows us to isolate the scheduling problem from the tool and make the potential parallelism of the implementation explicit. The model is executable and is tested against the implementation...

  6. Towards an Applied Gamification Model for Tracking, Managing, & Encouraging Sustainable Travel Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Wells

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a gamification model for encouraging sustainable multi-modal urban travel in modern European cities. Our aim is to provide a mechanism that encourages users to reflect on their current travel behaviours and to engage in more environmentally friendly activities that lead to the formation of sustainable, long-term travel behaviours. To achieve this our users track their own behaviours, set goals, manage their progress towards those goals, and respond to challenges. Our approach uses a point accumulation and level achievement metaphor to abstract from the underlying specifics of individual behaviours and goals to allow an extensible and flexible platform for behaviour management. We present our model within the context of the SUPERHUB project and platform.

  7. THE ARCHETYPES OF SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS MODEL INNOVATIONS THROUGH BUSINESS-NGO COLLABORATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodsgård, Lise Andersen; Aagaard, Annabeth

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research emphasizes the dynamics and the unique potentials of cross-sector collaborations in developing sustainable business model innovations (SBMI). In light of this development, recent research has focused on how businesses and NGOs collaborations can assist in creating new......, sustainable business models (SBM). However, a main challenge related to studying SBMs through business–NGO collaboration constitute the lack of an established definition or typology of SBMI. Furthermore, little knowledge exists of how such collaborative SBMs develop and how they are to be governed within...... different institutional contexts. The observations above and the gap in the literature reflect the theoretical and empirical relevance of exploring business–NGO collaboration in creating SBMI. The findings and contributions made by this study constitute a theoretical conceptualization of how underlying...

  8. Waste biorefinery models towards sustainable circular bioeconomy: Critical review and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Nikhil, G N; Chiranjeevi, P; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Rohit, M V; Kumar, A Naresh; Sarkar, Omprakash

    2016-09-01

    Increased urbanization worldwide has resulted in a substantial increase in energy and material consumption as well as anthropogenic waste generation. The main source for our current needs is petroleum refinery, which have grave impact over energy-environment nexus. Therefore, production of bioenergy and biomaterials have significant potential to contribute and need to meet the ever increasing demand. In this perspective, a biorefinery concept visualizes negative-valued waste as a potential renewable feedstock. This review illustrates different bioprocess based technological models that will pave sustainable avenues for the development of biobased society. The proposed models hypothesize closed loop approach wherein waste is valorised through a cascade of various biotechnological processes addressing circular economy. Biorefinery offers a sustainable green option to utilize waste and to produce a gamut of marketable bioproducts and bioenergy on par to petro-chemical refinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling of Energy and Environmental Costs for Sustainability of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfonso ARANDA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this paper is to preent the results achieved by the prac-tical application of energy modelling to urban areas based on two inter related concepts: energy costs and environmental costs. The analysis has been carried out in three standard Municipalities located in a Mediterr-nean Zone (Spain selected based on their different size and socio-economic activities in order to facilitate the extrapolation of results. Energy flows of the chosen areas have been quantified and classified. In addition, energy and environmental costs have been aggregated for each productive sector.Using the methodology proposed in this paper in novative solutions could bespecially designed for diffe ent areas in order to ensure the sustainable development of u ban areas. F nally, the basis for changing the present deveopment model in the Municipalities is set out by means of the applica tion of sustainability prin ci ples set in Agenda 21.

  10. Food quality, effects on health and sustainability today: a model case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, Vittorio Natale; Fargion, Silvia; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Giachetti, Marco; Lanzarini, Achille; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Scazzina, Francesca; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    The Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico is a five-century institution that, besides the unique clinical role in the center of Milan, may rely on benefactor donations such as fields and farming houses not far from the city, for a total of 8500 ha, all managed by the "Sviluppo Ca' Granda' Foundation". Presently, the main products of these fields are represented by rice and cow's milk. During the latest years, farmers and managers have developed a model of sustainable food production, with great attention to the product quality based on compositional analysis and functional nutritional characteristics. This experience represents a new holistic model of food production and consumption, taking great care of both sustainability and health.

  11. Creating Flexible and Sustainable Work Models for Academic Obstetrician-Gynecologists Engaged in Global Health Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rose; Boatin, Adeline; Farid, Huma; Luckett, Rebecca; Neo, Dayna; Ricciotti, Hope; Scott, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    To describe various work models for obstetrics and gynecology global health faculty affiliated with academic medical centers and to identify barriers and opportunities for pursuing global health work. A mixed-methods study was conducted in 2016 among obstetrics and gynecology faculty and leaders from seven academic medical institutions in Boston, Massachusetts. Global health faculty members were invited to complete an online survey about their work models and to participate in semistructured interviews about barriers and facilitators of these models. Department chairs and residency directors were asked to participate in interviews. The survey response rate among faculty was 65.6% (21/32), of which 76.2% (16/21) completed an interview. Five department leaders (45.5% [5/11]) participated in an interview. Faculty described a range of work models with varied time and compensation, but only one third reported contracted time for global health work. The most common barriers to global health work were financial constraints, time limitations, lack of mentorship, need for specialized training, and maintenance of clinical skills. Career satisfaction, creating value for the obstetrics and gynecology department, and work model flexibility were the most important facilitators of sustainable global health careers. The study identified challenges and opportunities to creating flexible and sustainable work models for academic obstetrics and gynecology clinicians engaged in global health work. Additional research and innovation are needed to identify work models that allow for sustainable careers in global women's health. There are opportunities to create professional standards and models for academic global health work in the obstetrics and gynecology specialty.

  12. Linking hydrology, ecosystem function, and livelihood sustainability in African papyrus wetlands using a Bayesian Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, A.; Gettel, G. M.; Kipkemboi, J.; Rahman, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Papyrus wetlands in East Africa provide ecosystem services supporting the livelihoods of millions but are rapidly degrading due to economic development. For ecosystem conservation, an integrated understanding of the natural and social processes driving ecosystem change is needed. This research focuses on integrating the causal relationships between hydrology, ecosystem function, and livelihood sustainability in Nyando wetland, western Kenya. Livelihood sustainability is based on ecosystem services that include plant and animal harvest for building material and food, conversion of wetlands to crop and grazing land, water supply, and water quality regulation. Specific objectives were: to integrate studies of hydrology, ecology, and livelihood activities using a Bayesian Network (BN) model and include stakeholder involvement in model development. The BN model (Netica 4.16) had 35 nodes with seven decision nodes describing demography, economy, papyrus market, and rainfall, and two target nodes describing ecosystem function (defined by groundwater recharge, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity) and livelihood sustainability (drinking water supply, crop production, livestock production, and papyrus yield). The conditional probability tables were populated using results of ecohydrological and socio-economic field work and consultations with stakeholders. The model was evaluated for an average year with decision node probabilities set according to data from research, expert opinion, and stakeholders' views. Then, scenarios for dry and wet seasons and for economic development (low population growth and unemployment) and policy development (more awareness of wetland value) were evaluated. In an average year, the probability for maintaining a "good" level of sediment and nutrient retention functions, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity was about 60%. ("Good" is defined by expert opinion based on ongoing field research.) In the dry season, the probability was

  13. Applying Retrospective Demographic Models to Assess Sustainable Use: the Maya Management of Xa'an Palms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Martínez-Ballesté

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Xa'an palm (Sabal yapa has been used to thatch traditional Maya houses for over 3000 years. In the Yucatan Peninsula, this palm has been introduced to pasturelands, maize fields (milpas, and homegardens. These and other traditional management systems are usually believed to be sustainable, but there is as yet little evidence to support this hypothesis. Demographic models have been used for this purpose, mainly focusing on population growth rate (λ. So far, retrospective analysis has not been applied, even though it examines how changes in the the life cycle of a species, caused by different management regimes, affect its λ. In this study, we assess whether ecologically sustainable use of xa'an occurs in homegardens, pasturelands, and milpas, and if so, how it is achieved. We constructed matrix population models for four populations of xa'an that were followed for 3 years, and then conducted a retrospective analysis on them. Management in homegardens seems to be oriented to increasing the availability of xa'an leaves, favoring the survival of seedlings, and increasing the density of harvestable-sized palms. However, in the milpa and the pastureland, the population size structure resembles that of unmanaged populations. Our λ values suggest that the traditional use of xa'an in all the studied management regimes is sustainable. Nevertheless, the processes that lead to sustainable use are different in each system, as shown by our retrospective analysis. Although fecundity contributes positively to λ only in homegardens, permanence and growth maintain palm populations at an equilibrium in the pastureland and in the milpa, respectively. Between-year climatic differences had a smaller impact on λ than management practices, which may vary from one year to another, leading to different balances in the sustainable use of the populations involved. Even though no significant differences were found in λ values, Maya achieve sustainable use of xa

  14. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah,

    2012-01-01

    HAMZAH. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City. Under direction of ACHMAD FAHRUDIN, HEFNI EFFENDI, ISMUDI MUCHSIN Coastal areas of Makassar have a rapid development growth deployed with various activities including tourism and fisheries. Such resource utilizations have impacted coastal environment particularly its water quality. This research is intended to assess bio-physical condition, water quality, pollution loading, poll...

  15. A decision model for the sustainable protection of human rights in Italian Prison System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maturo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work starts from an analysis of the critical problems of the prison system in Italy. It aims to develop a decision-making model to address the issue of sustainable protection of human rights in prisons. It shows how, using the Saaty AHP procedure, it is possible to have an analytical reasoning guideline for the understanding of the validity of the various alternative choices, in order to facilitate the situation of the prisoners and their reintegration into society.

  16. Competitiveness and Sustainability Effects of Cars and their Business Models in Swedish Small Town Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhadi, Lisiana; Borén, Sven; Ny, Henrik; Larsson, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to develop and test a new approach for comparing sustainability effects (mainly approximated through CO2 emissions) and the total cost of ownership of various business models (Regular Purchasing, Car Pooling, Car Leasing, and Taxiing) applied to private cars with different energy carriers (Biogas, Ethanol, Gasoline, Plug-in Hybrid, and Electric). The results indicate that, out of all of the vehicles, electric vehicles are the most competitive—from both an ecological and econ...

  17. Sustainable Technology Analysis of Artificial Intelligence Using Bayesian and Social Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in artificial intelligence (AI have led to a significant increase in the use of AI technologies. Many experts are researching and developing AI technologies in their respective fields, often submitting papers and patent applications as a result. In particular, owing to the characteristics of the patent system that is used to protect the exclusive rights to registered technology, patent documents contain detailed information on the developed technology. Therefore, in this study, we propose a statistical method for analyzing patent data on AI technology to improve our understanding of sustainable technology in the field of AI. We collect patent documents that are related to AI technology, and then analyze the patent data to identify sustainable AI technology. In our analysis, we develop a statistical method that combines social network analysis and Bayesian modeling. Based on the results of the proposed method, we provide a technological structure that can be applied to understand the sustainability of AI technology. To show how the proposed method can be applied to a practical problem, we apply the technological structure to a case study in order to analyze sustainable AI technology.

  18. Avoiding the Limits to Growth: Gross National Happiness in Bhutan as a Model for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Brooks

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In their 30-year update to Limits to Growth, Meadows et al. call for a vision of sustainable development that includes systemic change brought on by new perspectives on the purpose of development, new ways of measuring progress, and changes in social norms. Here, I discuss Meadows et al.’s work in the context of the literature on sustainable development and well-being as well as the development trajectory of Bhutan. I suggest that Bhutan’s development approach mirrors Meadows et al.’s recommendations and provides one model for sustainable development. The ideal of maximizing Gross National Happiness (GNH exemplifies Bhutan’s commitment to holistic development and dovetails with arguments about the shortcomings of approaches that emphasize economic growth. I provide examples of how GNH has been put into practice, describe how happiness is being measured, and discuss the emergence of social norms and a shared Bhutanese identity that may contribute to sustainable development. Bhutan’s development success suggests that an alternative to growth-centric development is viable. However, while Bhutan’s standard of living has increased, the country faces challenges, the most important of which may be their ability to manage rising consumption levels. Importantly, other nations have begun measuring well-being and considering similar development approaches.

  19. A Flexible Learning Infrastructure for Proteomics (ASMS 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    PNNL, Omics; Wilkins, Christopher S.; Sefas, Justice; Bilbao, Aivett; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Lijjliana; Payne, Samuel H; Shaw, Jared B.

    2017-01-01

    Developing a scoring model for MS/MS sequence-spectrum matches has been typically considered as part of the software development process and is rarely a user-serviceable component. Models are usually created from scratch and hard-coded for each project or fragmentation, which hinders adaptation and requires significant source code modifications to process new data types. In addition, advances such as increased resolving power and new dissociation methods result in new types of spectra where d...

  20. Sustainability Assessment and Identification of Determinants in Community-Based Water Supply Projects using Partial Least Squares Path Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper, the sustainability of community-based water supply projects in four different states in Sudan was assessed using a set of multidimensional indicators. A sustainability index was developed using a set of sustainability criteria including technical, reliability/risk, social, organisational, financial as well as sustainability. Basic sustainability criteria were selected based on literature review and stakeholders discussion. For each criterion a set of observable indicators was identified, in total 23 indicators were identified. Furthermore, a detailed statistical analysis and model development was carried out to identify main sustainability determinants for community-based water supply projects in Sudan. Partial least squares-path modelling was used to determine and quantify relationships between the sustainability criteria. The results showed that although all analyzed projects were relatively young projects (1 to 4 years, all projects showed low sustainability performance. This was mainly due to organizational as well as financial aspects, which also was confirmed by path modeling analysis, the sustainability of community-based water supply projects was directly related to organizational aspects, but indirectly related to financial issues. There is a need to give more attention to the communities’ organizational and financial abilities and to leverage their ability through governmental and/or non-governmental organization support especially after project implementation phase.

  1. Promoting Sustainable Forest Management Among Stakeholders in the Prince Albert Model Forest, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen T Hvenegaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Model Forests are partnerships for shared decision-making to support social, environmental, and economic sustainability in forest management. Relationships among sustainable forest management partners are often strained, but the Prince Albert Model Forest (PAMF represents a process of effective stakeholder involvement, cooperative relationships, visionary planning, and regional landscape management. This article seeks to critically examine the history, drivers, accomplishments, and challenges associated with the PAMF. Four key phases are discussed, representing different funding levels, planning processes, research projects, and partners. Key drivers in the PAMF were funding, urgent issues, provincial responsibility, core of committed people, evolving governance, desire for a neutral organisation, role of protected areas, and potential for mutual benefits. The stakeholders involved in the Model Forest, including the forest industry and associated groups, protected areas, Aboriginal groups, local communities, governments, and research groups, were committed to the project, cooperated on many joint activities, provided significant staffing and financial resources, and gained many benefits to their own organisations. Challenges included declining funding, changing administrative structures, multiple partners, and rotating representatives. The PAMF process promoted consultative and integrated land resource management in the region, and demonstrated the positive results of cooperation between stakeholders interested in sustainable forest management.

  2. The Urgency of Doing: Assessing the System of Sustainable Implementation Model via the Schools Implementing towards Sustainability (SITS) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moceri, Dominic C.; Elias, Maurice J.; Fishman, Daniel B.; Pandina, Robert; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A.

    2012-01-01

    School-based prevention and promotion interventions (SBPPI) improve desirable outcomes (e.g., commitment to school and attendance) and reduce undesirable outcomes (e.g., suspensions and violence). Unfortunately, our understanding of how to effectively implement and sustain SBPPI outside of well-controlled conditions is lacking. To bridge this…

  3. Development of a system dynamics model for financially sustainable management of municipal watermain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, R; Knight, M A; Unger, A J A; Haas, C T

    2013-12-15

    This paper develops causal loop diagrams and a system dynamics model for financially sustainable management of urban water distribution networks. The developed causal loop diagrams are a novel contribution in that it illustrates the unique characteristics and feedback loops for financially self-sustaining water distribution networks. The system dynamics model is a mathematical realization of the developed interactions among system variables over time and is comprised of three sectors namely watermains network, consumer, and finance. This is the first known development of a water distribution network system dynamics model. The watermains network sector accounts for the unique characteristics of watermain pipes such as service life, deterioration progression, pipe breaks, and water leakage. The finance sector allows for cash reserving by the utility in addition to the pay-as-you-go and borrowing strategies. The consumer sector includes controls to model water fee growth as a function of service performance and a household's financial burden due to water fees. A series of policy levers are provided that allow the impact of various financing strategies to be evaluated in terms of financial sustainability and household affordability. The model also allows for examination of the impact of different management strategies on the water fee in terms of consistency and stability over time. The paper concludes with a discussion on how the developed system dynamics water model can be used by water utilities to achieve a variety of utility short and long-term objectives and to establish realistic and defensible water utility policies. It also discusses how the model can be used by regulatory bodies, government agencies, the financial industry, and researchers. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil mapping and process modeling for sustainable land use management: a brief historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Pereira, Paulo; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Bradley A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Basic soil management goes back to the earliest days of agricultural practices, approximately 9,000 BCE. Through time humans developed soil management techniques of ever increasing complexity, including plows, contour tillage, terracing, and irrigation. Spatial soil patterns were being recognized as early as 3,000 BCE, but the first soil maps didn't appear until the 1700s and the first soil models finally arrived in the 1880s (Brevik et al., in press). The beginning of the 20th century saw an increase in standardization in many soil science methods and wide-spread soil mapping in many parts of the world, particularly in developed countries. However, the classification systems used, mapping scale, and national coverage varied considerably from country to country. Major advances were made in pedologic modeling starting in the 1940s, and in erosion modeling starting in the 1950s. In the 1970s and 1980s advances in computing power, remote and proximal sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), and statistics and spatial statistics among other numerical techniques significantly enhanced our ability to map and model soils (Brevik et al., 2016). These types of advances positioned soil science to make meaningful contributions to sustainable land use management as we moved into the 21st century. References Brevik, E., Pereira, P., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B., Cerda, A., Parras-Alcantara, L., Lozano-Garcia, B. Historical perspectives on soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B. (eds) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management (In press). Brevik, E., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Baumgarten, A., Jordán, A. 2016. Historical perspectives and future needs in soil mapping, classification and pedological modelling, Geoderma, 264, Part B, 256-274.

  5. ASM Scientific Writing and Publishing Institute: Program Impacts and Future Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene V. Hulede

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific writing is one of the most essential skills in science. Writing has numerous benefits and is a critical skill for writing grants, theses, and manuscripts.  The ability to publish research is as almost as important as conducting it. Writing and publishing scientific papers can be difficult for beginning researchers. To help trainees succeed in their efforts to publish, the ASM Committee on Graduate and Postdoctoral Education has offered the ASM Scientific Writing and Publishing Institute (SWPI since 2010. In an effort to gain insight into longer-term outcomes and impacts, the Committee conducted a comprehensive survey in 2015 to assess five cohorts from 2010-2014.The comprehensive survey sought to measure the effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of the institute; to gather information on the achievements of its alumni; and to highlight opportunities to strengthen the program.

  6. Investigating the relationship between sustainability and business model innovation in the context of the European food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Francesco; Pedersen, Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum

    2017-01-01

    Initiative 2016). The current study aims to investigate the relationship between sustainability and business model innovation within the European food industry. Empirically, the analysis is based on survey data from 469 companies of seven European countries, namely Denmark, France, Germany, Italy......Organisations, and society at large, are nowadays facing enormous and unprecedented challenges in terms of sustainable development (United Nations General Assembly 2015). Therefore, there is an increasing necessity to prioritize sustainability concerns, and ensure the integration of sustainability...... into organisations’ business models. Such a prioritization and integration can in turn generate new opportunities to innovate and differentiate business models (Bocken et al. 2014), and, consequently, be decisive for organisations that want to sustain their competitiveness in the market (Teece 2010; Gambardella & Mc...

  7. A sustainable manufacturing system design: A fuzzy multi-objective optimization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nujoom, Reda; Mohammed, Ahmed; Wang, Qian

    2017-08-10

    In the past decade, there has been a growing concern about the environmental protection in public society as governments almost all over the world have initiated certain rules and regulations to promote energy saving and minimize the production of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in many manufacturing industries. The development of sustainable manufacturing systems is considered as one of the effective solutions to minimize the environmental impact. Lean approach is also considered as a proper method for achieving sustainability as it can reduce manufacturing wastes and increase the system efficiency and productivity. However, the lean approach does not include environmental waste of such as energy consumption and CO 2 emissions when designing a lean manufacturing system. This paper addresses these issues by evaluating a sustainable manufacturing system design considering a measurement of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions using different sources of energy (oil as direct energy source to generate thermal energy and oil or solar as indirect energy source to generate electricity). To this aim, a multi-objective mathematical model is developed incorporating the economic and ecological constraints aimed for minimization of the total cost, energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions for a manufacturing system design. For the real world scenario, the uncertainty in a number of input parameters was handled through the development of a fuzzy multi-objective model. The study also addresses decision-making in the number of machines, the number of air-conditioning units, and the number of bulbs involved in each process of a manufacturing system in conjunction with a quantity of material flow for processed products. A real case study was used for examining the validation and applicability of the developed sustainable manufacturing system model using the fuzzy multi-objective approach.

  8. Knowledge Management in Sustainability Research Projects: Concepts, Effective Models, and Examples in a Multi-Stakeholder Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, David Brian; Köhler, Thomas; Weith, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to sketch a conceptual design for an information and knowledge management system in sustainability research projects. The suitable frameworks to implement knowledge transfer models constitute social communities, because the mutual exchange and learning processes among all stakeholders promote key sustainable developments through…

  9. Opportunities to enhance contribution of model forests in the sustainable forest resources management (example from Yalova Model Forest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiroğlu, Sultan; Özdemir, Mehmet; Özyürek, Ercan; Arslan, Avni

    2016-10-01

    Model forests are nongovernmental organizations at local, regional and international level which are mainly focused on reconciling the conflicts between the stakeholders. This is an innovative approach to organization, which has been receiving more and more attraction from increasing number of countries, which gradually increased the number of model forests for the last 25 years. If these organizations reach desired levels of structure, medium, impacts and assets their contribution in sustainable forest resources management will increase ipso facto. The very first model forest of Turkey was created in Yalova Province in 2010. Yalova Province has certain fundamental problems including but not limited to; population growth and unplanned urbanization caused by industrialization, uncontrolled increase in demand for fire wood and non-wooden products of forestry resources, questionable resource management decisions adopted in the past and low-income levels of the people especially those in the rural areas. The main objective of present case study is to analyze Yalova Model Forest (YMF) so as to determine the possible problems that may occur during implementation of sustainable management for forestry resources through a planning approach with multiple stakeholders. As a result of research, it has been revealed that YMF has certain significant structural, environmental and impact-related problems. In order to ensure continuity of YMF's contribution to sustainable forestry resources management, these problems need to be addressed promptly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustainability knowledge using “AKASA” model among architecture students from Klang Valley private universities, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Sivaraman; Faris Khamidi, Mohd; Sheng, Lee Xia; Salvi Mari, Tamil

    2017-12-01

    The study intend to investigate sustainability knowledge using “AKASA” model. This model comprises all the literacy level which is the awareness, knowledge, attitude, skills and action. 234 students from 5 selected private universities were surveyed using questionnaires. Students were specifically selected from year 2 and year 3 from private universities in Klang valley, Malaysia. The study intends to investigate the environmental literacy level specifically the knowledge variable. The parametric study was conducted with descriptive analysis and the results shows that the environmental knowledge is at high level compared to other environmental literacy variables among year 2, year 3 and combine year 2 and year 3.

  11. Translating sustainability from strategy to operations: how can decision support mod-els help logistics service providers to attain strategic as well as operational goals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinder Pieters; Stef Weijers; Hans-Heinrich Glöckner

    2010-01-01

    Decision Support Models could help Logistic Service Providers as a means to make transportation more sustainable. When researching this hypothesis, we discovered that Logistic Service Providers were reluctant to use Decision Support Models when making transportation more sustainable.

  12. Built To Last: Using Iterative Development Models for Sustainable Scientific Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiak, M. E.; Truslove, I.; Savoie, M.

    2013-12-01

    In scientific research, software development exists fundamentally for the results they create. The core research must take focus. It seems natural to researchers, driven by grant deadlines, that every dollar invested in software development should be used to push the boundaries of problem solving. This system of values is frequently misaligned with those of the software being created in a sustainable fashion; short-term optimizations create longer-term sustainability issues. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has taken bold cultural steps in using agile and lean development and management methodologies to help its researchers meet critical deadlines, while building in the necessary support structure for the code to live far beyond its original milestones. Agile and lean software development and methodologies including Scrum, Kanban, Continuous Delivery and Test-Driven Development have seen widespread adoption within NSIDC. This focus on development methods is combined with an emphasis on explaining to researchers why these methods produce more desirable results for everyone, as well as promoting developers interacting with researchers. This presentation will describe NSIDC's current scientific software development model, how this addresses the short-term versus sustainability dichotomy, the lessons learned and successes realized by transitioning to this agile and lean-influenced model, and the current challenges faced by the organization.

  13. Comparison of SKIFS 2004:1 and Tillsynshandbok PSA against the ASME PRA Standard and European requirements on PSA; Jaemfoerelse av SKIFS 2004:1 och Tillsynshandbok PSA mot ASME PRA Standard och Europeiska krav paa PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, Per

    2005-04-15

    Requirements on PSA for risk informed applications are expressed in different international documents. The ASME PRA standard published in spring 2002 is one such document, PSA requirements are also expressed in the European Utility Requirements (EUR) for new reactors. The Swedish PSA requirements are provided in the Swedish regulators (SKI) statutes SKIFS 2004:1. SKI also has a review handbook for PSA activities (SKI report 2003:48). The review handbook is a support during review of the utilities PSA activities and the PSAs themselves. The review handbook expresses SKIs expectations by providing so called important aspects for both the PSA work and the PSAs, A comparison of SKIFS requirements and the important aspects in the Review handbook, on one side, and the requirements on PSA in EUR and ASME on the other side, is presented. The comparison shows a large difference in the level of detail in the different documents, where ASME is most detailed and specific. This is expected since the SKI review handbook not is a 'PSA guide' in the same way as the ASME PRA standard. A direct comparison of the ASME PRA standard requirements with the important aspects in the review handbook cannot answer the question which ASME capacity level that is achieved by a PSA meeting all important aspects. The conclusion is that it is not likely to achieve capacity level 2 and 3, since very few ASME level 3 attributes are explicitly expressed as important aspects, though many are expressed in general terms. The review handbook important aspects that are most similar to the ASME capacity level 1 attributes are initiating events, sequence analysis, and system analysis while less similarity is found for analysis of operator actions data analysis, quantification and containment analysis (level 2). Less similarity is found for capacity level 2 and 3. However, the number of additional ASME attributes on capacity level 2 and 3 are few. There are also important aspects in the review

  14. Earth's Systems as Models of Ethical Behavior: The Basis for an Ethic of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    learning cycle model based on system cybernetics. The model provides a structure in which we and our students can reflect on our connections with the world and the limitations on what we can learn about it. I also show how to use campus and other landscapes to clarify the gap between human ethics and a sustainable geoethics.

  15. Floating solid cellulose nanofibre nanofoams for sustained release of the poorly soluble model drug furosemide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svagan, Anna Justina; Müllertz, Anette; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to prepare a furosemide-loaded sustained release cellulose nanofibre (CNF)-based nanofoams with buoyancy. METHODS: Dry foams consisting of CNF and the model drug furosemide at concentrations of 21% and 50% (w/w) have been prepared by simply foaming a CNF-drug suspension...... followed by drying. The resulting foams were characterized towards their morphology, solid state properties and dissolution kinetics. KEY FINDINGS: Solid state analysis of the resulting drug-loaded foams revealed that the drug was present as an amorphous sodium furosemide salt and in form of furosemide...... form I crystals embedded in the CNF foam cell walls. The foams could easily be shaped and were flexible, and during the drug release study, the foam pieces remained intact and were floating on the surface due to their positive buoyancy. Both foams showed a sustained furosemide release compared...

  16. Towards a Conceptual Framework of Sustainable Business Model Innovation in the Agri-Food Sector: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Barth

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to increase our understanding of sustainable business model innovation in the agri-food sector in terms of its theoretical and practical approaches for sustainability and their degree of complexity and maturity. The paper is based on a systematic literature review of 570 journal articles on business models and business model innovation published between 1990 and 2014. Of these articles, only 21 have business model innovation as their main focus. The review shows that research interest in the agri-food sector has increased in these years. The paper proposes a conceptual framework for sustainable business model innovation in the agri-food sector that can be used to meet the challenges encountered in taking a sustainability perspective.

  17. Institutional models of Bunaken National Park (BNP) management to ensure sustainability of ecological and economic functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kholil; Diane Tangian

    2012-01-01

    .... Therefore, the sustainability of economic and social benefits is threatened. To avoid damage to coral reefs and pollutions, it is necessary the institute manager which can ensure the sustainability of he sustainability of the tourism attraction...

  18. Deployment and implementation of the Grundfos' sustainability strategy by means of the ecodesign maturity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.; Rozenfeld, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Companies are increasingly realizing the needs and opportunities for implementing sustainability into their business processes and corporate culture. This paper describes the approach followed by Grundfos to deploy its Sustainability Strategy for the development of Sustainable Product Solutions, ...

  19. Benchmarking biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants: influence of mathematical model assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist V.; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...... was compared for a series of model assumptions. Three different model approaches describing BNR are considered. In the reference case, the original model implementations are used to simulate WWTP1 (ASM1 & 3) and WWTP2 (ASM2d). The second set of models includes a reactive settler, which extends the description...... of the non-reactive TSS sedimentation and transport in the reference case with the full set of ASM processes. Finally, the third set of models is based on including electron acceptor dependency of biomass decay rates for ASM1 (WWTP1) and ASM2d (WWTP2). The results show that incorporation of a reactive...

  20. Linearization of the full activated sludge model No 1 for interaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhalla, Abdelhay; Houssou, Mohamed; Charif, Moussa

    2010-08-01

    This paper deals with the linearization of the full activated sludge model No 1 (ASM1) in the scope of interaction analysis. For consistency, the linearization procedure is developed and validated within the BSM1 simulation benchmark framework. It is based on reaction rate approximation by linear combinations of states. The linear rate models are identified and incorporated in the mass balance equations, yielding a linear locally equivalent to the ASM1 model. Linear models for anoxic and aerated compartments are proposed. It is observed that the presented models track very closely the nonlinear ASM1 responses to various influent data. The key feature of this linearization strategy is that the gotten linear version of the ASM1 model is linear time invariant (LTI) and that it conserves the states biological interpretation and the original ASM1 dimension. It allows, therefore, application of interaction analysis methods and makes it possible to determine motivated control configurations for the ASM1 model.

  1. An integrated Biophysical CGE model to provide Sustainable Development Goal insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Marko; Cicowiez, Martin; Howells, Mark; Zepeda, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Future projected changes in the energy system will inevitably result in changes to the level of appropriation of environmental resources, particularly land and water, and this will have wider implications for environmental sustainability, and may affect other sectors of the economy. An integrated climate, land, energy and water (CLEW) system will provide useful insights, particularly with regard to the environmental sustainability. However, it will require adequate integration with other tools to detect economic impacts and broaden the scope for policy analysis. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a well suited tool to channel impacts, as detected in a CLEW analysis, onto all sectors of the economy, and evaluate trade-offs and synergies, including those of possible policy responses. This paper will show an application of such integration in a single-country CGE model with the following key characteristics. Climate is partly exogenous (as proxied by temperature and rainfall) and partly endogenous (as proxied by emissions generated by different sectors) and has an impact on endogenous variables such as land productivity and labor productivity. Land is a factor of production used in agricultural and forestry activities which can be of various types if land use alternatives (e.g., deforestation) are to be considered. Energy is an input to the production process of all economic sectors and a consumption good for households. Because it is possible to allow for substitution among different energy sources (e.g. renewable vs non-renewable) in the generation of electricity, the production process of energy products can consider the use of natural resources such as oil and water. Water, data permitting, can be considered as an input into the production process of agricultural sectors, which is particularly relevant in case of irrigation. It can also be considered as a determinant of total factor productivity in hydro-power generation. The integration of a CLEW

  2. Assessing Regional Sustainability Using a Model of Coordinated Development Index: A Case Study of Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From a holistic view, this paper addresses a perspective of coordinated development of economy, society, and environment for regional sustainability assessment. Firstly, a comprehensive indicator system for co-evaluating the level of economic, social, and environmental subsystems is presented based on a holistic understanding of regional sustainability. Then, a coordinated development index model focusing on the level of coordination among the subsystems as well as their comprehensive development level is established. Furthermore, an empirical study of all the provinces and municipalities is conducted by collecting the panel data from 2004 to 2010. The result shows that: (1 the coordinated developments of the most developed and the most underdeveloped regions stay stable while the regions with medium development level possess more fluctuant trends during the study years; (2 regional disparities are indicated according to the grading of CDI (the coordinated development index, which are further analyzed to be related to the local economic development patterns; (3 the conditions and causes of economic, social, and environmental development in real situations under different grades of CDI are discussed through detailed case studies of typical regions, which indicate specific suggestions of sustainable development for regions in the same pattern.

  3. Modeling Sustainability of Water, Environment, Livelihood, and Culture in Traditional Irrigation Communities and Their Linked Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Boykin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity, land use conversion and cultural and ecosystem changes threaten the way of life for traditional irrigation communities of the semi-arid southwestern United States. Traditions are strong, yet potential upheaval is great in these communities that rely on acequia irrigation systems. Acequias are ancient ditch systems brought from the Iberian Peninsula to the New World over 400 years ago; they are simultaneously gravity flow water delivery systems and shared water governance institutions. Acequias have survived periods of drought and external shocks from changing economics, demographics, and resource uses. Now, climate change and urbanization threaten water availability, ecosystem functions, and the acequia communities themselves. Do past adaptive practices hold the key to future sustainability, or are new strategies required? To explore this issue we translated disciplinary understanding into a uniform format of causal loop diagrams to conceptualize the subsystems of the entire acequia-based human-natural system. Four subsystems are identified in this study: hydrology, ecosystem, land use/economics, and sociocultural. Important linkages between subsystems were revealed as well as variables indicating community cohesion (e.g., total irrigated land, intensity of upland grazing, mutualism. Ongoing work will test the conceptualizations with field data and modeling exercises to capture tipping points for non-sustainability and thresholds for sustainable water use and community longevity.

  4. A model for university-based international plastic surgery collaboration builds local sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, William Tyler; Agbenorku, Pius; Olson, Joshua; Hoyte-Williams, Paa Ekow; Agarwal, Jayant P; Rockwell, William Bradford

    2015-04-01

    This article aimed to assess the sustainability from collaboration between international plastic surgery consultants and a hospital of a developing country in the promotion and delivery of quality health care to the local population. Humanitarian medical missions have evolved in structure and volume during the last 40 years. Medical mission trips were initially designed to treat local populations and help decrease the burden of disease. A limited number of the local population benefited from the mission. Some mission trips evolved from not only treating the local population but also teaching local physicians. These trips produced some local sustainability. Host physicians carried on a broader range of care after the mission trip had departed. Further evolution of these medical trips involves not only care and teaching but also involvement of host medical students and residents. Regularly scheduled Internet-based consultations and educational conferences expand the educational opportunities. The sustainability of medical trips based on this model is maximized. This process still has limitations: a limited number of the local population are treated during the in-country 1-week visits, Internet reliability may limit the transmission or quality of conferences, and differences in hospital resource availability may limit transference of US techniques to other hospitals.

  5. Sustainable business models: systematic approach toward successful ambulatory care pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Gloria

    2014-08-15

    This article discusses considerations for making ambulatory care pharmacist services at least cost neutral and, ideally, generate a margin that allows for service expansion. The four pillars of business sustainability are leadership, staffing, information technology, and compensation. A key facet of leadership in ambulatory care pharmacy practice is creating and expressing a clear vision for pharmacists' services. Staffing considerations include establishing training needs, maximizing efficiencies, and minimizing costs. Information technology is essential for efficiency in patient care delivery and outcomes assessment. The three domains of compensation are cost savings, pay for performance, and revenue generation. The following eight steps for designing and implementing an ambulatory care pharmacist service are discussed: (1) prepare a needs assessment, (2) analyze existing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, (3) analyze service gaps and feasibility, (4) consider financial opportunities, (5) consider stakeholders' interests, (6) develop a business plan, (7) implement the service, and (8) measure outcomes. Potential future changes in national healthcare policy (such as pharmacist provider status and expanded pay for performance) could enhance the opportunities for sustainable ambulatory care pharmacy practice. The key challenges facing ambulatory care pharmacists are developing sustainable business models, determining which services yield a positive return on investment, and demanding payment for value-added services. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of the Acceptance of Sustainable Production Strategies among Dairy Farmers: Development and Testing of a Modified Technology Acceptance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Naspetti; Serena Mandolesi; Jeroen Buysse; Terhi Latvala; Philippa Nicholas; Susanne Padel; Van Loo, Ellen J.; Raffaele Zanoli

    2017-01-01

    An extended version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied by means of Structural Equation Modelling to testing various hypotheses on attitudes and intentions of dairy farmers towards three novel sustainable production strategies, as well as the influence of organic practices and collaborative behaviours, such as information sharing with supply-chain partners. Data on the acceptance of three sustainable production strategies, namely ‘Agro-forestry’, ‘Alternative protein source’,...

  7. A regional model for sustainable biogas production. Case study: North Savo, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huopana, T.; Niska, H.; Jaeskelaeinen, A.; Loonik, J.; Den Boer, E.; Song, H.; Thorin, E.

    2012-11-15

    This report is one of the outputs from the REMOWE (Regional Mobilizing of Sustainable Waste-to-Energy Production) project. REMOWE is one of the projects within the Baltic Sea Region Programme. The overall objective of the REMOWE project is, on regional levels, to contribute to a decreased negative effect on the environment by reduction of carbon dioxide emission by creating a balance between energy consumption and sustainable use of renewable energy sources. Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and use of renewable energy sources are broad areas and this project will focus on energy resources from waste and actions to facilitate implementation of energy efficient technology in the Baltic Sea region within the waste-to-energy area. The focus is to utilize waste from cities, farming and industry for energy purposes in an efficient way. The problem addressed by the project concerns how to facilitate the implementation of sustainable systems for waste-to-energy in the Baltic Sea region and specifically, in a first step, in the project partner regions. The project partnership consists of the Maelardalen University, with the School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology coordinating the project, and The County Administrative Board of Vaestmanland in Sweden, Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for North Savo, and University of Eastern Finland (UEF) in Finland, Marshal Office of Lower Silesia in Poland, Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences in Wolfenbuettel in Germany, Klaipeda University in Lithuania, and Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency (ERKAS) in Estonia. This report is based on the modelling work performed in the work package 5 ('Model of sustainable regional waste-to-energy production') of the REMOWE project. The key objective has been on developing a regional model based on available geographic information for

  8. Forty-fourth ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Technical Congress, Exposition and Users Symposium. Pt. 2. Aircraft gas turbine; 1999 nen dai 44 kai ASME kokusai gas turbine kaigi. kokuyo gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeyama, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-20

    This paper reports aircraft gas turbine presented at the 44th ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Technical Congress 1999. What has drawn the strongest interest was the session related to the numerical propulsion system simulation (NPSS) being developed by NASA. The simulation links into a network about 1000 computers possessed by aero-industry related companies, research institutes and universities. The network uses common models to perform analysis under parallel processing on aerodynamics, heat transfer and structures, while taking interactions into consideration. It is planned that the whole jet engines will be subjected to non-steady calculation using three-dimensional models by the year 2007. The cost will be 8% or less of that when large super computers are used. The keys to realization of a supersonic passenger aircraft are noise, exhaust gas and impulse wave, whereas there would be no market unless a method for absorbing the impulse wave is developed and the aircraft can fly over the ground. Presentations were made on a wind tunnel testing equipment for jet engines and studies on turbo-fan engines for civilian aircraft. (NEDO)

  9. Firm Model Design from the Perspective of Sustainable Circular Economy Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Răzvan Bălășescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As well known the sustainable circular economy is a regenerative oriented paradigm for transforming the waste into a valuable resource. In this framework, the business model appears in the form of an network architecture design that relates product, service and information flows, various business actors and their roles directed to potential benefits and value meanings, taking into account the technology-push, marketpull and regulatory innovative drivers and the linear and non- linear approaches to emphasize the importance of the connections between intentions and consequences as well as the complexity of social relationships between firm, consumers, investors and public authorities.

  10. A sustainable model for pediatric oncology nursing education in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Sara W; Garcia, Jose; Antillon, Federico; Wilimas, Judith A; McKeon, Leslie M; Carty, Rita M; de Alarcon, Pedro; Pui, Ching-Hon; Ribeiro, Raul C; Howard, Scott C

    2012-02-01

    Effectiveness of a nurse educator in the pediatric oncology unit in Guatemala was assessed by measuring completion of an education course, chemotherapy and central line competency, continuing education, and cost. All newly hired nurses completed the education course. Of the nurses employed, 86% participated in the chemotherapy course, and 93% achieved competency; 57% participated in the central line course, and 79% achieved competency. The nurses completed a mean of 26 hours continuing education yearly. The annual direct cost of the educator ($244/nurse) was markedly less than other models. This is an effective and sustainable means to educate nurses in low-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2013-01-01

    Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport...... in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13...

  12. A Study on International Trade and Endogenous/Sustainable Growth Model considering Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang In; Kim, Tae Wan; Han, Hwa Jin; Kang, Kwang Gyu; Choi, Dae Seung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The worldwide industrialization, which has spread from advanced industrial nations to developing nations via newly industrialized nations, and the expanded international trade have been triggering all kinds of environmental pollution, so the environmental pollution has become an environmental problem of pan-global line. The spread of modern industrial society, which is characterized by mass production and mass consumption, has been polluting an entire earth as well as a relevant area and draining usable natural resources. It has caused discord between evironmentalists - regarding environment - and developmentalists - stressing growth through industralization - to deepen. Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment 0f OECD and Committee on Trade and Environment of WTO, which was established with joint efforts of international community in order to resolve such problems, has suggested new improved methodologies to promote the protection of environment, trade liberalization, and sustainable development, besides the discussion for the establishment of reciprocal supporting relation at the same time. The concept of sustainable development, whose main objects are the protection of environment, economic growth, and social development, is recognized as an alternative program that can settle the deepened discord between developed and developing countries on the surrounding issue of the protection of environment and economic development. Because the past discussion connecting environment and trade was developed around a static analysis, it was not available to consider thoroughly the dynamic environmental effects of trade liberalization. This study started from such a critical mind has developed the theoretical analysis model on endogenous growth in order to study on the reciprocal relation among environment, trade, and growth at the first time. This report examined the reciprocal relation between environment and trade, trade and growth, and growth and environment within

  13. Frequency ratio model for groundwater potential mapping and its sustainable management in cold desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Guru

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater potential mapping and its sustainable development are an important aspect in Leh valley due to an increase of tourists and the local population. In the present study, the groundwater potential zones were delineated by adopting a frequency ratio (FR model. Land use and land cover, hydro geomorphology, slope, geology, lineament density, drainage density, spring well locations and ground water level were the thematic factors considered for groundwater potential zone mapping. There are 86 spring wells located in the study area, of which 60 wells were considered for success rate and remaining 26 wells considered for prediction rate in the FR model. The final groundwater potential map was classified into five zones as very high, high, moderate, low, and very low. The success and prediction rates of FR model were measured as 81.25% and 77.23% respectively. Water budget of the valley was also calculated on the basis of consumption, demand and supply of water by taking account of the floating population. There is a huge demand of water supply requirement during the tourist season from May to September months and deficiency of water in the area was calculated as 4,224,557 (in l. Finally, suitable sites for artificial recharge for sustainable groundwater management were identified. The sites were selected on the basis of depth of groundwater level, source of spring well locations and gradient from natural spring to selected recharge wells.

  14. Computational modeling of the mechanical modulation of the growth plate by sustained loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Tovar Carlos A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a computational model that describes the growth of the bone as a function of the proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocytes in the growth plate. We have included the effects of the mechanical loads on the sizes of the proliferative and hypertrophic areas, the number of proliferative chondrocytes and the final size of the hypertrophic chondrocytes. The validation of the model was performed with experimental data published on other investigations about proximal tibia of rats, subjected to sustained axial stresses of 0.1 MPa, 0.0 MPa, -0.1 MPa and −0.2 MPa. Growth was simulated during 23 days, obtaining numerical errors between 2.77% and 3.73% with respect to experimental growth rates. The results obtained show that the model adequately simulates the behavior of the growth plate and the effect of mechanical loads over its cellular activity.

  15. A spatial multi-objective optimization model for sustainable urban wastewater system layout planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J

    2012-01-01

    Design of a sustainable city has changed the traditional centralized urban wastewater system towards a decentralized or clustering one. Note that there is considerable spatial variability of the factors that affect urban drainage performance including urban catchment characteristics. The potential options are numerous for planning the layout of an urban wastewater system, which are associated with different costs and local environmental impacts. There is thus a need to develop an approach to find the optimal spatial layout for collecting, treating, reusing and discharging the municipal wastewater of a city. In this study, a spatial multi-objective optimization model, called Urban wastewateR system Layout model (URL), was developed. It is solved by a genetic algorithm embedding Monte Carlo sampling and a series of graph algorithms. This model was illustrated by a case study in a newly developing urban area in Beijing, China. Five optimized system layouts were recommended to the local municipality for further detailed design.

  16. Global Sustainable Development Through the Integrated Lean Management (Green 5-S Model for TQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Samuel K. M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the 'Best Paper-2010' by the TQM Journal, the author has a chance to test out the model in a number of firms in Malaysia through SIRIM. Furthermore, riding on the success, SIRIM has named it as the SIRIM Green 5-S Model. As a result, the aim of this paper is to share the experience of the “SIRIM Green 5-S Model for Sustainable Development”. Since 1993, the author used the proprietary 5-S Checklist for training and consultancy in no less than 10 countries with over 50,000 persons from around 2,000 organisatioins world-wide. On the other hand, HKSAR takes the lead in the global oil energy consumption/GPD. The experience will be shared in this article.

  17. Tourism Cluster Competitiveness and Sustainability: Proposal for a Systemic Model to Measure the Impact of Tourism on Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieglinde Kindl da Cunha

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a model to measure tourism cluster impact on local development with a view to assessing tourism cluster interaction, competitiveness and sustainability impacts on the economy, society and the environment. The theoretical basis for this model is founded on cluster concept and typology adapting and integrating the systemic competitiveness and sustainability concepts within economic, social, cultural, environmental and political dimensions. The proposed model shows a holistic, multidisciplinary and multi-sector view of local development brought back through a systemic approach to the concepts of competitiveness, social equity and sustainability. Its results make possible strategic guidance to agents responsible for public sector tourism policies, as well as the strategies for competitiveness, competition, cooperation and sustainability in private companies and institutions.

  18. Construction of a business model to assure financial sustainability of biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Rainer; Perren, Aurel

    2014-12-01

    Biobank-suisse (BBS) is a collaborative network of biobanks in Switzerland. Since 2005, the network has worked with biobank managers towards a Swiss biobanking platform that harmonizes structures and procedures. The work with biobank managers has shown that long-term, sustainable financing is difficult to obtain. In this report, three typical biobank business models are identified and their characteristics analyzed. Five forces analysis was used to understand the competitive environment of biobanks. Data provided by OECD was used for financial estimations. The model was constructed using the business model canvas tool. The business models identified feature financing influenced by the economic situation and the research budgets in a given country. Overall, the competitive environment for biobanks is positive. The bargaining power with the buyer is negative since price setting and demand prediction is difficult. In Switzerland, the healthcare industry collects approximately 5600 U.S. dollars per person and year. If each Swiss citizen paid 0.1% (or 5 U.S. dollars) of this amount to Swiss biobanks, 45 million U.S. dollars could be collected. This compares to the approximately 10 million U.S. dollars made available for cohort studies, longitudinal studies, and pathology biobanks through science funding. With the same approach, Germany, the United States, Canada, France, and the United Kingdom could collect 361, 2634, 154, 264, and 221 million U.S. dollars, respectively. In Switzerland and in other countries, an annual fee less than 5 U.S. dollars per person is sufficient to provide biobanks with sustainable financing. This inspired us to construct a business model that not only includes the academic and industrial research sectors as customer segment, but also includes the population. The revenues would be collected as fees by the healthcare system. In Italy and Germany, a small share of healthcare spending is already used to finance selected clinical trials. The legal

  19. Sustainable conjunctive water management in irrigated agriculture: Model formulation and application to the Yaqui Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoups, Gerrit; Addams, C. Lee; Minjares, José Luis; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2006-10-01

    This paper investigates strategies to alleviate the effects of droughts on the profitability and sustainability of irrigated agriculture. These strategies include conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater resources, and engineered improvements such as lining of irrigation canals and addition of regional pumping well capacity. A spatially distributed simulation-optimization model was developed for an irrigated system consisting of multiple surface water reservoirs and an alluvial aquifer. The simulation model consists of an agronomic component and simulators describing the hydrologic system. The physical models account for storage and flow through the reservoirs, routing through the irrigation canals, and regional groundwater flow. The agronomic model describes crop productivity as a function of irrigation quantity and salinity, and determines agricultural profit. A profit maximization problem was formulated and solved using large-scale constrained gradient-based optimization. The model was applied to a real-world conjunctive surface water/groundwater management problem in the Yaqui Valley, an irrigated agricultural region in Sonora, Mexico. The model reproduces recorded reductions in agricultural production during a historical drought. These reductions were caused by a decline in surface water availability and limited installed pumping capacity. Results indicate that the impact of the historical 8-year drought could have been significantly reduced without affecting profit in wet years by better managing surface water and groundwater resources. Namely, groundwater could have been more heavily relied upon and surface water allocation capped at a sustainable level as an operating rule. Lining the irrigation canals would have resulted in water savings of 30% of historical reservoir releases during wet years, which could have been used in subsequent drier years to increase agricultural production. The benefits of a greater reliance on groundwater pumping

  20. MOSAIC : Model Of Sustainability And Integrated Corridors, phase 3 : comprehensive model calibration and validation and additional model enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning efforts to improve transportation : efficiency, safety, and sustainability on critical highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor : (CHC) program. This pro...

  1. OysterFutures: Integrating Stakeholder Objectives with Natural System Models to Promote Sustainable Natural Resource Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, E. W.; Blair, J.; Cornwell, J. C.; Freitag, A. E.; Gawde, R. K.; Hartley, T. W.; Hood, R. R.; Jones, R. M.; Miller, T. J.; Thomas, J. E.; Wainger, L. A.; Wilberg, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Achieving effective natural resource management is challenged by multiple and often competing objectives, a restricted set of policy options, and uncertainty in the performance of those options. Yet, managers need policies that allow continued use of natural resources while ensuring access for future generations and maintenance of ecosystem services. Formal approaches are needed that will assist managers and stakeholders in choosing policy options that have a high likelihood of achieving social, ecological, and economic goals. The goal of this project, OysterFutures, is to address this need by improving the use of predictive models to support sustainable natural resource policy and management. A stakeholder-centered process will be used to build an integrated model that combines estuarine physics, oyster life history, and the ecosystem services that oysters provide (e.g., harvest, water quality) to forecast outcomes under alternative management strategies. Through a series of facilitated meetings, stakeholders will participate in a science-based collaborative process which will allow them to project how well policies are expected to meet their objectives using the integrated model. This iterative process will ensure that the model will incorporate the complex human uses of the ecosystem as well as focus on the outcomes most important to the stakeholders. In addition, a study of the socioeconomic drivers of stakeholder involvement, information flow, use and influence, and policy formation will be undertaken to improve the process, enhance implementation success of recommended policies, and provide new ideas for integrating natural and social sciences, and scientists, in sustainable resource management. In this presentation, the strategy for integrating natural system models, stakeholder views, and sociological studies as well as methods for selecting stakeholders and facilitating stakeholder meetings will be described and discussed.

  2. A Sustainable and Resilient Housing Model for Indigenous Populations of the Mosquitia Region (Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Gambino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a sustainable housing model for the Mosquitia region of Honduras, aimed at improving the living conditions of indigenous communities and reducing their vulnerability to the effects of climate change. The improved housing efficiency and resilience will contribute to strengthen sanitation and hygiene, improve the living comfort and reduce environmental impact, particularly focusing on preserving the forest biodiversity. The project was developed following the criteria of environmental, technical, social and economic sustainability to propose a shared model, reproducible by the beneficiaries living in different kinds of Mosquitian ecosystems. Increased building efficiency is obtained through optimization of construction techniques and improvement of materials’ performances. The main material of the proposed dwelling is wood, coherently with the “Miskita” tradition; the increase of its durability, which is obtained by proper seasoning and protection from atmospheric agents and parasites, contributes to the optimization of the use of this natural resource and to reducing the impact on deforestation, which threatens forest biodiversity. The data collection campaign, conducted before developing the housing model design and which has aimed at obtaining information on technical and social aspects related to residences’ welfare and health conditions, has highlighted the great importance of improving the construction model. Despite the advance in sanitary conditions and the economic level, the data collection campaign revealed that even the most developed communities amongst those visited have been perpetrating substantial construction errors, which reduce the resilience of structures to extreme natural phenomena, such as tropical storms and hurricanes, which frequently affect the Mosquitia region. This unexpected discovery increased the importance of housing model design in order to correct these improper construction

  3. Assessment of ASME code examinations on regenerative, letdown and residual heat removal heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosselin, Stephen R.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.; Simonen, Fredric A.; Tinsley, G. A.; Lydell, B.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2005-07-01

    Inservice inspection requirements for pressure retaining welds in the regenerative, letdown, and residual heat removal heat exchangers are prescribed in Section XI Articles IWB and IWC of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Accordingly, volumetric and/or surface examinations are performed on heat exchanger shell, head, nozzle-to-head, and nozzle-to-shell welds. Inspection difficulties associated with the implementation of these Code-required examinations have forced operating nuclear power plants to seek relief from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The nature of these relief requests are generally concerned with metallurgical, geometry, accessibility, and radiation burden. Over 60% of licensee requests to the NRC identify significant radiation exposure burden as the principle reason for relief from the ASME Code examinations on regenerative heat exchangers. For the residual heat removal heat exchangers, 90% of the relief requests are associated with geometry and accessibility concerns. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was funded by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to review current practice with regard to volumetric and/or surface examinations of shell welds of letdown heat exchangers regenerative heat exchangers and residual (decay) heat removal heat exchangers Design, operating, common preventative maintenance practices, and potential degradation mechanisms are reviewed. A detailed survey of domestic and international PWR-specific operating experience was performed to identify pressure boundary failures (or lack of failures) in each heat exchanger type and NSSS design. The service data survey was based on the PIPExp® database and covers PWR plants worldwide for the period 1970-2004. Finally a risk assessment of the current ASME Code inspection requirements for residual heat removal, letdown, and regenerative heat exchangers is performed. The results are then reviewed to discuss the examinations relative to plant safety and

  4. Lignocellulosic biorefinery as a model for sustainable development of biofuels and value added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bhowmick, Goldy; Sarmah, Ajit K; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2018-01-01

    A constant shift of society's dependence from petroleum-based energy resources towards renewable biomass-based has been the key to tackle the greenhouse gas emissions. Effective use of biomass feedstock, particularly lignocellulosic, has gained worldwide attention lately. Lignocellulosic biomass as a potent bioresource, however, cannot be a sustainable alternative if the production cost is too high and/ or the availability is limited. Recycling the lignocellulosic biomass from various sources into value added products such as bio-oil, biochar or other biobased chemicals in a bio-refinery model is a sensible idea. Combination of integrated conversion techniques along with process integration is suggested as a sustainable approach. Introducing 'series concept' accompanying intermittent dark/photo fermentation with co-cultivation of microalgae is conceptualised. While the cost of downstream processing for a single type of feedstock would be high, combining different feedstocks and integrating them in a bio-refinery model would lessen the production cost and reduce CO2 emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variety and sustainability of volcanic lakes: Response to subaqueous thermal activity predicted by a numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Akihiko; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    We use a numerical model to investigate the factors that control the presence or absence of a hot crater lake at an active volcano. We find that given a suitable pair of parameters (e.g., the enthalpy of subaqueous fumaroles and the ratio of mass flux of the fluid input at the lake bottom to lake surface area), hot crater lakes can be sustained on relatively long timescales. Neither a high rate of precipitation nor an impermeable layer beneath the lake bottom are always necessary for long-term sustainability. The two controlling parameters affect various hydrological properties of crater lakes, including temperature, chemical concentrations, and temporal variations in water levels. In the case of low-temperature crater lakes, increases in flux and enthalpy, which are a common precursor to phreatic or phreatomagmatic eruptions, result in an increase in both temperature and water level. In contrast, a decrease in water level accompanied by a rise in temperature occurs at high-temperature lakes. Furthermore, our model suggests that crater geometry is a key control on water temperature. For lakes with a conical topography, a perturbation in the water level due to trivial nonvolcanic activity, such as low levels of precipitation, can cause persistent increases in water temperature and chemical concentrations, and a decrease in the water level, even though subaqueous fumarolic activity does not change. Such changes in hot crater lakes which are not caused by changes in volcanic activity resemble the volcanic unrest that precedes eruptions.

  6. Sustainable deployment of QTLs conferring quantitative resistance to crops: first lessons from a stochastic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, Romain; Chaumont, Loïc; Durel, Charles-Eric; Sapoukhina, Natalia

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative plant disease resistance is believed to be more durable than qualitative resistance, since it exerts less selective pressure on the pathogens. However, the process of progressive pathogen adaptation to quantitative resistance is poorly understood, which makes it difficult to predict its durability or to derive principles for its sustainable deployment. Here, we study the dynamics of pathogen adaptation in response to quantitative plant resistance affecting pathogen reproduction rate and its colonizing capacity. We developed a stochastic model for the continuous evolution of a pathogen population within a quantitatively resistant host. We assumed that pathogen can adapt to a host by the progressive restoration of reproduction rate or of colonizing capacity, or of both. Our model suggests that a combination of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting distinct pathogen traits was more durable if the evolution of repressed traits was antagonistic. Otherwise, quantitative resistance that depressed only pathogen reproduction was more durable. In order to decelerate the progressive pathogen adaptation, QTLs that decrease the pathogen's maximum capacity to colonize must be combined with QTLs that decrease the spore production per lesion or the infection efficiency or that increase the latent period. Our theoretical framework can help breeders to develop principles for sustainable deployment of QTLs. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Critical success factors model developing for sustainable Kaizen implementation in manufactur-ing industry in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftu Hailu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to identify critical success factors and model developing for sustaining kaizen implementation. Peacock shoe is one of the manufacturing industries in Ethiopia facing challenges on sustaining. The methodology followed is factor analysis and empirically testing hypothesis. A database was designed using SPSS version 20. The survey was validated using statistical validation using the Cronbach alpha index; the result is 0.908. The KMO index value was obtained for the 32 items and had a value of 0.642 with Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 4503.007, degree of freedom 496 and significance value 0.000. A factor analysis by principal components and varimax rotation was applied for finding the critical success factors. Finding designates that 32 items were merged into eight critical success factors. All the eight factors together explain for 76.941 % of the variance. Multiple regression model analysis has indicated that some of the critical success factors had relationship with success indicators. Due to constraint of time, the researcher focused only at peacock shoe manufacturing industry. Other limitation also includes the absence of any local research that shows the critical success factors at the moment.

  8. Innovative Business Model for Realization of Sustainable Supply Chain at the Outsourcing Examination of Logistics Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Tamás

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of sustainability is becoming more and more important because of the increase in the human population and the extraction of non-renewable natural resources. We can make decisive steps towards sustainability in the fields of logistics services by improvement of logistics processes and/or application of new environment-friendly technologies. These steps are very important for companies because they have a significant effect on competitiveness. Nowadays significant changes are taking place in applied methods and technologies in the fields of logistics services as part of the 4th Industrial Revolution. Most companies are not able to keep pace with these changes in addition to carrying out their main activities by using own resources; consequently, in many cases logistics services are outsourced in the interest of maintaining or increasing competitiveness. The currently applied outsourcing examination process contains numerous shortcomings. We have elaborated a new business model to eliminate these shortcomings, namely the basic concept for an outsourcing investigation system integrated in the electronic marketplace. The paper introduces the current process of logistics service outsourcing examination and the elaborated business model concept.

  9. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as UN population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth-Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth-Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  10. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; Hubacek, Klaus; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Ruth, Matthias; Sagdeev, Roald; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Shukla, Jagadish; Srebric, Jelena; Yakovenko, Victor M.; Zeng, Ning

    2016-12-11

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  11. 46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1). 56.60-1 Section 56.60-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1). (a)(1) The material requirements in this subpart shall be followed in lieu of those in 123 in ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference...

  12. Computer Program of SIE ASME-NH Code for Structural Integrity Evaluation of Next Generation Reactors Subjecting to Elevated Temperature Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, J. H

    2006-03-15

    In this report, the SIE ASME (Structural Integrity Evaluations by ASME-NH), which has a computerized implementation of ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Code Section III Subsection NH rules, is developed to apply to the next generation reactor design subjecting to the elevated temperature operations over 500 .deg. C and over 30 years design lifetime, and the user's manual for this program is described in detail.

  13. Conocimiento del asma en padres con niños asmáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Martín, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    Cartel presentado en el 3er Congreso Internacional de Comunicación en Salud (3ICHC), celebrado los días 19 y 20 de octubre de 2017 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. El objetivo es valorar el conocimiento que tienen los usuarios o padres sobre el asma y la formación del personal sanitario para realizar una buena educación o comunicación a los padres con niños asmáticos

  14. ASTM and ASME-BPE Standards--Complying with the Needs of the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitt, William M

    2011-01-01

    Designing and building a pharmaceutical facility requires the owner, engineer of record, and constructor to be knowledgeable with regard to the industry codes and standards that apply to this effort. Up until 1997 there were no industry standards directed at the needs and requirements of the pharmaceutical industry. Prior to that time it was a patchwork effort at resourcing and adopting nonpharmaceutical-related codes and standards and then modifying them in order to meet the more stringent requirements of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 1997 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) published the first Bioprocessing Equipment (BPE) Standard. Through harmonization efforts this relatively new standard has brought together, scrutinized, and refined industry accepted methodologies together with FDA compliance requirements, and has established an American National Standard that provides a comprehensive set of standards that are integral to the pharmaceutical industry. This article describes various American National Standards, including those developed and published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and how they apply to the pharmaceutical industry. It goes on to discuss the harmonization effort that takes place between the various standards developers in an attempt to prevent conflicts and omissions between the many standards. Also included are examples of tables and figures taken from the ASME-BPE Standard. These examples provide the reader with insight to the relevant content of the ASME-BPE Standard. Designing and building a pharmaceutical facility requires the owner, engineer of record, and constructor to be knowledgeable with regard to the industry codes and standards that apply to this effort. Up until 1997 there were no industry standards directed at the needs and requirements of the pharmaceutical industry. Prior to that time it was a patchwork effort at resourcing and adopting nonpharmaceutical-related codes and

  15. Batse/Sax and Batse/RXTE-ASM Joint Spectral Studies of GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciesas, William S.

    2002-01-01

    We proposed to make joint spectral analysis of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the BATSE data base that are located within the fields of view of either the BeppoSAX wide field cameras (WFCs) or the RXTE all-sky monitor (ASM). The very broad-band coverage obtained in this way would facilitate various studies of GRB spectra that are difficult to perform with BATSE data alone. Unfortunately, the termination of the CGRO mission in June 2000 was not anticipated at the time of the proposal, and the sample of common events turned out to be smaller than we would have liked.

  16. A Toolkit Modeling Approach for Sustainable Forest Management Planning: Achieving Balance between Science and Local Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Sturtevant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To assist forest managers in balancing an increasing diversity of resource objectives, we developed a toolkit modeling approach for sustainable forest management (SFM. The approach inserts a meta-modeling strategy into a collaborative modeling framework grounded in adaptive management philosophy that facilitates participation among stakeholders, decision makers, and local domain experts in the meta-model building process. The modeling team works iteratively with each of these groups to define essential questions, identify data resources, and then determine whether available tools can be applied or adapted, or whether new tools can be rapidly created to fit the need. The desired goal of the process is a linked series of domain-specific models (tools that balances generalized "top-down" models (i.e., scientific models developed without input from the local system with case-specific customized "bottom-up" models that are driven primarily by local needs. Information flow between models is organized according to vertical (i.e., between scale and horizontal (i.e., within scale dimensions. We illustrate our approach within a 2.1 million hectare forest planning district in central Labrador, a forested landscape where social and ecological values receive a higher priority than economic values. However, the focus of this paper is on the process of how SFM modeling tools and concepts can be rapidly assembled and applied in new locations, balancing efficient transfer of science with adaptation to local needs. We use the Labrador case study to illustrate strengths and challenges uniquely associated with a meta-modeling approach to integrated modeling as it fits within the broader collaborative modeling framework. Principle advantages of the approach include the scientific rigor introduced by peer-reviewed models, combined with the adaptability of meta-modeling. A key challenge is the limited transparency of scientific models to different participatory groups

  17. A sustainable biogas model in China: The case study of Beijing Deqingyuan biogas project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lihong, Chen; Cong, Ronggang; Shu, Bangrong

    2017-01-01

    an representative biogas project (the Deqingyuan project, DQY) in Beijing and conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the whole value chain. DQY is the first large-scale biogas project in China that utilizes 100% chicken manure as a feedstock and integrates biogas production with ecological agriculture using advanced...... technologies. DQY uses 80,000 t of chicken manure and 100,000 t of sewage each year to produce biogas, which generates 14 million KWh of power annually, and obtains an additional revenue of RMB 8 million yuan each year through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Operating as an example of a sustainable......, mitigating pollution, and increasing employment, among other benefits. This paper aims to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the typical demonstration model (DQY) in utilization of agricultural waste in China, and further proposes a general development model of Chinese biogas in the future....

  18. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2011 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 11) (Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 18-21 September 2011) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2011 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 11) (Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 18-21 September 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Diann

    2012-09-01

    The fourth annual meeting of the ASME/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in sunny Scottsdale, Arizona. Each year we strive to grow and offer new experiences. This year we held a special Guest Symposium on Sustainability along with two focused topic tracks on energy harvesting and active composites to encourage cross-fertilization between these important fields and our community. This cross-disciplinary emphasis was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Wayne Brown, President and founder of Dynalloy, Inc., 'Cross-Discipline Sharing'; Dr Brad Allenby, Arizona State University, 'You Want the Future? You can't Handle the Future!'; and Professor Aditi Chattopadhyay, Arizona State University, 'A Multidisciplinary Approach to Structural Health Monitoring and Prognosis'. SMASIS continues to grow our community through both social and technical interchange. The conference location, the exotic Firesky Resort and Spa, exemplified the theme of our Guest Symposium on Sustainability, being the only Green Seal certified resort in Arizona, and highlighting four elements thought to represent all that exist: fire, water, earth and air. Several special events were held around this theme including the night at the oasis reception sponsored by General Motors, sustainability bingo, smart trivia and student networking lunches, and an Arizona pow-wow with a spectacular Indian hoop dance. Our student and young professional development continues to grow strong with best paper and hardware competitions, scavenger student outing and games night. We are very proud that our students and young professionals are always seeking out ways to give back to the community, including organizing outreach to local high school talent. We thank all of our sponsors who made these special events possible. We hope that these social events provided participants with the opportunity to expand their own personal community and broaden their horizons. Our

  19. Improved design and data accuracy through modeling and simulation of wind tunnel facilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analytical Services & Materials, Inc. (AS&M) is proposing to develop and validate the procedures and modeling necessary to simulate, using computational...

  20. Sustainability, collapse and oscillations in a simple World-Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzbon, Jan; Heitzig, Jobst; Parlitz, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    The Anthropocene is characterized by close interdependencies between the natural Earth system and the global human society, posing novel challenges to model development. Here we present a conceptual model describing the long-term co-evolution of natural and socio-economic subsystems of Earth. While the climate is represented via a global carbon cycle, we use economic concepts to model socio-metabolic flows of biomass and fossil fuels between nature and society. A well-being-dependent parametrization of fertility and mortality governs human population dynamics. Our analysis focuses on assessing possible asymptotic states of the Earth system for a qualitative understanding of its complex dynamics rather than quantitative predictions. Low dimension and simple equations enable a parameter-space analysis allowing us to identify preconditions of several asymptotic states and hence fates of humanity and planet. These include a sustainable co-evolution of nature and society, a global collapse and everlasting oscillations. We consider different scenarios corresponding to different socio-cultural stages of human history. The necessity of accounting for the ‘human factor’ in Earth system models is highlighted by the finding that carbon stocks during the past centuries evolved opposing to what would ‘naturally’ be expected on a planet without humans. The intensity of biomass use and the contribution of ecosystem services to human well-being are found to be crucial determinants of the asymptotic state in a (pre-industrial) biomass-only scenario without capital accumulation. The capitalistic, fossil-based scenario reveals that trajectories with fundamentally different asymptotic states might still be almost indistinguishable during even a centuries-long transient phase. Given current human population levels, our study also supports the claim that besides reducing the global demand for energy, only the extensive use of renewable energies may pave the way into a

  1. Mathematical modeling of sustainable synaptogenesis by repetitive stimuli suggests signaling mechanisms in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Takizawa

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of long-term synaptic maintenance are a key component to understanding the mechanism of long-term memory. From biological experiments, a hypothesis arose that repetitive stimuli with appropriate intervals are essential to maintain new synapses for periods of longer than a few days. We successfully reproduce the time-course of relative numbers of synapses with our mathematical model in the same conditions as biological experiments, which used Adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Sp-isomer (Sp-cAMPS as external stimuli. We also reproduce synaptic maintenance responsiveness to intervals of Sp-cAMPS treatment accompanied by PKA activation. The model suggests a possible mechanism of sustainable synaptogenesis which consists of two steps. First, the signal transduction from an external stimulus triggers the synthesis of a new signaling protein. Second, the new signaling protein is required for the next signal transduction with the same stimuli. As a result, the network component is modified from the first network, and a different signal is transferred which triggers the synthesis of another new signaling molecule. We refer to this hypothetical mechanism as network succession. We build our model on the basis of two hypotheses: (1 a multi-step network succession induces downregulation of SSH and COFILIN gene expression, which triggers the production of stable F-actin; (2 the formation of a complex of stable F-actin with Drebrin at PSD is the critical mechanism to achieve long-term synaptic maintenance. Our simulation shows that a three-step network succession is sufficient to reproduce sustainable synapses for a period longer than 14 days. When we change the network structure to a single step network, the model fails to follow the exact condition of repetitive signals to reproduce a sufficient number of synapses. Another advantage of the three-step network succession is that this system indicates a greater tolerance of parameter

  2. Dynamically linking economic models to ecological condition for coastal zone management: Application to sustainable tourism planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvarskas, Anthony

    2017-03-01

    While the development of the tourism industry can bring economic benefits to an area, it is important to consider the long-run impact of the industry on a given location. Particularly when the tourism industry relies upon a certain ecological state, those weighing different development options need to consider the long-run impacts of increased tourist numbers upon measures of ecological condition. This paper presents one approach for linking a model of recreational visitor behavior with an ecological model that estimates the impact of the increased visitors upon the environment. Two simulations were run for the model using initial parameters available from survey data and water quality data for beach locations in Croatia. Results suggest that the resilience of a given tourist location to the changes brought by increasing tourism numbers is important in determining its long-run sustainability. Further work should investigate additional model components, including the tourism industry, refinement of the relationships assumed by the model, and application of the proposed model in additional areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydro-economic modeling of conjunctive ground and surface water use to guide sustainable basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Kahil, Mohamed; Ward, Frank A.; Albiac, Jose; Eggleston, Jack; Sanz, David

    2016-04-01

    Water demands for irrigation, urban and environmental uses in arid and semiarid regions continue to grow, while freshwater supplies from surface and groundwater resources are becoming scarce and are expected to decline with climate change. Policymakers in these regions face hard choices on water management and policies. Hydro-economic modeling is the state-of-the art tool that could be used to guide the design and implementation of sustainable water management policies in basins. The strength of hydro-economic modeling lies in its capacity to integrate key biophysical and socio-economic components within a unified framework. A major gap in developments on hydro-economic modeling to date has been the weak integration of surface and groundwater flows, based on the theoretically correct Darcy equations used by the hydrogeological community. The modeling approach taken here is integrated, avoiding the single-tank aquifer assumption, avoiding simplified assumptions on aquifer-river linkages, and bypassing iterations among separate hydrological and economic models. The groundwater flow formulation used in this paper harnesses the standard finite difference expressions for groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water exchange developed in the USGS MODFLOW groundwater model. The methodological contribution to previous modeling efforts is the explicit specification of aquifer-river interactions, important when aquifer systems make a sizable contribution to basin resources. The modeling framework is solved completely, and information among the economic and hydrological components over all periods and locations are jointly and simultaneously determined. This novel framework is applied to the Jucar basin (Spain), which is a good experimental region for an integrated basin scale analysis. The framework is used for assessing the impacts of a range of climate change scenarios and policy choices, especially the hydrologic, land use, and economic outcomes. The modeling framework

  4. Can Livestock Farming and Tourism Coexist in Mountain Regions? A New Business Model for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Genovese

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available European Mediterranean mountain regions have been characterized by a sort of competition between the tourism sector and the agro-silvo-pastoral system, which in recent years has contributed to generate a continuous decline of the second one. Nevertheless, Pasture-based Livestock Farming Systems (PLSFS are relevant for their role in the management and conservation of large High Nature Value (HNV farmlands in Europe. The goal of our research is therefore to analyze what are the main features of farming organizations in the Italian alpine mountains and how they may be combined into inovative and sustainable business models (BM, characterized by the coexistence of agro-silvo-pastoral and touristic activities. By drawing upon the BM definition suggested by the Bocken’s et al. (2014, an exploratory case study has been analyzed; in particular, we propose the case study of the Lanzo Valleys, an alpine mountain region in the northwest of Italy, and the Toma di Lanzo Producers Association. The way a concrete and sustainable innovation in the more traditional BM could be supported only by the proactive intervention of a supra-farm dimension, while maintaining the peculiarities of the individual farms, is clearly shown in the article. A system of firms and institutions linked together in a collaborative relationship may represent a strong network, able to achieve the common goal of producing a sustainable development for the territory. Indeed, environment and cultural heritage may be preserved, as well as the economic perspective of farms reinforced, while the PLSFS could become more attractive for the tourism phenomenon. Interesting implications for farmers, policy makers and local institutions are identified.

  5. What can we learn from corporate sustainability reporting? Deriving propositions for research and practice from over 9,500 corporate sustainability reports published between 1999 and 2015 using topic modelling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Nadine; Vom Brocke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly using sustainability reports to inform their stakeholders and the public about their sustainability practices. We apply topic modelling to 9,514 sustainability reports published between 1999 and 2015 in order to identify common topics and, thus, the most common practices described in these reports. In particular, we identify forty-two topics that reflect sustainability and focus on the coverage and trends of economic, environmental, and social sustainability topics. Among the first to analyse such a large amount of data on organizations' sustainability reporting, the paper serves as an example of how to apply natural language processing as a strategy of inquiry in sustainability research. The paper also derives from the data analysis ten propositions for future research and practice that are of immediate value for organizations and researchers.

  6. What can we learn from corporate sustainability reporting? Deriving propositions for research and practice from over 9,500 corporate sustainability reports published between 1999 and 2015 using topic modelling technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Székely

    Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly using sustainability reports to inform their stakeholders and the public about their sustainability practices. We apply topic modelling to 9,514 sustainability reports published between 1999 and 2015 in order to identify common topics and, thus, the most common practices described in these reports. In particular, we identify forty-two topics that reflect sustainability and focus on the coverage and trends of economic, environmental, and social sustainability topics. Among the first to analyse such a large amount of data on organizations' sustainability reporting, the paper serves as an example of how to apply natural language processing as a strategy of inquiry in sustainability research. The paper also derives from the data analysis ten propositions for future research and practice that are of immediate value for organizations and researchers.

  7. What can we learn from corporate sustainability reporting? Deriving propositions for research and practice from over 9,500 corporate sustainability reports published between 1999 and 2015 using topic modelling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    vom Brocke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly using sustainability reports to inform their stakeholders and the public about their sustainability practices. We apply topic modelling to 9,514 sustainability reports published between 1999 and 2015 in order to identify common topics and, thus, the most common practices described in these reports. In particular, we identify forty-two topics that reflect sustainability and focus on the coverage and trends of economic, environmental, and social sustainability topics. Among the first to analyse such a large amount of data on organizations’ sustainability reporting, the paper serves as an example of how to apply natural language processing as a strategy of inquiry in sustainability research. The paper also derives from the data analysis ten propositions for future research and practice that are of immediate value for organizations and researchers. PMID:28403158

  8. Analysis of the interrelationship of energy, economy, and environment: A model of a sustainable energy future for Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Kyung-Jin

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to provide the groundwork for a sustainable energy future in Korea. For this purpose, a conceptual framework of sustainable energy development was developed to provide a deeper understanding of interrelationships between energy, the economy, and the environment (E 3). Based on this theoretical work, an empirical simulation model was developed to investigate the ways in which E3 interact. This dissertation attempts to develop a unified concept of sustainable energy development by surveying multiple efforts to integrate various definitions of sustainability. Sustainable energy development should be built on the basis of three principles: ecological carrying capacity, economic efficiency, and socio-political equity. Ecological carrying capacity delineates the earth's resource constraints as well as its ability to assimilate wastes. Socio-political equity implies an equitable distribution of the benefits and costs of energy consumption and an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. Economic efficiency dictates efficient allocation of scarce resources. The simulation model is composed of three modules: an energy module, an environmental module and an economic module. Because the model is grounded on economic structural behaviorism, the dynamic nature of the current economy is effectively depicted and simulated through manipulating exogenous policy variables. This macro-economic model is used to simulate six major policy intervention scenarios. Major findings from these policy simulations were: (1) carbon taxes are the most effective means of reducing air-pollutant emissions; (2) sustainable energy development can be achieved through reinvestment of carbon taxes into energy efficiency and renewable energy programs; and (3) carbon taxes would increase a nation's welfare if reinvested in relevant areas. The policy simulation model, because it is based on neoclassical economics, has limitations such that it cannot fully

  9. Evaluation and selection of sustainable suppliers in supply chain using new GP-DEA model with imprecise data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh Ghoushchi, Saeid; Dodkanloi Milan, Mehran; Jahangoshai Rezaee, Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, with respect to knowledge growth about enterprise sustainability, sustainable supplier selection is considered a vital factor in sustainable supply chain management. On the other hand, usually in real problems, the data are imprecise. One method that is helpful for the evaluation and selection of the sustainable supplier and has the ability to use a variety of data types is data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the present article, first, the supplier efficiency is measured with respect to all economic, social and environmental dimensions using DEA and applying imprecise data. Then, to have a general evaluation of the suppliers, the DEA model is developed using imprecise data based on goal programming (GP). Integrating the set of criteria changes the new model into a coherent framework for sustainable supplier selection. Moreover, employing this model in a multilateral sustainable supplier selection can be an incentive for the suppliers to move towards environmental, social and economic activities. Improving environmental, economic and social performance will mean improving the supply chain performance. Finally, the application of the proposed approach is presented with a real dataset.

  10. The Development of A Sustainability Policy Model for Promoting Cleaner Production: a Special Focus on Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shin

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCleaner Production (CP) can be a necessary condition for societies to establish and maintain sustainable production systems. Based upon the significant challenges for making progress toward sustainability and the currently stagnated situation of CP implementation, this thesis author

  11. Fully integrated modelling for sustainability assessment of resource recovery from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward-Hopkins, Joel; Busch, Jonathan; Purnell, Phil; Zwirner, Oliver; Velis, Costas A; Brown, Andrew; Hahladakis, John; Iacovidou, Eleni

    2018-01-15

    This paper presents an integrated modelling approach for value assessments, focusing on resource recovery from waste. The method tracks and forecasts a range of values across environmental, social, economic and technical domains by attaching these to material-flows, thus building upon and integrating unidimensional models such as material flow analysis (MFA) and lifecycle assessment (LCA). We argue that the usual classification of metrics into these separate domains is useful for interpreting the outputs of multidimensional assessments, but unnecessary for modelling. We thus suggest that multidimensional assessments can be better performed by integrating the calculation methods of unidimensional models rather than their outputs. To achieve this, we propose a new metric typology that forms the foundation of a multidimensional model. This enables dynamic simulations to be performed with material-flows (or values in any domain) driven by changes in value in other domains. We then apply the model in an illustrative case highlighting links between the UK coal-based electricity-production and concrete/cement industries, investigating potential impacts that may follow the increased use of low-carbon fuels (biomass and solid recovered fuels; SRF) in the former. We explore synergies and trade-offs in value across domains and regions, e.g. how changes in carbon emissions in one part of the system may affect mortality elsewhere. This highlights the advantages of recognising complex system dynamics and making high-level inferences of their effects, even when rigorous analysis is not possible. We also indicate how changes in social, environmental and economic 'values' can be understood as being driven by changes in the technical value of resources. Our work thus emphasises the advantages of building fully integrated models to inform conventional sustainability assessments, rather than applying hybrid approaches that integrate outputs from parallel models. The approach we

  12. A coupled modeling framework for sustainable watershed management in transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furqan Khan, Hassaan; Yang, Y. C. Ethan; Xie, Hua; Ringler, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing recognition among water resource managers that sustainable watershed management needs to not only account for the diverse ways humans benefit from the environment, but also incorporate the impact of human actions on the natural system. Coupled natural-human system modeling through explicit modeling of both natural and human behavior can help reveal the reciprocal interactions and co-evolution of the natural and human systems. This study develops a spatially scalable, generalized agent-based modeling (ABM) framework consisting of a process-based semi-distributed hydrologic model (SWAT) and a decentralized water system model to simulate the impacts of water resource management decisions that affect the food-water-energy-environment (FWEE) nexus at a watershed scale. Agents within a river basin are geographically delineated based on both political and watershed boundaries and represent key stakeholders of ecosystem services. Agents decide about the priority across three primary water uses: food production, hydropower generation and ecosystem health within their geographical domains. Agents interact with the environment (streamflow) through the SWAT model and interact with other agents through a parameter representing willingness to cooperate. The innovative two-way coupling between the water system model and SWAT enables this framework to fully explore the feedback of human decisions on the environmental dynamics and vice versa. To support non-technical stakeholder interactions, a web-based user interface has been developed that allows for role-play and participatory modeling. The generalized ABM framework is also tested in two key transboundary river basins, the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia and the Niger River basin in West Africa, where water uses for ecosystem health compete with growing human demands on food and energy resources. We present modeling results for crop production, energy generation and violation of eco

  13. GEOINFORMATION-CARTOGRAPHIC MODELING OF WATER AVAILABILITY FOR WATER SECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Rybkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of problem associated with water availability and its mapping is due to the need to solve urgent water problems of the Russian regions for their sustainable development. At the same time, sustainability is understood as rational use of water resources and their conservation to maintain the ecological balance of territories, and water security of regions is evaluated from the standpoint of water supply to municipalities. The shortage of water resources in Russia is perceived skeptically since our country is rich in water resources and the scarcity of fresh water threatens only a small part of its territory. However, the experts consider [Danilov-Danilyan, Galfan, 2015] that such a myopic point of view can lead in the long term to emergencies. The potential danger and risk of water use are already typical for the areas, which experience water stress. These are the territories with extremely low water availability per capita, less than 1.0-2.0 thousand m3/person/year [Shiklomanov, 2000; Danilov-Danilyan, Losev, 2006]. Geoinformation-cartographic modeling allows to differentiate the area under study according to water resource potential, to identify municipalities with low water availability and to estimate the population living in the area of potential danger and risk of water use.

  14. The use of LCA for modelling sustainability and environmental impact of manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culaba, A.; Purvis, M. [Portsmouth Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Most industries rely significantly on natural resources for raw materials and energy requirements. As a consequence of manufacturing activities, various pollutants are generated in the process. While effects on the environment can be detrimental, wastes and emissions account for a high percentage loss in the overall material balance. Unless these unnecessary losses are minimized and recovered, the environment would continue to be disadvantaged and long-term supply of raw materials and energy would likewise be affected. The key to the analysis of such problems concerns generalised procedures for the modelling of the sustainable use of resources in manufacturing processes and the development of associated sustainability criteria. This requires identifying the various aspects of manufacturing from the time the raw materials are extracted until they have been processed into products and then used or consumed and finally disposed of. The use of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology encompasses these analyses and that of the identification of environmental effects associated with every stage of the manufacturing process. The presentation concludes that LCA is a very useful and effective tool in providing planners, legislator and decision-makers with the necessary information on the probable impacts of manufacture on the environment as well as underlying legislation, ecological, health standards and emission limits. (author)

  15. Integrated hydrologic modeling as a key for sustainable urban water resources planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshtawi, Tamer; Evers, Mariele; Tischbein, Bernhard; Diekkrüger, Bernd

    2016-09-15

    In this study, a coupling of surface water (SWAT), groundwater (MODFLOW) and solute transport (MT3DMS) models was performed to quantify surface-groundwater and quantity-quality interactions under urban area expansion. The responses of groundwater level, nitrate concentrations (related to human activities) and chloride concentrations (related to seawater intrusion) to urban area expansion and corresponding changes in the urban water budget were examined on a macro-scale level. The potentials of non-conventional water resources scenarios, namely desalination, stormwater harvesting and treated wastewater (TWW) reuse were investigated. In a novel analysis, groundwater improvement and deterioration under each scenario were defined in spatial-temporal approach. The quality deterioration cycle index was estimated as the ratio between the amounts of low and high quality recharge components within the Gaza Strip boundary predicted for year 2030. The improvement index for groundwater level (IIL) and the improvement index for groundwater quality (IIQ) were developed for the scenarios as measures of the effectiveness toward sustainable groundwater planning. Even though the desalination and TWW reuse scenarios reflect a noticeable improvement in the groundwater level, the desalination scenario shows a stronger tendency toward sustainable groundwater quality. The stormwater harvesting scenario shows a slight improvement in both groundwater quality and quantity. This study provides a 'corridor of options', which could facilitate future studies focusing on developing a micro-level assessment of the above scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FS-OpenSecurity: A Taxonomic Modeling of Security Threats in SDN for Future Sustainable Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsick Sung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Networking (SDN has brought many changes in terms of the interaction processes between systems and humans. It has become the key enabler of software defined architecture, which allows enterprises to build a highly agile Information Technology (IT infrastructure. For Future Sustainability Computing (FSC, SDN needs to deliver on many information technology commitments—more automation, simplified design, increased agility, policy-based management, and network management bond to more liberal IT workflow systems. To address the sustainability problems, SDN needs to provide greater collaboration and tighter integration with networks, servers, and security teams that will have an impact on how enterprises design, plan, deploy and manage networks. In this paper, we propose FS-OpenSecurity, which is a new and pragmatic security architecture model. It consists of two novel methodologies, Software Defined Orchestrator (SDO and SQUEAK, which offer a robust and secure architecture. The secure architecture is required for protection from diverse threats. Usually, security administrators need to handle each threat individually. However, handling threats automatically by adapting to the threat landscape is a critical demand. Therefore, the architecture must handle defensive processes automatically that are collaboratively based on intelligent external and internal information.

  17. A Framework for Making Sustainable Cleanup Decisions Using the KONVERGENCE Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, Steven James; Dettmers, Dana Lee; Dakins, Maxine Ellen; Eide, Steven Arvid; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Kerr, Thomas A; Nitschke, Robert Leon; Oswald, Kyle Blaine; Reisenauer, John Phillip

    2002-08-01

    The effects of closure decisions for used nuclear facilities can extend centuries into the future. Yet, the longevity of decisions made over the past half century has been poor. Our goal is an improved decision framework for decommissioning, stewardship, and waste management. This paper describes our overall framework. Companion papers describe the underlying philosophy of the KONVERGENCE Model for Sustainable Decisions1 and implications for a class of intractable decision problems.2 Where knowledge, values, and resources converge (the K, V, and R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision – a decision that works over time. Our approach clarifies what is needed to make and keep decisions over relevant time periods. The process guides participants through establishing the real problem, understanding the universes of knowledge, values, resources, and generating alternatives. We explore three classes of alternatives – reusable (e.g. greenfield), closed (e.g. entombed structures), and adaptable. After testing for konvergence of alternatives among knowledge, values, resources, we offer suggestions to diagnose divergence, to reduce divergence by refining alternatives to address identified weaknesses, and to plan to keep konvergence over the life of the decision. We believe that decisions made via this method will better stand the test of time – because it will be either acceptable to keep them unchanged or possible to adapt them as knowledge, values, and resources change.

  18. @AACAnatomy twitter account goes live: A sustainable social media model for professional societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Hannah K; Royer, Danielle F

    2017-11-27

    Social media, with its capabilities of fast, global information sharing, provides a useful medium for professional development, connecting and collaborating with peers, and outreach. The goals of this study were to describe a new, sustainable model for Twitter use by professional societies, and analyze its impact on @AACAnatomy, the Twitter account of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists. Under supervision of an Association committee member, an anatomy graduate student developed a protocol for publishing daily tweets for @AACAnatomy. Five tweet categories were used: Research, Announcements, Replies, Engagement, and Community. Analytics from the 6-month pilot phase were used to assess the impact of the new model. @AACAnatomy had a steady average growth of 33 new followers per month, with less than 10% likely representing Association members. Research tweets, based on Clinical Anatomy articles with an abstract link, were the most shared, averaging 5,451 impressions, 31 link clicks, and nine #ClinAnat hashtag clicks per month. However, tweets from non-Research categories accounted for the highest impression and engagement metrics in four out of six months. For all tweet categories, monthly averages show consistent interaction of followers with the account. Daily tweet publication resulted in a 103% follower increase. An active Twitter account successfully facilitated regular engagement with @AACAnatomy followers and the promotion of clinical anatomy topics within a broad community. This Twitter model has the potential for implementation by other societies as a sustainable medium for outreach, networking, collaboration, and member engagement. Clin. Anat., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Code cases for implementing risk-based inservice testing in the ASME OM code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Historically inservice testing has been reasonably effective, but quite costly. Recent applications of plant PRAs to the scope of the IST program have demonstrated that of the 30 pumps and 500 valves in the typical plant IST program, less than half of the pumps and ten percent of the valves are risk significant. The way the ASME plans to tackle this overly-conservative scope for IST components is to use the PRA and plant expert panels to create a two tier IST component categorization scheme. The PRA provides the quantitative risk information and the plant expert panel blends the quantitative and deterministic information to place the IST component into one of two categories: More Safety Significant Component (MSSC) or Less Safety Significant Component (LSSC). With all the pumps and valves in the IST program placed in MSSC or LSSC categories, two different testing strategies will be applied. The testing strategies will be unique for the type of component, such as centrifugal pump, positive displacement pump, MOV, AOV, SOV, SRV, PORV, HOV, CV, and MV. A series of OM Code Cases are being developed to capture this process for a plant to use. One Code Case will be for Component Importance Ranking. The remaining Code Cases will develop the MSSC and LSSC testing strategy for type of component. These Code Cases are planned for publication in early 1997. Later, after some industry application of the Code Cases, the alternative Code Case requirements will gravitate to the ASME OM Code as appendices.

  20. Integrated Hydrological Modeling of the North China Plain and Implications for Sustainable Water Management (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Zheng, C.; Cao, G.; Kristensen, M.; Refsgaard, J.; Rasmussen, M. O.; He, X.; Liu, J.; Shu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater overdraft has caused fast water level decline in the North China Plain (NCP) since the 1980s. Although many hydrological models have been developed for the NCP in the past few decades, most of them deal only with the groundwater component or only at local scales. In the present study, a coupled surface water-groundwater model using the MIKE SHE code has been developed for the entire alluvial plain of the NCP. All the major processes in the land phase of the hydrological cycle are considered in the integrated modeling approach. The most important parameters of the model are first identified by a sensitivity analysis process and then calibrated for the period 2000-2005. The calibrated model is validated for the period 2006-2008 against daily observations of groundwater heads. The simulation results compare well with the observations where acceptable values of root mean square error (RMSE) (most values lie below 4 m) and correlation coefficient (R) (0.36-0.97) are obtained. The calculated evapotranspiration (ET) is then compared with the remote sensing (RS) based ET data to further validate the model simulation. The comparison result with a R2 value of 0.93 between the monthly averaged values of calculated actual evapotranspiration (AET) and RS AET for the entire NCP shows a good performance of the model. The water balance results indicate that more than 70% of water leaving the flow system is attributed to the ET component, of which about 0.25% is taken from the saturated zone (SZ); about 29% comes from pumping, including irrigation pumping and non-irrigation pumping (net pumping). Sustainable water management analysis of the NCP is conducted using the simulation results obtained from the integrated model. An effective approach to improve water use efficiency in the NCP is by reducing the actual ET, e.g., by introducing water-saving technologies and changes in cropping.

  1. Integrated hydrological modeling of the North China Plain and implications for sustainable water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Cao, G.; Kristensen, M.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Rasmussen, M. O.; He, X.; Liu, J.; Shu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2013-10-01

    Groundwater overdraft has caused fast water level decline in the North China Plain (NCP) since the 1980s. Although many hydrological models have been developed for the NCP in the past few decades, most of them deal only with the groundwater component or only at local scales. In the present study, a coupled surface water-groundwater model using the MIKE SHE code has been developed for the entire alluvial plain of the NCP. All the major processes in the land phase of the hydrological cycle are considered in the integrated modeling approach. The most important parameters of the model are first identified by a sensitivity analysis process and then calibrated for the period 2000-2005. The calibrated model is validated for the period 2006-2008 against daily observations of groundwater heads. The simulation results compare well with the observations where acceptable values of root mean square error (RMSE) (most values lie below 4 m) and correlation coefficient (R) (0.36-0.97) are obtained. The simulated evapotranspiration (ET) is then compared with the remote sensing (RS)-based ET data to further validate the model simulation. The comparison result with a R2 value of 0.93 between the monthly averaged values of simulated actual evapotranspiration (AET) and RS AET for the entire NCP shows a good performance of the model. The water balance results indicate that more than 70% of water leaving the flow system is attributed to the ET component, of which about 0.25% is taken from the saturated zone (SZ); about 29% comes from pumping, including irrigation pumping and non-irrigation pumping (net pumping). Sustainable water management analysis of the NCP is conducted using the simulation results obtained from the integrated model. An effective approach to improve water use efficiency in the NCP is by reducing the actual ET, e.g. by introducing water-saving technologies and changes in cropping.

  2. Integrated hydrological modeling of the North China Plain and implications for sustainable water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Qin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater overdraft has caused fast water level decline in the North China Plain (NCP since the 1980s. Although many hydrological models have been developed for the NCP in the past few decades, most of them deal only with the groundwater component or only at local scales. In the present study, a coupled surface water–groundwater model using the MIKE SHE code has been developed for the entire alluvial plain of the NCP. All the major processes in the land phase of the hydrological cycle are considered in the integrated modeling approach. The most important parameters of the model are first identified by a sensitivity analysis process and then calibrated for the period 2000–2005. The calibrated model is validated for the period 2006–2008 against daily observations of groundwater heads. The simulation results compare well with the observations where acceptable values of root mean square error (RMSE (most values lie below 4 m and correlation coefficient (R (0.36–0.97 are obtained. The simulated evapotranspiration (ET is then compared with the remote sensing (RS-based ET data to further validate the model simulation. The comparison result with a R2 value of 0.93 between the monthly averaged values of simulated actual evapotranspiration (AET and RS AET for the entire NCP shows a good performance of the model. The water balance results indicate that more than 70% of water leaving the flow system is attributed to the ET component, of which about 0.25% is taken from the saturated zone (SZ; about 29% comes from pumping, including irrigation pumping and non-irrigation pumping (net pumping. Sustainable water management analysis of the NCP is conducted using the simulation results obtained from the integrated model. An effective approach to improve water use efficiency in the NCP is by reducing the actual ET, e.g. by introducing water-saving technologies and changes in cropping.

  3. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Emily R; Agarwal, Smisha; L'Engle, Kelly; Lasway, Christine; Zan, Trinity; van Beijma, Hajo; Orkis, Jennifer; Karam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth") can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH), a national text-message (SMS) based health communication service in Tanzania. We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320) and at any possible break-even volume. In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively) from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS) was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs. These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners. While this

  4. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Mangone

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth" can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH, a national text-message (SMS based health communication service in Tanzania.We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320 and at any possible break-even volume.In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs.These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners

  5. The Waswanipi Cree Model Forest: Demonstrating Aboriginal leadership in sustainable forest management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, A.

    1999-09-01

    Experiences of the Waswanipi Cree community in being partners in sustainable forest management are discussed. The Waswanipi Cree Model Forest was designated as such in 1997. Since then, it has come to be seen as a forum for the community to express its needs, goals and objectives for the future, and as the first opportunity for the Cree community to exercise leadership and decision-making authority related to land management issues. The Waswanipi land is situated on the southernmost tip of eastern James Bay. It extends to some 35,000 sq km, divided into 52 family hunting territories, called traplines. Each trapline has a designated custodian, who is responsible for ensuring that wildlife is harvested in a sustainable manner. Community life is organized around the traplines, although families will sometimes temporarily relocate close to paid employment opportunities. Nevertheless, the purpose of employment is always to return to the bush, with sufficient materials and supplies to last the hunting and trapping season. Prior to the designation of the Model Forest, the major problems have been the rate and extent of forestry activities on Cree land by outside timber companies, the absence of opportunities for the Cree to have a meaningful role in decisions that impacted their future and the difficulties of convincing government experts and forestry companies to allow the Cree to bring their experience-based knowledge to bear on forest resource management issues. The manner in which the new partnership resulting from the designation of the Model Forest is opening the way to better understanding, mitigation of the negative effects of forestry operations on traplines, mediation of conflicts between trappers and forestry companies with timber licences on Waswanipi land, are described as one of the major achievements of the Model Forest Program. The rate and extent of cutting continues to be a problem, however, there are signs of a growing understanding among the timber

  6. Challenges to achieving sustainable community health development within a donor aid business model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Helen; Barclay, Lesley

    2010-06-01

    This paper explores the paradox of donor aid being delivered through a business model through a case study in Papua New Guinea. A retrospective review of project implementation and an outcome evaluation provided an opportunity to examine the long-term results and sustainability of a large project. Analysis was informed by data collected from 175 interviews (national, provincial, district and village), 93 community discussions and observations across 10 provinces. Problems with the business model of delivering aid were evident from implementation data and in an evaluation conducted two years after project completion (2006). Compounding the business model effect were challenges of over-ambitious project goals with limited flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances, a donor payment system requiring short-term productivity and excessive reporting requirements. An overly ambitious project design, donor dominance within the business model and limited local counterpart capacity created problems in the community initiatives component of the project. Contractual pressures can negatively influence long-term outcomes that require development of local leadership and capacity. Future planning for donor project designs needs to be flexible, smaller in scope and have a longer timeframe of seven to 10 years. Donor-funded projects need to be sufficiently flexible to apply proven principles of community development, build local ownership and allow adequate time to build counterpart knowledge and skills.

  7. Developing a Sustainable Practical Model of Graduate Employability for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Umar Rufai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evolve a sustainable practical model of employability skills that is sure to capture relevant learning aspects of a particular occupational discipline to be used as framework for Undergraduate students to develop their employability potentials. The study was conducted in three Universities and Polytechnics each with three multi-national companies. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Using purposeful sampling 18 academic staff and 3 professionals representing company employers were selected as the study participants. The study evolved a model that is work-based, explicit in its outcome, fully articulated and realistic in terms of employability skill experiences. The proposed model can be used to establish a common higher education programme or curricula that is work-based and skill experience oriented, that can encourage students in higher education to think about work place learning more explicitly and reflectively, that will in turn help them to develop a broad range of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values, each of which ultimately contribute in some manner to graduate employability.  The paper is considered a contribution to the evolution and growth of knowledge on the linkage between higher education and workplace, through which the ‘skill gap’ occurring between the demand of employment and the level of educational preparation of graduates can be bridged. Keywords: Employability, Higher Education, Graduates, Model/Framework,   academic staff, Employers/Professionals

  8. Albergo Diffuso as a model of original hospitality and sustainable development of small historical villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Dall'Ara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper fits within the wider context related to the definition of restoration strategies and models, and revitalization of small historical towns and villages, focusing on touristic use and on the Albergo Diffuso (AD model. This latter, in its functional elements, includes solutions to solve degeneration and gradual depopulation problems, typical in these cases, by enhancing both tangible and intangible resources. The purpose of this research study was to verify, about 20 years after the first implementations, to what extent and by means of what type of intervention the AD model influenced regeneration processes of historical villages and refunctionalization of reused building heritage. By means of an exploratory investigation and an in situ monitoring activity, it was possible to outline an initial measurement of both direct and indirect results following the application of ADs. The activities confirmed the virtuosity of the model and identified both critical issues and strong points, directly connected to the type of users and to the sustainability features of the interventions.

  9. Fibroblast spheroids as a model to study sustained fibroblast quiescence and their crosstalk with tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmenperä, Pertteli, E-mail: pertteli.salmenpera@helsinki.fi [Department of Virology, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FIN-00014 (Finland); Karhemo, Piia-Riitta [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, and Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 (Finland); Räsänen, Kati [Department of Virology, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FIN-00014 (Finland); Laakkonen, Pirjo [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, and Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 (Finland); Vaheri, Antti [Department of Virology, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FIN-00014 (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Stromal fibroblasts have an important role in regulating tumor progression. Normal and quiescent fibroblasts have been shown to restrict and control cancer cell growth, while cancer-associated, i. e. activated fibroblasts have been shown to enhance proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. In this study we describe generation of quiescent fibroblasts in multicellular spheroids and their effects on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) growth in soft-agarose and xenograft models. Quiescent phenotype of fibroblasts was determined by global down-regulation of expression of genes related to cell cycle and increased expression of p27. Interestingly, microarray analysis showed that fibroblast quiescence was associated with similar secretory phenotype as seen in senescence and they expressed senescence-associated-β-galactosidase. Quiescent fibroblasts spheroids also restricted the growth of RT3 SCC cells both in soft-agarose and xenograft models unlike proliferating fibroblasts. Restricted tumor growth was associated with marginally increased tumor cell senescence and cellular differentiation, showed with senescence-associated-β-galactosidase and cytokeratin 7 staining. Our results show that the fibroblasts spheroids can be used as a model to study cellular quiescence and their effects on cancer cell progression. - Highlights: • Fibroblasts acquire a sustained quiescence when grown as multicellular spheroids. • This quiescence is associated with drastic change in gene expression. • Fibroblasts spheroids secrete various inflammation-linked cytokines and chemokines. • Fibroblasts spheroids reduced growth of RT3 SCC cells in xenograft model.

  10. Modeling of predictive muscular strength for sustained one-handed carrying task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Way; Wang, Chien Wen; Yu, Ruifeng

    2015-01-01

    Manual materials handling (MMH) tasks are common. They are considered major contributors of musculoskeletal injuries and are the sources of financial burden for industries in terms of lost work days and worker compensation costs. One-handed carrying is common and could result in arm fatigue. The purpose of this study was to establish predictive models for one-handed carrying strength considering weight handed and handedness conditions. Twenty male subjects were recruited for the study. The subject carried a weight of 6 or 12 kg using either dominant or non-dominant hand lasting a time period of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, or 4 minutes. The results showed that handedness (p carrying strength. Predictive models of single arm carrying strength were established under handedness and weight conditions. The MADs of these models ranged from 0.39 to 2.19 kgf. The exponential function based predictive models may be adopted to describe the single arm carrying strength with reasonable predictive errors. The trend of the carrying strength after carrying a load for a certain period may be employed to describe muscular fatigue for sustained carrying tasks.

  11. A Novel Feed-Forward Modeling System Leads to Sustained Improvements in Attention and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ashley F; Rose, Maya; Norris, Troy; Gordon, Eric

    2016-01-28

    This study tested a novel feed-forward modeling (FFM) system as a nonpharmacological intervention for the treatment of ADHD children and the training of cognitive skills that improve academic performance. This study implemented a randomized, controlled, parallel design comparing this FFM with a nonpharmacological community care intervention. Improvements were measured on parent- and clinician-rated scales of ADHD symptomatology and on academic performance tests completed by the participant. Participants were followed for 3 months after training. Participants in the FFM training group showed significant improvements in ADHD symptomatology and academic performance, while the control group did not. Improvements from FFM were sustained 3 months later. The FFM appeared to be an effective intervention for the treatment of ADHD and improving academic performance. This FFM training intervention shows promise as a first-line treatment for ADHD while improving academic performance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. NYU3T: teaching, technology, teamwork: a model for interprofessional education scalability and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Fulmer, Terry; Adams, Jennifer G; Lee, Sabrina; Triola, Marc M

    2012-09-01

    Interprofessional education is a critical precursor to effective teamwork and the collaboration of health care professionals in clinical settings. Numerous barriers have been identified that preclude scalable and sustainable interprofessional education (IPE) efforts. This article describes NYU3T: Teaching, Technology, Teamwork, a model that uses novel technologies such as Web-based learning, virtual patients, and high-fidelity simulation to overcome some of the common barriers and drive implementation of evidence-based teamwork curricula. It outlines the program's curricular components, implementation strategy, evaluation methods, and lessons learned from the first year of delivery and describes implications for future large-scale IPE initiatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A project-based Mine Closure Model (MCM) for sustainable asset Life Cycle Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Fourie; A.C. Brent [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Life Cycle Engineering, Department of Engineering and Technology Management

    2006-07-01

    Responsible Life Cycle Management (LCM) of mines has received much attention in the South African legislation. However, there is currently a mis-alignment between the mining industry and the various government authorities pertaining to the issue of mine closure or end-of-life management. The main reasons for this are unclear and unformulated approaches to rehabilitation with a subsequent legacy of unsuccessful mine closures that have wrongly been issued by the government from a sustainability perspective; this has posed an excessive economical burden for the mining industry. In this paper, a Mine Closure Model (MCM) based on project management principles, including risk management and concurrent engineering, is proposed to manage the closure process and assist the governing body with the effective evaluation of closures and the issuance of certificates. Mine closure or rehabilitation objectives can be achieved whilst managing the resources (of industry) optimally and aligning the closure process to meet the end requirements of stakeholder groups.

  14. Creating competitive poles – the sustainable model for obtaining the competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Mihaela MATEI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a global economy that has as its own competitive advantage the transfer of information and goods around the world in real time, the annexes that surround the ecosystem are the centers for innovation founded on hedge & mutual funds, investment scenarios and the development of biotechnology (for developed countries or for the development of aircrafts or equipment used for the manufacturing of tangible goods (in emergent countries. For these to create synergy there is the idea of clusters, because they offer to the companies the possibility to change and to add dynamism to the microeconomic open system. Although globalization offers the power of global trading, clusters are found in developed countries with economies that can support multidisciplinary interactions, and their creation must be followed by the emergent countries that want to progress in this area. This paper represents a review and a research in progress on creating competitive poles (or clusters as a sustainable model for obtaining the competitive advantage.

  15. A Model for Sustainable Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) Using Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) Mechanism for Hotel Buildings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengpeng

    Hotel building is one of the high-energy-consuming building types, and retrofitting hotel buildings is an untapped solution to help cut carbon emissions contributing towards sustainable development. Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) has been promulgated as a market mechanism for the delivery of energy efficiency projects. EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently, and it has not been implemented successfully in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. The aim of this research is to develop a model for achieving the sustainability of Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) in hotel buildings under the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) mechanism. The objectives include: • To identify a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for measuring the sustainability of BEER in hotel buildings; • To identify Critical Success Factors (CSFs) under EPC mechanism that have a strong correlation with sustainable BEER project; • To develop a model explaining the relationships between the CSFs and the sustainability performance of BEER in hotel building. Literature reviews revealed the essence of sustainable BEER and EPC, which help to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing sustainable BEER under EPC mechanism in hotel buildings. 11 potential KPIs for sustainable BEER and 28 success factors of EPC were selected based on the developed framework. A questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the importance of selected performance indicators and success factors. Fuzzy set theory was adopted in identifying the KPIs. Six KPIs were identified from the 11 selected performance indicators. Through a questionnaire survey, out of the 28 success factors, 21 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) were also indentified. Using the factor analysis technique, the 21 identified CSFs in this study were grouped into six clusters to help explain project success of sustainable BEER. Finally, AHP/ANP approach was used in this research to develop a model to

  16. Topology of sustainable management in dynamical Earth system models with desirable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzig, J.; Kittel, T.

    2015-03-01

    To keep the Earth system in a desirable region of its state space, such as the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this article, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization, the sustainable management of the Earth system may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmata, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and increasing flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmata with conceptual models from classical mechanics, climate science, ecology, economics, and coevolutionary Earth system modelling and discuss their potential relevance for the climate and sustainability debate.

  17. Human performance under sustained operations and acute sleep deprivation conditions: toward a model of controlled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Band, David; Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Muth, Eric R

    2007-05-01

    Although a number of studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on performance, the results are not easily explained. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of sustained operations and acute sleep deprivation on tasks that require a wide range of information processing. The current study also provided preliminary data on the use of the controlled attention model to better understand the effects of sleep deprivation. There were 24 college students who were paid to remain awake for one night and complete a variety of cognitive and vigilance tasks. Each task was administered four times during the night, once in each testing session (17:30-21:30, 21:45-01:45, 02:30-06:30, and 06:45-10:45). All tasks were counterbalanced across the testing sessions. The data were converted to z-scores and repeated-measures ANOVAs were completed. Performance did not significantly decrease on the more complex cognitive tasks over the night of sleep deprivation. Performance on the vigilance tasks decreased significantly across the night. Examining the characteristics of the cognitive tasks indicated that although they required different types of processing, they encouraged the participants to remain attentive to and engaged in the task. In contrast, the vigilance tasks were less intrinsically interesting and engaging. Thus, it seems likely that the participants were less capable of maintaining attention on the vigilance tasks than the cognitive tasks. These results indicate that a controlled attention model may be useful in better understanding the effects of sustained operations and sleep deprivation on performance.

  18. Modeling a full scale oxidation ditch system, coupling hydrodynamics and biological kinetics using ASM1 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haouech, L.; Sperandio, M.; Cock, A.; Shayeb, H.

    2009-07-01

    Optimising the aeration in oxidation ditch aims on one hand, a better wastewater quality and on the other hand, a reduction of the energy expenses of the treatment. given that the energy expenses relative to the aeration represents 60 to 80% of the operating costs of a wastewater treatment plant and given that the biological activity is strictly dependent on dissolved oxygen, the transfer of oxygen is considered as one of the key parameters of the process. (Author) 8 refs.

  19. Sustaining and Expanding Telehealth: A Survey of Business Models from Selected Prominent U.S. Telehealth Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, Glen; Alverson, Dale C; Dion, Denise; Duffy, Veronica; Noon, Charles; Langell, Kevin; Antoniotti, Nina; Lowery, Curtis

    2017-02-01

    Telehealth centers across the country, including our own center, are addressing sustainability and best practice business models. We undertook this survey to explore the business models being used at other established telehealth centers. In the literature on telehealth and sustainability, there is a paucity of comparative studies as to how successful telehealth centers function. In this study, we compared the business models of 10 successful telehealth centers. We conducted the study by interviewing key individuals at the centers, either through teleconference or telephone. We found that there are five general approaches to sustaining a telehealth center: grants, telehealth network membership fees, income from providing clinical services, per encounter charges, and operating as a cost center. We also found that most centers use more than one approach. We concluded that, although the first four approaches can contribute to the success of a center, telehealth centers are and should remain cost centers for their respective institutions.

  20. The Design of a Sustainable Location-Routing-Inventory Model Considering Consumer Environmental Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhuan Tang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to design a sustainable supply chain (SSC network, which takes into consideration consumer environmental behaviors (CEBs. CEBs not only affect consumers’ demand for products with low carbon emissions, they also affect their willingness to pay premium prices for products with low carbon emissions. We incorporate CEBs into the SSC network model involving location, routing and inventory. Firstly, a multi-objective optimization model comprised of both the costs and the carbon emissions of a joint location-routing-inventory model is proposed and solved, using a multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO algorithm. Then, a revenue function including CEBs is presented on the basis of a Pareto set of the trade-off between costs and carbon emissions. A computational experiment and sensitivity analysis are conducted, employing data from the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC. The results clearly indicate that our research can be applied to actual supply chain operations. In addition, some practical managerial insights for enterprises are offered.

  1. A two-stage DEA model to evaluate sustainability and energy efficiency of tomato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Raheli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the sustainability and efficiency of tomato production and to investigate the determinants of inefficiency of tomato farming in Marand region of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. For these purposes, a two-stage methodology was applied, in which for the first time a fractional regression model (FRM was employed in the second stage of analysis, so that, in the first stage a nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used to analyze the efficiencies of tomato production and in the second stage, farm specific variables such as education level, farmers’ age, total land size and use of manure were used in a fractional regression model to explain how these factors influenced efficiency of tomato farming. The results of the first stage showed that there are considerable differences between efficient and inefficient farmers in the studied area, so that the main differences were in the use of chemical fertilizers, biocides and water for irrigation. Also, the results of second stage revealed that farmers’ age, education level and total land size positively affected efficiency in tomato production. So, better use of land, chemical fertilizers, water for irrigation and improving the farmers’ educational levels through literacy campaign and land consolidation would probably increase the efficiency in the long term. Keywords: Data envelopment analysis, Energy efficiency, Fractional regression model, Tomato

  2. Climate Change Modeling Methodology Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4°F over the past century, and computer models project that it will rise much more over the next hundred years, with significant impacts on weather, climate, and human society. Many climate scientists attribute these increases to the buildup of greenhouse gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels and to the anthropogenic production of short-lived climate pollutants. Climate Change Modeling Methodologies: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology provides readers with an introduction to the tools and analysis techniques used by climate change scientists to interpret the role of these forcing agents on climate.  Readers will also gain a deeper understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these models and how to test and assess them.  The contributions include a glossary of key terms and a concise definition of the subject for each topic, as well as recommendations for sources of more detailed information. Features au...

  3. Design and Modelling of Sustainable Bioethanol Supply Chain by Minimizing the Total Ecological Footprint in Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Toniolo, Sara

    2013-01-01

    manners in bioethanol systems, this study developed a model for designing the most sustainable bioethanol supply chain by minimizing the total ecological footprint under some prerequisite constraints including satisfying the goal of the stakeholders', the limitation of resources and energy, the capacity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for designing the most sustainable bioethanol supply chain. Taking into consideration of the possibility of multiple-feedstock, multiple transportation modes, multiple alternative technologies, multiple transport patterns and multiple waste disposal...

  4. Postoperative Analgesia Due to Sustained-Release Buprenorphine, Sustained-Release Meloxicam, and Carprofen Gel in a Model of Incisional Pain in Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Travis L; Adams, Sean C; Felt, Stephen A; Jampachaisri, Katechan; Yeomans, David C; Pacharinsak, Cholawat

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative analgesia in laboratory rats is complicated by the frequent handling associated with common analgesic dosing requirements. Here, we evaluated sustained-release buprenorphine (Bup-SR), sustained-release meloxicam (Melox-SR), and carprofen gel (CG) as refinements for postoperative analgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether postoperative administration of Bup-SR, Melox-SR, or CG effectively controls behavioral mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in a rat model of incisional pain. Rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: saline, 1 mL/kg SC BID; buprenorphine HCl (Bup HCl), 0.05 mg/kg SC BID; Bup-SR, 1.2 mg/kg SC once; Melox-SR, 4 mg/kg SC once; and CG, 2 oz PO daily. Mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were tested daily from day-1 through 4. Bup HCl and Bup-SR attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity on days 1 through 4. Melox-SR and CG attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity-but not thermal hypersensitivity-on days 1 through 4. Plasma concentrations, measured by using UPLC with mass spectrometry, were consistent between both buprenorphine formulations. Gross pathologic examination revealed no signs of toxicity in any group. These findings suggest that postoperative administration of Bup HCl and Bup-SR-but not Melox-SR or CG-effectively attenuates mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in a rat model of incisional pain.

  5. Calidad de la atención primaria en el paciente asmático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Varona Pérez

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Se ejecuta una investigación en servicios de salud con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad de la atención primaria en el paciente asmático en Ciudad de La Habana, mediante un diseño transversal, que incluyó pacientes asmáticos de los municipios Regla, Arroyo Naranjo y Cerro, seleccionados de forma aleatoria dentro de cada estrato, conformado según la tasa de mortalidad de 1993 a 1995. Se estudian 611 pacientes por medio de un cuestionario contentivo de variables sociodemográficas, relacionadas con conocimientos de la enfermedad, conducta del asmático y servicios vinculados con éste. Se muestra en los principales resultados que la atención brindada fue deficiente, expresada en escasos conocimientos del paciente sobre el manejo de su enfermedad y sus determinantes; conducta inadecuada ante una crisis y en períodos intercrisis; insuficiente atención por el psicólogo y el rehabilitador, en contraste con la aceptable satisfacción de los pacientes con la atención recibida. Se recomienda acciones orientadas a perfeccionar la capacitación del personal de salud, con énfasis en el enfoque preventivo de esta enfermedadAn investigation on the health services was carried out aimed at evaluating the quality of primary health care in the asthmatic patient, in Havana City, by a cross-sectional design that included asthmatics from the municipalities of Regla, Arroyo Naranjo and Cerro, who were selected at random within each stratum formed according to the mortality rate from 1993 to 1995. 611 patients were studied by using a questionnaire incluiding socidemographic variables connected with knowledge about the disease, behavior of the asthmatic and services linked with him. The main results showed that the attention was deficient, that the patient knew a little about the management of the disease and its determinants, that there was an inadequate conduct during the crisis and the intercrisis periods, and that the attention given by the

  6. A Retrospective Look at 20 Years of ASM Education Programs (1990-2010 and a Prospective Look at the Next 20 Years (2011-2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Education Board of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM was established in the mid-1970s to address the graduate and medical education needs of ASM members. Since then, I have watched our offerings evolve from a small, graduate-level travel grant program for ASM meetings to a growing suite of professional development and networking opportunities including fellowships, publications, and conferences. Along the way, our audience has expanded from  graduate students to undergraduate biology and K-12 teachers, students of all ages, researchers, and the public.I have been fortunate enough to watch several pivotal programs and projects support our growth and change the status quo by providing opportunities for biology educators to flourish. These include the: (i Coalition for Education in the Life Sciences, (ii ASM Division on Microbiology Education, (iii ASM Conference for Undergraduate Educators, (iv ASM Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, and (v ASM Fellowship Fund. In this review, the background and details I offer on each initiative help explain ASM Education offerings, how our growth has been supported, and where are we headed.

  7. [25 years of organized ambulatory heart sport in Luxembourg. The development of a sustained rehabilitation model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagardelle, Charles; Feiereisen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    underlying atherosclerotic processes, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality". The responsible ESC cardiologists agree with the international community that fighting CVD risk factors is at least as important as the whole arsenal of modern heart surgery and interventional cardiology. The core activity of ambulatory heart sport groups remains physical activity, and nowadays 6 different activities can be offered (one activity each day of the week): exercise lesson, swimming, walking, cycling, Nordic Walking and water gymnastics On the other hand comprehensive prevention programs, especially concerning CVD risk factors are also endorsed by the ambulatory heart sport groups of Luxembourg via regular meetings, conferences, brochures and symposia. One advantage of the ambulatory heart sport movement in Luxembourg, in contrast to the German model, is the direct financial allowance of the health ministry, which permits a lifelong activity to all the active members. Another advantage is that all the regional groups are directed by clinical cardiologists knowing the patients very closely. One weak point is that only about 5-10% of all potential candidates adhere to the ambulatory heart sport groups but nearly 50% of the active members are practicing for more than 5 years. These regularly active patients are a positive selection of well committed cardiac patients who, most of the time, control CVD risk factors with scrutiny. The ESC has recommended creating so called "Heart Houses" where all the aspects of comprehensive prevention and rehabilitation can be offered. Their main concern is to develop a sustained strategy which is desperately missing for the moment. A lot of the active members of the heart sport groups of Luxembourg achieve such a sustained activity and, therefore, these heart sport groups can be considered as very cost effective models of sustained rehabilitation. After a 25 years activity the ambulatory heart sport movement of Luxemburg has reached the outstanding goal

  8. . Ecological conceptual models: a framework and case study on ecosystem management for South Florida sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, J.H.; Harwell, M.A.; Cropper, W.; Harwell, C. C.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Davis, S.; Ogden, J.C.; Lirman, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Everglades and South Florida ecosystems are the focus of national and international attention because of their current degraded and threatened state. Ecological risk assessment, sustainability and ecosystem and adaptive management principles and processes are being used nationally as a decision and policy framework for a variety of types of ecological assessments. The intent of this study is to demonstrate the application of these paradigms and principles at a regional scale. The effects-directed assessment approach used in this study consists of a retrospective, eco-epidemiological phase to determine the causes for the current conditions and a prospective predictive risk-based assessment using scenario analysis to evaluate future options. Embedded in these assessment phases is a process that begins with the identification of goals and societal preferences which are used to develop an integrated suite of risk-based and policy relevant conceptual models. Conceptual models are used to illustrate the linkages among management (societal) actions, environmental stressors, and societal/ecological effects, and provide the basis for developing and testing causal hypotheses. These models, developed for a variety of landscape units and their drivers, stressors, and endpoints, are used to formulate hypotheses to explain the current conditions. They are also used as the basis for structuring management scenarios and analyses to project the temporal and spatial magnitude of risk reduction and system recovery. Within the context of recovery, the conceptual models are used in the initial development of performance criteria for those stressors that are determined to be most important in shaping the landscape, and to guide the use of numerical models used to develop quantitative performance criteria in the scenario analysis. The results will be discussed within an ecosystem and adaptive management framework that provides the foundation for decision making.

  9. Merging remotely sensed data, models and indicators for a sustainable development of coastal aquaculture in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigolin, Daniele; Venier, Chiara; Amine Taji, Mohamed; Lourguioui, Hichem; Mangin, Antoine; Pastres, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Finfish cage farming is an economically relevant activity, which exerts pressures on coastal systems and thus require a science-based management, based on the Ecosystem Approach, in order to be carry out in a sustainable way. Within MEDINA project (EU 282977), ocean color data and models were used for estimating indicators of pressures of aquaculture installations along the north African coast. These indicators can provide important support for decision makers in the allocation of new zones for aquaculture, by taking into account the suitability of an area for this activity and minimizing negative environmental effects, thus enhancing the social acceptability of aquaculture. The increase in the number of farms represents a strategic objective for the Algerian food production sector, which is currently being supported by different national initiatives. The case-study presented in this work was carried out in the Gulf of Bejaia. Water quality for aquaculture was first screened based on ocean color CDOM data (http://www.globcolour.info/). The SWAN model was subsequently used to propagate offshore wave data and to derive wave height statistics. On this basis, sub-areas of the Gulf were ranked, according their optimality in respect to cage resistance and fish welfare requirements. At the three best sites an integrated aquaculture impact assessment model was therefore applied: this tool allows one to obtain a detailed representation of fish growth and population dynamics inside the rearing cages, and to simulate the deposition of uneaten food and faeces on the sediment and the subsequent mineralization of organic matter. This integrated model was used to produce a set of indicators of the fish cages environmental interaction under different scenarios of forcings (water temperature, feeding, currents). These model-derived indicators could usefully contribute to the implementation of the ecosystem approach for the management of aquaculture activities, also required by the

  10. Sustainable grassland systems: a modelling perspective based on the North Wyke Farm Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Zhang, X; Griffith, B A; Misselbrook, T H

    2016-07-01

    The North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) provides data from the field- to the farm-scale, enabling the research community to address key issues in sustainable agriculture better and to test models that are capable of simulating soil, plant and animal processes involved in the systems. The tested models can then be used to simulate how agro-ecosystems will respond to changes in the environment and management. In this study, we used baseline datasets generated from the NWFP to validate the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum System (SPACSYS) model in relation to the dynamics of soil water content, water loss from runoff and forage biomass removal. The validated model, together with future climate scenarios for the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s (from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES): medium (A1B) and large (A1F1) emission scenarios), were used to simulate the long-term responses of the system with three contrasting treatments on the NWFP. Simulation results demonstrated that the SPACSYS model could estimate reliably the dynamics of soil water content, water loss from runoff and drainage, and cut biomass for a permanent sward. The treatments responded in different ways under the climate change scenarios. More carbon (C) is fixed and respired by the swards treated with an increased use of legumes, whereas less C was lost through soil respiration with the planned reseeding. The deep-rooting grass in the reseeding treatment reduced N losses through leaching, runoff and gaseous emissions, and water loss from runoff compared with the other two treatments.

  11. Natural biotic resources in LCA: Towards an impact assessment model for sustainable supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenna, Eleonora; Sozzo, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-01-20

    Natural resources, biotic and abiotic, are fundamental from both the ecological and socio-economic point of view, being at the basis of life-support. However, since the demand for finite resources continues to increase, the sustainability of current production and consumption patterns is questioned both in developed and developing countries. A transition towards an economy based on biotic renewable resources (bio-economy) is considered necessary in order to support a steady provision of resources, representing an alternative to an economy based on fossil and abiotic resources. However, to ensure a sustainable use of biotic resources, there is the need of properly accounting for their use along supply chains as well as defining a robust and comprehensive impact assessment model. Since so far naturally occurring biotic resources have gained little attention in impact assessment methods, such as life cycle assessment, the aim of this study is to enable the inclusion of biotic resources in the assessment of products and supply chains. This paper puts forward a framework for biotic resources assessment, including: i) the definition of system boundaries between ecosphere and technosphere, namely between naturally occurring and man-made biotic resources; ii) a list of naturally occurring biotic resources which have a commercial value, as basis for building life cycle inventories (NOBR, e.g. wild animals, plants etc); iii) an impact pathway to identify potential impacts on both resource provision and ecosystem quality; iv) a renewability-based indicator (NOBRri) for the impact assessment of naturally occurring biotic resources, including a list of associated characterization factors. The study, building on a solid review of literature and of available statistical data, highlights and discusses the critical aspects and paradoxes related to biotic resource inclusion in LCA: from the system boundaries definition up to the resource characterization.

  12. Research on Scenic Spot’s Sustainable Development Based on a SD Model: A Case Study of the Jiuzhai Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixue Liao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of tourism, the development of tourist attractions is playing an increasingly crucial role in tourism economy, regional economy and national economy. However, the eco-environment has been damaged while tourism industry develops rapidly. Thus, to solve the contradiction between tourism development and eco-environment protection is the key to achieving sustainable development of tourism. This paper builds a SD model, which is based on the analysis of the economic subsystem and environment subsystem, to promote sustainable development. In order to show the effectiveness of the model, Jiuzhai Valley is taken as the research object and a decisive basis is provided for the path adjustment of sustainable development in tourist scenic.

  13. In search of a holistic, sustainable and replicable model for complete energy refurbishment in historic buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija S. Todorović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in buildings offers one of the most promising opportunities for developed and developing countries to cooperate in achieving the realization of significant energy efficiency improvements. However, achieving sustainability is not an easy task unless there is synergy with/between energy efficiency improvement and renewable energy sources (RES - these are not at present in widespread dissemination and use. This paper recognizes the synergetic relationship between conservation and sustainability. At present, the role of heritage conservation in achieving sustainability has not yet been fully recognized, nor have heritage needs been well integrated into sustainability initiatives. Historic buildings are inherently sustainable. Preservation maximizes the use of existing materials and infrastructures, reduces waste, and preserves the historical character of older towns and cities. Sustainability begins with preservation. Taking into account the original climatic adaptations of historic buildings, today’s sustainable technology can supplement inherent sustainable features without compromising their unique historical character. Furthermore, a number of paper reviews and case studies with related methodologies outline the need to implement the latest current knowledge and technologies (BPS - Building Performance Simulation and CFD - Computational Fluid Dynamics for use in the refurbishment design process, as well as highlighting the crucial importance of sustainability, relevant benchmarking and rating system development.

  14. Going beyond efficiency: including altruistic motives in behavioral models for sustainability transitions to address sufficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niko Schäpke; Felix Rauschmayer

    2014-01-01

      Sustainability transitions require altered individual behaviors. Policies aimed at changing people's consumption behavior are designed according to efficiency, consistency, and sufficiency principles...

  15. ASME power test code ptc 4.1 for steam generators; Codigo de pruebas de potencia ASME ptc 4.1 para generadores de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauchu Alcantara, Jorge Alberto [Plauchu Consultores, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    This presentation is oriented towards those who in this subject have experience in the design and equipment specification, plant projects, factory and field testing, operation or result analyses. An important fraction of the national energy supply, approximately 13%, is applied to the steam generation in the different aspects of the industrial activity, in the electrical industry of public service and in the commercial and services sector. The development of the national programs of energy efficiency verifies this when dedicating to this use of the energy important projects, some of them with support of the USAID. The measurement of the energy utilization or the efficiency of steam generators (or boilers) is made applying some procedure agreed by the parts and the one of greater acceptance and best known in Mexico and internationally is the ASME Power Test Code PTC 4.1 for Steam Generators. The purpose and formality in the determination of efficiency and of steam generation capacity behavior, thermal basic regime or fulfillment of guarantees, radically changes the exigencies of strict attachment to the PTC 4.1 This definition will determine the importance of the test method selected, the deviations and convened exceptions, the influence of the precision and the measurement errors, the consideration of auxiliary equipment, etc. An interpretation or incorrect application of the Test Code has lead and will lead to results and nonreliable decisions. [Spanish] Esta exposicion se orienta a quienes en este tema cuenta con experiencia en diseno y especificacion de equipo, proyecto de planta, pruebas en fabrica y campo, operacion o analisis de resultados. Una fraccion importante de la oferta nacional de energia, 13% aproximadamente, se aplica a la generacion de vapor en diferentes giros de actividad industrial, en la industria electrica, de servicio publico y en el sector de servicios y comercial. El desarrollo de los programas nacionales de eficiencia energetica comprueba

  16. Change of nonlinear acoustics in ASME grade 122 steel welded joint during creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Toshihiro; Honma, Takumi; Ishii, Yutaka; Tabuchi, Masaaki; Hongo, Hiromichi; Hirao, Masahiko

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we described the changes of two nonlinear acoustic characterizations; resonant frequency shift and three-wave interaction, with electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) throughout the creep life in the welded joints of ASME Grade 122, one of high Cr ferritic heat resisting steels. EMAR was a combination of the resonant acoustic technique with a non-contact electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). These nonlinear acoustic parameters decreased from the start to 50% of creep life. After slightly increased, they rapidly increased from 80% of creep life to rupture. We interpreted these phenomena in terms of dislocation recovery, recrystallization, and restructuring related to the initiation and growth of creep void, with support from the SEM and TEM observation.

  17. Access, excess, and ethics—towards a sustainable distribution model for antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gabriel; Cars, Otto; Bejarano, Maria-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The increasing antibiotic resistance is a global threat to health care as we know it. Yet there is no model of distribution ready for a new antibiotic that balances access against excessive or inappropriate use in rural settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where the burden of communicable diseases is high and access to quality health care is low. Departing from a hypothetical scenario of rising antibiotic resistance among pneumococci, 11 stakeholders in the health systems of various LMICs were interviewed one-on-one to give their view on how a new effective antibiotic should be distributed to balance access against the risk of inappropriate use. Transcripts were subjected to qualitative ‘framework’ analysis. The analysis resulted in four main themes: Barriers to rational access to antibiotics; balancing access and excess; learning from other communicable diseases; and a system-wide intervention. The tension between access to antibiotics and rational use stems from shortcomings found in the health systems of LMICs. Constructing a sustainable yet accessible model of antibiotic distribution for LMICs is a task of health system-wide proportions, which is why we strongly suggest using systems thinking in future research on this issue. PMID:24735111

  18. Access, excess, and ethics--towards a sustainable distribution model for antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gabriel; Cars, Otto; Bejarano, Maria-Teresa; Peterson, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The increasing antibiotic resistance is a global threat to health care as we know it. Yet there is no model of distribution ready for a new antibiotic that balances access against excessive or inappropriate use in rural settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where the burden of communicable diseases is high and access to quality health care is low. Departing from a hypothetical scenario of rising antibiotic resistance among pneumococci, 11 stakeholders in the health systems of various LMICs were interviewed one-on-one to give their view on how a new effective antibiotic should be distributed to balance access against the risk of inappropriate use. Transcripts were subjected to qualitative 'framework' analysis. The analysis resulted in four main themes: Barriers to rational access to antibiotics; balancing access and excess; learning from other communicable diseases; and a system-wide intervention. The tension between access to antibiotics and rational use stems from shortcomings found in the health systems of LMICs. Constructing a sustainable yet accessible model of antibiotic distribution for LMICs is a task of health system-wide proportions, which is why we strongly suggest using systems thinking in future research on this issue.

  19. Fiscal Sustainability and Social Cohesion. Common and Specific in EU Sub-models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Gabriela SOCOL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The European social model is characterized by a high heterogeneity degree, the member countries recording significant differences between the national redistribution systems. According to the existing gaps regarding the decreases of the poverty, the participation to the labour market and the protection against the labour market risks, we can identify five submodels within EU, the Northern one being the best adjusted to the structure of the European social model which has been modernized through the Lisbon strategy. Even though the finality of EU is represented by providing the social cohesion (the decrease of the poverty rate and of the income inequality, the progresses recorded during the period between 2000 and 2008 were quite low due to the evolutions of the Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Baltic and Romanian submodels. Within this study, we have explained why the increase of the state’s resources, of the welfare does not constitute a necessary and sufficient condition for the consolidation of the social cohesion within the European Union. On the contrary, the increase of the redistributed financial resources is able to generate sustainability problems in the budget deficit when the economic activity goes through an economic recession period.

  20. An Automated BIM Model to Conceptually Design, Analyze, Simulate, and Assess Sustainable Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Jalaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the environmental impacts and simulating the energy consumption of building’s components at the conceptual design stage are very helpful for designers needing to make decisions related to the selection of the best design alternative that would lead to a more energy efficient building. Building Information Modeling (BIM offers designers the ability to assess different design alternatives at the conceptual stage of the project so that energy and life cycle assessment (LCA strategies and systems are attained. This paper proposes an automated model that links BIM, LCA, energy analysis, and lighting simulation tools with green building certification systems. The implementation is within developing plug-ins on BIM tool capable of measuring the environmental impacts (EI and embodied energy of building components. Using this method, designers will be provided with a new way to visualize and to identify the potential gain or loss of energy for the building as a whole and for each of its associated components. Furthermore, designers will be able to detect and evaluate the sustainability of the proposed buildings based on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED rating system. An actual building project will be used to illustrate the workability of the proposed methodology.

  1. An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management Using Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskens, L.; Nainggolan, D.; Stringer, L. C.

    2014-11-01

    Scenario analysis constitutes a valuable deployment method for scientific models to inform environmental decision-making, particularly for evaluating land degradation mitigation options, which are rarely based on formal analysis. In this paper we demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modeling framework with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots. Starting with an initial assessment representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat instances of land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are most biophysically appropriate and most financially viable in which locations; we term these the "technology scenarios"; (2) how policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and financial viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these the "policy scenarios"; and (3) how technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these the "global scenarios". Technology scenarios help choose the best technology for a given area in biophysical and financial terms, thereby outlining where policy support may be needed to promote adoption; policy scenarios assess whether a policy alternative leads to a greater extent of technology adoption; while global scenarios demonstrate how implementing technologies may serve wider sustainable development goals. Scenarios are applied to assess spatial variation within study sites as well as to compare across different sites. Our results show significant scope to combat land degradation and raise agricultural productivity at moderate cost. We conclude that scenario assessment can provide informative input to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

  2. Sustainable management of transboundary water resources (Belgium/France): Characterization and modelling of the Carboniferous aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, J.; Picot-Colbeaux, G.; Crastes de Paulet, F.; Rorive, A.; Bouvet, A.; Goderniaux, P.; Thiery, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Carboniferous Limestone groundwater extends from East to West across Belgium and the North of France (1420 km²). In a high population density and industrial activity region, it represents huge volumes of abstracted groundwater (98 Mm³). The aquifer thus constitutes a critical reserve for public distribution and industrial uses. This water reservoir is intensively exploited from both sides of the border since the end of the 19th century. Historically, this transboundary aquifer was overexploited, due to the massive requirements of the industry. As a consequence, a substantial piezometric level decrease was observed (up to 50 m). Due to the karstic nature of the aquifer, many sinkhole collapses were induced in the studied area. A reduction of the abstracted volumes was implemented in the 90s, which contributed to the relative stabilization of the piezometric levels, but the equilibrium remains uncertain. Due to complex political, urbanistic and industrial developments across this region, a reasonable and long-term management model was needed, involving all concerned countries and regions. Within the framework of the Interreg ScaldWIN Project, a belgo-french collaboration allowed the acquisition of new sets of geological and hydrogeological data. A new piezometric map was established and correlated with chemical and isotopic analyses. It enabled a more accurate knowledge on the main flow directions within the aquifer, and the relation between recharge area and the confined area, where groundwater is aged up to 10000 years. A new numerical model of the aquifer was implemented and calibrated by using the MARTHE code. This 4 layer-model includes a part of the French chalk aquifer and integrates all abstracted groundwater volumes (wells and quarries) from 1900 to 2010. Atmospheric and surface waters and potential evapotranspiration are included in relation to the groundwater. This model is used by the different partners to consider globally and locally the impact of

  3. Using ASM Podcasts to Excite Undergraduate Students about Current Microbiological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey E. Lettini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovative technology is often used as a mechanism to engage students in and out of the classroom and can be used to increase critical thinking skills. Podcasts are an excellent way to introduce students to current topics and research in microbiology. The American Society for Microbiology (ASM produces three podcasts that are microbiologically focused: This Week in Microbiology (TWiM, This Week in Parasitology (TWiP, and This Week in Virology (TWiV. These podcasts are usually presented in a manner similar to a journal club, as the presenters regularly invite guests to discuss current research papers. Since students often find reading scientific literature difficult and get bogged down in the details rather than seeing the over-arching purpose of a paper, these podcasts have been used in a General Microbiology course to introduce recent research articles. The students were first assigned an original research article to read and review, and they were asked to generate questions pertaining to things they did not understand. Next, students listened to the corresponding podcast that discussed the article and used it to answer their questions. This was followed by a classroom discussion of the article and the podcast. The ASM podcast helped to demystify original research by providing details of the experimental design and presentation of the results in a language that is more casual and relatable. Students demonstrated greater critical thinking and comprehension of microbiology literature after listening to the podcast. This activity can be used in a variety of courses in the biology curriculum.

  4. User-inspired design methodology using Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM for construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswari J. Uma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, design phase of construction projects is often performed with incomplete and inaccurate user preferences. This is due to inefficiencies in the methodologies used for capturing the user requirements that can subsequently lead to inconsistencies and result in non-optimised end-result. Iterations and subsequent reworks due to such design inefficiencies is one of the major reasons for unsuccessful project delivery as they impact project performance measures such as time and cost among others. The existing design theories and practice are primarily based on functional requirements. Function-based design deals with design of artifact alone, which may yield favourable or unfavourable consequences with the design artifact. However, incorporating other interactions such as interactions between user & designer is necessary for optimised end-result. Hence, the objective of this research work is to devise a systematic design methodology considering all the three interactions among users, designers and artefacts for improved design efficiency. In this study, it has been attempted to apply the theory of affordances in a case project that involves the design of an offshore facility. A step-by-step methodology for developing Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM, which integrates House of Quality (HOQ and Design Structure Matrix (DSM, is proposed that can effectively capture the user requirements. HOQ is a popular quality management tool for capturing client requirements and DSM is a matrix-based tool that can capture the interdependency among the design entities. The proposed methodology utilises the strengths of both the tools, as DSM compliments HOQ in the process. In this methodology, different affordances such as AUA (Artifact-User-Affordance, AAA (Artifact-Artifact-Affordance and DDA (Designer-Designer-Affordance are captured systematically. Affordance is considered to be user-driven in this context that is in contrast to prevailing design

  5. A multi-objective location-inventory model for 3PL providers with sustainable considerations under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Daghigh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, logistics development is considered as an important aspect of any country’s development. Outsourcing logistics activities to third party logistics (3PL providers is a common way to achieve logistics development. On the other hand, globalization and increasing customers’ concern about the environmental impact of activities as well as the appearance of the issue of social responsibility have led companies employ sustainable supply chain management, which considers economic, environmental and social benefits, simultaneously. This paper proposes a multi-objective model to design logistics network for 3PL providers by considering sustainable objectives under uncertainty. Objective functions include minimizing the total cost, minimizing greenhouse gas emission and maximizing social responsibility subject to fair access to products, number of created job opportunities and local community development. It is worth mentioning that in the present paper the perishability of products is also considered. A numerical example is provided to solve and validate model using augmented Epsilon-Constraint method. The results show that three sustainable objectives were in conflict and as the one receives more desirable values, the others fall into more undesirable values. In addition, by increasing maximum perishable time periods and by considering lateral transshipment among facilities of a level one can improve sustainability indices of the problem, which indicates the necessity of such policy in improving network sustainability.

  6. Impact of the A18.1 ASME Standard on Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts on Accessibility and Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the effect of the ASME A18.1 Standard concerning accessibility and usability of Platform Lifts and their remaining technological challenges. While elevators are currently the most effective means of vertical transportation related to speed, capacity, rise and usability, their major drawbacks for accessibility are cost and…

  7. Transition in, Transition out: a sustainable model to engage first year students in learning. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Chester

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Peer mentoring, presented as an inclusive teaching approach, embedded in the curriculum, has been successfully implemented to support first year student learning. Developing sustainable and scalable models for large first year cohorts, however, provides a challenge. The Transition in, Transition out model is a sustainable peer mentoring model supporting the transition of both first and final year students. The model has been implemented in two Australian psychology programs, one face-to-face and one delivered online. The focus in this Practice Report will be on the outcome data for on-campus first year student at one university. Participants were 231 first year students (166 females and 65 males. Results suggest positive changes in academic performance and learning approaches as well as positive endorsement of the model.

  8. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daungruthai Jarukanont

    Full Text Available Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles' arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We

  9. Evaluation of an Educational Model Based on the Development of Sustainable Competencies in Basic Teacher Training in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vega-Marcote

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental deterioration of the planet, caused by unsustainable development and an unfair model, requires global change on a political, social and environmental level. To boost this change, it is necessary to redirect education and, specifically, environmental education, to educate citizens so that they are capable of making responsible decisions and behaving sustainably. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an educational teacher training model based on the development of sustainable competencies and on the solving of environmental problems. Its final aim is to search for a model that enables students to participate, individually and collectively, in the solution of socio-environmental problems in their surroundings, but without losing the global perspective, and that fosters sustainable life styles. To do so, a quasi-experimental quantitative research was performed with two pretest-posttest phases to compare the results of an active and participative methodology with another more expository one. The results show significant differences in the knowledge, attitudes and intention of the behavior of the aspiring teachers. Thus, this first analysis shows that the experiential educational model promotes and favors sustainable actions in higher education (the faculty of educational science, responsible for basic teacher training more efficiently and could be the basis for future proposals in this field.

  10. Models of Interuniversity Collaboration in Higher Education--How Do Their Features Act as Barriers and Enablers to Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This study combines conceptual and empirical review of the literature around interuniversity collaborations to identify known models and applications, and enablers and barriers impacting on their sustainability, to inform development of a collaborative public health teaching programme in Australia. A range of literature was explored in this study,…

  11. Flow structure through pool-riffle sequences and a conceptual model for their sustainability in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Caamano; P. Goodwin; J. M. Buffington

    2010-01-01

    Detailed field measurements and simulations of three-dimensional flow structure were used to develop a conceptual model to explain the sustainability of self-formed pool-riffle sequences in gravel-bed rivers. The analysis was conducted at the Red River Wildlife Management Area in Idaho, USA, and enabled characterization of the flow structure through two consecutive...

  12. Geriatrics Education Team Model Results in Sustained Geriatrics Training in 15 Residency and Fellowship Programs and Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Steven; Simpson, Deborah; Denson, Kathryn; Brown, Diane; Manzi, Gabriel; Rehm, Judith; Wessel, Bambi; Duthie, Edmund H

    2016-04-01

    Caring for the growing elderly population will require specialty and subspecialty physicians who have not completed geriatric medicine fellowship training to participate actively in patient care. To meet this workforce demand, a sustainable approach to integrating geriatrics into specialty and subspecialty graduate medical education training is needed. This article describes the use of a geriatrics education team (GET) model to develop, implement, and sustain specialty-specific geriatrics curricula using a systematic process of team formation and needs assessment through evaluation, with a unique focus on developing curricular interventions that are meaningful to each specialty and satisfy training, scholarship, and regulatory requirements. The GET model and associated results from 15 specialty residency and fellowship training programs over a 4-year period include 93% curriculum sustainability after initial implementation, more than half of the programs introducing additional geriatrics education, and more than 80% of specialty GETs fulfilling their scholarship requirements through their curriculum dissemination. Win-wins and barriers encountered in using the GET model, along with the model's efficacy in curriculum development, sustainability, and dissemination, are summarized. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Exploring options for sustainable farming systems development for vegetable family farmers in Uruguay using a modeling toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Groot, J.C.J.; Aguerre, V.; Abbas, A.; Albin, A.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Economic and environmental sustainability of family-based vegetable production systems in south Uruguay are seriously compromised after two decades of net decreasing prices and strategies based on specialization and intensification. This paper presents a model-based exploration of alternative

  14. Sustained release nitrite therapy results in myocardial protection in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome with peripheral vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Jessica M.; Islam, Kazi N.; Polhemus, David J.; Donnarumma, Erminia; Brewster, Luke P.; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Goodchild, Traci T.; Lefer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In a clinically relevant porcine model of metabolic syndrome and peripheral vascular disease, treatment with a novel sustained-release nitrite formulation restored cardiac endothelial nitric oxide synthase, enhancing myocardial nitrite levels, reduced oxidative stress, and improved ex vivo coronary vascular function via endothelium-independent vasodilation mechanism in obese Ossabaw swine.

  15. ON THE SUSTAINABILITY OF INTEGRATED MODEL SYSTEMS WITH INDUSTRIAL, ECOLOGICAL, AND MACROECONOMIC COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    At its core, sustainability asks whether the planet will persist into the indefinite future in a regime which is amenable to human existence. The issue of sustainability has ever increasing amounts of natural resources and causing a host of environmental impacts. The management o...

  16. On the Sustainability and Management of a Model System with Ecological, Macroeconomic, and Legal Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability is essentially about insuring that human existence can be indefinitely supported by the biological system of the Earth at an appropriate level of civilization. Hence, one of the most fundamental questions in sustainability is the extent to which human activities a...

  17. How Collaborative Business Modeling Can Be Used to Jointly Explore Sustainability Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnertz, Lars; Rohrbeck, René; Knab, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability innovations are characterized by a systemic nature, which can only be developed if multiple firms work together. To jointly identify opportunities and plan such sustainability innovations, new methods and approaches are needed. In this article we describe a case study conducted...

  18. Education for Sustainable Development in South Africa: A Model Case Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teise, K.; le Roux, A.

    2016-01-01

    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is an educational approach that, by being a catalyst of social change, promotes sustainability. Although South African education policy and practice appear to be oriented towards ESD, the concept is contested, and ragged with ambiguity and vagueness. Because the transformation of South African education…

  19. A Model for Enhancing Education for Sustainable Development with Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Tove; Sammalisto, Kaisu; Vuorisalo, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing education for sustainable development in higher education is a global challenge. National quality assurance demands for higher education were studied in the context of ESD......Enhancing education for sustainable development in higher education is a global challenge. National quality assurance demands for higher education were studied in the context of ESD...

  20. Science Education and Education for Sustainable Development--Justifications, Models, Practices and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilks, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The year 2014 marks the end of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). All educational domains and levels, including primary and secondary science education, have been working to contribute to education enabling younger generations to become responsible citizens and promote sustainable development in our world.…

  1. Towards a sustainable tourism competitiveness measurement model for municipalities: Brazilian empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Charter for Sustainable Tourism of Lanzarote, signed in 1995, is a key document in setting the sustainability commitment of tourism. Later it became a part of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET, which defines Tourism Ethics. However a question prevails: how does tourism assumes this duty? And more specifically, how does tourism assume sustainable development? Based on an assessment of 360 degrees on tourism in Cancun (tourists, residents and tourism professionals, the present study explores the perception of sustainability in this destination under the guidelines of GCET. The results show that the per - ception of tourism as a factor for sustainable development is not uniform among the central players, showing a better assessment by tourists, and a more critical view by the resident population and professionals.

  2. An integrated decision making model for the selection of sustainable forward and reverse logistic providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Agarwal, Vernika; Darbari, Jyoti Dhingra

    2017-01-01

    strategies and taking a formalized approach towards a sustainable partnership with logistics providers. To begin with, it is imperative to associate with sustainable forward and reverse logistics providers to manage effectively the upward and downstream flows simultaneously. In this context, this paper...... proposes an integrated SC network for the evaluation and selection of forward distribution partners (FDP) and third party reverse logistic providers (3PRLP) from a sustainable perspective of an Indian electronic ME. The sustainable evaluation of the logistic partners is performed using fuzzy analytic...... forward and reverse logistics providers. The novelty of the study is its ranking of the FDPs and 3PRLPs on the economic, environmental, and social dimensions of sustainability and the simultaneous integration of logistics outsourcing decisions for the forward and reverse flow of products. Goal programming...

  3. Modeling and analysis of long-term energy scenarios for sustainable strategies of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senshaw, Dereje Azemraw

    2014-04-15

    Despite robust economic growth, Ethiopia is one of the countries with poor energy accesses. Contributing factors are poor availability of energy, unreliable and insufficient quality of energy, and insufficient policy. Recognizing that energy access and security are indispensable to economic transformation, Ethiopia needs to cope with key challenges related to energy security, climate change mitigation and also diversification of energy supply. In order to achieve these targets and strive towards sustainable energy for all, Ethiopia's energy system requires a major transformation. The main achievement of this research has been the development of alternative energy options under different conditions for Ethiopia up to 2050. To identify an energy pathway that would meet Ethiopia's energy needs in a sustainable manner, three scenarios are considered: the business-as usual (BAU), moderate shift (Scenario1) and the advanced shift scenario (Scenario 2). The scenarios were developed, quantified and analyzed using a bottom-up model for Long Term Alternative Energy Planning (LEAP). These scenarios represent a range of energy policy measures that Ethiopia could adopt to achieve its sustainable development goals. The BAU scenario reflects a continuation of the current policy trend and considers on economic growth rate of 7%, while Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 represent moderate and advanced levels of commitment in economic growth, energy diversity and reduction of energy import dependency and CO{sub 2} emissions limits, respectively. The scenario analysis shows that the primary energy requirements for Ethiopia's socio-economic development will increase sharply over the period (2010-2050) in all three scenarios. BAU, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 show an expected to growth at annual rates of 4.1, 4.9 and 5.7% respectively. If the current policy trends (as represented by BAU) continue, the total energy demand in Ethiopia is expected to reach 6,553 Petajoule (PJ) by 2050

  4. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  5. Comparative evaluation of structural integrity for ITER blanket shield block based on SDC-IC and ASME code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hee-Jin [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Min-Su, E-mail: msha12@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sa-Woong; Jung, Hun-Chea [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck-Hoi [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon - CS 90046, 13067 Sant Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The procedure of structural integrity and fatigue assessment was described. • Case studies were performed according to both SDC-IC and ASME Sec. • III codes The conservatism of the ASME code was demonstrated. • The study only covers the specifically comparable case about fatigue usage factor. - Abstract: The ITER blanket Shield Block is a bulk structure to absorb radiation and to provide thermal shielding to vacuum vessel and external vessel components, therefore the most significant load for Shield Block is the thermal load. In the previous study, the thermo-mechanical analysis has been performed under the inductive operation as representative loading condition. And the fatigue evaluations were conducted to assure structural integrity for Shield Block according to Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC) which provided by ITER Organization (IO) based on the code of RCC-MR. Generally, ASME code (especially, B&PV Sec. III) is widely applied for design of nuclear components, and is usually well known as more conservative than other specific codes. For the view point of the fatigue assessment, ASME code is very conservative compared with SDC-IC in terms of the reflected K{sub e} factor, design fatigue curve and other factors. Therefore, an accurate fatigue assessment comparison is needed to measure of conservatism. The purpose of this study is to provide the fatigue usage comparison resulting from the specified operating conditions shall be evaluated for Shield Block based on both SDC-IC and ASME code, and to discuss the conservatism of the results.

  6. Modeling of Diversification of Market as a Basis for Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derunova Elena Anatol’evna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of dependence of key macroeconomic indicators on the energy supply price dynamics, especially oil price, relevant to the modern Russian economy. In order to overcome the negative trends related to oil price dynamics, the authors propose to consider the measures on the gradual diversification of the Russian economy as an effective tool of state regulation. To test the hypothesis that diversification contributes to the increase in sustainability of the national economic system, the authors review the simultaneous equations model, the endogenous variables of which include structural values which reflect the structure of national production system. The share of gross value added (hereinafter, GVA generated in the i-th sector in the total GVA and the base GVA index generated in the i-th sector similar to the industry output index sequentially serve as endogenous variables in this study. The test of the hypothesis was carried out in two stages: at the first stage, according to the results of econometric modeling, the indicator of the real effective ruble exchange rate to foreign currencies was chosen as the main exogenous variable; at the second stage, the basic system of equations was evaluated. Econometric calculations have been made for the following types of economic activity (according to the classification of the\tRussian National Classifier of Economic Activities: agriculture, hunting and forestry; mineral extraction; manufacturing; wholesale and retail trade; repairs of motor vehicles, motorcycles, household goods and personal appliances. During the econometric modeling, co-integrated equations for the pairs of indicators under study have been obtained; it has also been concluded that there are significant disparities in the selected economic sectors. The analysis of the obtained data has helped develop a set of measures of state regulation aimed at overcoming the existing disparities

  7. Impaired Limbic Cortico-Striatal Structure and Sustained Visual Attention in a Rodent Model of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Samuel A.; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Caprioli, Daniele; Jupp, Bianca; Buonincontri, Guido; Mar, Adam C.; Harte, Michael K.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Neill, Jo C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Accordingly, NMDAR antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) are used widely in experimental animals to model cognitive impairment associated with this disorder. However, it is unclear whether PCP disrupts the structural integrity of brain areas relevant to the profile of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Methods: Here we used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to investigate structural alterations associated with sub-chronic PCP treatment in rats. Results: Sub-chronic exposure of rats to PCP (5mg/kg twice daily for 7 days) impaired sustained visual attention on a 5-choice serial reaction time task, notably when the attentional load was increased. In contrast, sub-chronic PCP had no significant effect on the attentional filtering of a pre-pulse auditory stimulus in an acoustic startle paradigm. Voxel-based morphometry revealed significantly reduced grey matter density bilaterally in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, ventral striatum, and amygdala. PCP-treated rats also exhibited reduced cortical thickness in the insular cortex. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that sub-chronic NMDA receptor antagonism is sufficient to produce highly-localized morphological abnormalities in brain areas implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Furthermore, PCP exposure resulted in dissociable impairments in attentional function. PMID:25552430

  8. Research on the Sustainable Development of Green-Space in Beijing Using the Dynamic Systems Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzheng Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Greater contradiction and conflict among urban green space, the development of social economy and the environment have occurred in Beijing. However, few studies have been conducted that consider the three subsystems as a whole. In this study, we defined sustainable development of green space (SDGS as the coordinated development of the urban green system, social economy, and environment. Based on the datasets from 2000 to 2015, we forecast the SDGS in Beijing under multiple scenarios based on real-world policies using a system dynamics model. We found that the historical SDGS value increased to its highest level in 2012, but declined slightly by 2015. Second, the forecasted SDGS values declined over time in all scenarios, but the decline was greater in scenarios placing a high priority on economic development. In these scenarios, the performance of the indices only improved in certain subsystems. The simulation shows the implementation of the four policies proposed by the government failed to improve the overall level of SDGS in Beijing. This study could provide support for decision-making designed to improve the overall condition of urban green space in Beijing through integrated forecast and scenario simulation.

  9. Modelling of the combustion velocity in UIT-85 on sustainable alternative gas fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolenskaya, N. M.; Korneev, N. V.

    2017-05-01

    The flame propagation velocity is one of the determining parameters characterizing the intensity of combustion process in the cylinder of an engine with spark ignition. Strengthening of requirements for toxicity and efficiency of the ICE contributes to gradual transition to sustainable alternative fuels, which include the mixture of natural gas with hydrogen. Currently, studies of conditions and regularities of combustion of this fuel to improve efficiency of its application are carried out in many countries. Therefore, the work is devoted to modeling the average propagation velocities of natural gas flame front laced with hydrogen to 15% by weight of the fuel, and determining the possibility of assessing the heat release characteristics on the average velocities of the flame front propagation in the primary and secondary phases of combustion. Experimental studies, conducted the on single cylinder universal installation UIT-85, showed the presence of relationship of the heat release characteristics with the parameters of the flame front propagation. Based on the analysis of experimental data, the empirical dependences for determination of average velocities of flame front propagation in the first and main phases of combustion, taking into account the change in various parameters of engine operation with spark ignition, were obtained. The obtained results allow to determine the characteristics of heat dissipation and to assess the impact of addition of hydrogen to the natural gas combustion process, that is needed to identify ways of improvement of the combustion process efficiency, including when you change the throttling parameters.

  10. Building Sustainable Campus-Community Partnerships: A Reciprocal-Relationship Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Malm

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking education outside of the classroom is an exciting, yet daunting, proposition.  Community-based education can provide students exposure to the richness and complication of the world outside of academe—the people, politics and interconnections that both challenge and complement our traditional modes of teaching. These educational experiences also play many other important roles within the institution, reinforcing the mission, providing relevance within the communities the institution serves, and fulfilling the citizenship roles many colleges and universities value.  This paper uses experiences and insights gained planning and staffing an annual community arts festival to develop a model of campus-community partnership that is based on a broad conception of reciprocity.  Incorporating the perspectives of a faculty member, a student, a college administrator and a community partner, the paper describes the process by which the project, and an associated course, have been (and continue to be developed.    We argue that applying the broader concepts of reciprocity enhance the success, sustainability and satisfaction of working in partnership.

  11. Sustainable domestic effluent reuse via Subsurface Drip Irrigation (SDI): alfalfa as a perennial model crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazumba, Shija; Gillerman, Leonid; DeMalach, Yoel; Oron, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Scarcity of fresh high-quality water has heightened the importance of wastewater reuse primarily in dry regions together with improving its efficient use by implementing the Subsurface Drip Irrigation (SDI) method. Sustainable effluent reuse combines soil and plant aspects, along with the maintainability of the application system. In this study, field experiments were conducted for two years on the commercial farm of Revivim and Mashabay-Sade farm (RMF) southeast of the City of Beer-Sheva, Israel. The purpose was to examine the response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as a perennial model crop to secondary domestic effluent application by means of a SDI system as compared with conventional overhead sprinkler irrigation. Emitters were installed at different depths and spacing. Similar amounts of effluent were applied to all plots during the experimental period. The results indicated that in all SDI treatments, the alfalfa yields were 11% to 25% higher than the ones obtained under sprinkler irrigated plots, besides the one in which the drip laterals were 200 cm apart. The average Water Use Efficiency (WUE) was better in all SDI treatments in comparison with the sprinkler irrigated plots. An economic assessment reveals the dependence of the net profit on the emitters' installation geometry, combined with the return for alfalfa in the market.

  12. Modeling the role of public transportation in sustaining tuberculosis transmission in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jason R; Morrow, Carl; Wood, Robin

    2013-03-15

    Current tuberculosis notification rates in South Africa are among the highest ever recorded. Although the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic has been a critical factor, the density of respiratory contacts in high-risk environments may be an important and underappreciated driver. Using a modified Wells-Riley model for airborne disease transmission, we estimated the risk of tuberculosis transmission on 3 modes of public transit (minibus taxis, buses, and trains) in Cape Town, South Africa, using exhaled carbon dioxide as a natural tracer gas to evaluate air exchange. Carbon dioxide measurements were performed between October and December of 2011. Environmental risk, reflected in the rebreathed fraction of air, was highest in minibus taxis and lowest in trains; however, the average number of passengers sharing an indoor space was highest in trains and lowest in minibus taxis. Among daily commuters, the annual risk of tuberculosis infection was projected to be 3.5%-5.0% and was highest among minibus taxi commuters. Assuming a duration of infectiousness of 1 year, the basic reproductive number attributable to transportation was more than 1 in all 3 modes of transportation. Given its poor ventilation and high respiratory contact rates, public transportation may play a critical role in sustaining tuberculosis transmission in South African cities.

  13. Analysis of Success Factors to Implement Sustainable Supply Chain Management Using Interpretive Structural Modeling Technique: A Real Case Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengke Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability draws increased supply chain management (SCM attention. This article analyzes critical success to the assessment, evaluation, and attainment of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM, assessed through critical-success identification and qualitative data analysis. Namely, a literature review selected of 188 articles, published between January 1994 and November 2016, helps identify the most influential success factors. The qualitative data analysis pertains to fifteen such successes, identified in the literature review and through our collaboration with other academic researchers and industrial specialists. Notably, the study’s qualitative data analysis, interpretive structural modeling (ISM, unconceals the mutual impact among the most prominent SSCM success factors. The economic benefits and environmental awareness of suppliers are recognized as the most significant success factors, which could allow business enterprises and other organizations to implement a SSCM framework, with intentionality and the sustainability in their business. The article concludes with suggestions for future research directions.

  14. A Sustainability-Oriented Multiobjective Optimization Model for Siting and Sizing Distributed Generation Plants in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sustainability-oriented multiobjective optimization model for siting and sizing DG plants in distribution systems. Life cycle exergy (LCE is used as a unified indicator of the entire system’s environmental sustainability, and it is optimized as an objective function in the model. Other two objective functions include economic cost and expected power loss. Chance constraints are used to control the operation risks caused by the uncertain power loads and renewable energies. A semilinearized simulation method is proposed and combined with the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS method to improve the efficiency of probabilistic load flow (PLF analysis which is repeatedly performed to verify the chance constraints. A numerical study based on the modified IEEE 33-node system is performed to verify the proposed method. Numerical results show that the proposed semilinearized simulation method reduces about 93.3% of the calculation time of PLF analysis and guarantees satisfying accuracy. The results also indicate that benefits for environmental sustainability of using DG plants can be effectively reflected by the proposed model which helps the planner to make rational decision towards sustainable development of the distribution system.

  15. Can human resources induce sustainability in business?: Modeling, testing and correlating HR index and company's business results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper the authors analyze the impact of the composite human resource index on sustainable growth in a specific business sector in a transition country. Sustainability of country's economy is growingly relying on the knowledge economy which has been implemented in strategies of sustainable development throughout Europe. The knowledge economy is mostly based on human resources and the way they are organized and managed in the companies actively operating in competitive markets. In order to confirm importance of the human resources (HR index, results were tested by means of modeling, measuring and correlating the HR index with business results at micro level. The tests were conducted on the data from the survey in Serbian meat processing industry. The results were then compared with the results from the survey conducted in a financial industry. Moreover, a model was made that could be applicable in all countries that do not have available official statistic data on the level of investments in human resources. The focus was on determining the correlation direction, and hence creating a research model applicable in all business sectors. It has been found that a significant one-way correlation exists between business performance and increased HR index. In that way it has been confirmed that in Serbian economy that has recorded global decrease during transition, certain business sectors, and especially companies with high levels of investments in improving its HR index record above average and sustainable growth.

  16. Sustainability of a community-based anti-retroviral care delivery model - a qualitative research study in Tete, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasschaert, Freya; Decroo, Tom; Remartinez, Daniel; Telfer, Barbara; Lessitala, Faustino; Biot, Marc; Candrinho, Baltazar; Van Damme, Wim

    2014-01-01

    To overcome patients' reported barriers to accessing anti-retroviral therapy (ART), a community-based delivery model was piloted in Tete, Mozambique. Community ART Groups (CAGs) of maximum six patients stable on ART offered cost- and time-saving benefits and mutual psychosocial support, which resulted in better adherence and retention outcomes. To date, Médecins Sans Frontières has coordinated and supported these community-driven activities. To better understand the sustainability of the CAG model, we developed a conceptual framework on sustainability of community-based programmes. This was used to explore the data retrieved from 16 focus group discussions and 24 in-depth interviews with different stakeholder groups involved in the CAG model and to identify factors influencing the sustainability of the CAG model. We report the findings according to the framework's five components. (1) The CAG model was designed to overcome patients' barriers to ART and was built on a concept of self-management and patient empowerment to reach effective results. (2) Despite the progressive Ministry of Health (MoH) involvement, the daily management of the model is still strongly dependent on external resources, especially the need for a regulatory cadre to form and monitor the groups. These additional resources are in contrast to the limited MoH resources available. (3) The model is strongly embedded in the community, with patients taking a more active role in their own healthcare and that of their peers. They are considered as partners in healthcare, which implies a new healthcare approach. (4) There is a growing enabling environment with political will and general acceptance to support the CAG model. (5) However, contextual factors, such as poverty, illiteracy and the weak health system, influence the community-based model and need to be addressed. The community embeddedness of the model, together with patient empowerment, high acceptability and progressive MoH involvement

  17. The Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT): Online Financial Planning to Facilitate Biobank Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Hana; Miranda, Lisa; Rao, Abhi; Vaught, Jim; Greenman, Howard; McLean, Jeffrey; Reed, Daniel; Memon, Sarfraz; Fombonne, Benjamin; Guan, Ping; Moore, Helen M

    2015-12-01

    Biospecimens are essential resources for advancing basic and translational research. However, there are little data available regarding the costs associated with operating a biobank, and few resources to enable their long-term sustainability. To support the research community in this effort, the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute's Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research Branch has developed the Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT). The tool is accessible at http://biospecimens.cancer.gov/resources/bemt.asp. To obtain market-based cost information and to inform the development of the tool, a survey was designed and sent to 423 biobank managers and directors across the world. The survey contained questions regarding infrastructure investments, salary costs, funding options, types of biospecimen resources and services offered, as well as biospecimen pricing and service-related costs. A total of 106 responses were received. The data were anonymized, aggregated, and used to create a comprehensive database of cost and pricing information that was integrated into the web-based tool, the BEMT. The BEMT was built to allow the user to input cost and pricing data through a seven-step process to build a cost profile for their biobank, define direct and indirect costs, determine cost recovery fees, perform financial forecasting, and query the anonymized survey data from comparable biobanks. A survey was conducted to obtain a greater understanding of the costs involved in operating a biobank. The anonymized survey data was then used to develop the BEMT, a cost modeling tool for biobanks. Users of the tool will be able to create a cost profile for their biobanks' specimens, products and services, establish pricing, and allocate costs for biospecimens based on percent cost recovered, and perform project-specific cost analyses and financial forecasting.

  18. Encapsulation and sustained release of a model drug, indomethacin, using CO(2)-based microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Finn, N; Yates, M Z

    2005-01-04

    A carbon dioxide (CO(2))-based microencapsulation technique was used to impregnate indomethacin, a model drug, into biodegradable polymer nanoparticles. Compressed CO(2) was emulsified into aqueous suspensions of biodegradable particles. The CO(2) plasticizes the biodegradable polymers, increasing the drug diffusion rate in the particles so that drug loading is enhanced. Four types of biodegradable polymers were investigated, including poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PLA), poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with two different molar ratios of LA to GA, and a poly(d,l-lactic acid-b-ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) block copolymer. Biodegradable nanoparticles were prepared from polymer solutions through nonsolvent-induced precipitation in the presence of surfactants. Indomethacin was incorporated into biodegradable nanoparticles with no change of the particle size and morphology. The effects of a variety of experimental variables on the drug loadings were investigated. It was found that the drug loading was the highest for PLA homopolymer and decreased in PLGA copolymers as the fraction of glycolic acid increased. Indomethacin was predicted to have higher solubility in PLA than in PLGA based on the calculated solubility parameters. The drug loading in PLA increased markedly as the temperature for impregnation was increased from 35 to 45 degrees C. Drug release from the particles is a diffusion-controlled process, and sustained release can be maintained over 10 h. A simple Fickian diffusion model was used to estimate the diffusion coefficients of indomethacin in the biodegradable polymers. The diffusion coefficients are consistent with previous studies, suggesting that the polymer properties are unchanged by supercritical fluid processing. Supercritical CO(2) is nontoxic, easily separated from the polymers, can extract residual organic solvent, and can sterilize biodegradable polymers. The CO(2)-based microencapsulation technique is promising for the production of drug

  19. Modeling Sustained Delivery of Agroecosystem Services at a Watershed Scale under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, A. A.; Starr, J.

    2015-12-01

    The intensive land use and agricultural production systems in the Chippewa River Watershed (CRW) in Minnesota, USA, contribute to inherent environmental problems and have major direct impact on soil conservation, and on several competing agro-ecosystem services (AESs); and may have indirect impact on AESs in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). Field-scale indicators of AESs are largely absent in the highly diverse soils of the CRW. Therefore, proxy indicators were developed to assess these services under current (A0) and predicted (A2; 100 years) global climate change (GCC) scenarios. Individual indices were developed for biomass, grain yield, NO3- and NH4-N, soil carbon, runoff, and soil erosion for 132 soil series classified into three land capability classes (LCCs). The indices and a weighted index (Iw) were subjected to multivariate analyses procedures, including distance-weighted least squares, and variance components estimation. Three-D maps delineated contiguous areas of increasing or decreasing AESs in response to projected GCC. Largest significant variance portions in Iw were attributed to GCC scenarios; followed by the interaction of crop rotations and LCCs within conventional and organic cropping systems. The AES were predicted with larger certainty under A2 in organically-managed LCC-1 compared to conventional management. Significantly more runoff and soil erosion are predicted in conventionally-managed LCC-2 and LCC-3 under the same GCC scenario, regardless of soil heterogeneity. The modeling framework and the mapped AES indicators are designed to achieve multiple goals and will be used to support farmers in designing specific crop rotations that are suitable for each of the three LCCs and for major and vulnerable soil series in the watershed. Also, the modeling framework will address sustained delivery of multiple AESs, while enhancing soil conservation, water quality, and environmental protection aspects of farming in the CRW and the UMRB.

  20. Forest Productivity and Diversity: Using Ecological Theory and Landscape Models to Guide Sustainable Forest Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huston, M.A.

    1998-11-01

    Sustainable forest management requires maintaining or increasing ecosystem productivity, while preserving or restoring natural levels of biodiversity. Application of general concepts from ecological theory, along with use of mechanistic, landscape-based computer models, can contribute to the successful achievement of both of these objectives. Ecological theories based on the energetics and dynamics of populations can be used to predict the general distribution of individual species, the diversity of different types of species, ecosystem process rates and pool sizes, and patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity over a broad range of environmental conditions. This approach requires subdivision of total biodiversity into functional types of organisms, primarily because different types of organisms respond very differently to the spatial and temporal variation of environmental conditions on landscapes. The diversity of species of the same functional type (particularly among plants) tends to be highest at relatively low levels of net primary productivity, while the total number of different functional types (particularly among animals) tends to be highest at high levels of productivity (e.g., site index or potential net primary productivity). In general, the diversity of animals at higher trophic levels (e.g., predators) reaches its maximum at much higher levels of productivity than the diversity of lower trophic levels (e.g., plants). This means that a single environment cannot support high diversity of all types of organisms. Within the framework of the general patterns described above, the distributions, population dynamics, and diversity of organisms in specific regions can be predicted more precisely using a combination of computer simulation models and GIS data based on satellite information and ground surveys. Biophysical models that use information on soil properties, climate, and hydrology have been developed to predict how the abundance and spatial