WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainability criteria relevant

  1. Location Criteria Relevant for Sustainability of Social Housing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković-Grozdanović Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social housing models, which had began to develop during the last century, for their only objective had a need to overcome the housing problems of socially vulnerable categories. However, numerous studies have shown that these social categories, because of their low social status, are highly susceptible to various psychological and sociological problems. On the other hand a low level of quality, which was common for social housing dwellings, has further aggravated these problems by initiating trouble behaviours among tenants, affecting social exclusion and segregation. Contemporary social housing models are therefore conceptualized in a way to provide a positive psycho-sociological impact on their tenants. Therefore the planning approach in social housing should be such to: support important functions in daily life routines; promote tolerance and cooperation; influence on a sense of social order and belonging; affect the socialization of the tenant and their integration into the wider community; and improve social cohesion. Analysis of the influential location parameters of immediate and wider social housing environment strive to define the ones relevant to the life quality of social housing tenants and therefore influence on the sustainability of social housing model.

  2. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  3. Investigation of Sustainable Housing Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roshanfekr Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to sustainable development in cities. The quality of human life is directly related to environmental quality. Because many people live in cities as a place of social, economic and cultural relationships, certain issues such as environmental crises, energy, air and noise pollution and traffic jams are some of the factors that can alter the quality of human life. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of human life, attention to sustainable development (or sustainability in cities is proposed. Sustainable building has a comprehensive significance that begins with the conception of negative and positive impacts on the environment. Several descriptions of sustainable or green buildings have been created; however, they all pursue one goal, which is to create sustainable urban developments and protection of the environment. The quality of indoor environments, materials, and energy consumption, water usage, the impact of building construction processes and building maintenance are some of the factors that affect the environment and sustainability. Sustainable building is an attempt to relieve the minus impacts on the environment that occur during a building’s lifetime. This research investigates the important factors that have relevance to green buildings and introduces several criteria of sustainable housing.

  4. Biofuels Sustainability Criteria. Relevant issues to the proposed Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. (COM(2008) 30 final). Consolidated study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Francis X.; Roman, Mikael (Stockholm Environment Institute, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)) (and others)

    2008-06-15

    The role envisioned for liquid biofuels for transport has come under increased scrutiny in the past year or two, due to the potential social and environmental impacts associated with scaling up biofuels production and use from its low level - currently representing about 1% of transport fuels globally. The proposed EU Directive setting a target of 10% biofuels in transport sector by 2020 has therefore raised a number of concerns. The concerns about sustainability are addressed within the proposed Directive through criteria related mainly to GHG emissions, but also to biodiversity and other environmental impacts. The use of first generation biofuels in temperate climates is land-intensive and inefficient in technical terms, whereas first generation biofuels in tropical climates and second generation biofuels in general - offer a much more effective use of land resources. The use of GHG reduction criteria can provide incentives for producers to rely on the most productive feedstocks when sourcing biofuels for the EU market, which will often mean import of biofuels. A threshold of 50% or more would tend to eliminate many of the first generation biofuels produced in temperate climates. Member States should be encouraged to link financial incentives to the GHG reduction capabilities. Moreover, such incentives could be better linked to development cooperation in the case of imports, so as to insure that Least Developed Countries (i.e. in Africa) can gain access to larger markets rather than only the major producers such as Brazil. The calculation of GHG emissions associated with biofuels is complicated by the addition of factors associated with land use change, since the GHG impacts of land use change are beset by uncertainty both in physical terms as well as in the attribution of particular changes to production of particular biofuels. A further complication is introduced when indirect land use changes are incorporated, since these occur through combinations of market

  5. Multi-Criteria Sustainability Assessment of Urban Sludge Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    to determine the weights of the criteria for sustainability assessment, and extension theory was used to prioritize the alternative technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge and grade their sustainability performances. An illustrative case including three technologies (compositing, incineration...

  6. Relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Sørensen, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Seeking relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models, the scale of turbulence and the gust factor have been estimated from data and compared with predictions from first-order models of these two quantities. It is found that the mean of the measured length scales is approx. 10......% smaller than the IEC model, for wind turbine hub height levels. The mean is only marginally dependent on trends in time series. It is also found that the coefficient of variation of the measured length scales is about 50%. 3sec and 10sec pre-averaging of wind speed data are relevant for MW-size wind...... turbines when seeking wind characteristics that correspond to one blade and the entire rotor, respectively. For heights exceeding 50-60m the gust factor increases with wind speed. For heights larger the 60-80m, present assumptions on the value of the gust factor are significantly conservative, both for 3...

  7. Sustainable national transport planning: Managing multiple objectives and criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    not included in the CBA. One important part of the assessment is the selection of criteria to be included and this aspect will be examined by an appraisal study of the Rail Baltica corridor. In the study various alternatives are appraised with an explicit consideration of each alternative’s sustainability...... performance....

  8. Healthcare Building Sustainability Assessment tool - Sustainable Effective Design criteria in the Portuguese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Maria de Fátima; Mateus, Ricardo; Bragança, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Tools and methods to improve current practices and quality in the healthcare building sector are necessary to support decision-making at different building life cycle phases. Furthermore, Healthcare Building Sustainability Assessment (HBSA) Methods are based on criteria organised into different levels, such as categories and indicators. These criteria highlight aspects of significant importance when designing and operating a sustainable healthcare building. To bring more objectivity to the sustainability assessments, the standardisation bodies (CEN and ISO) proposed core indicators that should be used in the evaluation of the environmental, societal and economic performances of buildings. Nevertheless, relying on state of the art analysis, it is possible to conclude that there are aspects of major importance for the operation of healthcare buildings that are not considered in the HBSA methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to discuss the context of sustainability assessment methods in the field of healthcare buildings and to present a proposal for the incorporation of Sustainable-Effective Design (SED) criteria in a new HBSA method. The used research method is innovative since in the development of the list of sustainability criteria it considers the opinion of main healthcare buildings' stakeholders, the existing healthcare assessment methods and the ISO and CEN standardisation works in the field of the methods to assess the sustainability of construction works. As a result, the proposed method is composed of fifty-two sustainability indicators that cover the different dimensions of the sustainability concept to support decision making during the design of a new or retrofitted healthcare building in urban areas. - Highlights: •A new system to assess the sustainability of healthcare buildings is presented. •We propose a method to develop the list of sustainability indicators for hospitals. •We propose a new concept – Sustainable-Effective Design (SED

  9. Sustainability: criteria and indicators for the energy area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Gubler, F.; Brodmann, U.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the concept of sustainability with reference to the energy area. The importance of energy topics in the fundamental ideas behind sustainability - ecological compatibility, economic efficiency and social fairness - is discussed. The methods used to define the criteria and indicators for sustainability are discussed on the basis of existing systems. >From these, criteria and indicators are proposed for the energy area, including indicators for the influence of energy on the environment, economy and society, activity-indicators and indicators for energy efficiency and politics. The system boundaries for the indicators are discussed, as are grey energy and other 'grey' effects in the environmental, economic and social areas. The various criteria, indicators and the effort needed to collect data on them are presented in table form. The report is completed with a discussion of recommendations on what is still to be done in the area, how the results of the study can be used and what actions are still to be taken

  10. Advancing the Relevance Criteria for Video Search and Visual Summarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudinac, S.

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate finding of relevant information in ever-growing multimedia collections, a number of multimedia information retrieval solutions have been proposed over the past years. The essential element of any such solution is the relevance criterion deployed to select or rank the items from a

  11. A framework of performance criteria defining sustainable construction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturges, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    As our global culture encounters accelerating rates of resource depletion, environmental degradation, and societal inequality, it increasingly needs tools to rate building systems by environmental and socioeconomic criteria. By investigating light frame structural systems based on principles of ecological design, it is possible to not only identify the structures' potential impacts on the health of their site and larger community, but also to establish a framework of performance criteria for comparatively evaluating a variety of construction technologies. This paper summarizes the development and application of such a framework, based upon the ecosystems and culture of the Pacific Northwest's Cascadia Bioregion. The framework has been comparatively applied to solid-sawn lumber, trusses, and composite wood I-joists. These three framing technologies together represent traditional, contemporary, and progressive structural systems. Their individual and collective performance, based upon the application of the hypothesized criteria, offer insights into what might be a more ideal framing system of the sustainable future

  12. Sustainable transport project evaluation and decision support: indicators and planning criteria for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Pryn, Marie Ridley

    2015-01-01

    is adopted. The SUSTAIN-DSS model rests upon multi-criteria decision analysis and planning workshops in order to combine the use of qualitative and quantitative assessments. This article stresses the necessity of revising current planning paradigms such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA) but also to make clear......This article will expose the necessity for a sustainable planning and decision support framework for transport infrastructure assessment. This will be operationalized through a set of planning criteria and scenario alternatives, which is assessed in the SUSTAIN decision support system (SUSTAIN......-DSS) model. A part of the decision support framework will be tested in a case study in Denmark, concerning the problem of congestion on the current bridge crossing Roskilde Fjord in the city of Frederikssund. This article suggests including in a combination both reference class forecasting and quantitative...

  13. RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS USED IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORINA-GEANINA MĂRGĂRIT (STĂNESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between environmental, economic and social factors influences the ecological balance and generates the change of living conditions and those of socio-economic development. One of the essential conditions for building a sustainable economic development is the identification and implementation of active or voluntary instruments to influence economic and social activity towards ensuring their sustainability. In this paper, we intend to introduce the tools used in the process of sustainable development, which have a key role in adopting an environmentally responsible behavior. The results of this study are represented by the drafting of the advantages and disadvantages of using these economic and financial instruments. The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of costs for environmental protection and the relevance of instruments used at the national level in environmental protection.

  14. Balancing relevance criteria through multi-objective optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, J.; Odijk, D.; Roijers, D.M.; de Rijke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Offline evaluation of information retrieval systems typically focuses on a single effectiveness measure that models the utility for a typical user. Such a measure usually combines a behavior-based rank discount with a notion of document utility that captures the single relevance criterion of

  15. Do green building assessment criteria meet sustainability imperatives: a critical analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine whether green building assessment criteria meet the imperatives of sustainable development. The paper finds that green building assessment criteria fail to meet the sustainable development imperatives...

  16. The impact of sustainability criteria on the costs and potentials of bioenergy production. An exploration of the impact of the implementation of sustainability criteria on the costs and potential of bioenergy production, applied for case studies in Brazil and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, E.; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I.

    2005-02-01

    The goal of this study is to make a first attempt to analyse the impact on the potential (quantity) and the costs (per unit) of bioenergy that the compliance with various sustainability criteria brings along. The nature of this work is exploratory. Because of the broad set of issues covered very little work has been published on which we could build. Ukraine and Brazil are used as case studies, because both regions are identified as promising bioenergy producers. This study is part of the FAIR Biotrade project, which is aimed to identify and quantify the impact of sustainability criteria on the potential of bioenergy. Previous work includes an identification of sustainability criteria relevant for bioenergy, an assessment of the environmental and economic costs of long distance biotrade and an assessment of bioenergy production potentials in 2050 in various world regions. In section 2 the approach is presented which is used to select and quantify the impact of sustainability criteria on bioenergy production. In section 3 the selection of the various sustainability criteria is described in detail, followed by a detailed description of how the various socials, ecological and economical sustainability criteria are operationalised. In section 4 (intermediate) results are presented for each sustainability criterium. In section 5 final results are presented, followed by a discussion and by conclusions (section 6)

  17. Sustainable Seafood Consumption in Action: Relevant Behaviors and their Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Richter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the discussion around sustainable diets, seafood consumption is still a relatively neglected field. This article discusses relevant behaviours consumers can perform to consume seafood sustainably. The predictive power of intention, descriptive social norms, trust, awareness and pro-environmental attitudes are theoretically discussed and statistically tested across two studies in regards to (a using sustainable seafood labels, and (b using sustainable seafood guides. Data analysis (N1 = 309, N2 = 881 Norwegian adults shows that intentions, social norms and trust predict seafood label use across studies. The variables predicting seafood guide use are less stable which might be due to this behaviour being performed by a very small fraction of consumers only. Causal relationships have been identified in study 2 by applying cross-lagged panel analyses between intentions, trust and social norms and seafood label use. Further causal relationships were found between intentions, trust and awareness and seafood guide use. A bidirectional relationship was confirmed between descriptive social norms and seafood guide use. Potential strategies to promote seafood label- and seafood guide use, are discussed based on these results.

  18. Sustainable waste management through end-of-waste criteria development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A

    2016-04-01

    The Waste Framework Directive 2000/98 (WFD) contains specific requirements to define end-of-waste criteria (EWC). The main goal of EWC is to remove and eliminate the administrative loads of waste legislation for safe and high-quality waste materials, thereby facilitating and assisting recycling. The target is to produce effective with high quality of recyclables materials, promoting product standardization and quality and safety assurance, and improving harmonization and legal certainty in the recyclable material markets. At the same time, those objectives aim to develop a plan in order to improve the development and wider use of environmental technologies, which reduce pressure on environment and at the same time address the three dimensions of the Lisbon strategy: growth, jobs and environment. This paper presents the importance of EWC, and the approach of setting EWC as EWC affect several management systems as well as sustainable and clean technologies.

  19. The Development and Use of Sustainability Criteria in SuRF-UK’s Sustainable Remediation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paul Bardos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability considerations have become widely recognised in contaminated land management and are now accepted as an important component of remediation planning and implementation around the world. The Sustainable Remediation Forum for the UK (SuRF-UK published guidance on sustainability criteria for consideration in drawing up (or framing assessments, organised across 15 “headline” categories, five for the environment element of sustainability, five for the social, and five for the economic. This paper describes how the SuRF-UK indicator guidance was developed, and the rationale behind its structure and approach. It describes its use in remediation option appraisal in the UK, and reviews the international papers that have applied or reviewed it. It then reviews the lessons learned from its initial use and the opinions and findings of international commentators, and concludes with recommendations on how the indicator categories might be further refined in the future. The key findings of this review are that the SuRF-UK framework and indicator guidance is well adopted into practice in the UK. It is widely recognised as the most appropriate mechanism to support sustainability-based decision making in contaminated land decision making. It has influenced the development of other national and international guidance and standards on sustainable remediation. However, there is room for some fine tuning of approach based on the lessons learned during its application.

  20. Effects on topic familiarity on online search behaviour and use of relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Lei; Ruthven, Ian; Borlund, Pia

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the effect of topic familiarity on the assessment behaviour of online searchers. In particular we investigate the effect of topic familiarity on the resources and relevance criteria used by searchers. Our results indicate that searching on an unfamiliar...... topic leads to use of more generic and fewer specialised resources and that searchers employ different relevance criteria when searching on less familiar topics....

  1. Sustainability Reporting and Value Relevance of Financial Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutopo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether information about the winners of the Sustainability Reporting Award (SRA contributes to the usefulness of the information in financial statements. This study used a sample consisting of 110 winners of SRA (SRA firms and 110 companies that did not receive SRA (non-SRA firms from 2008 to 2016. The study found that earnings per share (EPS, earnings per share change (EPSC, and book value per share (BVPS are value-relevant information. Results of comparison between SRA firms and non-SRA firms show that the positive association between EPS and stock price (P and the positive association of EPS with stock returns (R for SRA firms are higher than that for the non-SRA firms. In addition, findings of this study indicate that EPSC is positively associated with R when EPSC and R are measured by Indonesian rupiah (IDR instead of by percentage, and the positive association between EPSC and R for the SRA firms is higher than that for the non-SRA firms. Thus, the results are sensitive to measures of the variables. However, this study found that value relevance of BVPS for SRA firms is lower than for non-SRA firms. Implication of this study is that information about the winners of SRA contributes to the usefulness of financial statements, especially the information of EPS and EPSC.

  2. Transportation of Organs by Air: Safety, Quality, and Sustainability Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantecchini, L; Paganelli, F; Morabito, V; Ricci, A; Peritore, D; Trapani, S; Montemurro, A; Rizzo, A; Del Sordo, E; Gaeta, A; Rizzato, L; Nanni Costa, A

    2016-03-01

    The outcomes of organ transplantation activities are greatly affected by the ability to haul organs and medical teams quickly and safely. Organ allocation and usage criteria have greatly improved over time, whereas the same result has not been achieved so far from the transport point of view. Safety and the highest level of service and efficiency must be reached to grant transplant recipients the healthiest outcome. The Italian National Transplant Centre (CNT), in partnership with the regions and the University of Bologna, has promoted a thorough analysis of all stages of organ transportation logistics chains to produce homogeneous and shared guidelines throughout the national territory, capable of ensuring safety, reliability, and sustainability at the highest levels. The mapping of all 44 transplant centers and the pertaining airport network has been implemented. An analysis of technical requirements among organ shipping agents at both national and international level has been promoted. A national campaign of real-time monitoring of organ transport activities at all stages of the supply chain has been implemented. Parameters investigated have been hospital and region of both origin and destination, number and type of organs involved, transport type (with or without medical team), stations of arrival and departure, and shipping agents, as well as actual times of activities involved. National guidelines have been issued to select organ storage units and shipping agents on the basis of evaluation of efficiency, reliability, and equipment with reference to organ type and ischemia time. Guidelines provide EU-level standards on technical equipment of aircrafts, professional requirements of shipping agencies and cabin crew, and requirements on service provision, including pricing criteria. The introduction in the Italian legislation of guidelines issuing minimum requirements on topics such as the medical team, packaging, labeling, safety and integrity, identification

  3. Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

  4. Striving to further harmonization of sustainability criteria for bioenergy in Europe: Recommendations from a stakeholder questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, J. van; Junginger, M.

    2011-01-01

    This questionnaire analyzed the ongoing development of sustainability criteria for solid and liquid bioenergy in the European Union and further actions needed to come to a harmonization of certification systems, based on EU stakeholder views. The questionnaire, online from February to August 2009, received 473 responses collected from 25 EU member countries and 9 non-European countries; 285 could be used for further processing. A large majority of all stakeholders (81%) indicated that a harmonized certification system for biomass and bioenergy is needed, albeit some limitations. Amongst them, there is agreement that (i) a criterion on 'minimization of GHG emissions' should be included in a certification system for biomass and bioenergy, (ii) criteria on optimization of energy and on water conservation are considered of high relevance, (iii) the large variety of geographical areas, crops, residues, production processes and end-uses limits development towards a harmonized certification system for sustainable biomass and bioenergy in Europe, (iv) making better use of existing certification systems and standards improves further development of a harmonized European biomass and bioenergy sustainability certification system and (v) it is important to link a European certification system to international declarations and to expand such a system to other world regions. - Highlights: → The majority of stakeholders agree on the need of a certification system for biomass and bioenergy. → Limitations for harmonizing a European system include the geographical diversity, crops and processes for biomass and bioenergy. → It is important to consider the international declarations when developing a European system.

  5. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence and the Continuously Relevant and Responsible Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Bøllingtoft, Anne; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Innovation and sustainability are critical to the design, activities, results, and financial viability of organizations. These support one another, with “sustainable innovation” addressing economic sustainability, and “innovating for sustainability” addressing societal and environmental...... sustainability. Both sustainable innovation and innovation for sustainability have gained traction as partial means of confronting economic, environmental and societal challenges. Although garnering footholds is promising, the growth rate of these challenges has thus far exceeded trajectory, scale, and velocity...... issues surrounding enterprise innovation and sustainability efforts and capabilities. Innovation and sustainability of the necessary trajectory, scale, and velocity are strategically integrated to deliver what we refer to as innovating sustainability. This provides an accelerated means path toward...

  6. Sustainable transportation according to certification systems: A viability analysis based on neighborhood size and context relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouda, Amr Ah.; Masoumi, Houshmand E.

    2017-01-01

    Urban sustainability certification (USC) systems comprehensively assess and benchmark the sustainability of neighborhoods, communities, etc. However, it is important to understand what USCs mean by neighborhoods and communities in terms of definition and their certified developments' size. This study focuses on sustainable transportation and its measures in USCs in order to discern: how relevant are these measures to the varied local conditions, especially in developing countries? And whether they can generate palpable benefits vis-à-vis the certified developments' site areas. Taking descriptive analysis methods, this study focuses on four prominent USCs, namely, LEED for Neighborhood Development, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development, and The Pearl Community Rating System. The four USCs prescribed multiple measures for sustainable transportation, particularly in favor of active transportation and public transportation. However, the relatively small size of their citified developments and the varying transportation conditions among different contexts attenuate the viability and relevance of the advocated measures for both modes. In order to yield more benefits, USCs should underscore the integrative nature of neighborhoods and communities, and transportation within their prescribed criteria and measures. Moreover, sustainable transportation as a theme should be tailored to the local conditions rather than being adopted or adapted from global USCs. - Highlights: • Transportation measures in four prominent certification systems were investigated. • Most certified neighborhoods, communities and developments have small site areas. • Certifications are insensitive to realities of transport in developing countries. • Benefits from advocating active transport only within certified areas are minimal. • Certifications devalue the integrative nature of neighborhoods and transportation.

  7. Sustainable transportation according to certification systems: A viability analysis based on neighborhood size and context relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouda, Amr Ah., E-mail: amr.gouda@eng.asu.edu.eg [Center for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr, 16-18, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 Sarayat St., Abassia, Cairo (Egypt); Masoumi, Houshmand E. [Center for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr, 16-18, Berlin 10623 (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Urban sustainability certification (USC) systems comprehensively assess and benchmark the sustainability of neighborhoods, communities, etc. However, it is important to understand what USCs mean by neighborhoods and communities in terms of definition and their certified developments' size. This study focuses on sustainable transportation and its measures in USCs in order to discern: how relevant are these measures to the varied local conditions, especially in developing countries? And whether they can generate palpable benefits vis-à-vis the certified developments' site areas. Taking descriptive analysis methods, this study focuses on four prominent USCs, namely, LEED for Neighborhood Development, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development, and The Pearl Community Rating System. The four USCs prescribed multiple measures for sustainable transportation, particularly in favor of active transportation and public transportation. However, the relatively small size of their citified developments and the varying transportation conditions among different contexts attenuate the viability and relevance of the advocated measures for both modes. In order to yield more benefits, USCs should underscore the integrative nature of neighborhoods and communities, and transportation within their prescribed criteria and measures. Moreover, sustainable transportation as a theme should be tailored to the local conditions rather than being adopted or adapted from global USCs. - Highlights: • Transportation measures in four prominent certification systems were investigated. • Most certified neighborhoods, communities and developments have small site areas. • Certifications are insensitive to realities of transport in developing countries. • Benefits from advocating active transport only within certified areas are minimal. • Certifications devalue the integrative nature of neighborhoods and transportation.

  8. Searchers' relevance judgments and criteria in evaluating Web pages in a learning style perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Chariste; Zijlema, Annemarie F.; Ingwersen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a case study of searcher's relevance criteria used for assessments of Web pages in a perspective of learning style. 15 test persons participated in the experiments based on two simulated work tasks that provided cover stories to trigger their information needs. Two...... learning styles were examined: Global and Sequential learners. The study applied eye-tracking for the observation of relevance hot spots on Web pages, learning style index analysis and post-search interviews to gain more in-depth information on relevance behavior. Findings reveal that with respect to use......, they are statistically insignificant. When interviewed in retrospective the resulting profiles tend to become even similar across learning styles but a shift occurs from instant assessments with content features of web pages replacing topicality judgments as predominant relevance criteria....

  9. Drawing students' attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., Sluijsmans, D., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012). Drawing students’ attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 64(2), 185-198. doi:10.1080/13636820.2011.630537

  10. A preliminary study on the relevancy of sustainable building design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study aims to explore the relationship between sustainable building design paradigms and commercial property depreciation, to assist in the understanding of sustainable building design impact towards commercial building value and rental de employs the qualitative method and analyses valuers' current ...

  11. Sustainable seafood consumption in action: Relevant behaviours and their predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Isabel; Thøgersen, John; Klöckner, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    The current dominance of unsustainable seafood consumption threatens future food security. To preserve marine food resources over the long term more sustainable ways to consume seafood have to be promoted. This paper discusses consumer actions that represent the sustainable consumption of seafood...... in Norway. The predictive power of intention, social norms, trust and general pro-environmental attitudes are theoretically discussed and statistically tested in regards to (a) using sustainable seafood labels, and (b) using sustainable seafood guides. Data analysis (N=1190 Norwegian adults) shows that both...... behaviors are related to social norms, intentions and trust. This pattern also turns out to be stable over time as a second data collection on the same sample four weeks later shows. Causal relationships have been identified by applying a cross-lagged panel analysis between intentions and sustainable...

  12. Multiple criteria decision making for sustainable energy and transportation systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrgott, Matthias [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Engineering Science; Naujoks, Boris [Login GmbH, Schwelm (Germany).; Stewart, Theodor J. [Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Statistical Sciences; Wallenius, Jyrki (eds.) [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland). Dept. of Business Technology

    2010-07-01

    In the twenty-first century the sustainability of energy and transportation systems is on the top of the political agenda in many countries around the world and governments are establishing policies towards a sustainable, low emissions energy future. Environmental impacts of human economic activity necessitate the consideration of conflicting goals in decision making processes to develop sustainable systems. Any sustainable development has to reconcile conflicting economic and environmental objectives and criteria. The science of multiple criteria decision making has a lot to offer in addressing this need. Decision making with multiple (conflicting) criteria is the topic of research that is at the heart of the International Society of Multiple Criteria Decision Making. This book is based on selected papers presented at the societies 19th International Conference, held at The University of Auckland, New Zealand, from 7th to 12th January 2008 under the theme ''MCDM for Sustainable Energy and Transportation Systems''. (orig.)

  13. Alternative aviation jet fuel sustainability evaluation report - task 3 : sustainability criteria and rating systems for the use in aircraft alternative fuel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    This report identifies criteria that can be used to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels introduced into the aviation fuel supply chain. It describes the inputs, criteria and outputs that can be used in a sustainability rating system. It identifie...

  14. legal analysis of the european union sustainability criteria for biofuels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    State.3 Renewable energy could come from a variety of sources, but for the .... Sustainability Restrictions Defined by the European Renewable Energy Directive .... the GHG emissions during the production of biofuels and the impact of the.

  15. Sustainable development criteria for Built Environment projects in South Africa (CSIR)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on work undertaken for the Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (GDARD) developing a set of sustainable development criteria for built environment projects requiring environmental impact assessments. (Gibberd...

  16. Relevant Education for Sustainable Human Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In human development, conscious efforts are made to enlarge people's choices to enable them live a healthy and prolonged life, acquire knowledge, and have access to resources needed to earn a decent living. Obviously, sustained improvement in African human development still falls short of those experienced in other ...

  17. Development and validation of sustainability criteria of administrative green schools in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiboudi, Hossein; Lahijanian, Akramolmolok; Shobeiri, Seyed Mohammad; Jozi, Seyed Ali; Azizinezhad, Reza

    2017-07-15

    Environmental responsibility in school has led to the emergence of a variety of criteria to administer green schools' contributions to sustainability. Sustainability criteria of administrative green schools need validity, reliability and norms. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate assessment criteria for green schools in Iran based on the role of academia. A national survey was conducted to obtain data on sustainability criteria initiatives for green schools and the Iranian profile was defined. An initial pool of 71 items was generated and after its first edition, 63 items were selected to comprise the sustainability criteria. Engineering-architectural and behavioral aspects of this sustainability criteria were evaluated through a sample of 1218 graduate students with environmental degrees from Iran's universities. Exploratory factor analysis using principal components and promax rotation method showed that these 9 criteria have simple structures and are consistent with the theoretical framework. The reliability coefficients of subscales ranged between 0.62 (participation) and 0.84 (building location and position). The study's survey of correlation coefficients between items and subscales illustrated that those coefficients varied between 0.24 and 0.68. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainability Criteria for Planning, Constructing, and Operating Contingency Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    common PREREQ 1 Walkable Streets yes Planning, Desi gn, Construction, OaM Medium use areas. Plan careft,j!y to accommodate simftar functions in the...apjly the specific LEED·ND criteria. Pay special attention to roads that connect LSA ~ife support areas) to common Walkable Streets yes Planning... Walkable Streets  Intent: ►To promote transportation efficiency. ►To promote walking by providing: • Safe •Appealing •Comfortable street

  19. INTERBANK DEPOSIT MARKET RELEVANCE FOR CROATIAN BANKING SYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ercegovac, Roberto; Kundid, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Existence, functionality and sustainability of the interbank deposit market signifi cantly determinate bank’s asset and liability management (ALM) potentials and thus an overall banking sector performance. Among other numerous factors in the banking business, key roles of the interbank deposit market like availability of short-term liquidity sources, ensuring investment and lending opportunities as well as allowing hedging potentials, considerably contribute to commercial bank’s risk – return...

  20. Relevant or determinant: Importance in certified sustainable food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived relevance and determinance are two distinct constructs, underlying the overall concept of attribute importance. The present study proposes a survey based measure of attribute determinance. Based on construal level theory it is argued and empirically shown that actual choices of certified

  1. Are the criteria of Tabar and Dean still relevant to radial scar?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boute, Veronique [Department of Senology, Centre Francois Baclesse, 14076 Caen, Cedex 5 (France); Goyat, Isabelle [Department of Senology, Centre Francois Baclesse, 14076 Caen, Cedex 5 (France); Denoux, Yves [Department of Pathology, Centre Francois Baclesse, 14076 Caen, Cedex 5 (France); Lacroix, Joelle [Department of Senology, Centre Francois Baclesse, 14076 Caen, Cedex 5 (France); Marie, Brigitte [Department of Senology, Centre Francois Baclesse, 14076 Caen, Cedex 5 (France); Michels, Jean-J. [Department of Pathology, Centre Francois Baclesse, 14076 Caen, Cedex 5 (France)]. E-mail: michels@baclesse.fr

    2006-11-15

    Objective: Aschoff's center of proliferation (ACP), poses significant problems of differential diagnosis both in imagery and histology with infiltrating carcinoma. Up to now the criteria of Tabar and Dean (classical criteria) are considered as diagnostically relevant. Material: A retrospective study of 113 cases, enabled us to study their clinical, radiological and histological aspects. Results: The ACP is a subclinical and seldom palpable entity (12%). The radiological signs of ACP are quite variable. The classical criteria lack specificity and are observed only in 48% of our stellate images. Whereas the frequency of microcalcifications is high (58.5% of the cases), their presence and their type are not predictive of an associated malignancy. The echographic diagnosis of ACP could be made in 55% of the cases but the echographic semiology lacked specificity. We noticed an associated atypical epithelial hyperplasia in 28.5% of the cases, intraductal or lobular in situ carcinoma in 9% and/or a ductal invasive carcinoma in 2% of the cases. Neither tumor size, age of the patients, nor any radiological signs were predictive of such an association. Conclusions: The classical criteria are not completely reliable and are observed only in half of our stellate images, whereas microcalcifications are often present but are not predictive of an associated malignancy.

  2. Steps to discern sustainability criteria for a certification scheme of bioethanol in Brazil: Approach and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delzeit, R.; Holm-Mueller, K.

    2009-01-01

    Taking Brazilian bioethanol as an example, this paper presents possible sustainability criteria for a certification scheme aimed to minimize negative socio-ecological impacts and to increase the sustainable production of biomass. We describe the methods that have led us to the identification of a first set of feasible sustainability criteria for Brazilian bioethanol and discuss issues to be considered when developing certification schemes for sustainability. General problems of a certification scheme lie in the inherent danger of introducing new non-tariff trade barriers and in the problems of including important higher scale issues like land conversion and food security. A certification system cannot replace a thorough analysis of policy impacts on sustainability issues. (author)

  3. Comparing decision-support systems in adopting sustainable intensification criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouda eVosough Ahmadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable intensification (SI is a multifaceted concept incorporating the ambition to increase or maintain the current level of agricultural yields while reduce negative ecological and environmental impacts. Decision-support systems (DSS that use integrated analytical methods are often used to support decision making processes in agriculture. However, DSS often consist of set of values, objectives and assumptions that may be inconsistent or in conflict with merits and objectives of SI. These potential conflicts will have consequences for adoption and up-take of agricultural research, technologies and related policies and regulations such as genetic technology in pursuit of SI. This perspective paper aimed at comparing a number of frequently used socio-economic DSS with respect to their capacity in incorporating various dimensions of SI, and discussing their application to analyzing farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR policies. The case of FAnGR policies was chosen because of its great potential in delivering merits of SI. It was concluded that flexible DSS, with great integration capacity with various natural and social sciences, are needed to provide guidance on feasibility, practicality and policy implementation for SI.

  4. Multi-criteria sustainability assessment: A tool for evaluation of new energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of perspective methods for the evaluation of quality of energy system is the multi-criteria sustainability assessment, based on the analysis and synthesis of indicators expressing different aspects of the system. Application of this methodology in the cases of information deficiency (ASPID methodology enables evaluation of various energy systems. In the paper, the multi-criteria sustainability assessment of energy systems of various energy sources is used to evaluate the energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Eight different energy system options are taken into a consideration as the potential options for the capacity building within the energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has included various renewable sources and fossil fuel clean technologies. Within the multi-criteria sustainability assessment method, sustainability indicators and weighting coefficients are defined and calculated, including: resource indicator, environment indicator, social indicator and economic indicator with respective weighting factors. The methodology includes the system of stochastic models of uncertainty in order to realize the assessment from various supporting systems, and to obtain respective normalization indexes by using non-numeric (ordinal, non-exact (interval, and non-complete information (NNN- information, for sources of various reliability and probability. By the analysis of multi-criteria sustainability assessment of selected options, the decision makers could be enabled to form opinion on quality of considered energy systems, and from the aspect of sustainability, make selection an optimum option of energy system. .

  5. Multi-criteria sustainability analysis of thermal power plant Kolubara-A Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škobalj, P.; Kijevčanin, M.; Afgan, N.; Jovanović, M.; Turanjanin, V.; Vučićević, B.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a possible approach for creating business decisions based on multi-criteria analysis. Seven options for a possible revitalization of the thermal power plant “Kolubara”-A Unit No. 2 with energy indicators of sustainable development (EISD) are presented in this paper. The chosen EISD numerically express the essential features of the analyzed options, while the sustainability criteria indicate the option quality within the limits of these indicators. In this paper, the criteria for assessing the sustainability options are defined based on several aspects: economic, social, environmental and technological. In the process of assessing the sustainability of the considered options the Analysis and Synthesis of Parameters under Information Deficiency (ASPID) method was used. In this paper, the EISD show that production and energy consumption are closely linked to economic, environmental and other indicators, such as economic and technological development of local communities with employment being one of the most important social parameter. Multi-criteria analysis for the case study of the TPP “Kolubara”-A clearly indicated recommendations to decision makers on the choice of the best available options in dependence on the energy policy. - Highlights: • Options for sustainable generation of electricity have been proposed. • Energy Indicators of Sustainable Development have been formed. • ASPID methodology has been implemented.

  6. Evaluation of criteria for sustainability of community-based rural homestay programs via a modified pairwise comparison method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rohaini; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2014-12-01

    Ministry of Tourism and Culture Malaysia has long introduced homestay programs across the country to enhance the quality of life of people, especially those living in rural areas. This type of program is classified as a community-based tourism (CBT) as it is expected to economically improve livelihood through cultural and community associated activities. It is the aspiration of the ministry to see that the income imbalance between people in the rural and urban areas is reduced, thus would contribute towards creating more developed states of Malaysia. Since 1970s, there are 154 homestay programs registered with the ministry. However, the performance and sustainability of the programs are still not satisfying. There are only a number of homestay programs that perform well and able to sustain. Thus, the aim of this paper is to identify relevant criteria contributing to the sustainability of a homestay program. The criteria are evaluated for their levels of importance via the use of a modified pairwise method and analyzed for other potentials. The findings will help the homestay operators to focus on the necessary criteria and thus, effectively perform as the CBT business initiative.

  7. Evaluation of a School Building in Turkey According to the Basic Sustainable Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, H. D.

    2017-08-01

    In Turkey, as well as many other developing countries, the significance of sustainable education buildings has only recently become recognized and the issue of sustainability issue has not been sufficiently involved in laws and regulations. In this study, first of all architectural sustainability with basic design criteria has been explained. After that selected type primary school project in Turkey has been evaluated according to the sustainable design criteria. Type project of school buildings significantly limits the sustainability performance expected from buildings. It is clear that type projects shorten the planning time as they include a designing process that is independent of settlement and they are repeated in various places with different characteristics, indeed. On the other hand; abundance of disadvantages such as the overlook of the natural physical and structural properties of the location mostly restricts the sustainable design of the building. For sustainable buildings, several factors such as the environment, land, climate, insolation, direction etc. shall be taken into consideration at the beginning stage. Therefore; implementation of type projects can be deemed to be inappropriate for sustainability.

  8. Multi-criteria model for sustainable development using goal programming applied to the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, Raja; Colapinto, Cinzia; Torre, Davide La; Malik, Tufail

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development requires implementing suitable policies integrating several competing objectives on economic, environmental, energy and social criteria. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) using goal programming is a popular and widely used technique to study decision problems in the face of multiple conflicting objectives. MCDA assists policy makers by providing clarity in choosing between alternatives for strategic planning and investments. In this paper, we propose a weighted goal programming model that integrates efficient allocation of resources to simultaneously achieve sustainability related goals on GDP growth, electricity consumption and GHG emissions. We validate the model with application to key economic sectors of the United Arab Emirates to achieve sustainable development goals by the year 2030. The model solution provides a quantitative justification and a basis for comparison in planning future energy requirements and an indispensable requirement to include renewable sources to satisfy long-term energy requirements. - Highlights: • Multi-criteria model for achieving sustainability goals by year 2030. • Integrates criteria on electricity, GDP, GHG emissions for optimal labor allocation. • Future electricity demand requires contribution from renewable sources • Enables planning for long term investments towards energy sustainability.

  9. The Legal Design of Sustainability Criteria on Biofuels Used by the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the legal power of the European Union - and the use of this power - to promote the sustainable use of biofuels by formally binding criteria in the Renewable Energy Directive. The use of the criteria has the twofold goal of making it possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions...... caused by the use of fuels and to prevent the conversion of land characterized by high carbon stock and high biodiversity for biofuel production....

  10. Learning preferences and attitudes by multi-criteria overlap dominance and relevance functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an interval-valued multi-criteria method for learning preferences and attitudes, identifying priorities with maximal robustness for decision support. The method is based on the notion of weighted overlap dominance, formalized by means of aggregation operators and interval......-valued fuzzy sets. The procedure handles uncertainty by estimating the likelihood of dominance among pairs of alternatives, inducing an attitude-based system of dominance and indifference relations. This system allows conflicting situations of indifference/dependency to arise, which need to be resolved...... for properly identifying preferences under any attitude. In order to do so, relevance functions are examined over the whole system of relations, obtaining a weak preference order together with its associated attitude and robustness index. As a result, the proposed method allows learning preferences...

  11. MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH FOR DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE DRAINAGE IN MALANG RESIDENTIAL AREA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAPSARI Ratih Indri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally sound approach for sustainable urban drainage could promote infiltration and lower the risk of flooding. This study presents the framework to evaluate the drainage alternatives considering multiple aspects including water quantity, life cycle cost and amenity. This approach is verified through application at a residential area in Malang city Indonesia. Different combinations of drainage components comprising of drainage channels, infiltration wells and biopore absorption holes are assessed regarding runoff reduction, present value of life cycle cost, and willingness to pay for the convenience. The first part describes the effective designs of sustainable drainage components in the houses as well as in the public spaces of the housing. The second part of this study describes the use of analytic hierarchy process for weight assignment of sustainability criteria and multiple benefit calculation. The study recommends infiltration wells and biopore absorption holes together with drainage channels as the best management practice of sustainable drainage system based on its overall sustainability index.

  12. International Perspectives and Implementation of Sustainability Criteria in the Development of Biofuels for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    Establishing sustainability criteria for the development of biofuels is an important step for the consolidation of an international market on biofuels for transport for several reasons: Biofuels are expected to play a significant role in a transition to low carbon future in transport in particular...

  13. Relevant Criteria for Testing the Quality of Models for Turbulent Wind Speed Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    Seeking relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models, the scale of turbulence and the gust factor have been estimated from data and compared with predictions from first-order models of these two quantities. It is found that the mean of the measured length scales is approximately...... 10% smaller than the IEC model for wind turbine hub height levels. The mean is only marginally dependent on trends in time series. It is also found that the coefficient of variation of the measured length scales is about 50%. 3  s and 10  s preaveraging of wind speed data are relevant for megawatt......-size wind turbines when seeking wind characteristics that correspond to one blade and the entire rotor, respectively. For heights exceeding 50-60  m, the gust factor increases with wind speed. For heights larger than 60-80  m, present assumptions on the value of the gust factor are significantly...

  14. Relevancy of the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC about Sustainable Energy for Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Aksela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy is one of the biggest global challenges today. This paper discusses how we can promote adolescents’ learning of sustainable energy with the help of an international massive open online course (MOOC. The aim of this case study is to understand: (i What do the adolescents find relevant in the MOOC course about sustainable energy? and (ii What are the opportunities and challenges of the MOOC for the adolescents to learn sustainable energy? In our study, 80 voluntary adolescents around the world, who were at least 15 year old, took part in two surveys. The themes of our MOOC course were, e.g., sustainable growth, solar power, wind power, biofuel production and smart power generation. This 38 work-hour, free of charge, online course includes an introduction video, interviews of specialists, lecture videos, reading materials of the newest research and multiple choice questions on the topics. Research data was classified by using content analysis. The study indicates that adolescents feel that both the MOOC course and sustainable energy as a subject are relevant to them. Their decision to take part in an online course was mostly influenced by individual relevance and partly influenced by both societal and vocational relevance, according to the relevancy theory used. The MOOC was experienced to be relevant for the three following reasons: (i good content (e.g., energy production and implementation of the course; (ii the course makes it possible to study in a new way; and (iii the course is personally useful. The characteristics of the MOOC, such as being available anywhere and anytime, free access, and online learning, bringing out a flexible, new way of learning and thus promoting Education for Sustainable Development (ESD in the context of sustainable energy at school level around the world. This MOOC provided the school students with choice-based learning and expanded their learning opportunities in understanding sustainable

  15. Sustainable and safe design of footwear integrating ecological footprint and risk criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herva, Marta [Sustainable Processes and Products Engineering Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida, 15705 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez, Antonio [Industrias de Diseno Textil, S.A., Edificio Inditex, Av. de la Diputacion s/n, Poligono de Sabon, 15142 Arteixo - A Coruna (Spain); Roca, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.roca@usc.es [Sustainable Processes and Products Engineering Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida, 15705 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The ecological footprint (EF) is a suitable screening indicator to assist the assessment of the sustainability of an ecodesign proposal. {yields} The EF does not consider the risk derived from hazardous substances in its evaluation. {yields} Environmental risk assessment (ERA) successfully complemented the evaluation of the EF providing safety criteria. {yields} Options that exceeded the safety limits for Hazard Quotient and Cancer Risk where discarded, thus guaranteeing the protection of children. {yields} Trade-offs among criteria could be established by the application of fuzzy logic techniques to derive an ecodesign index. - Abstract: The ecodesign of a product implies that different potential environmental impacts of diverse nature must be taken into account considering its whole life cycle, apart from the general design criteria (i.e. technical, functional, ergonomic, aesthetic or economic). In this sense, a sustainability assessment methodology, ecological footprint (EF), and environmental risk assessment (ERA), were combined for the first time to derive complementary criteria for the ecodesign of footwear. Four models of children's shoes were analyzed and compared. The synthetic shoes obtained a smaller EF (6.5 gm{sup 2}) when compared to the leather shoes (11.1 gm{sup 2}). However, high concentrations of hazardous substances were detected in the former, even making the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and the Cancer Risk (CR) exceed the recommended safety limits for one of the synthetic models analyzed. Risk criteria were prioritized in this case and, consequently, the design proposal was discarded. For the other cases, the perspective provided by the indicators of different nature was balanced to accomplish a fairest evaluation. The selection of fibers produced under sustainable criteria and the reduction of the materials consumption was recommended, since the area requirements would be minimized and the absence of hazardous compounds would

  16. Sustainable and safe design of footwear integrating ecological footprint and risk criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herva, Marta; Alvarez, Antonio; Roca, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The ecological footprint (EF) is a suitable screening indicator to assist the assessment of the sustainability of an ecodesign proposal. → The EF does not consider the risk derived from hazardous substances in its evaluation. → Environmental risk assessment (ERA) successfully complemented the evaluation of the EF providing safety criteria. → Options that exceeded the safety limits for Hazard Quotient and Cancer Risk where discarded, thus guaranteeing the protection of children. → Trade-offs among criteria could be established by the application of fuzzy logic techniques to derive an ecodesign index. - Abstract: The ecodesign of a product implies that different potential environmental impacts of diverse nature must be taken into account considering its whole life cycle, apart from the general design criteria (i.e. technical, functional, ergonomic, aesthetic or economic). In this sense, a sustainability assessment methodology, ecological footprint (EF), and environmental risk assessment (ERA), were combined for the first time to derive complementary criteria for the ecodesign of footwear. Four models of children's shoes were analyzed and compared. The synthetic shoes obtained a smaller EF (6.5 gm 2 ) when compared to the leather shoes (11.1 gm 2 ). However, high concentrations of hazardous substances were detected in the former, even making the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and the Cancer Risk (CR) exceed the recommended safety limits for one of the synthetic models analyzed. Risk criteria were prioritized in this case and, consequently, the design proposal was discarded. For the other cases, the perspective provided by the indicators of different nature was balanced to accomplish a fairest evaluation. The selection of fibers produced under sustainable criteria and the reduction of the materials consumption was recommended, since the area requirements would be minimized and the absence of hazardous compounds would ensure safety conditions during the

  17. Criteria for a sustainable use of bioenergy on a global scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, Horst; Giegrich, Juergen; Reinhardt, Guido; Schmitz, Jutta [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Sayer, Uwe; Gretz, Marco; Seizinger, Elmar [FSC Arbeitsgruppe Deutschland, Freiburg (Germany); Lanje, Kerstin [Germanwatch (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The German Biokraftstoffquotengesetz, the EU Biofuel Directive and other policy making initiatives lead to promote the production and use of bioenergy, liquid biofuel for transportation in particular. Such an increase requires a reliable verification on compliance with sustainability principles on a global scale. Domestic biofuels (e.g. RME) have to meet the same standards as palm oil or ethanol from sugarcane imported from tropical regions and vice verse. As a first step the German government has passed the Draft Biomass Sustainability Regulation in December 2007 hat die Bundesregierung. This research project supported UBA and BMU to prepare that regulation. The overall goal was to examine the applicability of exis The analysis of existing certification systems featured number of good practice examples, e.g. FSC, SAN, RSPO.ting certification systems in terms of sustainability approval for biomass and to propose a set of criteria. But in fact none of the existing systems addresses all sustainability issues raised by biomass production and use. Selection of the proposed set of criteria has taken into account the current international state of discussion. Just to name above others: Minimum target of GHG saving; avoidance of losses of HNV areas an losses of Biodiversity; minimizing the risk of water scarcity; involvement of stakeholders into decision making processes; respecting international labour standards. Within this research project the GHG methodology and the default values implemented in the Draft Biomass Sustainability Regulation have been elaborated. (orig.)

  18. Multi-criteria decision support framework for sustainable implementation of effective green supply chain management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutkhoum, Omar; Hanine, Mohamed; Boukhriss, Hicham; Agouti, Tarik; Tikniouine, Abdessadek

    2016-01-01

    At present, environmental issues become real critical barriers for many supply chain corporations concerning the sustainability of their businesses. In this context, several studies have been proposed from both academia and industry trying to develop new measurements related to green supply chain management (GSCM) practices to overcome these barriers, which will help create new environmental strategies, implementing those practices in their manufacturing processes. The objective of this study is to present the technical and analytical contribution that multi-criteria decision making analysis (MCDA) can bring to environmental decision making problems, and especially to GSCM field. For this reason, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, combining fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (fuzzy TOPSIS), is proposed to contribute to a better understanding of new sustainable strategies through the identification and evaluation of the most appropriate GSCM practices to be adopted by industrial organizations. The fuzzy AHP process is used to construct hierarchies of the influential criteria, and then identify the importance weights of the selected criteria, while the fuzzy TOPSIS process employs these weighted criteria as inputs to evaluate and measure the performance of each alternative. To illustrate the effectiveness and performance of our MCDA approach, we have applied it to a chemical industry corporation located in Safi, Morocco.

  19. Sustainability Assessment of Electricity Generation Technologies in Egypt Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Shaaban

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Future electricity planning necessitates a thorough multi-faceted analysis of the available technologies in order to secure the energy supply for coming generations. To cope with worldwide concerns over sustainable development and meet the growing demands of electricity we assess the future potential technologies in Egypt through covering their technical, economic, environmental and social aspects. In this study we fill the gap of a lacking sustainability assessment of energy systems in Egypt where most of the studies focus mainly on the economic and technical aspects of planning future installation of power plants in Egypt. Furthermore, we include the stakeholder preferences of the indicators in the energy sector into our assessment. Moreover, we perform a sensitivity analysis through single dimension assessment scenarios of the technologies as well as a sustainable scenario with equal preferences of all dimensions of the sustainability. We employ two multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA methodologies: the analytical hierarchy process for weighing the assessment criteria, and the weighted sum method for generating a general integrated sustainability index for each technology. The study investigates seven technologies: coal, natural gas, wind, concentrated solar power, photovoltaics, biomass and nuclear. The results reveal a perfect matching between the ranking of the technologies by the stakeholders and the sustainable scenario showing the highest ranking for natural gas and the lowest for nuclear and coal. There is a strong potential for renewable energy technologies to invade the electricity market in Egypt where they achieve the second ranking after natural gas. The Monte-Carlo approach gives photovoltaics a higher ranking over concentrated solar power as compared to the sample data ranking. The study concludes the importance of a multi-dimensional evaluation of the technologies while considering the preferences of the stakeholders in

  20. Application of US and EU Sustainability Criteria to Analysis of Biofuels-Induced Land Use Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krissana Treesilvattanakul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research asks and answers a question that had been avoided by all the previous research on biofuels impacts. That is, to what extent are the US and EU biofuels sustainability criteria binding in the sense that if applied, sufficient land would be available to implement the programs? In answering the question, we simulate the global land by agro-ecological zone that would be needed to supply feedstocks for the US and EU biofuel programs using an advanced version of the GTAP-BIO model. Then we estimate the global area of land that would not be available due to sustainability criteria restrictions, again by agro-ecological zone. Finally, we determine the extent to which the US and EU sustainability criteria are binding and find that they are not binding at the biofuel levels currently targeted by the US and EU. In addition, we evaluate the same question, but this time freezing global food consumption, and get the same answer—plenty of land is available to meet the targets and supply food demands.

  1. Sustainability: criteria and indicators for the energy area; Nachhaltigkeit: Kriterien und Indikatoren fuer den Energiebereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, F.; Gubler, F. [Ecoplan, Berne (Switzerland); Brodmann, U. [Factor Consulting und Management AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the concept of sustainability with reference to the energy area. The importance of energy topics in the fundamental ideas behind sustainability - ecological compatibility, economic efficiency and social fairness - is discussed. The methods used to define the criteria and indicators for sustainability are discussed on the basis of existing systems. >From these, criteria and indicators are proposed for the energy area, including indicators for the influence of energy on the environment, economy and society, activity-indicators and indicators for energy efficiency and politics. The system boundaries for the indicators are discussed, as are grey energy and other 'grey' effects in the environmental, economic and social areas. The various criteria, indicators and the effort needed to collect data on them are presented in table form. The report is completed with a discussion of recommendations on what is still to be done in the area, how the results of the study can be used and what actions are still to be taken.

  2. Sustainable energy planning by using multi-criteria analysis application in the island of Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Drandaki, Maria; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Iosifidis, Eleftherios; Kiosses, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable energy planning includes a variety of objectives, as the decision-making is directly related to the processes of analysis and management of different types of information (technological, environmental, economic and social). Very often, the traditional evaluation methods, such as the cost-benefit analysis and macro-economic indicators, are not sufficient to integrate all the elements included in an environmentally thorough energy plan. On the contrary the multiple criteria methods provide a tool, which is more appropriate to assemble and to handle a wide range of variables that is evaluated in different ways and thus offer valid decision support. This paper exploits the multi-criteria methodology for the sustainable energy planning on the island of Crete in Greece. A set of energy planning alternatives are determined upon the implementation of installations of renewable energy sources on the island and are assessed against economic, technical, social and environmental criteria identified by the actors involved in the energy planning arena. The study constitutes an exploratory analysis with the potential to assist decision makers responsible for regional energy planning, providing them the possibility of creating classifications of alternative sustainable energy alternatives.

  3. Local Action Groups and Rural Sustainable Development. A spatial multiple criteria approach for efficient territorial planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giovanni Ottomano; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan; Boggia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Local Action Groups in order to promote the objectives of Rural Sustainable Development within rural municipalities. Each Local Action Group applies the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis in order to identify for its own rural municipalities the strategic elements to which...... and a Weakness factors and decision alternatives, as well as impossibility of ranking the decision alternatives. Thus, this research aims to overcome the drawbacks of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis and to support Local Action Group partnerships in the sustainability evaluation...... of their rural municipalities, and therefore to aid the identification of a common Rural Sustainable Development strategy to allocate the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development budget. This decision problem was tackled by applying a Multiple Criteria Spatial Decision Support System that integrates...

  4. Multi-criteria approach to support strategically sustainable decisions in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Diogho Heuer de Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Keeping the social and environmental conditions in a favorable conservation status for allowing the society to develop itself without restrictions is the central idea which underpins the sustainability concept. Different spheres such as media, academia and business organizations started to give more importance to the study of sustainability, once it directly affects aspects that influence the economy in the world. Organizationally, the use of sustainable strategies can bring returns in favor of a healthy development and a conscious culture about the waste as well as reflecting how organizations connect with society and the environment. The objective of this work is to propose a model for prioritizing strategies to support the creation of an environment and a culture based on sustainability in organizations. This model has four steps, beginning with the problem structuring, including the definition of criteria and alternatives, the application of a multi-criteria method for prioritization, and finally, the implementation of the alternatives according to the decision maker opinion as well as on prioritization results.

  5. Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management: an alternative for monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Cué García

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in the province of Cienfuegos, Cuba, with the hope of presenting an alternative methodology for monitoring criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management. Participatory workshops were used with actors and makers of SilviculturalUnits in the definition of criteria and indicators, based on the rules set forth by Herrero (2005. The Delphi method was used in the validation of the proposal. A hierarchical system that facilitates standardization of indicators and their aggregation to indices as well as the procedural guide indicators and checklist of them was used. The adequacy of Sustainability Barometer Prescott-Allen, 1997, quoted by Van Bellen (2004 was performed. The results of the analysis of the reliability of the instrument applied to the expert are acceptable because the Hotelling T2 value was 322.46 p = 0.007, there is a strong significant correlation between the elements of the instrument, expressed in an intraclass correlation coefficient from 0.756 to p = 0.038, Alpha reliability coefficient Cronbach 0.806, Spearman-Brown coefficient equal to 0.656 and Guttman split halves coefficient of 0.606. This alternative ensures a more comprehensive and holistic observance of the attributes of a system of sustainability indicators in the field of specialized forest Cuban business sector, enabling the assessment of the trend of sustainable forest management according to the specifics of each forestry unit.

  6. Sustainable and safe design of footwear integrating ecological footprint and risk criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herva, Marta; Álvarez, Antonio; Roca, Enrique

    2011-09-15

    The ecodesign of a product implies that different potential environmental impacts of diverse nature must be taken into account considering its whole life cycle, apart from the general design criteria (i.e. technical, functional, ergonomic, aesthetic or economic). In this sense, a sustainability assessment methodology, ecological footprint (EF), and environmental risk assessment (ERA), were combined for the first time to derive complementary criteria for the ecodesign of footwear. Four models of children's shoes were analyzed and compared. The synthetic shoes obtained a smaller EF (6.5 gm(2)) when compared to the leather shoes (11.1 gm(2)). However, high concentrations of hazardous substances were detected in the former, even making the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and the Cancer Risk (CR) exceed the recommended safety limits for one of the synthetic models analyzed. Risk criteria were prioritized in this case and, consequently, the design proposal was discarded. For the other cases, the perspective provided by the indicators of different nature was balanced to accomplish a fairest evaluation. The selection of fibers produced under sustainable criteria and the reduction of the materials consumption was recommended, since the area requirements would be minimized and the absence of hazardous compounds would ensure safety conditions during the use stage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Is UN Sustainable Development Goal 15 relevant to governing the intimate land-use/groundwater linkage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    The close link between land use and groundwater has long been recognised, but not widely translated into integrated policy and management practices. Common understanding is needed to facilitate cross-sector dialogue on governance. The process of land-use planning advocated by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (UN-SDG) 15 for 2030, coupled with the launch of an independent global land-use monitoring initiative known as Land Matrix, appear to provide windows of opportunity for hydrogeologists to make specific proposals for the inclusion of groundwater protection needs in national land-use plans and the consideration of groundwater sustainability threats from major land deals and contracts. Ignoring the groundwater dimension in land-use management can result in high long-run costs for drinking-water supply and aquatic ecosystems. Thus, coordinated governance based on a coherent set of land-use sustainability criteria, aimed at enhancing both the food and groundwater harvest, is crucial for the future.

  8. Is UN Sustainable Development Goal 15 relevant to governing the intimate land-use/groundwater linkage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen

    2018-05-01

    The close link between land use and groundwater has long been recognised, but not widely translated into integrated policy and management practices. Common understanding is needed to facilitate cross-sector dialogue on governance. The process of land-use planning advocated by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (UN-SDG) 15 for 2030, coupled with the launch of an independent global land-use monitoring initiative known as Land Matrix, appear to provide windows of opportunity for hydrogeologists to make specific proposals for the inclusion of groundwater protection needs in national land-use plans and the consideration of groundwater sustainability threats from major land deals and contracts. Ignoring the groundwater dimension in land-use management can result in high long-run costs for drinking-water supply and aquatic ecosystems. Thus, coordinated governance based on a coherent set of land-use sustainability criteria, aimed at enhancing both the food and groundwater harvest, is crucial for the future.

  9. Multi-criteria decision making support tool for freight integrators: selecting the most sustainable alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Simongáti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has turned into a daily concept by now. Similarly, sustainable transport also appears increasingly often, primarily in transport policy and strategic plans. However, it would be equally important if we could apply this aspect for certain activities such as haulage and forwarding that are a part of transport. Today, forwarders select an optimal alternative concerning only the criteria related to the economic effectiveness of the transport task. In many cases, shippers are not aware neither of the concept of sustainable transport nor of harmful effects they generate. Hence, although there is a concept of ‘freight integrator’, only very few are able to meet the requirements laid down for it. No widespread method has been developed yet to compare transportation options. A similar situation can be faced discussing a traditional, purely economic approach and a theoretical modern aspect that would be in accordance with the principles of sustainable transport. The model that was developed at the Department of Aircraft and Ships of Budapest University of Technology and Economics was designed specifically to compare various options in terms of sustainability. The indicators as the elements of decision-making criteria applied in the model were derived from the indicators used for assessing the transport sector but modified according to the requirements of the decision-making task for a freight integrator. Finally, such sustainable performance index of certain alternatives is determined by two fundamentally different aggregation methods as ‘fineness index’. This article presents the model structure and application using a concrete example.

  10. Potential and relevance of urban mining in the context of sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Arora

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of urban mining is the safeguarding of the environment and the promotion of resource conservation through reuse, recycling, and recovery of secondary resources from waste. Urban mining maximises the resource and economic value of the waste streams generated in urban spaces and will be a significant concept in the planning and designing of sustainable cities, making the process consistent with the sustainable development goals. This review article brings out comprehensive information on urban mining as a concept and its relevance to the Indian and international context as a source of secondary raw material.

  11. Supplier selection criteria for sustainable supply chain management in thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Faisal; Narayan Biswal, Jitendra; Satapathy, Suchismita

    2018-02-01

    Supplies are always in great demand when it comes to industrial operations. The quality of raw material their price accompanied by sustainability and environmental effects are a major concern for industrial operators these days. Supply Chain Management is the subject which is focused on how the supply of different products is carried out. The motive is that each operation performed can be optimized and inherently the efficiency of the whole chain is integrated. In this paper we will be dealing with all the criteria that are required to be evaluated before selecting a supplier, in particular, focusing on Thermal Power Plant. The most suppliers of the thermal power plant are the coal suppliers. The quality of coal directly determines the efficiency of the whole plant. And when there are matters concerning coal environmental pollution plays a very crucial role. ANP method has been used here to select suppliers of thermal power sectors in Indian context. After applying ANP to prioritize the sustainable supplier selection criteria, it is found that for thermal power industries best suppliers are Nationalized/State owned suppliers then 2nd ranked suppliers are imported supplier. Private owned suppliers are ranked least. So private owned suppliers must be more concerned about their performance. Among these suppliers it is found that to compete in the global market privatized suppliers have to give more emphasize on most important criteria like sustainability, then fuel cost and quality. Still some sub-criteria like a clean program, environmental issues, quality, reliability, service rate, investment in high technology, green transportation channel, waste management etc needs for continuous improvement as per their priority.

  12. Clinical relevance of surgical site infection as defined by the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, N A; Meyhoff, C S; Wetterslev, J

    2010-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after abdominal surgery and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria are commonly used for diagnosis and surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SSI diagnosed according to CDC is clinically relevant...... diagnosed with SSI and a matched control group (N=46) without SSI according to the CDC criteria after laparotomy. Two blinded experienced surgeons evaluated the hospital records and determined whether patients had CRSSI, based on the following criteria: antibiotic treatment, surgical intervention, prolonged...... hospital stay or referral to an intensive care unit for SSI. The rate of CRSSI was 38 of 54 (70%) in patients with CDC-diagnosed SSI and none in patients without a CDC-diagnosed SSI. Sixty-one percent of the CDC-diagnosed SSIs were superficial, of which 48% were considered clinically relevant...

  13. A Multi-Criteria Methodology to Support Public Administration Decision Making Concerning Sustainable Energy Action Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Novello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For municipalities that have joined the Covenant of Mayors promoted by the European Commission, the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP represents a strategic tool for achieving the greenhouse gas reductions required by 2020. So far as the energy retrofit actions in their residential building stock are concerned, which in the small-to-medium municipalities are responsible for more than 60% of CO2 emissions, the scenarios for intervening are normally decided on the basis of an economic (cost/performance analysis. This type of analysis, however, does not take into account important aspects for small and medium-sized communities such as social aspects, environmental impacts, local economic development and employment. A more comprehensive and effective tool to support the choices of public administrators is the multi-criteria analysis. This study proposes a methodology that integrates multi-criteria analysis in order to support Public Administration/Local Authorities in programming Sustainable Energy Action Plans with a more targeted approach to sustainability. The methodology, based on the ELECTRE III method, was applied to a medium-size municipality in the Lombardy region of Italy. The results obtained with this approach are discussed in this paper.

  14. Review of issues relevant to acceptable risk criteria for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Development of acceptable risk criteria for nuclear waste management requires the translation of publicly determined goals and objectives into definitive issues which, in turn, require resolution. Since these issues are largely of a subjective nature, they cannot be resolved by technological methods. Development of acceptable risk criteria might best be accomplished by application of a systematic methodology for the optimal implementation of subjective values. Multi-attribute decision analysis is well suited for this purpose

  15. Biomass sustainability criteria: Greenhouse gas accounting issues for biogas and biomethane facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, P.W.R.; Mezzullo, W.G.; McManus, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass sustainability criteria were introduced in the UK following the EU Renewable Energy Directive. Criteria are now applicable to solid biomass and biogas, however because it is not mandatory criteria can be adapted by member states with the risk of different interpretation. Operators are required to report greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for every MJ of energy produced. This paper provides a rigorous analysis of the current GHG emissions accounting methodology for biogas facilities to assess expected compliance for producers. This research uses data from operating CHP and biomethane facilities to calculate GHG emissions using the existing methodology and Government calculator. Results show that whilst many biogas facilities will meet GHG thresholds, as presently defined by Government, several operators may not comply due to methodological uncertainties and chosen operating practices. Several GHG accounting issues are identified which need to be addressed so the biogas industry achieves its reporting obligations and is represented objectively with other bioenergy technologies. Significant methodological issues are highlighted; including consignment definition, mass balance allocation, measurement of fugitive methane emissions, accounting for digestate co-products, fossil fuel comparators, and other accounting problems. Recommendations are made to help address the GHG accounting issues for policy makers and the biogas industry. - Highlights: • GHG accounting issues identified that affect potential compliance with legislation. • Appropriate recognition of digestate value is a key issue for biogas industry. • Fugitive methane emissions measurement is critical for sustainability criteria. • Chosen fossil fuel comparator value determines the potential GHG saving. • Rigorous analysis of GHG accounting methodology for biogas and biomethane systems.

  16. The Renewable Energy Directive: biofuels, biomass and sustainable development criteria. How to check in France the compliance of marketed biofuels with sustainability criteria defined by the Directive on renewable energies? (Phase 1: biofuels and bio-liquids)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    After having recalled and commented the main principles of the European directive which sets objectives in terms of renewable energy promotion and consumption, this report analyses the quantitative and qualitative sustainability criteria which must be applied particularly to biofuels and bio-liquids produced from agricultural activities, and their application perspectives. It gives recommendations to assess these criteria. It also comments the modalities used to control the compliance of biofuels with these criteria

  17. Clinical relevance of the proposed sexual addiction diagnostic criteria: relation to the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Patrick J; Hopkins, Tiffany A; Green, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines and compares the various diagnostic rubrics proposed to codify symptoms of sexual addiction, and then briefly summarizes the ongoing controversy on whether sexual addiction is a valid construct. Using the diagnostic criteria proposed by , the prevalence rate of each criterion is examined in terms of scores on the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised scales (). Differences in diagnostic criteria endorsement associated with sex, sexual orientation, and setting were also explored. Results from a clinical sample of men and women seeking treatment for sexual addiction demonstrated clinical relevance of the criteria, in that all but 3 criteria are endorsed at more than 50% of participants screening positive for sexual addiction on the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised. Sex differences were also noted for endorsement rates of several of the criteria. Finally, several proposed criteria may pose a higher clinical threshold and thus be utilized by clinicians to identify patients with increased pathology. Results are discussed in the context of existing diagnostic frameworks across etiological perspectives.

  18. Multiple-Criteria Decision Support for a Sustainable Supply Chain: Applications to the Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Leng Poh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With increasing globalization and international cooperation, the importance of sustainability management across supply chains has received much attention by companies across various industries. Companies therefore strive to implement effective and integrated sustainable supply chain management initiatives to improve their operational and economic performance while also minimizing unnecessary damage to the environment and maintaining their social reputation and images. The paper presents an easy-to-use decision-support approach based on multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM methodologies that aim to help companies develop effective models for timely decision-making involving sustainable supply chain management strategies. The proposed approach can be used by practitioners to ultimately build a comprehensive Analytic Network Process model that will adequately capture and reveal all the interrelationships and interdependency among the elements in the problem, which is often a very difficult task. To facilitate and simplify this complex process, we propose that hierarchical thinking be used first to structure the essences of the problem capturing only the major issues, and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP model be built. Users can learn from the modeling process and gain much insight into the problem. The AHP can then be extended to an Analytic Network Process (ANP model so as to capture the relationships and interdependencies among the elements. Our approach can reduce the sustainable expertise, effort and information that are often needed to build an ANP model from scratch. We apply our approach to the evaluation of sustainable supply chain management strategies for the fashion industry. Three main dimensions of sustainability—environmental, economic and social—are considered. Based on the literature, we identified four alternative supply chain management strategies. It was found that the Reverse Logistics alternative appears to be the

  19. Perception of User Criteria in the Context of Sustainability of Modern Methods of Construction Based on Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Švajlenka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the construction industry have brought more efficient and sustainable technologies, technological procedures, and materials. An example of this are modern methods of construction, which offer larger production volumes with a higher quality and shorter procurement time. The goal of those methods is to improve construction sustainability through quality improvement, customer satisfaction, shortened construction time, and reduced environmental impact. The main goal of this research is to demonstrate, by means of theoretical assumptions, surveys, and analyses, the sustainability of modern methods of construction based on wood. The work focuses on identifying the user criteria for construction sustainability. Selected user criteria of construction sustainability are applied in a socio-economic survey whose purpose is to determine how users perceive the efficiency of selected construction systems. We evaluate certain user parameters in the context of sustainability by relying on the users of buildings (family houses which have already been built and compare the results with declared design parameters.

  20. The sustainability, a relevant approach for defining the road-map for future nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, C.; Bourg, S.; Grandjean, S. [CEA Centre de Macoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Processes Department, BP11, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Boullis, B. [CEA Centre de Saclay, Nuclear Energy Division, Innovation and Industrial Support Division, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-07-01

    Developing sustainable energy systems is a key driver for mitigating the global climate change in the framework of COP21 conference commitments. Nuclear energy is strongly concerned by such a perspective and we have developed a thorough approach to define relevant objectives to fulfill in order to meet such a requirement. On this basis nuclear energy systems need to be improved to increase the preservation of uranium natural resource and reduce their environmental footprints. It requires in both cases increasing energetic material recycling based first on the current LWR reactor fleet, in the future on SFR which would allow a much more efficient use of neutrons to consume uranium and produce energy. Furthermore, such reactor type would also allow minor actinides recycling, which would significantly reduce the ultimate waste toxicity and lifetime, and the repository footprint. In this perspective, recycling the actinides is clearly the cornerstone of any sustainable nuclear fuel cycle.

  1. The sustainability, a relevant approach for defining the road-map for future nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, C.; Bourg, S.; Grandjean, S.; Boullis, B.

    2016-01-01

    Developing sustainable energy systems is a key driver for mitigating the global climate change in the framework of COP21 conference commitments. Nuclear energy is strongly concerned by such a perspective and we have developed a thorough approach to define relevant objectives to fulfill in order to meet such a requirement. On this basis nuclear energy systems need to be improved to increase the preservation of uranium natural resource and reduce their environmental footprints. It requires in both cases increasing energetic material recycling based first on the current LWR reactor fleet, in the future on SFR which would allow a much more efficient use of neutrons to consume uranium and produce energy. Furthermore, such reactor type would also allow minor actinides recycling, which would significantly reduce the ultimate waste toxicity and lifetime, and the repository footprint. In this perspective, recycling the actinides is clearly the cornerstone of any sustainable nuclear fuel cycle

  2. Is sustainable resource utilisation a relevant concept in Avanersuaq? The walrus case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Heide-Jorgensen, Mads Peter; Flora, Janne

    2018-01-01

    analyse how walruses acquire multiple values as they circulate in different networks. Sustainable resource utilisation, we conclude, is a concept that is relevant in Avanersuaq and beyond, because it works as a biological standard, and hence organises laws, norms, and practices of formal management......This article addresses the role of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in present-day Avanersuaq from anthropological and biological perspectives, and asks whether or not sustainable resource utilisation is a useful concept in northwest Greenland. We describe the relations that unfold...... around walrus and walrus hunting, in the communities living adjacent to the North Water polynya on the eastern side of Smith Sound. We examine the interplay of walrus population abundance, hunting practices, uses, and formal (governmental) and informal (traditional) ways of regulating the hunt, and we...

  3. Sustainability of hydrogen supply chain. Part I: Identification of critical criteria and cause–effect analysis for enhancing the sustainability using DEMATEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Toniolo, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The enhancement of sustainability of hydrogen supply chain is of vital importance for the stakeholders/decision-makers to design a sustainable hydrogen supply chain. The objective of this paper is to develop a method for prioritizing the influential factors, identifying the key driving factors...... that influence the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain and mapping the cause–effect relationships to improve the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain. In this paper, thirty seven criteria in four aspects including economic, technological, environmental and societal aspects are considered for enhancing...... the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain, and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory has been used to analyze the relationships among these criteria. The status of hydrogen supply chain in China has been studied by the proposed method, and the results are consistent with the actual conditions. It could...

  4. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Electricity Generation Scenarios for Sustainable Energy Planning in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Hussain Mirjat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The now over a decade-long electricity crisis in Pakistan has adversely affected the socio-economic development of the country. This situation is mainly due to a lack of sustainable energy planning and policy formulation. In this context, energy models can be of great help but only a handful of such efforts have been undertaken in Pakistan. Two key shortcomings pertaining to energy models lead to their low utilization in developing countries. First, the models do not effectively make decisions, but rather provide a set of alternatives based on modeling parameters; and secondly, the complexity of these models is often poorly understood by the decision makers. As such, in this study, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP methodology of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM has been used for the sustainability assessment of energy modeling results for long-term electricity planning. The four scenario alternatives developed in the energy modeling effort, Reference (REF, Renewable Energy Technologies (RET, Clean Coal Maximum (CCM and Energy Efficiency and Conservation (EEC, have been ranked using the Expert Choice® tool based on the AHP methodology. The AHP decision support framework of this study revealed the EEC scenario as the most favorable electricity generation scenario followed by the REF, RET and CCM scenarios. Besides that, this study proposes policy recommendations to undertake integrated energy modeling and decision analysis for sustainable energy planning in Pakistan.

  5. A Review of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods Applied to the Sustainable Bridge Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Penadés-Plà

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of bridges has been necessary for societies since ancient times, when the communication between and within towns, cities or communities was established. Until recently, the economic factor has been the only one considered in the decision-making of any type of construction process for bridges. However, nowadays, the objective should not be just the construction of bridges, but of sustainable bridges. Economic, social and environmental factors, which form the three pillars of sustainability, have been recently added. These three factors usually have conflicting perspectives. The decision-making process allows the conversion of a judgment into a rational procedure to reach a compromise solution. The aim of this paper is to review different methods and sustainable criteria used for decision-making at each life-cycle phase of a bridge, from design to recycling or demolition. This paper examines 77 journal articles for which different methods have been used. The most used methods are briefly described. In addition, a statistical study was carried out on the Multiple Attribute Decision-making papers reviewed.

  6. The Criteria and Principles of Sustainable Development in Terms of Changing the Quality of It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modiga Georgeta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Along with responsible addressing for future generations, efficient use of natural resources, energy, materials, informational andtechnologic presumes, in the same time, intensifying the activity of durable economy for satisfying today’s requests of human society. Sustainabledevelopment provides a framework trough which the communities can use the resources efficiently, create efficient infrastructures, protect andimprove the quality of life and new technologies, create new activities, which will strengthen their economy. It can help at creating of healthycommunities that can sustain both our new generation, and those that follow. The sustainable development was the innovative concept ofdevelopment, after that, from the general and theoretic plan of development, to be founded the solutions of particularization of it on activitydomains, concomitantly with the appropriate measures of practice realization the principles of the concept. Efficient use of natural, energetic,material and informational resources suppose both the responsible approach for the future generations and the intensifying of the sustainableeconomy working for the actual requirements satisfaction of the society. The work treats a unified and coherent set of criteria and principlesspecifics for the strategic and integrated management of sustainable development in relation with increasing the efficiency of using naturalresources, energetic, material and informational.

  7. Elimination Method of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA: A Simple Methodological Approach for Assessing Agricultural Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byomkesh Talukder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present world context, there is a need to assess the sustainability of agricultural systems. Various methods have been proposed to assess agricultural sustainability. Like in many other fields, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA has recently been used as a methodological approach for the assessment of agricultural sustainability. In this paper, an attempt is made to apply Elimination, a MCDA method, to an agricultural sustainability assessment, and to investigate its benefits and drawbacks. This article starts by explaining the importance of agricultural sustainability. Common MCDA types are discussed, with a description of the state-of-the-art method for incorporating multi-criteria and reference values for agricultural sustainability assessment. Then, a generic description of the Elimination Method is provided, and its modeling approach is applied to a case study in coastal Bangladesh. An assessment of the results is provided, and the issues that need consideration before applying Elimination to agricultural sustainability, are examined. Whilst having some limitations, the case study shows that it is applicable for agricultural sustainability assessments and for ranking the sustainability of agricultural systems. The assessment is quick compared to other assessment methods and is shown to be helpful for agricultural sustainability assessment. It is a relatively simple and straightforward analytical tool that could be widely and easily applied. However, it is suggested that appropriate care must be taken to ensure the successful use of the Elimination Method during the assessment process.

  8. Multi-Criteria Indicator for Sustainability Rating in Suppliers of the Oil and Gas Industries in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Felipe Figueiredo Barata

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of sustainability evaluation is rapidly growing alongside the expansion of civilization. Likewise, the supply chain suitability improvement is a need that has arisen in the petroleum industry, especially as it is responsible for the most part of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. The modeling of this kind of problem deals with multiple criteria evaluations. This paper proposes an original multiple-criteria based approach to classifying the degree of organizational sustainability. This proposal was applied to evaluate a representative set of companies, which are suppliers of the Brazilian petroleum industry. The data collection was supported by a questionnaire. The results highlight that the studied companies have not yet reached an advanced level of maturity in the sustainability context. In a comprehensive vision of sustainability based on Triple Bottom Line (TBL, these companies are either in the initial stage or in the implementation phase of the sustainability practices.

  9. Application of multi-criteria decision making to sustainable energy planning - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohekar, S.D.; Ramachandram, M. [Birla Inst. of Technology and Science, Pilani (India)

    2004-08-01

    Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques are gaining popularity in sustainable energy management. The techniques provide solutions to the problems involving conflicting and multiple objectives. Several methods based on weighted averages, priority setting, outranking, fuzzy principles and their combinations are employed for energy planning decisions. A review of more than 90 published papers is presented here to analyze the applicability of various methods discussed. A classification on application areas and the year of application is presented to highlight the trends. It is observed that Analytical Hierarchy Process is the most popular technique followed by outranking techniques PROMETHEE and ELECTRE. Validation of results with multiple methods, development of interactive decision support systems and application of fuzzy methods to tackle uncertainties in the data is observed in the published literature. (author)

  10. Construction Projects Assessment Based on the Sustainable Development Criteria by an Integrated Fuzzy AHP and Improved GRA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Hatefi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing population and earth pollution, managing construction and infrastructure projects with less damage to the environment and less pollution is very important. Sustainable development aims at reducing damage to the environment, making projects economical, and increasing comfort and social justice. This study proposes fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP and improved grey relational analysis (GRA to assess construction projects based on the sustainable development criteria. For doing so, sustainable development criteria are first identified in economic, social, and environmental dimensions using literature review, and are then customized for urban construction projects using experts’ opinions. After designing questionnaires and collecting data, fuzzy AHP is used for determining the importance of sustainable development criteria and their subcriteria. Then, improved GRA is employed for assessing six recreational, commercial, and official centers in Isfahan regarding the weights of criteria and subcriteria. The proposed fuzzy AHP-improved GRA help us to prioritize construction projects based on the sustainable development criteria. The results of applying fuzzy AHP show that the weights of economic, social, and environmental criteria are equal to 0.330, 0.321, and 0.349, respectively, which are close to each other. This means that the importance of all three aspects of sustainability is almost equal to each other. Furthermore, “Having profits for the society”, “Increasing social justice”, and “Adherence to environmental policies” are identified as the most important indicators of sustainable development in terms of economic, social, and environmental aspects, respectively. Finally, the results of employing improved GRA determine Negin Chaharbagh recreational and commercial complex as the best project.

  11. Clinical relevance of surgical site infection as defined by the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, N A; Meyhoff, C S; Wetterslev, J

    2010-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after abdominal surgery and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria are commonly used for diagnosis and surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SSI diagnosed according to CDC is clinically relevant (C...... a suitable standard definition for monitoring and identifying SSI, even if some cases of less clinically significant superficial SSI are included.......Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after abdominal surgery and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria are commonly used for diagnosis and surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SSI diagnosed according to CDC is clinically relevant...... hospital stay or referral to an intensive care unit for SSI. The rate of CRSSI was 38 of 54 (70%) in patients with CDC-diagnosed SSI and none in patients without a CDC-diagnosed SSI. Sixty-one percent of the CDC-diagnosed SSIs were superficial, of which 48% were considered clinically relevant...

  12. A Multi-Criteria Goal Programming Model to Analyze the Sustainable Goals of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikant Gupta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an ever-growing demand for sustainable development (SD plans, in order to foster a country’s economic growth by implementing suitable policies and initiative programs for the development of the primary, the secondary and the tertiary sectors. We present a multi-criteria modeling approach using the linear programming problem (LPP framework for a simultaneous optimization of these three sectors. Furthermore, we develop a fuzzy goal programming (FGP model that provides an optimal allocation of resources by achieving future goals on the gross domestic product (GDP, the electricity consumption (EC and the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Furthermore, a weighted model of FGP is presented to obtain varying solutions according to the priorities set by the decision-maker for achieving future goals of GDP growth, EC and GHG emissions. The presented models provide useful insight for decision-makers when implementing strategies across different sectors. As a model country, we chose India by the year 2030. A study of economic policies and sustainable development goals (SDGs for India is finally carried out.

  13. Scientific Issues Relevant to Setting Regulatory Criteria to Identify Endocrine-Disrupting Substances in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Demeneix, Barbara; Ivell, Richard; Panzica, Giancarlo; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Zoeller, R Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as exogenous compounds or mixtures that alter function(s) of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations. European regulations on pesticides, biocides, cosmetics, and industrial chemicals require the European Commission to establish scientific criteria to define EDs. We address the scientific relevance of four options for the identification of EDs proposed by the European Commission. Option 1, which does not define EDs and leads to using interim criteria unrelated to the WHO definition of EDs, is not relevant. Options 2 and 3 rely on the WHO definition of EDs, which is widely accepted by the scientific community, with option 3 introducing additional categories based on the strength of evidence (suspected EDs and endocrine-active substances). Option 4 adds potency to the WHO definition, as a decision criterion. We argue that potency is dependent on the adverse effect considered and is scientifically ambiguous, and note that potency is not used as a criterion to define other particularly hazardous substances such as carcinogens and reproductive toxicants. The use of potency requires a context that goes beyond hazard identification and corresponds to risk characterization, in which potency (or, more relevantly, the dose-response function) is combined with exposure levels. There is scientific agreement regarding the adequacy of the WHO definition of EDs. The potency concept is not relevant to the identification of particularly serious hazards such as EDs. As is common practice for carcinogens, mutagens, and reproductive toxicants, a multi-level classification of ED based on the WHO definition, and not considering potency, would be relevant (corresponding to option 3 proposed by the European Commission). Slama R, Bourguignon JP, Demeneix B, Ivell R, Panzica G, Kortenkamp A, Zoeller RT. 2016. Scientific issues relevant

  14. How do experts define relevance criteria when initiating Health Impact Assessments of national policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Stella Rj; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present how the Danish Disease Prevention Committee (DDPC) members and HIA-experts understand when HIA is "relevant", which in this context means when there is "presumed to be a direct and documented effect on the health and morbidity of citizens". Method: DDPC members...... were interviewed face-to-face; HIA experts participated in an e-survey. Results: Six DDPC members were interviewed and 100 HIA-experts participated in a survey. The DDPC members consider direct as the link between determinants and the related risk factors. The HIA experts consider direct as the link...... between policy and the related risk factors. Both groups favour the use of scientific evidence according to the traditional biomedical evidence hierarchy but HIA-experts also judge that there is value in using evidence that can be considered weak such as local community knowledge. Conclusions: It is clear...

  15. Prioritization of Bioethanol Production Pathways in China based on Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The study objectives are two-fold: (i) combining the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) framework and the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology for sustainability assessment; (ii) determining the most sustainable scenario for bioethanol production in China according......’s proposed method investigates an illustrative case about three alternative bioethanol production scenarios (wheat-based, corn-based and cassava-based): the prior sequence (based on the sustainability performances) in descending order is cassava-based, corn-based and wheat-based. The proposed methodology...... is to test the combination of a MCDM methodology and LCSA for sustainability decision-making by studying three alternative pathways for bioethanol production in China. The proposed method feasibly enables the decision-makers/stakeholders to find the most sustainable scenario to achieve their objectives among...

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE RELEVANCE OF DISPLACEMENT BASED DESIGN METHODS/CRITERIA TO NUCLEAR PLANT STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOFMAYER, C.; MILLER, C.; WANG, Y.; COSTELLO, J.

    2001-01-01

    Revisions to the USNRC Regulatory Guides and Standard Review Plan Sections devoted to earthquake engineering practice are currently in process. The intent is to reflect changes in engineering practice that have evolved in the twenty years that have passed since those criteria were originally published. Additionally, field observations of the effects of the Northridge (1994) and Kobe (1995) earthquakes have inspired some reassessment in the technical community about certain aspects of design practice. In particular, questions have arisen about the effectiveness of basing earthquake resistant designs on resistance to seismic forces and, then evaluating tolerability of the expected displacements. Therefore, a research effort was undertaken to examine the implications for NRC's seismic practice of the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The results of the NRC sponsored research on this subject are reported in this paper. A slow trend toward the utilization of displacement based methods for design was noted. However, there is a more rapid trend toward the use of displacement based methods for seismic evaluation of existing facilities. A document known as FEMA 273, has been developed and is being used as the basis for the design of modifications to enhance the seismic capability of existing non-nuclear facilities. The research concluded that displacement based methods, such as given in FEMA 273, may be useful for seismic margin studies of existing nuclear power stations. They are unlikely to be useful for the basic design of new stations since nuclear power stations are designed to remain elastic during a seismic event. They could, however, be useful for estimating the margins associated with that design

  17. Measuring the sustainability of a natural system by using multi-criteria distance function methods: Some critical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Balteiro, L; Belavenutti, P; Ezquerro, M; González-Pachón, J; Ribeiro Nobre, S; Romero, C

    2018-05-15

    There is an important body of literature using multi-criteria distance function methods for the aggregation of a battery of sustainability indicators in order to obtain a composite index. This index is considered to be a proxy of the sustainability goodness of a natural system. Although this approach has been profusely used in the literature, it is not exempt from difficulties and potential pitfalls. Thus, in this paper, a significant number of critical issues have been identified showing different procedures capable of avoiding, or at least of mitigating, the inherent potential pitfalls associated with each one. The recommendations made in the paper could increase the theoretical soundness of the multi-criteria distance function methods when this type of approach is applied in the sustainability field, thus increasing the accuracy and realism of the sustainability measurements obtained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of complex knowledge in planning for sustainable development: The use of multi-criteria decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kain, Jaan-Henrik; Soederberg, Henriette

    2008-01-01

    The vision of sustainable development entails new and complex planning situations, confronting local policy makers with changing political conditions, different content in decision making and planning and new working methods. Moreover, the call for sustainable development has been a major driving force towards an increasingly multi-stakeholder planning system. This situation requires competence in working in, and managing, groups of actors, including not only experts and project owners but also other categories of stakeholders. Among other qualities, such competence requires a working strategy aimed at integrating various, and sometimes incommensurable, forms of knowledge to construct a relevant and valid knowledge base prior to decision making. Consequently, there lies great potential in methods that facilitate the evaluation of strategies for infrastructural development across multiple knowledge areas, so-called multi-criteria decision aids (MCDAs). In the present article, observations from six case studies are discussed, where the common denominators are infrastructural planning, multi-stakeholder participation and the use of MCDAs as interactive decision support. Three MCDAs are discussed - NAIADE, SCA and STRAD - with an emphasis on how they function in their procedural context. Accordingly, this is not an analysis of MCDA algorithms, of software programming aspects or of MCDAs as context-independent 'decision machines'-the focus is on MCDAs as actor systems, not as expert systems. The analysis is carried out across four main themes: (a) symmetrical management of different forms of knowledge; (b) management of heterogeneity, pluralism and conflict; (c) functionality and ease of use; and (d) transparency and trust. It shows that STRAD, by far, seems to be the most useful MCDA in interactive settings. NAIADE and SCA are roughly equivalent but have their strengths and weaknesses in different areas. Moreover, it was found that some MCDA issues require further

  19. Incorporating sustainable development principles in the governance of Dutch domestic tourism. The relevance of boundary judgments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressers, H.; Dinica, V.

    2008-08-14

    survey revealed that among such 'insiders' the support for sustainable tourism governance and policies was generally much larger than the positions their organizations take in practice until now. Large majorities prove in favor of some form of national coordination and of the application of national policy instruments to guide subnational policy and planning, though most prefer rather weak instruments. We investigate what backgrounds explain to what extent such opinions are held. On the one hand we discern the growth and protection orientations. These are linked to the concern for environmental and nature impacts of tourism and the desire to capture a share of international tourism growth. These orientations have a clear link with the nature of the organizations the respondents are part of. On the other hand we investigate the relation with the perception of the domain of 'sustainable tourism'. What policy subfields are regarded as relevant for 'sustainable tourism'? Interpretation of what sustainable tourism is all about is an aspect of problem perception that in principle can frame a lot of other relevant perceptions and opinions. On the issue of these so-called 'boundary judgments' we see substantial differences among the respondents too. Divergent boundary judgments can impede any attempt to develop more coordinated governance and more coherent policies. The two most important dimensions (or 'factors') among the boundary judgments are again one that loads predominantly on growth related aspects and one that loads predominantly on protection related aspects. While there are correlations between the boundary judgments and the orientations, they are far from identical. Both orientations and boundary judgments seem to contribute to the explanation of opinions on governance of the tourism sector and instruments for sustainable tourism. This provides an interesting extra opportunity to influence the debate. While there is a

  20. Sustainability of Brazilian ethanol: a proposal of principles and criteria; Sustentabilidade do etanol brasileiro: uma proposta de principios e criterios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Leonardo Daemon d' Oliveira

    2010-03-15

    This research mainly aims to contribute with a greater sustainability of the ethanol produced in Brazil. The work assumed that only the zoning of sugar cane released by the government would not be sufficient to ensure the sustainable production of Brazilian ethanol. One solution to this problem would be the use of a marketing tool, in this case, a certification system. Throughout the study were raised the majors certification systems used in Brazil, the main sustainability criteria proposed in the world for the production of bio fuels, the certifications in development for the Brazilian ethanol and cases on the effectiveness of the certification. Finally were proposed principles and criteria for sustainable production of Brazilian ethanol in order to subsidize a future certification system. For the development of this proposal has been made a comparative analysis of sustainability criteria studied with the critical factors of Brazilian ethanol's production. At the conclusion of this study, was observed the need for a joint action of legal instruments, market instruments and public policies to promote greater sustainability of ethanol production in Brazil. (author)

  1. Sustainability of Brazilian ethanol: a proposal of principles and criteria; Sustentabilidade do etanol brasileiro: uma proposta de principios e criterios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Leonardo Daemon d' Oliveira

    2010-03-15

    This research mainly aims to contribute with a greater sustainability of the ethanol produced in Brazil. The work assumed that only the zoning of sugar cane released by the government would not be sufficient to ensure the sustainable production of Brazilian ethanol. One solution to this problem would be the use of a marketing tool, in this case, a certification system. Throughout the study were raised the majors certification systems used in Brazil, the main sustainability criteria proposed in the world for the production of bio fuels, the certifications in development for the Brazilian ethanol and cases on the effectiveness of the certification. Finally were proposed principles and criteria for sustainable production of Brazilian ethanol in order to subsidize a future certification system. For the development of this proposal has been made a comparative analysis of sustainability criteria studied with the critical factors of Brazilian ethanol's production. At the conclusion of this study, was observed the need for a joint action of legal instruments, market instruments and public policies to promote greater sustainability of ethanol production in Brazil. (author)

  2. INTEGRATED APPROACH TO MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING FOR SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Soota

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New product developments are a moving target which become increasing complex due to a number of factors some known and others unknown. NPD is an interdisciplinary activity that transforms a market opportunity and technological concept to a successful product. The key steps towards creating a winning product must include a robust product strategy taking into consideration the positioning options, its viability and adopting a flexible development approach. The lack of structure to the allocation of product development resources causes customer expectations to get lost, in the complexity of the product development process. The replication of strategy and methods for a successful product may not guarantee success. Fuzzy Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA methods namely the analytic hierarchy process, analytic network process, technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solutions (TOPSIS and Elimination and choice translating reality (ELECTRE offer valuable tools to handle complex situations incorporating the imprecise and uncertain information. As each method has its strengths it may be proper to explore and adapt different techniques according to product for sustainable development. Company should be able to put together the combination of features and value that unlocks a profitable new market.

  3. Political Criteria for Sustainable Development Goal (SDG Selection and the Role of the Urban Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rivera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A flood of ideas and proposals on the shape and selection of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs has begun to rise since 2012. This article looks at some of them, trying to understand which kind of “boundary work” between science and policy is done here. Starting with a reflection on the epistemological and practical implications of “discussing SDGs”, it primarily addresses scientists, but also decision makers and activists interested in the post-2015 debate. In practical terms of SDG selection, the argument goes in favor of a self-reflective “politization of science”; i.e., against claims for broad scientific comprehensiveness of SDGs and in favor of an “exemplary” selection of thematic areas and targets, which would combine aspects of (i political opportunity and (ii societal visibility. These criteria are only very partially met in the proposals the article looks at. By applying them, the article emphasizes the political importance of addressing, through SDGs, the subnational level directly, thus making the case for an SDG on cities. Such an SDG should, by the same logic, be rather focused and exemplary than all-encompassing. The recently employed formula of “resilient, inclusive and connected cities” is considered useful, when accompanied by tangible and communicable indicators.

  4. Fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making for Sustainability Assessment of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Fedele, Andrea; Mason, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a sustainability assessment method to rank the prior sequence of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production. A novel fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making method which allows multiple groups of decision-makers to use linguistic variables...

  5. Clinical relevance of routine semen analysis and controversies surrounding the 2010 World Health Organization criteria for semen examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Semen analysis is the corner stone of infertility evaluation as it provides information on the functional status of the seminiferous tubules, epididymis and accessory sex glands. The methods on how the human semen should be evaluated are provided by the World Health Organization, which periodically releases manuals that include specific protocols and reference standards. In 2010, the WHO published new criteria for human semen characteristics that were markedly lower than those previously reported. In this review initially it is discussed the limitations of semen analysis as a surrogate measure of a man’s ability to father a pregnancy. Secondly, it is analyzed methodology issues that could explain why the newly released reference values were different from those earlier reported. Thirdly, it is speculated on the likely effects of the 2010 WHO criteria in the management of male infertility. Due to the several inherent limitations of semen analysis as a surrogate marker of male infertility, physicians should exercise caution when interpreting results. A template for semen analysis reports that incorporates the distribution of the semen characteristics of recent fathers in centiles rather than solely the minimum thresholds could aid clinicians to better understand how a given patient results compare with the reference population. Importantly, a male infertility evaluation must go far beyond a simple semen analysis, as it has to be complemented with a proper physical examination, a comprehensive history taking, and relevant endocrine, genetic, and other investigations.

  6. A fuzzy multi criteria approach for measuring sustainability performance of a supplier based on triple bottom line approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Khodaverdi, R.; Jafarian, A.

    2013-01-01

    responsibility. Sustainable supply chain initiatives like supplier environmental and social collaboration can play a significant role in achieving the "triple bottom line" of social, environmental, and economic benefits. Supplier selection plays an important role in the management of a supply chain......Sustainable supply chain management has received much attention from practitioners and scholars over the past decade owing to the significant attention given by consumers, profit and not-for-profit organizations, local communities, legislation and regulation to environmental, social and corporate....... Traditionally, organizations consider criteria such as price, quality, flexibility, etc. when evaluating supplier performance. While the articles on the selection and evaluation of suppliers are abundant, those that consider sustainability issues are rather limited. This paper explores sustainable supply chain...

  7. Sustainable diet policy development: implications of multi-criteria and other approaches, 2008-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tim; Mason, Pamela

    2017-12-04

    The objective of the present paper is to draw lessons from policy development on sustainable diets. It considers the emergence of sustainable diets as a policy issue and reviews the environmental challenge to nutrition science as to what a 'good' diet is for contemporary policy. It explores the variations in how sustainable diets have been approached by policy-makers. The paper considers how international United Nations and European Union (EU) policy engagement now centres on the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Climate Change Accord, which require changes across food systems. The paper outlines national sustainable diet policy in various countries: Australia, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, Qatar, Sweden, UK and USA. While no overarching common framework for sustainable diets has appeared, a policy typology of lessons for sustainable diets is proposed, differentiating (a) orientation and focus, (b) engagement styles and (c) modes of leadership. The paper considers the particularly tortuous rise and fall of UK governmental interest in sustainable diet advice. Initial engagement in the 2000s turned to disengagement in the 2010s, yet some advice has emerged. The 2016 referendum to leave the EU has created a new period of policy uncertainty for the UK food system. This might marginalise attempts to generate sustainable diet advice, but could also be an opportunity for sustainable diets to be a goal for a sustainable UK food system. The role of nutritionists and other food science professions will be significant in this period of policy flux.

  8. Sustainability-Oriented Financial Resource Allocation in a Project Portfolio through Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomeda Dobrovolskienė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern portfolio theory attempts to maximize the expected return of a portfolio for a given level of portfolio risk, or equivalently minimize risk for a given level of expected return. The reality, however, shows that, when selecting projects to a portfolio and allocating resources in the portfolio, an increasing number of organizations take into account other aspects as well. As a result of the sole purpose (risk-return, it offers only a partial solution for a sustainable organization. Existing project portfolio selection and resource allocation methods and models do not consider sustainability. Therefore, the aim of this article is to develop a sustainability-oriented model of financial resource allocation in a project portfolio by integrating a composite sustainability index of a project into Markowitz’s classical risk-return scheme (mean-variance model. The model was developed by applying multi-criteria decision-making methods. The practicability of the model was tested by an empirical study in a selected construction company. The proposed sustainability-oriented financial resource allocation model could be used in allocating financial resources in any type of business. The use of the model would not only help organisations to manage risk and achieve higher return but would also allow carrying out sustainable projects, thereby promoting greater environmental responsibility and giving more consideration to the wellbeing of future generations. Moreover, the model allows quantifying the impact of the integration of sustainability into financial resource allocation on the return of a portfolio.

  9. Evaluation of the Three Gorges Dam project using multi-criteria analysis (MCA) based on a sustainable perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Zheng, Wei; Guo, Junshan; Ma, Yihe; Ding, Junqi; Zhu, Lingkai; Che, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2018-02-01

    Abstract . The Three Gorges dam of China is one of the largest and expensive hydropower projects of the world. The four main purposes of the project are flood control,energy production, improved navigation and fresh water supply. The dam project has been completed and running successfully with the potential benefits. However, this project is still a controversial issue among many environmentalists and socialists due to various impacts. This study focuses on the benefit and the impacts of the project, and also evaluates the performance of the project using multi-criteria analysis (MCA) approach from a sustainable perspective. Different sustainability criteria related with the dam project have been identified and used for the ranking and rating process. The final result of MCA comes with this scoring process and pairwise comparison, which evaluates the performance of the project considering different positive and negative aspects.

  10. Using sustainable development actions to promote the relevance of mountain wines in export markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça António R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987. For the business community, sustainability is more than mere window-dressing. By adopting sustainable practices, companies can gain a competitive edge, increase their market share, and boost shareholder value (IISD, 2013. The wine industry has incorporated sustainability into its business strategy for a long time. In the USA, several industry organizations promoted its adoption by both grape growers and winemakers. In mountain wine regions, sustainability becomes more important as these regions generally struggle with reduced competitiveness due to inherent difficulties such as accessibility, remoteness, sparseness of business and population, topography and pedoclimatology (EUROMONTANA 2005. Therefore, any improvement in sustainability is a key factor for the viability of mountain wine producers. Sogrape Vinhos farms 480 ha of mountain vineyards in DWR securing the quality base of grapes for its SANDEMAN Port and CASA FERREIRINHA Douro wines. The company continuously adopted sustainable practices across the whole value chain, from grape to glass. This paper illustrates how a simple, but comprehensive, sustainability assessment, as proposed by a US-based award, can be used to monitor and improve sustainable development practices for a wine business set in an adverse environment, while raising awareness in a key market for wines produced in a mountain vineyard area such as the DWR.

  11. Criteria for Sustainable Transport Planning - what, how and why to measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key concern for transport policy and planning, not only in terms of reducingimpacts like climate change or developing specific solutions such as electromobility, but also as a strategic overarching policy framework rooted in sustainability science and governance...

  12. An image-based multi-criteria assessment of sustainable redevelopment plans of a university campus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    João, Romão; Nijkamp, Peter; Van Leeuwen, Eveline; Karima, Kourtit; Ozasa, Takao; Ikegami, Maki

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainability is increasingly applied in urban facilities planning, including a University campus. A campus can essentially be seen as a living laboratory for the development of ecologically-benign practices connected to the social interactions of an academic environment. Sustainable

  13. On the contribution of labelled Certified Emission Reductions to sustainable development: A multi-criteria evaluation of CDM projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has a twofold objective, to offset greenhouse gas emissions and to contribute to sustainable development in the host country. The contribution to the latter objective seems marginal in most CDM activities. Also, CDM activities are unevenly spread among developing countries. In response to these concerns, initiatives with the objective of promoting CDM projects with broad local sustainable development dividends have been launched, such as the Gold Standard and the Community Development Carbon Fund. The Gold Standard label rewards best-practice CDM projects while the Community Development Carbon Fund focuses on promoting CDM activities in underprivileged communities. Using a multi-criteria method, the potential contribution to local sustainable development of those CDM projects with particular attributes is compared with ordinary ones. This evaluation suggests that labelled CDM activities tend to slightly outperform comparable projects, although not unequivocally

  14. Basic criteria for a sustainable water management at the U.S.-México border: the case of ambos Nogales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ernesto Cervera Gómez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze some basic criteria for a sustainable use of water in an international watershed shared by Mexico and the United States. The study area comprises the region of Ambos Nogales, which is located inside the Upper Santa Cruz River Basin. This portion of the watershed represents the main ecosystem and the main source of water for urban and rural populations located in this region. Following criteria of sustainability the authors revise and adapt to the case of Ambos Nogales, a set of guidelines proposed by the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. These guidelines include the following elements: basic water requirements needed to maintain quality of life in the population and the health of ecosystems; water quality that meets certain minimum standards; human actions and their impact on long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows; collection of data concerning water resources, use and quality of water; institutional mechanisms to prevent and resolve conflicts; and a democratic process of water-planning and decision-making. These twin cities have a long history of cooperation and conflict linked to water resources, which makes available enough information to create a diagnostic about the water management inside a binational arena, and allowing to explore possibilities for a better water resources management under a sustainable regime and from an international perspective. Keywords: Sustainability, binational water management, ambos Nogales region.

  15. Rethinking exergy efficiency in favor of exergy sustainability as a criteria for design. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seager, T.P.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' Engineering design in power generation or conversion has typically focused on minimizing exergy losses (entropy gains), or maximizing economic returns. Both entropy minimization and profit maximization are readily obtainable and acceptable objective criteria for design of thermodynamic processes. However, alternative criteria are imaginable. This research presents a framework for considering minimal environmental impact or maximum renewability as alternative design criteria. In the environmental case, fuel source is based upon an exergetic environmental metric called pollution potential. In the case of renewability, a life-cycle metric describing the replacement time frame of the fuel source is employed. When coupled, the two metrics together partially assess the overall sustainability of the design. (author)

  16. Managing uncertainty in multiple-criteria decision making related to sustainability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Kapelan, Zoran; Azapagic, Adisa

    2011-01-01

    In real life, decisions are usually made by comparing different options with respect to several, often conflicting criteria. This requires subjective judgements on the importance of different criteria by DMs and increases uncertainty in decision making. This article demonstrates how uncertainty can......: (1) no uncertainty, (2) uncertainty in data/models and (3) uncertainty in models and decision-makers’ preferences. The results shows how characterising and propagating uncertainty can help increase the effectiveness of multi-criteria decision making processes and lead to more informed decision....... be handled in multi-criteria decision situations using Compromise Programming, one of the Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques. Uncertainty is characterised using a probabilistic approach and propagated using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The methodological approach is illustrated...

  17. Sustainability assessment of electricity generation technologies using weighted multi-criteria decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxim, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    Solving the issue of environmental degradation due to the expansion of the World's energy demand requires a balanced approach. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively rank a large number of electricity generation technologies based on their compatibility with the sustainable development of the industry. The study is based on a set of 10 sustainability indicators which provide a life cycle analysis of the plants. The technologies are ranked using a weighted sum multi-attribute utility method. The indicator weights were established through a survey of 62 academics from the fields of energy and environmental science. Our results show that large hydroelectric projects are the most sustainable technology type, followed by small hydro, onshore wind and solar photovoltaic. We argue that political leaders should have a more structured and strategic approach in implementing sustainable energy policies and this type of research can provide arguments to support such decisions. - Highlights: • We rank 13 electricity generation technologies based on sustainability. • We use 10 indicators in a weighted sum multi-attribute utility approach. • Weights are calculated based on a survey of 62 academics from the field. • Large hydroelectric projects are ranked as the most sustainable. • Decision makers can use the results to promote a more sustainable energy industry

  18. Towards sustainable settlement growth: A new multi-criteria assessment for implementing environmental targets into strategic urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetke, Sophie, E-mail: schetke@uni-bonn.de [Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation, Dept. of Urban Planning and Real Estate Management, University of Bonn, Nussallee 1, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Haase, Dagmar, E-mail: dagmar.haase@ufz.de [Humboldt University of Berlin, Department of Geography, Rudower Chaussee 16, 10099 Berlin, Germany, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Computational Landscape Ecology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Koetter, Theo, E-mail: koetter@uni-bonn.de [Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation, Dept. of Urban Planning and Real Estate Management, University of Bonn, Nussallee 1, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    For nearly one decade, the German political and research-agenda has been to a large extent determined by the ongoing question of how to limit the expansion of settlement areas around cities in order to preserve natural resources, make settlement growth more sustainable and to strengthen the re-use of existing inner-urban areas (see a.o. Koetter et al. 2009a, 2010; Schetke et al. 2009, 2010b). What is already under discussion within the international literature are the recommendations of the German Council for Sustainability to quantitatively reduce the daily greenfield consumption from the current rate of over 100 ha per day to a rate of 30 ha per day in 2020 and to bring urban infill development up to a ratio of 3:1 with greenfield development (German Council for Sustainability, 2004).). This paper addresses the added value beyond those abstract political targets and presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites to evaluate their sustainability and resource efficiency. MCA development and its incorporation into a Decision Support System (DSS) were accomplished by utilising a stakeholder-driven approach. The resulting tool can be applied in preparing and revising land-use plans. The paper presents the concept and the development process of the MCA-DSS. Test runs with planners prove that the evaluation of potential housing sites using individually weighted environmental indicators helps to identify those strategies of housing development that accord most closely with sustainability goals. The tests further show that the development of greenfield sites generally exhibits less sustainability than that of infill sites. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MCA evaluates sustainability and resource efficiency of potential housing sites in a stakeholder-driven approach. Black

  19. Towards sustainable settlement growth: A new multi-criteria assessment for implementing environmental targets into strategic urban planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schetke, Sophie; Haase, Dagmar; Kötter, Theo

    2012-01-01

    For nearly one decade, the German political and research-agenda has been to a large extent determined by the ongoing question of how to limit the expansion of settlement areas around cities in order to preserve natural resources, make settlement growth more sustainable and to strengthen the re-use of existing inner-urban areas (see a.o. Kötter et al. 2009a, 2010; Schetke et al. 2009, 2010b). What is already under discussion within the international literature are the recommendations of the German Council for Sustainability to quantitatively reduce the daily greenfield consumption from the current rate of over 100 ha per day to a rate of 30 ha per day in 2020 and to bring urban infill development up to a ratio of 3:1 with greenfield development (German Council for Sustainability, 2004).). This paper addresses the added value beyond those abstract political targets and presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites to evaluate their sustainability and resource efficiency. MCA development and its incorporation into a Decision Support System (DSS) were accomplished by utilising a stakeholder-driven approach. The resulting tool can be applied in preparing and revising land-use plans. The paper presents the concept and the development process of the MCA-DSS. Test runs with planners prove that the evaluation of potential housing sites using individually weighted environmental indicators helps to identify those strategies of housing development that accord most closely with sustainability goals. The tests further show that the development of greenfield sites generally exhibits less sustainability than that of infill sites. - Highlights: ► This paper presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites. ► The MCA evaluates sustainability and resource efficiency of potential housing sites in a stakeholder-driven approach. ► Test runs with planners identified prominent environmental indicators

  20. Sustainability assessment of alternative end-uses for disused areas based on multi-criteria decision-making method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; De Vita, Sabato; Notarnicola, Michele

    2018-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to define and apply a multidisciplinary and multi-criteria approach to sustainability in evaluating alternative end-uses for disused areas. Taking into account the three pillars of sustainability (social, economic and environmental dimension) as well as the need for stakeholders to have new practical instruments, the innovative approach consists of four modules stated (i) sociological, (ii) economic, (iii) environmental and (iv) multi-criteria assessment. By means of a case study on a small Municipality in Southern Italy, three end-uses alternatives, representing three essential services for citizens, were selected: Municipal gym; Market area; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) separate collection centre. The sociological module was useful to select the most socially sound alternative by means of a consultative referendum, simulated with the use of a structured questionnaire administered to a sample of the population. The economic evaluation was conducted defining the bill of quantities with regarding to six main items (soil handling, landfill disposal tax, public services, structure and services, completion work, equipment and furnishings). The environmental evaluation was performed applying the Delphi method with local technicians who were involved in a qualitative-quantitative evaluation of the three alternatives with regarding to eight possible environmental impacts (landscape impact, soil handling, odour, traffic, noise, atmospheric pollution, wastewater, waste). Finally, the Simple Additive Weighting was used as multi-criteria technique to define alternatives priorities. The obtained results showed how the multi-criteria analysis is a useful decision support tool able to identify transparently and efficiently the most sustainable solutions to a complex social problem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. GIS-based Multi-criteria land suitability analysis for sustainable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    43

    of Tadla plain (Morocco) using geographic information system (GIS) and analytical ... clean water and air, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preserving natural ... criteria decision making (MCDM) methods allowed having information from ...

  2. Genetic traits of relevance to sustainability of smallholder sheep farming systems in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molotsi, Annelin; Dube, Bekezela; Oosting, Simon; Marandure, Tawanda; Mapiye, Cletos; Cloete, Schalk; Dzama, Kennedy

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable livestock production is important to ensure continuous availability of resources for future generations. Most smallholder livestock farming systems in developing countries have been perceived to be environmentally, socially and economically unsustainable. Farming with livestock that is

  3. Relevance of national and local government policy to sustainable community natural resource management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development in South Africa is guided by the principle of sustainability, and this is underpinned by integration, which is the consideration of social, economic and environmental factors in decision making. Policies are in place at national...

  4. Multi criteria analysis for sustainability assessments of electricity generation systems in a rural community in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigun, B.; Mehlwana, M. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). Sustainable Energy Futures, Natural Resources and the Environment; Musango, J.K. [Department of Energy (DoE), Pretoria (South Africa); Brent, A.C. [Stellenbosch Univ. (South Africa). Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies

    2011-07-01

    One of the key challenges of the energy policy in South Africa is to ensure that rural areas have access to electricity. This is reflected in the key energy policy documents (the 1998 Energy White Paper and the 2002 Renewable Energy White Paper). Both these documents identified renewable energy resources as immediate alternatives to grid electricity in especially remote rural communities that are characterised by low population densities. Centralised energy generation and transmission is very costly and inefficient in these areas due to greater transmission and distribution losses. While the cost of electricity in South Africa is relatively cheaper, it is not accessible for many rural households. There are still over two million households in rural areas without access to electricity. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique to compare various electricity technologies (mainly renewables) in a specific rural community of South Africa using social, economic, environment and technical indicators. These technologies were than ranked against each indicator assuming that the high-level criteria have equal importance for sustainable development. It is demonstrated that energy from wind is the most sustainable, followed by photovoltaic, anaerobic digestion (biogas) and then gasification. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to verify the stability of the priority ranking. The outcome of this study will specifically assist energy planners and decision-makers to choose the best alternative from a range of technology alternatives in a milieu of conflicting and competing criteria. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation according to criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management: Saçinka Forest Planning Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Çavdar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The reasons such as; decrease in forest areas, deterioration in the structure, fragmented structures, decrease in water sources, environmental pollution and increase in carbon level in air are considered as the main sources of problems like global warming and global climate change. Countries have been trying to develop cooperative solutions for these problems since the mid-20th century. Sustainable forest management criteria and indicators, which were outcomes of Biological Diversity Agreement and the processes afterwards, have also been specified in Turkey based on Pan-European process indicators. According to this set of criteria and indicators, data are collected in the scale of Forest Enterprises and the current situation is evaluated in the meetings held by Regional Directorates of Forestry. Most of the data to be evaluated are obtained from forest management plans in the scale of Forest Planning Units and a great deal of economic indicators are dealt in the scale of Forestry Enterprises. Starting from this point of view; this study analyzes the SFM criteria and indicators set data of Saçinka Forest Planning Unit. Accordingly, it examines whether forest ecosystem is conducted in a sustainable way or not.

  6. Advances in Multiple Criteria Decision Making for Sustainability: Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao-Yi Shen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the surging complexity of real-world problems in important domains such as sustainability, there is a need to leverage advanced modern computational methods or intelligent techniques to support decisions or policy-making. In this Special Issue, 15 selected and formally peer-reviewed papers contribute their novelty and findings, by applying various advanced decision methods or computational techniques to resolve different sustainability problems. Despite the innovations of the proposed models, most of the selected papers involve domain expert’s opinions and knowledge with in-depth discussions. These case studies enrich the practical contributions of this Special Issue.

  7. Criteria for evaluation and guidelines for land use planning in terms of sustainable urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ostojić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable spatial development is a generally accepted objective and principle in spatial planning. It is implemented mainly by regulations in the sectors for management of natural resources, but not comprehensively in implementing regulations for urban space management. One of the most important instruments of spatial planning at local level is land use, for which there is no comprehensive framework of implementing measures for achieving sustainable spatial objectives in urban areas. In accordance with the review and critical analysis of literature, there are four measures presented in the paper: protection of natural resources and reduction of environmental-climate risks, compact urban structure, mixed-use and accessibility of urban functions. The review and analysis have shown that the listed measures enable sustainable development of urban areas, but only if they are planned and implemented in accordance with supporting physical, social and economic elements of urban space. In the conclusion, indicators which can assess the level of sustainability in land use design are presented and guidelines for restructuring land use in existing settlement areas are described.

  8. An application of the global sustainable tourism criteria in health tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. Bristow; Wen-Tsann Yang; Mei-Tsen Lu

    2010-01-01

    Tourism is an important element of the global economy. Yet for the tourism industry to grow and prosper, there is a need to protect local environmental and social well-being. Sustainable tourism seeks a compromise between growth and protection. Today, health tourism is a multi-billion dollar industry tied to individuals' travel overseas for inexpensive and timely...

  9. Future GHG emissions more efficiently controlled by land-use policies than by bioenergy sustainability criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottcher, H.; Frank, S.; Havlik, P.; Elbersen, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) targets, implemented to achieve climate change mitigation, affect the level of agricultural production in the EU and in the rest of the world. This article presents an impact assessment of increased biomass supply under different sustainability constraints on

  10. Planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria for sustainable spatial development in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Meiţă

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve represents a complex of ecosystems embedding a biome that had been included on UNESCO World Heritage list due to its global environmental importance. The outstanding natural diversity, including ecosystems, habitats and species situated at the top of European and International conservation lists, is mixed with an equally rich and important cultural (ethnic and religious diversity of the human communities inhabiting the area. According to the guidelines of the Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO, the biosphere reserves including human settlements should be managed such that they could constitute an example for what sustainable development means. Starting from the spatial dimension added to the traditional socioeconomic, ecological and cultural pillars of sustainable development, the paper examines planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria that could substantiate a sustainable development model applicable to the Danube Delta, and counter the effects of clime change in the area. The results suggest that the traditional practices of the inhabitants could offer sustainable solutions and help preserving the natural and cultural diversity of the region.

  11. Multi-criteria assessment tool for sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives for a contaminated site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bondgård, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In order to improve and support decision-making for the selection of remedial techniques for contaminated sites, a multi-criteria assessment (MCA) method has been developed. The MCA framework is structured in a decision process actively involving stakeholders, and compares...

  12. A framework to assess the value of application of formal criteria to check clinical relevance in RCTs as part of a benefit assessment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vach, Werner; Gladstone, Beryl Primrose

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the topic of assessing clinical relevance on top of statistical significance in the analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) has got increasing attention, in particular as part of benefit assessments. Several formal criteria to serve this purpose have been published. In this paper, we present a framework to assess the value of the application of such criteria. We propose to quantify the need for the assessment of clinical relevance by the actual risk of having accepted a benefit for a treatment with an irrelevant effect in a successful RCT. We then study how this risk can be controlled by two popular criteria based on comparing the effect estimate or the lower bound of the confidence interval with a given threshold. We further propose to quantify the impact of using formal criteria by considering the expected costs when specifying error-specific costs for each of the three possible types of errors: A benefit may be accepted for a treatment, which is actually inferior, or which is not inferior, but only implies an irrelevant improvement, or a benefit may be rejected for a treatment implying a relevant improvement. This way we can demonstrate that the impact depends on parameters which are typically not explicitly defined in the frame of benefit assessments. Depending on the values of these parameters, formal checks of clinical relevance may imply better decisions on average, but they may also imply more harm than good on average. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Beyond sustainability criteria and principles in palm oil production: addressing consumer concerns through insetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal M. Mohd Noor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most controversial agricultural commodities of our time. To its supporters, it is the golden crop that catalyzes smallholders out of poverty and brings salvation to the global food and energy crisis. For its critics, it is the single biggest threat driving the wholesale destruction of peatlands and rainforests as well as adding to greenhouse gas emissions. Hailed as a turning point in 2004, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO has been widely criticized as being unable to change the industry fast enough. We argue that certification, although certainly important, will not be able to deliver expected environmental and social benefits because of (1 an uneven distribution of incentives along the value chain, (2 traceability issues, (3 difficulties associated with an expanding market, and (4 alternative low standard markets to the standard large Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD markets. We argue that the sustainability debate has actually failed to address the fact that oil palm landscape as a whole would be more sustainable if smallholders for whom palm oil is not an economic viable avenue would engage in other forms of land use. An important starting point for change is to move beyond narrow business interests of satisfying customers and shareholders interests only and tackle the implicit contract between palm oil marketers and importers and the smallholder agricultural communities in palm oil producing areas. We introduce the concept of livelihood "insetting" that goes beyond the pure sustainability aspect by also addressing the issue of mutuality along the global value chain.

  14. Transitions to sustainable development. On the relevance of exploiting market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasbergen, P.

    2002-01-01

    Transition management is a new concept in Dutch environmental policy and management. Bringing about transitions in society is a classical issue in planning and policy theory. One of the main debates is on the relationship between market and plan as coordinating mechanisms in society. Based on an examination of this debate, this article argues that there is no contradiction between incremental change and structural changes in society. In terms of these incremental changes, it observes a process of sustainable development that has gone on for years. In the author's view, the key to sustainable development is to be found in private investments. Transitions in a liberal democratic society necessarily take place via the market mechanism and come about as societal learning processes. The main challenge is to develop structures in which private capital is applied to achieve long-term processes of societal change. The FairTrade market and the clean development mechanism are discussed by way of examples [nl

  15. How to ensure greenhouse gas emission reductions by increasing the use of biofuels? - Suitability of the European Union sustainability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, Sampo; Koponen, Kati

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels are promoted in many parts of the world. However, concern of environmental and social problems have grown due to increased production of biofuels. Therefore, many initiatives for sustainability criteria have been announced. As a part of the European Union (EU) renewable energy promotion directive (RED), the EU has introduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emission-saving requirements for biofuels along with the first-ever mandate methodology to calculate the GHG emission reduction. As explored in this paper, the RED methodology, based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach, excludes many critical issues. These include indirect impacts due to competition for land, biomass and other auxiliary inputs. Also, timing issues, allocation problems, and uncertainty of individual parameters are not yet considered adequately. Moreover, the default values provided in the RED for the GHG balances of biofuels may significantly underestimate their actual impacts. We conclude that the RED methodology cannot ensure the intended GHG emission reductions of biofuels. Instead, a more comprehensive approach is required along with additional data and indicators. Even if it may be very difficult to verify the GHG emission reductions of biofuels in practice, it is necessary to consider the uncertainties more closely, in order to mitigate climate change effectively. -- Highlights: → The EU introduced mandatory criteria for greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels. → The aim of the criteria is to ensure reduction in GHG emissions. → We analysed and discussed the suitability of the criteria. → The criteria may significantly underestimate the actual GHG emissions. → A more comprehensive approach is required along with additional data and indicators.

  16. Ranking the criteria for sustainability of community-based rural homestay programmes from the perspective of the operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rohaini; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2015-12-01

    Homestay is one of the government's products that promote the cultural tourism of country around the world. Homestay in Malaysia is not only thriving, but also its operation is moving gradually toward development of economic growth. Many homestays have been built throughout the country and this will give tourists an opportunity to enjoy the different and interesting environment in Malaysia. However, most of them receive less support from tourists and only certain numbers of homestays have operated consistently. This paper examines eleven sustainability criteria for homestay programme in Malaysia covering environmental, economic and sociocultural dimensions. The required data were collected through a survey of 246 homestay operators using a structured questionnaire. Data obtained was analyzed by utilizing percentage and arithmetic average. The findings revealed that the three most important criteria for homestay to remain sustained in this business area are ability and capacity, leadership and conservation of community resources. In order to improve the business performance of homestays in this country, homestay operators should focus on improving their ability and capacity and focus on enhancing their leadership skills.

  17. Evaluation Criteria for Implementation of a Sustainable Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment System at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulke, Linda S.; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park’s administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals . To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.

  18. APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA TO STELLA, MISSOURI-ECONOMIC PLANNING-PRELIMINARY SITE INFORMATION AND ELEMENTS OF THE MASTER PLAN-16NOV2006 (1130)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic systems constraints and performance requirements that are essential to providing goods and services, jobs, and a functioning economic system form a list of criteria for planning a sustainable economy. This presentation places these economic criteria in the context of Ste...

  19. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  20. An Interactive Strategy for Solving Multi-Criteria Decision Making of Sustainable Land Revitalization Planning Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayasari, Ruth; Mawengkang, Herman; Gomar Purba, Ronal

    2018-02-01

    Land revitalization refers to comprehensive renovation of farmland, waterways, roads, forest or villages to improve the quality of plantation, raise the productivity of the plantation area and improve agricultural production conditions and the environment. The objective of sustainable land revitalization planning is to facilitate environmentally, socially, and economically viable land use. Therefore it is reasonable to use participatory approach to fullfil the plan. This paper addresses a multicriteria decision aid to model such planning problem, then we develop an interactive approach for solving the problem.

  1. Application of multi-criteria decision analysis in selecting of sustainable investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Renata

    2017-07-01

    Investors of construction projects, especially financed with public money, quite slowly adapt environmentally friendly solutions, e.g. passive buildings. Practice shows that the use of green public procurement among the public investors is negligible. Energy-saving technologies and equipment are expensive at the construction phase and investors less or not at all take into account the future operating costs. The aim of this article is to apply the method of multi-criteria analysis ELECTRE to select the best investment in terms of cost of implementation, operation, as well as the impact on the environment.

  2. Revision of Sustainable Criteria of Concrete Walls for Earthquake-Resistant Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcocer S.M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The seismic performance of low-rise housing has been noticeably inadequate during the most recent earthquakes occurred in Latin American countries. Moreover, the literature review revealed that some traditional techniques do not contribute to building sustainable housing. In the last decade, construction of concrete walls housing has become a preferred choice because of the speed of construction and availability of materials in most of these countries. Aimed at improving seismic design methods for this type of construction, an extensive analytical and experimental program was carried out. The experimental program included quasi-static and shaking-table tests of 47 walls with different height-to-length ratios and walls with openings. Variables studied were type of concrete, web steel ratio and type of web reinforcement. The paper presents and discusses the main results of the research program and evaluates the technical and environmental feasibility for using concrete walls for sustainable and earthquake-resistant housing. Performance of concrete walls housing is assessed in terms of key environmental and earthquake-resistant requirements. It was found that concrete wall housing is not only safe under earthquakes and easily adaptable to climate, but also it stimulates environmental conservation and promotes reducing the costs of construction, operation and maintenance.

  3. The relevance of operational skills towards business sustainability: A focus on SMME manufacturers in the Vaal triangle region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Naidoo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Activities in the manufacturing sector are often considered the bedrock of an economy and a key driver of growth and development. Within the South African manufacturing sector, operations skills are reported to be deficient and are often cited as a main cause of failure in small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs. This study explores and tests this fragile relationship between operations skills and SMME sustainability. Empirical investigations are conducted in a high-density SMME manufacturing environment - the Vaal Triangle Region. Design/Methodology/Approach: Building on previously established literature on SMME sustainability and operations skills, various measures are developed and tested for reliability and validity. Factor analysis is used to identify relevant factors in terms of operations skills. Co-relational analysis is then employed to test the hypothesised relationship. The study is cross-sectional in design and relies on trained fieldworkers administering surveys for data collection. Findings: Five clear factors for operations skills are identified through factor analysis with an overall high reliability value. Based on descriptive and co-relational analysis results reveal that operations skills are positively associated with sustainability. Implications: SMME owners, educators and service providers may benefit from the study's findings in terms of the nature and associations that operational skills have on developing sustainable SMME's. Originality/Value: The study focused on a neglected area of SMMEs - the importance of operations towards business sustainability, and made an important contribution towards theory development through empirical explorations. In South Africa, this is the first time an instrument measuring operations skills has been validated and associated with SMMEs in a manufacturing context.

  4. University vinculación: A two-way strategy for sustainable development and academic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Hernández Arámburo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The public university of the twenty-first century is faced with numerous pressing issues, but none greater than the need to promote social transformation through sustainable development. The authors of this article understand sustainable development as that which brings us closer to a comprehensive social order in which humanity has the challenge of viewing reality in all its complexity, but acting simply in order to solve the socio-environmental problems we suffer. In this article, we ask the following questions: What is the university’s role within complex social structures? How can it produce a vinculación, or two-way interaction, between university and the wider environment that contributes towards sustainable development? Put most simply, where does the university fit in? This article discusses the project of the Universidad Veracruzana: that is, the establishment of a university-wide vinculación or strategic process for attending to society’s needs and problems, via the deliberate inclusion of formal processes into the university’s substantive functions of teaching, research, outreach and cultural diffusion. Furthermore, these processes include feedback mechanisms that impact on the university’s work. Over many years of engagement, the Universidad Veracruzana has built a very particular vision of the way in which a process can be organized in order to respond to the challenge of social transformation. The subsequent systematization of this experience has led to the development of the University Social Action Model, which is a strategy to clarify the social commitment of the university based on four levels of support: altruism, assistance, advice, and the promotion of self-management for social transformation. This article provides detail on how the model works in practice, as evidenced by the award-winning work of the University Brigades and Casas UV. The ultimate goal of this model is to help shift the role of the university

  5. Sustained Spatial Attention to Vibrotactile Stimulation in the Flutter Range: Relevant Brain Regions and Their Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Dominique; Pleger, Burkhard; Thiel, Sabrina; Villringer, Arno; Müller, Matthias M.

    2013-01-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was designed to get a better understanding of the brain regions involved in sustained spatial attention to tactile events and to ascertain to what extent their activation was correlated. We presented continuous 20 Hz vibrotactile stimuli (range of flutter) concurrently to the left and right index fingers of healthy human volunteers. An arrow cue instructed subjects in a trial-by-trial fashion to attend to the left or right index finger and to detect rare target events that were embedded in the vibrotactile stimulation streams. We found blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) attentional modulation in primary somatosensory cortex (SI), mainly covering Brodmann area 1, 2, and 3b, as well as in secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), contralateral to the to-be-attended hand. Furthermore, attention to the right (dominant) hand resulted in additional BOLD modulation in left posterior insula. All of the effects were caused by an increased activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand, except for the effects in left SI and insula. In left SI, the effect was related to a mixture of both a slight increase in activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand as well as a slight decrease in activation when attention was paid to the ipsilateral hand (i.e., the tactile distraction condition). In contrast, the effect in left posterior insula was exclusively driven by a relative decrease in activation in the tactile distraction condition, which points to an active inhibition when tactile information is irrelevant. Finally, correlation analyses indicate a linear relationship between attention effects in intrahemispheric somatosensory cortices, since attentional modulation in SI and SII were interrelated within one hemisphere but not across hemispheres. All in all, our results provide a basis for future research on sustained attention to continuous vibrotactile stimulation in the range of flutter

  6. Sustaining a Stakeholder-Scientists Partnership in Co-producing Locally Relevant Data, Methods, and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefa, T.

    2017-12-01

    This case study presents the experiences of two of the most successful boundary organizations that are engaged in co-producing decision relevant climate information for water resources management. The Water Utilities Climate Alliance (www.wucaonline.org) is a coalition of 11 of the nation's largest water utilities with customers base over 50 million. Whereas Florida Water and Climate Alliance (www.floridaWCA.org) is a state level collaborative Learning network that is engaged in co-exploration and co-development of actionable climate science. Lesson learned from these two structurally different organizations will be shared.

  7. The Criteria People Use in Relevance Decisions on Health Information: An Analysis of User Eye Movements When Browsing a Health Discussion Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Wenjing; Khoo, Christopher Sg; Chang, Yun-Ke

    2016-06-20

    People are increasingly accessing health-related social media sites, such as health discussion forums, to post and read user-generated health information. It is important to know what criteria people use when deciding the relevance of information found on health social media websites, in different situations. The study attempted to identify the relevance criteria that people use when browsing a health discussion forum, in 3 types of use contexts: when seeking information for their own health issue, when seeking for other people's health issue, and when browsing without a particular health issue in mind. A total of 58 study participants were self-assigned to 1 of the 3 use contexts or information needs and were asked to browse a health discussion forum, HealthBoards.com. In the analysis, browsing a discussion forum was divided into 2 stages: scanning a set of post surrogates (mainly post titles) in the summary result screen and reading a detailed post content (including comments by other users). An eye tracker system was used to capture participants' eye movement behavior and the text they skim over and focus (ie, fixate) on during browsing. By analyzing the text that people's eyes fixated on, the types of health information used in the relevance judgment were determined. Post-experiment interviews elicited participants' comments on the relevance of the information and criteria used. It was found that participants seeking health information for their own health issue focused significantly more on the poster's symptoms, personal history of the disease, and description of the disease (P=.01, .001, and .02). Participants seeking for other people's health issue focused significantly more on cause of disease, disease terminology, and description of treatments and procedures (P=.01, .01, and .02). In contrast, participants browsing with no particular issue in mind focused significantly more on general health topics, hot topics, and rare health issues (P=.01, .01, and .01

  8. The Criteria People Use in Relevance Decisions on Health Information: An Analysis of User Eye Movements When Browsing a Health Discussion Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Christopher SG; Chang, Yun-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Background People are increasingly accessing health-related social media sites, such as health discussion forums, to post and read user-generated health information. It is important to know what criteria people use when deciding the relevance of information found on health social media websites, in different situations. Objective The study attempted to identify the relevance criteria that people use when browsing a health discussion forum, in 3 types of use contexts: when seeking information for their own health issue, when seeking for other people’s health issue, and when browsing without a particular health issue in mind. Methods A total of 58 study participants were self-assigned to 1 of the 3 use contexts or information needs and were asked to browse a health discussion forum, HealthBoards.com. In the analysis, browsing a discussion forum was divided into 2 stages: scanning a set of post surrogates (mainly post titles) in the summary result screen and reading a detailed post content (including comments by other users). An eye tracker system was used to capture participants’ eye movement behavior and the text they skim over and focus (ie, fixate) on during browsing. By analyzing the text that people’s eyes fixated on, the types of health information used in the relevance judgment were determined. Post-experiment interviews elicited participants’ comments on the relevance of the information and criteria used. Results It was found that participants seeking health information for their own health issue focused significantly more on the poster’s symptoms, personal history of the disease, and description of the disease (P=.01, .001, and .02). Participants seeking for other people’s health issue focused significantly more on cause of disease, disease terminology, and description of treatments and procedures (P=.01, .01, and .02). In contrast, participants browsing with no particular issue in mind focused significantly more on general health topics, hot

  9. Enhancing a Socio-technical Data Ecosystem for Societally Relevant, Sustained Arctic Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, much has been learned about the state of data and related systems for the Arctic region, however work remains to be done to achieve an envisioned integrated and well-defined pan-Arctic observing and data network. The envisioned comprehensive network will enables access to high quality data, expertise and information in support of scientific understanding, stakeholder needs, and agency operations. In this paper we argue that priorities for establishing such a network are in the areas of better understanding the current system, machine-enhanced data discovery and mediation, and the human aspects of community building. The author has engaged extensively in international, Canadian and U.S.-based data coordination and system design efforts. This includes a series of meetings, workshops, systems design activities, and publications. The results of these efforts have been analyzed and a synthesis of these analyses are presented here. Analysis reveals that there are a large number of polar data resources interacting in a complex network that functions as a data ecosystem. Understanding this ecosystem is critical and required to guide design. Given the size and complexity of the network, achieving broad data discovery and access and meaningful data integration will require advanced techniques including machine learning, semantic mediation, and the use of highly connected virtual research environments. To achieve the aforementioned goal will require a community of engaged researchers, technologists, and stakeholders to establish requirements and the social and organizational context needed for effective approaches. The results imply that: i) an effective governance mechanism must be established that includes "bottom up" and "top down" control; ii) the established governance mechanism must include effective networking of actors in the system; iii) funders must adopt a long-term, sustainable infrastructure approach to systems development; iv) best practices

  10. THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS SUSTAINABILITY AND THE EUROZONE ACCESSION CONVERGENCE CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEGREA Adrian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the balance of payments (BoP is identified as representing the long term need of equilibrium and stability of the international payments and revenues. The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors that influence the balance of payments of a certain country, by using a rigorous classification that reveals the complexity of these factors. Our conclusions are very relevant, especially for countries like Romania, because, in order to achieve the external equilibrium, it seems that every county must adopt a mix of internal economic policies, and although theoretically this can be realised, sometimes in practice it can prove to be impossible on account of inability or refusing to combine the appropriate economic policies.

  11. Sustainable power and scenic beauty: The Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty and its relevance today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedoff, Andrei; Schott, Stephan; Karney, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Niagara Falls and the Niagara River have always attracted great public interest due to their natural beauty, their enormous potential for electricity generation, their recreational value and as an important ecosystem. There have been simultaneous efforts to preserve this unique natural wonder and harness its power through hydroelectric development projects by both the United States and Canada. This paper explores the evolution of these efforts that culminated with the signing of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty that established minimum water flow rates to protect the “scenic beauty” of the falls, allowing the remaining water to be diverted for power production. We examine the rationale that led to specific water flow restrictions and question to what extent they are relevant today, as water intake capacity on the Canadian side has just been extended by around 25%. We find that current restrictions under the Niagara River Water Treaty (that expired in 2000) are not based on sound scientific evidence and estimate the upper limit of potential foregone benefits from clean electricity generation and greenhouse gas reductions. We identify a number of important issues that emerged in the last decades and that would justify an exploration of new treaty rules. - Highlights: • We examine the history of water diversion at Niagara Falls. • We examine the rationale that led to water flow restrictions over Niagara Falls and its relevance today. • We estimate the opportunity cost of foregone energy generation with the new Canadian intake capacity. • Water flow stipulations were not based on the sound scientific or ecosystem analysis. • A renegotiation of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty is overdue

  12. Earth applications of closed ecological systems: relevance to the development of sustainability in our global biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Allen, J; Alling, A; Dempster, W F; Silverstone, S

    2003-01-01

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support in artificial closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and expanding human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. The loss of biodiversity, reliance on non-renewable natural resources, and conversion of once wild ecosystems for human use with attendant desertification/soil erosion, has led to a shift of consciousness and the widespread call for sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioregenerative life support in closed systems, the small volumes and faster cycling times than in the Earth's biosphere make it starkly clear that systems must be designed to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, production of healthy food, and safe environmental methods of maintaining technical systems. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated and supportive of living systems is a harbinger of new perspectives as well as technologies in the global environment. In addition, closed system bioregenerative life support offers opportunities for public education and consciousness changing of how to live with our global biosphere. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relevance of Follow-Up in Patients with Core Clinical Criteria for Alzheimer Disease and Normal CSF biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Olivier; Paquet, Claire; Gabelle, Audrey; Delbeuck, Xavier; Blanc, Frederic; Wallon, David; Dumurgier, Julien; Magnin, Eloi; Martinaud, Olivier; Jung, Barbara; Bousiges, Olivier; Lehmann, Sylvain; Delaby, Constance; Quillard-Murain, Muriel; Peoc'h, Katell; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Bouaziz-Amar, Elodie; Hannequin, Didier; Sablonniere, Bernard; Buee, Luc; Hugon, Jacques; Schraen, Susanna; Pasquier, Florence; Bombois, Stephanie

    2018-01-09

    Few patients with a normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile fulfill the clinical criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of misdiagnoses for these patients. Patients from the e-PLM centers fulfilling the core clinical criteria for probable AD dementia or mild cognitive impairment due to AD (AD-MCI), with normal CSF A1-42, T-tau and P-tau biomarkers and clinical follow-up, were included. Clinical and imaging data were reviewed by an independent board, from baseline (visit with clinical evaluation and CSF analysis) to the end of the follow-up, for a final diagnosis. In the e-PLM cohort of 1098 AD patients with CSF analysis, 37 (3.3%) patients (20 with AD dementia core clinical criteria and 17 with AD-MCI core clinical criteria) had normal CSF biomarker profile and a clinical follow-up. All patients presented with episodic memory impairment and 27 (73%) had medial temporal lobe atrophy on MRI-scan. After a median follow-up of 36 months (range 7-74), the final diagnosis was AD MCI or dementia for 9 (24%) patients, and unlikely due to AD for 28 (76%) patients. A misdiagnosis was corrected in 18 (49%) patients (mood disorders, non-AD degenerative dementia, vascular cognitive impairment, alcohol cognitive disorders, temporal epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis), and 10 (27%) patients had cognitive disorders of undetermined etiology. AD diagnosis (MCI or dementia) with normal CSF biomarkers is a rare condition. A clinical follow-up is particularly recommended to consider an alternative diagnosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. A hybrid life cycle and multi-criteria decision analysis approach for identifying sustainable development strategies of Beijing's taxi fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yanpeng; Applegate, Scott; Yue, Wencong; Cai, Jianying; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Gengyuan; Li, Chunhui

    2017-01-01

    To identify and evaluate sustainable strategies of taxi fleet in Beijing in terms of economic, policy, and environmental implications, a hybrid approach was developed through incorporating multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods within a general life-cycle analysis (LCA) framework. The approach can (a) help comprehensive evaluate environmental impacts of multiple types of vehicles, (b) facilitate analysis of environmental, economic and policy features of such vehicles, and (c) identify desirable taxi fleet development strategies for the city. The developed approach represented an improvement of the decision-making capability for taxi implementation based on multiple available technologies and their performance that can be specifically tailored to Beijing. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach could comprehensively reflect multiple implications of strategies for the taxi fleet in Beijing to reduce air pollution in the city. The results also indicated that the electric vehicle powered with the year 2020 electricity projections would be the ideal solution, outranking the other alternatives. The conventional vehicle ranked the lowest among the alternatives. The plug-in hybrid vehicle powered by 2020 electricity projects ranked the third, followed by the plug-in hybrid vehicle ranking the fourth, and the hybrid vehicle ranking the fifth. - Highlights: • An hybrid approach was proposed for evaluating sustainable strategies of Beijing's taxi fleet. • This approach was based on the combination of multi-criteria decision analysis methods and life-cycle assessment. • Environmental, economic and policy performances of multiple strategies were compared. • Detailed responses of taxi drivers and local residents were interviewed. • The electric vehicle would be the ideal solution for Beijing Taxi fleet.

  15. Earth Applications of Closed Ecological Systems: Relevance to the Development of Sustainability in our Global Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, W.; van Thillo, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support and closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer be counted on to be vast enough to safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. With an increasing percentage of the world's natural resources and primary productivity being dictated by, and directed to, humans, our species is starting to appreciate its survival and quality of life depends on regulating its activities, and insuring that crucial biogeochemical cycles continue to function. This shift of consciousness has led to the widespread call for moving towards the sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioreenerative life support, the small volumes and faster cycling times have made it obvious that systems must be created in to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, and where all technical systems can be safely integrated with the maintenance of safe environmental conditions. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated with the living systems that they support should be a harbinger of new perspectives in the global environment. The paper will review some of these environmental technologies which are emerging from bioregenerative life support system research such as high-yield intensive agricultural methods, waste treatment and nutrient recycling, air purification, modeling, sensor and control systems and their potential applications in the global biosphere. In addition, a review of the human experience in closed ecological systems shows that these can offer opportunities for public education and consciousness-changing of how humans regard our global biosphere.

  16. Multi area and multistage expansion-planning of electricity supply with sustainable energy development criteria: a multi objective model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsihuay-Vila, Clodomiro; Marangon-Lima, J.W.; Souza, A.C Zambroni de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], emails: clodomirounsihuayvila @gmail.com, marangon@unifei.edu.br, zambroni@unifei.edu.br; Perez-Arriaga, I.J. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain)], email: ipa@mit.edu

    2010-07-01

    A novel multi objective, multi area and multistage model to long-term expansion-planning of integrated generation and transmission corridors incorporating sustainable energy developing is presented in this paper. The proposed MESEDES model is a multi-regional multi-objective and 'bottom-up' energy model which considers the electricity generation/transmission value-chain, i.e., power generation alternatives including renewable, nuclear and traditional thermal generation along with transmission corridors. The model decides the optimal location and timing of the electricity generation/transmission abroad the multistage planning horizon. The MESEDES model considers three objectives belonging to sustainable energy development criteria such as: a) the minimization of investments and operation costs of : power generation, transmission corridors, energy efficiency (demand side management (DSM) programs) considering CO2 capture technologies; b) minimization of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions (LC GHG); c) maximization of the diversification of electricity generation mix. The proposed model consider aspects of the carbon abatement policy under the CDM - Clean Development Mechanism or European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. A case study is used to illustrate the proposed framework. (author)

  17. Long Term Fuel Sustainable Fission Energy Perspective Relevant for Combating Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.; Matijevic, M.; Pevec, D.; Crnobrnja, B.; Lale, D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent research we outlined climate relevant and immediately available proven light water nuclear strategy with a potential to contribute essentially and timely to reduction of carbon dioxide emission to the year 2065. We consider in this paper what is the perspective of fission energy after that year should its contribution be needed. Singling out two technologies with long term perspective which need no or small amounts of uranium, fast breeders and molten salt thorium reactors, we consider their main technical and safety characteristics. In both of these technologies it is essential to have starter nuclides as neither U238 nor Th232 are fissile. We investigated whether plutonium from spent fuel of light water reactors generated to the year 2065 would be present in quantities sufficient to continue operation on the same or similar level in both technologies. However in operational safety, proliferation risks, waste production, in our judgement we must give preference to thorium technology, if it would be ready in second half of the century.(author).

  18. Relevance and feasibility of women's involvement in promoting sustainable food production and security in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Assan

    2014-09-01

    improving food security should be based on gender sensitive policies. Policies which give women due recognition as far as food production decision making processes are concerned are sought. The chapter concludes with the understanding that involvement of women in food production becomes a key component of addressing food insecurity in Southern Africa. The vulnerability of people in Southern Africa to food insecurity depends both on measures that can be implemented in a given context and the capacity of families, and women in particular, to respond to food shortages. It is important, therefore that food security remains high on the regional development agenda. The region should prioritize appropriate interventions which help women fully participate in food production and develop sustainable livelihoods.

  19. ASTA - A method for multi-criteria evaluation of water supply technologies to Assess the most SusTainable Alternative for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    these environmental, economic and social sustainability dimensions we introduce a novel multi-criteria assessment method for evaluation of water supply technologies. The method is presented and demonstrated for four alternatives for water supply based on groundwater, rain- & stormwater or seawater developed...... for augmenting Copenhagen's current groundwater based water supply. To identify the most sustainable technology, we applied rank order distribution weights to a multi-criteria decision analysis to combine the impact assessments of environment, economy and society. The three dimensions were assessed using 1) life...... weight was assigned to the environmental dimension of sustainability then the alternative of 'Rain- & stormwater harvesting' was the most sustainable water supply technology; when the highest weight was assigned to the economy or society dimensions then an alternative with 'Groundwater abstraction...

  20. Criteria to define a more relevant reference sample of titanium dioxide in the context of food: a multiscale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudefoi, William; Terrisse, Hélène; Richard-Plouet, Mireille; Gautron, Eric; Popa, Florin; Humbert, Bernard; Ropers, Marie-Hélène

    2017-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a transition metal oxide widely used as a white pigment in various applications, including food. Due to the classification of TiO 2 nanoparticles by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as potentially harmful for humans by inhalation, the presence of nanoparticles in food products needed to be confirmed by a set of independent studies. Seven samples of food-grade TiO 2 (E171) were extensively characterised for their size distribution, crystallinity and surface properties by the currently recommended methods. All investigated E171 samples contained a fraction of nanoparticles, however, below the threshold defining the labelling of nanomaterial. On the basis of these results and a statistical analysis, E171 food-grade TiO 2 totally differs from the reference material P25, confirming the few published data on this kind of particle. Therefore, the reference material P25 does not appear to be the most suitable model to study the fate of food-grade TiO 2 in the gastrointestinal tract. The criteria currently to obtain a representative food-grade sample of TiO 2 are the following: (1) crystalline-phase anatase, (2) a powder with an isoelectric point very close to 4.1, (3) a fraction of nanoparticles comprised between 15% and 45%, and (4) a low specific surface area around 10 m 2  g - 1 .

  1. An Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model and AHP Weighting Uncertainty Analysis for Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianfa Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the power generation industry from coal-based to more sustainable energy sources is an irreversible trend. In China, the coal-fired power plant, as the main electric power supply facility at present, needs to know its own sustainability level to face the future competition. A hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM model is proposed in this paper to assess the sustainability levels of the existing Chinese coal-fired power units. The areal grey relational analysis (AGRA method is involved in the hybrid model, and a combined weighting method is used to determine the priorities of the criteria. The combining weight fuses the fuzzy rough set (FRS and entropy objective weighting method together with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP subjective weighting method by game theory. Moreover, an AHP weighting uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo (MC simulation is introduced to measure the uncertainty of the results, and a 95 percent confidence interval (CI is defined as the uncertainty measurement of the alternatives. A case study about eight coal-fired power units is carried out with a criteria system, which contains five aspects in an operational perspective, such as the flexibility, economic, environmental, reliability and technical criterion. The sustainability assessment is performed at the unit level, and the results give a priority rank of the eight alternatives; additionally, the uncertainty analysis supplies the extra information from a statistical perspective. This work expands a novel hybrid MCDM method to the sustainability assessment of the power generation systems, and it may be a benefit to the energy enterprises in assessing the sustainability at the unit level and enhance its ability in future sustainable development.

  2. Sustainable Supplier Selection with A Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Making Method Based on Triple Bottom Line

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Burcu Avcı; Özçelik , Funda

    2014-01-01

    To meet the demands of various stakeholders and to comply with environmental legislations, businesses started to look at their supply chain to enhance their overall sustainability profile. Supply chain operations with sustainability awareness have become an important issue in recent years and make the sustainable supplier performance evaluation and selection process as a central concept of sustainable supply chain management. In this study, supplier selection problem is modelled within the co...

  3. Guidance to the regulations on sustainability criteria for biofuels and liquid biofuels. Version 2.0; Vaegledning till regelverket om haallbarhetskriterier foer biodrivmedel och flytande biobraenslen. Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Lina; Jozsa, Emmi; Hagberg, Linus; Wollin, Per; Petren Axner, Margareta

    2012-11-01

    For biofuels and liquid biofuels: Swedish Energy Agency's guidance on the regulatory framework on sustainability criteria have been updated and expanded with new sections on control systems, independent auditing, sustainability statements and verification of land criteria in Sweden.

  4. Data Science in the Research Domain Criteria Era: Relevance of Machine Learning to the Study of Stress Pathology, Recovery, and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Ruggles, Kelly; Chen, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Diverse environmental and biological systems interact to influence individual differences in response to environmental stress. Understanding the nature of these complex relationships can enhance the development of methods to: (1) identify risk, (2) classify individuals as healthy or ill, (3) understand mechanisms of change, and (4) develop effective treatments. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative provides a theoretical framework to understand health and illness as the product of multiple inter-related systems but does not provide a framework to characterize or statistically evaluate such complex relationships. Characterizing and statistically evaluating models that integrate multiple levels (e.g. synapses, genes, environmental factors) as they relate to outcomes that a free from prior diagnostic benchmarks represents a challenge requiring new computational tools that are capable to capture complex relationships and identify clinically relevant populations. In the current review, we will summarize machine learning methods that can achieve these goals.

  5. Exploring the relative importance of “Reward” and “Reflection” in food orientations : Relevance for healthier and more sustainable diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna; Aiking, H.

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a new perspective on the relevance of different food orientations for healthier and more sustainable diets. Consumers’ food orientations vary in the relative importance of sensory- and reward-related factors (hereafter called Reward) or beliefs and values that are causes for

  6. Multiscale Methodological Framework to Derive Criteria and Indicators for Sustainability Evaluation of Peasant Natural Resource Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Ridaura, S.; Keulen, van H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Design and implementation of more sustainable natural resource management systems is the current objective of many research institutions, development agencies, NGOs and other stakeholders. But, how to assess whether a system is sustainable? How do we know whether the alternatives designed will

  7. Towards more sustainable diets : Insights from the food philosophies of “gourmets” and their relevance for policy strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schösler, Hanna; de Boer, Joop

    2018-01-01

    Food has become a central focus for the achievement of sustainability objectives. One of the current challenges is that promoting food sustainability requires much more attention to cultural and social contexts and the food philosophies of specific groups of consumers. The present paper focuses on

  8. Optimal Siting of Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles Based on Fuzzy Delphi and Hybrid Multi-Criteria Decision Making Approaches from an Extended Sustainability Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal siting of electric vehicle charging stations (EVCSs is crucial to the sustainable development of electric vehicle systems. Considering the defects of previous heuristic optimization models in tackling subjective factors, this paper employs a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM framework to address the issue of EVCS siting. The initial criteria for optimal EVCS siting are selected from extended sustainability theory, and the vital sub-criteria are further determined by using a fuzzy Delphi method (FDM, which consists of four pillars: economy, society, environment and technology perspectives. To tolerate vagueness and ambiguity of subjective factors and human judgment, a fuzzy Grey relation analysis (GRA-VIKOR method is employed to determine the optimal EVCS site, which also improves the conventional aggregating function of fuzzy Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacijia I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR. Moreover, to integrate the subjective opinions as well as objective information, experts’ ratings and Shannon entropy method are employed to determine combination weights. Then, the applicability of proposed framework is demonstrated by an empirical study of five EVCS site alternatives in Tianjin. The results show that A3 is selected as the optimal site for EVCS, and sub-criteria affiliated with environment obtain much more attentions than that of other sub-criteria. Moreover, sensitivity analysis indicates the selection results remains stable no matter how sub-criteria weights are changed, which verifies the robustness and effectiveness of proposed model and evaluation results. This study provides a comprehensive and effective method for optimal siting of EVCS and also innovates the weights determination and distance calculation for conventional fuzzy VIKOR.

  9. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  10. National and International Standardization (International Organization for Standardization and European Committee for Standardization Relevant for Sustainability in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Morbiducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in construction has a short history in terms of principles, standardizations and applications. From the Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”, a new vision of the resource deficits, climate impacts and the social responsibility gave growth to the idea of sustainability also in design and construction. Consequently, in around 2000, the international and national organizations for standardization started to develop standards for the application of sustainable principles. This paper gives an overview of existing and planned standards, and examples on how to use them as a framework for the development of methods and tools for assessment.

  11. Environmental quality and sustainability in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy): using multi-criteria analysis to assess and compare municipal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, A; Bodini, A; Becchi, M

    2001-10-01

    Sustainability has become an increasingly significant issue, although practical implementation remains difficult. In Italy, promoting sustainability is particularly problematic at the provincial and municipal level, where the lack of resources and expertise, and the effects of uncoordinated policies make it difficult to achieve minimum requirements to make sustainable policies operational. One essential requirement is knowledge of baseline environmental conditions in each municipality. In the province of Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy) Legambiente, an environmental association, launched an initiative called 'Ecopaese' aimed at gathering data on environmental conditions and stimulating local administrations to implement sustainable policies. To this end, the state of the environment in the 45 municipalities within the province has been monitored using 25 indicators. Their values have been used to rank the municipalities by multiple criteria analysis (MCA). The results of this comparative approach provide information about the level of sustainability attained in the province as a whole as well as in the single municipalities. It is hoped that it will provide the basis for direct action plans at the provincial level by identifying areas for remedial action, as recommended by Agenda 21, the declaration adopted by many countries attending the Rio Summit in 1992.

  12. Life cycle tools combined with multi-criteria and participatory methods for agricultural sustainability: Insights from a systematic and critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Anna Irene; Iofrida, Nathalie; Leskinen, Pekka; Stillitano, Teodora; Falcone, Giacomo; Strano, Alfio; Gulisano, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Life cycle (LC) methodologies have attracted a great interest in agricultural sustainability assessments, even if, at the same time, they have sometimes been criticized for making unrealistic assumptions and subjective choices. To cope with these weaknesses, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and/or participatory methods can be used to balance and integrate different sustainability dimensions. The purpose of this study is to highlight how life cycle approaches were combined with MCDA and participatory methods to address agricultural sustainability in the published scientific literature. A systematic and critical review was developed, highlighting the following features: which multi-criterial and/or participatory methods have been associated with LC tools; how they have been integrated or complemented (methodological relationships); the intensity of the involvement of stakeholders (degree of participation); and which synergies have been achieved by combining the methods. The main typology of integration was represented by multi-criterial frameworks integrating LC evaluations. LC tools can provide MCDA studies with local and global information on how to reduce negative impacts and avoid burden shifts, while MCDA methods can help LC practitioners deal with subjective assumptions in an objective way, to take into consideration actors' values and to overcome trade-offs among the different dimensions of sustainability. Considerations concerning the further development of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) have been identified as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards more sustainable diets: Insights from the food philosophies of "gourmets" and their relevance for policy strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schösler, Hanna; de Boer, Joop

    2018-04-25

    Food has become a central focus for the achievement of sustainability objectives. One of the current challenges is that promoting food sustainability requires much more attention to cultural and social contexts and the food philosophies of specific groups of consumers. The present paper focuses on those consumers in the Netherlands who intrinsically appreciate the taste and the quality of food (hereafter "gourmets"). Our expectation was that, due to their respect for the origin of food and their distance from mainstream food culture, the gourmets may be able to reveal practices and cultural assumptions that help to find entry points for promoting more sustainable food choices among the general population. Drawing on literature about gastronomy, Slow Food and craft consumption, fifteen in-depth interviews were held to examine the food philosophies of individual gourmets from a health and sustainability perspective. The results demonstrated how the values of pleasure of taste, food competences and social relatedness may contribute to the extent of complementarity between culinary and ethical principles. Entry points for promoting change in a more sustainable direction include a shift from quantity to quality, such as meals with less but better meat, a shift towards making meals less focused on meat and a general open-mindedness towards other eating styles (a new look at vegetables), a shift to planning for a competent use of leftovers and a shift in willingness to accept limitations on food choices, such as the seasonal unavailability of food. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Sustainability index approach as a selection criteria for energy storage system of an intermittent renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, Syed Shabbar; Janajreh, Isam; Ghenai, Chaouki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three renewable energy storage options considered: lead acid and lithium polymer batteries and fuel cell. • Hydrogen fuel cell system is the most feasible energy storage option for the long term energy storage. • Sustainability index approach is a novel method used to quantify the qualitative properties of the system. - Abstract: The sustainability index is an adaptive, multicriteria and novel technique that is used to compare different energy storage systems for their sustainability. This innovative concept utilizes both qualitative and quantitative results to measure sustainability through an index based approach. This report aims to compare three different energy storage options for an intermittent renewable energy source. The three energy storage options are lead acid batteries, lithium polymer batteries and fuel cell systems, that are selected due to their availability and the geographical constrain of using other energy storage options. The renewable energy source used is solar photovoltaic (PV). Several technical, economic and environmental factors have been discussed elaborately which would help us to evaluate the merits of the energy storage system for long term storage. Finally, a novel sustainability index has been proposed which quantifies the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the factors discussed, and thus helps us choose the ideal energy storage system for our scenario. A weighted sum approach is used to quantify each factor according to their importance. After a detailed analysis of the three energy storage systems through the sustainability index approach, the most feasible energy storage option was found to be fuel cell systems which can provide a long term energy storage option and also environmental friendly

  15. A mixed biomass-based energy supply chain for enhancing economic and environmental sustainability benefits: A multi-criteria decision making framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkouei, Amin; Haapala, Karl R.; Sessions, John; Murthy, Ganti S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A mixed supply chain is developed to enhance sustainability benefits of bioenergy. •A decision-making framework is constructed to balance sustainability dimensions. •A stochastic optimization model is developed to explore the effects of uncertainty. •This study provides insights on bio-oil production processes and system structure. -- Abstract: Bioenergy sources have been introduced as a means to address challenges of conventional energy sources. The uncertainties of supply-side (upstream) externalities (e.g., collection and logistics) represent the key challenges in bioenergy supply chains and lead to reduce cross-cutting sustainability benefits. We propose a mixed biomass-based energy supply chain (consisting of mixed-mode bio-refineries and mixed-pathway transportation) and a multi-criteria decision making framework to address the upstream challenges. Our developed framework supports decisions influencing the economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability. Economic analysis employs a support vector machine technique, to predict the pattern of uncertainty parameters, and a stochastic optimization model, to incorporate uncertainties into the model. The stochastic model minimizes the total annual cost of the proposed mixed supply chain network by using a genetic algorithm. Environmental impact analysis employs life cycle assessment to evaluate the global warming potential of the cost-effective supply chain network. Our presented approach is capable of enhancing sustainability benefits of bioenergy industry infrastructure. A case study for the Pacific Northwest is used to demonstrate the application of the methodology and to verify the models. The results indicate that mixed supply chains can improve sustainability performance over traditional supply infrastructures by reducing costs (up to 24%) and environmental impacts (up to 5%).

  16. Mitigating Pollution of Hazardous Materials from WEEE of China: Portfolio Selection for a sustainable future based on Multi-Criteria Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Yang, Yu; Chai, Xilong

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the environmental contaminations and human health problems caused by the inappropriate treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in China, sustainable e-waste treatment has emerged in China's WEEE recycling industry. This study aims to develop a multi......-criteria decision making method by integrating interval Analytic Hierarchy Process and interval VIKOR method for China's stakeholders to select the most efficacious portfolio for solving the severe problems caused by the informal e-waste recycling and promote the development of China's WEEE recycling industry...... in a sustainable approach. An illustrative case in Guiyu has been studied by the developed method, and the results show that the portfolio of supporting the informal peddlers for legal transition, investing on infrastructure for WEEE recycling, training and education on China's residents, and restricting...

  17. Project evaluation, sustainability and accountability : combining cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    General abstract Decision-makers in governments and businesses must choose among different project alternatives which, in varying degrees, contribute to sustainability. Decision-makers also have to account for their choices to a large audience or a broad range of stakeholders. This thesis is about

  18. Evaluating Emergency Response Solutions for Sustainable Community Development by Using Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Group Decision Making Approaches: IVDHF-TOPSIS and IVDHF-VIKOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Emergency management is vital in implementing sustainable community development, for which community planning must include emergency response solutions to potential natural and manmade hazards. To help maintain such solution repository, we investigate effective fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making (FMCGDM approaches for the complex problems of evaluating alternative emergency response solutions, where weights for decision makers and criteria are unknown due to problem complexity. We employ interval-valued dual hesitant fuzzy (IVDHF set to address decision hesitancy more effectively. Based on IVDHF assessments, we develop a deviation maximizing model to compute criteria weights and another compatibility maximizing model to calculate weights for decision makers. Then, two ideal-solution-based FMCGDM approaches are proposed: (i by introducing a synthesized IVDHF group decision matrix into TOPSIS, we develop an IVDHF-TOPSIS approach for fuzzy group settings; (ii when emphasizing both maximum group utility and minimum individual regret, we extend VIKOR to develop an IVDHF-VIKOR approach, where the derived decision makers’ weights are utilized to obtain group decision matrix and the determined criteria weights are integrated to reflect the relative importance of distances from the compromised ideal solution. Compared with aggregation-operators-based approach, IVDHF-TOPSIS and IVDHF-VIKOR can alleviate information loss and computational complexity. Numerical examples have validated the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  19. Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods for the Sustainability of Historical–Cultural Structures on the Trabzon Coastline

    OpenAIRE

    Buket Özdemir Işık; Sara Demir

    2017-01-01

    Unsustainable urban growth has put pressure on urban coastal areas and historical–cultural structures. As such, the important role of coastline sustainability has been revealed, and planners must protect historical–cultural coast characteristics in order to increase the quality of life of citizens. For this reason, this present study investigated the effects of existing coast characteristics and historical–cultural structure changes in recreation and tourism with respect to the Trabzon coastl...

  20. When good practices by water committees are not relevant: Sustainability of small water infrastructures in semi-arid mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Raphaëlle

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores the contradiction between the need for large scale interventions in rural water supplies and the need for flexibility when providing support for community institutions, by investigating the implementation of the Mozambique - National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program in a semi-arid district of the Limpopo Basin. Our results showed that coordinated leadership by key committee members, and the level of village governance was more important for borehole sustainability than the normative functioning of the committee. In a context in which the centrality of leadership prevails over collective action the sustainability of rural water infrastructure derives from the ability of leaders to motivate the community to provide supplementary funding. This, in turn, depends on the added value to the community of the water points and on village politics. Any interventions that increased community conflicts, for example because of lack of transparency or unequitable access to the benefit of the intervention, weakened the coordination and the collective action capacity of the community and hence the sustainability of the infrastructures even if the intervention was not directly related to water access. These results stress the importance of the project/program implementation pathway.

  1. National report on sustainable forests—2015: conservation of biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Curtis Flather; Kurt H. Riitters; Carolyn Sieg; James D. Garner

    2015-01-01

    The National Report on Sustainable Forests—2015 relies on Montrèal Process Criteria and Indicators (C&I) for Forest Sustainability to organize and present data relevant to U.S. forests. The 2015 report addresses seven criteria, the first of which is Conservation of Biological Diversity, which is organized into nine indicators that address three sub-criteria:...

  2. A Stochastic Programming Approach with Improved Multi-Criteria Scenario-Based Solution Method for Sustainable Reverse Logistics Design of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the increased public concern about sustainable development and more stringent environmental regulations have become important driving forces for value recovery from end-of-life and end-of use products through reverse logistics. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE contains both valuable components that need to be recycled and hazardous substances that have to be properly treated or disposed of, so the design of a reverse logistics system for sustainable treatment of WEEE is of paramount importance. This paper presents a stochastic mixed integer programming model for designing and planning a generic multi-source, multi-echelon, capacitated, and sustainable reverse logistics network for WEEE management under uncertainty. The model takes into account both economic efficiency and environmental impacts in decision-making, and the environmental impacts are evaluated in terms of carbon emissions. A multi-criteria two-stage scenario-based solution method is employed and further developed in this study for generating the optimal solution for the stochastic optimization problem. The proposed model and solution method are validated through a numerical experiment and sensitivity analyses presented later in this paper, and an analysis of the results is also given to provide a deep managerial insight into the application of the proposed stochastic optimization model.

  3. Tackling Complex Emergency Response Solutions Evaluation Problems in Sustainable Development by Fuzzy Group Decision Making Approaches with Considering Decision Hesitancy and Prioritization among Assessing Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Zhao, Shu-Ping; Liang, Chang-Yong

    2017-10-02

    In order to be prepared against potential balance-breaking risks affecting economic development, more and more countries have recognized emergency response solutions evaluation (ERSE) as an indispensable activity in their governance of sustainable development. Traditional multiple criteria group decision making (MCGDM) approaches to ERSE have been facing simultaneous challenging characteristics of decision hesitancy and prioritization relations among assessing criteria, due to the complexity in practical ERSE problems. Therefore, aiming at the special type of ERSE problems that hold the two characteristics, we investigate effective MCGDM approaches by hiring interval-valued dual hesitant fuzzy set (IVDHFS) to comprehensively depict decision hesitancy. To exploit decision information embedded in prioritization relations among criteria, we firstly define an fuzzy entropy measure for IVDHFS so that its derivative decision models can avoid potential information distortion in models based on classic IVDHFS distance measures with subjective supplementing mechanism; further, based on defined entropy measure, we develop two fundamental prioritized operators for IVDHFS by extending Yager's prioritized operators. Furthermore, on the strength of above methods, we construct two hesitant fuzzy MCGDM approaches to tackle complex scenarios with or without known weights for decision makers, respectively. Finally, case studies have been conducted to show effectiveness and practicality of our proposed approaches.

  4. Tackling Complex Emergency Response Solutions Evaluation Problems in Sustainable Development by Fuzzy Group Decision Making Approaches with Considering Decision Hesitancy and Prioritization among Assessing Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wen Qi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be prepared against potential balance-breaking risks affecting economic development, more and more countries have recognized emergency response solutions evaluation (ERSE as an indispensable activity in their governance of sustainable development. Traditional multiple criteria group decision making (MCGDM approaches to ERSE have been facing simultaneous challenging characteristics of decision hesitancy and prioritization relations among assessing criteria, due to the complexity in practical ERSE problems. Therefore, aiming at the special type of ERSE problems that hold the two characteristics, we investigate effective MCGDM approaches by hiring interval-valued dual hesitant fuzzy set (IVDHFS to comprehensively depict decision hesitancy. To exploit decision information embedded in prioritization relations among criteria, we firstly define an fuzzy entropy measure for IVDHFS so that its derivative decision models can avoid potential information distortion in models based on classic IVDHFS distance measures with subjective supplementing mechanism; further, based on defined entropy measure, we develop two fundamental prioritized operators for IVDHFS by extending Yager’s prioritized operators. Furthermore, on the strength of above methods, we construct two hesitant fuzzy MCGDM approaches to tackle complex scenarios with or without known weights for decision makers, respectively. Finally, case studies have been conducted to show effectiveness and practicality of our proposed approaches.

  5. The Renewable Energy Directive: biofuels, biomass and sustainable development criteria. How to check in France the compliance of marketed biofuels with sustainability criteria defined by the Directive on renewable energies? (Phase 1: biofuels and bio-liquids); Directive Energies Renouvelables: Biocarburants, biomasse et criteres de developpement durable. Comment verifier, en France, la conformite des biocarburants mis sur le marche aux criteres de durabilite prevus par la Directive sur les energies renouvelables? (Phase 1: biocarburants et bioliquides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    After having recalled and commented the main principles of the European directive which sets objectives in terms of renewable energy promotion and consumption, this report analyses the quantitative and qualitative sustainability criteria which must be applied particularly to biofuels and bio-liquids produced from agricultural activities, and their application perspectives. It gives recommendations to assess these criteria. It also comments the modalities used to control the compliance of biofuels with these criteria

  6. Selected physicochemical aspects of poly- and perfluoroalkylated substances relevant to performance, environment and sustainability-part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Marie Pierre; Riess, Jean G

    2015-06-01

    The elemental characteristics of the fluorine atom tell us that replacing an alkyl chain by a perfluoroalkyl or polyfluorinated chain in a molecule or polymer is consequential. A brief reminder about perfluoroalkyl chains, fluorocarbons and fluorosurfactants is provided. The outstanding, otherwise unattainable physicochemical properties and combinations thereof of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are outlined, including extreme hydrophobic and lipophobic character; thermal and chemical stability in extreme conditions; remarkable aptitude to self-assemble into sturdy thin repellent protecting films; unique spreading, dispersing, emulsifying, anti-adhesive and levelling, dielectric, piezoelectric and optical properties, leading to numerous industrial and technical uses and consumer products. It was eventually discovered, however, that PFASs with seven or more carbon-long perfluoroalkyl chains had disseminated in air, water, soil and biota worldwide, are persistent in the environment and bioaccumulative in animals and humans, raising serious health and environmental concerns. Further use of long-chain PFASs is environmentally not sustainable. Most leading manufacturers have turned to shorter four to six carbon perfluoroalkyl chain products that are not considered bioaccumulative. However, many of the key performances of PFASs decrease sharply when fluorinated chains become shorter. Fluorosurfactants become less effective and less efficient, provide lesser barrier film stability, etc. On the other hand, they remain as persistent in the environment as their longer chain homologues. Surprisingly little data (with considerable discrepancies) is accessible on the physicochemical properties of the PFASs under examination, a situation that requires consideration and rectification. Such data are needed for understanding the environmental and in vivo behaviour of PFASs. They should help determine which, for which uses, and to what extent, PFASs are environmentally

  7. The Use of Oral Histories to Identify Criteria for Future Scenarios of Sustainable Farming in the South Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyang Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices in Jiangnan water towns have historically been identified as maintaining a balance between human activity and the local environment, but are now a significant local source of water pollution. Using a multi-methods approach, this study deduces the environmental impact of traditional practices, and the socially desired conditions for successfully reintroducing critical ones. Oral histories from 31 farmers in Tianshanzhuang village, South Yangtze River were in order to chart changes in farming practices over four historic periods, and used to estimate the nitrogen and phosphorus burdens per acre. Findings show that the use of Lan River Mud—dredged mud for fertilizer—was key in producing a positive impact, but abandoned after the 1980s. Four criteria hindering reintroduction of traditional practices were identified, and potentially useful but fragmented emerging local candidate practices are considered against these, as are recent practices in Japan. We propose that the cooperation of several stakeholders with various related government departments in China could lead to a portfolio of effective policy changes and should be studied further: to include new methods and uses of Lan River Mud; the integration of aquaculture, leisure and tourism industries with agriculture; and the production of organic produce with well-planned internet-linked sales, delivery and coordination mechanisms.

  8. Sustainable development relevant comparison of the greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chains of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Vate, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is emphasized that sustainable energy planning should account for the emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the whole energy chain, hence accounting not only carbon dioxide as the greenhouse gas and not only for the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. Lowering greenhouse gas emissions from the worldwide energy use can be done most effectively by accounting in energy planning for the full-energy-chain (FENCH) emissions of all GHGs. Only energy sources with similar output can be compared. This study investigates electricity generating technologies, which are compared in terms their GHG emission factors to be expressed in CO 2 -equivalents per kW.h(e). Earlier IAEA expert meetings are reviewed. A general meeting made general recommendations about methods and input data bases for FENCH-GHG analysis. Two more recent meetings dealt with the energy chains of nuclear and hydropower. The site-specific character of the emission factors of these energy sources is discussed. Both electricity generators have emission factors in the range of 5-30 g CO 2 -equiv./kW.h(e), which is very low compared to the FENCH-GHG emission factors of fossil-fueled power generation and of most of the renewable power generators. (author)

  9. Contextualism Revisited: Towards a More Relevant Conceptualization of Public Administration for Ethical and Sustainable Leadership in the Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Zomorrodian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how the contextual approach to the conceptualization and the design of public administration systems can still be a viable alternative for today’s environment. By making reference to a proposed conceptual model, predominantly based on the cultural and social values in different contexts, the paper juxtaposes both the traditional Universalists and recent NPM approaches to the Contextual model by reviewing the literature on the impacts of globalization and other recent developments in the area public administration and public policy both at the national and international levels. Special attention is paid to the significance of two major elements of ethical leadership and governance for creating a viable and sustainable public administration system that incorporates and emphasizes the process of political development and enhancing the civil society based on indigenous cultural and social values. The conclusion of the paper reinforces the validity and utility of the contextual approach by including these two major elements into its original conceptual framework.

  10. THE RESTRICTED SURGICAL RELEVANCE OF MORPHOLOGIC CRITERIA TO CLASSIFY SYSTEMIC-PULMONARY COLLATERAL ARTERIES IN PULMONARY ATRESIA WITH VENTRICULAR SEPTAL-DEFECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DERUITER, MC; GITTENBERGERDEGROOT, AC; BOGERS, AJJC; ELZENGA, NJ

    1994-01-01

    Now that systemic-pulmonary collateral arteries are used for unifocalization in patients with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect, the question arises whether morphologic criteria of these collateral arteries could help to provide better results. In an attempt to classify the morphologic

  11. Criteria for a Sustainable Exploitation of Groundwater. 1. Well Hydraulics and the Regional Simulation of Aquifers; Criterios para una explotacion sustentable del agua subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Monteagudo, Fernando [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose A. Echeverrria (Cuba)

    2002-12-01

    Compared to surface water, groundwater has several disadvantages: its renewal is slow, its potential is more difficult to estimate, and its exploitation often requires more energy. However, it has the advantage of a higher quality. The long-tem storage effect of aquifers guarantees its continuous availability even in regions with wide temporal variations in precipitation. Although at a global scale groundwater use seems small compared with surface water, the order of importance is reversed if only drinking water is considered. Due to its quality, limited vulnerability, and relatively continuous availability, groundwater is a resource of strategic importance. That is why its exploitation must by ruled by sustainability criteria. This work intends to describe in a general framework the basic criteria that must regulate the sustainable management of groundwater. These criteria can be classified as quantitative and qualitative. Both criteria should be integrated to define groundwater resource management strategies. In the first part of this work, the quantitative aspects are emphasized. Among these criteria that rule the limitation of groundwater, drawdowns are of fundamental importance. New, recently developed tools for this purpose are described, which also establish the links between well hydraulics and the regional simulation of aquifers, such as non-Darcy flow, the interference of wells with non-Darcy flow, and the local optimisation approach, among others. The international trends in this field are also discussed. [Spanish] Comparada con el agua superficial, el agua subterranea tiene la siguientes desventajas: una lenta renovacion, un potencial mas dificil de estimar y que con frecuencia se requiere de mas energia para explotarla. Sin embargo, posee una mayor calidad, ademas de que la capacidad de almacenamiento a largo plazo de los acuiferos garantiza la continuidad de su disponibilidad, incluso en regiones con fuertes variaciones temporales de precipitaciones

  12. Optimal Cropping Pattern Based on Multiple Economic, Regional, and Agricultural Sustainability Criteria in Sari, Iran: Application of a Consolidated Model of AHP and Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fallahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining a suitable cropping pattern is an important task for planners and requires an exact and realistic decision-making process based on several goals and criteria corresponding to secure the interest of agricultural beneficiaries in long-term. Accordingly, this study reviews the current pattern operated by farmers in Sari, Iran, and intends to provide a cropping pattern that considers the multifold regional and agricultural sustainability criteria along with economic considerations. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the study goals, a consolidated model of AHP and Linear Programming was applied. For this purpose, we constructed a three-level AHP, including a goal (determining the weight of each crop, seven criteria, and seven alternatives. Profitability, compatibility with regional and geographical conditions, water consumption, environmental effects of cropping, job creation opportunities, skill and proficiency required for producing a crop, and risk taken to cultivate a crop were considered as the criteria in the model. Seven alternative crops including rice, wheat, rapeseed, barley, soybean, clover, and vegetables were considered too. The next step is determining the weight of each criterion with regard to the goal and the weight of each alternative with regard to each criteria. By multiplying these weights, final weights for various crops were obtained from the model. Derived weights for each crop were then applied as objective function coefficients in the Linear Programming model and the model was solved subject to the constraints. Results and Discussion: Optimal cropping pattern determined based on the consolidated model of AHP and Linear Programming and the results compared to a scenario that only looks forward to maximizing the economic interests. Due to the low profitability of rapeseed and barley, these crops eliminated from the pattern in the profit-maximizing scenario. According to the results, the

  13. Optimal diversity of renewable energy alternatives under multiple criteria: An application to the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shmelev, S.E.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multi-criteria analysis of alternative combinations of renewable energy technologies to meet a sustainable energy supply. It takes into account a range of criteria to reflect relevant environmental, social and economic considerations, capture the value of diversity, and reflect

  14. Does the Gold Standard label hold its promise in delivering higher Sustainable Development benefits? A multi-criteria comparison of CDM projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drupp, Moritz A.

    2011-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has a twin objective: to help developed countries reduce GHG emissions, and to support developing countries in achieving Sustainable Development (SD). As a response to the widespread criticism of the CDM's unsatisfactory SD record, initiatives have developed premium labels like the Gold Standard, which applies two additional 'screens' to filter CDM projects for higher SD benefits. In order to determine whether Gold Standard projects can be associated with higher local SD benefits, this paper evaluates the potential benefits of 48 CDM projects using a multi-criteria method and building on existing work. The 18 evaluated Gold Standard projects are compared to a 'representative portfolio' of 30 unlabeled CDM projects in order to capture the 'full' effect of the additional Gold Standard requirements, which is further decomposed into the two 'screen' effects. The results suggest that Gold Standard Certified Emission Reductions can be associated with higher potential local SD benefits when compared to the 'representative portfolio' of unlabeled CDM projects, while the comparison of projects of the same type remains inconclusive. The results support previous findings showing that renewable energy projects may deliver comparatively high SD benefits. - Research highlights: → This study evaluates and compares the potential contribution of unlabeled- and Gold Standard labeled CDM projects to Sustainable Development (SD), extending the previously assessed projects as well as the methodological approach. → Gold Standard labeled Certified Emission Reductions (CER) can be associated with higher potential SD benefits compared to unlabeled projects. → A decomposition analysis shows that the Gold Standard s SD surplus must be primarily attributed to the favorable contribution of renewable energy projects to SD. → Policy makers might thus shift incentives towards renewable energy projects and buyers of CERs may shift their offset

  15. Strategies and arguments of ergonomic design for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Antonio; Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Rossi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Referring to the discussion recently promoted by the Sub-Technical Committee n°4 "Ergonomics and design for sustainability", in this paper will be shown the early results of a theoretical and methodological study on Ergonomic design for sustainability. In particular, the research is based on the comparison between the common thematic structure characterizing Ergonomics, with the principles of Sustainable Development and with criteria adopted from other disciplines already oriented toward Sustainability. The paper identifies an early logical-interpretative model and describes possible and relevant Strategies of Ergonomic design for sustainability, which are connected in a series of specific Sustainable Arguments.

  16. Sustainability Criteria for Contingency Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    free of pathogens and contaminants (herbicides, pesticides , chemicals) may allow the use of more standard or traditional water treat- ment techniques...reuse of wastewater. One ex- ample is Worrell Water Technologies’ Living Machine system which uses living plants and beneficial microorganisms to...contamination of soil. Landfarming is a method used to decontaminate soil through systematic cleansing or by aeration to promote microbial bioremediation

  17. We Look More, Listen More, Notice More: Impact of Sustained Professional Development on Head Start Teachers' Inquiry-Based and Culturally-Relevant Science Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Gillian H.; Dubosarsky, Mia; Mason, Annie; Carlson, Stephan; Murphy, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Despite many scholars' recommendations, science is often avoided during early childhood education. Among the reasons provided by early childhood teachers for the exclusion of science from their daily routines included science anxiety, low self-efficacy with respect to teaching science, lack of experience participating in science activities as students, or the notion that literacy and language are more important during the early years. In minority populations the problem is even greater due to identification of science with the `culture of. This article presents results from Ah Neen Dush, a sustained and transformative professional development program for Head Start teachers on an American Indian Reservation. The goal of the program is to support early childhood teachers in developing inquiry-based and culturally-relevant teaching practices. Through analysis of teachers' classroom practices, surveys and interviews, we explore changes in teachers' attitudes toward science and inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations were conducted using CLASS (Classroom assessment Scoring System), a tool used to evaluate the quality of classroom interactions. After 1 year of professional development teachers' attitudes were found to improve and after 2 years teachers classroom practices were more inquiry-based with statistically significant increases in CLASS observation scores.

  18. Brazilian industry of natural gas: criteria for definition of relevant markets concerning the defense of competition; Industria brasileira do gas natural: criterios de definicao dos mercados relevantes para efeito de defesa da concorrencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mano, Gustavo; Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade de Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A key point in the examination of the legality of antitrust practices is the delimitation of the relevant markets where the economic relations object of the analysis take place. This is the basis for the evaluation of the market power of the agents involved and the possible harm to competition they may cause. This work offers a study of the criteria for the determination of the relevant market in the scope of the natural gas industry in Brazil. It aims at identifying the performance of the agencies taking part in the Brazilian Antitrust System (SBDC) with regards to the examination of the related antitrust practices. These agencies work in connection with the National Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels Regulatory Agency (ANP), which is responsible for issuing technical reports on the subjects related to its area of competence. The analysis presented here has the main goal of verifying if the most important technical, operational and legal aspects are being adequately considered by the SBDC and ANP in the definition of the relevant markets as a basis for the judgment of the antitrust practices, and if they are coherent with the principles for fostering economic competition. The results points out that, despite the successful cooperation between the SBDC and the ANP, there are the used definition of the relevant markets for the natural gas industry still needs refinement. (author)

  19. Comparative Multi-Criteria Assessment of Climate Policies and Sustainable Development Strategies in Cameroon: Towards a GIS Decision-Support Tool for the Design of an Optimal REDD+ Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gwanyebit Kehbila

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is committed to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+. To achieve this goal, the government has introduced a series of policy reforms and formulated a number of key strategic planning documents to advance the REDD+ readiness process in Cameroon. This paper assesses the extent to which major cross-sectoral policies support or impede the development and implementation of an optimal REDD+ strategy in Cameroon from a comparative multi-criteria perspective. Study results reveal that a majority of the policy instruments reviewed appeared to be less prescriptive in terms of any tangible REDD+ strategy, as they do not have provisions for tangible measures to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. Given the lack of adequate flexibility, prompt review and responsiveness of these cross-sectoral policies to adapt themselves to new realities and respond to a changing environment, this paper introduces a GIS-REDD+ decision support system (GIS-REDD+DSS that is necessary to support the adaptive element of an adaptive REDD+ strategy in Cameroon. The GIS-REDD+DSS, an electronic REDD+agri intermediary hub, serves the following purpose: (1 host a database of locally-relevant climate information, improved input technologies, best practices as well as land use and forest cover geo-spatial maps; (2 host a virtual economic tool that performs economic valuations (costs and benefits and financial analysis of REDD+agri projects to aid investment decision-making; and (3 host an electronic marketplace to mediate any-to-any transactions among REDD+agri project developers, service providers, input suppliers, private and institutional investors and buyers (wholesalers and retailers, thereby creating value in two ways: aggregation and matching. This decision support tool, we argue, is a fundamental prerequisite for “policy and REDD+ safeguard

  20. Criteria for sustainable fisheries on juveniles illustrated for Mediterranean hake: control the juvenile harvest, and safeguard spawning refugia to rebuild population fecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Caddy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a broad overview of issues relevant to management of fisheries for juvenile fish in contrast to the many stock assessments following Beverton and Holt’s (1957 approach for rational exploitation of mature fishes. A perspective on assessing these fisheries is illustrated for juvenile European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in the northwestern Mediterranean. Here, a constant natural mortality (M assumption is incorrect, as is the assumption that high fecundities are necessarily adequate for stock replacement. The high Ms-at-age for juveniles generated by the reciprocal model are shown to be a logical counterpart to the high fecundity of hake. Charnov’s criterion of intergenerational reproductive replacement is used to test for a sustainable population, analogous to a limit reference point warning of the dangers of overfishing beyond population replacement. Once peak mortality rates of age 2 hake exceed F(2=1.1-1.2, which is currently the case, reproductive replacement may be at risk. Adult exploitation by inshore trawls is low, and maturing hake surviving the fine-mesh trawl fishery migrate offshore with a reduced vulnerability to fine-mesh gears. Early research suggested that rough bottom near the shelf edge once formed a refugium protecting offshore spawners from trawling, and led to abundant recruitment of juveniles nearer shore. It may not do so if offshore fishing effort by reinforced bottom trawls, gill nets and longlines is uncontrolled. Restoring offshore refugia to protect spawners and controlling peak fishing mortality of juveniles would be a precautionary strategy aimed at restoring previous levels of recruitment to the small-mesh trawl fishery.

  1. A decision support tool for sustainable supplier selection in manufacturing firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeyinwa Orji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Most original equipment manufacturers (OEMs are strategically involved in supplier base rationalization and increased consciousness of sustainable development thus, reinforcing need for accurately considering sustainability in supplier selection to improve organizational performance. In real industrial case, imprecise data, ambiguity of human judgment, uncertainty among sustainability factors and the need to capture all subjective and objective criteria are unavoidable and pose huge challenge to accurately incorporate sustainability factors into supplier selection.Methodology: This study develops a model based on integrated multi- criteria decision making (MCDM methods to solve such problems. The developed model applies Fuzzy logic, DEMATEL and TOPSIS to effectively analyze the interdependencies between sustainability criteria and to select the best sustainable supplier in fuzzy environment while capturing all subjective and objective criteria. A case study is illustrated to test the proposed model in a gear manufacturing company, an OEM to provide insights and for practical applications.Findings: Results show that social factors of sustainability ranks as the most important in supplier selection. However, the most influential sustainability sub- criteria are work safety (WS and quality.Originality/Value: The model is capable of capturing all subjective and objective criteria in fuzzy environment to accurately incorporate sustainability factors in supplier selection. It is decision support tool relevant for providing insights to managers while implementing sustainable supplier selection.

  2. Guidance to the regulations on sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids Version 3.0; Vaegledning till regelverket om haallbarhetskriterier foer biodrivmedel och flytande biobraenslen Version 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Swedish Energy Agency is the regulatory authority for enforcement of the Act (2010:598) concerning sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids. The Act implements into Swedish law provisions on sustainability criteria in the so-called renewable-directive. Authority is based on the authorization issued regulations, but there are many details that are not regulated by statute. Many of the interested companies contacts the authority and want to know more about what will apply in various respects. The Agency has therefore chosen, in this guide, to introduce more detailed explanations of the rules that exist in law and regulation. It is thus not a question of legally binding rules. This third version of the guidance has been supplemented with sections on reporting. The Agency will gradually expand the guide to include more parts of the acquis. The guidance has been produced by the unit for sustainable fuels. Before the content was fixed definitively the guidance has been circulated to NGOs and government.

  3. Evaluation System sustainable building of the Federal State. Evidence of sustainability criteria for the new construction of office and administration buildings; Bewertungssystem Nachhaltiges Bauen des Bundes. Nachweis der Nachhaltigkeitskriterien fuer den Neubau von Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerz, Nicolas; Rietz, Andreas [Bundesinstitut fuer Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung (BBSR), Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Numerous research projects funded by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) are the essential basis for the emergence of a systematic sustainability assessment. After two years of cooperation with the German Sustainable Building Council (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) a scientifically substantiated and design based process of evaluation for the construction of administrative buildings was available. On the basis of a practical testing the system of evaluating of sustainability was refined to a ''rating system for sustainable building''. The contribution under consideration reports on the structure and methodology of this evaluation system as well as on working materials and tools for planning and evaluation.

  4. Development of standards, criteria, specifications. Vol. 2 - Longlife.. Sustainable, energy efficient and resource saving, residential buildings in consideration of unified procedures and new and adapted technologies. Project in the Baltic Sea region programme 2007-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, Klaus (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Energy and Cost Efficiency as the key characteristics of the sustainability have been the main consideration of different parts of research represented in the Longlife 2 Report. Longlife 2 Report is in fact the final result of work package 4 ''Developments of Standards and Criteria for Sustainable Building and Construction''. Work package 4 was created based on the work package 3 ''Analysis and comparison of state of technology, administration and legal procedures, financial situation, demographic needs, similarities and differences in the participant countries: Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia''. Three competence teams from each participant country studied, analyzed and examined these concepts from different point of view and introduced a framework to define the fundamental concepts of sustainability. This crucial phase of project based on the objectives and activities of each team could be described as follow: Team 1'' Engineering and Building Technology standards'' and related expertise emphasized on the most architectural solutions and characteristics of sustainability in very wide spectrum. That is realized through adaptable methods of design, typology, standards, assessment systems, proper and available materials with the best physical features, the most efficient and advanced structures and technologies in order to have the most possible energy and resource saving beside the less life cycle cost of the residential building. Team 2 '' Method of planning permit and tendering Procedure'' and its expertise from another point of view worked on the legal and administrative aspects of sustainability and examining possibility and capacity of each involved country to realize sustainable construction. Team 3 ''Economical and Financial basis, Industry and quality'' and its related expertise explained and examined the adequate and necessary tools for

  5. Sustainability concept for energy, water and environment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review is aimed to introduce historical background for the sustainability concept development for energy, water and environment systems. In the assessment of global energy and water resources attention is focussed in on the resource consumption and its relevancy to the future demand. In the review of the sustainability concept development special emphasize is devoted to the definition of sustainability and its relevancy to the historical background of the sustainability idea. In order to introduce measuring of sustainability the attention is devoted to the definition of respective criteria. There have been a number of attempts to define the criterions for the assessment of the sustainability of the market products. Having those criterions as bases, it was introduced a specific application in the energy system design

  6. Towards sustainability assessment follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: a.morrison-saunders@murdoch.edu.au [Murdoch University (Australia); North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny, E-mail: jenny@integral-sustainability.net [North-West University (South Africa); Integral Sustainability (Australia); Curtin University (Australia); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [North-West University (South Africa); University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [North-West University (South Africa)

    2014-02-15

    This paper conceptualises what sustainability assessment follow-up might entail for three models of sustainability assessment: EIA-driven integrated assessment, objectives-led integrated assessment and the contribution to sustainability model. The first two are characterised by proponent monitoring and evaluation of individual impacts and indicators while the latter takes a holistic view based around focused sustainability criteria relevant to the context. The implications of three sustainability challenges on follow-up are also examined: contested time horizons and value changes, trade-offs, and interdisciplinarity. We conclude that in order to meet these challenges some form of adaptive follow-up is necessary and that the contribution to sustainability approach is the best approach. -- Highlights: • We explore sustainability follow-up for three different sustainability models. • Long-time frames require adaptive follow-up and are a key follow-up challenge. • Other key challenges include interdisciplinarity, and trade-offs. • Sustainability follow-up should be a direction of travel and not an outcome. • Only the follow-up for contribution to sustainability model addresses sustainability challenges sufficiently.

  7. Towards sustainability assessment follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Pope, Jenny; Bond, Alan; Retief, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This paper conceptualises what sustainability assessment follow-up might entail for three models of sustainability assessment: EIA-driven integrated assessment, objectives-led integrated assessment and the contribution to sustainability model. The first two are characterised by proponent monitoring and evaluation of individual impacts and indicators while the latter takes a holistic view based around focused sustainability criteria relevant to the context. The implications of three sustainability challenges on follow-up are also examined: contested time horizons and value changes, trade-offs, and interdisciplinarity. We conclude that in order to meet these challenges some form of adaptive follow-up is necessary and that the contribution to sustainability approach is the best approach. -- Highlights: • We explore sustainability follow-up for three different sustainability models. • Long-time frames require adaptive follow-up and are a key follow-up challenge. • Other key challenges include interdisciplinarity, and trade-offs. • Sustainability follow-up should be a direction of travel and not an outcome. • Only the follow-up for contribution to sustainability model addresses sustainability challenges sufficiently

  8. "Keeping it Living": applications and relevance of traditional plant management in British Columbia to sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2001-01-01

    There has been increasing concern about sustainability in harvesting and marketing of non-timber forest products in North America. This paper examines traditional approaches and practices for use of plant resources by Aboriginal peoples and discusses their applications in a contemporary context. Philosophies and attitudes of caring and respect are embodied in many...

  9. Impact of an increasing supply of bioenergy sources on the sustainability of agricul-tural enterprises, evaluated with the Criteria System for Sustainable Agriculture (CSSA); Folgenabschaetzung einer zunehmenden Bereitstellung von Bioenergietraegern auf die Nachhaltigkeit landwirtschaftlicher Unternehmen, bewertet mit dem Kriteriensystem Nachhaltige Landwirtschaft (KSNL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschuh, Thorsten; Eckert, Hans; Maier, Uta; Gernand, Ulrich; Mueller, Anja [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (TLL), Jena (Germany); Verband fuer Agrarforschung und Bildung Thueringen e.V., Jena (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    The report investigates how an increasing supply of bioenergy sources affects the sustainability situation of farms at different sites and with different structures. The ''Criteria System for Sustainable Agriculture'' (CSSA) was used as analysis and assessment criteria system. The CSSA is based on 34 selected criteria in the field of economy, environment and social conditions. Each criterion indicates a defined pres-sure or state and evaluates the results on the basis of defined tolerance ranges. In the study short-term scenarios of an increasing provision of bioenergy based on real data from agricultural farms were evaluated with the CSSA system. Altogether, 30 scenarios were analysed. As a result the most sustainable scenario for the supply of bioenergy was identified for each farm considered. Using this approach, the most important adaptation reactions of agricultural enterprises were determined and evaluated. Potential applications of the explained procedure are the ex-ante simulation and ex- ante evaluation of agricultural processes and the creation and evaluation of sup-port programmes. (orig.)

  10. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  11. Concepts for the town of the future. Sustainability criteria as a tool of design; Konzepte fuer die Stadt der Zukunft. Nachhaltigkeitskriterien als Entwurfswerkzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Maik W. [Schaller Architekten BDA RIBA, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Whether land use, local storms or migration - the effects of global urbanization make the integration of urban systems in national sustainable development strategies inevitable. While comprehensive, holistic evaluations already are possible by means of appropriate methods, it is still missing in the transfer in manageable planning tools. How these tools could look like, how they influence the evolution of the design process and also generate form, space and structure, all this is shown by the project New Hanza City in Latvia.

  12. Sustainability focused decision-making in building renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamari, Aliakbar; Corrao, Rossella; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2017-01-01

    of the sustainability issues through support of decision-making and communication with relevant stakeholders. Early in a project, it can be used to identify key performance criteria, and later to evaluate/compare the pros and cons of alternative retrofitting solutions either during the design stage or upon the project...

  13. The impact of the life cycle analysis methodology on whether biodiesel produced from residues can meet the EU sustainability criteria for biofuel facilities constructed after 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamsiriroj, T.; Murphy, J.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper considers biodiesel production from residues; tallow and used cooking oil (UCO). The tallow system is more complex involving two processes. The first process is rendering in which tallow (animal fat) and Meat and Bone Meal (MBM) are produced from the slaughter of cattle. MBM is assumed as a thermal energy source for cement manufacture and thus is not used for biodiesel production. The second process is biodiesel production from tallow. Three methodologies are employed to examine sustainability of the biodiesel. The no allocation approach assigns all the parasitic demands to the tallow; thus all energies required to make both MBM and tallow are associated with the tallow biodiesel. The resulting energy balance is negative. The substitution approach allocates the energy in MBM (used to produce cement) to tallow biodiesel. This results in the net energy being greater than the gross energy. The allocation by energy content method divides the parasitic demands of the rendering process between tallow and MBM by energy content. The parasitic demands of the biodiesel process are divided by energy content of the biodiesel, glycerol and K-fertiliser. For tallow biodiesel this yielded a net energy value of 38.6% of gross energy. The same method generated a net energy value of 67% for UCO biodiesel. More importantly the recommended method (allocation by energy content) generated a value of 54% greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings for tallow and a value of 69% for UCO. Plants commencing after 2017, need to have a 60% GHG emission savings, to be considered sustainable. Thus a facility treating both feedstocks would need to treat a maximum of 60% tallow to be considered sustainable after 2017. (author)

  14. Aspectos docentes sobre medio ambiente urbano y sustentabilidad: su importancia actual. /Educational aspects of the urban environment and sustainability: its relevance today.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadda,Giulietta

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere por qué Chile no se puede incluir entre los países con mayor tradición ambientalista y cómo el modelo económico que le ha valido prestigiosas consideraciones internacionales ha representado un alto costo ambiental y ha provocado daños irreparables al medio ambiente./ It argues the need for a training course at university level in the field of environment and sustainability, and attempts a definition of the components of the course.

  15. A critical review of the applicability of biodiesel and grass biomethane as biofuels to satisfy both biofuel targets and sustainability criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamsiriroj, Thanasit; Murphy, Jerry D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (UCC), Cork (Ireland); Environmental Research Institute (ERI), University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-04-15

    There are numerous ways to assess and compare biofuels. Gross energy per hectare reflects the quantity of product produced per unit of land. Net energy per hectare reflects the parasitic demand associated with the product per hectare. Gross and net energy per hectare are far superior for grass biomethane than rape seed biodiesel. For a biofuel made from residues the descriptor MJGJ{sub fuel}{sup -1} (MJ of biofuel produced per GJ of fossil fuel displaced) is more instructive; this reflects the relative efficiency of the biofuel. Of issue in the assessment is how to deal with co-products, by-products and residues. The allocation methodology allows for a variety of answers to be generated. UCO biodiesel has a good energy balance for any allocation approach; tallow biodiesel has a poor net energy unless credit is given for the co-production of meat and bone meal as a substitute fuel. To be deemed sustainable by the EU Renewable Energy Directive a value of 60% GHG savings is required for facilities built post 2017. A further crucial consideration is: how much fuel can be produced? This study shows that indigenous biodiesel produced in Ireland and grass biomethane may be deemed sustainable but only grass biomethane may produce a significant quantity, potentially satisfying the 10% renewable energy in transport target for 2020 as opposed to only 1.23% in total from all indigenous biodiesel systems. (author)

  16. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes: I-selection goals and criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses natural processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to ensure production while limiting the environmental footprint of livestock and crop production systems. Selecting to achieve a maximization of target production criteria has long proved detrimental to fitness traits. However, since the 1990s, developments in animal breeding have also focussed on animal robustness by balancing production and functional traits within overall breeding goals. We discuss here how an agroecological perspective should further shift breeding goals towards functional traits rather than production traits. Breeding for robustness aims to promote individual adaptive capacities by considering diverse selection criteria which include reproduction, animal health and welfare, and adaptation to rough feed resources, a warm climate or fluctuating environmental conditions. It requires the consideration of genotype×environment interactions in the prediction of breeding values. Animal performance must be evaluated in low-input systems in order to select those animals that are adapted to limiting conditions, including feed and water availability, climate variations and diseases. Finally, we argue that there is no single agroecological animal type, but animals with a variety of profiles that can meet the expectations of agroecology. The standardization of both animals and breeding conditions indeed appears contradictory to the agroecological paradigm that calls for an adaptation of animals to local opportunities and constraints in weakly artificialized systems tied to their physical environment.

  17. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Criteria CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, V.; Zateyshikova, O.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the theoretical aspects regarding criteria for assessing CSR proposed by A. Carroll, including: economic, legal, ethical, philanthropic. Based on this, it is proposed to characterize these criteria with respect to the interested parties (stakeholders), including: investors, shareholders suppliers, customers, employees, society and the state. This will make a qualitative assessment of the presence and depth using social responsibility in the company, as well as determine the ext...

  19. Hybrid multiple criteria decision-making methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras; Govindan, K.; Antucheviciene, Jurgita

    2016-01-01

    Formal decision-making methods can be used to help improve the overall sustainability of industries and organisations. Recently, there has been a great proliferation of works aggregating sustainability criteria by using diverse multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. A number of revi...

  20. A top-down / bottom-up approach for multi-actors and multi-criteria assessment of mining projects for sustainable development. Application on Arlit Uranium mines (Niger)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamaret, A.

    2007-06-01

    This thesis aims to appraise the relevance of using an hybrid top-down / bottom-up approach to evaluate mining projects in the perspective of sustainable development. With the advent of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development concepts, new social expectations have appeared towards companies that go beyond a sole requirement of profit earning capacity. If companies do not answer to these expectations, they risk to lose their social legitimacy. Traditionally associated with social, environmental, economical and political impacts and risks, mining activity is particularly concerned by these new issues. Whereas mineral resources needs have never been so high, mining companies are now expected to limit their negative effects and to take into account their different audiences' expectations in order to define, together, the terms of their social license to operate. Considering the diversity of issues, scales, actors and contexts, the challenge is real and necessitates tools to better understand issues and to structure dialogues. Based on the Uranium mines of Arlit (Niger) case study, this work shows that associating participatory approaches to structuration tools and literature propositions, appears as an efficient formula to better organize issues diversity and to build a structured dialogue between mining companies and their stakeholders. First Part aims to present the theoretical, institutional and sectorial contexts of the thesis. Second Part exposes work and results of the evaluation carried out in Niger. And, Third Part, shows the conclusions that can be derived from this work and presents a proposal for an evaluation framework, potentially applicable to other mining sites. (author)

  1. Evaluating governance for sustainable development - Insights from experiences in the Dutch fen landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Uyl, Roos M; Driessen, Peter P J

    2015-11-01

    Prominent strands of discussion in the literature on governance for sustainable development debate how change can be induced to enhance sustainability, and how to evaluate the interventions aimed at prompting such change. Strikingly, there are few contributions about how prominent ideas of inducing change deal with multiple governance criteria for pursuing sustainable development. Moreover, the way ideas about inducing change relate to criteria of governance for sustainable development is not yet studied in an empirical context. This paper therefore comparatively analyses how three prominent modes of sustainable development governance - adaptive management, transition management and payments for environmental services - relate to a set of five prominent criteria reported in the literature, namely: equity, democracy, legitimacy, the handling of scale issues and the handling of uncertainty issues. It finds that the academic debates on these three modes address these criteria with varying attention and rather fragmented, while in the empirical setting of the Dutch fen landscape several aspects relating to the studied criteria were present and substantially influenced the functioning of the three modes of sustainable development. Together, the analysis of the literature debate and the empirical data are able to show that a narrow evaluation perspective may fail to diagnose and capture relevant struggles and complexities coming along with governance for sustainable development relevant issues. The study shows that in order to advance our understanding of governance for sustainable development, it is indeed important to include multiple criteria in studying these modes. Moreover, the study shows the importance of including empirical experiences which manifest when different modes for sustainable development are applied in real-world settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  3. Participatory, Multi-Criteria Evaluation Methods as a Means to Increase the Legitimacy and Sustainability of Land Use Planning Processes. The Case of the Chaco Region in Salta, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghezzo, Lucas; Venencia, Cristian; Buliubasich, E. Catalina; Iribarnegaray, Martín A.; Volante, José N.

    2017-02-01

    Conflicts over land use and ownership are common in South America and generate frequent confrontations among indigenous peoples, small-scale farmers, and large-scale agricultural producers. We argue in this paper that an accurate identification of these conflicts, together with a participatory evaluation of their importance, will increase the social legitimacy of land use planning processes, rendering decision-making more sustainable in the long term. We describe here a participatory, multi-criteria conflict assessment model developed to identify, locate, and categorize land tenure and use conflicts. The model was applied to the case of the "Chaco" region of the province of Salta, in northwestern Argentina. Basic geographic, cadastral, and social information needed to apply the model was made spatially explicit on a Geographic Information System. Results illustrate the contrasting perceptions of different stakeholders (government officials, social and environmental non-governmental organizations, large-scale agricultural producers, and scholars) on the intensity of land use conflicts in the study area. These results can help better understand and address land tenure conflicts in areas with different cultures and conflicting social and enviornmental interests.

  4. Participatory, Multi-Criteria Evaluation Methods as a Means to Increase the Legitimacy and Sustainability of Land Use Planning Processes. The Case of the Chaco Region in Salta, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghezzo, Lucas; Venencia, Cristian; Buliubasich, E Catalina; Iribarnegaray, Martín A; Volante, José N

    2017-02-01

    Conflicts over land use and ownership are common in South America and generate frequent confrontations among indigenous peoples, small-scale farmers, and large-scale agricultural producers. We argue in this paper that an accurate identification of these conflicts, together with a participatory evaluation of their importance, will increase the social legitimacy of land use planning processes, rendering decision-making more sustainable in the long term. We describe here a participatory, multi-criteria conflict assessment model developed to identify, locate, and categorize land tenure and use conflicts. The model was applied to the case of the "Chaco" region of the province of Salta, in northwestern Argentina. Basic geographic, cadastral, and social information needed to apply the model was made spatially explicit on a Geographic Information System. Results illustrate the contrasting perceptions of different stakeholders (government officials, social and environmental non-governmental organizations, large-scale agricultural producers, and scholars) on the intensity of land use conflicts in the study area. These results can help better understand and address land tenure conflicts in areas with different cultures and conflicting social and enviornmental interests.

  5. The Relevance of Indigenous Knowledge to Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is based on the experience, often tested over centuries of use, adapted to local culture and environment, dynamic and changing. People have an intimate knowledge of many aspects of their surroundings and their daily lives. Over centuries, people have learnt how to grow food and to survive in difficult environments.

  6. Sustainability Tools Inventory - Initial Gaps Analysis | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influence resource consumption, waste generation, and hazard generation including air pollution and greenhouse gases. In addition, the tools have been evaluated using four screening criteria: relevance to community decision making, tools in an appropriate developmental stage, tools that may be transferrable to situations useful for communities, and tools with requiring skill levels appropriate to communities. This document provides an initial gap analysis in the area of community sustainability decision support tools. It provides a reference to communities for existing decision support tools, and a set of gaps for those wishing to develop additional needed tools to help communities to achieve sustainability. It contributes to SHC 1.61.4

  7. Sustainable building organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable Development and Sustainable Building is mainly a question of (human) environmentally-conscious Organisation and Management Criteria are needed in order to capture the best practices in the field. Therefore we developed modells and methods, which help to choose the most adequate

  8. Development of statewide geriatric patients trauma triage criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werman, Howard A; Erskine, Timothy; Caterino, Jeffrey; Riebe, Jane F; Valasek, Tricia

    2011-06-01

    The geriatric population is unique in the type of traumatic injuries sustained, physiological responses to those injuries, and an overall higher mortality when compared to younger adults. No published, evidence-based, geriatric-specific field destination criteria exist as part of a statewide trauma system. The Trauma Committee of the Ohio Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Board sought to develop specific criteria for geriatric trauma victims. A literature search was conducted for all relevant literature to determine potential, geriatric-specific, field-destination criteria. Data from the Ohio Trauma Registry were used to compare elderly patients, defined as age >70 years, to all patients between the ages of 16 to 69 years with regards to mortality risk in the following areas: (1) Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score; (2) systolic blood pressure (SBP); (3) falls associated with head, chest, abdominal or spinal injury; (4) mechanism of injury; (5) involvement of more than one body system as defined in the Barell matrix; and (6) co-morbidities and motor vehicle collision with one or more long bone fracture. For GCS score and SBP, those cut-off points with equal or greater risk of mortality as compared to current values were chosen as proposed triage criteria. For other measures, any criterion demonstrating a statistically significant increase in mortality risk was included in the proposed criteria. The following criteria were identified as geriatric-specific criteria: (1) GCS score trauma; (2) SBP trauma. In addition, these data suggested that elderly patients with specific co-morbidities be given strong consideration for evaluation in a trauma center. The state of Ohio is the first state to develop evidence-based geriatric-specific field-destination criteria using data from its state-mandated trauma registry. Further analysis of these criteria will help determine their effects on over-triage and under-triage of geriatric victims of traumatic injuries and the impact on the

  9. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center presents Enhancing Standards Based Science Curriculum through NASA Content Relevancy: A Model for Sustainable Teaching-Research Integration Dr. Robert Gabrys, Raquel Marshall, Dr. Evelina Felicite-Maurice, Erin McKinley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R. H.; Gabrys, R.

    2016-12-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a systemic educator professional development model for the integration of NASA climate change resources into the K-12 classroom. The desired outcome of this model is to prepare teachers in STEM disciplines to be globally engaged and knowledgeable of current climate change research and its potential for content relevancy alignment to standard-based curriculum. The application and mapping of the model is based on the state education needs assessment, alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and implementation framework developed by the consortium of district superintendents and their science supervisors. In this presentation, we will demonstrate best practices for extending the concept of inquiry-based and project-based learning through the integration of current NASA climate change research into curriculum unit lessons. This model includes a significant teacher development component focused on capacity development for teacher instruction and pedagogy aimed at aligning NASA climate change research to related NGSS student performance expectations and subsequent Crosscutting Concepts, Science and Engineering Practices, and Disciplinary Core Ideas, a need that was presented by the district steering committee as critical for ensuring sustainability and high-impact in the classroom. This model offers a collaborative and inclusive learning community that connects classroom teachers to NASA climate change researchers via an ongoing consultant/mentoring approach. As a result of the first year of implementation of this model, Maryland teachers are implementing NGSS unit lessons that guide students in open-ended research based on current NASA climate change research.

  10. A statistical study on consumer's perception of sustainable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Liana; Izvercian, Monica; Ivaşcu, Larisa

    2017-07-01

    Sustainability and sustainable concepts are quite often but not always used correctly. The statistical research on consumer's perception of sustainable products has tried to identify the level of knowledge regarding the concept of sustainability and sustainable products, the selected criteria concerning the buying decision, the intention of purchasing a sustainable product, main sustainable products preferred by consumers.

  11. Nuclear energy and sustainable development: contradiction or challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laes, E.; Meskens, G.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is widely accepted as a principle for decision-making. However, it needs to be put into operation. Two classical approaches, cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis, are not suitable on account of the underlying rational choice theory and value system. Insights from these methods need to be complemented by the inherently pluralistic approach of cultural theory. This offers the prospects of the identification of all relevant criteria for the comparison of different energy vectors, broadening the perspective through an interdisciplinary working process, confronting uncertainty at a fundamental level, and the explicit integration of values and world views. (author)

  12. Nuclear energy and sustainable development: contradiction or challenge?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, E.; Meskens, G. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    The concept of sustainable development is widely accepted as a principle for decision-making. However, it needs to be put into operation. Two classical approaches, cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis, are not suitable on account of the underlying rational choice theory and value system. Insights from these methods need to be complemented by the inherently pluralistic approach of cultural theory. This offers the prospects of the identification of all relevant criteria for the comparison of different energy vectors, broadening the perspective through an interdisciplinary working process, confronting uncertainty at a fundamental level, and the explicit integration of values and world views. (author)

  13. Sustainability Balanced Scorecard Disclosures and Corporate Commitment to Sustainability: An Australian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangeline O. Elijido-Ten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse corporate sustainability commitment level (SCL and its determinants by examining the extent of Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC public disclosures provided by Australia‟s largest publicly listed companies. First, content analysis is used to scrutinise publicly available disclosures. Then, logistic regression is conducted to analyse the determinants of SCL. The analysis shows that the company‟s level of commitment to sustainability can be determined from voluntary disclosures using a set of criteria developed from the relevant SBSC and environmental management literature. It is also found that SCL is significantly associated to size, leverage, industry and government reporting legislation but not to profitability.

  14. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  15. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jenny; Annandale, David; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  16. Sustainability and Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnikov, Catălina

    2012-01-01

    The relevant and, above all, remarkable feature of sustainability is due to its "duality": on the one hand, it is an indispensable element within the companies even if, on the other hand, it increases the costs of many activities and processes. Facing the challenge of sustainability will determine and create, in the coming years, emerging organizational forms. If ten years ago, many managers clearly expressed their doubts regarding the financial feasibility of sustainability, today, they admi...

  17. Sustainable Forest Management in a Mediterranean region: social preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroto, C.; Segura, M.; Ginestar, C.; Uriol, J.; Segura, B.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: There is a lack of empirical research that deals with sustainable forest management in Mediterranean regions, among the most vulnerable ecosystems. The main purpose of this work is to define the strategic criteria and objectives for sustainable forest management and aggregate the preferences of stake holders in a Mediterranean region, using AHP and Goal Programming. Area of study: Valencian Community (Spain). Material and Methods: Firstly, we identified forest stake holders and structured a decision hierarchy. Then a workshop was carried out to test and validate the proposed criteria and objectives, as well as a survey to determine social preferences. Secondly, another survey was conducted amongst experts to prioritize action plans. Main results: Stake holders preferences gave the greatest importance to the environmental criteria (hydrological regulation and erosion, climate change mitigation and biodiversity) with an average weight of 40%. Social criteria (employment, recreational activities and landscape) had a weight of 38% and 22% the economic criteria case (wood, hunting and fishing, livestock, renewable energies, rural tourism and mining). The results showed that new products and services such as tourism, renewable energies, landscape, hydrological regulation and erosion control, biodiversity or climate change mitigation are very relevant objectives. We also prioritized action plans comparing them with the distribution of the administration budget. Research highlights: The environmental and social criteria are much more important than the economic ones in the regional planning of the Mediterranean forest, regardless of the method used to aggregate the social preferences and if the forest is public or private. (Author)

  18. Alternative microbial methods: An overview and selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasson, Vicky; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel; Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-09-01

    This study provides an overview and criteria for the selection of a method, other than the reference method, for microbial analysis of foods. In a first part an overview of the general characteristics of rapid methods available, both for enumeration and detection, is given with reference to relevant bibliography. Perspectives on future development and the potential of the rapid method for routine application in food diagnostics are discussed. As various alternative "rapid" methods in different formats are available on the market, it can be very difficult for a food business operator or for a control authority to select the most appropriate method which fits its purpose. Validation of a method by a third party, according to international accepted protocol based upon ISO 16140, may increase the confidence in the performance of a method. A list of at the moment validated methods for enumeration of both utility indicators (aerobic plate count) and hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coagulase positive Staphylococcus) as well as for detection of the four major pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157 and Campylobacter spp.) is included with reference to relevant websites to check for updates. In a second part of this study, selection criteria are introduced to underpin the choice of the appropriate method(s) for a defined application. The selection criteria link the definition of the context in which the user of the method functions - and thus the prospective use of the microbial test results - with the technical information on the method and its operational requirements and sustainability. The selection criteria can help the end user of the method to obtain a systematic insight into all relevant factors to be taken into account for selection of a method for microbial analysis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of Business Transformation to Sustainable Business

    OpenAIRE

    Grunda, Rokas

    2011-01-01

    Having examined the concepts of sustainable business and advantages and disadvantages of business sustainability management models, the objective of the dissertation is to formulate a management model of business transformation to sustainable business and to verify it in present business conditions in Lithuania. In the dissertation, the essence of the concepts of sustainable development and sustainability is characterized, the criteria of sustainable society are distinguished and the concept ...

  20. Selection criteria for water disinfection techniques in agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haute, Sam van; Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    This paper comprises a selection tool for water disinfection methods for fresh produce pre- and postharvest practices. A variety of water disinfection technologies is available on the market and no single technology is the best choice for all applications. It can be difficult for end users to choose the technology that is best fit for a specific application. Therefore, the different technologies were characterized in order to identify criteria that influence the suitability of a technology for pre- or postharvest applications. Introduced criteria were divided into three principal components: (i) criteria related to the technology and which relate to the disinfection efficiency, (ii) attention points for the management and proper operation, and (iii) necessities in order to sustain the operation with respect to the environment. The selection criteria may help the end user of the water disinfection technology to obtain a systematic insight into all relevant aspects to be considered for preliminary decision making on which technologies should be put to feasibility testing for water disinfection in pre- and postharvest practices of the fresh produce chain.

  1. Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable Bio-energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.; Lewandoski, I.

    2004-07-01

    It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass production, have led to the demand for sustainability criteria and certification systems that can control biomass trade. Because neither such criteria and indicator sets nor certification systems for sustainable biomass trade are yet available the objective of this study is to generate information that can help to develop them. For this purposes existing certification systems, sets of sustainability criteria or guidelines on environmental or social sound management of resources are analyzed with the purpose to learn about the requirements, contents and organizational set ups of a certification system for sustainable biomass trade. First an inventory of existing systems was made; next, their structures were analyzed. Key finding from the analysis of internationally applied certification systems was that they are generally led by an international panel that represents all countries and stakeholder involved in the biomass production and trade activities. In a third and fourth step different approaches to formulate standards were described and a list of more than 100 social, economic, ecological and general criteria for sustainable biomass trade was extracted from the reviewed systems. In step five, methods to formulate indicators, that make sustainability criteria measurable, and verification tools that are used to control the performance of indicators are described. It is recommended to further develop the criteria and indicator (C and I) sets for sustainable biomass trade by involvement of the relevant stakeholder (e.g. biomass producer and consumer

  2. Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable bio-energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, I.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large-scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass production, have led to the demand for sustainability criteria and certification systems that can control biomass trade. Because neither such criteria and indicator sets nor certification systems for sustainable biomass trade are yet available, the objective of this study is to generate information that can help to develop them. For these purposes, existing certification systems, sets of sustainability criteria or guidelines on environmental or social sound management of resources are analyzed with the purpose to learn about the requirements, contents and organizational set ups of a certification system for sustainable biomass trade. First, an inventory of existing systems was made; second, their structures were analyzed. Key finding from the analysis of internationally applied certification systems was that they are generally led by an international panel that represents all countries and stakeholders involved in the biomass production and trade activities. In third and fourth steps different approaches to formulate standards were described and a list of more than 100 social, economic, ecological and general criteria for sustainable biomass trade was extracted from the reviewed systems. Fifth, methods to formulate indicators, that make sustainability criteria measurable, and verifiers that are used to control the performance of indicators are described. It is recommended to further develop the criteria and indicator (C and I) sets for sustainable biomass trade by involvement of the relevant stakeholders (e.g. biomass producer and consumer) and the

  3. Measuring the sustain ability of the timber industry in Europe. A multi criteria approach based on the aggregation of indicators; La medicion de la sostenibilidad de la madera en Europa. Un enfoque multicriterio basado en la agregacion de indicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voces, R.; Diaz, L.; Romero, C.

    2009-07-01

    Sustain ability is a multidimensional concept in continuous evolution. However, it is widely accepted the suitability of using several indicators of different nature to characterise and to quantify this concept. Within this orientation, in this paper the sustain ability of the wood industry in a significant number of European countries is analysed. To achieve this purpose, a set of economic, environmental and social indicators are defined for the years 2003 and 2004. With the help of a binary goal programming model, this indicators are aggregated into a synthetic index that measures the overall sustain ability. In this way, it is obtained a ranking in terms of sustain ability of the wood products industry in the European countries studied. (Author) 19 refs.

  4. Biofuels and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D

    2010-01-01

    Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, Brazilian ethanol production based on sugarcane, and European biodiesel production based on rapeseed oil. Other promising efforts have included programs to shift toward the production and use of biofuels based on residues and waste materials from the agricultural and forestry sectors, and perennial grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus--so-called cellulosic ethanol. This article reviews these efforts and the recent literature in the context of ecological economics and sustainability science. Several common dimensions for sustainable biofuels are discussed: scale (resource assessment, land availability, and land use practices); efficiency (economic and energy); equity (geographic distribution of resources and the "food versus fuel" debate); socio-economic issues; and environmental effects and emissions. Recent proposals have been made for the development of sustainable biofuels criteria, culminating in standards released in Sweden in 2008 and a draft report from the international Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels. These criteria hold promise for accelerating a shift away from unsustainable biofuels based on grain, such as corn, and toward possible sustainable feedstock and production practices that may be able to meet a variety of social, economic, and environmental sustainability criteria.

  5. Impact assessment procedures for sustainable development: A complexity theory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooteboom, Sibout

    2007-01-01

    The author assumes that effective Impact Assessment procedures should somehow contribute to sustainable development. There is no widely agreed framework for evaluating such effectiveness. The author suggests that complexity theories may offer criteria. The relevant question is 'do Impact Assessment Procedures contribute to the 'requisite variety' of a social system for it to deal with changing circumstances?' Requisite variety theoretically relates to the capability of a system to deal with changes in its environment. The author reconstructs how thinking about achieving sustainable development has developed in a sequence of discourses in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Each new discourse built on the previous ones, and is supposed to have added to 'requisite variety'. The author asserts that Impact Assessment procedures may be a necessary component in such sequences and derives possible criteria for effectiveness

  6. A Systematic Review of the Measurement of Sustainable Diets123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Lesli; Blesh, Jennifer; Miller, Laura; Green, Ashley; Shapiro, Lilly Fink

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has become an integral consideration of the dietary guidelines of many countries in recent decades. However, a lack of clear metrics and a shared approach to measuring the multiple components of sustainable diets has hindered progress toward generating the evidence needed to ensure the credibility of new guidelines. We performed a systematic literature review of empirical research studies on sustainable diets to identify the components of sustainability that were measured and the methods applied to do so. Two independent reviewers systematically searched 30 databases and other sources with the use of a uniform set of search terms and a priori exclusion criteria. In total, 113 empirical studies were included in the final review. Nearly all of the studies were focused on high-income countries. Although there was substantial heterogeneity in the components of sustainability measured, the estimated greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) of various dietary patterns were by far most commonly measured (n = 71 studies). Estimating the GHGEs of foods through various stages of production, use, and recycling with the use of the Life Cycle Assessment approach was the most common method applied to measure the environmental impacts of diets (n = 49 studies). Many components of sustainable diets identified in existing conceptual frameworks are disproportionately underrepresented in the empirical literature, as are studies that examine consumer demand for sustainable dietary alternatives. The emphasis in the literature on high-income countries also overlooks the production and dietary alternatives most relevant to low- and middle-income countries. We propose 3 methodological and measurement approaches that would both improve the global relevance of our understanding of sustainable diets and attend more completely to the existing multidimensional, multiscale conceptual framing of sustainable diets. PMID:27422501

  7. Choosing among waste management alternatives: relevant criteria and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharefkin, M.

    1976-01-01

    Two broad goals of nuclear waste management are cost effectiveness (economic efficiency) and intratemporal/intertemporal fairness or equity (not imposing unreasonable burdens on future generations). These two goals are conflicting, and their trade-off is the subject of this paper

  8. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  9. A RESEARCH ON BARRIERS TO SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SUPPLIER SELECTION CRITERIA (SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİR TEDARİK ZİNCİRİ YÖNETİMİ İÇİN ENGELLER VE SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİR TEDARİKÇİ SEÇİM KRİTERLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda ÖZÇELİK

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Firms have started to become aware of the fact that their suppliers’ responsibility for sustainability has a great impact on their own development and reputation and that any organization’s environmental sustainability is impossible without incorporating sustainable supply chain management applications into their activities. In this study, a survey was conducted on the firms that issue sustainability reports in Turkey. The purpose of the study is to examine issues that businesses see as obstacles to sustainable supply chain management and to search rankings of the criteria that can be used in sustainable supplier selection. According to the results of the study, supplier firm culture and financial costs are seen as obstacles to sustainable supply chain management, and amongst the criteria given for sustainable supplier selection, three criteria identified to have the highest importance value are, respectively, abolition of child labor and working conditions, quality, and reliability. According to the overall rankings of the criteria, economic criteria rank first, followed by environmental and social criteria. Keywords: Sustainability, Triple Bottom Line, Supply Chain Management, Sustainable Supply Chain Management. ÖZ: İşletmeler tedarikçilerinin sürdürülebilirlik konularındaki sorumluluklarının kendi gelişim ve itibarları üzerindeki etkisinin ve herhangi bir örgütün çevresel sürdürülebilirliğinin, sürdürülebilir tedarik zinciri yönetimi uygulamalarını içermeden imkânsız olduğunun farkına varmaya başlamışlardır. Yapılan çalışmada, Türkiye’de sürdürülebilirlik raporu yayınlayan işletmeler üzerine anket yoluyla bir araştırma yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın amacı, işletmelerin sürdürülebilir tedarik zinciri için engel olarak gördükleri konuları ve sürdürülebilir tedarikçi seçimi için kullanılacak kriterlerin önem derecelerini araştırmaktır. Araştırmanın sonu

  10. Toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.; Lee, L.; Lein, P.; Omberg, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents recommendations of a subcommittee of the Westinghouse M ampersand 0 Nuclear Facility Safety Committee concerning toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria. Two sets of criteria have been developed, one for use in the hazard classification of facilities, and the second for use in comparing risks in DOE non-reactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports. The Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) values are intended to provide estimates of concentration ranges for specific chemicals above which exposure would be expected to lead to adverse heath effects of increasing severity for ERPG-1, -2, and -3s. The subcommittee recommends that criteria for hazard class or risk range be based on ERPGs for all chemicals. Probability-based Incremental Cancer Risk (ICR) criteria are recommended for additional analyses of risks from all known or suspected human carcinogens. Criteria are given for both on-site and off-site exposure. The subcommittee also recommends that the 5-minute peak concentration be compared with the relevant criterion with no adjustment for exposure time. Since ERPGs are available for only a limited number of chemicals, the subcommittee has developed a proposed hierarchy of concentration limit parameters for the different criteria

  11. Sustainability in product development: a proposal for classification of approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Flores Magnago

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The product development is a process that addresses sustainability issues inside companies. Many approaches have been discussed in academy concerning sustainability, as Natural Capitalism, Design for Environment (DfE and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA, but a question arises: which is indicated for what circumstance? This article aim is the proposition of a classification, based on a literature review, for 15 of these approaches. The criteria were: (i approach nature, (ii organization level, (iii integration level in Product Development Process (PDP, and (iv approach relevance for sustainability dimensions. Common terms allowed the establishment of connections among the approaches. As a result the researchers concluded that, despite they come from distinct knowledge areas they are not mutually excludent, on the contrary, the approaches may be used in a complementary way by managers. The combined use of complementary approaches is finally suggested in the paper.

  12. Criteria for prioritization of HIV programs in Viet Nam: a discrete choice experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Safarnejad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the decline in funding for Viet Nam’s response to the HIV epidemic, there is a need for evidence on the criteria to guide the prioritization of HIV programs. There is a gap in the research on the relative importance of multiple criteria for prioritizing a package of interventions. This study elicits preferences and the trade-offs made between different HIV programs by relevant stakeholders and decision-makers in Viet Nam. It also pays attention to how differences in social and professional characteristics of stakeholders and their agency affiliations shape preferences for HIV program criteria in Viet Nam. Methods This study uses self-explicated ranking and discrete choice experiments to determine the relative importance of five criteria - effectiveness, feasibility, cost-effectiveness, rate of investment and prevention/treatment investment ratio - to stakeholders when they evaluate and select hypothetical HIV programs. The study includes 69 participants from government, civil society, and international development partners. Results Results of the discrete choice experiment show that overall the feasibility criterion is ranked highest in importance to the participants when choosing a hypothetical HIV program, followed by sustainability, treatment to prevention spending ratio, and effectiveness. The participant’s work in management, programming, or decision-making has a significant effect on the importance of some criteria to the participant. In the self-explicated ranking effectiveness is the most important criterion and the cost-effectiveness criterion ranks low in importance across all groups. Conclusions This study has shown that the preferred HIV program in Viet Nam is feasible, front-loaded for sustainability, has a higher proportion of investment on prevention, saves more lives and prevents more infections. Similarities in government and civil society rankings of criteria can create common grounds for future

  13. Criteria for prioritization of HIV programs in Viet Nam: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnejad, Ali; Pavlova, Milena; Son, Vo Hai; Phuong, Huynh Lan; Groot, Wim

    2017-11-13

    With the decline in funding for Viet Nam's response to the HIV epidemic, there is a need for evidence on the criteria to guide the prioritization of HIV programs. There is a gap in the research on the relative importance of multiple criteria for prioritizing a package of interventions. This study elicits preferences and the trade-offs made between different HIV programs by relevant stakeholders and decision-makers in Viet Nam. It also pays attention to how differences in social and professional characteristics of stakeholders and their agency affiliations shape preferences for HIV program criteria in Viet Nam. This study uses self-explicated ranking and discrete choice experiments to determine the relative importance of five criteria - effectiveness, feasibility, cost-effectiveness, rate of investment and prevention/treatment investment ratio - to stakeholders when they evaluate and select hypothetical HIV programs. The study includes 69 participants from government, civil society, and international development partners. Results of the discrete choice experiment show that overall the feasibility criterion is ranked highest in importance to the participants when choosing a hypothetical HIV program, followed by sustainability, treatment to prevention spending ratio, and effectiveness. The participant's work in management, programming, or decision-making has a significant effect on the importance of some criteria to the participant. In the self-explicated ranking effectiveness is the most important criterion and the cost-effectiveness criterion ranks low in importance across all groups. This study has shown that the preferred HIV program in Viet Nam is feasible, front-loaded for sustainability, has a higher proportion of investment on prevention, saves more lives and prevents more infections. Similarities in government and civil society rankings of criteria can create common grounds for future policy dialogues between stakeholders. Innovative models of planning should

  14. An experts survey on sustainability across twenty-seven extensive European systems of grassland management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Rafael; Gil, Angel; Fernández-Santos, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    European Large Scale Grazing Systems (LSGS) are at a crossroad with environmental, agronomic, and social factors interacting on their future viability. This research assesses the current environmental and socio-economic status of a wide range of European LSGS according to an agreed subset of sustainability criteria and indicators, which have been recognized by corresponding experts and privileged observers on their respective case-study system. A survey questionnaire was drafted containing five main criteria (pastoral use, environmental, economic, social, and market and development), with four conceptual-scored variables (indicators) within each criterion. Descriptive, analytical and clustering statistical techniques helped to draw a synthesis of the main result and to standardize sustainability variables across different biogeographical regions and management situations. The results show large multicollinearity among the 20 variables proposed. This dependence was revealed by the reduction to six main factor-components, which accounted for about 73% of the total variance in responses. Aggregation of point-score indicators across criteria to obtain a sustainability index can be of less policy relevance than responses to specific criteria or indicators. Affinity between case-study systems, as judged by collaborative-expert responses, was not related to biogeographical location, operating livestock sector, or population density in their areas. The results show larger weaknesses and constraints in the economic and social criteria than in the pastoral and environmental criteria, and the large heterogeneity of responses appears in the social criterion.

  15. Criteria for authorship in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Master, Zubin

    2011-10-01

    Multiple authorship is becoming increasingly common in bioethics research. There are well-established criteria for authorship in empirical bioethics research but not for conceptual research. It is important to develop criteria for authorship in conceptual publications to prevent undeserved authorship and uphold standards of fairness and accountability. This article explores the issue of multiple authorship in bioethics and develops criteria for determining who should be an author on a conceptual publication in bioethics. Authorship in conceptual research should be based on contributing substantially to: (1) identifying a topic, problem, or issue to study; (2) reviewing and interpreting the relevant literature; (3) formulating, analyzing, and evaluating arguments that support one or more theses; (4) responding to objections and counterarguments; and (5) drafting the manuscript. Authors of conceptual publications should participate substantially in at least two of areas (1)-(5) and also approve the final version. [corrected].

  16. Sampling criteria in multicollection searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, A.; Scozzafava, R.; Marchetti, P. G.

    In the first stage of the document retrieval process, no information concerning relevance of a particular document is available. On the other hand, computer implementation requires that the analysis be made only for a sample of retrieved documents. This paper addresses the significance and suitability of two different sampling criteria for a multicollection online search facility. The inevitability of resorting to a logarithmic criterion in order to achieve a "spread of representativeness" from the multicollection is demonstrated.

  17. Business travel and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    AGUILERA, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Although it contributes significantly to the demand for transport, in particular air transport, business travel has been relatively neglected in thinking about the strategies needed to promote more sustainable mobility practices. This paper provides a two-stage approach to this subject. We begin by showing how the sustainability of business travel is relevant not only in environmental terms, but also from an economic and social perspective. In the second stage, we consider the strategies that...

  18. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  19. Sustainable nanotechnology decision support system: bridging risk management, sustainable innovation and risk governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Vrishali; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Malsch, Ineke; McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Mullins, Martin; Harmelen, Toon van; Ligthart, Tom; Linkov, Igor; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The significant uncertainties associated with the (eco)toxicological risks of engineered nanomaterials pose challenges to the development of nano-enabled products toward greatest possible societal benefit. This paper argues for the use of risk governance approaches to manage nanotechnology risks and sustainability, and considers the links between these concepts. Further, seven risk assessment and management criteria relevant to risk governance are defined: (a) life cycle thinking, (b) triple bottom line, (c) inclusion of stakeholders, (d) risk management, (e) benefit–risk assessment, (f) consideration of uncertainty, and (g) adaptive response. These criteria are used to compare five well-developed nanotechnology frameworks: International Risk Governance Council framework, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment, Streaming Life Cycle Risk Assessment, Certifiable Nanospecific Risk Management and Monitoring System and LICARA NanoSCAN. A Sustainable Nanotechnology Decision Support System (SUNDS) is proposed to better address current nanotechnology risk assessment and management needs, and makes. Stakeholder needs were solicited for further SUNDS enhancement through a stakeholder workshop that included representatives from regulatory, industry and insurance sectors. Workshop participants expressed the need for the wider adoption of sustainability assessment methods and tools for designing greener nanomaterials.

  20. Sustainable nanotechnology decision support system: bridging risk management, sustainable innovation and risk governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Vrishali, E-mail: vrishali.subramanian@unive.it; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex [University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics (Italy); Malsch, Ineke [Malsch TechnoValuation (Netherlands); McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Mullins, Martin [University of Limerick, Kemmy Business School (Ireland); Harmelen, Toon van; Ligthart, Tom [TNO (Netherlands); Linkov, Igor; Marcomini, Antonio, E-mail: marcom@unive.it [University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    The significant uncertainties associated with the (eco)toxicological risks of engineered nanomaterials pose challenges to the development of nano-enabled products toward greatest possible societal benefit. This paper argues for the use of risk governance approaches to manage nanotechnology risks and sustainability, and considers the links between these concepts. Further, seven risk assessment and management criteria relevant to risk governance are defined: (a) life cycle thinking, (b) triple bottom line, (c) inclusion of stakeholders, (d) risk management, (e) benefit–risk assessment, (f) consideration of uncertainty, and (g) adaptive response. These criteria are used to compare five well-developed nanotechnology frameworks: International Risk Governance Council framework, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment, Streaming Life Cycle Risk Assessment, Certifiable Nanospecific Risk Management and Monitoring System and LICARA NanoSCAN. A Sustainable Nanotechnology Decision Support System (SUNDS) is proposed to better address current nanotechnology risk assessment and management needs, and makes. Stakeholder needs were solicited for further SUNDS enhancement through a stakeholder workshop that included representatives from regulatory, industry and insurance sectors. Workshop participants expressed the need for the wider adoption of sustainability assessment methods and tools for designing greener nanomaterials.

  1. Is light water reactor technology sustainable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.; Van der Zwaan, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes criteria for determining ''intermediate sustainability'' over a 500-year horizon. We apply these criteria to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and the LWR industry. We conclude that LWR technology does not violate intermediate sustainability criteria for (1) environmental externalities, (2) worker and public health and safety, or (3) accidental radioactive release. However, it does not meet criteria to (1) efficiently use depleted uranium and (2) avoid uranium enrichment technologies that can lead to nuclear weapons proliferation. Finally, current and future global demand for LWR technology might be below the minimum needed to sustain the current global LWR industry. (author)

  2. Is light water reactor technology sustainable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, G. [Stanford Univ., Dept. of Economics, CA (United States); Van der Zwaan, B. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam, Inst. for Environmental Studies (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    This paper proposes criteria for determining ''intermediate sustainability'' over a 500-year horizon. We apply these criteria to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and the LWR industry. We conclude that LWR technology does not violate intermediate sustainability criteria for (1) environmental externalities, (2) worker and public health and safety, or (3) accidental radioactive release. However, it does not meet criteria to (1) efficiently use depleted uranium and (2) avoid uranium enrichment technologies that can lead to nuclear weapons proliferation. Finally, current and future global demand for LWR technology might be below the minimum needed to sustain the current global LWR industry. (author)

  3. Sustainability and Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catălina Sitnikov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevant and, above all, remarkable feature of sustainability is due to its "duality": on the one hand, it is an indispensable element within the companies even if, on the other hand, it increases the costs of many activities and processes. Facing the challenge of sustainability will determine and create, in the coming years, emerging organizational forms. If ten years ago, many managers clearly expressed their doubts regarding the financial feasibility of sustainability, today, they admit the importance of sustainability for the competitive advantage of the companies they manage. Currently, companies have great opportunities to support build a sustainable global economy, becoming one of the solutions to the most pressing societal challenges. Whether it is about reducing pollution, global warming, reducing use of water resources and other limited resources or ensuring a better work environment for employees throughout the supply chain, there are many things that companies can and should do.

  4. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  5. Equity Criteria as Instrument to Ensure Sustainability of Pareto or Kaldor-Hicks Efficiency: A Correlation Hidden by Sources of Confounding as Key for Sorting Out the Global Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Benazzo, Piero

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis is that Pareto and Kaldor-Hicks Efficiency have an aspect of sustainability in relation to inequality. The analysis finds efficient situations reached increasing inequality as diminishing in the long term effective demand in a larger measure than counterbalancing increases thanks to total factor productivity growth. Equity and efficiency in welfare economics, rather than being quite contrasting objectives, are as such related and mutually necessary. As such countries are called...

  6. Identification of the Criteria for Decision Making of Cut-Away Peatland Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padur, Kadi; Ilomets, Mati; Põder, Tõnis

    2017-03-01

    The total area of abandoned milled peatlands which need to be rehabilitated for sustainable land-use is nearly 10,000 ha in Estonia. According to the agreement between Estonia and the European Union, Estonia has to create suitable conditions for restoration of 2000 ha of abandoned cut-away peatlands by 2023. The decisions on rehabilitation of abandoned milled peatlands have so far relied on a limited knowledgebase with unestablished methodologies, thus the decision making process needs a significant improvement. This study aims to improve the methodology by identifying the criteria for optimal decision making to ensure sustainable land use planning after peat extraction. Therefore relevant environmental, social and economic restrictive and weighted comparison criteria, which assess reuse alternatives suitability for achieving the goal, is developed in cooperation with stakeholders. Restrictive criteria are arranged into a decision tree to help to determine the implementable reuse alternatives in various situations. Weighted comparison criteria are developed in cooperation with stakeholders to rank the reuse alternatives. The comparison criteria are organised hierarchically into a value tree. In the situation, where the selection of a suitable rehabilitation alternative for a specific milled peatland is going to be made, the weighted comparison criteria values need to be identified and the presented approach supports the optimal and transparent decision making. In addition to Estonian context the general results of the study could also be applied to a cut-away peatlands in other regions with need-based site-dependent modifications of criteria values and weights.

  7. Social Advertising Quality: Assessment Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kalmykov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the The purpose of the publication is development of existing criterial assessment in social advertising sphere. The next objectives are provided for its achievement: to establish research methodology, to develop the author’s version of necessary notional apparatus and conceptual generalization, to determine the elements of social advertising quality, to establish the factors of its quality, to conduct the systematization of existing criteria and measuring instruments of quality assessment, to form new criteria of social advertising quality, to apply received results for development of criterial assessment to determine the further research perspectives. Methods: the methodology of research of management of social advertising interaction with target audience, which has dynamic procedural character with use of sociological knowledge multivariate paradigmatic status, has been proposed. Results: the primary received results: the multivariate paradigmatic research basis with use of works of famous domestic and foreign scientists in sociology, qualimetry and management spheres; the definitions of social advertising, its quality, sociological quality provision system, target audience behavior model during social advertising interaction are offered; the quality factors with three groups by level of effect on consumer are established; the systematization of existing quality and its measure instruments assessment criteria by detected social advertising quality elements are conducted; the two new criteria and its management quality assessment measuring instruments in social advertising sphere are developed; the one of the common groups of production quality criteria – adaptability with considering of new management quality criteria and conducted systematization of existing social advertising creative quality assessment criteria development; the perspective of further perfection of quality criterial assessment based on social advertising

  8. Biorefinery Sustainability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. S. M. Silva, Carla; Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Gernaey, Krist

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with sustainability analysis of biorefinery systems in terms of environmental and socio-economic indicators . Life cycle analysis has methodological issues related to the functional unit (FU), allocation , land use and biogenic carbon neutrality of the reference system and of t......This chapter deals with sustainability analysis of biorefinery systems in terms of environmental and socio-economic indicators . Life cycle analysis has methodological issues related to the functional unit (FU), allocation , land use and biogenic carbon neutrality of the reference system...... and of the biorefinery-based system. Socio-economic criteria and indicators used in sustainability frameworks assessment are presented and discussed. There is not one single methodology that can aptly cover the synergies of environmental, economic, social and governance issues required to assess the sustainable...

  9. From Words to Action: Incorporation of Sustainability in Architectural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiossadat Hassanpour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Schools of architecture play a major role in motivating and inspiring students to gain competencies in sustainability through pedagogical practices. However, at the operational level, the incorporation of sustainability within architectural programmes needs to be integrated into both the curricula and teaching methods. There are few studies on how architectural programmes’ curricula and pedagogical practices can be institutionally articulated, as well as on how the required coherency among components can be empowered operationally. Since the interrelation of the courses form the structure of the curricula and provide certain inputs for the students’ knowledge and skill, any operational risk can harm the quality assurance. Therefore, an operational framework aimed for a coordinated incorporation of sustainability in architectural programmes is required. In order to achieve this, scrutinising substantial equivalence programmes could provide constructive outcomes for the improvement of the existing programmes and future experiences for students. In order to determine the articulation of sustainability issues in architectural education, in this research, a recently accredited school in the Eastern Mediterranean region was chosen as a case study. The study includes an analysis of course descriptions, teaching methods, and teacher and student perceptions about the incorporation of sustainability into the courses. Also, jury sessions’ evaluation criteria are assessed as a pedagogical tool. Then, the horizontal and vertical articulation of courses within the curricula and their coordination were studied accordingly. The findings reveal that horizontal and vertical relations between different course types that share similar learning objectives are very important. However, this relation and continuum should be perceivable by students, tutors, and the relevant stakeholders; otherwise, any attempt would remain superficial. Accordingly, the association

  10. Sustainable Forest Management in a Mediterranean region: Social preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Maroto Álvarez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: There is a lack of empirical research that deals with sustainable forest management in Mediterranean regions, among the most vulnerable ecosystems. The main purpose of this work is to define the strategic criteria and objectives for sustainable forest management and aggregate the preferences of stakeholders in a Mediterranean region, using AHP and Goal Programming.Area of study: Valencian Community (Spain.Material and Methods: Firstly, we identified forest stakeholders and structured a decision hierarchy. Then a workshop was carried out to test and validate the proposed criteria and objectives, as well as a survey to determine social preferences. Secondly, another survey was conducted amongst experts to prioritize action plans.Main results: Stakeholders’ preferences gave the greatest importance to the environmental criteria (hydrological regulation and erosion, climate change mitigation and biodiversity with an average weight of 40%.  Social criteria (employment, recreational activities and landscape had a weight of 38% and 22% the economic criteria case (wood, hunting and fishing, livestock, renewable energies, rural tourism and mining. The results showed that new products and services such as tourism, renewable energies, landscape, hydrological regulation and erosion control, biodiversity or climate change mitigation are very relevant objectives. We also prioritized action plans comparing them with the distribution of the administration budget.Research highlights: The environmental and social criteria are much more important than the economic ones in the regional planning of the Mediterranean forest, regardless of the method used to aggregate the social preferences and if the forest is public or private.Key words: Multiple Criteria Decision Making; Goal Programming; Analytic Hierarchy Process; Preferences Aggregation.

  11. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  12. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    infrastructures will reduce dependencies on changing priorities and sponsorship that may not continue. Implementing community-based appraisal criteria and selection procedures for data will ensure that limited resources for long-term data management are applied efficiently to data likely to have the most enduring value. Encouraging producers to provide rights for open access to data will support their replication, reuse, integration, and application in a range of SS research and applications in both the near and long term. Identifying modest changes to current data preparation activities to meet preservation goals should reduce expensive post-hoc data and documentation rescue efforts. The NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), an active archive in the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), established the SEDAC Long-Term Archive (LTA) in collaboration with the Columbia University Libraries to preserve selected data and information resources for future access and use. A case study of the LTA shows how archives can be organized to foster sustainable data stewardship in a university environment. Lessons learned from the organization planning and the preparation, appraisal, and selection of data for the LTA are described along with enhancements that have been applied to data management by the active archive.

  13. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship and Business Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tur-Porcar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming increasingly important for society, and the creation of business ventures is one area where sustainability is critical. We examined the factors affecting actions that are designed to foster business sustainability. These factors are related to the environment, behavior, human relations, and business activity. Based on questionnaire responses from experts, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to rank sustainable business criteria according to their importance for entrepreneurs starting sustainable businesses. The results indicate that the most important drivers of sustainable entrepreneurship are behavioral factors and business factors. Ethical principles and values, together with competitive intelligence, are crucial for undertaking actions that lead to sustainability.

  14. Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei Materiali, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2003-01-15

    Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic technologies for scaling-down chemical processes, in order to develop sustainable production processes which reduce the impact on the environment to an acceptable level that allows self-depuration processes of the living environment.

  15. Assessment Criteria for Competency-Based Education: A Study in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastré, Greet M. J.; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Amsing-Smit, Pauline; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of type of assessment criteria (performance-based vs. competency-based), the relevance of assessment criteria (relevant criteria vs. all criteria), and their interaction on secondary vocational education students' performance and assessment skills. Students on three programmes in the domain of nursing and care…

  16. Dialogue on sustainable development as part of engineering education: the relevance of the Finnish case : commentary on "a national collaboration process: Finnish engineering education for the benefit of people and environment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Society invests in the education of engineers because it is expected that the works of engineers will bring good results for society. Because the work of engineers is not value free or neutral, it is important that engineers are educated in the important principles of the social sciences and humanities. This education is essential for the awareness and understanding of what is good for society. Therefore the concept of sustainable development should be part of an education in engineering but only when the social sciences are also a part of it.

  17. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  18. Hydroelectricity and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubeau, D.

    1995-01-01

    From 1975 to 1992, hydroelectricity helped reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Quebec by 20%. For Hydro-Quebec, energy conservation and hydroelectric development are basic complementary tools for sustainable development. Recent studies show that developing only 50% of economically exploitable hydroelectric potential (30% of the gross theoretical potential) of different regions worldwide would considerably reduce greenhouse gas and SO 2 emissions. However, hydroelectric systems produce environmental and social impacts locally that require mitigative measures. To fulfill its mandate in a sustainable development context, Hydro-Quebec has adopted methods such as integrated resource planning, the assessment of externalities, multi criteria decision tools and public participations

  19. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  20. Sustainable agriculture in the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, F.M.; De Bont, C.J.A.M.; Leneman, H.; Van der Meulen, H.A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture in the picture provides a systematic overview of the available data that are relevant for debate on transitions towards sustainable agriculture. Review for the agrocomplex, greenhouse horticulture, dairy farming and pig farming. Indicators on economy, environment, nature, animal welfare, human and animal health. Results achieved in practice for the three dimensions of sustainable agriculture, namely economics ('profit'), ecology ('planet') and socio-cultural ('people') [nl

  1. Utilities practices toward sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The strategy toward a Sustainable Development is not standardised and it is useful to compare approaches of companies. WG C3.03 analysed a number of Sustainability Reports or Environmental Reports, published by Utilities, exposing their current approaches to the three 'Pillars': environmental aspects, society development and economical performances. Case studies, relevant to the three 'Pillars', show examples of practices

  2. Slovenian Mediterrananean and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Bricelj

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional approach based on physical, social and economic characteristics of particular landscape what is basic input for sustainable development. The case Slovenian Mediterranean and sustainable development demonstrate public participation in the process of preparation of coastal management plan. For this process new forms of knowledge transfer to relevant public is needed to get their active position about different.

  3. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  4. Sustainable tourism types

    OpenAIRE

    Ion-Danut JUGANARU; Mariana JUGANARU; Andreea ANGHEL

    2008-01-01

    Tourism development must be based on sustainability criteria, be long term bearable economically and ethically and socially equitable for the local populations of the destinations. Tourism forms identified by the literature as being “sustainable” are numerous: ecological tourism (ecotourism), green tourism, soft, rural tourism and agrotourism, community tourism, solidarity and responsible tourism, all these opposing to the traditional, mass tourism. According to some specialists only tourism ...

  5. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  6. Approaches for assessing sustainable remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. This paper presents an overview of available approaches for assessing the sustainability of alternative...... remediation strategies for a contaminated site. Most approaches use multi-criteria assessment methods (MCA) to structure a decision support process. Different combinations of environmental, social and economic criteria are employed, and are assessed either in qualitative or quantitative forms with various...... tools such as life cycle assessment and cost benefit analysis. Stakeholder involvement, which is a key component of sustainable remediation, is conducted in various ways. Some approaches involve stakeholders directly in the evaluation or weighting of criteria, whereas other approaches only indirectly...

  7. Paradigms of global climate change and sustainable development: Issues and related policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Combating climate change is intimately linked with peace and resource equity. Therefore, critical link establishment between climate change and sustainable development is extremely relevant in global scenario. Following the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, the international sustainable development agenda was taken up by the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD; the climate change agenda was carried forward by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. International and local climate change mitigation policies need to be assessed based on sustainability criteria. The increasing concern over climate change drives towards the search of solutions enabling to combat climate change into broader context of sustainable development. The core element of sustainable development is the integration of economic, social and environmental concerns in policy-making. Therefore, article also analyzes post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes and their impact on sustainable development. Wide range of post- Kyoto climate change mitigation architectures has different impact on different groups of countries. Nevertheless, there are several reasons for optimism that sustainable consumption patterns might develop. One is the diversity of current consumption patterns and the growing minority concerned with ethical consumption. Another is the growing understanding of innovation processes, developed to address technological change, but applicable to social innovation. A third reason is the growing reflexivity of communities and institutions.

  8. Criteria for operator review of workplace changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.

    2000-01-01

    A set of criteria for reviewing workplace changes has been developed for use by plant Operations staff. The criteria were developed to provide Operations staff with a practical framework for structuring assessments and subsequent review comments with regard to control room modifications and innovations that impact their work environment. The criteria were assembled from design, operations and human factors engineering principles, and system review experiences with plant Operations staff over the past ten years. Operations staff at several CANDU stations helped shape the emphasis for initial criteria definition and have assisted with criteria refinement through trial applications. Use of the criteria is expected to lead to more effective and task relevant equipment evaluations by Operations staff, and ultimately lead to system modifications and innovations that better serve plant operation needs. The paper begins with a discussion of the rationale for criteria development and the attributes of 'good' design. The balance of the paper outlines the project objectives, describes the approach applied in assembling, structuring, and refining the review criteria, and illustrates the application of the criteria in the review of a proposed control room innovation. (author)

  9. Decision aid systems for evaluating sustainability: a critical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Norbert; Starkl, Markus

    2004-01-01

    Assessing sustainability in compliance with the EU water framework directive is affected by numerous conflicting interests. As they can no longer be resolved by means of intuitive reasoning, some authors propose the integration of the major fragmented indicators into one common indicator of the overall sustainability by means of a codified multi-criteria decision support methodology (DSM). Practitioners in urban water management, however, usually object to the use of a codified DSM, as in the legal context (negotiations between the stakeholders, tendering procedure) it might jeopardize the feasibility of the decision making process (DMP). Here we show that a feasible implementation of a DSM into the DMP is possible. To this end, we design a cooperative approach, which by means of an axiomatic evaluation helps to select an appropriate DSM. We illustrate it by a hypothetical dialogue between the relevant authority and the developer. It will expose the inherent limitations of the DSM, which are due to their underlying mathematical features

  10. Duurzaamheid en grondstoffen voor diervoeding = Sustainability and feed commodity production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, J.M.J.; Bindraban, P.S.; Bos, J.F.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study creates a preliminary framework to judge the sustainability of production of agricultural commodities for the purpose of animal nutrition. Criteria are selected according to the economic, societal and ecological dimensions of sustainability.

  11. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  12. Patent Keyword Extraction for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, sustainable growth and development has become an important issue for governments and corporations. However, maintaining sustainable development is very difficult. These difficulties can be attributed to sociocultural and political backgrounds that change over time [1]. Because of these changes, the technologies for sustainability also change, so governments and companies attempt to predict and manage technology using patent analyses, but it is very difficult to predict the rapidly changing technology markets. The best way to achieve insight into technology management in this rapidly changing market is to build a technology management direction and strategy that is flexible and adaptable to the volatile market environment through continuous monitoring and analysis. Quantitative patent analysis using text mining is an effective method for sustainable technology management. There have been many studies that have used text mining and word-based patent analyses to extract keywords and remove noise words. Because the extracted keywords are considered to have a significant effect on the further analysis, researchers need to carefully check out whether they are valid or not. However, most prior studies assume that the extracted keywords are appropriate, without evaluating their validity. Therefore, the criteria used to extract keywords needs to change. Until now, these criteria have focused on how well a patent can be classified according to its technical characteristics in the collected patent data set, typically using term frequency–inverse document frequency weights that are calculated by comparing the words in patents. However, this is not suitable when analyzing a single patent. Therefore, we need keyword selection criteria and an extraction method capable of representing the technical characteristics of a single patent without comparing them with other patents. In this study, we proposed a methodology to extract valid keywords from

  13. Nuclear power in the frame of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, M.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear energy is treated taking into account the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, environmental and social. Some nuclear energy relevant indicators are identified and used in the analysis. The economic efficiency is a relevant indicator insofar as market prices reflect the full costs for society of a given product or activity. For nuclear energy the economic criteria applicable to market competition and subsidies are used. The core indicators for the environmental dimension of sustainable development include criteria related to natural resource management, climate change, air and water quality, biodiversity and landscaping. The nuclear electricity generation chain does not release gases or particles that acidify rains, contribute to urban smog or deplete of the ozone layer. The human and social dimension comprises human capital in the form of knowledge, education and employment opportunities, human welfare, equity and participation, social capital in the form of effective institutions and voluntary associations, the rule of law, and social cohesion. From this point of view the nuclear energy is characterized by a net contribution to human and social capital and a challenge in terms of public acceptability and widely varying perceptions of the risks and benefits. (authors)

  14. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  15. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  16. Repository operational criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations, considering the interfaces and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The study addresses regulatory criteria related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. The study task developed regulatory concepts or potential repository operational criteria (PROC) based on analysis of a repository's safety functions and other regulations for similar facilities. These regulatory concepts or PROC were used as a basis to assess the sufficiency and adequacy of the current criteria in 10 CFR Part 60. Where the regulatory concepts were same as current operational criteria, these criteria were referenced. The operations criteria referenced or the PROC developed are given in this report. Detailed analyses used to develop the regulatory concepts and any necessary PROC for those regulations that may require a minor change are also presented. The results of the ROC task showed a need for further analysis and possible major rule change related to the design bases of a geologic repository operations area, siting, and radiological emergency planning

  17. CCS site characterisation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, S.; Hawkes, C.; Lawton, D.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Perkins, E.

    2009-12-15

    IEA GHG recently commissioned the Alberta Research Counil in Canada to conduct a review of storage site selection criteria and site characterisation methods in order to produce a synthesis report. This report reviews the literature on the subject on the site seleciton and characterisation since the publication of the IPCC Special Report on CCS, and provides a synthesis and classification of criteria. 161 refs.

  18. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  19. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  20. Criteria for the selection of ERP software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of an ERP software package is an important investment for an organization, which is characterized also by a high degree of risk. Selecting the most appropriate software is a necessary condition for a successful implementation. This paper is describing the major aspects of software selection in general and the relevant criteria in the case of ERP software.

  1. TECHNOLOGY NEEDS ASSESSMENT (TNA FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR: CRITERIA, PRIORITIZING AND BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasdi Subagyono

    2010-11-01

    greenhouse gas emission, yet technologies need for have not been assessed. The technology needs assessment for the agriculture sector cover paddy field, perennial crops, peat soil, and livestock. The concern of the assessment is categorized into technology options, priority/key technology, barriers, and modalities. Selected technologies are based on criteria and priority options of technology needs. Data and information have been collected from related agencies, center, institutes and other relevant sources as well as through a workshop. Technology selection process for mitigation considered general criteria of reducing GHG emissions from crops and livestock, promoting resource conservation, promoting sustainable biodiversity, promoting green energy, sustaining food security, and promoting energy alternative; and specific criteria of promoting local technology for mitigation, sustaining site-specific germ plasms, promoting simple and cheap technology for poor farmers, promoting less emission crop varieties, substituting chemical with organic fertilizers/compost, and reduce CH4 emissions. Those criteria are scored into 4 classes, i.e. high value/high relevant/high impact (score: 5, Medium value/relevant/med impact (score: 3; Low value/less relevant/less impact (score: 1; nil – not relevant/no impact (score: 0. The assessment has come up with the results that priority technologies needed for mitigation are (a low methane emitter crops varieties, appropriate fertilizing, no tillage, and intermittent irrigation for paddy fields, (b appropriate slash and burn and bio-fuel for perennial crops, (c composting manure and biogas production for livestock, and (d overcoming slash and burn, avoiding over drain and maintaining soil moisture for peat soils.

  2. Sustainable development and justification in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, D.; Blok, K.

    1992-04-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of ionizing radiation must be listed in order to be able to justify the application of this technique, based on criteria by which ionizing radiation can be assessed. In this note the development of so-called sustainability criteria, by which environmental protection aspects can be assessed, is initiated. The sustainability criteria must include the subjects integrated chain management, energy extending, quality improvement and the perception of risks, as indicated in the memo Handling of Radiation Risks. The sustainability criteria can be applied absolute (testing of the marginal values), as well as relative (choice for the least hazardous effect). An overall outline is given of the impact of applying these criteria. The most discriminative criterion appears to be the waste criterion. Generally spoken, only ionizing radiation of instruments and applications of some short-living isotopes, produced by means of accelerators, can meet this criterion. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 1 appendix, 17 refs

  3. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  4. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  5. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  6. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...... technological field which covers many aspects. The chapter therefore seeks to provide a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and to bring an overview and illustrative examples of current early developments....

  7. Afterschool Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Joyce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation in quality extended learning opportunities (ELOs results in positive academic, physical, mental health, and social/emotional outcomes. Funding is essential to implementing and sustaining quality ELOs; however multiple funding barriers and challenges exist. Understanding the types of funds available for ELOs and the factors that influence sustainability is critical. Through surveys and telephone interviews of ELO providers, this descriptive study identified and examined ELO funding streams, the ways ELO providers use these funding streams, and the barriers and challenges to sustainability. ELO programs often relied on one major funding stream coupled with nutrition supports as well as in-kind resources. Barriers to sustainability included year-to-year funding, transportation costs, reducing community partnerships, and difficulty in diversifying funds. Recommendations to enhance ELO sustainability are offered, particularly in relation to overcoming the challenges to diversification of funding resources and establishing mutually supportive partnerships and collaboration.

  8. Criteria for onset of firestorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, G.F.; Fendell, F.E.; Feldman, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    Quantitative criteria are evolved for onset of firestorms, severe stationary (nonpropagating) holocausts arising via merger of fires from multiple simultaneous ignitions in a heavily fuel-laden urban environment. Within an hour, surface-level radial inflow from all directions sustains a large-diameter convective column that eventually reaches altitude of about 10 km (e.g., Hamburg, Dresden, Hiroshima). As the firestorm achieves peak intensity (2 to 3 hours after the ignitions), inflow speeds are inferred to attain 25 to 50 m/s; typically 12 km 2 are reduced to ashes, before winds relax to ambient levels in six-to-nine hours. Here the firestorm is interpreted to be a mesocyclone (rotating severe local storm). Even with exceedingly large heat release sustained over a concentrated area, in the presence of a very nearly autoconvectively unstable atmospheric stratification, onset of vigorous swirling on the scale of two hours requires more than concentration of circulation associated with the rotation of the earth; rather, a preexisting, if weak, circulation appears necessary for firestorm cyclogenesis

  9. How Frugal Innovation Promotes Social Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshanda Khan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to develop an understanding of how frugal innovation promotes social sustainability. The objective of this paper is to find the connections between the two concepts of social sustainability and frugal innovation, by reviewing the existing literature concerning both fields. This paper presents a framework that identifies essential themes of social sustainability and explores them through frugal innovation. The framework builds on the important themes of social sustainability and shows their relevance in practice through frugal innovation. The notion of frugal innovation can be viewed as an approach towards realizing social sustainability and fulfilling the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals.

  10. Sustainable Development in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoussanidis, Nikolaos N.; Antoniadou, Myrofora A.

    2006-01-01

    The principles and practice of environmentally and socially sustainable engineering are in line with growing community expectations and the strengthening voice of civil society in engineering interventions. Pressures towards internationalization and globalization are reflected in new course accreditation criteria and higher education structures.…

  11. Multi-criteria evaluation in strategic environmental assessment for waste management plan, a case study: The city of Belgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josimović, Boško; Marić, Igor; Milijić, Saša

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper deals with the specific method of multi-criteria evaluation applied in drafting the SEA for the Belgrade WMP. • MCE of the planning solutions, assessed according to 37 objectives of the SEA and four sets of criteria, was presented in the matrix form. • The results are presented in the form of graphs so as to be easily comprehensible to all the participants in the decision-making process. • The results represent concrete contribution proven in practice. - Abstract: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the key instruments for implementing sustainable development strategies in planning in general; in addition to being used in sectoral planning, it can also be used in other areas such as waste management planning. SEA in waste management planning has become a tool for considering the benefits and consequences of the proposed changes in space, also taking into account the capacity of space to sustain the implementation of the planned activities. In order to envisage both the positive and negative implications of a waste management plan for the elements of sustainable development, an adequate methodological approach to evaluating the potential impacts must be adopted and the evaluation results presented in a simple and clear way, so as to allow planners to make relevant decisions as a precondition for the sustainability of the activities planned in the waste management sector. This paper examines the multi-criteria evaluation method for carrying out an SEA for the Waste Management Plan for the city of Belgrade (BWMP). The method was applied to the evaluation of the impacts of the activities planned in the waste management sector on the basis of the environmental and socioeconomic indicators of sustainability, taking into consideration the intensity, spatial extent, probability and frequency of impact, by means of a specific planning approach and simple and clear presentation of the obtained results

  12. Multi-criteria evaluation in strategic environmental assessment for waste management plan, a case study: The city of Belgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josimović, Boško, E-mail: bosko@iaus.ac.rs; Marić, Igor; Milijić, Saša

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The paper deals with the specific method of multi-criteria evaluation applied in drafting the SEA for the Belgrade WMP. • MCE of the planning solutions, assessed according to 37 objectives of the SEA and four sets of criteria, was presented in the matrix form. • The results are presented in the form of graphs so as to be easily comprehensible to all the participants in the decision-making process. • The results represent concrete contribution proven in practice. - Abstract: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the key instruments for implementing sustainable development strategies in planning in general; in addition to being used in sectoral planning, it can also be used in other areas such as waste management planning. SEA in waste management planning has become a tool for considering the benefits and consequences of the proposed changes in space, also taking into account the capacity of space to sustain the implementation of the planned activities. In order to envisage both the positive and negative implications of a waste management plan for the elements of sustainable development, an adequate methodological approach to evaluating the potential impacts must be adopted and the evaluation results presented in a simple and clear way, so as to allow planners to make relevant decisions as a precondition for the sustainability of the activities planned in the waste management sector. This paper examines the multi-criteria evaluation method for carrying out an SEA for the Waste Management Plan for the city of Belgrade (BWMP). The method was applied to the evaluation of the impacts of the activities planned in the waste management sector on the basis of the environmental and socioeconomic indicators of sustainability, taking into consideration the intensity, spatial extent, probability and frequency of impact, by means of a specific planning approach and simple and clear presentation of the obtained results.

  13. Multimodal freight investment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  14. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  15. Aquatic Life Criteria - Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents related to EPA's final 2013 Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Freshwater). These documents pertain to the safe levels of Ammonia in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  16. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  17. Integrated Criteria Document Chromium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; Cleven RFMJ; Janus JA; van der Poel P; van Beelen P; Boumans LJM; Canton JH; Eerens HC; Krajnc EI; de Leeuw FAAM; Matthijsen AJCM; van de Meent D; van der Meulen A; Mohn GR; Wijland GC; de Bruijn PJ; van Keulen A; Verburgh JJ; van der Woerd KF

    1990-01-01

    Betreft de engelse versie van rapport 758701001
    Bij dit rapport behoort een appendix onder hetzelfde nummer getiteld: "Integrated Criteria Document Chromium: Effects" Auteurs: Janus JA; Krajnc EI
    (appendix: see 710401002A)

  18. [Prioritization and Consentation of Criteria for the Appraisal, Funding and Evaluation of Projects from the German Innovationsfonds: A multi-perspective Delphi study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J; Petzold, T; Nellessen-Martens, G; Pfaff, H

    2015-09-01

    The German Innovationsfonds provides the chance for evidence-based developments of the German healthcare system. Prioritization of recommendations for an effective, efficient, fair, transparent, and sustainable granting of funds through a transparent, evidence-driven consensus-process involving all relevant stakeholder groups. Representatives from health and research policy, payers, patient representatives, healthcare providers, and scientists were invited to nominate participants for an electronic 3 round iterative Delphi-study to prioritize the thematic focus, requirements concerning study methods, the team of applicants, evaluation, utilization of study results, and for the selection of reviewers. Criteria considered as relevant by at least 60% of the panel (consensus definition) in the first 2 Delphi rounds were rated as facultative, preferable, or obligatory criteria for project funding. Data were analyzed descriptively. ( Datenbank Versorgungsforschung Deutschland VfD_15_003561). All invited stakeholder groups except payers participated. 34 (85%) of 40 nominated representatives participated in the Delphi-study. A total of 64 criteria were consented as relevant for project review and funding concerning the thematic focus (n=28), methodological requirements (n=13), requirements for applicants (n=4), for the evaluation (n=4), utilization (n=6), and selection of peer reviewers (n=9). It is the collective responsibility of all stakeholders to spend the designated funds as efficient and sustainable as possible. The consented recommendations shall serve decision makers as a resource for the granting of funds and the evaluation of the Innovationsfonds. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... to the clear role that income thresholds play in such decision making, but does not rule out a role for tradeoffs between risk and utility or probability weighting....

  20. Rating of environmental criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueck, K; Krasser, G

    1980-01-01

    After a general theoretical discussion on the question of rating within a framework of cost-benefit studies, first trials as to the quantification and standardisation of twelve selected environmental criteria by means of an indicator system are worked out and compiled. The selection includes the criteria exhaust gas, dust, micro climate, water pollution, water regime, land requirement, vibrations, traffic noise, landscape scene, urban scene, effect of separation and safety risks. An insight is given of the rating practice using an evaluation of the available literature, of a household interview and of an interview of experts. The interviewing of 156 experts as to their rating conception of ten criteria in the second round has provided contributions to the general problem of the evaluation estimate based on multi criteria analysis as well as differentiation of the twelve or ten environmental criteria. The following criteria ratings given by the experts and which are averaged and smoothed are: traffic noise 20,0% +- 8,5; air pollution 15,0% +- 7,0; safety risk 13,0% +- 7,0; soil and water pollution 8,5% +- 5,0; landscape scene 8,0% +- 4,5; urban scene 8,0% +- 4,5; water regime 6,5% +- 3,5 and vibrations 4,5% +- 2,5.

  1. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  2. Relevance of nanotechnology to Africa: synthesis, applications and safety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter, two nanotechnology-based applications relevant to Africa in promoting sustainability and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are presented. The applications comprise the provision of therapeutic treatment...

  3. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  4. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  5. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  6. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  7. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  8. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  9. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  10. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  11. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  12. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  13. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  14. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  15. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  16. A comparative study on the reliability criteria determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerng, Dong Wook; Ju, Tae Young

    2009-01-01

    There are two methods to determine the reliability criteria for maintenance effectiveness monitoring; using the failure probability, and the importance from PRA. Comparisons of the results from these two methods provides an insight on the relevancy of setting the reliability criteria to improve the maintenance effectiveness. (author)

  17. Layered evaluation of multi-criteria collaborative filtering for scientific paper recommendation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manouselis, N.; Verbert, K.; Alexandrov, V.; Lees, M.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.; Dongarra, J.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recommendation algorithms have been researched extensively to help people deal with abundance of information. In recent years, the incorporation of multiple relevance criteria has attracted increased interest. Such multi-criteria recommendation approaches are researched as a paradigm for building

  18. Summarized water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempster, P.L.; Hattingh, W.H.J.; Van Vliet, H.R.

    1980-08-01

    The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

  19. Trade-offs in the adoption of sustainability standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H. Wijen (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The issue of social and environmental sustainability is arguably highly relevant today, as forward-looking, self-interested companies have broadly shown they understand. Adherence to the principles underlying standards to pursue sustainability can, however, deliver

  20. Trade-offs in the adoption of sustainability standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H. Wijen (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe issue of social and environmental sustainability is arguably highly relevant today, as forward-looking, self-interested companies have broadly shown they understand. Adherence to the principles underlying standards to pursue sustainability can, however, deliver unintended

  1. 123 Relevant Education for Sustainable Human Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nollywood, the Nigerian video film industry, has ... The full definition of human development as captured still in the Human ... Additional choices include political freedom, ..... dialects and speech mannerisms of their settings portrayed through.

  2. Multi-criteria evaluation in strategic environmental assessment for waste management plan, a case study: the city of Belgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josimović, Boško; Marić, Igor; Milijić, Saša

    2015-02-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the key instruments for implementing sustainable development strategies in planning in general; in addition to being used in sectoral planning, it can also be used in other areas such as waste management planning. SEA in waste management planning has become a tool for considering the benefits and consequences of the proposed changes in space, also taking into account the capacity of space to sustain the implementation of the planned activities. In order to envisage both the positive and negative implications of a waste management plan for the elements of sustainable development, an adequate methodological approach to evaluating the potential impacts must be adopted and the evaluation results presented in a simple and clear way, so as to allow planners to make relevant decisions as a precondition for the sustainability of the activities planned in the waste management sector. This paper examines the multi-criteria evaluation method for carrying out an SEA for the Waste Management Plan for the city of Belgrade (BWMP). The method was applied to the evaluation of the impacts of the activities planned in the waste management sector on the basis of the environmental and socioeconomic indicators of sustainability, taking into consideration the intensity, spatial extent, probability and frequency of impact, by means of a specific planning approach and simple and clear presentation of the obtained results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Sustainability Assessment Framework For Waterfront Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Said Eldeeb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is predicted that the global phenomena of Climate change will have far reaching effects and implications on different local urban systems. For incidence, global average sea levels are expected to rise between 7 and 36 cm by the 2050s, and between 9 and 69 cm by the 2080s. Waterfront communities are the first to be affected by such impacts putting them at high risk. Planning tools are needed to assist these communities and increase their adaptive and learning capacities in the face of diverse challenges to their urban sub-systems.  The research investigates a number of sustainability frameworks and assessment rating systems for neighbourhoods and communities. It investigates the sustainable evaluation criteria carried out by three assessment rating systems. First is the LEED (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design, USA, the second is BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method, UK, and the third is the Estidama PEARL rating system (UAE.Examples of waterfront communities which applied the previous rating systemsare analyzed in order to determine the applicability and relevance of these systems to waterfront communities in particular.  The research concludes with a proposed framework of indicators for waterfront communities. The similarities and differences between the different rating systems and featured indicators specific to waterfront planning applied in the analyzed examples, yet absent in the three rating systems, have informed the selection of indicators in the proposed assessment framework. The proposed framework could be an effective tool for the planning and development of a waterfront community in the MENA region. In order to validate the framework, theset of environmental and physical indicators were applied on the case study of Abu Qir waterfront, Alexandria, Egypt. Conclusions and recommendations  are made that would enhance the resilience of this waterfront community and provide a comprehensive

  4. Defining criteria related to wastes for use in multi-criteria decision tool for nuclear accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: dneves@biof.ufrj.br, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; De Luca, Christiano, E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: christiano_luca@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Rochedo, Pedro R.R., E-mail: rochedopedro@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia

    2013-07-01

    The selection of protective measures and strategies for remediation of contaminated areas after a nuclear accident must be based on previously established criteria in order to prevent stress of the population and the unnecessary exposure of workers. After a nuclear accident resulting in environmental contamination, decisions on remediation of areas is complex due to the large numbers of factors involved in decontamination processes. This work is part of a project which aims to develop a multi-criteria tool to support a decision-making process in cases of a radiological or a nuclear accident in Brazil. First, a database of remediation strategies for contaminated areas was created. In this process, the most relevant aspects for the implementation of these strategies were considered, including technical criteria regarding aspects related to the generation of wastes in a reference urban area, which are discussed in this paper. The specific objective of this study is to define criteria for the aspects of radioactive wastes, resulted by the implementation of some urban measures, in order to be incorporated in a multi-criteria decision tool. Main aspects considered were the type, the amount and the type of treatment necessary for each procedure. The decontamination procedures are then classified according to the selected criteria in order to feed the multi-criteria decision tool. This paper describes the steps for the establishment of these criteria and evaluates the potential for future applications in order to improve predictions and to support the decisions to be made. (author)

  5. Defining criteria related to wastes for use in multi-criteria decision tool for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; De Luca, Christiano; Rochedo, Pedro R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The selection of protective measures and strategies for remediation of contaminated areas after a nuclear accident must be based on previously established criteria in order to prevent stress of the population and the unnecessary exposure of workers. After a nuclear accident resulting in environmental contamination, decisions on remediation of areas is complex due to the large numbers of factors involved in decontamination processes. This work is part of a project which aims to develop a multi-criteria tool to support a decision-making process in cases of a radiological or a nuclear accident in Brazil. First, a database of remediation strategies for contaminated areas was created. In this process, the most relevant aspects for the implementation of these strategies were considered, including technical criteria regarding aspects related to the generation of wastes in a reference urban area, which are discussed in this paper. The specific objective of this study is to define criteria for the aspects of radioactive wastes, resulted by the implementation of some urban measures, in order to be incorporated in a multi-criteria decision tool. Main aspects considered were the type, the amount and the type of treatment necessary for each procedure. The decontamination procedures are then classified according to the selected criteria in order to feed the multi-criteria decision tool. This paper describes the steps for the establishment of these criteria and evaluates the potential for future applications in order to improve predictions and to support the decisions to be made. (author)

  6. Radiological design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Andersen, B.V.; Carter, L.A.; Waite, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Many new nuclear facilities are unsatisfactory from a radiation protection point of view, particularly when striving to maintain occupational exposure as low as practicable 'ALAP'. Radiation protection is achieved through physical protective features supplemented by administrative controls. Adequate physical protective feature should be achieved during construction so that supplemental administrative controls may be kept simple and workable. Many nuclear facilities fall short of adequate physical protective features, thus, remedial and sometimes awkward administrative procedures are required to safely conduct work. In reviewing the various handbooks, reports and regulations which deal with radiation protection, it may be noted that there is minimal radiological design guidance for application to nuclear facilities. A set of criteria or codes covering functional areas rather than specific nuclear facility types is badly needed. The following are suggested as functional areas to be considered: characterization of the Facility; siting and access; design exposure limits; layout (people and materials flow); ventilation and effluent control; radiation protection facilities and systems. The application of such radiological design criteria early in the design process would provide some assurance that nuclear facilities will be safe, flexible, and efficient with a minimum of costly retrofitting or administrative restrictions. Criteria which we have found helpful in these functional areas is discussed together with justification for adoption of such criteria and identification of problems which still require solution

  7. Comments on confinement criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.; Schroer, B.; Swieca, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    For a QED 2 model with SU(n) flavour, the nature of the physical states space is more subtle than one expects on the basis of the loop criterion for confinement. One may have colour confinement without confinement of the fundamental flavour representation. Attempts to formulate confinement criteria in which the quark fields play a more fundamental role are discussed [pt

  8. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  9. Sustainability of knowledge translation interventions in healthcare decision-making: protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Cogo, Elise; Ashoor, Huda; Perrier, Laure; McKibbon, K Ann; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Straus, Sharon E

    2013-05-14

    Knowledge translation (KT also known as research utilisation, translational medicine and implementation science) is a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health. After the implementation of KT interventions, their impact on relevant outcomes should be monitored. The objectives of this scoping review are to: (1) conduct a systematic search of the literature to identify the impact on healthcare outcomes beyond 1 year, or beyond the termination of funding of the initiative of KT interventions targeting chronic disease management for end-users including patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers and policy-makers; (2) identify factors that influence sustainability of effective KT interventions; (3) identify how sustained change from KT interventions should be measured; and (4) develop a framework for assessing sustainability of KT interventions. Comprehensive searches of relevant electronic databases (eg, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), websites of funding agencies and websites of healthcare provider organisations will be conducted to identify relevant material. We will include experimental, quasi-experimental and observational studies providing information on the sustainability of KT interventions targeting chronic disease management in adults and focusing on end-users including patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers and policy-makers. Two reviewers will pilot-test the screening criteria and data abstraction form. They will then screen all citations, full articles and abstract data in duplicate independently. The results of the scoping review will be synthesised descriptively and used to develop a framework to assess the sustainability of KT interventions. Our results will help inform end-users (ie, patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers

  10. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... and procedures to meet ‘good practice’ in standard setting and management. This is opening space for competing initiatives that are less democratic, quicker, and more aligned with industry interests to establish substantial presence in the market for sustainability certifications. These tend to more easily...

  11. Sustainable Tourism: its Interpretation and Operational Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bertoni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sustainability principles in tourism is an essential reference for the processes of development and promotion of potential destinations and for the restructuring  of current ones. However, there is a dichotomy between the wide spread of the concept of sustainable tourism and the limitations of the reached progress. This paper intends to encourage a theoretical discussion to examine the definitions of sustainable tourism from diverse approaches, viewpoints and scopes, and to analyze the relevant aspects of its operability, related to the integration of massive and sustainable tourism and to the implications of sustainable development, politics and social participation.

  12. Is Nuclear Energy Sustainable - A Comparative Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.

    2002-01-01

    The electric utility sector is of central importance for economic growth and social development. While numerous societal and economic benefits arise from electricity production, it can also have impacts which may not be fully and unanimously reconciled with the concept of sustainability. Moving the electricity sector towards sustainable development calls for the integration of environmental, social and economic aspects in the decision-making process. As an input to such a process, one needs to assess how the different options perform with respect to specific sustainability criteria. As a part of the ''Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Systems'', carried out by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), the electricity and heat supply systems are examined in view of sustainability criteria and the associated indicators, thus allowing operationalization of the sustainability concept

  13. The road to sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrao, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crabtree, George [ANL

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability is the hottest topic in energy research today, but what does it actually mean? George Crabtree and John Sarrao describe what makes a technology sustainable, and outline the materials-science challenges standing between us and clean, long-lasting energy. Although most people agree that more-sustainable energy technologies are desirable, they often find it harder to agree on exactly how sustainable these technologies need to be, and even precisely what is meant by sustainability. To clarify the debate, we suggest three criteria for sustainability, each of which captures a different feature of the problem. While we do not have the lUxury of achieving full sustainability for all of our next-generation energy technologies, we can use these definitions to select our strategic sustainability targets and track our progress toward achieving them. As will become clear, the most sustainable energy technologies require the most challenging fundamental science breakthroughs. The first criterion for sustainability is 'lasts a long time'. This quality has been a feature of many energy sources we have used historically, including wood in ancient times and oil throughout most of the 20th century. The definition of 'long time' is, of course, relative: the world's demand for energy long ago outpaced the ability of wood to supply it, and the production of oil is likely to peak sometime within the next few decades. Substantial reductions in the rate of oil consumption through higher-efficiency processes can significantly impact on how long non-renewable resources last. In applying the 'long time' criterion, we need to distinguish between energy sources that are effectively limitless and those that are finite but, for the moment, adequate. The second criterion for sustainability is 'does no harm'. Burning fossil fuels releases pollutants such as sulphur and mercury that endanger human health, as well as greenhouse gases like

  14. Mathematics for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, John; Jamshidi, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Designed for the 21st century classroom, this textbook poses, refines, and analyzes questions of sustainability in a quantitative environment. Building mathematical knowledge in the context of issues relevant to every global citizen today, this text takes an approach that empowers students of all disciplines to understand and reason with quantitative information. Whatever conclusions may be reached on a given topic, this book will prepare the reader to think critically about their own and other people’s arguments and to support them with careful, mathematical reasoning. Topics are grouped in themes of measurement, flow, connectivity, change, risk, and decision-making. Mathematical thinking is at the fore throughout, as students learn to model sustainability on local, regional, and global scales. Exercises emphasize concepts, while projects build and challenge communication skills. With no prerequisites beyond high school algebra, instructors will find this book a rich resource for engaging all majors in the...

  15. A Hybrid Multiple Criteria Decision Making Model for Supplier Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Min Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable supplier selection would be the vital part in the management of a sustainable supply chain. In this study, a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM model is applied to select optimal supplier. The fuzzy Delphi method, which can lead to better criteria selection, is used to modify criteria. Considering the interdependence among the selection criteria, analytic network process (ANP is then used to obtain their weights. To avoid calculation and additional pairwise comparisons of ANP, a technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used to rank the alternatives. The use of a combination of the fuzzy Delphi method, ANP, and TOPSIS, proposing an MCDM model for supplier selection, and applying these to a real case are the unique features of this study.

  16. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  17. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  18. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  19. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  20. Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai

    2018-01-01

    . We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...

  1. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  2. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  3. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  4. Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2004-01-01

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  5. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in economic growth ... Interrogating the Economy-First Paradigm in 'Sustainable Development' … 65 .... agreement, since such effective global cooperation on climate change ultimately ..... and foster innovation; reduce inequality within and among countries; make cities.

  6. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  7. Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Quality of Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents an overview of the crises and challenges facing many European, regional areas. Furthermore, the concept 'sustainable entrepreneurship' (SE) and its relevance for regional development is discussed. in addition, work quality is discussed from a SE perspective. Finally...

  8. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  9. Sustainability in retailing – a summative content analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Anne; Kellner, Julian; Lietke, Britta

    2012-01-01

    and industrial branches in the sustainability literature relevant to retail supply chains, and sustainability considerations in retail practice. Findings – Sustainability-related issues have been discussed for many years and the term sustainability has received increased attention in research since the mid-1990s....... In retail research, there seems to be a time lag of more than ten years in using the term sustainability compared to other fields in research and industry. However, some of these other research fields and industries have an impact on retail supply chains. At the same time, it seems that sustainability has...... and industries relevant to retail supply chains....

  10. If Development, Then Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bóna Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore how the effects of components belonging to the concept of strategic management system influence outstanding achievement and success in the processing industry in Hungary as well as the sustainability success component within that. In order to do that, the study defines the factors having an influence. Thereafter, it explains the successful operation of companies with the help of factors emerging via path analysis using regression models. It uses the balanced scorecard as a tool for success criteria describing success. This is a non-market aspect that has an impact on the whole system, making it of crucial importance. Via the exploration of effects, it can be shown the deliberate use of those factors that generate outstanding results and success from the point of view of sustainability, and thus internal development, customer appreciation, and financial success. By taking the results of the research into consideration, it will also be revealed that success factors in the processing industry in Hungary have the most direct and the largest impact on outstanding sustainability performance.

  11. Dismissal: Important criteria in managerial decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Stocker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about dismissal decision-making, particularly concerning the criteria used by managers in choosing who will be dismissed and why, is scarce. Considering the implications of such decisions for organizations and society, in this paper, we identify the seven most frequently used criteria in dismissal decisions and examine their importance for managers. We collected data through a survey among 385 managers and used the rational ranking and the multicriteria Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to analyze them. The results show that commitment, performance records, and trust have the greatest impact on the dismissal decision, whereas interpersonal relationship, growth potential, and professional experience are considered secondary criteria. These results contribute to extending our knowledge about dismissal decisions and showing the most relevant criteria in these choices and the relevance assigned to each of the criteria so that greater transparency can be achieved.

  12. Intelligent intefrace design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Y.; Siebert, S.; Thebault, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Optimum adequation between control means and the capacities of the teams of operators is sought for to achieve computerization of control and monitoring interfaces. Observation of the diagnosis activity of populations of operators in incident situations on a simulator enables design criteria well-suited to the characteristics of the detection, interpretation of symptoms and incident location tasks to be defined. A software tool based on a qualitative approach enables the design process to be systematized

  13. Criteria for evaluating alternative uses of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, R. J.

    1977-10-15

    Criteria that should be considered in evaluating the alternative use of energy resources are examined, e.g., energy policies must be compatible with overall national objectives; the demands of the energy sector must be sustainable; energy supplies must be reliable; resource depletion rates must be minimized; community interests must be protected; and economic costs must be minimized. Case studies using electricity and natural gas for the application of these criteria are presented.

  14. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  15. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  16. Stock Price Synchronicity and Material Sustainability Information

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Jody; Hauptmann, Clarissa; Serafeim, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    We examine if, and under what conditions, disclosure of sustainability information identified as investor relevant by market-driven innovations in accounting standard-setting, is associated with stock prices reflecting more firm-specific information and thereby lower synchronicity with market and industry returns. We find that firms voluntarily disclosing more sustainability information, identified as material by the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), have lower stock price syn...

  17. Sustainability Reporting Process Model using Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Alxneit, Thorsten Julius

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability including the reporting requirements is one of the most relevant topics for companies. In recent years, many software providers have launched new software tools targeting companies committed to implementing sustainability reporting. But it’s not only companies willing to use their Business Intelligence (BI) solution, there are also basic principles such as the single source of truth and tendencies to combine sustainability reporting with the financial reporting (...

  18. Farming with future: making crop protection sustainable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, F.G.

    2011-01-01

    The project Farming with future works with parties with a vested interest to promote sustainable crop protection in practice. Besides developing new knowledge, it spends a good deal of its energy in the embedding of sustainable practices within relevant organisations, businesses and agrarian

  19. Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue ‘Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health’ is part of the internationally leading 'International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health’. I was invited to be the guest editor, and to oversee the refereeing process and subsequent selection of timely, relevant and high quality papers highlighting particularly novel aspects concerned with sustainability issues in environmental studies. [...

  20. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods: Uniting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 juil. 2003 ... Management of local resources has a greater chance of a sustainable outcome when there is partnership between local people and external agencies, and agendas relevant to their aspirations and circumstances. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods analyses and extends this premise ...

  1. Sustainability Matters for Undergraduate Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Catherine L.; Wei, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that infusing sustainability into undergraduate courses and programs can simultaneously benefit institutional goals, student learning outcomes, and society at large. In addition to being a globally relevant and urgent topic, sustainability can enhance learning of disciplinary concepts and development of broad…

  2. Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Miklas

    2009-01-01

    This special issue ‘Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health’ is part of the internationally leading 'International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health’. I was invited to be the guest editor, and to oversee the refereeing process and subsequent selection of timely, relevant and high quality papers highlighting particularly novel aspects concerned with sustainability issues in environmental studies. [...

  3. Development of the EU Ecolabel Criteria and Revision of the EU Green Public Procurement Criteria for Cleaning Services

    OpenAIRE

    DE ALMEIDA FERREIRA NETO BELMIRA; WOLF Oliver; FIELD Bethany; JENKIN Nicola; TAM Max; BENJAMIN Oscar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a new EU Ecolabel and revise the existing EU Green Public Procurement (GPP) criteria for professional cleaning services (hereafter referred to as cleaning services). This preliminary report investigates the market, operational and sustainability aspects of cleaning services, with a goal to develop a robust evidence base and prioritise key environmental and social issues to support the development of EU Ecolabel criteria and the revision of the EU GP...

  4. An Empirical Exploration, Typology, and Definition of Corporate Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Max Bergman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between business and society is evolving. On the one hand, social, environmental, and long-term economic issues subsumed under the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development are inspiring intergovernmental organizations, governments, NGOs, NPOs, foundations, and civic society to legislate and regulate corporate behavior toward a greater concern for the wellbeing of groups, regions, or entire societies. On the other, a growing trend toward protectionism, nationalism, and populism may be the consequence or expression of a dissatisfaction with the perceived dissociation of the private sector from society. As a form of self-regulation, corporate responsibility deals with the complex responsibilities businesses have toward society. However, it tends to be hampered by an emphasis on theology and philosophy-based business ethics, which are difficult to integrate into day-to-day business operations or to translate between national or corporate cultures. In this article, we argue that corporate sustainability could be a more useful concept to help improve on how government, the private sector, and academia understand the links between business and society, and how to translate the interdependence between business and society from one culture to another. For this purpose, we empirically analyzed the relevant academic literature on corporate sustainability, using Content Configuration Analysis. Our analyses revealed three conceptual types and nine subtypes of corporate sustainability. Based on their assessment, we suggest conceptual preferences and a definition of corporate sustainability, which fulfil criteria that may render the concept more useful to global political and socioeconomic negotiations among stakeholder groups for the long-term benefit of business and society.

  5. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  6. Sustainability of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    ⇒ The IAEA’s International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was established in 2000. ⇒ INPRO cooperates with Member States to ensure that sustainable nuclear energy is available to help meet the energy needs of the 21st century. ⇒ INPRO is part of the integrated services of the IAEA provided to Member States considering initial development or expansion of nuclear energy programmes. ⇒ INPRO Methodology for nuclear energy system assessment - a comprehensive set of internationally agreed basic principles, requirements and criteria in the important areas of economics, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance, physical protection, environment and infrastructure. ⇒ Meeting the INPRO criteria in all of the areas ensures sustainability of nuclear energy system and its high potential to meet growing energy demand throughout the present century

  7. Sustainability and Risk Disclosure: An Exploratory Study on Sustainability Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Truant

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent policy changes in sustainability reporting, such as the ones related to the new European Directive on non-financial disclosure (2014/95/EU, the standards issued by the American Sustainability Accounting Standard Board (SASB, the G4 guidelines issued by the Global Sustainability Standard Board (GSSB, and the framework of the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC stress the importance of extending the disclosure of ethical, social, and environmental risks within financial and social-environmental reporting. Institutional pressure has notably increased among organizations, in setting up risk management tools to understand sustainability risks within managerial and reporting practices. Given such institutional pressure, the corporate reaction in providing additional sustainability risk disclosure calls for attention and scrutiny. Therefore, this study aims at addressing such issues from an exploratory perspective. We based our analysis on a sample of large Italian organizations that issued sustainability disclosure in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI, G4 guidelines, and we tested the relationship between their level of risk disclosure and other relevant variables. Consistently with the literature, we found that “experienced” sustainable reporters provide a significant volume of disclosure, and that disclosure quality on risk is positively influenced by their international presence and reporting experience. However, when accounting for specific risk-related areas of disclosure, only a few of them seem to adopt a managerial perspective linking strategy, risk metrics, and disclosure.

  8. Sustainability Cards: Design for Longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie; Ræbild, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Product longevity is considered widely as a relevant strategic approach, amongst many, within the field of sustainability. Yet, how to design for increased product lifetime may not be so obvious for practitioners. The complexity of the surrounding issues can constitute a barrier for designers...... for designers and other stakeholders in the design process. The paper is based on a developmental project carried out in the Autumn 2017, within a larger research and collaboration project between raw fur manufacturer Kopenhagen Fur and Design School Kolding investigating sustainability perspectives. The paper...... describes the development of a deck of sustainability cards aiming for product longevity and presents the final deck. Furthermore, the paper contributes with insights on how designers may apply design cards in the design process and how this practice can further sustainable considerations and strategies...

  9. Architecting for Sustainable Software Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    14 CrossTalk—May/June 2012 RAPID AND AGILE STABILITY Architecting for Sustainable Software Delivery Ronald J. Koontz , Boeing Robert L. Nord...Figure 2, and additional architecture documentation can be found in the work of Koontz [9, 10, 11]. Designing for extensibility promotes continued...Mapping of Practices to Agile and Architecture Criteria CrossTalk—May/June 2012 19 RAPID AND AGILE STABILITY ABOUT THE AUTHORS Ronald J. Koontz

  10. Criteria for software modularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, David N.; Page, Gerald T.; Mcgarry, Frank E.

    1985-01-01

    A central issue in programming practice involves determining the appropriate size and information content of a software module. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of two widely used criteria for software modularization, strength and size, in reducing fault rate and development cost. Data from 453 FORTRAN modules developed by professional programmers were analyzed. The results indicated that module strength is a good criterion with respect to fault rate, whereas arbitrary module size limitations inhibit programmer productivity. This analysis is a first step toward defining empirically based standards for software modularization.

  11. Much ado about nothing? Sustainability disclosure in the banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Katrin; Festl-Pell, Diana Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the sustainability disclosure in the banking industry with respect to potential greenwashing. We build a theoretical framework to assess the sustainability disclosure along materiali-ty criteria in the banking industry and apply this framework to the corporate sustainability reporting of two global systemically important banks. The results of our case study point toward the existence of greenwashing mainly in the most material area of the sustainability disclosure of our s...

  12. Multi-criteria decision analysis of energy system transformation pathways: A case study for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkart, Kathrin; Weidmann, Nicolas; Bauer, Christian; Hirschberg, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Two recent political decisions are expected to frame the development of the Swiss energy system in the coming decades: the nuclear phase-out and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target. To accomplish both of them, low-carbon technologies based on renewable energy and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are expected to gain importance. The objective of the present work is to support prospective Swiss energy policy-making by providing a detailed sustainability analysis of possible energy system transformation pathways. For this purpose, the results of the scenario quantification with an energy system model are coupled with multi-criteria sustainability analysis. Two climate protection and one reference scenario are addressed, and the trade-offs between the scenarios are analysed based on a set of 12 interdisciplinary indicators. Implementing a stringent climate policy in Switzerland is associated with co-benefits such as less fossil resource use, less fatalities in severe accidents in the energy sector, less societal conflicts and higher resource autonomy. The availability and implementation of CCS allows for achieving the GHG emission reduction target at lower costs, but at the expense of a more fossil fuel-based energy system. - Highlights: • Three energy system transformation pathways for Switzerland are analysed. • A set of policy-relevant sustainability indicators are quantified for each pathway. • Implementing a stringent climate policy in Switzerland is associated with co-benefits. • In the CCS scenario fossil fuel use increases, but the total system costs are lower. • Fossil-fuelled transport substantially contributes to most of the addressed criteria.

  13. Sustainable Technology and Business Innovation Framework – A Comprehensive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Levi Jakšić

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the rising awareness of the urgency in finding more efficient and effective ways to achieve sustainable development, comprehensive and consistent meaning is still elusive both in theory and practice. The aim of this paper is to create a more structured theoretical framework related to macro and micro perspectives of sustainable development, relevant also to enhancing sustainable practices. We here propose a comprehensive framework model for structuring multiple sustainability principles and practices, detected in the literature as different sustainability categories related to both macro and micro perspectives of sustainability in the economy and society. The focus is on relevant sustainability principles of technology and business innovation in relation to basic technology and business innovation models as a contribution to less investigated theoretical aspects of sustainable business development. We developed a set of related matrices indicating the relevant roles and relationships between these principles in achieving sustainable business goals related to sustainable economy dimensions. Finally, the paper shows that the proposed Related Matrices Framework fulfils the main objective set in the initial research stages, i.e. to be of both theoretical and practical relevance. As a contribution to the theory it meets the need of building a structured, integrated, comprehensive model that serves the needs of better understanding different sustainability of macro and micro categories, indicating mutual relations and influences. In a practical sense, it can be used as a tool to support the management of change in companies oriented at achieving sustainable business goals based on sustainable technology and business innovation.

  14. Radiation protection criteria in the long-range view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.; Bergman, C.

    1989-01-01

    The report presents by way of introduction radiation protection criteria applied to radiological activities and to disposal of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. In these cases it is primarily short-range views that are relevant, up to a few thousand years as a maximum. In the case of high-level wastes where the views may extend to more than hundreds of thousands years, there are not for the present any equally well stablished criteria. Based upon preliminary results from a Nordic team for criteria for high-level radioactive wastes, dose estimates in the long-range view and alternative assessment criteria are discussed. Proposals are also presented for 12 criteria that may be applicable. As the work is not yet finshed, the criteria are however merely preliminary

  15. Social sustainability of cod and haddock fisheries in the northeast Atlantic: what issues are important?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the sustainability of capture fisheries has focused more on environmental and economic sustainability than on social sustainability. To assess social sustainability, first relevant and important social sustainability issues need to be identified. The objective of this study was to

  16. Institutionalizing Strong Sustainability: A Rawlsian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Ott

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to provide some ethical orientation on how sustainability might be actualized by institutions. Since institutionalization is about rules and organization, it presupposes ideas and concepts by which institutions can be substantiated. After outlining terminology, the article deals with underlying ethical and conceptual problems which are highly relevant for any suggestions concerning institutionalization. These problems are: (a the ethical scope of the sustainability perspective (natural capital, poverty, sentient animals, (b the theory of justice on which ideas about sustainability are built (capability approach, Rawlsianism, and (c the favored concept of sustainability (weak, intermediate, and strong sustainability. These problems are analyzed in turn. As a result, a Rawlsian concept of rule-based strong sustainability is proposed. The specific problems of institutionalization are addressed by applying Rawls’s concept of branches. The article concludes with arguments in favor of three transnational duties which hold for states that have adopted Rawlsian strong sustainability.

  17. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  19. Indicators of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .

  20. SUSTAINABLE YACHT TOURISM PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen SEVİNÇ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yacht tourism has become an important asset for the countries which consider tourism as a means of development due to its environment awareness, national and international investments, the volume of business, employment opportunities, foreign exchange income, socio-economic and socio-cultural impact, and an increasing number of investments and incentives for yacht tourism have made and used in a number of countries. In the presence of such rapid developments, the environmental damage caused by yacht tourism has been of importance for coastal countries, and action plans and special projects involving many countries have been developed in order to enhance the awareness of the sustainability of yacht tourism. Given that environment is not a limited source, it is blatant that national or international sustainable tourism practices have been essential for coastal countries and environmental threats are now so severe that they cannot be overlooked. The purpose of the study is to discuss sustainable tourism practices as a part of the measures to eliminate the negative impacts of yacht tourism and provide relevant suggestions.

  1. Combining the IADPSG criteria with the WHO diagnostic criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrosomia or at least one adverse outcome were more likely in GDM patients who met the diagnostic criteria by both the IADPSG and WHO criteria (P = 0.001). Conclusion: A diagnosis of GDM that meets both the WHO and IADPSG criteria provides stronger prediction for adverse pregnancy outcome than a diagnosis that ...

  2. Las diferencias en los criterios diagnósticos de síndrome metabólico son útiles para identificar sujetos en riesgo, pero pierden relevancia en pacientes con enfermedad coronaria Differences in metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria are useful for identifying risk subjects, but loose relevance in patients with coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio López-Jaramillo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: actualmente existe controversia con respecto a la existencia del síndrome metabólico como una entidad independiente y además existen diferencias en los criterios diagnósticos propuestos para su diagnóstico. Objetivo: determinar si existen diferencias en la frecuencia de diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico al utilizar los criterios del Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII y la International Diabetes Federation (IDF en la población latinoamericana con y sin enfermedad aterosclerótica coronaria. Diseño-método: estudio transversal analítico. Se incluyeron 265 hombres, 166 sin enfermedad arterial coronaria (-EAC y 99 hombres con manifestaciones clínicas sugestivas de enfermedad arterial coronaria (+EAC de los cuales 36,3% tenían demostración angiográfica de enfermedad arterial coronaria luminal. Se realizó un examen físico completo y determinaciones de glicemia y perfil lipídico. Se aplicaron los criterios de la ATPIII y de la IDF para el diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico y se calculó su frecuencia en cada uno de los grupos. Resultados: en los dos grupos estudiados la aplicación de los criterios del ATPIII registró menores frecuencias de síndrome metabólico que con los criterios de la IDF; sin embargo esta diferencia sólo alcanzó significancia en el grupo de pacientes sin antecedente de enfermedad arterial coronaria (-EAC (IDF= 33,1% vs. ATP-III= 13,4% p=0,01 +EAC (IDF= 52,2% vs. ATP-III= 47,2% p= 0,2. Conclusiones: estos resultados demuestran que la incorporación de la obesidad central dentro de los criterios diagnósticos para síndrome metabólico y la definición de puntos de corte propios para cada región, es importante en la identificación de latinoamericanos con síndrome metabólico.Antecedents: there is actually a controversy with regard to the existence of metabolic syndrome as an independent entity and there are also differences in the criteria proposed for its diagnosis. Objective: to determine

  3. The Sustainability of Community-Based Adaptation Projects in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay Simane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate resilience in subsistence agricultural communities depends strongly on the robustness and effective management of the agricultural natural resource base. For this reason, adaptation planning efforts frequently focus on natural resource conservation as the primary motivation for and primary outcome of adaptation activities. Here, we present an analysis of the sustainability of community based adaptation (CBA activities in 20 community based organizations (CBO that were established in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia in order to promote resilience to climate change. CBA sustainability was assessed through multi-criteria analysis using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Sustainability was considered for social, institutional, technical, financial, and environmental dimensions, with second-order indicators or factors defined for each dimension. According to this analysis, CBA efforts of two thirds of the COBs studied were found to be unsustainable in all dimensions and CBA efforts of the remaining CBOs were found to be at risk of unsustainability. A number of barriers to CBA sustainability were identified, including inadequacies in community participation, training of local community members, local government commitment, farmer capacity, and bureaucratic efficiency. Participatory evaluation of CBA, however, revealed that many of these barriers can be attributed to the decision to use conservation of natural resources as the primary framework for CBA activities. Based on this evaluation, new efforts have been developed that use markets as the entry and exit points for sustainability activities. Lessons learned in this project are relevant for CBA efforts in other agricultural regions of the developing world.

  4. Life cycle considerations for improving sustainability assessments in seafood awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that improving the sustainability of seafood production requires efforts to reverse declines in global fisheries due to overfishing and to reduce the impacts to host ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture production technologies. Reflective of on-going dialogue amongst participants in an international research project applying Life Cycle Assessment to better understand and manage global salmon production systems, we argue here that such efforts must also address the wider range of biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic impacts stemming from the material and energetic throughput associated with these industries. This is of particular relevance given the interconnectivity of global environmental change, ocean health, and the viability of seafood production in both fisheries and aquaculture. Although the growing popularity of numerous ecolabeling, certification, and consumer education programs may be making headway in influencing Western consumer perceptions of the relative sustainability of alternative seafood products, we also posit that the efficacy of these initiatives in furthering sustainability objectives is compromised by the use of incomplete criteria. An emerging body of Life Cycle Assessment research of fisheries and aquaculture provides valuable insights into the biophysical dimensions of environmental performance in alternative seafood production and consumption systems, and should be used to inform a more holistic approach to labeling, certifying, and educating for sustainability in seafood production. More research, however, must be undertaken to develop novel techniques for incorporating other critical dimensions, in particular, socioeconomic considerations, into our sustainability decision-making.

  5. Sustainability aspects of biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, L.; Cel, W.; Wójcik Oliveira, K.

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, world development depends on the energy supply. The use of fossil fuels leads to two threats: depletion of resources within a single century and climate changes caused by the emission of CO2 from fossil fuels combustion. Widespread application of renewable energy sources, in which biofuels play a major role, is proposed as a counter-measure. The paper made an attempt to evaluate to what extent biofuels meet the criteria of sustainable development. It was shown that excessive development of biofuels may threaten the sustainable development paradigms both in the aspect of: intergenerational equity, leading to an increase of food prices, as well as intergenerational equity, resulting in degradation of the environment. The paper presents the possibility of sustainable biofuels production increase.

  6. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  7. Cascading biomethane energy systems for sustainable green gas production in a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, David M; McDonagh, Shane; Murphy, Jerry D

    2017-11-01

    Biomethane is a flexible energy vector that can be used as a renewable fuel for both the heat and transport sectors. Recent EU legislation encourages the production and use of advanced, third generation biofuels with improved sustainability for future energy systems. The integration of technologies such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and power to gas, along with advanced feedstocks such as algae will be at the forefront in meeting future sustainability criteria and achieving a green gas supply for the gas grid. This paper explores the relevant pathways in which an integrated biomethane industry could potentially materialise and identifies and discusses the latest biotechnological advances in the production of renewable gas. Three scenarios of cascading biomethane systems are developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-criteria decision making approaches for green supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banasik, Aleksander; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Claassen, G.D.H.; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Designing Green Supply Chains (GSCs) requires complex decision-support models that can deal with multiple dimensions of sustainability while taking into account specific characteristics of products and their supply chain. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approaches can be used to quantify

  9. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  10. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  11. A agenda ambiental pública: barreiras para a articulação entre critérios de sustentabilidade e as novas diretrizes da administração pública federal brasileira The public environmental agenda: barriers to the articulation between criteria for sustainability and the new guidelines of the Brazilian central government administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gracinda Carvalho Teixeira

    2013-04-01

    Department of Budget, Planning and Administration. It provides on the criteria for environmental sustainability in the acquisition of goods, contracting of services or work by the Federal Government administration. Thus, it is supposed that there is a need to apprehend new forms of dialogue between the public and private realms, the State and society, given the institutional changes faced by the present public administration and implied in the norm. However, the research problem to be answered is the following: which factors would be causing the absence of alignment between the criteria for environmental sustainability required from the federal public administration, to the situation the partner contracted organizations are in, so to promote such sustainability? A qualitative study was made, of an exploratory kind, entailing bibliographical, document and field research. Interviews were conducted in the latter with the public administrators involved in bidding procedures, as well as in the production of work projects and inspection of the construction of the new public buildings. The results from the research confirm the supposition of the study and present the main barriers for the affectivity of the norm pointing out that without a major articulation of the environmental bodies to the new guidelines of the federal public administration, with a clear acceptance of the responsibilities related to the norm, the environmental design, as proposed by the new legislations may find itself jeopardized.

  12. Sustainability & Organization Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Bygvraa; Obel, Børge; Kallehave, Pernille

    The global financial crisis has forced a profound rethink of the optimal form of capitalism and the relationship between business, environment and government. The current crisis has exposed systemic failures of corporate governance in administering the purpose of the firm. It has shown the failure...... of global governance to match the new dynamics and consequences of globalization. Governments are re-examining corporate accountability to society and how companies earn their license to operate. Furthermore companies are re-examining their code of conduct and leadership values. Thus, sustainability...... organization. Here we follow the Global Compact criteria. The consequences for processes, structure, and human skills and values are analyzed. In particular the analysis will investigate exploration and exploitation from a holistic perspective using the principles of requisite variety and information...

  13. Building a Metaframework for Sustainable Transport Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    and operationalize sustainability for transportation-related planning and decision making. Often these studies presented frameworks that would allow sustainability indicators and measures to be included in, for example, agency strategies and practices. Moreover, some papers suggested criteria for the selection...... of individual indicators and performance measures. The studies, however, did not always agree on the definition of a framework or how to use one to make sustainability-based decisions, and they tended to differ on underscored aspects and concerns. The current study addressed the issue of frameworks more...... generically and explored what was termed a "metaframework" with a set of associated criteria to guide the framing of indicators for sustainable transportation. On the basis of an explicit framework theory, the three functions of conceptualization, operationalization, and utilization were found to provide...

  14. Articulating Material Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie

    2013-01-01

    , imitate and articulate the students’ inclusion of materials. This paper particularly discusses the experiences made and ideas generated after the execution of a material science course for second year students, with emphasis on the concept of the material selection matrix as an educational tool......This paper discusses the experiences and potentials with materials teaching at the Institute for Product Design at Kolding School of Design, using materials teaching as experiments in my PhD project. The project intents to create a stronger material awareness among product design students...... with emphasis on sustainability. The experiments aim to develop an understanding of, how product design students include materials in their design practice and how tools can be developed that further enhance this. Hence experiments are essential for the progress of the PhD project as they help to observe...

  15. Articulating Material Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the experiences and potentials with materials teaching at the Institute for Product Design at Kolding School of Design, using materials teaching as experiments in my PhD project. The project intents to create a stronger material awareness among product design students...... with emphasis on sustainability. The experiments aim to develop an understanding of, how product design students include materials in their design practice and how tools can be developed that further enhance this. Hence experiments are essential for the progress of the PhD project as they help to observe....... Furthermore the purpose is to initiate a discussion on, how to create educational tools for material awareness creation in the design education e.g. by applying objective and quantitative methods in an otherwise often subjective design process....

  16. Designing for sustainability: ergonomics--carpe diem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K; Legg, S; Brown, C

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is a global issue that has worldwide attention but the role of ergonomics in designing for sustainability is poorly understood and seldom considered. An analysis of the literature on ergonomics, design and sustainability was conducted via a search of electronic databases: Scopus, Business Source Complete, Google Scholar, Emerald Publishing, Academic Search Premiere, Web of Science, Discover and Ergonomics Abstracts, for the years 1995-2012. A total of 1934 articles fulfilled the search criteria, but content analysis of the abstracts indicated that only 14 refereed articles addressed the main search criteria. Of those seven were in ergonomics journals and seven were in other journals (and were not written by ergonomists). It is concluded that the contribution of ergonomics to sustainability and sustainable design has been limited, even though the goals of sustainability and ergonomics are congruent. Ergonomists have not been at the forefront of research contributing to sustainability - and it is time for them to 'seize the day' - 'carpe diem'. This literature review shows that ergonomics contribution to sustainability is limited but since there is congruence between the disciplines it calls for ergonomists to become more involved and to seize the day - carpe diem.

  17. Assessment of Sustainability of Sports Events (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Golob

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Events industry plays an important role in nowadays economy and can have a substantial impact for a successful business; in addition, sustainability-oriented tourism is becoming an important component of development and planning of a tourist destination. Thus, organizing sustainability-oriented events is crucial and should focus on the zero waste event management and consider as many elements of sustainable development as possible. The same stands for organizing sports events. The aim of this paper was to find out to which level the organizers of existing sports events in Slovenia are taking into account different domains of sustainable development. Answering to a common questionnaire the organizers gave us a feedback considering four main areas: environmental, social, cultural, and economic criteria. The plan was to determine the level of sustainability of three sports events and compare them to each other according to the outstanding areas as well as to draw the attention to the importance of organizing sustainability-oriented sports events and minimizing negative effects of those. Since the field of research is complex, dynamic, and has an interdisciplinary character the results were attained using the DEX software which supports a qualitative approach and allows the modelling of complex decision-making processes with a large number of parameters and alternatives. Such methodology enables the input of a preliminary set of sustainability criteria and can be used as a support when deciding on the evaluation of sustainability of events in general.

  18. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks

  19. Diagnostic Criteria for Pediatric MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago review the diagnostic criteria for pediatric multiple sclerosis, the differential diagnosis, the 2010 McDonald criteria, and Callen criteria.

  20. Roots and Relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gumucio-Dagron, Alfonso; Tufte, Thomas

    This anthology, the result of 3 years of review of 1000+ articles, now assembles 150 authors with 200 contributions - full articles, excerpts and quotes - ranging from 1927 to 2005. The articles all have been selected upon the criteria of contributing conceptually to the field of communication fo...... Participation, 3) Power, Media and the Public Sphere, 4) Paradigms in Communication for Development, 5) Information Society & Communication Rights....... for social change. The book is organised in two parts: the first part being cronological, from 1927-1995, and the second part containing 'the contemporary debate' in communication for social change, organised in 5 sub-themes: 1) Popular Culture, Narrative and Identity, 2) Social Movements & Community...

  1. Efficiency, sustainability and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, Richard T.; Bishop, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Economic analyses of global warming have typically been grounded in the theory of economic efficiency. Such analyses may be inappropriate because many of the underlying concerns about climate change are rooted not in efficiency, but in the intergenerational allocation of economic endowments. A simple economic model is developed which demonstrates that an efficient economy is not necessarily a sustainable economy. This result leads directly to questions about the policy relevance of several economic studies of the issue. We then consider policy alternatives to address global warming in the context of economies with the dual objectives of efficiency and sustainability, with particular attention to carbon-based taxes

  2. Sustainable Resilient, Robust & Resplendent Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick

    to their impact. Resplendent enterprises are introduced with resplendence referring not to some sort of public or private façade, but instead refers to organizations marked by dual brilliance and nobility of strategy, governance and comportment that yields superior and sustainable triple bottom line performance....... Herein resilience, robustness, and resplendence (R3) are integrated with sustainable enterprise excellence (Edgeman and Eskildsen, 2013) or SEE and social-ecological innovation (Eskildsen and Edgeman, 2012) to aid progress of a firm toward producing continuously relevant performance that proceed from...

  3. Stakes and Challenges for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    COLONNA, Paul

    2015-01-01

    How can we ensure the sustainability of biological resources? The development of new industries using biomass as raw material to produce a broad range of products, through a large number of different transformation processes, raises new questions on the associated environmental impacts. The current situation, mainly due to the significant development of the bio-fuel industries, is characterized by strong demand for sustainability criteria to apply to these new industries, particularly from a...

  4. Sustainability and Cities as Systems of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Lehmann, Martin

    Cities often constitute relevant environments for interactive learning and innovation potentially capable of tackling sustainability problems. In this paper we ask if the concept of systems of innovation can increase our understanding of city dynamics and help promoting the sustainable development...... of cities. Through a combination of the innovation system approach and the perspective of creative cities, we argue that a slightly modified concept – sustainable city systems of innovation – may be helpful in this context. To underline this, we discuss certain ‘city-traits’ of sustainability and conclude...

  5. Cities in the global South and the Sustainable Development Goals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable development recently topped the global agenda again when, on 25 September 2015, the UN adopted the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), including SDG 11 on cities: 'Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.' Though heralded with pomp and pageantry, in reality the relevance of cities to ...

  6. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy Institute. This funding will strengthen the Sustainable Development Policy Institute's (SDPI) role as a credible public policy institution in Pakistan by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Sustainable ...

  7. Conceptualizing Digital Literacies and Digital Ethics for Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the need for integrating a focus on digital literacies and digital ethics into sustainability education, proposing a conceptualization of these for sustainability education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on relevant literature in the field of sustainability education and in the field…

  8. Interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.

  9. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  10. Strategic environmental assessment for sustainability: A review of a decade of academic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.white@usask.ca [School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5A5 (Canada); Noble, Bram F., E-mail: b.noble@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning, School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5A5 (Canada)

    2013-09-15

    This paper examines the strategic environmental assessment (SEA)–sustainability relationship over the past decade, from 2000 to 2010, focusing in particular on the incorporation of sustainability in SEA. A total of 86 papers from the academic literature containing the terms ‘sustainability’ or ‘sustainable development’ and ‘strategic environmental assessment’ were identified and reviewed. Several common themes emerged by which SEA can support sustainability, including providing a framework to support decision making for sustainability; setting sustainability objectives, ensuring the consideration of ‘more sustainable’ alternatives, and integrating sustainability criteria in PPP development; and promoting sustainability outcomes through tiering and institutional learning. At the same time, our review identified many underlying barriers that challenge SEA for sustainability, including the variable interpretations of the scope of sustainability in SEA; the limited use of assessment criteria directly linked to sustainability objectives; and challenges for decision-makers in operationalizing sustainability in SEA and adapting PPP development decision-making processes to include sustainability issues. To advance SEA for sustainability there is a need to better define the scope of sustainability in SEA; clarify how to operationalize the different approaches to sustainability in SEA, as opposed to simply describing those approaches; provide guidance on how to operationalize broad sustainability goals through assessment criteria in SEA; and understand better how to facilitate institutional learning regarding sustainability through SEA application. -- Highlights: ► There is significant potential for SEA to support sustainability in PPP development. ► However, there are still many barriers in place that challenge SEA for sustainability. ► The scope and approaches to sustainability in SEA must be better defined and described. ► Guidance is needed to

  11. Strategic environmental assessment for sustainability: A review of a decade of academic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Lisa; Noble, Bram F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the strategic environmental assessment (SEA)–sustainability relationship over the past decade, from 2000 to 2010, focusing in particular on the incorporation of sustainability in SEA. A total of 86 papers from the academic literature containing the terms ‘sustainability’ or ‘sustainable development’ and ‘strategic environmental assessment’ were identified and reviewed. Several common themes emerged by which SEA can support sustainability, including providing a framework to support decision making for sustainability; setting sustainability objectives, ensuring the consideration of ‘more sustainable’ alternatives, and integrating sustainability criteria in PPP development; and promoting sustainability outcomes through tiering and institutional learning. At the same time, our review identified many underlying barriers that challenge SEA for sustainability, including the variable interpretations of the scope of sustainability in SEA; the limited use of assessment criteria directly linked to sustainability objectives; and challenges for decision-makers in operationalizing sustainability in SEA and adapting PPP development decision-making processes to include sustainability issues. To advance SEA for sustainability there is a need to better define the scope of sustainability in SEA; clarify how to operationalize the different approaches to sustainability in SEA, as opposed to simply describing those approaches; provide guidance on how to operationalize broad sustainability goals through assessment criteria in SEA; and understand better how to facilitate institutional learning regarding sustainability through SEA application. -- Highlights: ► There is significant potential for SEA to support sustainability in PPP development. ► However, there are still many barriers in place that challenge SEA for sustainability. ► The scope and approaches to sustainability in SEA must be better defined and described. ► Guidance is needed to

  12. The Success Criteria of Scientific Pedagogic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ovchinnikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of scientific pedagogic activity assessment of the higher school academic staff. The existing options of quality estimation are listed along with their deficiencies; the most acceptable in the authors’ opinion being the systematic approach. The latter allows considering almost every aspect of scientific-pedagogic activity. On that ground, the authors recommend the following success estimation criteria: gnostic, projecting, communicative, informational, and organizational. The criteria of work satisfaction and its results are taken into consideration as additional ones. The indicators of each criterion are given demonstrating that the as- sessment can be both internal (subjective and external (objective, denoted in the normative acts. The problem of complex and just quality assessment of scientific- pedagogic activity is quite relevant as it affects the academic staff motivation. The authors believe that the research findings can improve the objectivity of teachers’ work assessment and give way to differentiated approaches to their motivation and stimulation. 

  13. Sustainability impact assessment to improve food security of smallholders in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Jana; Graef, Frieder; König, Hannes Jochen; Mchau, Devotha; Saidia, Paul; Sieber, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to assess the sustainability impacts of planned agricultural development interventions, so called upgrading strategies (UPS), to enhance food security and to identify what advantages and risks are assessed from the farmer's point of view in regards to social life, the economy and the environment. We developed a participatory methodological procedure that links food security and sustainable development. Farmers in four different case study villages in rural Tanzania chose their priority UPS. For these UPS, they assessed the impacts on locally relevant food security criteria. The positive impacts identified were mainly attributed to increased agricultural production and its related positive impacts such as increased income and improved access to necessary means to diversify the diet. However, several risks of certain UPS were also indicated by farmers, such as increased workload, high maintenance costs, higher competition among farmers, loss of traditional knowledge and social conflicts. We discussed the strong interdependence of socio-economic and environmental criteria to improve food security for small-scale farmers and analysed several trade-offs in regards to UPS choices and food security criteria. We also identified and discussed the advantages and challenges of our methodological approach. In conclusion, the participatory impact assessment on the farmer level allowed a locally specific analysis of the various positive and negative impacts of UPS on social life, the economy and the environment. We emphasize that only a development approach that considers social, economic and environmental challenges simultaneously can enhance food security.

  14. Identification of Appropriate Biodiversity Indicators for Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management at National Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolunay, A.; Akyol, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable forest management (SFM) practices have started in 1999 in Turkey. A set of criteria and indicators, composed by the General Directorate of Forestry (GDF) on the basis of the criteria and indicators defined in the Pan-European and Near Eastern Processes, was enquired via a survey to serve this purpose. GDF tested the sustainability under the following titles: Situation of forest resources, biodiversity, health and vitality, production capacity and functions, protective functions and environmental and socio-economic functions. There were problems in identification and definition of SFM criteria and indicators. Biological diversity indicators has been selected, described and developed in this study. At this phase, the survey was completed upon receiving the views of the scientists interested in different dimensions of this topic as well as the views of other interest groups affiliated with forestry. As a result, there were 13 indicators that may be used as the basis of a regional or forest management unit level for the purpose of protecting, developing and maintaining biodiversity. Furthermore, these indicators are instruments, which may easily be used by relevant decision-makers in the management of forest resources in a more effective and productive manner. (author)

  15. Sustainability impact assessment to improve food security of smallholders in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Jana, E-mail: jana.schindler@zalf.de [Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Land Use Systems, Eberswalder Straße 84, 15374 Müncheberg (Germany); Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Invalidenstr. 42, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Graef, Frieder, E-mail: graef@zalf.de [Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Land Use Systems, Eberswalder Straße 84, 15374 Müncheberg (Germany); König, Hannes Jochen, E-mail: hkoenig@zalf.de [Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Land Use Systems, Eberswalder Straße 84, 15374 Müncheberg (Germany); Mchau, Devotha, E-mail: dvtmchau@yahoo.com [Agricultural Research Institute (ARI Hombolo/Makutupora), P. O. Box 1676, Dodoma (Tanzania, United Republic of); Saidia, Paul, E-mail: saidiapaul@gmail.com [Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Morogoro, Department of Crop Science and Production, P O. Box 3005, Morogoro (Tanzania, United Republic of); Sieber, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.sieber@zalf.de [Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socio-Economics, Eberswalder Straße 84, 15374 Müncheberg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this paper was to assess the sustainability impacts of planned agricultural development interventions, so called upgrading strategies (UPS), to enhance food security and to identify what advantages and risks are assessed from the farmer's point of view in regards to social life, the economy and the environment. We developed a participatory methodological procedure that links food security and sustainable development. Farmers in four different case study villages in rural Tanzania chose their priority UPS. For these UPS, they assessed the impacts on locally relevant food security criteria. The positive impacts identified were mainly attributed to increased agricultural production and its related positive impacts such as increased income and improved access to necessary means to diversify the diet. However, several risks of certain UPS were also indicated by farmers, such as increased workload, high maintenance costs, higher competition among farmers, loss of traditional knowledge and social conflicts. We discussed the strong interdependence of socio-economic and environmental criteria to improve food security for small-scale farmers and analysed several trade-offs in regards to UPS choices and food security criteria. We also identified and discussed the advantages and challenges of our methodological approach. In conclusion, the participatory impact assessment on the farmer level allowed a locally specific analysis of the various positive and negative impacts of UPS on social life, the economy and the environment. We emphasize that only a development approach that considers social, economic and environmental challenges simultaneously can enhance food security.

  16. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  17. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  18. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K.

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  19. Some criteria for landscape quality applied on an organic goat farm in Gelderland, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, K.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Mansvelt, van J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of the concerted action 'The landscape and nature production capacity of organic/sustainable types of agriculture', the authors visited the organic goat farm Caprica to test some criteria on farm level

  20. Integrated criteria document mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, W.; Beelan, P. van; Annema, J.A.; Janus, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The document contains a systematic review and a critical evaluation of the most relevant data on the priority substance mercury for the purpose of effect-oriented environmental policy. Chapter headings are: properties and existing standards; production, application, sources and emissions (natural sources, industry, energy, households, agriculture, dental use, waste); distribution and transformation (cinnabar; Hg 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , elemental mercury, methylmercury, behavior in soil, water, air, biota); concentrations and fluxes in the environment and exposure levels (sampling and measuring methods, occurrence in soil, water, air etc.); effects (toxicity to humans and aquatic and terrestrial systems); emissions reduction (from industrial sources, energy, waste processing etc.); and evaluation (risks, standards, emission reduction objectives, measuring strategies). 395 refs

  1. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Criteria of site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P.; Fuchs, H.

    1975-01-01

    The criteria which lead to the choice of a particular site for a nuclear power station are in general very similar to those which would apply to any other type of power station. The principal differences derive from the simpler transport problems for the fuel compared with, say, solid fuel and the special safety considerations which attach to nuclear reactors. The search for a suitable site obviously starts by considering where the power is needed, i.e. where the load centers are and also the existing transmission network which may help to bring the power from a more remote site to the load centers. This economic incentive to put the plant close to loads conflicts directly with the nuclear safety argument which favours more remote siting, and part of the problem of site selection is to reconcile these two matters. In addition, there are many other important matters which will be considered later concerning the adequacy of cooling water supplies, foundation conditions, etc., all of which must be examined in considerable detail. (orig./TK) [de

  3. Criteria for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe three risk acceptability criteria as parts of a strategy to clean up decommissioned facilities, related to both the status quo and to a variety of alternative technical clean-up options. The acceptability of risk is a consideration that must enter into any decision to establish when a site is properly decommissioned. To do so, both the corporate and public aspects of the acceptability issue must be considered. The reasons for discussion the acceptability of risk are to: Legitimize the process for making cleanup decisions; Determine who is at risk, who benefits, and who bears the costs of site cleanup, for each specific cleanup option, including the do nothing option; Establish those factors that, taken as a whole, determine measures of acceptability; Determine chemical-specific aggregate and individual risk levels; and Establish levels for cleanup. The choice of these reasons is pragmatic. The method consistent with these factors is risk-risk-effectiveness: the level of cleanup must be consistent with the foreseeable use of the site and budget constraints. Natural background contamination is the level below which further cleanup is generally inefficient. Case-by-case departures from natural background are to be considered depending on demonstrated risk. For example, a hot spot is obviously a prima facie exception, but should be rebuttable. Rebuttability means that, through consensus, the ''hot spot'' is shown not to be associated with exposure

  4. Criteria for performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Weiss

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a cognitive task (mental calculation and a perceptual-motor task (stylized golf putting, we examined differential proficiency using the CWS index and several other quantitative measures of performance. The CWS index (Weiss and Shanteau, 2003 is a coherence criterion that looks only at internal properties of the data without incorporating an external standard. In Experiment 1, college students (n = 20 carried out 2- and 3-digit addition and multiplication problems under time pressure. In Experiment 2, experienced golfers (n = 12, also college students, putted toward a target from nine different locations. Within each experiment, we analyzed the same responses using different methods. For the arithmetic tasks, accuracy information (mean absolute deviation from the correct answer, MAD using a coherence criterion was available; for golf, accuracy information using a correspondence criterion (mean deviation from the target, also MAD was available. We ranked the performances of the participants according to each measure, then compared the orders using Spearman's rextsubscript{s}. For mental calculation, the CWS order correlated moderately (rextsubscript{s} =.46 with that of MAD. However, a different coherence criterion, degree of model fit, did not correlate with either CWS or accuracy. For putting, the ranking generated by CWS correlated .68 with that generated by MAD. Consensual answers were also available for both experiments, and the rankings they generated correlated highly with those of MAD. The coherence vs. correspondence distinction did not map well onto criteria for performance evaluation.

  5. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  6. Criteria for candidate species for aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, H H; Riordan, P F

    1976-01-01

    The nature of the animal taxa that are the most probable candidates for an intensive, commercial aquatic animal husbandry industry is considered. A characterization is presented of those biological criteria that lend the species the necessary physiological and genetic malleability to be adapted and molded into a domesticated race. The animal cultivated must be amenable to intensive management in high-density confinements such as those now being engineered for high-yield aquaculture. Attributes considered are discussed in the context of the various aquacultural ecosystems in which the specific biotype is expected to achieve satisfactory growth and survival. Correlative with bionomic criteria, economic requirements are posed and evaluated in an effort to define a socially and financially profitable agribusiness system. Investment requirements and operating costs are considered in terms of expected returns. However, since production alone is insufficient to sustain an enterprise - i.e., the product must be sold - production costs must be judged against market values. Therefore, ultimate use or consumer acceptance criteria are incorporated into the list of essential requirements for a candidate species for aquafarming.

  7. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  8. Sustainable water for rural security - A transdisciplinary approach [Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maherry, A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available -research through effective transfer of knowledge and technologies; and to identify the critical design criteria that ensure sustainability of rural water supply systems in South Africa....

  9. The use of traditional ecological knowledge in sustainable use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of plant resource through a community-based and participatory ... traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and scientific knowledge, with the aim of defining criteria for sustainable ...... resources. World Bank Technical Paper.

  10. Managing Normative Criteria in Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2014-01-01

    experiences from an action research project in a healthcare infrastructural setting. I use these experiences as a basis for appraising the normative crite- ria for rigor and relevance that are enacted in IS action research literature. I argue that while these criteria originally had important contributions......, there are also weaknesses with norma- tive approaches. Specifically, these norms of action research leave relatively little space for understanding and managing emerging empirical uncertainties. These norms are important because they have implications not only on how we conduct action research in practice...

  11. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Türkay

    Full Text Available Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers.

  12. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers.

  13. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers. PMID:26807848

  14. Sustainability Appraisal of Water Governance Regimes: The Case of Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzdas, Christopher; Wiek, Arnim; Warner, Benjamin; Vignola, Raffaele; Morataya, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    Sustainability appraisals produce evidence for how well water governance regimes operate and where problems exist. This evidence is particularly relevant for regions that face water scarcity and conflicts. In this study, we present a criteria-based and participatory sustainability appraisal of water governance in a region with such characteristics—the dry tropics of NW Costa Rica. Data collection included 47 interviews and three stakeholder workshops. The appraisal was conducted through a collaborative and iterative process between researchers and stakeholders. Out of the 25 sustainability criteria used, seven posed a significant challenge for the governance regime. We found challenges faced by the governance regime primarily clustered around and were re-enforced by failing coordination related to the use, management, and protection of groundwater resources; and inadequate leadership to identify collective goals and to constructively deliberate alternative ways of governing water with diverse groups. The appraisal yielded some positive impact in the study area, yet we found its application provided only limited strategic information to support broader problem-solving efforts. Insights from this study suggest key starting points for sustainable water governance in the Central American dry tropics, including investing in increasingly influential collective organizations that are already active in water governance; and leveraging policy windows that can be used to build confidence and disperse more governing authority to regional and local governing actors that are in-tune with the challenges faced in the dry tropics. We conclude the article with reflections on how to produce research results that are actionable for sustainable water governance.

  15. Discussions about safety criteria and guidelines for radioactive waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, the clearance levels for uranium-bearing waste have been established by the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC). The criteria for uranium-bearing waste disposal are also necessary; however, the NSC has not concluded the discussion on this subject. Meanwhile, the General Administrative Group of the Radiation Council has concluded the revision of its former recommendation 'Regulatory exemption dose for radioactive solid waste disposal', the dose criteria after the institutional control period for a repository. The Standardization Committee on Radiation Protection in the Japan Health Physics Society (The Committee) also has developed the relevant safety criteria and guidelines for existing exposure situations, which are potentially applicable to uranium-bearing waste disposal. A new working group established by The Committee was initially aimed at developing criteria and guidelines specifically for uranium-bearing waste disposal; however, the aim has been shifted to broader criteria applicable to any radioactive wastes.

  16. Technology assessment HTR. Part 8. Nuclear energy and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkenburg, W.C.

    1996-06-01

    The small social acceptance of nuclear power for power generation suggests that in the present situation nuclear technology does not meet certain sustainable criteria. First, the concept of sustainable development is explained and which dimensions can be distinguished. Next, the sustainable development with regard to the development of the energy supply is outlined and the energy policy to obtain this situation is discussed. Subsequently, the impact of the sustainable development and the policy used to realize this on the nuclear technology are dealt with. As a result, criteria are formulated that can be used to verify how nuclear technology will meet this criteria and which demands should be used to fit this technology so it can be used in a sustainable development of the society. 55 refs

  17. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  18. Comparing Sustainable Forest Management Certifications Standards: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rawson. Clark

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve problems caused by conventional forest management, forest certification has emerged as a driver of sustainable forest management. Several sustainable forest management certification systems exist, including the Forest Stewardship Council and those endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, such as the Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management Standard CAN/CSA - Z809 and Sustainable Forestry Initiative. For consumers to use certified products to meet their own sustainability goals, they must have an understanding of the effectiveness of different certification systems. To understand the relative performance of three systems, we determined: (1 the criteria used to compare the Forest Stewardship Council, Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management, and Sustainable Forestry Initiative, (2 if consensus exists regarding their ability to achieve sustainability goals, and (3 what research gaps must be filled to improve our understanding of how forest certification systems affect sustainable forest management. We conducted a qualitative meta-analysis of 26 grey literature references (books, industry and nongovernmental organization publications and 9 primary literature references (articles in peer-reviewed academic journals that compared at least two of the aforementioned certification systems. The Forest Stewardship Council was the highest performer for ecological health and social sustainable forest management criteria. The Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management and Sustainable Forestry Initiative performed best under sustainable forest management criteria of forest productivity and economic longevity of a firm. Sixty-two percent of analyses were comparisons of the wording of certification system principles or criteria; 34% were surveys of foresters or consumers. An important caveat to these results is that only one comparison was based on

  19. A Comparison of the Green Building’s Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaudin A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Designers and clients alike are now emphasising on how to make their buildings green. Currently a lot of green councils worldwide are dealing with innovative ways to implement energy efficient new buildings. They have adopted various criteria and rating systems in an endeavour to classify buildings that contribute to environment sustainability, efficiency and users health. The aim of the paper is to present an overview of the criteria adopted by selected green building councils. This paper discusses five of the rating systems available in terms of their similarities and differences and proposes a new framework based on the project life cycle for the development of the green building criteria. Criteria during the construction phase of the building is certainly lacking such as pollution control in terms of CO2 emission, dust, and other pollutants.

  20. THE MULTIPLE CHOICE PROBLEM WITH INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Flavio Autran Monteiro Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An important problem in Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis arises when one must select at least two alternatives at the same time. This can be denoted as a multiple choice problem. In other words, instead of evaluating each of the alternatives separately, they must be combined into groups of n alternatives, where n = 2. When the multiple choice problem must be solved under multiple criteria, the result is a multi-criteria, multiple choice problem. In this paper, it is shown through examples how this problemcan be tackled on a bipolar scale. The Choquet integral is used in this paper to take care of interactions between criteria. A numerical application example is conducted using data from SEBRAE-RJ, a non-profit private organization that has the mission of promoting competitiveness, sustainable developmentand entrepreneurship in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The paper closes with suggestions for future research.

  1. Water quality criteria for lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report is one in a series that establishes water quality criteria for British Columbia. The report sets criteria for lead to protect a number of water uses, including drinking water, freshwater and marine aquatic life, wildlife, livestock, irrigation, and recreation. The criteria are set as either maximum concentrations of total lead that should not be exceeded at any time, or average concentrations that should not be exceeded over a 30-day period. Actual values are summarized.

  2. Criteria for Authorship in Bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Resnik, David B.; Master, Zubin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple authorship is becoming increasingly common in bioethics research. There are well-established criteria for authorship in empirical bioethics research but not for conceptual research. It is important to develop criteria for authorship in conceptual publications to prevent undeserved authorship and uphold standards of fairness and accountability. This article explores the issue of multiple authorship in bioethics and develops criteria for determining who should be an author on a concept...

  3. Seismic re-evaluation criteria for Bohunice V1 reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.; Schlund, H.; Warnken, L.

    2001-01-01

    Bohunice V1 in Slovakia is a Russian designed two unit WWER 440, Model 230 Pressurized Water Reactor. The plant was not originally designed for earthquake. Subsequent and ongoing reassessments now confirm that the seismic hazard at the site is significant. EBO, the plant owner has contracted with a consortium lead by Siemens AG (REKON) to do major reconstruction of the plant to significantly enhance its safety systems by the addition of new systems and the upgrading of existing systems. As part of the reconstruction, a complete seismic assessment and upgrading is required for existing safety relevant structures, systems and components. It is not practical to conduct this reassessment and upgrading using criteria applied to new design of nuclear power plants. Alternate criteria may be used to achieve adequate safety goals. Utilities in the U.S. have faced several seismic issues with operating NPPs and to resolve these issues, alternate criteria have been developed which are much more cost effective than use of criteria for new design. These alternate criteria incorporate the knowledge obtained from investigation of the performance of equipment in major earthquakes and include provisions for structures and passive equipment to deform beyond the yield point, yet still provide their essential function. IAEA has incorporated features of these alternate criteria into draft Technical Guidelines for application to Bohunice V1 and V2. REKON has developed plant specific criteria and procedures for the Bohunice V1 reconstruction that incorporate major features of the U.S. developed alternate criteria, comply to local codes and which envelop the draft IAEA Technical Guidelines. Included in these criteria and procedures are comprehensive walkdown screening criteria for equipment, piping, HVAC and cable raceways, analytical criteria which include inelastic energy absorption factors defined on an element basis and testing criteria which include specific guidance on interpretation

  4. Traditional formwork system sustainability performance: experts’ opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Al-ashwal, Mohammed; Abdullah, Redzuan; Zakaria, Rozana

    2017-11-01

    The traditional formwork system is one of the commonly used systems in concrete construction. It is considered as one of the least observed activities in term of sustainability performance. In this paper, the sustainability performance of the traditional formwork has been assessed by using a multi-criteria assessment tool to facilitate the decision on the sustainability performance measurement. A quantitative five Likert scale survey study using judgemental sampling is employed in this study. A sample of 93 of engineering construction experts, with different fields including contractors, developers, and consultants in the Malaysian context has made the body of the collected primary data. The results show variety in the distribution of the respondents’ working experience. The sustainability performance is considered moderately sustainable by the experts with only given 40.24 % of the overall total score for the three sustainable categories namely environmental, social and economic. Despite the finding that shows that the economic pillar was rated as the most sustainable aspect in comparison to the environmental and social pillars the traditional formwork system sustainability still needs enhancement. Further incorporation of the social and environmental pillars into the concrete construction the sustainability performance of traditional formwork system could be improved.

  5. Combining the IADPSG criteria with the WHO diagnostic criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) and World Health ... Macrosomia or at least one adverse outcome were more likely in GDM patients who ... criteria for GDM in the ADA's more recent position statement.[18] .... at risk for postpartum type 2 DM;[27] the IADPSG criteria on the other ...

  6. Sustainable material selection for construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Shankar, Madan; Kannan, Devika

    2016-01-01

    a hybrid multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methodology with a specific examination of the UAE. The indicators collected from existing literatures were used in evaluation of sustainable construction materials with the assistance of construction sector-based respondents. The proposed framework...

  7. Life cycle sustainability assessment of chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Di; Lv, Liping; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an integrated vector-based three-dimensional (3D) methodology for the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) of chemical process alternatives is proposed. In the methodology, a 3D criteria assessment system is first established by using the life cycle assessment, the life cycl...

  8. Sustainable production: transporting animals or meat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, W.H.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Lambooij, E.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2009-01-01

    For the EU the impact of a ban on international transport of pigs and horses is assessed, based on three sustainability criteria. The paper concludes that the risks of welfare problems will be reduced, the CO2 emission and transport costs will be lowered but that there will be substantial shifts in

  9. Contents of Education for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D S Ermakov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of education for sustainable development (ESD has been disclosed in this article. The definition of ESD has been formulated. The key approaches to the formation of the ESD curriculum have been designated. The criteria for selecting the content of ESD have been proposed. The feasibility of applying the competency based approach has been shown.

  10. National Report on Sustainable Forests - 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a fresh analysis of the available data on the condition of forests in the United States. It uses the criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management endorsed by the Montreal Process, of which the United States is a member country. The report also identifies data gaps and makes recommendations for next steps to move forward the state of the...

  11. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  12. Ranking criteria for assessment of municipal solid waste dumping sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khalid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Priority wise channelization of resources is the key to successful environmental management, especially when funds are limited. The study in hand has successfully developed an algorithmic criterion to compare hazardous effects of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW dumping sites quantitatively. It is a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA that has made use of the scaling function to normalize the data values, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP for assigning weights to input parameters showing their relevant importance, and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC for aggregating the normalized scores. Input parameters have been divided into three classes namely Resident’s Concerns, Groundwater Vulnerability and Surface Facilities. Remote Sensing data and GIS analysis were used to prepare most of the input data. To elaborate the idea, four dumpsites have been chosen as case study, namely Old-FSD, New-FSD, Saggian and Mahmood Booti. The comparison has been made first at class levels and then class scores have been aggregated into environmental normalized index for environmental impact ranking. The hierarchy of goodness found for the selected sites is New-FSD > Old-FSD > Mahmood Booti > Saggian with comparative scores of goodness to environment as 36.67, 28.43, 21.26 and 13.63 respectively. Flexibility of proposed model to adjust any number of classes and parameters in one class will be very helpful for developing world where availability of data is the biggest hurdle in research based environmental sustainability planning. The model can be run even without purchasing satellite data and GIS software, with little inaccuracy, using imagery and measurement tools provided by Google Earth.

  13. Integrated Sustainability Reporting at HNE Eberswalde--A Practice Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräusche, Kerstin; Pilz, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the development of an integrated sustainability reporting. In this paper success criteria are named and empirical values when dealingwith specific challenges are formulated. The focus is on the development of criteria for reporting, the involvement of university members and quality assurance.…

  14. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  15. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  16. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  17. Sustainability of biomass for cofiring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-02-01

    There are many items to include when considering the sustainability of biomass for cofiring, and some of them are hard to quantify. The focus of this report is on the greenhouse gas emission aspects of sustainability. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions achieved by substituting biomass for coal depends on a number of factors such as the nature of the fossil fuel reference system, the source of the biomass, and how it is produced. Relevant issues in biomass production include the energy balance, the greenhouse gas balance, land use change, non-CO2 greenhouse gas emission from soils, changes to soil organic carbon, and the timing of emissions and removal of CO2 which relates to the scale of biomass production. Certification of sustainable biomass is slow to emerge at the national and international level, so various organisations are developing and using their own standards for sustainable production. The EU does not yet have sustainability standards for solid biomass, but the UK and Belgium have developed their own.

  18. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  19. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  20. Review of fuel safety criteria in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutin, Sandrine; Graff, Stephanie; Foucher-Taisne, Aude; Dubois, Olivier [Institut de Radioprotection et du Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2018-01-15

    Fuel safety criteria for the first barrier, based on state-of-the-art at the time, were first defined in the 1970s and came from the United States, when the French nuclear program was initiated. Since then, there has been continuous progress in knowledge and in collecting experimental results thanks to the experiments carried out by utilities and research institutes, to the operating experience, as well as to the generic R and D programs, which aim notably at improving computation methodologies, especially in Reactivity-Initiated accident and Loss-of-Coolant Accident conditions. In this context, the French utility EDF proposed new fuel safety criteria, or reviewed and completed existing safety demonstration covering the normal operating, incidental and accidental conditions of Pressurised Water Reactors. IRSN assessed EDF's proposals and presented its conclusions to the Advisory Committee for Reactors Safety of the Nuclear Safety Authority in June 2017. This review focused on the relevance of historical limit values or parameters of fuel safety criteria and their adequacy with the state-of-the-art concerning fuel physical phenomena (e.g. Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction in incidental conditions, clad embrittlement due to high temperature oxidation in accidental conditions, clad ballooning and burst during boiling crisis and fuel melting).

  1. Review of fuel safety criteria in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutin, Sandrine; Graff, Stephanie; Foucher-Taisne, Aude; Dubois, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Fuel safety criteria for the first barrier, based on state-of-the-art at the time, were first defined in the 1970s and came from the United States, when the French nuclear program was initiated. Since then, there has been continuous progress in knowledge and in collecting experimental results thanks to the experiments carried out by utilities and research institutes, to the operating experience, as well as to the generic R and D programs, which aim notably at improving computation methodologies, especially in Reactivity-Initiated accident and Loss-of-Coolant Accident conditions. In this context, the French utility EDF proposed new fuel safety criteria, or reviewed and completed existing safety demonstration covering the normal operating, incidental and accidental conditions of Pressurised Water Reactors. IRSN assessed EDF's proposals and presented its conclusions to the Advisory Committee for Reactors Safety of the Nuclear Safety Authority in June 2017. This review focused on the relevance of historical limit values or parameters of fuel safety criteria and their adequacy with the state-of-the-art concerning fuel physical phenomena (e.g. Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction in incidental conditions, clad embrittlement due to high temperature oxidation in accidental conditions, clad ballooning and burst during boiling crisis and fuel melting).

  2. A top-down / bottom-up approach for multi-actors and multi-criteria assessment of mining projects for sustainable development. Application on Arlit Uranium mines (Niger); Une demarche Top-Down / Bottom-Up pour l'evaluation en termes multicriteres et multi-acteurs des projets miniers dans l'optique du developpement durable. Application sur les mines d'Uranium d'Arlit (Niger)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamaret, A

    2007-06-15

    This thesis aims to appraise the relevance of using an hybrid top-down / bottom-up approach to evaluate mining projects in the perspective of sustainable development. With the advent of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development concepts, new social expectations have appeared towards companies that go beyond a sole requirement of profit earning capacity. If companies do not answer to these expectations, they risk to lose their social legitimacy. Traditionally associated with social, environmental, economical and political impacts and risks, mining activity is particularly concerned by these new issues. Whereas mineral resources needs have never been so high, mining companies are now expected to limit their negative effects and to take into account their different audiences' expectations in order to define, together, the terms of their social license to operate. Considering the diversity of issues, scales, actors and contexts, the challenge is real and necessitates tools to better understand issues and to structure dialogues. Based on the Uranium mines of Arlit (Niger) case study, this work shows that associating participatory approaches to structuration tools and literature propositions, appears as an efficient formula to better organize issues diversity and to build a structured dialogue between mining companies and their stakeholders. First Part aims to present the theoretical, institutional and sectorial contexts of the thesis. Second Part exposes work and results of the evaluation carried out in Niger. And, Third Part, shows the conclusions that can be derived from this work and presents a proposal for an evaluation framework, potentially applicable to other mining sites. (author)

  3. Sustainable building assessment tool: integrating sustainability into current design and building processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems. ( International Union for Conservation of Nature 1991) These definitions focus on what Wackernagel and Yount call the “socio-economic” and “ecological imperatives” of sustainability (Wackernagel et al, 2000.... Figure 1 Human development and ecological footprints 2003 (from the Living Planet Report) The figure is interesting in that it suggest that only one country (in Latin America and the Caribbean) meets the minimum criteria for sustainability...

  4. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...

  5. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  6. Criteria for controlled atmosphere chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.N.

    1980-03-01

    The criteria for design, construction, and operation of controlled atmosphere chambers intended for service at ORNL are presented. Classification of chambers, materials for construction, design criteria, design, controlled atmosphere chamber systems, and operating procedures are presented. ORNL Safety Manual Procedure 2.1; ORNL Health Physics Procedure Manual Appendix A-7; and Design of Viewing Windows are included in 3 appendices

  7. Failure Criteria for Reinforced Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    Failure of materials is often characterized as ductile yielding, brittle fracture, creep rupture, etc., and different criteria given in terms of different parameters have been used to describe different types of failure. Only criteria expressing failure in terms of stress are considered in what...... place until the matrix, the continuous component of the composite, fails. When an isotropic matrix is reinforced as described above, the result is an anisotropic composite material. Even if the material is anisotropic, it usually exhibits a rather high degree of symmetry and such symmetries place...... certain restrictions on the form of the failure criteria for anisotropic materials. In section 2, some failure criteria for homogenous materials are reviewed. Both isotropic and anisotropic materials are described, and in particular the constraints imposed on the criteria from the symmetries orthotropy...

  8. Nuclear energy in a sustainable development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Wilmer, P.

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of nuclear energy are reviewed and assessed from a sustainable development perspective highlighting key economic, environmental and social issues, challenges and opportunities relevant for energy policy making.. The analysis covers the potential role of nuclear energy in increasing the human and man-made capital assets of the world while preserving its natural and environmental resource assets as well as issues to be addressed in order to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy to sustainable development goals. (author)

  9. Sustainability evaluation of nanotechnology processing and production

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa M. Mata; Nídia de Sá Caetano; António A. Martins

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the current situation and challenges posed by nanotechnology from a sustainability point of view. It presents an objective methodology to evaluate the sustainability of nanotechnology products, based on a life cycle thinking approach, a framework particularly suited to assess all current and future relevant economic, societal and environmental impacts products and processes. It is grounded on a hierarchical definition of indicators, starting from 3D indicators that take...

  10. Networking of small cities to gain sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Mingaleva , Zhanna; Sheresheva , Marina; Oborin , Matvey; Gvarliani , Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The paper addresses networking as a basis for cooperation of small cities leading to more sustainable regional development at the city, regional, and federal level. It is shown that networking of cities can contribute to increasing sustainability in many ways. Still, additional research is needed to adjust best management practices discussed in the relevant academic literature to the peculiarities of transition economies. The objective of the research presented in the ...

  11. The State of Environmentally Sustainable Interior Design Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mihyun Kang; Denise A. Guerin

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Research that investigates how interior designers use environmentally sustainable interior design criteria in their design solutions has not been done. To provide a base to develop education strategies for sustainable interior design, this study examined the state of environmentally sustainable interior design practice. Approach: A national, Internet-based survey of interior design practitioners was conducted. To collect data, the random sample of US interior design practit...

  12. Sustainable Supplier Performance Evaluation and Selection with Neofuzzy TOPSIS Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chaharsooghi, S. K.; Ashrafi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection plays an important role in the supply chain management and traditional criteria such as price, quality, and flexibility are considered for supplier performance evaluation in researches. In recent years sustainability has received more attention in the supply chain management literature with triple bottom line (TBL) describing the sustainability in supply chain management with social, environmental, and economic initiatives. This paper explores sustainability in supply chain...

  13. The potentials of ICT application to increased relevance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potentials of ICT application to increased relevance and sustainability of University Library Services in Nigeria. ... in Kenneth Dike library, University of Ibadan and University of Lagos Libraries and library search of recent literature on ICT application and marketing of ICT based services in Nigerian University libraries.

  14. Alternative microbial methods: An overview and selection criteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasson, V.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Rajkovic, A.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an overview and criteria for the selection of a method, other than the reference method, for microbial analysis of foods. In a first part an overview of the general characteristics of rapid methods available, both for enumeration and detection, is given with reference to relevant

  15. Catalysis for biorefineries-performance criteria for industrial operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Past analyses of industrial processes for fuel and chemical manufacturing led to a few performance criteria that are critical for viable industrial operation. The present paper reviews these factors and provides a target window for each of them. It then illustrates their relevance for biorefineries

  16. Evaluation Criteria and Indicators of Quality for Internet Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Most Web site rating systems overemphasize technological "bells and whistles." The University of Georgia's information quality criteria address site access and usability; resource identification and documentation; author identification; authority of author; information structure and design; relevance and scope, validity, and accuracy and…

  17. Looking for Improvement in Last Planner System: Defining Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren; Wandahl, Søren

    2013-01-01

    criteria was carried out. Six flows are identified as relevant: workforce, material, and machinery which comprise the needed resources and safety, climate conditions, and space which affect the pace of the work. Because of the importance to progress in the workflow, and the on-schedule completeness...

  18. Determining the embeddedness of sustainability claims in strategising: A comparative study of the ALSI 40 companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pretorius

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the level of sustainability embeddedness in strategising by investigating the public and external communication of companies. Problem investigated: The extent to which sustainability is embedded in the elements of strategy formulation and implementation (and not merely surface-level statements and claims Design: The researchers designed a measurement tool and scale, the Strategising for Sustainability Index (SSI, based on researched elements of strategising and recent literature on the topic of sustainability and strategy integration. Merit for strategising for sustainability was given to a company on the basis of its fulfilling the relevant criteria. The JSE Top 40 listed companies on the All Share Index as of March 2011 were selected as a purposive sample. Each company's data and each element of the scorecard were judged on a Likert-type five-point scale, with higher scores indicating higher levels of embeddedness in the strategy. A comprehensive evaluation sheet was used to judge the presented data individually and independently for each element of the scorecard instrument. Findings: Ten elements were found relevant and represented: compliance (2 elements; strategy formulation (4 elements; and strategy implementation (4 elements. The findings show wide variation in overall scores. Almost all companies satisfied the compliance requirements but variations were observed in both formulation and implementation embeddedness. The SSI tool has discrimination value despite a relatively complex judging process. The proposed SSI measurement challenges other determinants of sustainability performance, as it incorporates embeddedness of sustainability in strategising. Knowing the level of this could guide management towards directing resources away from 'over-invested' strengths related to sustainability. Considering the scores for the different elements of the instrument would help to prioritise the 'sustainability spend

  19. Environmentally sustainable transport in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verron, H.; Friedrich, A.

    2004-01-01

    The study reported in this paper is part of an OECD project with several case studies in different countries. The purpose of the project was to look for possible ways to reduce the environmental impact of transport to a level which is compatible with sustainability. The participants in the case studies agreed upon quantifying criteria for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which should describe environmentally sustainable transport (EST), and each case study constructed a business-as-usual scenario and three EST scenarios, considering the period from 1990 to 2030. Each EST scenario should meet the criteria in a backcasting effort, EST1 looking for solely technical solutions, EST2 restricting and shifting transport volumes while ignoring technological progress, and EST3 combining components of both strategies. In the German case study criteria were additionally quantified for particulate matter, noise and land-take for transport purposes. The German EST1 scenario is based on hybrid electric hypercars, hydrogen for public transport, freight and aviation, and electricity from renewable sources. In the EST2 scenario total transport activity for passenger and freight transport had to be reduced by 40% and 25% respectively, compared to 1990 in order to meet the criteria. In the EST3 scenario, while highly energy efficient conventional propulsion systems and engines were used, total passenger transport decreased only slightly and freight transport even increased. Implementation measures were then defined on the basis of the EST3 scenario. Emission regulation, fuel tax, and road pricing for heavy duty vehicles were the key features in order to achieve EST in this case study. They were complemented by additional sets of measures, designed to prevent urban sprawl, diminish freight traffic growth, increase liveability of towns, improve the infrastructure and service conditions of alternative modes as well as provide energy supply by regenerative

  20. Sustainable energy-economic-environmental scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-31

    IIASA's Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Project has proposed a quantitative 'working definition' of sustainable development E3 (energy-economic-environmental) scenarios. ECS has proposed four criteria for sustainability: economic growth is sustained throughout the time horizon; socioeconomic inequity among world regions is reduced over the 21st century; reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio for exhaustible primary energy resources do not decline; and long-term environmental stress is mitigated. Using these criteria, 40 long-term E3 scenarios generated by ECS models were reviewed and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions drawn were: slow population growth or stabilization of global population appears to be prerequisite for sustainable development; economic growth alone does not guarantee a sustainable future; carbon intensities of total primary energy must decrease faster than the historical trend; strategies for fossil fuel consumption must aim at non-decreasing R/P ratios; and carbon emissions must be near or below today's levels at the end of this century. The analysis of sustainable development scenarios is an important step towards formulating long-term strategies aimed at climate stabilization. 6 figs., 1 tab.