Sample records for sustain higher growth

  1. Flower vs. leaf feeding by Pieris brassicae: glucosinolate-rich flower tissues are preferred and sustain higher growth rate. (United States)

    Smallegange, R C; van Loon, J J A; Blatt, S E; Harvey, J A; Agerbirk, N; Dicke, M


    Interactions between butterflies and caterpillars in the genus Pieris and plants in the family Brassicaceae are among the best explored in the field of insect-plant biology. However, we report here for the first time that Pieris brassicae, commonly assumed to be a typical folivore, actually prefers to feed on flowers of three Brassica nigra genotypes rather than on their leaves. First- and second-instar caterpillars were observed to feed primarily on leaves, whereas late second and early third instars migrated via the small leaves of the flower branches to the flower buds and flowers. Once flower feeding began, no further leaf feeding was observed. We investigated growth rates of caterpillars having access exclusively to either leaves of flowering plants or flowers. In addition, we analyzed glucosinolate concentrations in leaves and flowers. Late-second- and early-third-instar P. brassicae caterpillars moved upward into the inflorescences of B. nigra and fed on buds and flowers until the end of the final (fifth) instar, after which they entered into the wandering stage, leaving the plant in search of a pupation site. Flower feeding sustained a significantly higher growth rate than leaf feeding. Flowers contained levels of glucosinolates up to five times higher than those of leaves. Five glucosinolates were identified: the aliphatic sinigrin, the aromatic phenylethylglucosinolate, and three indole glucosinolates: glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Tissue type and genotype were the most important factors affecting levels of identified glucosinolates. Sinigrin was by far the most abundant compound in all three genotypes. Sinigrin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, and phenylethylglucosinolate were present at significantly higher levels in flowers than in leaves. In response to caterpillar feeding, sinigrin levels in both leaves and flowers were significantly higher than in undamaged plants, whereas 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin leaf levels were


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nowadays, the sustainability already goes far beyond the aspects of environmental protection; the knowledge and the education are also part of the sustainable development. In the field of education, a condition of realizing the sustainability is that the state should ensure a predictable and stable budget for the operation of institutions. Aim of the treatise, at first, is to examine the fulfilment of Europe 2020 Strategy objective affecting the higher education directly and then, based on statistical data, to present the trend in number of students of the Hungarian higher education and its composition by regions and to examine the change in the budgetary support.In order to retain the sustainability and competitiveness, the state and the institutions should make efforts to harmonise their sources and expenditures and to ensure a predictable, stable financial environment for the sector and its stakeholders.

  3. Sustainability of higher educational buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulnaga Mohsen


    Full Text Available Despite greenhouse gases (GHG emissions of Egypt represent nearly 1 percent of the World's GHG emissions, but according to IPCCC, Egypt is one of the nations that will be heavily affected by the impact of climate change risks. The global CO2 emissions from different sectors, buildings are forming the highest portion (about 5.5 GtCO2-eq. Electricity consumption in public buildings, including administrative, educational and health buildings (9 percent is the 2nd largest type after residential buildings (40 percent. The electrical energy per person in Egypt has increased from 1245 kWh in 2001/2002 to 1950 kWh in 2012/2013; an increase of 57 percent. This resulted in a colossal amount of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. Thus, improving energy performance in residential and higher education buildings will have a significant impact on the reduction of electrical energy use, improve recourses efficiency and the nation's economic growth and footprint. Energy consumption in education buildings depends, mainly on the building's activities, time of use and influx of visitors and students and academic staff as well as the academic terms whether in winter summer. Retrofitting measures are important to reduce energy consumption in higher educational buildings and cooling requirements in hot climate. One of the most important measures in the retrofitting process of the building envelop, including its roof are mainly glazing type and characteristics, and walls’ thermal insulation. This paper addresses sustainability measures of the Faculty of Engineering Campus – Department of Architectural Engineering building at Cairo University, Egypt. The objective is to set the baseline assessment of the building’ energy use and compared it with its energy performance after retrofitting measures and simulation. Results show that applying these retrofitting measures; energy use has been reduced by 15 percent from the baseline (BAU energy use of an average of 14.6

  4. Teaching environmental sustainability in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itard, L.C.M.; Van den Bogaard, M.E.D.; Hasselaar, E.


    The challenges of sustainable engineering and design are complex and so are the challenges of teaching sustainability to higher education students. This paper deals with teaching environmental sustainability, with a specific focus on the sustainability of buildings. The paper addresses specifically

  5. Sustainable spatial development in higher education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    Sustainable development is not only a great challenge for society as a whole, but also for higher education institutions, which have been rapidly including sustainable development in their educational...

  6. Sustainability Actions in Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This brochure details common sustainability actions taken by universities to reduce their energy consumption. Some of the most common actions include energy efficiency (existing building commissioning; lighting; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning upgrades; plug loads) and renewable energy (RE) (on-site or off-site solar deployment, RE procurement). We focus on the costs and benefits of energy efficiency measures and RE through the brochure while highlighting resources where readers can find more information.

  7. Sustainable Higher Education. Understanding and Moving Forward


    Waas, T.; Huge, J.; K. Ceulemans; Lambrechts, W.; Vandenabeele, J.; Lozano, R.; Wright, T.


    The aim of this paper is to stimulate the debate about higher education as a (potential) major catalyst towards sustainable development. Reviewing the contemporary literature related to sustainable development and higher education we want to understand better this role as (potential) catalyst and move Flemish higher education forward in its sustainability transition. It should be noted that while this paper will provide a broad understanding of the literature, it is beyond its scope to deal w...

  8. Sustainable spatial development in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Terlević


    Full Text Available Sustainable development is not only a great challenge for society as a whole, but also for higher education institutions, which have been rapidly including sustainable development in their educational process in the last two decades. Directly or indirectly, education for sustainable spatial development includes all aspects of sustainable development: environmental, economic, social and cultural. Space is a junction of various interests, which requires coordinating the entire process of spatial planning, taking into account the goal of sustainable spatial development. The existing values of space are insufficient for the rapid implementation of a sustainable spatial development paradigm. Suitable education is needed by both individuals and spatial planning professionals and at all levels of education. It is therefore necessary to transform some of the academic programs in the higher education curriculum by integrating teaching content and methods that include long-term knowledge and holistic thinking, taking into account the importance of interdisciplinary integration. This article reviews literature in sustainable development in higher education from 2002 to 2013. Topics discussed include students’ and teachers’ conceptions of sustainable development, the presence of sustainable development and sustainable spatial development in higher education and the reasons for the slow introduction of this material into the curriculum. Based on a literature analysis, the last section identifies important drivers that can contribute to a more rapid integration of a sustainable spatial development paradigm into higher education.

  9. Sustainable spatial development in higher education


    Maja Terlević; Andreja Istenič Starčič; Maruška Šubic Kovač


    Sustainable development is not only a great challenge for society as a whole, but also for higher education institutions, which have been rapidly including sustainable development in their educational process in the last two decades. Directly or indirectly, education for sustainable spatial development includes all aspects of sustainable development: environmental, economic, social and cultural. Space is a junction of various interests, which requires coordinating the entire process of spatia...

  10. Towards Sustainable Growth Business Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp-Roelands, N.; Balkenende, J.P.; Van Ommen, P.


    The Dutch Sustainable Growth Coalition (DSGC) has the following objectives: The DSGC aims to pro-actively drive sustainable growth business models along three lines: (1) Shape. DSGC member companies aim to connect economic profitability with environmental and social progress on the basis of integrated sustainable growth business models; (2) Share. DSGC member companies aim for joint advocacy of sustainable growth business models both internationally and nationally; and (3) Stimulate. DSGC member companies aim to stimulate and influence the policy debate on enabling sustainable growth - with a view to finding solutions to the environmental and social challenges we are facing. This is their first report. The vision, actions and mission of DSGC are documented in the Manifesto in Chapter 2 of this publication. Chapter 3 contains an overview of key features of an integrated sustainable growth business model and the roadmap towards such a model. In Chapter 4, project examples of DSGC members are presented, providing insight into the hands-on reality of implementing the good practices. Chapter 5 offers an overview of how the Netherlands provides an enabling environment for sustainable growth business models. Chapter 6 offers the key conclusions.

  11. Challenges in higher education for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, Walter


    This book presents the latest advances on the incorporation of sustainability in higher education. Different aspects such as the environmental, economic and social are here discussed. Several examples illustrating how sustainability in higher education is being pursued in different countries can be found in this book. Case studies include institutions from Kosovo, Brazil, Portugal, UK, Canada and USA.

  12. Curricula for sustainability in higher education

    CERN Document Server


    This books presents the curricula necessary for sustainability in higher education. It shows how the learning process is transforming in order to promote sustainability. It prepares administrators, teachers and students to diffuse the development in the field, showing a curricula based on three interconnected pillars: the environment, the economic and the social aspects. It contains 8 chapters introducing research advances in the field.

  13. Towards Sustainable Internationalisation of Higher Education (United States)

    Ilieva, Roumiana; Beck, Kumari; Waterstone, Bonnie


    This article engages with the question: what does the internationalisation of higher education in times of globalisation sustain and what should it sustain? We first consider, through literature on globalisation and Stier's ("Glob Soc Educ" 2(1):1-28, 2004) work, limitations of currently prevalent perspectives on…

  14. Sustainability of Higher Education Institutions in Taiwan (United States)

    Su, H. Jenny; Chang, Tzu-chau


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide the rationale and context for recent national policy and funded initiatives to support sustainability developments within higher education in Taiwan, including practical and educational aspects. Concrete examples and specific outcomes are reviewed, to produce a profile across the higher education…

  15. Higher education and economic growth


    Richard H. Mattoon


    The future of higher education and its relationship to economic growth were the focus of a one-day conference at the Chicago Fed on November 2, 2005. Cosponsored by the bank, the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, and the Midwestern Higher Education Compact, the event brought together over 100 academic, business, and government leaders.

  16. Higher Education Sustainability Staffing Survey, 2010 (United States)

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011


    This paper shows that despite national unemployment rates that hovered near 10 percent in 2010, those with positions in the higher education sustainability workforce report a sense of job security and feel satisfied with the work they are doing. With 433 completed surveys, the results offer a comprehensive look at the demographics, roles, salaries…

  17. Impeding Sustainability? The Ecological Footprint of Higher Education. (United States)

    Rees, William E.


    Asserts that universities must strive to reduce the ecological footprints of both their own operations and, more importantly, of the growth-oriented materialistic worldview they promote. Suggests that the real challenge for higher education is to help articulate an alternative life-sustaining worldview. (EV)

  18. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture (United States)

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  19. Sustainability in Higher Education : Analysis and Selection of Assessment Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.


    There is a noticeable increase in interest with regards to sustainability in higher education. As institutions investigate, implement and market sustainability efforts, there is a myriad of sustainability assessment methodologies currently available. Although these assessment systems were created

  20. Education for Sustainable Development in Higher Education Institutions


    César Tapia-Fonllem; Blanca Fraijo-Sing; Víctor Corral-Verdugo; Anais Ortiz Valdez


    The role that higher education plays in the promotion of sustainable development outstands in the declarations on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), besides being a research priority in higher education. However, few studies exist that evaluate sustainable lifestyles among university students. The aim of this study was to analyze the mission and vision, processes and actions undertaken to promote sustainability in higher education institutions, and to compare the pro-sustainability ...

  1. Towards a Sustainability Reporting Guideline in Higher Education (United States)

    Huber, Sandra; Bassen, Alexander


    Purpose: So far, sustainability reporting in higher education is in a very early stage--partly, because of the lack of an established and widely recognized sustainability reporting framework for higher education institutions (HEIs). Therefore, a modification of the sustainability code for the use in the higher education context was recently…

  2. Sustainability Champions? Academic Identities and Sustainability Curricula in Higher Education (United States)

    Wood, Bronwyn E.; Cornforth, Sue; Beals, Fiona; Taylor, Mike; Tallon, Rachel


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of academic staff who are committed to embedding sustainability within tertiary curricula and pedagogy. Design/Methodology/Approach: The focus of this paper is on a New Zealand university. A survey of staff was undertaken and in-depth interviews conducted with 11 sustainability…

  3. Industrialized Higher Education and Its Sustainable Alternatives (United States)

    Ostenson, Joseph A.; Clegg, Joshua W.; Wiggins, Bradford J.


    We argue that academic life is increasingly giving way to forces of industrialization and that many of the problems confronting higher education arise within this transformation. We discuss how a culture of standardization has led to academic monocultures; how faculty autonomy has been subverted by topdown management structures; how locally based…

  4. Higher Education for a Sustainable World (United States)

    Blewitt, John


    Purpose: The paper aims to explore the nature and purpose of higher education (HE) in the twenty-first century, focussing on how it can help fashion a green knowledge-based economy by developing approaches to learning and teaching that are social, networked and ecologically sensitive. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a discursive…

  5. Strategic Planning for Sustainability in Canadian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bieler


    Full Text Available This paper reviews representations of sustainability in the strategic plans of Canadian higher education institutions (HEIs. A content analysis of the strategic plans of 50 HEIs was undertaken to determine the extent to which sustainability is included as a significant policy priority in the plans, including across the five domains of governance, education, campus operations, research, and community outreach. We found 41 strategic plans with some discussion of sustainability, and identified three characteristic types of response: (i accommodative responses that include sustainability as one of many policy priorities and address only one or two sustainability domains; (ii reformative responses that involve some alignment of policy priorities with sustainability values in at least a few domains; and (iii progressive responses that make connections across four or five domains and offer a more detailed discussion of sustainability and sustainability-specific policies. Accommodative responses were dominant. More progressive responses were typically from institutions participating in the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment and Rating System (STARS of the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education. The paper concludes with consideration of the political and economic contexts contributing to this relative prevalence of accommodative responses to sustainability.

  6. Integration: The Key to Sustaining Kinesiology in Higher Education (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.


    Integration is the key to sustaining kinesiology as an academic and professional discipline in higher education. Following the vision of Amy Morris Homans, this paper focuses on integration in three ways. First, integration of our multidisciplinary scholarship, with a clear focus on physical activity, is essential to sustaining kinesiology as a…

  7. Making the Hidden Curriculum Visible: Sustainability Literacy in Higher Education (United States)

    Winter, Jennie; Cotton, Debby


    Despite strong political support for the development of sustainability literacy amongst the UK graduates, embedding sustainability in the higher education curriculum has met with widespread indifference, and in some cases, active resistance. However, opportunities exist beyond the formal curriculum for engaging students in learning about…

  8. Higher Education for Sustainable Development: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Wu, Yen-Chun Jim; Shen, Ju-Peng


    Purpose: This study aims to provide a complete understanding of academic research into higher education for sustainable development (HESD). Design/methodology/approach: This study utilizes a systematic review of four scientific literature databases to outline topics of research during the UN's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development…

  9. Sustainability, Indicators, and Institutions of Higher Education. Chapter 42 (United States)

    Indicators of commitment to sustainability commonly applied to institutions of higher education provide no estimate of the actual effects that these institutions have on the persistence or prevalence of the socioecological systems that encompass them. Emergy methodology provides ...

  10. Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education: Interconnecting the Reporting Process and Organisational Change Management for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ceulemans


    Full Text Available Although there has been a considerable increase in the publication of sustainability reports in the corporate world in the last decade, sustainability reporting in higher education institutions is still in its early stages. This study’s aim was to explore the relationship between sustainability reporting and organizational change management for sustainability in higher education. A survey was sent to higher education institutions worldwide that have published sustainability reports in the last ten years. The survey was answered by 23 institutions out of a total of 64. The findings showed that sustainability reporting has been predominantly driven by internal motivations, and that the sustainability reporting process leads to incremental changes, such as an increase in awareness of sustainability and improvements in communication with internal stakeholders. Some factors impeding change are the absence of an external stakeholder engagement process, the lack of inclusion of material impacts in reports, and the lack of institutionalization of sustainability reporting in the higher education system. The paper proposes that higher education institutions need to consider sustainability reporting as a dynamic tool to plan sustainability changes, and not just as a communication activity.

  11. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? An Exploration of Factors That Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros


    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher education attainment. Although the cost inputs to…

  12. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? : An Exploration of Factors that Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, A.


    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher

  13. Sustained growth but non-sustainable urbanisation in Penang, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Fold, Niels


    of trade unions, which lack the strength to substantially improve wages or influence the institutions of the labour market. So a frenzied labour market tries to balance the upgrading of skills and the control of wages. The paper concludes that a focus on sustainable urbanisation will renew the debate......Foreign capital, particularly from the transnational electronics industries, has spurred urban growth in Penang, Malaysia. But the demand for labour-quantitative and qualitative-exceeds its supply from the northern states. Local and national labour policies are decided without the involvement...

  14. The Impact of Subsidies on Production Innovation and Sustainable Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žampa Sabina


    Full Text Available This paper investigates correlation between subsidies to invest in development projects, innovation, financial performance and sustainable growth. The focus of the study is on subsidies for co-financing purchases of new technological equipment aimed at promoting innovation and production of new products. Subsidies are distributed based on the prepared European Union (EU and national programs for the purposes of faster economic growth in accordance with the policies and guidelines of the EU. The paper employs a combination of enterprises’ accounting data, data on subsidies and unique in-depth data obtained through a survey at the enterprise level. The results revealed a positive impact of subsidies on financial indicators, and only limited effect on innovation. While analyzing sustainable growth, we have established that the enterprises that received subsidies had a higher growth of financial indicators.

  15. The Sustainable Development Goals: An Experience on Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Crespo


    Full Text Available Sustainable development is acquiring high attendance in higher education. In fact, one of the targets for the Sustainable Development Goals announced by the United Nations in September 2015 aims to ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, thorough education on sustainable development. The current study focuses on the evaluation of individual works based on the sustainable development suggested to students in a subject of the Master’s of Thermal Engineering at the University of Vigo. In addition, a sustainable holistic rubric is presented, which was used to analyze the ability of the students to incorporate sustainability principles in their work. The rubric was based on the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the associated targets of the United Nations, more specifically on the Goals 7, 8, 12, and 13. A total of 10 works were evaluated. As a general conclusion, it was found that the students generally do not consider or consider to a lower extent the economic criteria opposite to the environmental, technical, and social dimensions. The environmental sub-criterion were applied to a greater extent in the development of the works. However, the technical and social dimensions were included to a greater or lesser extent depending on the type of work developed.

  16. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development


    Carmen Lenuţa TRICĂ; Marilena PAPUC


    Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy. At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD). In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Mar...

  17. Economic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert


    Book review of: "Economic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationship" by Jin Xue (Routledge, 2014)......Book review of: "Economic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationship" by Jin Xue (Routledge, 2014)...

  18. Education for Sustainable Development in Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Tapia-Fonllem


    Full Text Available The role that higher education plays in the promotion of sustainable development outstands in the declarations on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, besides being a research priority in higher education. However, few studies exist that evaluate sustainable lifestyles among university students. The aim of this study was to analyze the mission and vision, processes and actions undertaken to promote sustainability in higher education institutions, and to compare the pro-sustainability orientation (PSO reported by 360 students coursing first or last semesters at college. The study was intended to evaluate the influence that four higher education institutions in Sonora, Mexico, have on students’ PSO. Results of the study indicate that a coherent PSO factor emerges from the interrelations among pro-environmental dispositional and behavioral variables reported by students. However, university programs and actions do not produce statistically significant differences between freshmen and senior students. Possible reasons explaining the lack of positive influence of those universities on students’ PSO are discussed.

  19. Mapping the relationship between higher education and sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Martinsen, Anders


    "lifelong learning skills for a resilient life" is beginning to establish itself as part of a main conflict with the approach "necessary knowledge for a secured life". That is to say that these two approaches to the question of the relationship between higher education and sustainable development...... are in a conflict with each other and with respect to understanding of as well higher education, in casu the curriculum and assessment activity of the university, as sustainable development – and, first of all, it gives rise to very different conditions for future forms of life and learning inside as well...

  20. Sustainability Policy and Sustainability in Higher Education Curricula: The Educational Developer Perspective (United States)

    Baughan, Patrick


    Various studies have investigated the views of higher education staff and students about sustainability, yet educational developer perspectives are under-represented in the research. This project gathered educational developer perspectives about sustainability in the curriculum. It sought to capture their views about a national sustainability…

  1. Social Media for Environmental Sustainability Awareness in Higher Education (United States)

    Hamid, Suraya; Ijab, Mohamad Taha; Sulaiman, Hidayah; Anwar, Rina Md.; Norman, Azah Anir


    Purpose: The explosion of social media use such as Facebook among higher education students is deemed to have great potential in widely disseminating environmental sustainability awareness. The paper aims to capture, summarise, synthesise and comment on the role of social media to garner interest of students and staff on environmental…

  2. The Implementation of Sustainability Practices in Portuguese Higher Education Institutions (United States)

    Aleixo, Ana Marta; Azeiteiro, Ulisses; Leal, Susana


    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to analyze the current state of implementation of sustainability development (SD) in Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs). Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was developed to measure the level of implementation of SD practices in HEIs as well as the number of rankings, certifications and…

  3. Higher education : Features, trends and needs in relation to sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.


    The progress of sustainability within higher education has steadily increased in focus over the last decade and has increasingly become a topic of academic research. With various scholars, journals and conferences exclusively dealing with the subject, a wealth of literature has been produced on best

  4. Leadership for Sustainability Perceptions in Higher Education Institutions in Oman (United States)

    Hussain, Sadiq; Albarwani, Thuwayba


    This study explores leadership in higher education institutions in Oman where education for sustainability issues are a high priority. The Vice-chancellor of the premier university Sultan Qaboos University, Qaboos Sultanate of Oman, and his four senior management team members answer the following question: What are the concrete steps which have…

  5. A Necessary Partnership: Study Abroad and Sustainability in Higher Education (United States)

    Dvorak, Andrea M. W.; Christiansen, Lars D.; Fischer, Nancy L.; Underhill, Joseph B.


    The last two decades have seen institutions of higher education put increasing emphasis on both internationalizing their institutions and making them more sustainable. While laudable in their own right, there are contradictions and tensions between these goals, in particular when the carbon emissions involved in international activities like study…

  6. The Earth Charter in Higher Education for Sustainability (United States)

    Weakland, Joseph P.; Corcoran, Peter Blaze


    A central challenge of sustainable development is to provide material sufficiency for the human population while preserving the integrity of Earth's biosphere. Current modes of economic production and consumption accomplish neither of these ethical imperatives. Institutions of higher education must show leadership in the transition to sustainable…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The current economic and social contexts have brought forth the issues regarding growth and sustainability. The concept of growth has always been linked to an increase in consumption levels, and this inevitably led to pressures on the environment and on the resources that support human activity. Given these circumstances, the question whether we can avoid an environmental disaster while maintaining economic growth, has become more stringent. We chose to approach this aspect by examining the concept of eco-efficiency, a concept that embodies aspects of both economic efficiency and environmental efficiency. Eco-efficiency can be regarded as the effectiveness with which resources are used in order to create products and services that satisfy human needs. Based on this idea, the last decade has produced an increasing number of studies on eco-efficiency and how it can be measured and implemented in the production of goods and services, but also in the field regarding demand patterns. An analysis regarding the aspects of eco-efficiency at the macro level of the Romanian economy is in line with the current environmental concerns, thus I have chosen to cover these questions, as well as the evolution of the locale economy towards a more sustainable development. The outcome of the examined aspects shows that, in spite of an increase in eco-efficiency levels, energy and material consumption and emissions have increased. This raises the question if measuring economic and environmental efficiency by reporting to the GDP value is becoming obsolete and if there is a need to revaluate eco-efficiency indicators in order to measure the transition to a greener and more sustainable development from different points of view.

  8. Green Curriculum: Sustainable Learning at a Higher Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willa Louw


    Full Text Available The United Nations (UN constituted 2005–2014 as the decade for educational sustainable development when bridges have to be built between academic institutions and their communities. In this article I will therefore do a literature search from 2005–2011 on what it means to be a sustainable university with a sustainable curriculum by looking at case studies from other higher education institutions in order to begin to give guidelines for such an endeavour in an open and distance learning (ODL institution. Thereafter I will focus on recommendations on how to transform present study material into a green curriculum by using a qualification in Human Settlements as a case study.

  9. Emerging dimensions of sustainability in institutes of higher education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Bantanur


    Full Text Available The institutions of higher education provide role models for excellence in education. But also have the added responsibility of providing guidance to the community for social upliftment and environmental sustainability. It becomes imperative, therefore to assess the extent to which sustainable practices have been adopted in these institutions and their adequacy. It is anticipated that a holistic assessment will indicate strengths and weaknesses in sustainability practices so that effective measures can be taken to initiate the creation of a more sustainable environment. To achieve the foregoing objective parameters like Land use and Energy have been identified. An analysis of the basic sustainability parameters with regard to the various institutional surveys indicates the changing trends over the years. The trend reflects institutional growth, improvement in the economy and growing of awareness of sustaining the ecological environment. However, the extent to which each parameter is addressed varies from institution to institution, as well as the geographical location and climatic variations due to the diverse nature of these two factors in the Indian context. Increasing awareness issues pertaining to sustainability in institutions of higher education is reflected by relevant practices adopted, however it is expected that initial momentum generated in this direction will lead to further adoption of sustainable practices consistent with the cultural geographical and socio economic scenario prevailing.

  10. Sustainability in Higher Education: An explorative approach on sustainable behavior in two universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Juárez Nájera (Margarita)


    textabstractThis thesis focuses on identifying psychological factors related to personality features which can influence sustainable behavior of individuals in higher educational institutions (HEI), as well as to present the areas where these individuals work, and in which higher education for

  11. Thematic development of declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou; Holm, Tove


    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) have grown in number and significance over the last decade. SHE declarations can be viewed as a piece of non binding international regulation that shapes universities’ pioneering role in ensuring sustainable development. Examination......) an analysis of themes the two types of declarations might have in common; and if so (3) an analysis of how they have developed during the past decade. The article finds four new themes that previous research has not identified, and shows how the valuation of nature is under reconfiguration in higher education...... of the international SHE literature reveals no study that deals specifically with the interaction between declarations developed by the university sector and declarations developed by governmental and intergovernmental institutions. An analysis of this type can give us important insights in what themes these parties...

  12. Learning Apart Together: Towards an Integrated Competence Framework for Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, T.; Blok, V.; Wesselink, R.


    Sustainable entrepreneurs, i.e. those who proactively facilitate latent demands for sustainable development, are now in higher demand than ever before. Higher (business) education can play an important role in laying the foundation for these sustainable entrepreneurs. Traditionally, however,

  13. Greening academia: developing sustainable waste management at Higher Education Institutions. (United States)

    Zhang, N; Williams, I D; Kemp, S; Smith, N F


    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are often the size of small municipalities. Worldwide, the higher education (HE) sector has expanded phenomenally; for example, since the 1960s, the United Kingdom (UK) HE system has expanded sixfold to >2.4 million students. As a consequence, the overall production of waste at HEIs throughout the world is very large and presents significant challenges as the associated legislative, economic and environmental pressures can be difficult to control and manage. This paper critically reviews why sustainable waste management has become a key issue for the worldwide HE sector to address and describes some of the benefits, barriers, practical and logistical problems. As a practical illustration of some of the issues and problems, the four-phase waste management strategy developed over 15 years by one of the largest universities in Southern England--the University of Southampton (UoS)--is outlined as a case study. The UoS is committed to protecting the environment by developing practices that are safe, sustainable and environmentally friendly and has developed a practical, staged approach to manage waste in an increasingly sustainable fashion. At each stage, the approach taken to the development of infrastructure (I), service provision (S) and behavior change (B) is explained, taking into account the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) factors. Signposts to lessons learned, good practice and useful resources that other institutions--both nationally and internationally--can access are provided. As a result of the strategy developed at the UoS, from 2004 to 2008 waste costs fell by around £125k and a recycling rate of 72% was achieved. The holistic approach taken--recognizing the PESTLE factors and the importance of a concerted ISB approach--provides a realistic, successful and practical example for other institutions wishing to effectively and sustainably manage their waste. Copyright © 2011

  14. Western and Chinese Development Discourses: Education, Growth and Sustainability (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald


    This article examines Western and Chinese discourses of education, sustainable growth and development. Education is increasingly considered as a means to fuel economic growth, especially since the 1980s, when conservative economic values became predominant in Western development thought. Despite a discourse on sustainability favouring ecologically…

  15. Soil Degradation, Policy Intervention and Sustainable Agricultural Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasmal, J.; Weikard, H.P.


    Sustainable agricultural growth in developing countries is jeopardized by soil degradation consequent upon intensive cultivation and use of increasing doses of chemical inputs. To pave the way to sustainable agricultural growth we develop a model that incorporates organic fertilizer into the

  16. Corruption and Challenges of Sustainable Inclusive Growth in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines Corruption and Challenges of Sustainable Inclusive Growth in Nigeria. The paper adopts the theory of two publics as its framework of analysis. The theory explains the prevalence of corruption between and among public servants in Nigeria, which affects the attainment of sustainable inclusive growth.

  17. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lenuţa TRICĂ


    Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

  18. Managed Sustainable Development Classification Of Resources And Goods amp Services Calculating Sustainable Growth Rate And The Sustainable Development Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Saxena


    Full Text Available Macro-level manmade problems can often be best solved by understanding and manipulating the economics behind it. The world today is facing genuine problems of scarcity of resources and environmental amp ecological issues in view of intergenerational equity. The paper proposes a new approach of identification and classification of i Resources and ii Goods and services in the context of sustainable development. Every economy has ambitious economic growth aspirations which are often found conflicting with the commitments on natural resource conservation and climate change obligations. The proposed methodology is a reconciliation of the aspired economic growth of a region and the conservation of the resources and nature. The paper employs contribution of different types of goods and services in the gross domestic product GDP of a region to analyze sustainability of development. The important parameters that the paper establishes are Sustainability Ratio R Sustainable Growth Rate SG and the Sustainable Development Index SI. These parameters can be used to compare the sustainable development level of different regions. Ensuring natural resource and environmental sustainability will eventually ensure economic sustainability. The paper considers resource depletion concerns as well as the environmental pollutants biological risks carbon footprint warhead proliferation et cetera thereby ensuring all round sustainability from survival to economic end. The sustainability analysis is done for long periods such as 50 years 100 years et cetera. The index shows how sustainable the development of an economy is and how sustainability it is growing. The presently much revered GDP growth numbers are directionless it does not tell the type of growth an economy essentially has. The direction should be sustainability which the paper stresses upon. An illustration of sustainability analysis of India is also done. Such indices can help identifying sustainably developing

  19. Sustainability Assessment of Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat


    Full Text Available Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i Teaching and Curriculum; (ii Research and Scholarship; (iii Campus Operations; (iv Management and Community; and (v Financial Management. The sustainability assessment questionnaire (SAQ was utilized as a tool to discern the component-wise sustainability assessment for Saudi universities. The outcomes of the survey reveal that, in stark contrast with the universities of the developed world, offerings of sustainability relevant academic courses in Saudi Arabia are still lacking. Most Saudi universities still need to integrate research and scholarship in the area of sustainability; sustainable-campus operations in the current scenario are not sufficient. The results also reveal that sustainability-related projects are not prioritized within universities and sustainable financial management practices are not significant. This article concludes by proposing some recommendations emphasizing the importance of adopting sustainability practices in Saudi universities.

  20. Green Curriculum: Sustainable Learning at a Higher Education Institution (United States)

    Louw, Willa


    The United Nations (UN) constituted 2005-2014 as the decade for educational sustainable development when bridges have to be built between academic institutions and their communities. In this article I will therefore do a literature search from 2005-2011 on what it means to be a sustainable university with a sustainable curriculum by looking at…

  1. Sustainable Development and Sustainable Growth: Conceptual Plane or Points on a Conceptual Plain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    ) becoming an empty catch-phrase of contemporary environmentalism, a thorough analysis and discussion of the concept is therefore required. A distinction is made between sustainable growth and sustainable development. In the general debate sustainable growth is often used by politicians and developers...... as synonym for sustainable development. It is argued, however, that this is either a misunderstanding based on a superficial knowledge about the meaning of the sustainability concept or simply that it is cynically used to make the traditional growth philosophy more 'digestible' in an age of increasing...... environmental concern. Except from the concept of industrial ecology, present environmental responses from industry bear little resemblance with a basic systems approach to the concept of sustainability. A systems approach, as in constrast to a reductionist approach, holds promises for paving the way...

  2. Sustainable University” – empirical evidence and strategic recommendations for holistic transformation approaches to sustainability in higher education institutions


    Adomssent, Maik; Godemann, Jasmin; Michelsen, Gerd


    Sustainable development, and the process of institutional transformation this requires, remains a considerable challenge for universities. Worldwide, only a few universities are to date confronting these challenges. Through its initiatives “Agenda 21 and the University of Lüneburg” (1999-2001) and “Sustainable University – Sustainable Development in the Context of University Remits” (2004-2007), as well as through the UNESCO Chair of Higher Education for Sustainable Development, the Universit...

  3. Higher Education for Sustainable Development at EARTH University (United States)

    Rodríguez-Solera, Carlos Rafael; Silva-Laya, Marisol


    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the experience of a Central American university that has been successfully advancing an educational model focused on sustainability for over 25 years. Many universities in industrialized nations are assuming a more active role in promoting sustainable development, while in emerging countries,…

  4. Higher Education's Impact on Changing the Sustainable Behaviors of Students (United States)

    Stary, Wendy Rae


    The purpose of this research study was to establish understanding of the capability of universities to change the behaviors of students towards pro-sustainability behaviors. In particular, the University of Wisconsin-Stout was studied due to the nature of pro-sustainability initiatives already implemented on the campus and the ease with which the…

  5. Impact of Higher Education on Economic Growth of Pakistan


    Aziz, Babar; Khan, Tasneem; Aziz, Shumaila


    This paper investigates the returns of higher education on economic growth of Pakistan from 1972 to 2008 through the application of Cobb-Douglas production function. The prime objective of the study is to identify and establish a link between the higher education and economic growth of Pakistan. For this purpose the impact of higher education enrollment on economic growth is analyzed. An attempt is made, in this study, to analyze the educational trends, the strategies and challenges for highe...

  6. Population growth: Implications for environmental sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of population growth on environment and its implication for survival is an important issue. Although considerable attention has been paid to this problem but systematic studies have been inadequate. Rapid population growth and economic development and daily demand for natural resources for domestic and ...

  7. The Role of Higher Education for Sustainable Development in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resource development, management and conservation, biodiversity preservation and so forth. Traditional academic/disciplinary structures cannot cope with these demands adequately. The problem-driven nature of sustainable development concern is changing the relationship between university and communities.

  8. Nanotechnology policy in Korea for sustainable growth (United States)

    So, Dae Sup; Kim, Chang Woo; Chung, Pil Seung; Jhon, Myung S.


    Korea has become one of the leading countries in nanotechnology along with the U.S., Japan, and Germany. Since 2001, the Korean Government established the "Nanotechnology Development Plan." Since then, the trend in nanotechnology is steadily changing from fundamental research to application-driven technologies. In this paper, we examine the nanotechnology development and policy during the past decade, which includes the investments in R&D, infrastructure, and education. The Third Phase (2011-2020) on clean nanotechnology convergence and integration in information, energy, and the environmental sector is also given. Furthermore, the program on long-term strategy dealing with sustainability in resolving future societal demand and plans for sustainable energy and environmental activities will be discussed in depth. The outcomes and national evaluations of research and education are also given.

  9. Rooting, growth and sustainability of yellow Ficus ( Ficus retusa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rooting, growth and sustainability of yellow Ficus ( Ficus retusa 'Nitida') as affected by growth media under nursery conditions. ... Significantly (P<0.05) highest vegetative and root length was produced by plants grown on a mixture of sawdust, cow dung and topsoil (1:1:3). Root length of Ficus retusa 'Nitida' was best ...

  10. Public Debt, Corruption and Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim


    Full Text Available There are many studies that look into the relationship between public debt and economic growth. It is hard to find, however, research addressing the role of corruption between these two variables. Noticing this vacancy in current literature, we strive to investigate the effect of corruption on the relationship between public debt and economic growth. For this purpose, the pooled ordinary least squares (OLS, fixed effects models and the dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM models (Arellano-Bond, 1991 are estimated with data of 77 countries from 1990 to 2014. The empirical results show that the interaction term between public debt and corruption is statistically significant. This confirms the hypothesis that the effect of public debt on economic growth is a function of corruption. The sign of the marginal effect is negative in corrupt countries, but public debt enhances economic growth within countries that are not corrupt, i.e., highly transparent.

  11. The Contribution of Sustainability Assessment to Policy Development in Higher Education (United States)

    Lambrechts, Wim


    This article builds upon the experiences and results of the application of sustainability assessment instruments in higher education. First, a short overview of existing sustainability assessment tools will be provided, as well as their contribution towards the integration of sustainability in higher education. Second, a reflective case focuses on…

  12. A Methodology for Sustainability Evaluation and Reporting in Higher Education Institutions (United States)

    Madeira, Ana C.; Carravilla, Maria Antonia; Oliveira, Jose F.; Costa, Carlos A. V.


    The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that allows higher education institutions (HEIs) to promote, to evaluate and to report on sustainability. The ultimate goal of the afore-mentioned methodology is to help HEIs achieve sustainability. First, a model entitled Sustainability in Higher Education Institutions (SusHEI) that generally…

  13. Permaculture in higher education: Teaching sustainability through action learning (United States)

    Battisti, Bryce Thomas

    This is a case study of the use of Action Learning (AL) theory to teach and confer degrees in Permaculture and other forms of sustainability at the newly formed Gaia University International (GUI). In Chapter Two I argue that GUI, as an institution of higher learning, is organized to provide support for learning. The goal of the university structure is to provide students, called Associates, with a vehicle for accumulation of credit towards a bachelor's degree. This organizational structure is necessary, but insufficient for AL because Associates need more than an organization to provide and coordinate their degree programs. In other words, just because the network of university structures are organized in ways that make AL possible and convenient, it does not necessarily follow that Action Learning will occur for any individual Associate. The support structures within GUI's degrees are discussed in Chapter Three. To a greater or lesser degree GUI provides support for personal learning among Associates as advisors and advisees with the goal of helping Associates complete and document the outcomes of world-change projects. The support structures are necessary, but not sufficient for AL because the personal learning process occurring for each Associate requires transformative reflection. Additionally, because Associates' attrition rate is very high, many Associates do not remain enrolled in GUI long enough to benefit from the support structures. At the simplest organizational level I discuss the reflection process conducted in the patterned interactions of assigned learning groups called Guilds (Chapter Four). These groups of Associates work to provide each other with the best possible environment for personal learning through reflection. As its Associates experience transformative reflection, GUI is able to help elevate the quality of world-change efforts in the Permaculture community. Provided the organizational and support structures are in place, this reflection

  14. Financial Markets and the Challenges of Sustainable Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicka Małgorzata


    Full Text Available Sustainable growth and responsibility for the economy and the environment are postulates rarely associated with the term “financial market”. Financial markets are identified with the ruthless maximisation of profit at acceptable risk, rather than with socially responsible conduct. However, in the global economy businesses modify their priorities and become aware of not just the need to grow in financial terms but also to improve their quality performance. International financial markets have become part of this trend and are increasingly often adopting environmentally friendly attitudes and embracing the challenges posed by the concept of sustainable growth. Ideas such as CSR – Corporate Social Responsibility – and SRI – Socially Responsible Investment are gaining in importance. While sustainable growth of the economy as perceived from the point of view of the manufacturing or service sectors is widely discussed, the sustainable growth of financial markets is a relatively new concept and the available literature on “green” financial markets is quite scarce. This paper is intended to fill in this gap and examine the changes that have taken place on financial markets in the context of the idea of sustainable growth, with particular attention paid to the European Union markets.

  15. Sustaining an Acquisition-based Growth Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme

    Value creating acquisitions are a major challenge for many firms. Our case study of Cisco Systems shows that an advanced Enterprise Architecture (EA) capability can contribute to the acquisition process through a) preparing the acquirer to become ‘acquisition ready’, b) identifying resource......-based growth strategy over time....

  16. Natural blends, sustainable innovations and income growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Y.; Brezet, J.C.


    The paper discusses innovations for both income growth and the generation of better environmental qualities. This is possible in theory but progress in practices is slow. We argue that social pressures to contain pollution were effective insofar they invoked environmental policies all over the

  17. Cloud Computing in Higher Education Sector for Sustainable Development (United States)

    Duan, Yuchao


    Cloud computing is considered a new frontier in the field of computing, as this technology comprises three major entities namely: software, hardware and network. The collective nature of all these entities is known as the Cloud. This research aims to examine the impacts of various aspects namely: cloud computing, sustainability, performance…

  18. Higher Education in the Sustainable Development Goals Framework (United States)

    Owens, Taya Louise


    Agenda 2030 for sustainable development focuses attention on lifelong learning opportunities for all. The new targets expand on their predecessors, the Millennial Development Goals, by both widening and deepening the scope of system-wide quality education systems. Whilst the Millennial Development Goals focused attention on universal primary…

  19. Professional Development of Sustainability Competences in Higher Education (United States)

    Lambrechts, Wim; Verhulst, Elli; Rymenams, Sara


    Purpose: This paper aims to provide insights into the relation between professional development (PD) and organisational change processes towards sustainability, with a specific focus on empowerment. Design/methodology/approach: The paper builds upon a constructivist approach, combining a literature review, a desk research on key publications and…

  20. Innovative Management for Organizational Sustainability in Higher Education (United States)

    Barnard, Zenia; Van der Merwe, Derek


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the innovative management strategies at the University of Johannesburg (UJ) during volatile post-merger years, in its quest for a sustainable future. It illustrates how the institution went from a place of relative uncertainty and volatility to a place of progression and stability by…

  1. Sustainability and Higher Education, a [Hypothetical] Love Story (United States)

    Wagner, Lindsay Eva


    It is quite clear that sustainability is here to stay, but in many cases one has yet to determine what it actually is. The buzz words and issues--solar panels, wind turbines, recycling, green cleaning, energy management, green buildings, green products, public transportation, and carbon neutrality to mention a few--have all been part of the…

  2. Building a Sustainable Higher Education Sector in the UAE (United States)

    Jose, Saju; Chacko, Jacob


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relevant economic aspects that could affect the sustainability of the HE sector in the UAE. Design/methodology/approach: Data are collected mainly through secondary sources and based on the relevant information. Two constructs, namely, market factors and educational governance are identified…

  3. Driving Economic Growth: Higher Education--A Core Strategic Asset to the UK. Higher Education in Focus: Driving Economic Growth (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011


    This publication highlights the critical role UK universities will continue to play in reviving and sustaining economic growth across the country. Using a range of visual data and statistics, it highlights that the UK's future success depends on developing innovation and the knowledge economy in what is an increasingly competitive global…

  4. Tourism in Austria: biodiversity, environmental sustainability, and growth issues. (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Asad Saleem; Shah, Syed Asim; Zaman, Khalid


    This study examined the long-run and causal relationships between international tourism, biodiversity loss, environmental sustainability, and specific growth factors under the premises of sustainable tourism in Austria, by using a consistent time series data from 1975 to 2015. The results reveal that inbound tourism, per capita income, and population density affected the potential habitat area while population density largely affected the food production in a country. Inbound tourism and population density both deteriorate the environmental quality in a form of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fossil fuel energy consumption while per capita income reduces the fossil fuel energy consumption. Food exports increase per capita income, while food imports and population density both decrease economic growth. Inbound tourism and economic growth advance population density while forest area and food exports decrease the population density. The study supports growth-led tourism and growth-led food production in a country.

  5. Empowerment for sustainability in higher education through the EYE learning tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassone, Valentina C.; Dik, Giel; Lingen, van Thekla Anna


    Purpose: While empowerment for sustainability is considered a major objective within sustainability-oriented educational programs and policies, little is known about the actual process of empowering students for sustainability through higher education. This study aims to explore this field, by

  6. Empowerment for Sustainability in Higher Education through the EYE Learning Tool (United States)

    Tassone, Valentina C.; Dik, Giel; van Lingen, Thekla Anna


    Purpose: While empowerment for sustainability is considered a major objective within sustainability-oriented educational programs and policies, little is known about the actual process of empowering students for sustainability through higher education. This study aims to explore this field, by introducing the EYE (Educating Yourself in…

  7. Gaps in Sustainability Education: The Impact of Higher Education Coursework on Perceptions of Sustainability (United States)

    Fisher, P. Brian; McAdams, Erin


    Purpose: This paper aims to examine how both the amount and type of coursework impact students' conceptualizations of sustainability. Previous research demonstrates that academic coursework influences students' environmental attitudes, yet few studies have examined the impact of coursework on how students conceptualize "sustainability".…

  8. Justifying the Ivory Tower: Higher Education and State Economic Growth (United States)

    Baldwin, J. Norman; McCracken, William A., III


    As the U.S. continues to embrace a comprehensive plan for economic recovery, this article investigates the validity of the claim that investing in higher education will help restore state economic growth and prosperity. It presents the findings from a study that indicates that the most consistent predictors of state economic growth related to…

  9. Role of ICT in Managing Higher Education for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    although lecturers have a positive disposition towards the use of ICT acilities, they scarcely use them. The study also found that the respondents believe in the potential of ICTs to positively transform higher education. It highlighted the ranking of some factors hindering effective usage of ICT in the management of higher ...

  10. Networks: Innovation, Growth and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johnston


    Full Text Available The emergence of the Internet as a measureable manifestation of our social and economic relationships changed the domination of networks in our lives. From about 2000, the internet has allowed us to study and understand the type of networks in which we live, and to model their behaviour. The Internet has fundamentally changed the distribution of wealth. The rich became richer simply because of the larger scale of the trading network and stretched national wealth distributions. Network effects are therefore likely to be responsible for much of the perceived increases in inequalities in the last 20-30 years, and policies to tackle poverty must therefore address the extent to which the poor can engage with society's networks of wealth creation. The greatest challenge to continued growth and prosperity, and therefore to peace and justice, is climate change. The potential cost of inaction on climate change could be as high. Our self-organising social networks have structured our societies and economies, and are now reflected in our technology networks. We can now replicate their evolution in computer simulations and can therefore better assess how to deal with the greatest challenges facing us in the next few decades.

  11. Tackling the dual challenge of sustainable consumption and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedlacko, Michal; Antunes, Paula; Asara, Viviana

    to ecosystem services have spurred parts of the academic and policy communities into identification of problems and solutions. Some of the most fundamental debates, led by researchers from various disciplines, centre around economic growth and sustainable consumption. However, there is often a lack...... research questions that link the challenges of sustainable consumption with economic growth debates and critiques. The research questions have been identified through an extensive participatory process involving leading researchers and policy makers responsible for sustainability policies throughout...... the whole EU and cover five areas (food, housing, mobility, information and communication technology, finance). The aim of the research questions is to orient researchers towards important research priorities as well as guide policy makers and public authorities in funding of research and use of sound...

  12. Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms for Environmental Sustainability. (United States)

    Abhilash, P C; Dubey, Rama Kant; Tripathi, Vishal; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Harikesh B


    Agrochemicals used to meet the needs of a rapidly growing human population can deteriorate the quality of ecosystems and are not affordable to farmers in low-resource environments. Here, we propose the use of plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) as a tool for sustainable food production without compromising ecosystems services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. UN decade of education for sustainable development:perceptions of portuguese’s higher education institutions


    Aleixo, Ana Marta; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda; Leal, Susana


    This poster shows partial results of a cross-sectional research project investigating the perceptions of stakeholders of four Portuguese Higher Education Institutions about the importance of integration Sustainable Development (SD) in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). N/A

  14. Sustainability Promotion and Branding: Messaging Challenges and Possibilities for Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Selby


    Full Text Available This paper reports on case study research into six higher education institutions (three in the UK and three in the USA that give prominence to their sustainability credentials in their paper form and/or electronic promotional and recruitment materials. The purpose of the research was to draw important lessons and identify significant issues concerning the sustainability branding and marketing of higher education institutions. Key findings include, first, the importance of calibrating sustainability marketing according to actual sustainability performance while also embracing a sustainability vision; second, the importance of combining internal with external marketing; third, the importance of institutional clarity in determining marketing parameters; fourth, the advantages of marrying broad-based ‘subtle’ marketing with intensive niche and segment marketing. It was found, too, that higher education institutions with a sustainability brand are not collecting systematic data to assess marketing impact on student recruitment, or utilizing the sustainability/employability interface to good marketing effect, or employing a multi-dimensional conception of sustainability in their marketing. There is clear evidence of the stirrings of movement away from paper-form towards electronic marketing across the cases considered. An overarching insight of the study is that rigorous institutional engagement with marketing sustainability credentials can have a significant impact on the quality and depth of sustainability performance by helping spread, enrich and diversify the institutional sustainability culture.

  15. Higher education and economic growth: a conference report


    Richard H. Mattoon


    The future of higher education and its relationship to economic growth were the focus of a one-day conference at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago on November 2, 2005. Cosponsored by the bank, the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, and the Midwestern Higher Education Compact, the event brought together over 100 academic, business, and government leaders.

  16. Establishing Sustainable Higher Education Partnerships in a Globally Competitive Environment (United States)

    Chigisheva, Oksana


    The paper written in the form of literature review is devoted to the analysis of the latest educational manuscripts by Laura M. Portnoi et al and Robin Sakamoto et al and provides a critical overview of possible partnership interactions in the actively globalizing sphere of world higher education. [For complete volume, see ED567118.

  17. Men Sustain Higher Dysregulation Levels Than Women Without Becoming Frail. (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Legault, Véronique; Li, Qing; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi


    The aging process differs in important ways between the sexes, with women living longer but at higher risk for frailty (the male-female health-survival paradox). The underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood, but may relate to sex differences in physiological dysregulation patterns. Here, using biomarkers from two longitudinal cohort studies (InCHIANTI and BLSA) and one cross-sectional survey (NHANES), we assess sex differences in trajectories of dysregulation globally and for five physiological systems: oxygen transport, electrolytes, hematopoiesis, lipids, and liver/kidney function. We found higher dysregulation levels in men, both globally and in the oxygen transport and hematopoietic systems (p change in dysregulation with age. Although risk of frailty and mortality increase with dysregulation, there was no evidence for differences in these effects between sexes. These findings imply that the greater susceptibility of women to frailty is not simply due to a tolerance for higher dysregulation; rather, it may actually be men that have a greater tolerance for dysregulation, creating a male-female dysregulation-frailty paradox. However, the precise physiological mechanisms underlying the sex differences appear to be diffuse and hard to pin down. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  18. Developing a Sustainable Practical Model of Graduate Employability for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Umar Rufai


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evolve a sustainable practical model of employability skills that is sure to capture relevant learning aspects of a particular occupational discipline to be used as framework for Undergraduate students to develop their employability potentials. The study was conducted in three Universities and Polytechnics each with three multi-national companies. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Using purposeful sampling 18 academic staff and 3 professionals representing company employers were selected as the study participants. The study evolved a model that is work-based, explicit in its outcome, fully articulated and realistic in terms of employability skill experiences. The proposed model can be used to establish a common higher education programme or curricula that is work-based and skill experience oriented, that can encourage students in higher education to think about work place learning more explicitly and reflectively, that will in turn help them to develop a broad range of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values, each of which ultimately contribute in some manner to graduate employability.  The paper is considered a contribution to the evolution and growth of knowledge on the linkage between higher education and workplace, through which the ‘skill gap’ occurring between the demand of employment and the level of educational preparation of graduates can be bridged. Keywords: Employability, Higher Education, Graduates, Model/Framework,   academic staff, Employers/Professionals

  19. Availability of Higher Education and Long-Term Economic Growth


    Ryo Horii; Akiomi Kitagawa; Koichi Futagami


    This paper examines the economic growth effects of limited availability of higher education in a simple endogenous growth model with overlapping generations. With limited availability, the scarcity of human capital keeps its price high and distributes a larger share of the aggregate output to young households. Under certain conditions, it leads to greater aggregate savings in each period, thereby enabling the economy to grow faster than without any limitation. In such cases, an excessive expa...

  20. CRESCIMENTO ECONÔMICO E SUSTENTABILIDADE / Economic Growth and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Montibeller-Filho


    Full Text Available The subject “economic growth and sustainability” refers to the relationship between economicgrowth and its positive impact on the wellbeing of the population and on the environment. It is,therefore, about economic, as well as social and environmental, sustainability, i.e. the root ofthe sustainable development paradigm. A historical review is needed for understanding theroots of the emergence of this new socio-political and scientific paradigm. It starts from themoment when the economy was mainly viewed as an evil against the environment, to the pointwhen the new sustainable development, or eco-development, is developed. Then the paperpresents the present, and most important, ways that several public and private actions attemptto develop their economic activities guided by this paradigm, emphasising the Brazilian context.

  1. Fiscal Deficit, National Saving and Sustainability of Economic Growth in Emerging Economies: A Dynamic GMM Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscemi Antonino


    Full Text Available The neoclassical growth models argued that the movement to steady states; technology, exogenous rate of savings, population growth and technical progress stimulate higher growth levels (Solow 1956. Contrary to the neoclassical argument, endogenous growth model argues that, in the theory of endogenous growth, government play a significant role in promoting accumulation of knowledge, research and development, public investment, human capital development, law and order can generate growth both in the short and long run. Moreover, they assumed technical progress as endogenous variable for growth (Barro 1995. This study analyze the effects of fiscal deficit on sustainability of economic growth and provided new empirical evidence on the effects of fiscal deficit on saving and sustainability of economic growth based on the assumption of endogenous growth model. We estimated using the reduced form of GMM method for dynamic panels covers 1990-2009 for three emerging countries that includes China, India and South Africa.

  2. Setting a good example – good practice of sustainable development in institutions of higher education


    Schröter, Matthias


    Sustainable development is a major challenge for the present and future society. Universities have a central role in the process for sustainable development and this includes all activities of higher education: research, education, contacts with society in large and how everyday operations are run. It is therefore important that universities actively engage with knowledge and learning about sustainable development, not the least that the engagement of students and teachers increase. The repor...


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    Aida CATANA


    Full Text Available The demographic dynamics analysed in the context of the relationship between economic development and social inclusion presents an image of the sustainable development of a community as well as the manner how the financial resources have been used. With an allocation of 74.3 million euro in the programming period 2007-2013, the Brasov Growth Pole has pursued the contribution to the achievement of sustainable development since 2005 by the participation in the Agenda 21. The implementation of projects with European financing in areas such as transport, social and educational infrastructure or tourism have generated changes/demographic movements, which this paper proposes to present. The evolution of the stable population, its dynamics at the level of each locality that is part of the Brasov growth pole as well as the dynamics of the number of employees or the development of the unemployment rate are presented by the cluster analysis. The effects of the European financing obtained from Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 are thus reflected in the sustainable development of the Brasov growth pole from the point of view of the dynamics of the population

  4. Integrating Health and Sustainability: The Higher Education Sector as a Timely Catalyst (United States)

    Orme, J.; Dooris, M.


    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of…

  5. How to Assess Transformative Performance towards Sustainable Development in Higher Education Institutions (United States)

    Mader, Clemens


    This article highlights the role of sustainability appraisal for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). Traditional HEI appraisal systems lack a way to assess the integration of sustainability principles reflecting societal needs with the consequences of research, education and management of HEIs. Two appraisal systems are discussed. The Austrian…

  6. Environmental Education for Sustainability in Higher Education Institutions in the Philippines (United States)

    Galang, Angelina P.


    Purpose: To present a national profile of developments in higher education for sustainable development in the Philippines and to analyse a new initiative to accelerate environmental education for sustainable development (EESD) within academic institutions. Design/methodology/approach: This is an evaluative review that examines the design and…

  7. Sustainable Leadership, Organizational Trust on Job Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from Higher Education Institutions in Syria


    Serene Dalati; Jurgita Raudeliūnienė; Vida Davidavičienė


    This research develops a theoretical model of sustainable leadership, organizational trust and satisfaction at work in higher education environment in Syria. The model assesses staff perception of outstanding leadership behaviors and examines its relationship with perceived organizational trust in the field of higher education institutions in Syria. This research examines a conceptual framework identifying outstanding leadership styles and behaviors which are associated with sustainable leade...

  8. Special Issue—Pedagogy for Education for Sustainability in Higher Education

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    Ian Thomas


    Full Text Available Education for Sustainability (EfS and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD have been under discussion for some two decades. The UN Decade for Education for Sustainable Development 2004–2014 has provided a most important focus for ESD, and for its facilitation. However, while the Decade raised awareness of the need for ESD generally, and particularly in Higher Education, discussion of how this education can be effectively delivered to learners is still gaining momentum. This is especially the situation when considering EfS/ESD in Higher Education Institutions (HEI.

  9. Cell longevity and sustained primary growth in palm stems. (United States)

    Tomlinson, P Barry; Huggett, Brett A


    Longevity, or organismal life span, is determined largely by the period over which constituent cells can function metabolically. Plants, with modular organization (the ability continually to develop new organs and tissues) differ from animals, with unitary organization (a fixed body plan), and this difference is reflected in their respective life spans, potentially much longer in plants than animals. We draw attention to the observation that palm trees, as a group of monocotyledons without secondary growth comparable to that of lignophytes (plants with secondary growth from a bifacial cambium), retain by means of sustained primary growth living cells in their trunks throughout their organismal life span. Does this make palms the longest-lived trees because they can grow as individuals for several centuries? No conventional lignophyte retains living metabolically active differentiated cell types in its trunk for this length of time, even though the tree as a whole can exist for millennia. Does this contrast also imply that the long-lived cells in a palm trunk have exceptional properties, which allows this seeming immortality? We document the long-life of many tall palm species and their inherent long-lived stem cell properties, comparing such plants to conventional trees. We provide a summary of aspects of cell age and life span in animals and plants. Cell replacement is a feature of animal function, whereas conventional trees rely on active growth centers (meristems) to sustain organismal development. However, the long persistence of living cells in palm trunks is seen not as evidence for unique metabolic processes that sustain longevity, but is a consequence of unique constructional features. This conclusion suggests that the life span of plant cells is not necessarily genetically determined.

  10. Mycelial growth observation of Pleurotus eryngii (Higher Basidiomycota In Vitro

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    Mustafa Nadhim Owaid


    Full Text Available Five agro-substrates including date palm fibers (fibrillum, wheat straw, white sawdust and their combinations were investigated to grow Pleurotus eryngii. The longer mycelium complete time within bags was 20 days on sawdust (S4, in contrast, the shorter time for mycelium overgrew was completed after 15 days on date palm fiber (S5. In significant (p<0.05, S5 showed the higher growth intensity level (vigorous growth than other substrates. Thus use of date palm wastes (S5 medium may be useful for successfully cultivation king oyster mushroom in farm.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.1-10

  11. Emerging Areas in Research on Higher Education for Sustainable Development:Management education, sustainable consumption and perspectives from Central and Eastern Europe


    Adomßent, Maik; Fischer, Daniel; Godemann, Jasmin; Otte, Insa; Rieckmann, Marco; Timm, Jana-Michaela; Herzig, Christian


    Management education for sustainable development, sustainable consumption in higher education institutions, and higher education for sustainable development in Central and Eastern Europe can be considered as three highly relevant emerging areas in research on higher education for sustainable development. The transformation of management education to meet the increasing societal demands for responsible business has been reinforced in the light of the current economic situation. In this context...

  12. Resource Demand Growth and Sustainability Due to Increased World Consumption

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    Alexander V. Balatsky


    Full Text Available The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater and the gross domestic product (GDP that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.


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    Jessica Kopak Castro


    Full Text Available Among the tools used to stimulate the sustainable development in the market. Stands out the alternative to implementation of sustainable policies in the procurements made by the Federal Institutions of Higher Education (FIHE. Considering this implementation directed to the government procurement, this study has the general objective of checking the knowledge about sustainable procurement in the FIHE in the south Brazil. As specific: to assess the use of sustainability criteria in the procurement processes of the FIHE, check the probability of implementation the Sustainable Procurement in the FIHE and detect obstacles to the implementation of the Sustainable Procurement. Regarding the methodology in relation to the objectives is descriptive in nature. The technical procedures is a survey study. As regards the approach to the problem is quantitative. The course methodology is divided into three phases: literature review which addresses the issues studied, survey study and discussion of the results. In the end it was concluded that: Positioning the government in the market as a generator of sustainable requirements and source of changes in crop production, there are still obstacles to the implementation of sustainable policies in the market. The study showed that the induction of sustainability criteria for procurement requires not only standards, but training of managers to the adoption of the requirements to be effective.

  14. Aspm sustains postnatal cerebellar neurogenesis and medulloblastoma growth in mice. (United States)

    Williams, Scott E; Garcia, Idoia; Crowther, Andrew J; Li, Shiyi; Stewart, Alyssa; Liu, Hedi; Lough, Kendall J; O'Neill, Sean; Veleta, Katherine; Oyarzabal, Esteban A; Merrill, Joseph R; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Gershon, Timothy R


    Alterations in genes that regulate brain size may contribute to both microcephaly and brain tumor formation. Here, we report that Aspm, a gene that is mutated in familial microcephaly, regulates postnatal neurogenesis in the cerebellum and supports the growth of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (CGNPs) express Aspm when maintained in a proliferative state by sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, and Aspm is expressed in Shh-driven medulloblastoma in mice. Genetic deletion of Aspm reduces cerebellar growth, while paradoxically increasing the mitotic rate of CGNPs. Aspm-deficient CGNPs show impaired mitotic progression, altered patterns of division orientation and differentiation, and increased DNA damage, which causes progenitor attrition through apoptosis. Deletion of Aspm in mice with Smo-induced medulloblastoma reduces tumor growth and increases DNA damage. Co-deletion of Aspm and either of the apoptosis regulators Bax or Trp53 (also known as p53) rescues the survival of neural progenitors and reduces the growth restriction imposed by Aspm deletion. Our data show that Aspm functions to regulate mitosis and to mitigate DNA damage during CGNP cell division, causes microcephaly through progenitor apoptosis when mutated, and sustains tumor growth in medulloblastoma. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Ethical Internationalisation in Higher Education: Interfaces with International Development and Sustainability (United States)

    Pashby, Karen; de Oliveira Andreotti, Vanessa


    This analysis is situated within a larger project focusing on ethics and internationalisation in higher education. Internationalisation is occurring at a fast pace and encompasses overlapping and contradictory aims largely framed by market imperatives. At the same time, institutions of higher education increasingly promote sustainability. We use a…

  16. Financial Sustainability and Efficiency in Full Economic Costing of Research in UK Higher Education Institutions (United States)

    Universities UK, 2010


    A Task Group was created to consider the financial sustainability of research undertaken in universities and other institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom. The UK has a very successful Higher Education sector across all key areas of activity, but it is vital that the sector reinvests for the future and is transparent in the use of…

  17. The Use of Biofuel for Sustainable Growth in Developing Countries (United States)

    Tsang, J.


    The biofuel industry is divided into four categories comprising of feedstocks used in 1st and 2nd generation bioethanol and biodiesel. In order to identify and quantify each biofuel feedstock's potential for sustainable growth, each were evaluated according to self-developed social, financial, and environmental criteria. From the investigation and analysis carried out, 1st generation biodiesel and bioethanol were determined to be feedstocks not capable of facilitating sustainable growth. Results showed low earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) of -0.5 to 1 USD per gallon for biodiesel and 0.25 to 0.5 USD per gallon for bioethanol. Results also showed a poor return on asset (ROA). The energy required to produce one MJ of 1st generation biofuel fuel was at least 0.4 MJ, showing poor energy balance. Furthermore, high land, water, pesticide, and fertilizer requirements strained surrounding ecosystems by affecting the food web, thus reducing biodiversity. Over 55% of land used by the biodiesel industry in Indonesia and Malaysia involved the deforestation of local rainforests. This not only displaced indigenous organisms from their habitat and decreased their scope of nutrition, but also contributed to soil erosion and increased the probability of flooding. If left unregulated, imbalances in the ecosystem due to unsustainable growth will result in a permanent reshaping of tropical rainforest ecosystems in Southeast Asia. Algae, an example of 2nd generation biodiesel feedstock, was concluded to be the biofuel feedstock most capable of supporting sustainable growth. This is due to its low production costs of $1-1.5/gal, high biological productivity of 5000 gallons of biodiesel per acre per year, and high ROA of 25-35%. Additionally, algae's adaptability to varying environmental conditions also makes it an appealing candidate for businesses in developing countries, where access to resource supplies is unstable. Additionally, its reduced net

  18. Exploring sustainable behavior structure in higher education a socio-psychology confirmatory approach

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    Juárez-Nájera, Margarita


    This book presents a social-psychology model delineating the factors that may influence in an altruistic manner sustainable behaviour (SB) of students, faculty and administrators in four higher education institutions (HEI) with very different economic and social characteristics. It presents the areas where these individuals work (education and community management), and in which of them education for sustainability is promoted, focusing on four alternative methods of learning: play, art, group therapy, and personnel management. The book is intended for bachelors and graduated students, as well as researchers in social psychology, environmental psychology, conservation psychology, environmental education, education for sustainable development, cross-cultural psychology, and social sciences.

  19. From Talloires to Turin: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Declarations for Sustainability in Higher Education

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    Tarah Wright


    Full Text Available Declarations for sustainability in higher education are often seen as a set of guiding principles that aid institutions of higher learning to incorporate the concept of sustainability into their various institutional dimensions. As the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development draws to a close and in the shadow of the 20th anniversary of the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, it seems appropriate to re-evaluate how these declarations have changed over the past two decades. In this study, we apply critical discourse analysis to examine how sustainability and the university are socio-politically constructed within these documents. Our analysis uncovers evidence of ideological assumptions and structures that are potentially misaligned with notions of sustainability often discussed in the Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE literature. It is not the purpose of this study to provide a definitive reading of the documents, but rather to ply a novel critical lens to help elucidate how some taken-for-granted assumptions present in the declarations may work against their stated goals.

  20. A Systemic Approach for Measuring Environmental Sustainability at Higher Education Institutions : A Case Study of the University of Oslo


    Faghihimani, Maryam


    Sustainability is becoming an integral part of the university system. A global trend among universities shows that they are revising their missions and strategies by embodying sustainability on their agenda. This study aims to define what a sustainable university is and how implementing sustainability and more precisely environmental sustainability can be measured at the higher education institutions. The contextual background of this study will elaborate on the role of higher education syste...

  1. Higher education, Graduate unemployment, Poverty and Economic growth in Tunisia, 1990-2013

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    Haifa Mefteh


    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between economic growth, higher education, unemployment and poverty using properties of time series variables while applying the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS method. Our study thus contributes to the existing literature by giving the first integrated approach to examine the four way linkages in the Tunisian background over the period 1990-2013. This paper holds that higher education can impact unemployment and graduate unemployment causes poverty which would affect economic growth. Our empirical results show that there is bi-directional causal relationship between per capita gross domestic product (GDP and poverty rate (POV and also between Number of graduate students (GRA and School enrollment tertiary education (ENR besides unidirectional causal relationship which running from Number of graduate students to Unemployment with tertiary education (UNP, from Higher education expenditure (EXP to poverty rate and from Unemployment with tertiary education to poverty rate. Our empirical results also verified the existence of positive effect of ENR, GRA and POV on economic growth, while, UNP and EXP have negative determining influence on economic growth with only GRA statistically significant. These empirical insights are of particular interest for the policy makers as they help build sound economic policies to sustain economic development and improve the higher educational quality.

  2. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

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    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.


    Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

  3. Teaching Sustainability Using an Active Learning Constructivist Approach: Discipline-Specific Case Studies in Higher Education

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    Maria Kalamas Hedden


    Full Text Available In this paper we present our rationale for using an active learning constructivist approach to teach sustainability-related topics in a higher education. To push the boundaries of ecological literacy, we also develop a theoretical model for sustainability knowledge co-creation. Drawing on the experiences of faculty at a major Southeastern University in the United States, we present case studies in architecture, engineering, geography, and marketing. Four Sustainability Faculty Fellows describe their discipline-specific case studies, all of which are project-based learning experiences, and include details regarding teaching and assessment. Easily replicated in other educational contexts, these case studies contribute to the advancement of sustainability education.


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    Bogdan Ion Boldea


    correlation between the explanatory variables and the country-specific effects. For a robustness assessment, we also apply the so-called GMM-System estimation. According to our results, an increase in the volatility of the social output (a decrease in the sustainability of the growth processes leads to a greater inequality in incomes distribution. Such outcome appears to be robust to the changes in estimation methodology


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    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu


    Full Text Available Starting with general information about the EU multiannual financial framework and the European Union’s budget, the research paper attempts to respond to some questions of general interest regarding the activities financed through EU budget, the potential causes for a low absorption rate of funding in the current financing period and concludes with some measures needed to be taken to strengthen the absorption of funding for the next financing period, 2014-2020. Based on the main theme of the Europe 2020 strategy, smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, the article attempts to outline the important role of EU allocations for the period 2014-2020 for funding the growing number of policy in which EU can be more effective in the current context, after the economic and financial crisis. The paper presents the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy and the targets for 2014-2020.

  6. A Business Intelligence Framework for Sustainability Information Management in Higher Education (United States)

    Scholtz, Brenda; Calitz, Andre; Haupt, Ross


    Purpose: Higher education institutions (HEIs) face a number of challenges in effectively managing and reporting on sustainability information, such as siloes of data and a limited distribution of information. Business intelligence (BI) can assist in addressing the challenges faced by organisations. The purpose of this study was to propose a BI…

  7. Sustainable Leadership, Organizational Trust on Job Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from Higher Education Institutions in Syria

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    Serene Dalati


    Full Text Available This research develops a theoretical model of sustainable leadership, organizational trust and satisfaction at work in higher education environment in Syria. The model assesses staff perception of outstanding leadership behaviors and examines its relationship with perceived organizational trust in the field of higher education institutions in Syria. This research examines a conceptual framework identifying outstanding leadership styles and behaviors which are associated with sustainable leadership, organisational trust identified by members’ trust in their coworkers, and job satisfaction at an institutional level. The research methodology applied in this research develops a quantitative approach through application of questionnaire survey. To measure the dimensionality of scale factors an exploratory factor analysis is conducted. Reliability analysis is performed, Cronbach alpha test indicates that the research scales are internally consistent. The sample of the study employed a convenience sample from higher education institutions. The managerial implication of the research study recommends application and adoption of sustainable leadership behaviors among functional, mid and senior levels of managers and academics in management positions in higher education institutions. The limitation of research is mainly indicated in the sample size and measurement scales of sustainable leadership, organizational trust and job satisfaction.

  8. Seeking Learning Outcomes Appropriate for "Education for Sustainable Development" and for Higher Education (United States)

    Shephard, Kerry; Harraway, John; Lovelock, Brent; Mirosa, Miranda; Skeaff, Sheila; Slooten, Liz; Strack, Mick; Furnari, Mary; Jowett, Tim; Deaker, Lynley


    This article shares and extends research-based developments at the University of Otago, New Zealand, that seek to explore how students' worldviews change as they experience higher education with us. We emphasise that sustainability attributes may be described in terms of knowledge, skills and competencies but that these are underpinned by…

  9. Connecting SLCE with Sustainability in Higher Education: Cultivating Citizens with an Ecocentric Vision of Justice (United States)

    Wright, Catherine; Keel, Melanie; Fleurizard, Tyrone


    An important future direction for service-learning and community engagement (SLCE) is to collaborate with the sustainability in higher education (SHE) movement. SHE is a diverse, transdisciplinary area of inquiry and practice that seeks to help lead efforts to create a "thriving, equitable and ecologically healthy world." When SLCE…

  10. Revolutions and Second-Best Solutions: Education for Sustainable Development in Higher Education (United States)

    Cotton, Debby; Bailey, Ian; Warren, Martyn; Bissell, Susie


    Despite widespread policy support for education for sustainable development in higher education, and a strong academic literature arguing for a radical rethink of curriculum, pedagogy and institutional culture, progress towards the educational reforms advocated remains limited. Based on in-depth interviews with lecturers at a case-study…

  11. Higher Education Sustainability in Pittsburgh: Highlights from the AASHE 2011 Campus Tours (United States)

    Srinivasamohan, Ashwini; Walton, Judy; Wagner, Margo


    This quote by ecologist, "Silent Spring" author and Chatham University alum Rachel Carson reminds us of the everyday tenacity needed in working to advance a sustainable and just world. This publication celebrates that tenacity in the higher education sector, specifically among institutions in the Pittsburgh area. Historically known for…

  12. Management Strategies for Sustainability Education, Planning, Design, Energy Conservation in California Higher Education (United States)

    Petratos, Panagiotis; Damaskou, Evangelia


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the effects of campus sustainability planning to annual campus energy inflows and outflows in California higher education. The paper also offers a preliminary statistical analysis for the evaluation of impact factors on energy outflows and a link between energy outflows and building…

  13. Neoliberalism, New Public Management and the Sustainable Development Agenda of Higher Education: History, Contradictions and Synergies (United States)

    Bessant, Sophie E. F.; Robinson, Zoe P.; Ormerod, R. Mark


    This paper explores the ideological and the practical relationship between neoliberalism and New Public Management (NPM) and the sustainable development agenda of western higher education. Using the United Kingdom and specifically English universities as an example, it investigates the contradictions and the synergies between neoliberal and NPM…

  14. Striving for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: ProSPER.Net Members Meet in Shanghai (United States)

    Tabucanon, Mario T.; Tanaka, Aurea Christine; Aipanjiguly, Sampreethi


    To celebrate the two-year anniversary of the founding of ProSPER.Net--the Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Network--members convened on 5-9 July 2010 in Shanghai, China, at a meeting hosted by Tongji University, a founding member. ProSPER.Net is an alliance of 21 higher education institutions in the Asia-Pacific…

  15. Declarations for sustainability in higher education: becoming better leaders, through addressing the university system

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    Lozano, R.; Lukman, R.; Lozano, F.J.; Huisingh, D.; Lambrechts, W.


    In spite of a number of Sustainable Development (SD) initiatives and an increasing number of universities becoming engaged with SD, most higher education institutions (HEIs) continue to be traditional, and rely upon Newtonian and Cartesian reductionist and mechanistic paradigms. As a result many

  16. Youth Empowerment in Higher Education for Sustainable Development of Developing Communities in Cross River State, Nigeria (United States)

    Ekpiken, William E.; Ukpabio, Godfrey U.


    This paper was an attempt to examine youth empowerment in higher education for sustainable development of developing communities in Cross River State in Nigeria. In Cross River State developing communities, youths are in the majority and form a very strong formidable force in the society we live, study, but are not empowered while in school nor…

  17. The Transformation of Traditional Universities into Entrepreneurial Universities to Ensure Sustainable Higher Education (United States)

    Bikse, Veronika; Lusena-Ezera, Inese; Rivza, Baiba; Volkova, Tatjana


    This paper aims to investigate the experience and to identify the drivers of transforming traditional universities into Entrepreneurial Universities for ensuring sustainable higher education in Latvia. Due to the wide scope, Entrepreneurial University characteristics, the present research study is limited and focuses on the university providing…

  18. Examining the contradiction in 'sustainable urban growth': an example of groundwater sustainability (United States)

    Zellner, Moira L.; Reeves, Howard W.


    The environmental planning literature proposes a set of 'best management practices' for urban development that assumes improvement in environmental quality as a result of specific urban patterns. These best management practices, however, often do not recognise finite biophysical limits and social impacts that urban patterns alone cannot overcome. To shed light on this debate, we explore the effects of different degrees of urban clustering on groundwater levels using a coupled land-use change and groundwater-flow model. Our simulations show that specific urban forms only slow down the impact on groundwater. As population increases, the pattern in which it is accommodated ceases to matter, and widespread depletion ensues. These results are predictable, yet current planning practice tends to take growth for granted and is reluctant to envision either no-growth scenarios or the prospect of depletion. We propose to use simulations such as those presented here to aid in policy discussions that allow decision makers to question the assumption of sustainable growth and suggest alternative forms of development.

  19. Sustainable Mineral-Intensive Growth in Odisha, India (United States)

    Nayak, S.


    The focus of the work is to highlight the present environmental and social impacts of extensive mining on the health of the common people of Odisha. The mining activities have created havoc impact to the environment and social life of the state. Odisha has huge deposits of ores and minerals of chromite, nickel, bauxite, iron, coal, copper, manganese, graphite, vanadium etc. The mining activities have encouraged rapid urbanization and at the same time have altered the topography of these areas and extensively degraded the forest land. For long term sustainable development of the society, it is necessary to take a balanced and integrated approach towards environmental protection and economic advancement. Industries should aim at achieving their goals, through a system of permits based on best available techniques, which gives emphasis on integrated prevention and control of consumption of energy and water as well as pollution of water, air and soil. The rapid industrial growth has brought promising opportunities for economic development and poverty reduction in Odisha but at the same time has caused extensive environmental degradation. The best management practices to deal with environmental and social impacts on mineral-intensive growth are suggested in this work. In addition to lean technology, economic implications of the introduction of environmental technologies for mining activities are also discussed.

  20. The fourth scientific conference 'Higher education and effective business management - challenges of sustainable regional development'

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    Srećko R. Stopić


    Full Text Available The First Scientific Conference 'Higher Education and effective business management- challenges of sustainable regional development' was held on 20-21 December, 2006, in Užice, Republic of Serbia. More than 90 papers were presented. The number of authors and coauthors was 150. The Second Scientific Conference 'Economy development and effective business management - challenges of sustainable regional development' - was held upon the initiative of the management of the High Business Technical School of Užice on the occasion of its 30th anniversary It was held on 21-22 January 2007, in Užice, Republic of Serbia. Eighty papers were presented at the Conference. The number of authors and coauthors was 140. After that, the management of the High Business Technical School of Užice decided, for the first time, to organize an International Conference. The first International Conference 'Science and Higher Education in Function of Sustainable Development'. SED 2008 was held on 17-18 September, 2008, in Užice, Serbia. Ninety papers were presented on the Conference. The number of authors and coauthors was 150. The second International Conference 'Science and Higher Education in Function of Sustainable Development'. SED 2009 was held on 14-15 September 2009, in Užice, Serbia. More than 80 papers were presented. The number of authors and co-authors exceeded 100.

  1. Sustainable de-growth: Mapping the context, criticisms and future prospects of an emergent paradigm

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    Martinez-Alier, Joan [Department of Economics and Economic History, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Pascual, Unai [Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Vivien, Franck-Dominique [Department of Economics, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne (France); Zaccai, Edwin [Institute for Environmental Management and Land Planning, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)


    'Sustainable de-growth' is both a concept and a social-grassroots (Northern) movement with its origins in the fields of ecological economics, social ecology, economic anthropology and environmental and social activist groups. This paper introduces the concept of sustainable de-growth by mapping some of the main intellectual influences from these fields, with special focus on the Francophone and Anglophone thinking about this emergent notion. We propose hypotheses pertaining to the appeal of sustainable de-growth, and compare it to the messages enclosed within the dominant sustainable development idea. We scrutinize the theses, contradictions, and consequences of sustainable de-growth thinking as it is currently being shaped by a heterogeneous body of literature and as it interacts with an ample and growing corpus of social movements. We also discuss possible future paths for the de-growth movement compared to the apparent weakening of the sustainable development paradigm. (author)

  2. The impact of the quality of coal mine stockpile soils on sustainable vegetation growth and productivity

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    Mushia, NM


    Full Text Available , chemical, and biological properties, limiting their capability for sustainable vegetation growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of stockpile soils of differing depth and quality on vegetation growth and productivity. Soils were collected...

  3. Real effects of government debt on sustainable economic growth in Malaysia

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    Muhammad Danial Ariff Burhanudin


    Full Text Available The persistent increase of government debt in Malaysia in the recent years has raised con-cerns as to whether the borrowings have spurred the economy or became a drag on econom-ic growth. The present paper investigates the real effect of government debt on sustainable economic growth in Malaysia using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach for the period of 1970-2015. The results show there are positive significant long- and short-run relationships between government debt and sustainable economic growth. There is also a unidirectional causality running from government debt to sustainable economic growth. The findings indicate that Malaysia’s government debt is an important macroeconomic element for sustainability of economic growth in Malaysia. There is no evidence, however, to con-clude that the level of government debt had any adverse impacts on sustainable economic growth.

  4. Method-Based Higher Education in Sustainability: The Potential of the Scenario Method

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    Richard Beecroft


    Full Text Available Both sustainability and education are challenging process-oriented objectives. When the aim is to combine both notions, as in Higher Education in Sustainability (HES, it is indispensable to first establish a common ground between them. In this paper, we characterise this common ground in terms of four aspects: future orientation, normativity, global perspective, and theory engaged in practice. Based on an analysis of the common ground, one method that is well-established in a wide range of sustainability sciences shows high potential for use in HES because it covers all four aspects in detail: the scenario method. We argue that a didactical reconstruction of the scenario method is necessary to utilise its potential and develop adequate forms of teaching in higher education. The scenario method is used to construct and analyse a set of alternative future developments to support decisions that have to be made in the present. Didactical reconstruction reveals a spectrum of objectives for which the scenario method can be employed: (1 projection; (2 teleological planning and (3 an explorative search for possibilities not yet considered. By studying and experimenting with this spectrum of objectives, students in HES can develop fundamental reflexive competencies in addressing the future in different ways that are relevant for both sustainability and education.

  5. Developing and Piloting a Baselining Tool for Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship (ESDGC) in Welsh Higher Education (United States)

    Glover, Alison; Jones, Yvonne; Claricoates, Jane; Morgan, Jan; Peters, Carl


    Mainstreaming Education for Sustainable Development in higher education is vital if graduates are to possess the abilities, skills, and knowledge needed to tackle the sustainability issues of the future. In this article we explain the development and piloting of a baselining tool, the Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship…

  6. Rewards boost sustained attention through higher effort: A value-based decision making approach. (United States)

    Massar, Stijn A A; Lim, Julian; Sasmita, Karen; Chee, Michael W L


    Maintaining sustained attention over time is an effortful process limited by finite cognitive resources. Recent theories describe the role of motivation in the allocation of such resources as a decision process: the costs of effortful performance are weighed against its gains. We examined this hypothesis by combining methods from attention research and decision neuroscience. Participants first performed a sustained attention task at different levels of reward. They then performed a reward-discounting task, measuring the subjective costs of performance. Results demonstrated that higher rewards led to improved performance (Exp 1-3), and enhanced attentional effort (i.e. pupil diameter; Exp 2 & 3). Moreover, discounting curves constructed from the choice task indicated that subjects devalued rewards that came at the cost of staying vigilant for a longer duration (Exp 1 & 2). Motivation can thus boost sustained attention through increased effort, while sustained performance is regarded as a cost against which rewards are discounted. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Guatemala : Country Economic Memorandum, Challenges to Higher Economic Growth


    World Bank


    The purpose of this Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Guatemala about means of accelerating economic growth to help achieve targets set in the 1996 Peace Accords as a key ingredient in the fight to reduce national poverty rates. Chapter I examines historical and recent developments and uses a benchmarking growth methodology to identify the measures and policies most conducive to increasing long-term economic growth. Those areas that are identified...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina MĂRCUTĂ


    Full Text Available This paper intends to analyse the correlation between the level of economic growth of a country and its rural development. The phrase sustainable development combines the economic growth and the preservation and improvement of environmental and human health, preservation of social justice and assurance of democratic environment in social life. Therefore, the sustainable economic growth provides for the meeting of current consumption requirements without compromising or prejudicing those of the future generations. By adding the requirements regarding environmental protection and preservation of natural resources to economic growth we may speak of a proper sustainable development.

  9. Growth-promoting effects of sustained swimming in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). (United States)

    Blasco, Josefina; Moya, A; Millán-Cubillo, A; Vélez, E J; Capilla, E; Pérez-Sánchez, J; Gutiérrez, J; Fernández-Borrás, J


    Fish growth is strongly influenced by environmental and nutritional factors and changing culture conditions can help optimize it. The importance of early-life experience on the muscle phenotype later in life is well known. Here, we study the effects of 5 weeks of moderate and sustained swimming activity (5 BL s(-1)) in gilthead sea bream during early development. We analysed growth and body indexes, plasma IGF-I and GH levels, feed conversion, composition [proximate and isotopic ((15)N/(13)C)] and metabolic key enzymes (COX, CS, LDH, HOAD, HK, ALAT, ASAT) of white muscle. Moderate and continuous exercise in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream increased plasma IGF-I, whereas it reduced plasma GH. Under these conditions, growth rate improved without any modification to feed intake through an increase in muscle mass and a reduction in mesenteric fat deposits. There were no changes in the content and turnover of muscle proteins and lipid reserves. Glycogen stores were maintained, but glycogen turnover was higher in white muscle of exercised fish. A lower LDH/CS ratio demonstrated an improvement in the aerobic capacity of white muscle, while a reduction in the COX/CS ratio possibly indicated a functional adaptation of mitochondria to adjust to the tissue-specific energy demand and metabolic fuel availability in exercised fish. We discuss the synergistic effects of dietary nutrients and sustained exercise on the different mitochondrial responses.

  10. Making long-term economic growth more sustainable. Evaluating the costs and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Sardar M.N.; Clarke, Matthew [Sustainable Economic Growth Program, Centre for Strategic Economic Studies, City Campus, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia); Munasinghe, Mohan [Munasinghe Institute for Development (MIND), Colombo (Sri Lanka)


    Currently, traditional development issues such as economic stagnation, poverty, hunger, and illness as well as newer challenges like environmental degradation and globalisation demand attention. Sustainable development, including its economic, environmental and social elements, is a key goal of decisionmakers. Optimal economic growth has also been a crucial goal of both development theorists and practitioners. This paper examines the conditions under which optimal growth might be sustainable, by assessing the costs and benefits of growth. Key environmental and social aspects are considered. The Ecol-Opt-Growth-1 model analyses economic-ecological interactions, including resource depletion, pollution, irreversibility, other environmental effects, and uncertainty. It addresses some important issues, including savings, investment, technical progress, substitutability of productive factors, intergenerational efficiency, equity, and policies to make economic growth more sustainable-a basic element of the sustainomics framework. The empirical results support growing concerns that costs of growth may outweigh its benefits, resulting in unsustainability. Basically, in a wide range of circumstances, long term economic growth is unsustainable due to increasing environmental damage. Nevertheless, the model has many options that can be explored by policy makers, to make the development path more sustainable, as advocated by sustainomics. One example suggests that government supported abatement programs are needed to move towards sustainable development, since the model runs without abatement were infeasible. The optimal rate of abatement increases over time. Abatement of pollution is necessary to improve ecosystem viability and increase sustainability. Further research is necessary to seek conditions under which alternative economic growth paths are likely to become sustainable.

  11. EMODnet MedSea Checkpoint for sustainable Blue Growth (United States)

    Moussat, Eric; Pinardi, Nadia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Blanc, Frederique


    The EMODNET checkpoint is a wide monitoring system assessment activity aiming to support the sustainable Blue Growth at the scale of the European Sea Basins by: 1) Clarifying the observation landscape of all compartments of the marine environment including Air, Water, Seabed, Biota and Human activities, pointing out to the existing programs, national, European and international 2) Evaluating fitness for use indicators that will show the accessibility and usability of observation and modeling data sets and their roles and synergies based upon selected applications by the European Marine Environment Strategy 3) Prioritizing the needs to optimize the overall monitoring Infrastructure (in situ and satellite data collection and assembling, data management and networking, modeling and forecasting, geo-infrastructure) and release recommendations for evolutions to better meet the application requirements in view of sustainable Blue Growth The assessment is designed for : - Institutional stakeholders for decision making on observation and monitoring systems - Data providers and producers to know how their data collected once for a given purpose could fit other user needs - End-users interested in a regional status and possible uses of existing monitoring data Selected end-user applications are of paramount importance for: (i) the blue economy sector (offshore industries, fisheries); (ii) marine environment variability and change (eutrophication, river inputs and ocean climate change impacts); (iii) emergency management (oil spills); and (iv) preservation of natural resources and biodiversity (Marine Protected Areas). End-user applications generate innovative products based on the existing observation landscape. The fitness for use assessment is made thanks to the comparison of the expected product specifications with the quality of the product derived from the selected data. This involves the development of checkpoint information and indicators based on Data quality and

  12. The Future We Want: Key Issues on Sustainable Development in Higher Education after Rio and the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (United States)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Manolas, Evangelos; Pace, Paul


    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a description of the achievements of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) with a focus on higher education, and it describes some of the key issues which will guide sustainable development in the coming years. Design/methodology/approach: The paper initially…

  13. Does Firms’ Innovation Promote Export Growth Sustainably?—Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangfeng Hao


    Full Text Available Recent theoretical analysis and empirical studies have emphasized that firms’ innovation could significantly improve export growth. However, the positive effect of innovation on exports is likely to change due to unstable domestic offsetting for innovation and increasing worldwide competition for trade. This study aims to explore the dynamic link between them. We first develop a theoretical model between innovation and export growth based on the theory of heterogeneity. Export growth is measured through the dimensions of extensive margin and intensive margin so as to better investigate the effect of innovation on export performance. The propositions of mechanism analysis reveal that the effect of innovation on exports is non-linear rather than sustainable. An empirical study is followed to test the propositions by using data from a representative panel of Chinese manufacturing firms. Consistent with the theoretical predictions, the results show an inverted U-shaped relationship between innovation and extensive margin and a U-shaped relationship between innovation and intensive margin. The non-linear relations are verified by a threshold effect test. Further study shows less innovation and more firms on the left side of the relation curves. The distribution suggests irregular innovation ability among the exporters. Moreover, the role of innovation is more important for export growth and the corresponding threshold is higher in terms of high technological sectors. The contribution of this study is to introduce a comprehensive framework to investigate the dynamic effect of innovation on export growth, serving as a modest spur to induce the following studies to explore the sustainability of innovation effect.

  14. Poverty-led higher population growth in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Nakibullah, A; Rahman, A


    This article discusses the issue whether population growth is exogenous or endogenous in the economic development of Bangladesh. Overpopulation adversely affects food supplies, foreign exchange, and human resources. Moreover, it depresses savings per capita and retards growth of physical capital per labor. Underdeveloped countries, like Bangladesh, are faced with the problem of allocating resources between infrastructure, education, and health service that are essential for human capital development and population control measures. With this, determination whether fertility is exogenous or endogenous is important for policy purposes in the context of Bangladesh. Results showed that there is a correlation between population growth and real gross domestic products per capita. Based on Granger causality test, population growth is endogenous in the development process of Bangladesh and its overpopulation is due to poverty. Thus, there is a need for appropriate policy to take measures to improve human capital and decrease fertility rates.

  15. The Challenge to Foster Foreign Students’ Experiences for Sustainable Higher Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás M. Bañegil-Palacios


    Full Text Available While most companies are developing strategies that focus on responsibility and sustainability, recent discussions in higher educational institutions query the contribution of university social responsibility. Based on the theory of stakeholders and the new strategic paradigm of universities becoming sustainable corporations, the purpose of this paper is to determine Erasmus students’ opinions on their experiences abroad, as they relate to the importance they attribute to their emotions, and their relationship with and loyalty to their host university’s country as a tourism destination. The method inquired into Erasmus students’ impressions when studying in Spain through an ad hoc questionnaire based on academic literature and the Delphi technique. Survey data was analyzed through an exploratory factor analysis and partial least squares structural equation modeling. The study is a first attempt at analyzing experiential marketing in Erasmus students, who we considered tourists. The results support experiential marketing as a key approach for achieving sustainability in universities. The paper draws attention to the need for institutions to be more aware of the needs of foreign students as important stakeholders when designing mobility programs, as well as suggestions on how this awareness can be cultivated, in order to contribute to the consolidation of the selected country as a tourism destination.

  16. The Impact of the Quality of Coal Mine Stockpile Soils on Sustainable Vegetation Growth and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky M Mushia


    Full Text Available Stockpiled soils are excavated from the ground during mining activities, and piled on the surface of the soil for rehabilitation purposes. These soils are often characterized by low organic matter (SOM content, low fertility, and poor physical, chemical, and biological properties, limiting their capability for sustainable vegetation growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of stockpile soils of differing depth and quality on vegetation growth and productivity. Soils were collected at three different depths (surface, mid, and deep as well as mixed (equal proportion of surface, mid and deep from two stockpiles (named Stockpile 1: aged 10 and Stockpile 2: 20 years at the coal mine near Witbank in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Soils were amended with different organic and inorganic fertilizer. A 2 × 4 × 5 factorial experiment in a completely randomized blocked design with four replications was established under greenhouse conditions. A grass species (Digiteria eriantha was planted in the pots with unamended and amended soils under greenhouse conditions at 26–28 °C during the day and 16.5–18.5 °C at night. Mean values of plant height, plant cover, total fresh biomass (roots, stems and leaves, and total dry biomass were found to be higher in Stockpile 1 than in Stockpile 2 soils. Plants grown on soils with no amendments had lower mean values for major plant parameters studied. Soil amended with poultry manure and lime was found to have higher growth rate compared with soils with other soil amendments. Mixed soils had better vegetation growth than soil from other depths. Stockpiled soils in the study area cannot support vegetation growth without being amended, as evidenced by low grass growth and productivity in this study.

  17. Between green growth and degrowth: Decoupling, rebound effects and the politics for long-term sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Xue, Jin


    that the rebound effect is both a natural consequence of the growth dedicated society and a driver of further economic growth. Through rebound effects, labour productivity and eco-efficiency technologies in the growth society tend to contradict the goal of achieving environmental sustainability. To address...

  18. Environmental Sustainability: Study an Institution of Higher Education Public of the State of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kalynka Rocha


    Full Text Available The paper has the general objective of analyzing the environmental sustainability of an Institution of Higher Education (IHE Public of the State of Santa Catarina. To meet this objective has to reach the specific objectives: to check the number of IHEs in Brazil and Santa Catarina; to identify the number of public and private institutions and to propose a management model 5W2H to deficit sustainability criteria. The methodology and the objectives considered descriptive, with the technical procedures has the case study and the approach problem qualitative. The methodology is divided into three phases: the first phase it is the theoretical basis, it approaches social and environmental responsibility; environmental management and environmental management system. In the second phase it is the analysis of the results where first there was the amount of IHE and distribution in administrative categories. In the third phase, it has been the purpose of responding to a checklist of 154 questions developed by Pieri et al (2011 and Environmental Management Plan Summary (5W2H. In the end it is concluded that the institution submitted a global sustainability index of 32 %, being regarded as weak, proposing with the 5W2H tool, an action for each criterion, as the inclusion of recyclable products in acquisitions; recycling of waste; accessibility to the handicapped; and creating actions that approximates the IHE to the society. It is hoped that the proposed actions that the institution to put them into practice, increase the environmental sustainability index, benefiting society and the environment.

  19. Export growth, energy costs, and sustainable supply chains (United States)


    The report examines sustainable supply chains in North America and the role played by rail intermodal : operations in lowering ten-mile fuel and emission costs. It examines whether current systems favor imports : over exports a current complaint ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Milinchuk


    Full Text Available In this paper the Swedish higher tourism education is presented by analyzing the development of tourism education. Descriptive information of English taught University programs has been collected with a purpose to gain a deeper understanding of the general features of tourism higher education in Sweden. Methodology. The paper is based on a web-based content analysis of Swedish universities’ web-sites. In total six master degree programs at five universities were analyzed. Results of the analysis showed that the first Swedish academic program in tourism was opened in 1978 and from its inception tourism education is of growing significance. Instead of the higher number of degree programs in tourism, which are taught in Swedish, there is a limited number of those taught in English. Just one Bachelor Programme is taught in English in International Tourism is developed at Dalarna University and one Ph.D. Programme in Tourism is developed at Mid Sweden University. Master programs related to tourism are offered at Dalarna University, Linnaeus University, Lund University, Mid Sweden University, and Umeå University. Based on the curricula analysis of these programs, five main themes are identified: 1 tourism as a social phenomenon; 2 sustainable development of tourism; 3 tourism destination development; 4 economics of tourism, and 5 tourism through service studies. The findings show that the major university programs in tourism adopt an interdisciplinary approach, which combines elements of social sciences, humanities, and business administration. According to the observed curricula, the view on tourism as on social phenomenon prevails. In the studying process, the concept of sustainable development and classical social concepts such as ethnicity, gender, class, culture, and power relations are widely integrated into different tourism courses, making the programs comprehensive, and attractive for international students. The recognition of the tourism

  1. Harmonious Expansion of China's Higher Education: A New Growth Pattern (United States)

    Gu, Jiafeng


    How can one country narrow the regional disparity during the tremendous expansion of higher education? This issue remains unexamined and critical analysis is needed to unveil the spatial dynamics behind expansion of higher education. The spatial analysis shows that there is significant strategic interaction among neighboring provinces in China…

  2. Higher Education as an Instrument of Economic Growth in Kenya (United States)

    Nyangau, Josiah Z.


    The purpose of the present paper is to identify the main challenges facing Kenya's public higher education system and to propose plausible and, concrete steps policy makers and educational leaders can take to address those challenges to ensure the country's higher education system prepares the human capital, which is necessary for the construction…

  3. Sustainability in Chinese Higher Educational Institutions’ Social Science Research: A Performance Interface toward Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianmei Wang


    Full Text Available Sustainability issues in higher educational institutions’ (HEIs research, especially in the social science field, have attracted increasing levels of attention in higher education administration in recent decades as HEIs are confronted with a growing pressure worldwide to increase the efficiency of their research activities under a limited volume and relatively equitable division of public funding resources. This paper introduces a theoretical analysis framework based on a data envelopment analysis, separating the social science research process into a foundation stage and a construction stage, and then projecting each HEI into certain quadrants to form several clusters according to their overall and stage efficiencies and corresponding Malmquist Productivity Indices. Furthermore, the interfaces are formed in each cluster as feasible potential improvement directions. The empirical results in detail are demonstrated from a data set of Chinese HEIs in Jiangsu Province over the Twelfth Five-Year period as offering a closer approximation to the “China social science research best practice”.

  4. Higher quality quercetin sustained release ethyl cellulose nanofibers fabricated using a spinneret with a Teflon nozzle. (United States)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Zhuan-Hua; Yu, Deng-Guang


    This study investigates the usage of a spinneret with a Teflon nozzle for fabrication of higher quality drug sustained-release electrospun nanofibers. Ethyl cellulose (EC) and quercetin were used as a filament-forming polymer matrix and an active pharmaceutical ingredient, respectively. The electrospinning was conducted using both a traditional stainless steel spinneret and a spinneret with a Teflon nozzle. Experimental results demonstrated that a Teflon-fluid interface at the spinneret's nozzle provided a better performance for implementing electrospinning than a traditional metal-fluid interface in the following aspects: (1) keeping more electrical energy on the working fluids for an efficacious process; (2) exerting less negative effect on the fluid to draw it back to the tube; and (3) making less possibility of clogging. The resulted nanofibers from the spinneret with a Teflon nozzle exhibited higher quality than those from the traditional spinneret in those: (1) smaller diameter and narrower distribution, 520±70 nm for the former and 750±280 nm for the later, as indicated by the field emission scanning electron microscopic images; and (2) better sustained-release profiles of quercetin from the former than the latter, as demonstrated by the in vitro dissolution tests. The new protocols about usage of Teflon as a spinneret's nozzle and the related knowledge disclosed here should promote the preparation and application of electrospun functional nanofibers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of artemisinin sustained-release granules on mixed alga growth and microcystins production and release. (United States)

    Ni, Lixiao; Li, Danye; Hu, Shuzhen; Wang, Peifang; Li, Shiyin; Li, Yiping; Li, Yong; Acharya, Kumud


    To safely and effectively apply artemisinin sustained-release granules to control and prevent algal water-blooms, the effects of artemisinin and its sustained-release granules on freshwater alga (Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) and Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa)), as well as the production and release of microcystins (MCs) were studied. The results showed that artemisinin sustained-release granules inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa (above 95% IR) and S. obliquus (about 90% IR), with M. aeruginosa more sensitive. The artemisinin sustained-release granules had a longer inhibition effect on growth of pure algae and algal coexistence than direct artemisinin dosing. The artemisinin sustained-release granules could decrease the production and release of algal toxins due to the continued stress of artemisinin released from artemisinin sustained-release granules. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium.

  6. Sustainable Growth and Ethics: A Study of Business Ethics in Vietnam between Business Students and Working Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam D. Nguyen


    Full Text Available Sustainable growth is not only the ultimate goal of business corporations but also the primary target of local governments as well as regional and global economies. One of the cornerstones of sustainable growth is ethics. An ethical organizational culture provides support to achieve sustain- able growth. Ethical leaders and employees have great potential for positive influence on decisions and behaviors that lead to sustainability. Ethical behavior, therefore, is expected of everyone in the modern workplace. As a result, companies devote many resources and training programs to make sure their employees live according to the high ethical standards. This study provides an analysis of Vietnamese business students’ level of ethical maturity based on gender, education, work ex- perience, and ethics training. The results of data from 260 business students compared with 704 working adults in Vietnam demonstrate that students have a significantly higher level of ethical maturity. Furthermore, gender and work experience are significant factors in ethical maturity. While more educated respondents and those who had completed an ethics course did have a higher level of ethical maturity, the results were not statistically significant. Analysis of the results along with suggestions and implications are provided.

  7. Does faster loan growth lead to higher loan losses?


    William R. Keeton


    During the last couple of years, concern has increased that the exceptionally rapid growth in business loans at commercial banks has been due in large part to excessively easy credit standards. Some analysts argue that competition for loan customers has greatly increased, causing banks to reduce loan rates and ease credit standards to obtain new business. Others argue that as the economic expansion has continued and memories of past loan losses have faded, banks have become more willing to ta...

  8. Limits to Growth, a Challenge to Higher Education (United States)

    Meadows, Dennis; Perelman, Lewis


    Recommends a shift in emphasis of higher education from concentration on historical development of a discipline to solution of real world problems, such as global decline of resources. Teaching techniques and teaching emphases are described. (Author/DB)

  9. A Systems Model to Make, Market, and Lead Your Way towards Sustained Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raman Kumar Agrawalla


    .... Marketing is a key business function to market and lead a business towards sustained profitable growth but the problem is it lacks a systems perspective in its operations, strategy, and practice...

  10. An Integrated Diagnostic Framework to Manage Organization Sustainable Growth: An Empirical Case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jingxiao Zhang; Klaus Schmidt; Hui Li


      This research aims to develop a quantitative diagnostic framework by combining the Weisbord six-box model with the growth management model to focus on an organization's internally driven sustainable management system...

  11. The Growth of Higher Educators for Social Justice: Collaborative Professional Development in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly K. Ness, PhD


    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate what happened when, contrary to the typical isolation of faculty in higher education, a group of higher educators from various disciplines in a graduate school of education met regularly to discuss issues related to our teaching and social justice. More specifically, we explored the following research question: How does collaboration among higher educators from various disciplines shape their beliefs and practices of teaching for social justice? Over three years of collaboration and conversation, not only did we expand our own knowledge and understandings of notions of social justice, but we began to take important steps towards increasing our social justice actions in our teaching. This article explores our efforts to create a self-directed professional development group of higher educators and provides suggestions for similarly interested higher educators.

  12. Sustainability in Higher Education's Annual Reports: An Empirical Study on Australian and Austrian Universities (United States)

    Schaffhauser-Linzatti, Michaela Maria; Ossmann, Stefan F.


    Purpose: Higher education institutions are regarded as forerunners and pioneers of sustainability. However, it is to question whether they actually fulfill their role model function. This paper aims to reveal whether selected universities in Australia and Austria meet the reporting expectations about their activities on sustainability in very…

  13. Pro-Poor Growth and Social Policy Approaches to Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the intriquing paradoxes for most developing countries including Nigeria is the rising rate of low human development indices. This study is a critical examination of human welfare issues and human development indices as a parameter for sustainable development in Nigeria. The paper contends that one major issue ...

  14. A volume change index for forest growth and sustainability (United States)

    Paul Van Deusen; Francis Roesch


    A volume change index is suggested that is derived from growth components that can be estimated from remeasured plots. The new index incorporates more information than the traditional growth over removals, ratio. The new index directly indicates whether the standing volume will be increasing or decreasing if current conditions persist, whereas the ratio of...

  15. Economics of Sustainable Development. Competitiveness and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel AILENEI


    Full Text Available Economic growth is one of the most important issues of humanity. Both in national economies and world economy, recession and prosperity periods are regularly succeeding with different amplitudes. But beyond these fluctuations and their effects, the results are important: performance and economic growth. Because of the problematical issue of economic growth, the authors are trying to critically reflect on the economic growth concept and on its implications on the praxis area. Although there is a large literature about economic growth modeling, it is intriguing that there still are some serious obstacles for conceptualization and praxis. Only the simple fact that the economic growth process needs serious thinking on the time dimension is sufficient for understanding the real difficulties of this problematical issue. As for the economic growth praxis, a clear analysis of the interests system within an economy is needed. Without trying to find miraculous solutions for the economic growth issue, the authors suggest a clear and correct analysis of this important subject.

  16. Forced sustained swimming exercise at optimal speed enhances growth of juvenile yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi). (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P; Mes, Daan; Kusters, Kasper; Roques, Jonathan A C; Flik, Gert; Kloet, Kees; Blonk, Robbert J W


    Swimming exercise at optimal speed may optimize growth performance of yellowtail kingfish in a recirculating aquaculture system. Therefore, optimal swimming speeds (U opt in m s(-1) or body lengths s(-1), BL s(-1)) were assessed and then applied to determine the effects of long-term forced and sustained swimming at U opt on growth performance of juvenile yellowtail kingfish. U opt was quantified in Blazka-type swim-tunnels for 145, 206, and 311 mm juveniles resulting in values of: (1) 0.70 m s(-1) or 4.83 BL s(-1), (2) 0.82 m s(-1) or 3.25 BL s(-1), and (3) 0.85 m s(-1) or 2.73 BL s(-1). Combined with literature data from larger fish, a relation of U opt (BL s(-1)) = 234.07(BL)(-0.779) (R (2) = 0.9909) was established for this species. Yellowtail kingfish, either forced to perform sustained swimming exercise at an optimal speed of 2.46 BL s(-1) ("swimmers") or allowed to perform spontaneous activity at low water flow ("resters") in a newly designed 3600 L oval flume (with flow created by an impeller driven by an electric motor), were then compared. At the start of the experiment, ten fish were sampled representing the initial condition. After 18 days, swimmers (n = 23) showed a 92% greater increase in BL and 46% greater increase in BW as compared to resters (n = 23). As both groups were fed equal rations, feed conversion ratio (FCR) for swimmers was 1.21 vs. 1.74 for resters. Doppler ultrasound imaging showed a statistically significant higher blood flow (31%) in the ventral aorta of swimmers vs. resters (44 ± 3 vs. 34 ± 3 mL min(-1), respectively, under anesthesia). Thus, growth performance can be rapidly improved by optimal swimming, without larger feed investments.

  17. Microfoundations for Sustainable Growth with Eco-Intelligent Product Service-Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najine Ameli


    Full Text Available This paper argues that the contemporary growth paradigm needs to be reconsidered on a micro level of consumption and product service-systems. This becomes necessary since a dynamic link between macro strategies and micro implementation of sustainable growth is missing up to date. Therefore, mainstream sustainability strategies of efficiency and consistency are extended by sufficiency in order to integrate strategies for individual welfare within their social environment. Limits to and drivers for growth are revised and updated socially in terms of qualitative values, diminishing marginal utility or symbolic social distinction. We elaborate a definition of sustainable growth that fosters individual welfare by enhancing social enactment within the boundaries of environmental space. Shifting focus on social aspects in design fosters more sustainable production and consumption patterns while sustaining individual welfare. We derive latent indications for eco-intelligent product service-arrangements and evaluate to concepts by referring to introduced definitions and according indications. With doing so, we illustrate new pathways for the translation of sustainable growth and strategies into product service-systems.

  18. Education for Sustainability in Further and Higher Education: Reflections along the Journey (United States)

    Tilbury, Daniella; Wortman, David


    So, what's happening "down under" in campus sustainability? Providing an international context, our authors use Australian examples to describe planning for campus greening, learning for sustainability (curriculum), institutional learning, and competency-based training initiatives.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor N. ITUMO


    Full Text Available Nigeria is currently facing economic growth and development challenge. The economic challenge is occasioned by mono-cultural economic reliance on the single resource of crude oil export revenue as well as other internal and international effects that affect her economic drive for heightened growth and development. The Nigerian government had over the years searched for ways of diversifying its economy for greater growth and development especially given the various challenges in the economy, mainly the steep reduction in crude oil revenue arising from volatility of global oil price. This paper therefore uses the research methodology of case study to do a holistic assessment of the possibility of Nigeria diversifying into her tourism potentials for economic growth and development. This would be done equally by drawing relevant comparative analysis of other countries bringing economic benefits in Africa and across the globe.

  20. Aspm sustains postnatal cerebellar neurogenesis and medulloblastoma growth in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Scott E; Garcia, Idoia; Crowther, Andrew J; Li, Shiyi; Stewart, Alyssa; Liu, Hedi; Lough, Kendall J; O'Neill, Sean; Veleta, Katherine; Oyarzabal, Esteban A; Merrill, Joseph R; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Gershon, Timothy R


    .... Here, we report that Aspm, a gene that is mutated in familial microcephaly, regulates postnatal neurogenesis in the cerebellum and supports the growth of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor...

  1. Structural and mechanistic analysis of engineered trichodiene synthase enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum: towards higher catalytic activities empowering sustainable agriculture. (United States)

    Kumari, Indu; Chaudhary, Nitika; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf


    Trichoderma spp. are well-known bioagents for the plant growth promotion and pathogen suppression. The beneficial activities of the fungus Trichoderma spp. are attributed to their ability to produce and secrete certain secondary metabolites such as trichodermin that belongs to trichothecene family of molecules. The initial steps of trichodermin biosynthetic pathway in Trichoderma are similar to the trichothecenes from Fusarium sporotrichioides. Trichodiene synthase (TS) encoded by tri5 gene in Trichoderma catalyses the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to trichodiene as reported earlier. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive comparative sequence and structural analysis of the TS, which revealed the conserved residues involved in catalytic activity of the protein. In silico, modelled tertiary structure of TS protein showed stable structural behaviour during simulations. Two single-substitution mutants, i.e. D109E, D248Y and one double-substitution mutant (D109E and D248Y) of TS with potentially higher activities are screened out. The mutant proteins showed more stability than the wild type, an increased number of electrostatic interactions and better binding energies with the ligand, which further elucidates the amino acid residues involved in the reaction mechanism. These results will lead to devise strategies for higher TS activity to ultimately enhance the trichodermin production by Trichoderma spp. for its better exploitation in the sustainable agricultural practices.

  2. The Potential Role of Innovative Indian SMEs in Sustainable Growth


    Ionica Oncioiu; Florentina Raluca Bîlcan; Anca Gabriela Petrescu


    India has experienced a robust economic growth in the recent years, but with a trajectory which offers both positive and negative lessons on the business innovation faced by many countries in Asia and elsewhere in the developing world. This study sought to test the relationship between innovation, financial performance and economic growth. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics on the factors that contribute to assuring the innovation of the processes invo...

  3. Higher education, Graduate unemployment, Poverty and Economic growth in Tunisia, 1990-2013

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haifa Mefteh; Mabrouka Bouhajeb; Fakher Smaoui


      This paper examines the relationship between economic growth, higher education, unemployment and poverty using properties of time series variables while applying the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method...

  4. The Nexus between Higher Education and Economic Growth: An Empirical Investigation for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amatul R. Chaudhary


    Full Text Available The study investigates the role of higher education in economic growth for Pakistan between 1972 and 2005 using the application of Johansen Cointegration and Toda & Yamamoto (1995 Causality approach in Vector Autoregressive (VAR framework. It examines whether higher education affect long run economic growth in Pakistan. The empirical analysis reveals that there is a long run relationship between economic growth and higher education, which suggests that these variables are necessary for each other. The empirical results of causality test indicate that there exists a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to higher education and no other direction of causality found between these variables.

  5. A Systems Model to Make, Market, and Lead Your Way towards Sustained Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar Agrawalla


    Full Text Available Business enterprises exist in a world that is fiercely competitive, tied with huge global uncertainties. They always encounter increasing pressure on prices and margins. Hence, irrespective of their domain of operations and industry, businesses are naturally concerned about their growth, specifically sustained profitable growth, in today’s world. Marketing is a key business function to market and lead a business towards sustained profitable growth but the problem is it lacks a systems perspective in its operations, strategy, and practice. Further, given the confluence and systemic interactions of various economic, digital, and competitive forces; the challenge for different business functions—including marketing—increases tremendously. In this context, it is important for business enterprises to have a systems perspective to find their ways to growth that will be sustained. This calls for a holistic approach to assimilate and steer the business functions in any enterprise. The present conceptual paper focuses on an important business function for sustained growth in a holistic way and presents a systems model, called ‘Value Based Business Approach (VBBA-marketing’, which has potential to guide and steer companies and business enterprises to create a path for their sustained profitable growth.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihut Ioana


    Full Text Available What is economic growth? Although the answer to this question may seems of real simplicity, developing an accurate definition of this concept may constitute a real challenge both from a theoretical but also empirical point of view. This constant debate upon the concept of economic growth as well as indentifying the optimum set of instruments for quantifying it, constituted the starting point of the current article. The concept of economic growth is used nowadays complementary to terms like economic development, economic welfare or economic progress with reference to this complex process that implies macro-scale structures. Moreover indentifying the main factors that generate a significant impact upon the dynamics of the economic growth process, constitute a useful approach taking into consideration the high degree of heterogeneity that characterize the architecture of the economies around the world. If we develop this analysis across the European Union member states this debate became even more challenging due to the high degree of diversity that characterize these economies. Moreover, the Central and Eastern European countries and especially the ones that joined EU in 2004 and 2007 embody a set of particularities that make them extremely different from the rest of the European Union member states, features related to the historical background, economic policies and common efforts to intensify the convergence process with the more developed EU members. This paper studies the impact of two main factors upon the economic growth process namely an endogenous-exogenous factor like the degree of openness and an endogenous factor like the human capital using a complex dynamic panel method. The arguments that were in favour of choosing this two factors are on one hand the multitude of theoretical studies that argued the importance of them in modelling the economic growth process and on the other hand the small number of studies that use panel methods in

  7. An Approach to Assess the Effectiveness of Smart Growth in Achieving Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Mohammed


    Full Text Available Smart Growth has become an evident concept in public policy debates and provides answers to the enduring problems of sprawling development and its many adverse consequences. While the concept has widely been touted to promote an urban development pattern characterized by compact and mixed-use development, walkable and bikeable neighborhoods, preserved green spaces, and the availability of mass transit, not much has been written about its contribution to sustainable development. This paper is an attempt to explore the concepts of smart growth and sustainable development and the extent to which the former contributes to the achievement of the latter. The various debates surrounding the smart growth movement have also been explored. The 2003 general plan guideline by the US State of California is used as the basis for determining the sustainable development role of smart growth policies in Portland (Oregon, Arlington (Virginia, Boulder (Colorado and Lancaster County (Pennsylvania. The paper concludes that it would be inappropriate to equate smart growth to sustainable development as the latter is a much broader concept and cuts across myriad disciplines. Notwithstanding, the implementation of smart growth policies in the cases studied have been observed to promote compact, infill and transit-oriented development and to conserve and protect open spaces and natural areas. All these are pro-sustainable development. While this paper has observed that smart growth serves as one of the approaches for achieving sustainable development goals, it calls for a more quantitative study to be able to measure the magnitude of the contribution associated with the smart growth policies.

  8. Sustainability in the Higher Education System: An Opportunity to Improve Quality and Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. Salvioni


    Full Text Available In view of the increasing importance attributed to social responsibility and stakeholder relationship management, more universities have expanded their research topics and their educational programs through the years. High attention is dedicated to the dominant principles and values of internal and external relations, to the innovation processes designed to ensure an approach to sustainable development. However, less attention is dedicated to the sustainability governance orientation and to the development of a strong institutional culture of sustainability, which is a key success factor to improve the quality and the image. This article observes the sustainability governance orientation, through the analysis of the information on the websites of three fair groups of universities in the international Top 500-ARWU (Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015 ranking. The aim is to verify if there is a link between the degree of sustainability culture in the management and the positioning of the universities in the international ranking. In addition, the analysis is compared with self-assessment data carried out by the same universities in terms of performance sustainability through the STARS (Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System online platform. As principal consideration, we have noted that the best universities in the ranking have a management approach based on a shared vision of sustainability development of their university leaders, who play an essential role affirming and disseminating a sustainability culture. All this opens broader future implications intended to highlight the importance of management sustainability as a quality improvement factor of universities.

  9. Can Higher Education Foster Economic Growth? Chicago Fed Letter. Number 229 (United States)

    Mattoon, Richard H.


    Not all observers agree that higher education and economic growth are obvious or necessary complements to each other. The controversy may be exacerbated because of the difficulty of measuring the exact contribution of colleges and universities to economic growth. Recognizing that a model based on local conditions and higher education's response…

  10. Urban growth management and ecological sustainability: confronting the "smart growth" fallacy (United States)

    Gabor Zovanyi


    Growth management and Smart Growth initiatives in the United States represent an ongoing process of growth accommodation. Because growth by definition constitutes unsustainable behavior in that it is incapable of being continued or maintained indefinitely, ongoing growth accommodation must be recognized as activity incongruous with advancing the goal of ecological...

  11. Is the growth stimulation by low doses of glyphosate sustained over time?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedergreen, Nina [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Life Science, University of Copenhagen, Hojbakkegard Alle 13, 2630 Tastrup (Denmark)], E-mail:


    The herbicide, glyphosate, has been shown to stimulate growth in a range of species when applied at doses of 5-60 g a.e. ha{sup -1}, corresponding to realistic spray drift events. This study investigates growth of shoot parameters over time to detect whether the glyphosate induced growth increase was sustained and had a final effect on reproduction. The results showed that an actual biomass growth rate increase took place within the first week after spraying with glyphosate doses <60 g a.e. ha{sup -1}. This initial growth boost kept treated plants larger than untreated plants for up to six weeks, but at harvest there was no significant difference between control plants and treated plants. Possible effects of glyphosate hormesis on the competitive ability of spray drift affected plants are discussed. - Glyphosate induced hormesis in barley is not sustained over time.

  12. The Potential Role of Innovative Indian SMEs in Sustainable Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Oncioiu


    Full Text Available India has experienced a robust economic growth in the recent years, but with a trajectory which offers both positive and negative lessons on the business innovation faced by many countries in Asia and elsewhere in the developing world. This study sought to test the relationship between innovation, financial performance and economic growth. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics on the factors that contribute to assuring the innovation of the processes involved in the financial performance and economic development in the rubber and plastic product sector in India. The results revealed that there is a positive relationship between innovation and economic growth, as well as between innovation and the financial performance of the company. Finally, the conclusion presents implications, limitations and directions for future research regarding the importance of innovation to the firm’s performance. A clear lesson from this study is that the future must include promoting Innovative Indian SMEs; in other words, business competitiveness depends on the creativity and innovativeness of its entrepreneurship.

  13. Genetically Modified Crops: Towards Agricultural Growth, Agricultural Development, or Agricultural Sustainability?


    Azadi, Hossein; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghuchani, Omid M.; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Hajivand, Roghaye Y.; Dogot, Thomas


    The present debate on how to increase global food production in a sustainable way has focused on arguments over the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) crops. Scientists in both public and private sectors clearly regard GM technology as a major new set of tools, whereas industry sees it as an opportunity for increased profits. However, it remains questionable whether GM crops can contribute to agricultural growth, agricultural development, and agricultural sustainability. This review p...

  14. Urban Growth Dynamics in Perth, Western Australia: Using Applied Remote Sensing for Sustainable Future Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MacLachlan


    Full Text Available Earth observation data can provide valuable assessments for monitoring the spatial extent of (unsustainable urban growth of the world’s cities to better inform planning policy in reducing associated economic, social and environmental costs. Western Australia has witnessed rapid economic expansion since the turn of the century founded upon extensive natural resource extraction. Thus, Perth, the state capital of Western Australia, has encountered significant population and urban growth in response to the booming state economy. However, the recent economic slowdown resulted in the largest decrease in natural resource values that Western Australia has ever experienced. Here, we present multi-temporal urban expansion statistics from 1990 to 2015 for Perth, derived from Landsat imagery. Current urban estimates used for future development plans and progress monitoring of infill and density targets are based upon aggregated census data and metrics unrepresentative of actual land cover change, underestimating overall urban area. Earth observation provides a temporally consistent methodology, identifying areal urban area at higher spatial and temporal resolution than current estimates. Our results indicate that the spatial extent of the Perth Metropolitan Region has increased 45% between 1990 and 2015, over 320 km2. We highlight the applicability of earth observation data in accurately quantifying urban area for sustainable targeted planning practices.

  15. Smart Green Campus: : How IT can Support Sustainability in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joris Mens; Henk Plessius; Pascal Ravesteijn


    Author supplied: Within the Netherlands the interest for sustainability is slowly growing. However, most organizations are still lagging behind in implementing sustainability as part of their strategy and in developing performance indicators to track their progress; not only in profit organizations

  16. Environmental Management and Sustainability in Higher Education: The Case of Spanish Universities (United States)

    Leon-Fernandez, Yolanda; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio


    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse trends in implementing the main initiatives in the field of environmental management and sustainability in Spanish universities, taking as a reference point the guidelines adopted by a number of universities in countries most committed to sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: An analysis of…

  17. The Role of Institutions of Higher Education in Sustainability: The Comprehensive, Public, Land-Grant University (United States)

    Patrick J. Pellicane


    This paper introduces a background discussion of the importance of sustainability in the 21st century, the issues surrounding how we learn, the role of science, and the importance of interdisciplinarity with respect to ecological and socio-economic sustainability. Furthermore, background information is provided about the history and origins of the American public, land...

  18. The Place of Content and Pedagogy in Shaping Sustainability Learning Outcomes in Higher Education (United States)

    Mintz, Keren; Tal, Tali


    This research investigates the ways in which undergraduate courses dealing with the environment address sustainable development (SD), and contribute to the development of sustainability learning outcomes (SLO). The participants in the study were 13 instructors, and 360 students who were enrolled in 13 courses that addressed the environment in a…

  19. The Cost of Sustainability in Higher Education: Staff and Student Views of a Campus Food Culture (United States)

    Shaw, Amy; Capetola, Teresa; Lawson, Justin T.; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Murphy, Berni


    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the sustainability of the food culture at Deakin University and to determine what the barriers to increasing the sustainability of food on the Burwood campus may be. Design/methodology/approach: An online survey of staff and students from the Faculty of Health at the Burwood campus of Deakin University (n =…

  20. Transnational Higher Education and Sustainable Development: Current Initiatives and Future Prospects (United States)

    Koehn, Peter H.


    Tertiary educational institutions increasingly are relied upon for sustainable development initiatives. This policy research note analyzes newly available data regarding seven key dimensions of 295 transnational sustainable development projects involving US universities. Comparative regional analysis of the projects profiled in the APLU/AAU…

  1. Education for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: State-of-the-Art, Barriers and Challenges (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Bernaldo, María Olga; Castillejo, Ana; Manzanero, Ana María


    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a new educational paradigm that allows Universities to lead and respond to social needs towards a more sustainable life. The ESD is a global preparedness and complex phenomena in relation to the effects of human activity on the environment, society and economy in spatial (global, regional and local)…

  2. The impact of CO2 emissions on economic growth: evidence from selected higher CO2 emissions economies. (United States)

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Bin Abdullah, Hussin; Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz


    The main purpose of this work is to analyze the impact of environmental degradation proxied by CO2 emissions per capita along with some other explanatory variables namely energy use, trade, and human capital on economic growth in selected higher CO2 emissions economies namely China, the USA, India, and Japan. For empirical analysis, annual data over the period spanning between 1971 and 2013 are used. After using relevant and suitable tests for checking data properties, the panel fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) method is employed as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The panel group FMOLS results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non cointegration, demonstrating that all variables play an important role in affecting the economic growth role across countries. Where two regressors namely CO2 emissions and energy use show significantly negative impacts on economic growth, for trade and human capital, they tend to show the significantly positive impact on economic growth. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the panel estimate suggests that CO2 emissions have a significant positive relationship with economic growth for China, Japan, and the USA, while it is found significantly negative in case of India. The empirical findings of the study suggest that appropriate and prudent policies are required in order to control pollution emerging from areas other than liquefied fuel consumption. The ultimate impact of shrinking pollution will help in supporting sustainable economic growth and maturation as well as largely improve society welfare.

  3. Competitive Environment in Higher Education, Economic Efficiency and National Economic Growth


    Rocēns, Valdis


    The goal of Valdis Rocens’s thesis „Competitive Environment in Higher Education, Economic Efficiency and National Economic Growth” is the assessment of the correlation between the competition among the institutions of higher education, the economic efficiency of higher education and the states’ economic growth. The research is based on P.Romer’s economic endogenous growth theory and M.Porter’s competition five forces model. In the thesis, there has been measured the competition...

  4. CREATING: a sustainable plan for biomedical higher education in Saudi Arabia. Phase I. (United States)

    Cirillo, Nicola; AlShwaimi, Emad; Prime, Stephen S; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem


    Biomedical higher education has been acquiring increasing importance worldwide, including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and effective strategies to improve outcomes and competitiveness are key for academic success. The plan presented here is divided into two major phases. Phase 1 (Communication, Research governance, Education planning, Accreditation) deals mainly with adopting a systematic approach to academic activities according to the current international standards. In other words, the aim is to re-organise what is already in place, taking into account current guidelines and strategies that help improve quality of education and research. It is suggested that this is not necessarily to be achieved by major investments but, rather, by a more imaginative and structured work plan. In Phase 2 (Translational practice, Implementation, Networking, Growth), higher education institutions are expected to invest in new strategic resources, to establish strong reciprocal links with international academic partners and industry, and to shift their attention to the hot topics and current academic challenges, leading the way in translational education models and pioneering cutting-edge research.

  5. Critical Sustainability: Setting the Limits to Growth and Responsibility in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko Saarinen


    Full Text Available The idea of sustainable development has been discussed in tourism research for almost a quarter of a century. During that time, sustainability has become an important policy framework for tourism and regional developers guiding their planning and development thinking. Sustainability has also emerged academically as an important field of research with an emphasis on defining the limits to growth and responsibilities in tourism. However, while there are urgent needs to incorporate sustainability into tourism, there is also a growing amount of frustration among scholars on the conceptual nature of sustainability and how tourism as a private-driven economic activity relates to the ideals of sustainable development. This has created an increasing need to understand and potentially reframe the concept. The purpose of this paper is to overview the conceptual dimensions of sustainable tourism and discuss some of the main sources of frustration. Based on this, it is concluded that while a conceptual plurality seems to be unavoidable, there is a need to re-frame i.e., rescale and decentralize tourism in policy frameworks and practices aiming towards sustainability.

  6. Forced sustained swimming exercise at optimal speed enhances growth of juvenile yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan P. Palstra


    Full Text Available Swimming exercise at optimal speed may optimize growth performance of yellowtail kingfish in a recirculating aquaculture system. Therefore, optimal swimming speeds (Uopt in m s-1 or body lengths s-1, BL s-1 were assessed and then applied to determine the effects of long-term forced and sustained swimming at Uopt on growth performance of juvenile yellowtail kingfish. Uopt was quantified in Blazka-type swim-tunnels for 145 mm, 206 mm and 311 mm juveniles resulting in values of: 1 0.70 m s-1 or 4.83 BL s-1, 2 0.82 m s-1 or 3.25 BL s-1 and 3 0.85 m s-1 or 2.73 BL s-1. Combined with literature data from larger fish, a relation of Uopt (BL s-1 = 234.07(BL-0.779 (R2= 0.9909 was established for this species. Yellowtail kingfish, either forced to perform sustained swimming exercise at an optimal speed of 2.46 BL s-1 (‘swimmers’ or allowed to perform spontaneous activity at low water flow (‘resters’ in a newly designed 3,600 L oval flume (with flow created by an impeller driven by an electric motor, were then compared. At the start of the experiment, ten fish were sampled representing the initial condition. After 18 days, swimmers (n= 23 showed a 92% greater increase in BL and 46% greater increase in BW as compared to resters (n= 23. As both groups were fed equal rations, feed conversion ratio (FCR for swimmers was 1.21 vs. 1.74 for resters. Doppler ultrasound imaging showed a statistically significant higher blood flow (31% in the ventral aorta of swimmers vs. resters (44 ± 3 mL min-1 vs. 34 ± 3 mL min-1, respectively, under anesthesia. Thus growth performance can be rapidly improved by optimal swimming, without larger feed investments.

  7. Advancing higher education for sustainable development: international insights and critical reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.; Lozano, F.J.; Mulder, K. de; Huisingh, D.; Waas, T.


    Historically, universities have played many roles in transforming societies, by educating decision-makers, leaders, entrepreneurs, and academics. However, education and research on sustainability in universities is at an early stage in many institutions. This introduction highlights findings from

  8. Funding in Higher Education and Economic Growth in France and the United Kingdom, 1921-2003 (United States)

    Carpentier, Vincent


    The UK 2004 Higher Education Act generated important debates about the relationships between higher education (HE), economic growth and social progress. The range of positions expressed in relation to the increase of annual tuition fees raises crucial questions about the public and private funding of higher education and its individual and social…

  9. Can higher education foster economic growth?—a conference summary


    Richard H. Mattoon


    While higher education is being asked to perform more roles in the local economy, specific pathways for influencing local and regional economic transformation are still being identified. On October 30, 2006, the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and the Midwest Higher Education Compact held a conference on higher education and economic growth.

  10. Parasitic chytrids sustain zooplankton growth during inedible algal bloom. (United States)

    Rasconi, Serena; Grami, Boutheina; Niquil, Nathalie; Jobard, Marlène; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore


    This study assesses the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on the planktonic food web of two contrasting freshwater lakes during different algal bloom situations. Carbon-based food web models were used to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom in Lake Pavin (oligo-mesotrophic) and the autumn cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Aydat (eutrophic). Linear inverse modeling was employed to estimate undetermined flows in both lakes. The Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse modeling procedure provided estimates of the ranges of model-derived fluxes. Model results confirm recent theories on the impact of parasites on food web function through grazers and recyclers. During blooms of "inedible" algae (unexploited by planktonic herbivores), the epidemic growth of chytrids channeled 19-20% of the primary production in both lakes through the production of grazer exploitable zoospores. The parasitic throughput represented 50% and 57% of the zooplankton diet, respectively, in the oligo-mesotrophic and in the eutrophic lakes. Parasites also affected ecological network properties such as longer carbon path lengths and loop strength, and contributed to increase the stability of the aquatic food web, notably in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Pavin.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. TAN


    Full Text Available The environmental impact of the commercial aviation industry for an emerging economy like Malaysia is under-studied. The focus on the subject has thus far concentrated either on non geographical performance of the aviation industry or technical performance of aircrafts and that leaves the sustainability of the commercial aviation industry for an economy, or more specifically, an emerging economy least understood. Hence, this paper aims to investigate the sustainability of the growth of the commercial aviation industry in Malaysia and its impact upon the environment using a system dynamics approach. VENSIM is employed to model the commercial aviation industry in Malaysia as a dynamic system to evaluate the CO2 emitted from each component within the industry in order to forecast its overall CO2 emission. Results from the analysis show that sustainable growth can be affected by adopting short and long term strategies identified in this study.

  12. In Tourism Industry We Talk About Sustainable Development, But We Evaluate Profits and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirk Tanja


    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the biggest economic sectors, it has a significant impact on the environment. At the same time, the long-term development of tourism also greatly depends on the environment it affects. Experts are unanimous that it is necessary for the longterm existence and development of tourism that it becomes sustainable. Nevertheless, in tourism businesses, sustainable development strategies are not sufficiently present and put into practice. The author of the article presents the argument as a possible reason for this: the management of tourism enterprises as well as management of all the companies is focused on doing business successfully; and because the performance of management is assessed in terms of growth and security of its operations, and not in relation to the measures taken in the field of sustainable development, management gives priority to ensuring relatively short-term growth and security of operations.

  13. Characterizing Stand Structure and Growth of Natural Beech Forests for the Development of Sustainable Forest Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalandarayeshi, Shaaban

    forests in northern Iran lack such scientific foundation. The objective of the present study is to assist in this process by characterizing growth and stand structure of oriental beech for a range of growing conditions in northern Iran and to provide useful insight for application in sustainable...

  14. Higher Education Curriculum for Sustainability: Course Contents Analyses of Purchasing and Supply Management Programme of Polytechnics in Ghana (United States)

    Etse, Daniel; Ingley, Coral


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of attention to and the nature of sustainability issues in the curriculum of the Higher National Diploma (HND) Purchasing and Supply Management programme of Ghana. Design/Methodology/Approach: Documentary research is the approach used to analyse the curriculum document for the programme…

  15. Farming Chicago: Prospects for Higher Education Support of Sustainable Urban Food Systems in the U.S. Heartland (United States)

    Rosing, Howard; Block, Daniel R.


    The article highlights recent food policies in Chicago with the goal of exploring how higher education institutions can contribute to development of sustainable food resources for residents of North American cities. Thousands of Chicago residents face daily challenges accessing fresh food due to income constraints and/or lack of proximity to food…

  16. Leadership Best Practices for Sustaining Quality in UK Higher Education from the Perspective of the EFQM Excellence Model (United States)

    Osseo-Asare, Augustus E.; Longbottom, David; Murphy, William D.


    Purpose: To deepen the understanding and to encourage further research on leadership best practices for sustaining quality improvement in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). Design/methodology/approach: The literature on leadership provides the theoretical context for the survey of quality managers from 42 UK HEIs. A mix of questionnaires,…

  17. Sustainability in higher education in the context of the UN DESD: a review of learning and institutionalization processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, A.E.J.


    This contribution is grounded empirically in a review of UN’s Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UN DESD) which the author was commissioned to carry out by UNESCO. The review’s section on the learning processes taking place in the higher education arena forms the basis of this article.

  18. Scan for sustainability in higher education 2010 [in the Netherlands]; Scan duurzaamheid ICT in hoger onderwijs 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Westrienen, G. [SURFfoundation, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    A scan among nine higher education institutions in 2010 shows that much can be gained by using sustainable ICT. The higher education can save at least 44 percent on energy use of ICT equipment at work stations and in data centers. [Dutch] Een scan in 2010 bij negen hogeronderwijsinstellingen toont dat met duurzame ICT nog veel winst is te behalen. Het hoger onderwijs kan zeker 44 procent besparen op het energieverbruik van ICT-apparatuur op werkplekken en in datacenters.

  19. Connecting Competences and Pedagogical Approaches for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: A Literature Review and Framework Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lozano


    Full Text Available Research into and practice of Higher Education for Sustainable Development (HESD have been increasing during the last two decades. These have focused on providing sustainability education to future generations of professionals. In this context, there has been considerable progress in the incorporation of SD in universities’ curricula. Most of these efforts have focussed on the design and delivery of sustainability-oriented competences. Some peer-reviewed articles have proposed different pedagogical approaches to better deliver SD in these courses; however, there has been limited research on the connection between how courses are delivered (pedagogical approaches and how they may affect sustainability competences. This paper analyses competences and pedagogical approaches, using hermeneutics to connect these in a framework based on twelve competences and twelve pedagogical approaches found in the literature. The framework connects the course aims to delivery in HESD by highlighting the connections between pedagogical approaches and competences in a matrix structure. The framework is aimed at helping educators in creating and updating their courses to provide a more complete, holistic, and systemic sustainability education to future leaders, decision makers, educators, and change agents. To better develop mind-sets and actions of future generations, we must provide students with a complete set of sustainability competences.

  20. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, Alexandros


    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators

  1. Sales Forecasting in the Context of Seasonal Activities and Company Sustainable Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu


    Full Text Available The paper presents the use of the “time series model” to forecast the quarterly and yearly sales for a company with business seasonality. These sales forecasts will represent the fundamental basis for estimating the external financing, using the percentage to sales method. Sales growth rates are afterwards analysed in the context of ensuring a sustainable and self-financed growth. We focus on establishing the forecasted financial structure of the external financial requirements both in the context of using the reinvested profit complemented with credit, maintaining the debt rate constant, and in the context of total internal funding of the company economic growth, from reinvested profit.

  2. Ecological network analysis for economic systems: growth and development and implications for sustainable development. (United States)

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E


    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input-output (I-O) tables for 1985-2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985-2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects.

  3. Goal Orientation, Deep Learning, and Sustainable Feedback in Higher Business Education (United States)

    Geitz, Gerry; Brinke, Desirée Joosten-ten; Kirschner, Paul A.


    Relations between and changeability of goal orientation and learning behavior have been studied in several domains and contexts. To alter the adopted goal orientation into a mastery orientation and increase a concomitant deep learning in international business students, a sustainable feedback intervention study was carried out. Sustainable…

  4. Fertiliser use: one of the keys to attaining and sustaining higher crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exhausted. The decline in native fertility is worsened by other factors such as soil erosion and deforestation on top of low input continuous cultivation that characterises much of subsistence fanning in Sub-Saharan Africa . Improving the productivity of such soils to a nigh sustainable level in light of increasing population ...

  5. Sustainable Knowledge Transformation in and through Higher Education: A Case for Transdisciplinary Leadership (United States)

    Khoo, Su-Ming


    This article explores inter- and transdisciplinarity, given the need for more complex, relevant, and transformative knowledge to shift society towards more sustainable futures. It connects practical questions about economic, societal, and ecological limits to questions about the limitations of academic knowledge. Transdisciplinarity involves…

  6. Health-Related Education for Sustainability: Public Health Workforce Needs and the Role of Higher Education (United States)

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan; Capetola, Teresa


    Public health practitioners have important roles to play in addressing environmental sustainability imperatives that have an impact on human health. Yet, to date, the extent to which practitioners are willing and able to address these issues is an understudied subject. This article draws on the findings of two qualitative studies involving 49…

  7. Role of Institutions of Higher Learning in Enhancing Sustainable Development in Kenya (United States)

    Ekene, Osuji Gregory; Oluoch-Suleh, Everlyn


    Education brings about a change in the individual which promotes greater productivity and work efficiency. It remains a major component in the development of human resources and it accounts for much improvements in population quality and environmental resource management; hence, sustainable development. Improvement of human resources is not…

  8. Developing a Sustainable Practical Model of Graduate Employability for Higher Education (United States)

    Rufai, Ahmed Umar; Bakar, Ab Rahim Bin; Rashi, Abdullah Bin Mat


    The purpose of this paper is to evolve a sustainable practical model of employability skills that is sure to capture relevant learning aspects of a particular occupational discipline to be used as framework for Undergraduate students to develop their employability potentials. The study was conducted in three Universities and Polytechnics each with…

  9. Tragedy of the Commons, Business Growth and the Fundamental Sustainability Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Garrity


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major issues involved in Hardin’s [1] tragedy of the commons, written over 44 years ago, and examines whether these issues are still relevant today. We assert that this model still provides important insight to aid in the solution to our global problems. In particular, we maintain that the underlying issues of growth against limits and bounded rationality are still not adequately recognized and addressed; this underlies many of the reasons for our unsustainable world. Examples from fisheries management are used to examine potential solutions and reveal weaknesses in current approaches. We show how our current, restricted mental models promote social injustice and blind us to developing sustainable solutions. Both the neo-liberal economic view of business that directly seeks growth and the new sustainable development view that indirectly supports growth are leading our global economy in the wrong direction and away from prosperity and sustainability. Current thinking has not realized Hardin’s message that sustainability is of the class of no technology solution problems. We conclude with recommendations to radically advance a new world view and business paradigm.

  10. Avoiding the Limits to Growth: Gross National Happiness in Bhutan as a Model for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Brooks


    Full Text Available In their 30-year update to Limits to Growth, Meadows et al. call for a vision of sustainable development that includes systemic change brought on by new perspectives on the purpose of development, new ways of measuring progress, and changes in social norms. Here, I discuss Meadows et al.’s work in the context of the literature on sustainable development and well-being as well as the development trajectory of Bhutan. I suggest that Bhutan’s development approach mirrors Meadows et al.’s recommendations and provides one model for sustainable development. The ideal of maximizing Gross National Happiness (GNH exemplifies Bhutan’s commitment to holistic development and dovetails with arguments about the shortcomings of approaches that emphasize economic growth. I provide examples of how GNH has been put into practice, describe how happiness is being measured, and discuss the emergence of social norms and a shared Bhutanese identity that may contribute to sustainable development. Bhutan’s development success suggests that an alternative to growth-centric development is viable. However, while Bhutan’s standard of living has increased, the country faces challenges, the most important of which may be their ability to manage rising consumption levels. Importantly, other nations have begun measuring well-being and considering similar development approaches.

  11. Computational modeling of the mechanical modulation of the growth plate by sustained loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Tovar Carlos A


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a computational model that describes the growth of the bone as a function of the proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocytes in the growth plate. We have included the effects of the mechanical loads on the sizes of the proliferative and hypertrophic areas, the number of proliferative chondrocytes and the final size of the hypertrophic chondrocytes. The validation of the model was performed with experimental data published on other investigations about proximal tibia of rats, subjected to sustained axial stresses of 0.1 MPa, 0.0 MPa, -0.1 MPa and −0.2 MPa. Growth was simulated during 23 days, obtaining numerical errors between 2.77% and 3.73% with respect to experimental growth rates. The results obtained show that the model adequately simulates the behavior of the growth plate and the effect of mechanical loads over its cellular activity.

  12. Higher Education And Economic Growth. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 222a (United States)

    Mattoon, Richard H.


    The future of higher education and its relationship to economic growth were the focus of a one-day conference at the Chicago Fed on November 2, 2005. Cosponsored by the bank, the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, and the Midwestern Higher Education Compact, the event brought together over 100 academic, business, and government leaders.…

  13. Can Higher Education Foster Economic Growth? A Conference Summary. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 236a (United States)

    Mattoon, Richard H.


    On October 30, 2006, the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and the Midwest Higher Education Compact held a conference on higher education and economic growth. Speakers included Michael Moskow, Richard Lester, Michael Luger, Sean Safford, Larry Isaak, Stefanie Lenway, Rod Shrader, Brian Fabes, Arthur Rothkopf, Randy Eberts, Gary Fethke, Victor…

  14. Higher Education And Economic Growth: A Conference Report. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 222b (United States)

    Mattoon, Richard H.


    The future of higher education and its relationship to economic growth were the focus of a one-day conference at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago on November 2, 2005. Cosponsored by the bank, the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, and the Midwestern Higher Education Compact, the event brought together over 100 academic, business, and…

  15. Understanding water deficit stress-induced changes in the basic metabolism of higher plants - biotechnologically and sustainably improving agriculture and the ecoenvironment in arid regions of the globe. (United States)

    Shao, Hong-Bo; Chu, Li-Ye; Jaleel, C Abdul; Manivannan, P; Panneerselvam, R; Shao, Ming-An


    Water is vital for plant growth, development and productivity. Permanent or temporary water deficit stress limits the growth and distribution of natural and artificial vegetation and the performance of cultivated plants (crops) more than any other environmental factor. Productive and sustainable agriculture necessitates growing plants (crops) in arid and semiarid regions with less input of precious resources such as fresh water. For a better understanding and rapid improvement of soil-water stress tolerance in these regions, especially in the water-wind eroded crossing region, it is very important to link physiological and biochemical studies to molecular work in genetically tractable model plants and important native plants, and further extending them to practical ecological restoration and efficient crop production. Although basic studies and practices aimed at improving soil water stress resistance and plant water use efficiency have been carried out for many years, the mechanisms involved at different scales are still not clear. Further understanding and manipulating soil-plant water relationships and soil-water stress tolerance at the scales of ecology, physiology and molecular biology can significantly improve plant productivity and environmental quality. Currently, post-genomics and metabolomics are very important in exploring anti-drought gene resources in various life forms, but modern agriculturally sustainable development must be combined with plant physiological measures in the field, on the basis of which post-genomics and metabolomics have further practical prospects. In this review, we discuss physiological and molecular insights and effects in basic plant metabolism, drought tolerance strategies under drought conditions in higher plants for sustainable agriculture and ecoenvironments in arid and semiarid areas of the world. We conclude that biological measures are the bases for the solutions to the issues relating to the different types of

  16. Developing Policy Scenarios for Sustainable Urban Growth Management: A Delphi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajida Perveen


    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, a rapid urbanization process is taking place at an unprecedented scale, and its drastic impacts on societies and the environment are evident. To combat the externalities of such rapid, and to a degree uncontrolled, development, many cities around the globe introduced various urban growth management policies. However, policy making—to provide sustainable outcomes, while generating growth opportunities—has been a daunting task for urban administrators. To ease the task, scenario-based planning methods are introduced to produce alternative visions for managing urban growth in sustainable ways by incorporating various socio-environmental issues. However, even though modelling urban growth and associated impacts based on these scenarios have emerged to strengthen and quantify the future of urban policies and related planning actions, this process has a number of glitches. Major issues include the uncertainties associated with the selection of suitable methods to generate scenarios, identify indicators to be used to assess scenarios, evaluate scenarios to prioritize for policy formulation, and assess the impacts of policy scenarios. This paper aims to address the challenge of developing suitable policy scenarios for sustainable urban growth. As for the methodological approach, the study undertakes a thorough review of the literature and current practices, and conducts a two-round Delphi survey—involving experts from public, private and academic sectors specialized in the fields of urban planning, environmental planning, social planning, transportation modelling, and economic development. The expert driven policy scenarios are validated in a local context by comparing findings against the policy options as proposed in the South East Queensland Regional Plan 2017 (Australia. The findings offer valuable guidelines for planners, modellers, and policy makers in adopting suitable methods, indicators, and policy priorities

  17. Civic Engagement and Environmental Sustainability in Teaching and Learning at Higher Education Institution in South Africa


    Nhokodi Tererai; Nqowana Thandiswa; Collings Dylan; Tandlich Roman; Köhly Nikki


    This article seeks to provide an outline the scope of professional teaching and learning activities and their connection to civic engagement and the achievement of environmental sustainability at Rhodes University and in Makana Local Municipality. Activities in the context of rainwater water harvesting and sanitation research are used as examples. The improved hydrogen-sulphide test kit was used as the tool for the assessment of microbial water quality between April and July 2016. An approach...

  18. Toward Sustainable Economic Growth: A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Regional Income Convergence in US BEA Economic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Up Lim


    Full Text Available A question fundamental to sustainable economic growth is whether a poor region tends to grow faster than a rich one, such that the poor region catches up with the rich region in terms of the level of per capita income. In this article, we apply the spatial panel data approach to the analysis of regional income convergence across 177 economic areas in the contiguous US states over the period from 1969 to 2009. Using data on per capita incomes in the functionally defined economic areas, we find that the absolute value of the estimated coefficient of the initial per capita income decreases in the spatial and time-period fixed effects spatial lag model and increases in the spatial and time-period fixed effects spatial error model. This result implies that the growth rate in a specific economic area will be not only directly affected by an exogenous shock introduced into that economic area but also be impacted more by both the indirect effects of the first-order neighboring economic areas and the induced effects of the higher-order neighboring economic areas. This gives helpful hints on the issue of spatial interaction and regional policy coordination to start a virtuous circle of sustainable economic growth.

  19. Higher biodiversity is required to sustain multiple ecosystem processes across temperature regimes (United States)

    Perkins, Daniel M; Bailey, R A; Dossena, Matteo; Gamfeldt, Lars; Reiss, Julia; Trimmer, Mark; Woodward, Guy


    Biodiversity loss is occurring rapidly worldwide, yet it is uncertain whether few or many species are required to sustain ecosystem functioning in the face of environmental change. The importance of biodiversity might be enhanced when multiple ecosystem processes (termed multifunctionality) and environmental contexts are considered, yet no studies have quantified this explicitly to date. We measured five key processes and their combined multifunctionality at three temperatures (5, 10 and 15 °C) in freshwater aquaria containing different animal assemblages (1–4 benthic macroinvertebrate species). For single processes, biodiversity effects were weak and were best predicted by additive-based models, i.e. polyculture performances represented the sum of their monoculture parts. There were, however, significant effects of biodiversity on multifunctionality at the low and the high (but not the intermediate) temperature. Variation in the contribution of species to processes across temperatures meant that greater biodiversity was required to sustain multifunctionality across different temperatures than was the case for single processes. This suggests that previous studies might have underestimated the importance of biodiversity in sustaining ecosystem functioning in a changing environment. PMID:25131335

  20. Some participants may be better than others: sustained attention and motivation are higher early in semester. (United States)

    Nicholls, Michael E R; Loveless, Kellie M; Thomas, Nicole A; Loetscher, Tobias; Churches, Owen


    Many studies use multiexperiment designs where experiments are carried out at different times of semester. When comparing between experiments, the data may be confounded by between-participants effects related to motivation. Research indicates that course-credit participants who engage in research early in semester have different personality and performance characteristics compared to those tested late in semester. This study examined whether the semester effect is caused by internal (inherent motivation of the participant) or external (looming exams, essays) factors. To do this, sustained attention and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation was measured in groups of course-credit (n = 40) and paid (n = 40) participants early and late in semester. While there was no difference in sustained attention between the groups early in semester, the course-credit group performed significantly worse late in semester. The course-credit group also showed a significant decrease in intrinsic motivation with time whereas the paid participants showed no change. Because changes were not seen for both groups, the semester difference cannot be due to external factors. Instead, the data demonstrate that course-credit participants who engage early have high sustained attention and intrinsic motivation compared to their late counterparts, who leave their participation to the last minute. Researchers who use multiexperimental designs across semester need to control for these effects--perhaps by using paid participants who do not vary across semester.

  1. Civic Engagement and Environmental Sustainability in Teaching and Learning at Higher Education Institution in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhokodi Tererai


    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide an outline the scope of professional teaching and learning activities and their connection to civic engagement and the achievement of environmental sustainability at Rhodes University and in Makana Local Municipality. Activities in the context of rainwater water harvesting and sanitation research are used as examples. The improved hydrogen-sulphide test kit was used as the tool for the assessment of microbial water quality between April and July 2016. An approach to the improvement in the design and modelling of the performance of ventillated improved pit latrines under laboratory conditions is also described. All activities described have been taking place in the context of undergraduate and postgraduate student research projects at Rhodes University. They have implications for teaching and learning, civic engagement and environmental sustainability. Teaching and learning of the concepts of sustainability can facilitate the development of the necessary connection between academia and the society at large. This can have a significant positive effect on societal conditions in South Africa. Further endeavours similar those described in this article should be stimulated in South and beyond.

  2. Financing Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Reflections and Implications for Sustainable Development (United States)

    Oketch, Moses


    The purpose of this article is to discuss how best to finance higher education in low-income countries of sub-Saharan Africa, drawing on benefits and drawbacks of the prevalent models of higher education finance, and lessons to be learned from countries which have seen greater expansion of their higher education systems in recent decades. Two main…

  3. Effects of Population Growth and Climate Variability on Sustainable Groundwater in Mali, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lutz


    Full Text Available Groundwater is increasingly relied on as a source of potable water in developing countries, but factors such as population growth, development, and climate variability, pose potential challenges for ongoing sustainable supply. The effect of these factors on the groundwater system was considered in four scenarios using a numerical model to represent the Bani area of Mali, West Africa. By 2040, population growth, climate variability, and development as urbanization, agriculture, and industry creates scenarios in which groundwater extraction is an increasingly larger percentage of the groundwater system. Consumption from agriculture and industry increases extraction rates from less than 1 to 3.8% of mean annual precipitation, which will likely affect the groundwater system. For instance, concentrated pumping in local areas may result in water level declines. The results of this study contribute to an ongoing evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources in West Africa.

  4. Sharing Economy as a Contributor to Sustainable Growth. An EU Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu


    Full Text Available The paper bases its analytical approach on two assumptions: the first refers to a significant change taking place in the contemporary world economy – the phenomenon of multipolarity – and proposes a new concept, that of multi-level manifestation of multipolarity; the second has in view the need of a new model of sustainable economic growth. In the context of these two points of view, the paper analyses the sharing economy as a potential significant contributor to sustainable economic growth. The conclusion of this research is that sharing economy has a huge potential of involving millions or even billions of participants and of capitalizing the existing assets while providing spill over effects in the economy. The authors expect sharing economy to become a form of economic activity that will complement traditional forms of business while generating positive economic, social and environmental effects.

  5. A Study on International Trade and Endogenous/Sustainable Growth Model considering Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang In; Kim, Tae Wan; Han, Hwa Jin; Kang, Kwang Gyu; Choi, Dae Seung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    The worldwide industrialization, which has spread from advanced industrial nations to developing nations via newly industrialized nations, and the expanded international trade have been triggering all kinds of environmental pollution, so the environmental pollution has become an environmental problem of pan-global line. The spread of modern industrial society, which is characterized by mass production and mass consumption, has been polluting an entire earth as well as a relevant area and draining usable natural resources. It has caused discord between evironmentalists - regarding environment - and developmentalists - stressing growth through industralization - to deepen. Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment 0f OECD and Committee on Trade and Environment of WTO, which was established with joint efforts of international community in order to resolve such problems, has suggested new improved methodologies to promote the protection of environment, trade liberalization, and sustainable development, besides the discussion for the establishment of reciprocal supporting relation at the same time. The concept of sustainable development, whose main objects are the protection of environment, economic growth, and social development, is recognized as an alternative program that can settle the deepened discord between developed and developing countries on the surrounding issue of the protection of environment and economic development. Because the past discussion connecting environment and trade was developed around a static analysis, it was not available to consider thoroughly the dynamic environmental effects of trade liberalization. This study started from such a critical mind has developed the theoretical analysis model on endogenous growth in order to study on the reciprocal relation among environment, trade, and growth at the first time. This report examined the reciprocal relation between environment and trade, trade and growth, and growth and environment within

  6. Graduate Programs in Green Growth and Sustainable Development: A Comparative Approach


    Fairlie Reinoso, Alan


    Since the concern about the negative impacts of the current economic modelin the scarcity of natural resources and their conservation, it comes the need toconfront them and create, from academia, some research areas that include thesenew features and development trends. In this paper, an overview of the conceptualaspects of the main proposals for the transition to sustainable development isperformed, such as the Green Growth, Bio-Commerce, Bio-Economy, amongothers. Then, it is identified and ...

  7. Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agricultural Sustainability-A Review. (United States)

    Vejan, Pravin; Abdullah, Rosazlin; Khadiran, Tumirah; Ismail, Salmah; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru


    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) shows an important role in the sustainable agriculture industry. The increasing demand for crop production with a significant reduction of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a big challenge nowadays. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include regulating hormonal and nutritional balance, inducing resistance against plant pathogens, and solubilizing nutrients for easy uptake by plants. In addition, PGPR show synergistic and antagonistic interactions with microorganisms within the rhizosphere and beyond in bulk soil, which indirectly boosts plant growth rate. There are many bacteria species that act as PGPR, described in the literature as successful for improving plant growth. However, there is a gap between the mode of action (mechanism) of the PGPR for plant growth and the role of the PGPR as biofertilizer-thus the importance of nano-encapsulation technology in improving the efficacy of PGPR. Hence, this review bridges the gap mentioned and summarizes the mechanism of PGPR as a biofertilizer for agricultural sustainability.

  8. Growth of higher fungi on wheat straw and their impact on the digestibility of the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyson, E.; Verachtert, H. (Catholic Univ. of Leuven (Belgium). Faculty of Agriculture)


    The influence of the growth of three higher fungi on the composition of wheat straw was investigated. Pleurotus pulmonarius, P. sajor-caju and Lentinus edodes grew very well on lignocellulosic substrates, breaking down a considerable amount of lignin. The initial lignin concentration of straw was halved after 12 weeks of fungal growth, doubling the enzymic digestibility. Together with lignin, the higher fungi consumed half of the amount of hemicellulose (i.e. 15%), leaving cellulose fairly intact, which should remain as an energy source for ruminants. (orig.).

  9. Sustainable Interventions in Enhancing Gender Parity in Senior Leadership Positions in Higher Education in Tanzania (United States)

    Nyoni, Watende Pius; He, Chen; Yusuph, Mashala Lameck


    Despite the international campaigns for gender equality and equity in Higher Education Institutions, studies conducted in several countries continue to show that women are underrepresented in senior leadership positions in universities. Women leaders in higher education subsector in Tanzania are very few. Of all the 60 and above universities and…

  10. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices (United States)

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.


    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  11. Does Renewable Energy Drive Sustainable Economic Growth? Multivariate Panel Data Evidence for EU-28 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ştefan Armeanu


    Full Text Available Energy is crucial to economic progress, but the contemporary worldwide population increase that demands greater energy generated from conventional exhaustible resources, an energy price upsurge, and environmental concerns, imperils sustainable economic growth. Nevertheless, switching to renewable energy produced from naturally replenished resources promotes energy security, likewise addressing issues such as global warming and climate change. This paper aims at exploring the influence and causal relation between renewable energy, both overall and by type, and sustainable economic growth of European Union (EU-28 countries for the period of 2003–2014. We notice that the mean share of renewable energy in the gross final energy consumption is 15%, while the mean share of renewable energy in transport fuel consumption is 3%, which are below the thresholds of 20% and 10%, respectively, as set by the EU Directive 2009/28/EC. By estimating panel data fixed-effects regression models, the results provide support for a positive influence of renewable energy overall, as well as by type, namely biomass, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind power, and solar energy on gross domestic product per capita. However, biomass energy shows the highest influence on economic growth among the rest of renewable energy types. In fact, a 1% increase of the primary production of solid biofuels increases GDP per capita by 0.16%. Besides, cointegrating regressions set on panel fully modified and dynamic ordinary least squares regressions confirm the positive influence related to the primary production of renewable energies on economic growth. A 1% increase in primary production of renewable energies increases GDP per capita by 0.05%–0.06%. However, the results of Granger causality based on panel vector error correction model indicate both in short-run and long-run a unidirectional causal relationship running from sustainable economic growth to the primary production of

  12. Efficacy and safety of sustained-release recombinant human growth hormone in Korean adults with growth hormone deficiency. (United States)

    Kim, Youngsook; Hong, Jae Won; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Sung-Woon; Cho, Yong-Wook; Kim, Jin Hwa; Kim, Byung-Joon; Lee, Eun Jig


    The administration of recombinant human growth hormone in adults with growth hormone deficiency has been known to improve metabolic impairment and quality of life. Patients, however, have to tolerate daily injections of growth hormone. The efficacy, safety, and compliance of weekly administered sustained-release recombinant human growth hormone (SR-rhGH, Declage™) supplement in patients with growth hormone deficiency were evaluated. This trial is 12-week prospective, single-arm, open-label trial. Men and women aged ≥20 years with diagnosed growth hormone deficiency (caused by pituitary tumor, trauma and other pituitary diseases) were eligible for this study. Each subject was given 2 mg (6 IU) of SR-rhGH once a week, subcutaneously for 12 weeks. Efficacy and safety at baseline and within 30 days after the 12th injection were assessed and compared. Score of Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (AGHDA score) for quality of life and serum IGF-1 level. The IGF-1 level of 108.67±74.03 ng/mL was increased to 129.01±68.37 ng/mL (p=0.0111) and the AGHDA QoL score was decreased from 9.80±6.51 to 7.55±5.76 (p<0.0001) at week 12 compared with those at baseline. Adverse events included pain, swelling, erythema, and warmth sensation at the administration site, but many adverse events gradually disappeared during the investigation. Weekly administered SR-rhGH for 12 weeks effectively increased IGF-1 level and improved the quality of life in patients with GH deficiency without serious adverse events.

  13. submitter Superconducting transmission lines – Sustainable electric energy transfer with higher public acceptance?

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Heiko; Chervyakov, Alexander; Stückrad, Stefan; Salmieri, Delia; Rubbia, Carlo


    Despite the extensive research and development investments into superconducting science and technology, both at the fundamental and at the applied levels, many benefits of superconducting transmission lines (SCTL) remain unknown to the public and decision makers at large. This paper aims at informing about the progress in this important research field. Superconducting transmission lines have a tremendous size advantage and lower total electrical losses for high capacity transmission plus a number of technological advantages compared to solutions based on standard conductors. This leads to a minimized environmental impact and enables an overall more sustainable transmission of electric energy. One of the direct benefits may be an increased public acceptance due to the low visual impact with a subsequent reduction of approval time. The access of remote renewable energy (RE) sources with high-capacity transmission is rendered possible with superior efficiency. That not only translates into further reducing $CO_2...

  14. Role of INFLIBNET in Growth and Development of Higher Education in India




    Indian higher education system is very large in the world. From the ancient period education was there, but after independent its growth and development is very high. Several school, colleges, research institutes and Universities are established by government and also private agencies. All these institutions all over the country to generate and disseminate knowledge coupled with the noble intention of providing easy access to higher education to the common Indian.

  15. Mathematical Model Research on Contribution of Higher Education to Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Dao


    Full Text Available This paper selects 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities of China and divides them into three areas with four indicators—economic output, physical capital input, labor input and education years in 2004 to 2013 as data samples and adopts the theory of aggregate production function and least square method to establish a mathematical model of the relationship between education and economic growth, and concludes the following conclusion: The rate of China’s education contribution towards economic growth is 9.82%. The economic growth rate of human capital level for education per capita in the eastern area is 11.513%, which is higher than the national average level, while the economic growth rate of education in the central and western area is respectively 9.221% and 5.479%, which is lower than the national average level.

  16. Integrating Sustainable Development in Higher Education through Experience-Based Learning: Insights from Experts in Team (EiT) for Developing a Combined Theoretical Framework (United States)

    Otte, Pia Piroschka


    Universities are understood to play an essential role in the promotion of sustainable development. However, the recognition of sustainable development in higher education poses multiple challenges to the traditional higher education system. This article introduces a course concept called "Experts in Teams" (EiT) as a new platform of…

  17. Assessment and Evaluation of Higher Education in Business Management: An Analysis of the Brazilian Case in the Light of Social Learning Theory for Sustainability (United States)

    Brunstein, Janette; Jaime, Pedro; Curi, Denise Pereira; d'Angelo, Marcia Juliana; Mainardes, Emerson Wagner


    This article presents an analysis of Brazilian National System of Higher Education Assessment (SINAES) in the light of social learning for sustainability theory. The aim is to contribute to the advancement of debates surrounding education for sustainability and the improvement of public policy evaluation in higher education. The analysis is…

  18. Sustainable treatment potential of mixed algal consortia for domestic waste water: Growth and mixotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Murthy


    Full Text Available The increasing levels of generation of nutrient-rich waste water pose serious challenge. Conventional biological and chemical methods of waste water treatment have failed in meeting sustainability challenges. Naturally occurring mixed algal species reared in mixotrophic growth modes have been deployed to recover nutrients (N and P from domestic wastewater after anaerobic digestion. In this paper, we present the results pertaining to growth and mixotrophy. Pilot-scale operation shows that the cultivation methods adopted and the use of naturally selected species lead to a tendency among these species to clump at certain stages of growth that in turn float or settle rapidly making algal harvest and thereby the nutrient recovery processes energy efficient. The highest settling rate was found to be 6.37 ± 1.6 g/m2/d. Mixotrophy was seen to contribute 15 – 24 % across the various algal consortia in wastewater (polyculture.

  19. Sustainability of population growth: a case study of urban settlements in Israel. (United States)

    Portnov, B A; Pearlmutter, D


    "One of the most sensitive criteria for gauging the degree of socio-economic prosperity of an urban settlement is the ability to sustain stable rates of population growth by attracting newcomers and retaining existing population. The present paper argues that after reaching a particular size (on the average, 20-30,000 residents), urban localities in Israel tend to experience substantial changes in components of their annual population growth. Starting with this inflection point, the growth of settlements gradually becomes less dependent on natural causes (birth and death rates) than on the ability to attract newcomers and retain current residents. On the basis of this conclusion, a strategy of ¿redirecting priorities' to developing the peripheral regions of the country is suggested." excerpt

  20. Sustainability of the Chinese economic growth: a review from the institutional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Galindo Farfán


    Full Text Available The evolution of Chinese economic growth correlates with more or less inclusive politic and economic institutions at different points of history. At 13 century, China stood as the most technologically advanced nation in the world, where economic institutions motivates innovation and trade. In 20th century China experienced some industrialization policy by the regime, the Great Leap Forward, while in the last three decades economic growth has been pushed by an abundant workforce, implementation of economic reforms aimed at the market and promotion of domestic consumption. However, China has driven its economic activity into an authoritarian context, political and economic constraints where we could assume that sustainability of Chinese economic model with high growth rates tends to stagnate in the coming years, if political reforms are not carried out.

  1. Combustion characteristics in oil-vaporizing sustained by radiant heat reflux enhanced with higher porous ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takuya Fuse; Yugo Araki; Noriyuki Kobayashi; Masanobu Hasatani [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering


    Liquid vaporizing combustion in porous ceramic burner has fine flame stability and characteristic of low emission. On the other hand, vaporization control has been seldom mentioned. In this work, kerosene vaporizing type combustor equipped with a porous ceramic plate, which has the porosity of 85%, is developed in order to enhance a rate of vaporization of the liquid fuel. The stability of combustion and NOx emission characteristics were investigated in fuel vaporizing ceramic combustion. The plate burner is made of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic which has an optical-thickness of 0.54. The optically thin ceramics improved flame stability and enhances more fuel vaporization rate than optically thick ceramics. The thermal radiation energy from flame and the furnace walls can penetrate easily through the large pore of the ceramic plate. It is found possible to dispense the electric power for the fuel vaporization and the stable combustion is self-sustained by enhancement of vaporization, where the reflux rate of radiant heat was no less than 2% of the heating value. 19 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Publication Growth in Biological Sub-Fields: Patterns, Predictability and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pautasso


    Full Text Available Biologists are producing ever-increasing quantities of papers. The question arises of whether current rates of increase in scientific outputs are sustainable in the long term. I studied this issue using publication data from the Web of Science (1991–2010 for 18 biological sub-fields. In the majority of cases, an exponential regression explains more variation than a linear one in the number of papers published each year as a function of publication year. Exponential growth in publication numbers is clearly not sustainable. About 75% of the variation in publication growth among biological sub-fields over the two studied decades can be predicted by publication data from the first six years. Currently trendy fields such as structural biology, neuroscience and biomaterials cannot be expected to carry on growing at the current pace, because in a few decades they would produce more papers than the whole of biology combined. Synthetic and systems biology are problematic from the point of view of knowledge dissemination, because in these fields more than 80% of existing papers have been published over the last five years. The evidence presented here casts a shadow on how sustainable the recent increase in scientific publications can be in the long term.

  3. Revitalizing Higher Education through Innovative Labor Market Based Curriculum for Sustainable National Development (United States)

    Alao, A. O.


    The role of higher education in preparing youths for the labour market is becoming more challenging in the modern society. This is visible in the high number of tertiary institutions' graduates that are unemployable for lack of necessary skills, which would make them contribute profitably to any employer of labour. This paper examines the history…

  4. Teaching Sustainable Development in Higher Education: Building Critical, Reflective Thinkers through an Interdisciplinary Approach (United States)

    Howlett, Cathy; Ferreira, Jo-Anne; Blomfield, Jessica


    Purpose: This paper aims to argue that substantive changes are required in both curricula and pedagogical practice in higher education institutions to challenge dominant epistemologies and discourses and to unsettle current ways of thinking about, and acting in relation to, the environment. Central to such a shift, it is argued, is the need for…

  5. "Low-Impact Communities" and Their Value to Experiential Education for Sustainability in Higher Education (United States)

    Cook, Robert; Cutting, Roger


    This paper reports on a year-long research project that investigated the value of experiential engagement with "alternative" communities which derive a high degree of self-reliance from working closely with their own local natural resources. Opportunities for higher education students to explore these communities were developed and the…

  6. Sustainable Internationalization in South Korean Higher Education: Languages and Cultures in a Foreign Professor's Course (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Young


    In recent decades, recruiting foreign professors (FPs) has become a noticeable trend at South Korean higher education institutions (HEIs) as they attempt to internationalize. However, little scholarly attention has been paid to the question of what is actually happening in classrooms as a result of this rapid influx of FPs and the associated…

  7. Integrated Water Resource Management: A Platform for Higher Education Institutions to Meet Complex Sustainability Challenges (United States)

    Powell, Neil; Larsen, Rasmus Kløcker


    Higher education institutions in Sweden are increasingly exposed to international market conditions and rising competition from a more mobile student body. This increases the need for universities to adapt to their social and economic environment and to their clients, including the political trends and financial opportunities in Sweden and EU, if…

  8. An expanded accounting framework for sustainable growth: Focus on the relationship between a focal firm and its stakeholders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taeyoung Yoo; Giseok Nam


    ... about relationships between a focal firm and its stakeholders. That is, we could more accurately assess the sustainability of a firm's profit and growth by considering both its financial outcomes and business relationships...

  9. Identification of microprocessor-dependent cancer cells allows screening for growth-sustaining micro-RNAs. (United States)

    Peric, D; Chvalova, K; Rousselet, G


    Micro-RNAs are deregulated in cancer cells, and some are either tumor suppressive or oncogenic. In addition, a link has been established between decreased expression of micro-RNAs and transformation, and several proteins of the RNA interference pathway have been shown to be haploinsufficient tumor suppressors. Oncogenic micro-RNAs (oncomiRs) could represent new therapeutic targets, and their identification is therefore crucial. However, structural and functional redundancy between micro-RNAs hampers approaches relying on individual micro-RNA inhibition. We reasoned that in cancer cells that depend on oncomiRs, impairing the micro-RNA pathway could lead to growth perturbation rather than increased tumorigenesis. Identifying such cells could allow functional analyses of individual micro-RNAs by complementation of the phenotypes observed upon global micro-RNA inhibition. Therefore, we developed episomal vectors coding for small hairpin RNAs targeting either Drosha or DGCR8, the two components of the microprocessor, the nuclear micro-RNA maturation complex. We identified cancer cell lines in which both vectors induced colony growth arrest. We then screened for individual micro-RNAs complementing this growth arrest, and identified miR-19a, miR-19b, miR-20a and miR-27b as major growth-sustaining micro-RNAs. However, the effect of miR-19a and miR-19b was only transient. In addition, embryonic stem cell-derived micro-RNAs with miR-20a seeds were much less efficient than miR-20a in sustaining cancer cell growth, a finding that contrasted with results obtained in stem cells. Finally, we showed that the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10, a shared target of miR-19 and miR-20, was functionally involved in the growth arrest induced by microprocessor inhibition. We conclude that our approach allowed to identify microprocessor-dependent cancer cells, which could be used to screen for growth-sustaining micro-RNAs. This complementation screen

  10. Assessing faculty professional development in STEM higher education: Sustainability of outcomes. (United States)

    Derting, Terry L; Ebert-May, Diane; Henkel, Timothy P; Maher, Jessica Middlemis; Arnold, Bryan; Passmore, Heather A


    We tested the effectiveness of Faculty Institutes for Reforming Science Teaching IV (FIRST), a professional development program for postdoctoral scholars, by conducting a study of program alumni. Faculty professional development programs are critical components of efforts to improve teaching and learning in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, but reliable evidence of the sustained impacts of these programs is lacking. We used a paired design in which we matched a FIRST alumnus employed in a tenure-track position with a non-FIRST faculty member at the same institution. The members of a pair taught courses that were of similar size and level. To determine whether teaching practices of FIRST participants were more learner-centered than those of non-FIRST faculty, we compared faculty perceptions of their teaching strategies, perceptions of environmental factors that influence teaching, and actual teaching practice. Non-FIRST and FIRST faculty reported similar perceptions of their teaching strategies and teaching environment. FIRST faculty reported using active learning and interactive engagement in lecture sessions more frequently compared with non-FIRST faculty. Ratings from external reviewers also documented that FIRST faculty taught class sessions that were learner-centered, contrasting with the teacher-centered class sessions of most non-FIRST faculty. Despite marked differences in teaching practice, FIRST and non-FIRST participants used assessments that targeted lower-level cognitive skills. Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of the FIRST program and the empirical utility of comparison groups, where groups are well matched and controlled for contextual variables (for example, departments), for evaluating the effectiveness of professional development for subsequent teaching practices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Ilie


    Full Text Available The paper proposes to review the main benchmarking criteria, based on the quality indicators used by the higher education institutions and to present new indicators of reference as a result of the inter-universities cooperation. Once these indicators are defined, a national database could be created and through benchmarking methods, there could be established the level of national performance of the educational system. Going forward and generalizing the process, we can compare the national educational system with the European one, using the benchmarking approach. The final purpose is that of establishing a group of universities who come together to explore opportunities for benchmarks and best practices sharing on common interest areas in order to create a „quality culture” for the Romanian higher education system

  12. The United States after the great recession: the challenge of sustainable growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltzer, Joshua [The Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies (United States); Steven, David (The Brookings Institution Center and the Center on International Cooperation at New York University (United States)); Langley, Claire (The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)


    The paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. economic growth model, assesses its’ ability to respond to the key economic, environmental and social challenges currently facing the U.S. and proposes policies that if adopted would move the U.S. onto a more sustainable growth path. The paper provides scenarios of projected future growth trajectories, as well as recommendations for specific policies in key areas: employment, infrastructure, energy and fiscal rebalancing. To reach this goal this paper focuses on four areas for action: Increasing employment, which is the most urgent priority to accelerate recovery from the Great Recession, while addressing underlying structural issues that have led to a decade of poor economic outcomes for most citizens; Investing in the future, as the key marker of whether the United States is prepared to make farsighted decisions to improve education, build new infrastructure and increase innovation; Maximizing an increased energy endowment in a way that grows the economy, while reinforcing the trend towards reducing resource demand and reducing greenhouse gas emissions; and, Fiscal rebalancing, where the United States must insulate economic recovery from the process of fiscal reform while reducing and stabilizing debt over the long term. Finally, we argue that President Obama can re-energize America’s global leadership if he builds on a platform of domestic actions that enhance the sustainability of America’s society and economy.

  13. Hard Times in Higher Education: The Closure of Subject Centres and the Implications for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chalkley


    Full Text Available Within many British Universities and, indeed, across higher education internationally, how best to provide education for sustainable development (ESD has become an increasingly important issue. There is now a widespread view that higher education sectors have a key part to play in preparing societies for the transition to a low carbon economy and the shift towards more sustainable ways of living and working. In the UK, a leading role in this field has been played by the Higher Education Academy and especially its network of 24 Subject Centres, each of which promotes curriculum enhancement in a particular discipline area. The mission of the Higher Education Academy has been to help raise the overall quality of the student learning experience across all disciplines and all Higher Education institutions (HEIs. As part of promoting and supporting many kinds of curriculum innovation and staff development, the HE Academy has championed the cause of ESD. Now, however, as a result of government spending cuts, the Academy is facing severe budget reductions and all its Subject Centres are soon to close. At this pivotal moment, the purpose of this paper is, therefore, to review the HE Academy’s past contribution to ESD and to explore the likely future implications of the demise of its Subject Centres. The paper ends by outlining some ideas as to how the ESD agenda might be advanced in the post-Subject Centre era, in the light of the Academy’s intention to support subject communities under its new structure. The paper has been developed through participation in key committees, engagement with Academy and Subject Centre staff, as well as through a literature review.

  14. Preferential lymphatic growth in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in sustained lung inflammation. (United States)

    Baluk, Peter; Adams, Alicia; Phillips, Keeley; Feng, Jennifer; Hong, Young-Kwon; Brown, Mary B; McDonald, Donald M


    Lymphatics proliferate, become enlarged, or regress in multiple inflammatory lung diseases in humans. Lymphatic growth and remodeling is known to occur in the mouse trachea in sustained inflammation, but whether intrapulmonary lymphatics exhibit similar plasticity is unknown. We examined the time course, distribution, and dependence on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2/VEGFR-3 signaling of lung lymphatics in sustained inflammation. Lymphatics in mouse lungs were examined under baseline conditions and 3 to 28 days after Mycoplasma pulmonis infection, using prospero heomeobox 1-enhanced green fluorescence protein and VEGFR-3 as markers. Sprouting lymphangiogenesis was evident at 7 days. Lymphatic growth was restricted to regions of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), where VEGF-C-producing cells were scattered in T-cell zones. Expansion of lung lymphatics after infection was reduced 68% by blocking VEGFR-2, 83% by blocking VEGFR-3, and 99% by blocking both receptors. Inhibition of VEGFR-2/VEGFR-3 did not prevent the formation of BALT. Treatment of established infection with oxytetracycline caused BALT, but not the lymphatics, to regress. We conclude that robust lymphangiogenesis occurs in mouse lungs after M. pulmonis infection through a mechanism involving signaling of both VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. Expansion of the lymphatic network is restricted to regions of BALT, but lymphatics do not regress when BALT regresses after antibiotic treatment. The lung lymphatic network can thus expand in sustained inflammation, but the expansion is not as reversible as the accompanying inflammation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Plant species richness sustains higher trophic levels of soil nematode communities after consecutive environmental perturbations. (United States)

    Cesarz, Simone; Ciobanu, Marcel; Wright, Alexandra J; Ebeling, Anne; Vogel, Anja; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Eisenhauer, Nico


    The magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events are predicted to increase in the future due to ongoing climate change. In particular, floods and droughts resulting from climate change are thought to alter the ecosystem functions and stability. However, knowledge of the effects of these weather events on soil fauna is scarce, although they are key towards functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Plant species richness has been shown to affect the stability of ecosystem functions and food webs. Here, we used the occurrence of a natural flood in a biodiversity grassland experiment that was followed by a simulated summer drought experiment, to investigate the interactive effects of plant species richness, a natural flood, and a subsequent summer drought on nematode communities. Three and five months after the natural flooding, effects of flooding severity were still detectable in the belowground system. We found that flooding severity decreased soil nematode food-web structure (loss of K-strategists) and the abundance of plant feeding nematodes. However, high plant species richness maintained higher diversity and abundance of higher trophic levels compared to monocultures throughout the flood. The subsequent summer drought seemed to be of lower importance but reversed negative flooding effects in some cases. This probably occurred because the studied grassland system is well adapted to drought, or because drought conditions alleviated the negative impact of long-term soil waterlogging. Using soil nematodes as indicator taxa, this study suggests that high plant species richness can maintain soil food web complexity after consecutive environmental perturbations.

  16. The importance of training for sustainable growth: Example of Six Sigma implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastasić Aleksandra P.


    Full Text Available Improvement of the business environment, education and training are the basis for sustainable growth. Implementation of Six Sigma (6σ concept and appropriate techniques and tools for quality management contribute to the efficiency and effectiveness of the business as a whole, in a manner that organization achieves and maintains competitive advantage by reducing process variability, costs of scraps, price and need for control, shortening production cycle and increasing product quality, customer satisfaction and profit. Successful implementation of Six Sigma (6σ concept requires involvement of all employees and appropriate level of training.

  17. How can maritime spatial planning contribute to sustainable Blue Growth in the Baltic Sea?


    Tarvainen, Hanna; Tolvanen, Harri; Repka, Sari


    The sea and the coasts are drivers of Europe’s economy as many of the economic activities as well as large part of trade depend on the sea. At the European level there is strong political pressure to enhance the growth of maritime economy sectors. The European Union has developed the Integrated Maritime Policy to support the sustainable development of the seas and oceans. The aim is to reach a good environmental status of European seas by 2020. The value of this study is to provi...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina BADICU


    Full Text Available The Republic of Moldova has, de facto, joined the Bologna Process in 2005,and startingwith this year multiple reforms in the higher education realm have been peformed. One primary aspect deals with the financial autonomy of the universities. The lack of an adequate financial support from the government was offset by the introduction of paid studies, which allowed universities to survive under government underfunding conditions and to independently manage their financial resources gained from tuition fees. In order to determine the adequate level of funding a tool for identifying the real training costs is required. In this article, we aim to investigate the pros and cons of the method of activity-based costing.

  19. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat (United States)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  20. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective. (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Vanthournout, Gert; Van Petegem, Peter


    The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  1. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesje Coertjens

    Full Text Available The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  2. Orientation-specific responses to sustained uniaxial stretching in focal adhesion growth and turnover (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Pasapera, Ana M.; Koretsky, Alan P.; Waterman, Clare M.


    Cells are mechanosensitive to extracellular matrix (ECM) deformation, which can be caused by muscle contraction or changes in hydrostatic pressure. Focal adhesions (FAs) mediate the linkage between the cell and the ECM and initiate mechanically stimulated signaling events. We developed a stretching apparatus in which cells grown on fibronectin-coated elastic substrates can be stretched and imaged live to study how FAs dynamically respond to ECM deformation. Human bone osteosarcoma epithelial cell line U2OS was transfected with GFP-paxillin as an FA marker and subjected to sustained uniaxial stretching. Two responses at different timescales were observed: rapid FA growth within seconds after stretching, and delayed FA disassembly and loss of cell polarity that occurred over tens of minutes. Rapid FA growth occurred in all cells; however, delayed responses to stretch occurred in an orientation-specific manner, specifically in cells with their long axes perpendicular to the stretching direction, but not in cells with their long axes parallel to stretch. Pharmacological treatments demonstrated that FA kinase (FAK) promotes but Src inhibits rapid FA growth, whereas FAK, Src, and calpain 2 all contribute to delayed FA disassembly and loss of polarity in cells perpendicular to stretching. Immunostaining for phospho-FAK after stretching revealed that FAK activation was maximal at 5 s after stretching, specifically in FAs oriented perpendicular to stretch. We hypothesize that orientation-specific activation of strain/stress-sensitive proteins in FAs upstream to FAK and Src promote orientation-specific responses in FA growth and disassembly that mediate polarity rearrangement in response to sustained stretch. PMID:23754369

  3. Furthering knowledge of seaweed growth and development to facilitate sustainable aquaculture. (United States)

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Abreu, Maria Helena; Araujo, Rita; Bruhn, Annette; Coates, Juliet C; De Clerck, Olivier; Katsaros, Christos; Robaina, Rafael R; Wichard, Thomas


    Macroalgae (seaweeds) are the subject of increasing interest for their potential as a source of valuable, sustainable biomass in the food, feed, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Compared with microalgae, the pace of knowledge acquisition in seaweeds is slower despite the availability of whole-genome sequences and model organisms for the major seaweed groups. This is partly a consequence of specific hurdles related to the large size of these organisms and their slow growth. As a result, this basic scientific field is falling behind, despite the societal and economic importance of these organisms. Here, we argue that sustainable management of seaweed aquaculture requires fundamental understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms controlling macroalgal life cycles - from the production of germ cells to the growth and fertility of the adult organisms - using diverse approaches requiring a broad range of technological tools. This Viewpoint highlights several examples of basic research on macroalgal developmental biology that could enable the step-changes which are required to adequately meet the demands of the aquaculture sector. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Four Sustainability Goals in a Swedish Low-Growth/Degrowth Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eléonore Fauré


    Full Text Available Continual environmental degradation and an unfair distribution of environmental burdens and benefits are two great challenges for humanity. Economic growth is often taken for granted when planning for the future. However, it is often argued that maintaining economic growth conflicts with keeping human activities adjusted to ecological boundaries and finite resources, at least for the more-developed countries. With this paper, we present sustainability goals for building and planning in Sweden to be achieved by 2050 in a context of limited or even negative economic growth. These goals should ensure that all groups in society have sufficient resources and a good life within planetary boundaries. We select four goals in a participatory process: two environmental goals related to climate change and land use and two social goals related to welfare and participation. Our results show that achieving the environmental goals will require significant reductions of Sweden’s greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and land use compared to today’s levels. Regarding the social goals, these are, in many aspects, reasonably well fulfilled in Sweden today, although disparities remain between groups of citizens. The main challenge, however, is to ensure that these goals are fulfilled even within environmental limits and if economic growth should halt.

  5. The Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability (GUPES): Networking of Higher Educational Institutions in Facilitating Implementation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development 2005-2014 (United States)

    Pradhan, Mahesh; Mariam, Ayombi


    This article will focus on involvement of Higher Education Institutions in promoting Education for Sustainable Development through UNEPs flagship programme Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability. To achieve this, the activities of the network are centered on three pillars: Education, Training and Networking.

  6. Higher maternal education is associated with favourable growth of young children in different countries (United States)

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianduan; Koch, Felix S; Marcus, Claude; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ong, Ken K; Sobko, Tanja


    Background Childhood growth affects long-term health and could contribute to health inequalities that persist throughout life. Methods We compared growth data of 4-6 year old children born 1997-2002 in UK (n=15,168), Sweden (n=6,749) and rural China (n=10,327). Standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated against the WHO Standard. Obesity and overweight were defined by International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs, and stunting, underweight and thinness by height, weight or BMI < −2 SDS. Associations with maternal education were standardised by calculating the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). Results Mean SDS height, weight and BMI in UK (−0.01; 0.42; 0.62, respectively) and Sweden (0.45; 0.59; 0.45) were higher than in China (−0.98, −0.82, −0.29). Higher maternal education was consistently associated with taller offspring height SDS (SII: UK 0.25; Sweden 0.17; China 1.06). Underweight and stunting were less common in UK (prevalence: 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively) and Sweden (0.3% and 0.6%) than in China (9.5% and 16.4%), where these outcomes were inversely associated with maternal education (SII: −25.8% and −12.7%). Obesity prevalence in UK, Sweden and China was 4.8%, 3.7% and 0.4%, respectively. Maternal education was inversely associated with offspring obesity in UK (SII: −3.3%) and Sweden (−2.8%), but not in China (+0.3%). Conclusions Higher maternal education was associated with more favourable growth in young children: lower obesity and overweight in UK and Sweden, and lower stunting and underweight in rural China. Public health strategies to optimize growth in early childhood need to acknowledge socioeconomic factors, but possibly with a different emphasis in different settings. PMID:23450064

  7. Personal growth initiative among Industrial Psychology students in a higher education institution in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique de Jager-van Straaten


    Full Text Available Orientation: Personal growth initiative (PGI is an important characteristic of workplace counsellors. Industrial and organisational (I-O psychologists often assist employees with counselling for work-related and personal problems, and therefore PGI is an important research topic for this profession.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the PGI of I-O psychology students in a higher education institution in South Africa, as well as to explore differences in PGI between demographic groups.Motivation: According to the scope of practice for psychologists, growth and development of employees form part of an I-O psychologist’s responsibilities. PGI is an important characteristic of I-O psychologists as it enables them to efficiently assist employees in growth and development processes.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. A purposive non-probability sample (N = 568 of I-O psychology students was taken from a higher education institution in South Africa. A biographical questionnaire and the personal growth initiative scale (PGIS were used as measuring instruments.Main findings: The results indicated that (1 the PGIS is a valid and reliable measure of PGI, (2 PGI is prevalent amongst I-O psychology students and (3 PGI differs between certain demographic groups.Practical implications: The findings of this study will assist in the future development of a training programme for I-O psychology students to equip them with the counselling skills they need to function in a counselling role.Contribution: This study contributes to knowledge regarding the importance of PGI for I-O psychology students. The study will also assist higher education institutes to adapt their training programmes in order to prepare I-O psychology students for their role as counsellors. More knowledge will also be provided with regard to the functioning of the PGIS.

  8. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros


    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators too. The research presented in this paper validates…

  9. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.


    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  10. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Madenjian

    Full Text Available Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  11. The Roles of Public Higher Education Expenditure and the Privatization of the Higher Education on U.S. States Economic Growth (United States)

    Curs, Bradley R.; Bhandari, Bornali; Steiger, Christina


    Previous empirical literature finds that government expenditure on higher education has a negative, or null, effect on U.S. economic growth rates. This empirical result may be driven by omission of an important variable--the privatization of higher education. Using state-level panel data from 1970 to 2005, this analysis investigates whether the…

  12. Higher temperature variability reduces temperature sensitivity of vegetation growth in Northern Hemisphere (United States)

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoyan; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Guo, Weichao; Yin, Yi; Poulter, Ben; Peng, Changhui; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Wang, Pei; Huang, Yongmei


    Interannual air temperature variability has changed over some regions in Northern Hemisphere (NH), accompanying with climate warming. However, whether and to what extent it regulates the interannual sensitivity of vegetation growth to temperature variability (i.e., interannual temperature sensitivity)—one central issue in understanding and predicting the responses of vegetation growth to changing climate—still remains poorly quantified and understood. Here we quantify the relationships between the interannual temperature sensitivity of mean growing-season (April-October) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and ecosystem model simulations of gross primary productivity (GPP), and variability in mean growing-season temperature for forest, shrub, and grass over NH. We find that higher interannual variability in mean growing-season temperature leads to consistent decrease in interannual temperature sensitivity of mean growing-season NDVI among all vegetation types but not in model simulations of GPP. Drier condition associates with 130 ± 150% further decrease in interannual temperature sensitivity of mean growing-season NDVI by temperature variability in forest and shrub. These results illustrate that varying temperature variability can significantly regulate the interannual temperature sensitivity of vegetation growth over NH, interacted with drought variability and nonlinear responses of photosynthesis to temperature. Our findings call for an improved characterization of the nonlinear effects of temperature variability on vegetation growth within global ecosystem models.

  13. Ethnography of a Sustainable Agriculture Program: A Case Study of a Social Movement's Inception and Growth on a University Campus (United States)

    Triana, Benjamin


    This ethnography documents how the message of sustainability was interpreted and communicated through a sustainable agricultural (SAG) program at an American higher education institution. The ethnography documents the evolution of the program as the program tackled obstacles and accomplished its goals during the initial phases of the program's…

  14. The Worldwide Growth of Private Higher Education: Cross-National Patterns of Higher Education Institution Foundings by Sector (United States)

    Buckner, Elizabeth


    This article investigates cross-national patterns of public and private higher education institution (HEI) foundings from 1960 to 2006. It argues that in addition to national demographic and economic factors, patterns of HEI foundings also reflect world-level models about how nations should structure their higher education systems. Findings…

  15. Sustaining the Higher Education Hub Model: The Challenge of Adequate Academic and Social Support Structures for International Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Richards


    Full Text Available In recent years, the Education Hub (EH concept has perhaps become the single most important focus of higher education policy in most Asian countries. A particular Asian Education Hub model (e.g. Cheng, 2010 is now globally influential with its emphasis on how governments can harness direct as well as indirect economic benefits of a higher education system. Such a model aims to prepare students for employment in an emerging global economy and also to attract fee-paying international students in terms of education as not just a public good but a key and increasingly important area of national investment and economic development. In a related paper which focused on a comparison between distinct Malaysian and Singaporean versions of Asian EH l models developed over the last two decades (Richards, 2011c, we investigated the dangers as well as opportunities at stake. In this paper, we investigate the linked idea that sufficient academic and social support structures for supporting international as well as local students provide the crucial key to the factors of sustainability needed to support the various versions of the general strategy of Higher Education internationalisation.

  16. Sustained delivery of vincristine inside an orthotopic mouse sarcoma model decreases tumor growth. (United States)

    Harris, Jamie C; Coburn, Jeannine M; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Kaplan, David L; Chiu, Bill


    Sarcoma accounts for 20% of solid tumors in children. Surgery has significant morbidity. We hypothesized that delivering chemotherapy directly into tumors through sustained release silk systems could slow tumor growth. Human Ewing sarcoma cells A673 were cultured with vincristine and doxorubicin to determine half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). Cells were injected into mouse hind leg to create orthotopic tumors. Tumor volumes were measured using ultrasound. When volume reached >250mm(3,) interventions included: implantation of drug-free silk foam (Control-F), doxorubicin 400μg foam (Dox400-F), vincristine 50μg foam (Vin50-F), drug-free silk gel (Control-G), vincristine 50μg gel (Vin50-G), or single dose intravenous vincristine 50μg (Vin50-IV). End-point was volume>1000mm(3). Kaplan Meier and ANOVA were used. IC50 for vincristine and doxorubicin was 0.5ng/mL and 200ng/mL, respectively. There was no difference between Dox400-F [6±1days to end point (DTEP)] and Control-F (5±1.3 DTEP). Vin50-F (12.4±3.5 DTEP) had slower growth compared to Control-F (pinside the sarcoma tumor with silk gel decreased tumor growth. Applying this intratumoral treatment strategy may potentially decrease the extent of surgical excision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space (United States)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin


    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  18. Higher educational system of the Republic of Serbia in support of sustainable development: Challenges of the EU integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujičić Milica


    Full Text Available The paper examines the system of higher education in the Republic of Serbia in the context of educational paradigms and the development of the innovation and knowledge-based national economy. The subject of the research is higher education in Serbia in a life-long learning perspective as an essential component in achieving smart growth, capable enough to become a competent part of the European Higher Education Area. The aim of this paper is to examine the current situation in this area and the achievements of the new Strategy for Development of Education in Serbia by 2020 in the context of the expansion of higher education on the global level, as well as to emphasize the responsibility towards future generations for development of a more modern system of education based on the creativity of all participants in the learning process. In conclusion, the paper points out that the developmental orientation of educational system in the Republic of Serbia is building a new model of higher education.

  19. Sustainable Development in Higher Education: Current Practice and Future Development: A Case Study of University of Calabar-Nigeria (United States)

    Ajake, Uchenna E.; Omori, Anne E.; Essien, Margaret


    The study highlighted the Nigerian Universities' new sustainable development strategies: emphasizes the role that entrepreneurship education can play in both raising awareness among young people about sustainable development and giving them the skills to put sustainable development into practice. Universities place priority on the development of…

  20. Organizational resilience: Sustained institutional effectiveness among smaller, private, non-profit US higher education institutions experiencing organizational decline. (United States)

    Moran, Kenneth A


    analysis was used to examine the direct and interaction effects between organizational decline, organizational rigidity response, organizational resilience response, and institutional effectiveness, controlling for age of institution and level of endowment. The study validated previous threat-rigidity response findings that organizational decline alone does not adversely impact institutional effectiveness. The direct effect of Goal-Directed Solution Seeking and Role Dependency organizational resilience factors had a positive, significant correlation with the Student Personal Development institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Goal-Directed Solution Seeking organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Professional Development and Quality of Faculty institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Avoidance during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Faculty and Administrator Employment Satisfaction institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Diminished Innovation, Morale, and Leader Credibility rigidity response factor and Avoidance organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Professional Development and Quality of Faculty institutional effectiveness factor. Lastly, the interactive effect of Increased Scapegoating of Leaders, Interest group Activities, and Conflict rigidity response factor and Avoidance organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Faculty and Administrator Employment Satisfaction institutional effectiveness factor. Factors of organizational resilience were found to have a positive effect among smaller, private non-profit higher educational institutions associated with this study toward sustaining institutional effectiveness during organizational decline. Specifically, the

  1. Transcription controls growth, cell kinetics and cholesterol supply to sustain ACTH responses. (United States)

    Menzies, Robert I; Zhao, Xin; Mullins, Linda J; Mullins, John J; Cairns, Carolynn; Wrobel, Nicola; Dunbar, Donald R; Bailey, Matthew A; Kenyon, Christopher J


    Chronic ACTH exposure is associated with adrenal hypertrophy and steroidogenesis. The underlying molecular processes in mice have been analysed by microarray, histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Synacthen infused for 2 weeks markedly increased adrenal mass and plasma corticosterone levels. Microarray analysis found greater than 2-fold changes in expression of 928 genes (P change in cell proliferation. Growth arrest genes, Cdkn1a and Cdkn1c, which are known to be active in hypertrophied cells, were increased >4-fold and cross-sectional area of fasciculata cells was 2-fold greater. In contrast, genes associated with apoptosis (eg Casp12, Clu,) were downregulated and apoptotic cells (Tunel staining) were fewer (P sustained by genes controlling cholesterol supply and adrenal mass. ACTH effects on adrenal morphology and genes controlling cell hypertrophy, proliferation and apoptosis suggest the involvement of different cell types and separate molecular pathways. © 2017 The authors.

  2. Synthesis of multilayered alginate microcapsules for the sustained release of fibroblast growth factor-1 (United States)

    Khanna, Omaditya; Moya, Monica L; Opara, Emmanuel C; Brey, Eric M


    Alginate microcapsules coated with a permselective poly-L-ornithine (PLO) membrane have been investigated for the encapsulation and transplantation of islets as a treatment for type 1 diabetes. The therapeutic potential of this approach could be improved through local stimulation of microvascular networks in order to meet mass transport demands of the encapsulated cells. Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) is a potent angiogenic factor with optimal effect occurring when it is delivered in a sustained manner. In this paper, a technique is described for the generation of multilayered alginate microcapsules with an outer alginate layer that can be used for the delivery of FGF-1. The influence of alginate concentration and composition (high mannuronic acid (M) or guluronic acid (G) content) on outer layer size and stability, protein encapsulation efficiency, and release kinetics was investigated. The technique results in a stable outer layer of alginate with a mean thickness between 113–164 µm, increasing with alginate concentration and G-content. The outer layer was able to encapsulate and release FGF-1 for up to thirty days, with 1.25% of high G alginate displaying the most sustained release. The released FGF-1 retained its biologic activity in the presence of heparin, and the addition of the outer layer did not alter the permselectivity of the PLO coat. This technique could be used to generate encapsulation systems that deliver proteins to stimulate local neovascularization around encapsulated islets. PMID:20725969

  3. Calcium-Alginate Hydrogel-Encapsulated Fibroblasts Provide Sustained Release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (United States)

    Hunt, Nicola C.; Shelton, Richard M.; Henderson, Deborah J.


    Vascularization of engineered or damaged tissues is essential to maintain cell viability and proper tissue function. Revascularization of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart after myocardial infarction is particularly important, since hypoxia can give rise to chronic heart failure due to inappropriate remodeling of the LV after death of cardiomyocytes (CMs). Fibroblasts can express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which plays a major role in angiogenesis and also acts as a chemoattractant and survival factor for CMs and cardiac progenitors. In this in vitro model study, mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts encapsulated in 2% w/v Ca-alginate were shown to remain viable for 150 days. Semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that over 21 days of encapsulation, fibroblasts continued to express VEGF, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that there was sustained release of VEGF from the Ca-alginate during this period. The scaffold degraded gradually over the 21 days, without reduction in volume. Cells released from the Ca-alginate at 7 and 21 days as a result of scaffold degradation were shown to retain viability, to adhere to fibronectin in a normal manner, and continue to express VEGF, demonstrating their potential to further contribute to maintenance of cardiac function after scaffold degradation. This model in vitro study therefore demonstrates that fibroblasts encapsulated in Ca-alginate provide sustained release of VEGF. PMID:23082964

  4. Open Innovation Projects in SMEs as an Engine for Sustainable Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungun Yoon


    Full Text Available Most innovation activities that are inevitable for sustainable growth are coordinated via research and development (R&D projects, which can differ widely in terms of both project and open innovation characteristics, even when conducted within the same firm. Therefore, it is important to consider the peculiarities of R&D projects when evaluating the performance of open innovation strategies, as well as to explore how the benefits and costs of open innovation are shaped by cross-level interactions. This study identifies the differences between successful and unsuccessful open innovation projects, in both firm-level and project-level terms. We focus on small and medium enterprises (SMEs, which usually lack the full set of internal resources and competences required to effectively develop, produce, and commercialize their innovations, and thus must adopt open innovation approaches more actively for sustainability. Adopting an empirical approach, we conducted a survey of 517 Korean SMEs and analyzed 241 successful and unsuccessful open innovation projects in depth. By combining measurements at the firm and project levels, this study provides new insight into the intra-organizational challenges of implementing open innovation projects, which are not only helpful to strategic decision-makers in SMEs, but also to those who make policies for them.

  5. Revitalization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sustainable development in agriculture. (United States)

    Gouda, Sushanto; Kerry, Rout George; Das, Gitishree; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar


    The progression of life in all forms is not only dependent on agricultural and food security but also on the soil characteristics. The dynamic nature of soil is a direct manifestation of soil microbes, bio-mineralization, and synergistic co-evolution with plants. With the increase in world's population the demand for agriculture yield has increased tremendously and thereby leading to large scale production of chemical fertilizers. Since the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural fields have caused degradation of soil quality and fertility, thus the expansion of agricultural land with fertile soil is near impossible, hence researchers and scientists have sifted their attention for a safer and productive means of agricultural practices. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been functioning as a co-evolution between plants and microbes showing antagonistic and synergistic interactions with microorganisms and the soil. Microbial revitalization using plant growth promoters had been achieved through direct and indirect approaches like bio-fertilization, invigorating root growth, rhizoremediation, disease resistance etc. Although, there are a wide variety of PGPR and its allies, their role and usages for sustainable agriculture remains controversial and restricted. There is also variability in the performance of PGPR that may be due to various environmental factors that might affect their growth and proliferation in the plants. These gaps and limitations can be addressed through use of modern approaches and techniques such as nano-encapsulation and micro-encapsulation along with exploring multidisciplinary research that combines applications in biotechnology, nanotechnology, agro biotechnology, chemical engineering and material science and bringing together different ecological and functional biological approaches to provide new formulations and opportunities with immense potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Is rapid growth in Internet usage environmentally sustainable for Australia? An empirical investigation. (United States)

    Salahuddin, Mohammad; Alam, Khorshed; Ozturk, Ilhan


    This study estimates the short- and long-run effects of Internet usage and economic growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using annual time series macro data for Australia for the period 1985-2012. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bounds and Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration tests are applied. ARDL estimates indicate no significant long-run relationship between Internet usage and CO2 emissions, which implies that the rapid growth in Internet usage is still not an environmental threat for Australia. The study further indicates that higher level of economic growth is associated with lower level of CO2 emissions; however, Internet usage and economic growth have no significant short-run relationship with CO2 emissions. Financial development has both short-run and long-run significant positive association with CO2 emissions. The findings offer support in favor of energy efficiency gains and a reduction in energy intensity in Australia. However, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that Internet usage, economic growth and financial development will continue to impact CO2 emissions in the future, and as such, this study recommends that in addition to the existing measures to combat CO2 emissions, Australia needs to exploit the potential of the Internet not only to reduce its own carbon footprint but also to utilize information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled emissions abatement potential to reduce emissions in various other sectors across the economy, such as, power, renewable energy especially in solar and wind energy, agriculture, transport and service.

  7. Meeting the Sustainable Development Goals leads to lower world population growth. (United States)

    Abel, Guy J; Barakat, Bilal; Kc, Samir; Lutz, Wolfgang


    Here we show the extent to which the expected world population growth could be lowered by successfully implementing the recently agreed-upon Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs include specific quantitative targets on mortality, reproductive health, and education for all girls by 2030, measures that will directly and indirectly affect future demographic trends. Based on a multidimensional model of population dynamics that stratifies national populations by age, sex, and level of education with educational fertility and mortality differentials, we translate these goals into SDG population scenarios, resulting in population sizes between 8.2 and 8.7 billion in 2100. Because these results lie outside the 95% prediction range given by the 2015 United Nations probabilistic population projections, we complement the study with sensitivity analyses of these projections that suggest that those prediction intervals are too narrow because of uncertainty in baseline data, conservative assumptions on correlations, and the possibility of new policies influencing these trends. Although the analysis presented here rests on several assumptions about the implementation of the SDGs and the persistence of educational, fertility, and mortality differentials, it quantitatively illustrates the view that demography is not destiny and that policies can make a decisive difference. In particular, advances in female education and reproductive health can contribute greatly to reducing world population growth.

  8. Sustaining intrinsic growth capacity of adult neurons promotes spinal cord regeneration (United States)

    Neumann, Simona; Skinner, Kate; Basbaum, Allan I.


    The peripheral axonal branch of primary sensory neurons readily regenerates after peripheral nerve injury, but the central branch, which courses in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, does not. However, if a peripheral nerve is transected before a spinal cord injury, sensory neurons that course in the dorsal columns will regenerate, presumably because their intrinsic growth capacity is enhanced by the priming peripheral nerve lesion. As the effective priming lesion is made before the spinal cord injury it would clearly have no clinical utility, and unfortunately, a priming lesion made after a spinal cord injury results in an abortive regenerative response. Here, we show that two priming lesions, one made at the time of a spinal cord injury and a second 1 week after a spinal cord injury, in fact, promote dramatic regeneration, within and beyond the lesion. The first lesion, we hypothesize, enhances intrinsic growth capacity, and the second one sustains it, providing a paradigm for promoting CNS regeneration after injury. primary afferents | dorsal columns | neurite outgrowth | sprouting | priming

  9. How to stop the snowball growth? A way for sustaining public debt over generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina Ion-Lucian


    Full Text Available Why public debts are growing so fast in most developing countries, like a dangerous snowball which is growing and growing and no one can stop it? It is only a negative relation between high debt and real growth of economy? How can we definitively remove the Ricardian anxiety which called debt a “terrible scourge”? These are only few questions asked in the last century in relation with debt “overhang” not only by scholars, but by governments as well. This paper aims to answer to other questions like: Why debt’s rate grows faster than GDP? Why governments borrow? For current spending or for public investments? Who should benefits current loans? Who should pay for them and when? How should be the taxation along the economic cycle: neutral or countercyclical? Need we a model to sustain the public debt over generations, or it is good enough to maintain a good ration between real GDP growth and debt and that’s it?

  10. Predicting the Performance and Survival of Islamic Banks in Malaysia to Achieve Growth Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazuin Sapuan Noraina


    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the growth of the Islamic financial industry has increased tremendously in line with the Government’s ambition to make Malaysia as an international hub for Islamic finance since 2010. With the increasing number of foreign players in this industry plus with the increasing demand from domestic and foreign customers would further enhance the possibility for Malaysia to achieve this ambition. Currently, according to the Economic Transformation Programme, 2012 Malaysia is the world’s third largest market for Shariah assets that cover Islamic banks, Takaful, and sukuk. Malaysia as one of the main contributors to the global Islamic financial assets with Islamic assets in Malaysia grew by 23.8% in 2011 from RM350.8bil to RM434.6bil. The issues of predicting the performance and the survival of Islamic Banks in Malaysia become amongst crucial issues in academic research. By employing multi – layer perceptron neural network and pooled regression, we found that total assets/ size of the Islamic banks (GROWTH have high weightage and significantly influence in predicting the performance and the survival of Islamic banks in Malaysia. With the increasing number of Islamic banking institutions in Malaysia, this study can give insight on the sustainability of the Islamic banking system in Malaysia for the benefit of the investors, shareholder and depositors.

  11. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels (United States)

    Santarius, Tilman


    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  12. Higher biomass productivity of microalgae in an attached growth system, using wastewater. (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Oh, Hee-Mock; Jo, Beom-Ho; Lee, Sang-A; Shin, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hee-Sik; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Ahn, Chi-Yong


    Although most algae cultivation systems are operated in suspended culture, an attached growth system can offer several advantages over suspended systems. Algal cultivation becomes light-limited as the microalgal concentration increases in the suspended system; on the other hand, sunlight penetrates deeper and stronger in attached systems owing to the more transparent water. Such higher availability of sunlight makes it possible to operate a raceway pond deeper than usual, resulting in a higher areal productivity. The attached system achieved 2.8-times higher biomass productivity and total lipid productivity of 9.1 g m(-2) day(-1) and 1.9 g m(-2) day(-1), respectively, than the suspended system. Biomass productivity can be further increased by optimization of the culture conditions. Moreover, algal biomass harvesting and dewatering were made simpler and cheaper in attached systems, because mesh-type substrates with attached microalgae were easily removed from the culture and the remaining treated wastewater could be discharged directly. When the algal biomass was dewatered using natural sunlight, the palmitic acid (C16:0) content increased by 16% compared with the freeze-drying method. There was no great difference in other fatty acid composition. Therefore, the attached system for algal cultivation is a promising cultivation system for mass biodiesel production.

  13. A sustainable start. Towards sustainable ICT in higher education and research; Een duurzame start. Op weg naar duurzame ICT in het hoger onderwijs en onderzoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmholt, K.A.; Bomhof, F.W. [TNO Informatie- en Communicatie Technologie, Delft (Netherlands)


    This document has listed a number of general considerations with regard to sustainability and addresses the more specific situation of the educational institutions: relatively large use of computer equipment and the presence of large groups of people that cannot be considered 'employees'. This document sets out to sketch a wide framework and subsequently focuses on the working environment of an I(C)T manager of a large educational institute who has been given the assignment of making ICT more sustainable. Attention is paid to questions such as: when is ICT sustainable?; how can you measure/account for the sustainability of ICT?; and what are current methods/measures for realizing sustainability of/with ICT?. [Dutch] In dit document wordt een aantal algemene overwegingen m.b.t. duurzaamheid op een rij gezet en wordt ingegaan op de specifiekere situatie waarin onderwijsinstellingen zich bevinden: het gebruik van relatief veel computerapparatuur, en de aanwezigheid van grote groepen mensen die niet als 'werknemer' beschouwd kunnen worden. Dit document begint met het schetsen van een groot kader en focust vervolgens meer in op de werkomgeving van een I(C)T-manager van een grote onderwijsinstelling die de opdracht krijgt 'de ICT duurzaam te maken'. Daarbij is aandacht besteed aan antwoorden op de volgende vragen: wanneer is ICT duurzaam?; hoe kun je de duurzaamheid van ICT meten/verantwoorden?; en wat zijn huidige methoden/maatregelen om duurzaamheid van en met ICT bereiken?.

  14. Increased Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness and Higher Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Levels after Fetal Growth Restriction. (United States)

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Vollsæter, Maria; Ueland, Per M; Markestad, Trond; Øymar, Knut; Halvorsen, Thomas


    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), a feature of asthma, is observed in preterm-born children and has been linked to intrauterine growth restriction. BHR is mediated via airway smooth muscle tone and is modulated by the autonomic nervous system, nitric oxide, and airway inflammation. Interactions among these factors are insufficiently understood. Methacholine-induced BHR (Met-BHR), fractional exhaled NO, and systemic soluble markers of nitric oxide metabolism and inflammation were determined in a population-based sample of 57 eleven-year-old children born extremely preterm (gestational age [GA] < 28 wk) or with extremely low birth weight (<1,000 g), and in a matched normal-birth weight term-born control group (n = 54). Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was defined as the need for oxygen treatment at a GA of 36 weeks. In preterm-born children, birth weight below the 10th percentile for GA was associated with increased Met-BHR and higher plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), with an increased odds ratio for being in the upper tertile of Met-BHR (11.8; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-42.4) and of ADMA (5.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-20.3). Met-BHR was correlated to ADMA level (r = 0.27, P = 0.007). There were no significant differences in Met-BHR, fractional exhaled NO, or z-FEV1 according to BPD status. No associations with systemic soluble markers of inflammation were observed for Met-BHR, birth, or BPD status. Intrauterine growth restriction in preterm-born children was associated with substantially increased Met-BHR and higher ADMA levels, suggesting altered nitric oxide regulation. These findings contribute to the understanding of the consequences from an adverse fetal environment; they should also be tested in term-born children.

  15. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  16. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries (United States)

    Eid, Ashraf


    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period…

  17. Sustainable Growth in Urbanised Delta Areas : The Opportunities of a Geographical Approach to the Pearl River Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.; Nillisen, A.L.; Schamhart, C.; Lugt, N.


    The attractions of delta areas have boomed economies and founded major cities, but the threats of the adjacent water have persisted and natural resources have declined. The objective to facilitate sustainable urban growth in delta areas can only be met by a simultaneous approach of all the

  18. The Construction of an Environmental Management Model Based on Sustainability Indicators on a Higher Education Institution in Mexico (United States)

    Nieblas-Ortiz, Efrain C.; Arcos-Vega, José L.; Sevilla-García, Juan J.


    Without depreciating the importance of environmental regulations directed to university environmental managements systems in this country, nowadays, the instruments of international importance like the Sustainable Development Goals or ONU's 2030 Agenda; as well as those of domestic nature, like sustainability indicators proposed by the Mexican…

  19. Civic Education for Sustainable Development and Its Consequences for German Civic Education Didactics and Curricula of Higher Education (United States)

    Brunold, Andreas


    Since the nineties, the principle of sustainable development has increasingly been adopted by policy makers and civil society in Germany and, of course, in many countries of the world. With the acceptance of this principle, the significance of education for sustainable development (ESD) has also been recognised. Increased awareness of the problems…

  20. Wheels of Change in Higher Education: A Collaborative, Multi-Stakeholder Project as a Vehicle for Sustainability Education (United States)

    Warr Pedersen, Kristin; Pharo, Emma; Peterson, Corey; Clark, Geoffrey Andrew


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to profile the development of a bicycle parking hub at the University of Tasmania to illustrate how the Academic Operations Sustainability Integration Program promotes real change through the engagement of stakeholders from across an institution to deliver campus sustainability. This case study outlines one…

  1. Epitaxial growth of higher transition-temperature VO2 films on AlN/Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Slusar


    Full Text Available We report the epitaxial growth and the mechanism of a higher temperature insulator-to-metal-transition (IMT of vanadium dioxide (VO2 thin films synthesized on aluminum nitride (AlN/Si (111 substrates by a pulsed-laser-deposition method; the IMT temperature is TIMT ≈ 350 K. X-ray diffractometer and high resolution transmission electron microscope data show that the epitaxial relationship of VO2 and AlN is VO2 (010 ‖ AlN (0001 with VO2 [101] ‖   AlN   [ 2 1 ̄ 1 ̄ 0 ] zone axes, which results in a substrate-induced tensile strain along the in-plane a and c axes of the insulating monoclinic VO2. This strain stabilizes the insulating phase of VO2 and raises TIMT for 10 K higher than TIMT single crystal ≈ 340 K in a bulk VO2 single crystal. Near TIMT, a resistance change of about four orders is observed in a thick film of ∼130 nm. The VO2/AlN/Si heterostructures are promising for the development of integrated IMT-Si technology, including thermal switchers, transistors, and other applications.

  2. Towards the Development of an Integrated Sustainability and Resilience Benefits Assessment Framework of Urban Green Growth Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Grafakos


    Full Text Available Considering the current emerging demographic, urbanization and climatic trends, integrating sustainability and resilience principles into urban development becomes a key priority for decision-makers worldwide. Local and national governments, project developers and other urban stakeholders dealing with the complexities of urban development need projects with clear structure and outcomes in order to inform decision-making and ensure sources of financing. The need for developing an integrated assessment methodology that would capture and quantify multiple urban sustainability and resilience benefits of projects in one common framework and eventually lead to verifiable sustainability and resilience outcomes is immense and challenging at the same time. The main objective of this paper is to present the development of a methodological approach that aims to integrate sustainability and resilience benefits, derived from the implementation of green growth urban projects, into a unified framework of criteria addressing environmental, social, economic and institutional perspectives. The proposed sustainability and resilience benefits assessment (SRBA methodology is a combination of top down and bottom up approaches, including GIS-based scenario building. The different types of sustainability and resilience benefits of urban green growth projects are also identified at different levels (i.e., individual, neighborhood, city and global. Moreover, the proposed methodology creates scenarios that can be illustrated by a map-based approach to enable a better illustration and visualization of benefits. It demonstrates how a map-based approach can assess not only the extent of sustainability and resilience benefits accrued (how much is benefitted, but also their spatial distribution (who is benefitted. The main methodological challenges and issues on developing an integrated sustainability and resilience benefits assessment are identified and discussed.

  3. Sustained-release genistein from nanostructured lipid carrier suppresses human lens epithelial cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Lu Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To design and investigate the efficacy of a modified nanostructured lipid carrier loaded with genistein (Gen-NLC to inhibit human lens epithelial cells (HLECs proliferation. METHODS: Gen-NLC was made by melt emulsification method. The morphology, particle size (PS, zeta potentials (ZP, encapsulation efficiency (EE and in vitro release were characterized. The inhibition effect of nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC, genistein (Gen and Gen-NLC on HLECs proliferation was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay, gene and protein expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 were evaluated with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence analyses. RESULTS: The mean PS of Gen-NLC was 80.12±1.55 nm with a mean polydispersity index of 0.11±0.02. The mean ZP was -7.14±0.38 mV and the EE of Gen in the nanoparticles was 92.3%±0.73%. Transmission electron microscopy showed that Gen-NLC displayed spherical-shaped particles covered by an outer-layer structure. In vitro release experiments demonstrated a prolonged drug release for 72h. The CCK-8 assay results showed the NLC had no inhibitory effect on HLECs and Gen-NLC displayed a much more prominent inhibitory effect on cellular growth compared to Gen of the same concentration. The mRNA and protein expression of Ki67 in LECs decreased significantly in Gen-NLC group. CONCLUSION: Sustained drug release by Gen-NLCs may impede HLEC growth.

  4. Influence of gaseous contaminants in the atmosphere of ISS on growth and development of higher plants (United States)

    Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Gostimskiy, Sergey; Bingham, Gail

    Continues exploitation of pressurized manned objects revealed that artificial gaseous atmosphere is a multi-component mixture containing adverse micro-dirt consisted of 14 classes of chemical compounds (Moukhamedieva, 2003). Dynamics of descendant process depend on duration of pressurized object utilization, resources of life support (e.g. level of closeness), parameters of microclimate and experimental tasks conducted by a crew. Previously it was shown that composition of gas environment of the space station remarkably altered growth and development of higher plants (Levinskikh et al., 2000). Specifically, it was found that the main changes in productivity and morphometric characteristics of the spaceflight plants of superdwarf wheat were caused by phytotoxic effect of ethylene (1,1-2,0 mg/m3) in the atmosphere of MIR orbital station. From 2003 to April, 2007 we have conducted 7 experiments focused on cultivation of dwarf peas in space greenhouse LADA onboard International Space Station (ISS-6-10, 12, 14). Results of the first 5 experiments showed that characteristics of growth and development of the peas planted in the space greenhouse had no differences if compared with ground control variants. In the similar experiments with peas during ISS-12 and ISS-14 it was found that total and seed productions of the plants were lower than ones of the previous experiments and ones of the ground controls. Cytological analysis of roots of the space seeds for the first time revealed significant increase of chromosomal aberrations in comparison with laboratory controls Analysis of total contamination of the atmosphere of the ISS by gaseous dirt showed consistent (starting from ISS-11) increasing of the toxicity coefficient (Kt). W e suppose that the accumulation of pollutant in the atmosphere of ISS is the main reason causing general decreasing of productivity and increasing of the number of chromosomal aberrations in the peas cultivated in space greenhouse LADA at the stage


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The educational system will need to direct its actions and programs towards the identification of the current and future values of the labour market, starting from the existing and potential labour resources, anticipating first and foremost the adjusting of the economy to fast-developing fields and domains, put forward by the State via the Fast-developing Field Strategies or even via the Fast-developing National Strategy. It will accordingly generate a binder between the demands of the labour market as a response to the developing necessities of the economy, and the training/specialization of the labour force as offered by the national syllabus. By these means the educational system would create a labour force compatible with the labour market, which is both a premiss for the increasing level of employment and for the sustainable economic growth. Our task is therefore to provide a concept of education related to technological progress, based on the model of Nelson and Phelps, and a suggestion for investments and education policies.

  6. Typology and Success Factors of Collaboration for Sustainable Growth in the IT Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbyung Yoon


    Full Text Available Recently, innovative changes in information technology (IT trends, such as cloud computing and deep learning, have led IT companies to focus on collaboration for sustainable growth. This paper investigates collaboration strategies and success factors for IT service companies via a survey-based empirical study of Korean leading IT firms. Four types of collaboration were identified by considering the types of customer relationship and the target market: offshore, joint venture, collaboration with small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, and partnership with major local firms. Then, based on a Plan-Do-See management activity process, this paper considers success factors in the planning process and collaboration process, and analyzes an impact of these factors on collaboration performance such as financial performance, process innovation, improving competitiveness, and technology acquisition. As a result, the success factors differ according to the types of performance measures as well as the collaboration types. In particular, the characteristics of partners positively influence competitiveness in captive and global markets, while they improve process innovation in open and domestic markets. This study attempts to provide insight for companies in the IT service industry about how collaboration activities could enhance performance, depending on the alliance types.

  7. A Theoretical Essay on Sustainability and Environmentally Balanced Output Growth: Natural Capital, Constrained Depletion of Resources and Pollution Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Marcos Carvalho de Sena


    Full Text Available The fact that today’s activities are imposing a heavy burden on the earth's capacity has led to an increasing interest in environmental issues. It is emphasized that rapid production growth has exhausted natural resources and polluted the environment. The objective of this essay is to offer a clear definition of natural capital, connect it to a qualitative concept of sustainability and, supported by two analytical models and a set of studies on related environmental literature, to show that sustainability can be attained via imposition of controls over production processes that use depletable natural resources and generate pollution. The methodology used contemplates an integrative approach combining a qualitative (seeking definitions-analytical (appraising models apparatus to reach a new conceptual perspective to conceive sustainability. As the main essay’s contribution, it is showed that sustainability can be reached if compensation is allowed for, i.e., stocks of renewable being augmented as production depletes the stocks of nonrenewable natural resources. Moreover, that result is possible even considering nondecreasing output production, an important finding to contrast with the current environmentally based output growth literature, which asserts that slowing down output production is the only way to obtain sustainability.

  8. Divergent Developmental Trajectories and Strategic Coupling in the Pearl River Delta: Where Is a Sustainable Way of Regional Economic Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu


    Full Text Available This paper interprets regional economic sustainability in the context of the globalization of late-coming regions. Drawing upon the concept of strategic coupling from economic geography, this paper proposes two types of strategic coupling, captive and proactive coupling, for better understanding regional sustainability and resilience through the experiences of the Pearl River Delta in China. It finds that sub-regional economies under captive coupling become highly dependent on exogenous growth and are vulnerable to external shocks. This trajectory looks less sustainable according to the general understanding, but it interestingly shows better resilience during and after the 2008 global financial crisis. In contrast, the ones under proactive coupling are less volatile, but growing much slower and are less resilient. By reporting these regional economic dynamics, this paper argues that sustainability in late-coming regions cannot be explained by either intra-regional forces or the means of global integration alone. In contrast, it has to be explained by the combination of both; the alleged strategic coupling in which economic growth and learning happens. This paper thus calls for greater attention to strategic coupling, the trade-off of globalization and resilience for understanding regional sustainability, rather than purely focusing on resource utilization and ecological balance.

  9. Building ICT capabilities for clinical work in a sustainable healthcare system: approaches to bridging the higher education learning and teaching gap. (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Sim, Jenny


    There is a recognised gap in information and communications technology (ICT) learning and teaching in higher education for entry-level healthcare professionals. This paper proposes a research model for understanding the dimensions of this gap. We describe methodological approaches to understanding present practices, identifying levers for change and learning by doing. We discuss issues faced in getting started and sustaining momentum on the research that is an essential prerequisite to effectively build the ICT capacity required by the clinical workforce in a sustainable healthcare system.

  10. Implications of Present Land Use Plan on Urban Growth and Environmental Sustainability in a Sub Saharan Africa City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakka Solomon Dyachia


    Full Text Available Land use, urban development and environmental sustainability have become an interesting research arena as urban development would change the city landscape as well as generate environmental degradation. This paper looks at the missing link between land use planning and urban growth, and it implications for environmental sustainability in a selected sub Saharan Africa city of Kaduna, Nigeria. We assessed urban growth from historical GIS data of the city to evaluate the urban expansion. At the same time, regression analysis was used to established relationship between carbon emission and traffic volume in the city. A city characterized by weak land use planning has created a gap leading to uncoordinated land use planning and uncontrolled physical growth. A steady increase of built up area of 8,400.31 hectares in 1982 to an area of 17,120.5 hectares in 2015 can be a reflection of the presence of uncontrolled urban expansion. The lack of coordination between land use planning and urban growth has resulted to environmental ills within the city. One among the ills, is ubiquitous traffic congestion within the city leading to high carbon (CO2 emission. Findings shows a strong connection between emission and volume of traffic. In addition to findings, is the decline of green areas in the city. By this findings, it is suggested that the modern concept of land use planning which embraces flexibility, public participation and integration of environmental issues should be entrenched and allow to take the lead in the process of urban growth.

  11. Models of Interuniversity Collaboration in Higher Education--How Do Their Features Act as Barriers and Enablers to Sustainability? (United States)

    Coombe, Leanne


    This study combines conceptual and empirical review of the literature around interuniversity collaborations to identify known models and applications, and enablers and barriers impacting on their sustainability, to inform development of a collaborative public health teaching programme in Australia. A range of literature was explored in this study,…

  12. Engaging Sustainability Good Practice within the Curriculum Design and Property Portfolio in the Australian Higher Education Sector (United States)

    Poon, Joanna


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which universities' strategic plans affect the level of incorporation of sustainability within the curriculum design and property portfolio. Design/Methodology/Approach: This research adopted a case study approach. The case study institution was Deakin University in Australia. This…

  13. Estimating Potential GDP for the Romanian Economy and Assessing the Sustainability of Economic Growth: A Multivariate Filter Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu


    Full Text Available In the current context of economic recovery and rebalancing, the necessity of modelling and estimating the potential output and output gap emerges in order to assess the quality and sustainability of economic growth, the monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the impact of business cycles. Despite the importance of potential GDP and the output gap, there are difficulties in reliably estimating them, as many of the models proposed in the economic literature are calibrated for developed economies and are based on complex macroeconomic relationships and a long history of robust data, while emerging economies exhibit high volatility. The object of this study is to develop a model in order to estimate the potential GDP and output gap and to assess the sustainability of projected growth using a multivariate filter approach. This trend estimation technique is the newest approach proposed by the economic literature and has gained wide acceptance with researchers and practitioners alike, while also being used by the IMF for Romania. The paper will be structured as follows. We first discuss the theoretical background of the model. The second section focuses on an analysis of the Romanian economy for the 1995–2013 time frame, while also providing a forecast for 2014–2017 and an assessment of the sustainability of Romania’s economic growth. The third section sums up the results and concludes.

  14. Sustainability of the effects of medicinal iron and iron rich food supplementation on haemoglobin, intelligence quotient and growth of school aged girls

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    Monika Jain


    Full Text Available Anaemia in school aged girls is an important but neglected issue. Since iron supplementation programmes have had little reported success in reducing anaemia, interest is turning to food based approaches that have higher potential for achieving far reaching benefits. The purpose of the study was to observe sustainability of the effect of iron and food supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb, intelligence quotient (IQ and growth of the subjects. At baseline, estimation of haemoglobin (Hb, red cell indices, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin was done. IQ, weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Anaemic subjectswere divided into three groups, viz., (i twice weekly supplementation of iron folic acid syrup (53 mg iron/week; (ii daily supplementation of 4 niger seed and defatted soyaflour biscuits plus 2 lemons (45 mg iron/week and (iii control. Non anaemic group(NAC was not intervened. Endline data was collected after 120 days. Follow up for Hb, IQ, weight and height was done 4 months after cessation of supplementation. The prevalence of anaemia was 77% in the study population; 46% subjects had mild anaemia and 32% had moderate anaemia. Iron status was lower in anaemic subjects (p<0.001.Iron supplementation was more effective in raising Hb and building iron stores than iron rich food supplementation. Iron supplementation improved IQ but did not bring about catch up of anaemics to non anaemics. Iron rich food supplementation was better than medicinal iron in promoting growth in anaemic girls. The impact of iron rich food supplementation on Hb, IQ and growth sustained for 4 months while that of medicinal iron did not. Effects of food supplementation are sustainable for 4 months, therefore, this strategy holds more potential to control anaemia, in school aged girls.

  15. Does E-Commerce Provide a Sustained Competitive Advantage? An Investigation of Survival and Sustainability in Growth-Oriented Enterprises

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    Qingyi Chen


    Full Text Available Enterprises should find a new business model for their development, so as to make better use of their own advantages. At the same time, with rapid development of the economy and of science technology, the competition between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and large enterprises is inevitable, so it is very important for small and medium-sized enterprises to find better ways to improve their ability to compete. E-commerce is a new medium of commerce in this 21st century, so as to promote the quantity development of SMEs and enhance the risk management ability of enterprises. However, at present, many of China’s small and medium enterprises face many challenges in the process of electronic commerce’s development, such as, which factors hinder the performance of electronic commerce, and what aspect of enterprises should be improved? This paper is based on the above problems, using theoretical analysis and empirical research methods to explore the root of these problems and find the solutions. In the empirical section, we explore how e-commerce influences sales growth in the short- and long-term. Through analysis of e-commerce performance, we further explore the causality relationship and influence degree. The results show that: first, IT Investment is the most important factor to achieve success, what competitive advantage can be achieved largely depends on whether enterprises will effectively use the network technology; second, the expansion of the enterprise size can promote transaction volume increase of SMEs in the short term; third, internet availability has a positive effect on the trade volume of e-commerce, but the intensity is not obvious, and the effect is relatively stable.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro


    Full Text Available When the global community entered in the XXI century world emerging economy is more clearly considered as post-industrial, where a leading sector of the economy in the GDP production is not agriculture and not even industry but services. The main productive resource in such circumstances is not natural and productive capital but human capital, which is represented by storage of knowledge and skills accumulated by a person in the process of training and previous employment. Value of this capital is directly dependent on the level of education both general and professional. Human intellect becomes a main factor of production and professional. If the level is higher it means that such person can perform more valuable types of work for expand wealth of the country and it is transformed into intellectual capital. Consequently, a special market is formed that is a market of intellectual capital. An offer in this market is represented by labor with a high level of intellectuality and innovativeness and it has, in its turn, high market value. Well-handled components of human capital contribute to scientific-technical and social progress of the society, its sustainable economic development as the main types of final products unlike with previous stages of development are information and knowledge and the main factor of economic growth is productivity of mental labor workers. It is human capital that is one of the main factors ensuring transition to V and VI technological paradigms under current conditions. These paradigms are underlying a solid foundation for formation of new intellectual and information society. New knowledge and information technologies are making a breakthrough not only in the direct production of commodities but in the non-manufacturing sector as well (education, health, trade, finance etc..


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mihei, Ana


    ...’ flows of higher education. The aim was to see to which extent these countries are involved in international trade with higher education services, as well as the impact that this trade has on national economies...

  18. Financing Albanian Higher Education: Growth between the Public and Private Sectors (United States)

    Pere, Engjell; Minxhozi, Luljeta


    In many countries, reforms in higher education have follow-on effects on social and economic development. This article relates mainly to economic and financial issues regarding the development of higher education. Starting from the notable increase in demand for higher education and the budgetary constraints on public education financing, we argue…

  19. Crowd-sourcing higher education architecting the sustainable design and development of E-Learning in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griff Richards


    Full Text Available Post-secondary access in Africa hovers around 6%, in part because there is a lack of access to physical campuses. In Phase I of the African Virtual University’s Multinational Project, 73 undergraduate courses were developed and published as OERs in English, French and Portuguese. These in turn were adopted and localized by African universities. While over 1.3 million downloads of the materials have taken place in the last 5 years, no attempt was made to harness the input of user to maintain or improve the courses. Seven years later, the African Virtual University will renew these courses along with another 50 or so in disciplines of high demand. But this time the AVU architecture will call for a sustainable approach to e-learning that challenges the 22 universities in 15 countries to not only help further develop the courses, but also to maintain them and sustain them across multiple languages.This article discusses the potential role of crowd-sourcing in curriculum development, and sketches a preliminary architecture for building a community of practice to sustain e-Learning in Africa. 

  20. Partnership for Sustainable Communities: Three Years of Helping Communities Achieve Their Visions for Growth and Prosperity (United States)

    This report from the Partnership for Sustainable Communities reports on the three years of progress since the Partnership started in 2009. It includes case studies of Partnership projects in communities around the country.

  1. Approaches for Planning and Implementing Sustainable Energy Growth in a Complex World: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, N.; Schwab, A.


    The subject of sustainable energy development has been widely discussed and debated in recent years. However, despite widespread interest, progress toward this goal has been limited. This paper will build on current thinking related to sustainable development, energy forecasting, and complexity theory and show how past roadmapping methodologies fall short. While proposing ways of thinking about our responses to global changes, we consider how we can create and discover the pathways through those unpredictable changes toward high global renewables penetration.

  2. Using forum-based competitions to improve sustainability and motivation in higher education GNSS learning - Chances and risks (United States)

    Mayer, M.


    The learning strategies of students seem often to be economically adapted to framework requirements in order to achieve best possible examination performances, especially. For this reason, teachers often detect surface level learning characteristics (e.g., accepting facts uncritically, isolated fact storage, fact memorisation) within the learning concepts of students. Therefore, knowledge sustainability is often suffering. This is detectable when trying to build on knowledge of earlier lectures or lecture courses. In order to improve the sustainability of geodetic knowledge, case studies were carried out at the Geodetic Institute of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruhe, Germany) within the lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning". The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". The lecture course is aiming for transferring basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (e.g., GPS). During the winter semesters 2010/11 and 2011/12 ten resp. 15 students visited this compulsory attendance lecture course. In addition to classroom lectures and practical training (e.g., field exercises), a forum-based competition was included and tested using the forum feature of the learning management system ILIAS. According to the Bologna Declaration, a special focus of the innovative competition concept is on competence-related learning. The developed eLearning-related competition concept supports and motivates the students to learn more sustainable. In addition, the students have to be creative and have to deal with GNSS factual knowledge in order to win the competition. Within the presentation, the didactical concept of the enriched blended learning lecture course and the competition-based case study are discussed. The rules of the competition are presented in detail

  3. Institutional Change in a Higher Education Environment: Factors in the Adoption and Sustainability of Information Technology Project Management Best Practices (United States)

    LeTourneau, John


    The public higher education economic and competitive environments make it crucial that organizations react to the circumstances and make better use of available resources (Duderstadt, 2000; Floyd, 2008; Shulman, 2007; State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO), 2009). Viewing higher education through the perspective of new institutionalism…

  4. Sustainability and the University (United States)

    Clough, G. Wayne; Chameau, Jean-Lou; Carmichael, Carol


    In this article, the authors state that one of the major challenges facing the human race is charting a course for the future that allows economic growth while protecting the fragile planet. The authors discuss the role that higher education must play to help create a vibrant economy and high quality of life, while sustaining natural resources.…

  5. Pretest-Posttest-Posttest Multilevel IRT Modeling of Competence Growth of Students in Higher Education in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Fox, Gerardus J.A.


    Longitudinal research in higher education faces several challenges. Appropriate methods of analyzing competence growth of students are needed to deal with those challenges and thereby obtain valid results. In this article, a pretest-posttest-posttest multivariate multilevel IRT model for repeated

  6. An Incentive-Based Solution of Sustainable Mobility for Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Herrador


    Full Text Available “Incentivized Sustainable Mobility” is a conceptual business model which involves four stakeholders: citizens, municipalities, commerce and mobility services. A platform named “ISUMO” (Incentivized Sustainable Mobility provides technological support to this business model, integrating a set of metaservices that unifies the existing ICTs of transportation plus a unique patented QR-based (Quick Response low-cost charging device for electric vehicles. Essentially, the system tracks and registers citizens’ transportation activities (anonymously and voluntarily and evaluates each through a scoring system while their ecological footprint is calculated. Afterwards, citizens are able to exchange their accumulated points for discount QR coupons, to be redeemed in the associated commerce in order to purchase their products or services. The breakthrough of this business model is that it enhances awareness of sustainable mobility practices, increasing their attractiveness as perceived by the stakeholders with diverse benefits; citizens (and indirectly, the municipalities initiate a new consumption pattern of “coupons culture” linked to sustainable mobility, the urban economy is stimulated, and the use of mobility services grows, providing a new business opportunity regarding electric vehicles. It is expected that continuous exploration of the model and implementation will contribute to sustainable social and economic development aiming at CO2 emissions reduction, headline targets of the Europe 2020 strategy.

  7. The Growth Trend in Learning Strategies during the Transition from Secondary to Higher Education in Flanders (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; van Daal, Tine; Van Petegem, Peter


    As in many OECD countries, the first year in Flemish Higher Education is a major hurdle. Research on the experience of the transition period from secondary to higher education highlights the importance of the change in students' teaching/learning environment. Though this change is hypothesised to affect students' learning strategies, and hereby…

  8. Access and Expansion Post-Massification: Opportunities and Barriers to Further Growth in Higher Education Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, Benjamin W.A.; Vossensteyn, Johan J.


    The question of access to higher education is undoubtedly the foremost policy issue in higher education. This volume treats that issue by means of a broad range of chapters, written by experienced researchers that offer insights, national strategies and policy examples from around the world. The

  9. Research on the effects of altered gravity and other factors on the growth and development of higher plants (United States)

    Brown, A. H.


    The establishment, maintenance and use of the NASA-UCSC Botanical Centrifuge is discussed. The broad goals of this project were: (1) to establish facilities for conducting experiments under conditions of sustained centrifugation; (2) to pursue research on the gravitational physiology of higher plants; (3) to develop experimental hardware suitable for studies of plant development in the weightless condition; and (4) to accommodate visiting investigators whose researches are of interest to the NASA Biomedical Program and who may require for some limited time, the use of a medium size centrifuge with associated facilities appropriate for plant physiological studies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arim Nasim


    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of Profit Margin, Assets Turnover and Leverage on Sustainable Growth Rate. The variables used are profit margin, asset turnover and leverage as independent variable and sustainable growth rate as dependent variable. This study also aims to describe the state of profit margin projected by Net Profit Margin (NPM, asset turnover proxied by Total Assets Turnover (TATO, leverage which is proxied by Debt to Equity Ratio (DER and Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR Service sector. This research was conducted on service sector companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange 2010-2012.Data obtained from website Bursa Efek Indonesia.Teknik data analysis used is multiple linear regression and use t-statistics to test the influence of each independent variable to variable Dependent partially.Previously done classical assumption test that includes data normality test, multicolinierity test, heteroskedastisitas test and autocorrelation test.Based on data normality test, multicolinierity test, heteroscedasticity test and autocorrelation test did not found any variables that deviate from the classical assumption.From the results of research Shows that profit margin positively affect sustainable growth rate, asset turnover have positive effect to sustainable growth rate, and leverage have positive effect to sustainable growth rate.

  11. The sustainability debate: idealism versus conformism - the controversy over economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, S.W.; Hanekamp, J.C.


    Since the publication of Our Common Future in 1987, scientists have struggled with the concept of sustainability and many definitions are now in existence. However, one can differentiate between a much smaller series of themes. Working from these definitions, we focus on six such themes. We will

  12. Developing robust crop plants for sustaining growth and yield under adverse climatic changes (United States)

    Agricultural production and quality are expected to suffer from adverse changes in climatic conditions, including global warming, and this will affect worldwide human and animal food security. Global warming has been shown to negatively impact crop yield and therefore will affect sustainability of a...

  13. Gazing into the crystal ball: future considerations for ensuring sustained growth of the functional food and nutraceutical marketplace. (United States)

    Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Jones, Peter J H


    Over the last decade the concept of functional foods and nutraceuticals (FFN) has gained support from various stakeholders including the food industry, scientific and academic community, government institutions or regulators, producers and consumers. However, as one begins to evaluate the global FFN industry, several issues emerge including (i) a lack of consensus across jurisdictions for acknowledging safe and efficacious FFN, (ii) challenges regarding the classification of novel food-derived bioactives as FFN or drugs, and (iii) a disconnect between nutrient requirements and dosages of FFN required to facilitate health benefits. The objectives of the present review are to discuss the role of existing stakeholders within the FFN marketplace and identify performance indicators for growth within the FFN sector. In addition, the following report provides feasible resolutions to present and future challenges facing the global FFN industry to ensure sustained long-term growth.

  14. Single-provenance mature conifers show higher non-structural carbohydrate storage and reduced growth in a drier location. (United States)

    Piper, Frida I; Fajardo, Alex; Hoch, Günter


    Since growth is more sensitive to drought than photosynthesis, trees inhabiting dry regions are expected to exhibit higher carbohydrate storage and less growth than their conspecifics from more humid regions. However, the same pattern can be the result of different genotypes inhabiting contrasting humidity conditions. To test if reduced growth and high carbohydrate storage are environmentally driven by drought, we examined the growth and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in single-provenance stands of mature trees of Pinus contorta Douglas and Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson planted at contrasting humidity conditions (900 versus 300 mm of annual precipitation) in Patagonia, Chile. Individual tree growth was measured for each species and at each location as mean basal area increment of the last 10 years (BAI10), annual shoot elongation for the period 2011-14, and needle length for 2013 and 2014 cohorts. Additionally, needle, branch, stem sapwood and roots were collected from each sampled tree to determine soluble sugars, starch and total NSC concentrations. The two species showed lower mean BAI10 and 2013 needle length in the dry site; P. ponderosa also had lower annual shoot extension for 2011 and 2014, and lower 2014 needle length, in the dry than in the mesic site. By contrast, NSC concentrations of all woody tissues for both species were either similar or higher in the dry site when compared with the mesic site. Patterns of starch and sugars were substantially different: starch concentrations were similar between sites except for roots of P. ponderosa, which were higher in the dry site, while sugar concentrations of all woody tissues in both species were higher in the dry site. Overall, our study provides evidence that reduced growth along with carbon (C) accumulation is an environmentally driven response to drought. Furthermore, the significant accumulation of low-molecular weight sugars in the dry site is compatible with a prioritized C

  15. Demographic and Economic Influences on the Growth and Decline of Higher Education. (United States)

    Carroll, Stephen J.; Morrison, Peter A.

    Out of a factual description of the national demographic and economic context of higher education in general the authors offer interpretations for community colleges emphasizing three trends significant to educational planners: (1) Demographic pressure that made for increased enrollments in the past will dissipate at the traditional college-going…

  16. Fostering Growth and Development of Recovering Students in Higher Education through Servant Leadership (United States)

    Thompson, Anne


    Servant leadership is a leadership style complementary to a lifestyle of recovery from a substance use disorder. Across the country, thousands of students in recovery from substance use disorders are pursuing higher education. Support for students in recovery is increasing, primarily through collegiate recovery programs (CRP) that are being…

  17. How Higher Education Institutions Contribute to the Growth in Regions of Europe? (United States)

    Lilles, Alo; Rõigas, Kärt


    Various studies show that higher education institutions contribute to regional economic development by R&D, creation of human capital, knowledge and technology transfer, and by creation of a favourable milieu. It is brought out that the basic procedure is to sum expenditures of the college community (students, faculty, staff and visitors)…

  18. Growth or Steady State? A Bibliometric Focus on International Comparative Higher Education Research (United States)

    Kosmützky, Anna; Krücken, Georg


    The study combines a bibliometric approach with a content analysis of abstracts of articles to explore the patterns of international comparative higher education research in leading international journals. The overall data set covers 4,095 publications from the Web of Science for the period 1992-2012 and the amount of international comparative…

  19. Landscape urbanization and economic growth in China: positive feedbacks and sustainability dilemmas. (United States)

    Bai, Xuemei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Peijun


    Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China's policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization.

  20. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults. (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary


    Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. χ(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (Pfood production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (Pfood production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Innovative paths for providing green energy for sustainable global economic growth (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra; Alapatt, G. F.


    According to United Nation, world population may reach 10.1 billion by the year 2100. The fossil fuel based global economy is not sustainable. For sustainable global green energy scenario we must consider free fuel based energy conversion, environmental concerns and conservation of water. Photovoltaics (PV) offers a unique opportunity to solve the 21st century's electricity generation because solar energy is essentially unlimited and PV systems provide electricity without any undesirable impact on the environment. Innovative paths for green energy conversion and storage are proposed in areas of R and D, manufacturing and system integration, energy policy and financing. With existing silicon PV system manufacturing, the implementation of new innovative energy policies and new innovative business model can provide immediately large capacity of electricity generation to developed, emerging and underdeveloped economies.

  2. An exploratory Study on development of Maestro Leadership capacities for inclusive growth and sustainable future


    Dr. Renita Dubey


    Globalization is a complex phenomenon that has far reaching effects. Nowadays, managers need to understand social, economic, political and legal ramifications of global markets. This paper is devoted to advocating sustainable development and competitive advantage through showcase of right leadership talent in organizations. It is very important that leaders must feel like citizens of the world who have an expanded and well- defined vision. I strongly feel that this study on leadership excelle...

  3. Tourism for pro-poor and sustainable growth: economic analysis of tourism projects


    Lin, Tun; De Guzman, Franklin


    Despite the increasing importance of tourism in economic development and the rise of “pro-poor” tourism development strategies, properly designing and implementing tourism projects remain generally a difficult process. There are both theoretical and practical challenges in justifying public sector investments in tourism and properly measuring the projects’ benefits and sustainability. There is a need to come up with an analytical framework that would address these challenges and help evaluate...

  4. How to Sustain Interprofessional Learning and Practice: Messages for Higher Education and Health and Social Care Management (United States)

    Meads, Geoffrey; Jones, Isabel; Harrison, Rachel; Forman, Dawn; Turner, Warren


    The principal aim of this article is to promote the more effective integration of interprofessional learning with practice developments in health and social care. Ten specific recommendations are offered for the successful management of recent central policies for collaboration at the interface of the higher education and service sectors.…

  5. From unlimited growth to sustainable energy. The origin of operational patterns by means of social selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peura, P.


    This doctoral thesis is based on four peer reviewed articles, which together make a coherent longitudinal research and knowledge creating process, with conceptual integration and dialectical reasoning as its corner stones. The thesis is based on zooming in from large scale thinking - philosophy and worldview - towards smaller scale issues, first in order to understand, then to deepen knowledge through research, then to search for solutions for clearly explicated problems, and finally to implement the findings in practice. The logical framework is as follows: The state of the global environment is approaching a point where the whole of humankind is in danger. These issues are widely discussed and analysed. The change towards more sustainable development will be a long societal process, and it will be essential to understand the characteristics and dialectics of the process. The author presents and analyses his three layer model of societal evolution. The change of making humankind more sustainable creates practical needs - real actions will be necessary - but above all, it creates a need to develop scientific understanding, which is briefly discussed. The production of energy has traditionally been one of the core issues concerning the effect humankind has on the environment, and in the process of change, the potential reform of the energy sector will be in a key position. The main part of the thesis' empirical material concerns the energy sector and its potential shift towards the principle of sustainable energy. (orig.)

  6. Does infill outperform climate-adaptive growth policies in meeting sustainable urbanization goals? : A scenario-based study in California, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorne, James; Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H.; Soong, O; Ikegami, M; Seo, C; Hannah, Lee

    Land allocation for urban growth is central to sustainable development strategy because urban growth can impact space available for food production, ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. Urbanization is a growing stressor due the 2.5 billion additional people projected to live in urban

  7. Assessing the Sustainability of Credit Growth: The case of Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coudert, Virginie


    Full Text Available Credit growth rates as high as 30% or 50% a year were observed in some Central Eastern European countries (CEECs in 2006-2007, such as the Baltic States, Bulgaria or Romania. This strong credit growth could have been due to the catching-up process but could also have been excessive, paving the way to the credit crunch that followed the crisis in 2008-2009. We try to assess the excessiveness of credit by applying a number of methods. First, we consider the gap between current credit and its long-term trend and we find some signs of credit booms, in several CEECs in 2005-2007. Second, we assess the "normal" growth of credit with regard to fundamentals through econometric estimations. Credit growth is also shown to have been excessive in several countries just before the 2008-2009 financial crisis.

  8. Growth of contemporary firm: case study of an institution of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Martim de Conto


    Full Text Available The competition among firms is observed in all markets being them producers of goods or services providers. Under the point of view of many competition aspects and market, a Higher Education Institution also configures itself as being a Penrosian firm. Because of that, this study proposes to analyze the growing of a Higher Education Institution of Rio Grande do Sul under the Theory of the Firm. The method used to develop this study was the qualitative and exploratory approach using technical procedures as secondary sources, bibliographic surveys about the issue and internal documents from the examined organization. As the result of this study considerations are presented showing the growing of the organization and identified correlatives between the evolution of the Institution and the elements of the Theory of the Firm.

  9. Growth of meromorphic solutions of higher-order linear differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Chen


    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the higher-order linear differential equations with meromorphic coefficients. We improve and extend a result of M.S. Liu and C.L. Yuan, by using the estimates for the logarithmic derivative of a transcendental meromorphic function due to Gundersen, and the extended Winman-Valiron theory which proved by J. Wang and H.X. Yi. In addition, we also consider the nonhomogeneous linear differential equations.

  10. A Cycle-Adjusted Fiscal Rule for Sustainable and More Equitable Growth in Argentina


    Zúñiga, Jimena; Capello, Marcelo; Butler, Inés; Grión, Néstor


    This paper seeks to identify the most promising fiscal strategy to boost long-term economic growth in Argentina and quantify its effects. To this end, the authors updated a growth-diagnostics study for Argentina and corroborated that low appropriability of social returns and insufficient public infrastructure are key constraints to private investment. Further, low appropriability stands out among the key constraints to productivity-enhancing activities. Because low appropriability is largely ...

  11. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010. (United States)

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart


    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Intercultural education and sustainability. A local perspective of higher education students at the rural community of Huehuetla in Puebla, Mexico.


    Lopez Lainez, Itzel Anahi


    The purpose of this dissertation is first to provide a historical overview and discuss the progress of the status of indigenous knowledge in Mexico. How has it advanced from being a repressed tradition to becoming part of an intercultural education today? And second is to provide insights into the intercultural education experience of the state-run Intercultural University of Puebla (UIEP) through a study of students perceptions of traditional knowledge. This higher education institution is ...

  13. The Engagement of Students in Higher Education Institutions with the Concepts of Sustainability: A Case Study of the University of Northampton, in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Cleverdon


    Full Text Available Across higher education institutions there has, for some time, been a growing move towards incorporation of the concepts of sustainability into the policies and practices of the organisations. Using the University of Northampton, in the United Kingdom as a case study, this project aimed to understand the efficacy of student engagement with a sustainability project called Planet Too. The study employed a range of methods including waste and energy audits, as well as questionnaire surveys both with students and landlords to examine their environmental attitudes, beliefs, and practices. The project was able to lead to increased awareness and engagement with the concepts of sustainability amongst the students. Recycling, though it was not one of the initiatives focused upon, was a key practice mentioned by both students and landlords. The engagement of the landlords was focused primarily on conservation of energy and water. However, conservation practices generally remained static, with limited significant or long-term changes in environmental practices. The key implications of the findings are discussed and recommendations suggested.

  14. Catalyst-Free Plasma Enhanced Growth of Graphene from Sustainable Sources. (United States)

    Jacob, Mohan V; Rawat, Rajdeep S; Ouyang, Bo; Bazaka, Kateryna; Kumar, D Sakthi; Taguchi, Dai; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Neupane, Ram; Varghese, Oomman K


    Details of a fast and sustainable bottom-up process to grow large area high quality graphene films without the aid of any catalyst are reported in this paper. We used Melaleuca alternifolia, a volatile natural extract from tea tree plant as the precursor. The as-fabricated graphene films yielded a stable contact angle of 135°, indicating their potential application in very high hydrophobic coatings. The electronic devices formed by sandwiching pentacene between graphene and aluminum films demonstrated memristive behavior, and hence, these graphene films could find use in nonvolatile memory devices also.

  15. Effective, Sustained Inquiry-Based Instruction Promotes Higher Science Proficiency Among All Groups: A 5-Year Analysis (United States)

    Marshall, Jeff C.; Alston, Daniel M.


    Student's performance in science classrooms has continued to languish throughout the USA. Even though proficiency rates on national tests such as National Assessment of Educational Progress are higher for Caucasian students than African-Americans and Hispanics, all groups lack achieving desired proficiency rates. Further, the Next Generation Science Standards detail a new higher benchmark for all students. This study analyzes a professional development (PD) project, entitled Inquiry in Motion, designed to (a) facilitate teacher transformation toward greater quantity and quality of inquiry-based instruction, (b) improve student achievement in science practices and science concepts, and (c) begin to narrow the achievement gap among various groups. This 5-year PD study included 11 schools, 74 middle school teachers, and 9,981 students from diverse, high minority populations. Findings from the quasi-experimental study show statistically significant gains for all student groups (aggregate, males, females, Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics) on all three science Measure of Academic Progress tests (composite, science practices, and science concepts) when compared to students of non-participating teachers. In addition to an increase in overall performance for all groups, a narrowing of the achievement gap of minority students relative to Caucasian students was seen. When combined with other studies, this study affirms that, when facilitated effectively, inquiry-based instruction may benefit all students, for all demographic groups measured.

  16. Funding Higher Education in Malaysia


    Kee Kuan Foong


    As the higher education system contributes significantly towards sustaining long-term economic growth in Malaysia, adequate funding should be directed to this subsector. Moreover, policies need to be impartial and stringent scholarship selection mechanism be used. Ongoing reforms to enhance the quality of tertiary education may also be important.

  17. Convergent innovation for sustainable economic growth and affordable universal health care: innovating the way we innovate. (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; Jha, Srivardhini; Faber, Aida; Struben, Jeroen; London, Ted; Mohapatra, Archisman; Drager, Nick; Lannon, Chris; Joshi, P K; McDermott, John


    This paper introduces convergent innovation (CI) as a form of meta-innovation-an innovation in the way we innovate. CI integrates human and economic development outcomes, through behavioral and ecosystem transformation at scale, for sustainable prosperity and affordable universal health care within a whole-of-society paradigm. To this end, CI combines technological and social innovation (including organizational, social process, financial, and institutional), with a special focus on the most underserved populations. CI takes a modular approach that convenes around roadmaps for real world change-a portfolio of loosely coupled complementary partners from the business community, civil society, and the public sector. Roadmaps serve as collaborative platforms for focused, achievable, and time-bound projects to provide scalable, sustainable, and resilient solutions to complex challenges, with benefits both to participating partners and to society. In this paper, we first briefly review the literature on technological innovation that sets the foundations of CI and motivates its feasibility. We then describe CI, its building blocks, and enabling conditions for deployment and scaling up, illustrating its operational forms through examples of existing CI-sensitive innovation. © 2014 The New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Forced sustained swimming exercise at optimal speed enhances growth of juvenile yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Mes, D.; Kusters, K.; Roques, J.A.C.; Flik, G.; Kloet, K.; Blonk, R.J.W.


    Swimming exercise at optimal speed may optimize growth performance of yellowtail kingfish in a recirculating aquaculture system. Therefore, optimal swimming speeds (U-opt in m s(-1) or body lengths s(-1), BL s(-1)) were assessed and then applied to determine the effects of long-term forced and

  19. Balancing growth, harvest, and consumption: a regional response to the national issue of forest sustainability (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Neal H. Sullivan


    The 46 million people who live in the North Central Region of the United States account for about 17 percent of the wood annually consumed in the United States. The region contains 14 percent of the nation's timberland, but annual timber growth is equivalent to only 10 percent of nation's total. Annual timber harvest is equivalent to only 7 percent of the...

  20. Effects of stocking density and sustained aerobic exercise on growth, energetics and welfare of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Höglund, Erik; Dupont-Prinet, A.


    Two stocking densities, “low” (L, between ~19 and ~25 kgm−3) and “high” (H, between ~75 and ~100 kgm−3) were compared for effects on specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion, energetics and welfare of rainbow trout reared at 14 °C either in static water (S) or swimming in a gentle current of ~...

  1. Flower vs. leaf feeding by Pieris brassicae : Glucosinolate-rich flower tissues are preferred and sustain higher growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Blatt, S.E.; Harvey, J.A.; Agerbirk, N.; Dicke, M.


    Interactions between butterflies and caterpillars in the genus Pieris and plants in the family Brassicaceae are among the best explored in the field of insect–plant biology. However, we report here for the first time that Pieris brassicae, commonly assumed to be a typical folivore, actually prefers

  2. Flower vs. leaf feeding by Pieris brassicae: Glucosinolate-rich flower tissues are preferred and sustain higher growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Blatt, S.E.; Harvey, J.A.; Agerbirk, N.; Dicke, M.


    Interactions between butterflies and caterpillars in the genus Pieris and plants in the family Brassicaceae are among the best explored in the field of insect-plant biology. However, we report here for the first time that Pieris brassicae, commonly assumed to be a typical folivore, actually prefers

  3. Emittance growth, debunching and integrated luminosity in the LHC with a higher harmonic RF system

    CERN Document Server

    Mertens, T


    Beam dynamics with a double RF system has been considered in several references. Recently the idea of adding a secondary RF system has resurfaced due to heating effects in the beam screens of the LHC that are caused by the high particle densities in the bunch centres with a Gaussian longitudinal profile. It is well known that one can change the longitudinal bunch profile from a Gaussian profile like the pink curve in Figure 1 into a plateau shape like the blue curve in Figure 1 reducing the particle density in the bunch centres. Here we study the evolution of a bunch with such a longitudinal plateau like shape under the influence of IBS in a double RF system and how adding a secondary RF system in the LHC influences debunching losses and integrated luminosity. The simulations presented here are done with the particle tracking code that was used to study IBS effects in the 2010 ion fills. The results of our simulations indicate that installing a secondary higher harmonic RF system in the LHC would significantl...

  4. Higher concentrations of dithranol appear to induce hair growth even in severe alopecia areata. (United States)

    Ngwanya, M R; Gray, N A; Gumedze, F; Ndyenga, A; Khumalo, N P


    Alopecia areata (AA) is the commonest autoimmune cause of non-scarring alopecia. Topical treatments including corticosteroids and irritants maybe beneficial. Studies report variable hair regrowth with dithranol (anthralin) but all used low concentrations (0.1-1.25%) and inconsistent measurements of AA severity. We report retrospective data (2005-2014) of 102 patients who had failed ultra-potent topical steroids and were referred to a specialist hair clinic for treatment with dithranol up to 3%. The severity of alopecia areata tool was used and participants graded as mild (25 to 75%), and severe (>75%) hair loss. Compared with baseline any and at-least 50% hair regrowth [72%, 68%, 50% and 61.5%, 48.4%, 37.5%, in mild, moderate and severe AA respectively] occurred in all groups (median treatment duration 12 months). Twenty-nine patients (28.4%) were discharged with complete regrowth; with no difference in proportions in severity groups (33.3%, 29%, and 21.9%) but in the period to discharge [7.9, 6.3, and 29.4 months (p-values <.05)] for mild, moderate, and severe AA. Treatment trials of 12 months with dithranol at higher concentrations may be an option in patients who failed potent topical or intra-lesional steroids) regardless of AA severity. Randomized trials (of less staining formulations) of dithranol are warranted. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Capromorelin increases food consumption, body weight, growth hormone, and sustained insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations when administered to healthy adult Beagle dogs. (United States)

    Zollers, B; Rhodes, L; Smith, R G


    This study's objective was to determine the effects in dogs of oral capromorelin, a ghrelin agonist, at different doses for 7 days on food consumption, body weight and serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and cortisol. Adult Beagles (n = 6) were dosed with placebo BID, capromorelin at 3.0 mg/kg SID, 4.5 mg/kg SID, or 3.0 mg/kg BID. Food consumption, body weight, serum capromorelin, GH, IGF-1, and cortisol were measured at intervals on days 1, 4, 7, and 9. Capromorelin increased food consumption and body weight compared to placebo and caused increased serum GH, which returned to the baseline by 8 h postdose. The magnitude of the GH increase was less on days 4 and 7 compared to Day 1. IGF-1 concentrations increased on Day 1 in capromorelin-treated dogs and this increase was sustained through Day 7. Serum cortisol increased postdosing and returned to the baseline concentrations by 8 h. The magnitude of the increase was less on days 4 and 7 compared to Day 1. A dose of 3 mg/kg was chosen for further study in dogs based on this dose causing increased food consumption and sustained IGF-1 serum concentrations that may increase lean muscle mass when administered over extended periods. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Incorporating Role of Stakeholders into Corporate CSR Strategy For Sustainable Growth: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanggamani Vani


    Full Text Available In today’s modern day context, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR become the mantra for businesses as it can be seen as a strategic approach for firms to be succeed in their business endeavours. Hence, it remains the most widely used concept to refer to organizational- stakeholder relationships. An understanding about a stakeholder approach to CSR is an important means for a firm to enhance their commitment to operate in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable manner. In support with above arguments, this article presents a theoretical proposition based on stakeholder theory for better CSR and firm performance. By drawing upon classic work in the field, the paper offers conceptual discussion and then systematically develops a means of stakeholder approach into corporate CSR strategy. The aim of this paper is to demonstrates the need for a firm to enhance further understanding about the role of stakeholders in the context of corporate CSR strategy, which is increasingly necessary in view of the fact that business entities are absolutely essential for economic development, but at the same time, their business activities pose a huge impact to society and the environment. Thus, firm's CSR disclosure is a pivotal tool to establish a relationship of working together with the stakeholders that ensures mutual benefit and continue to be a firm that is needed by society. This article contributes to the literature by providing a fundamental explanation of how a business should embrace responsibility for the impact of its activities on the stakeholders across various levels of the value chain. By doing so, firms are offered a means to take a much more proactive approach to CSR through the stakeholder approach which is precisely helpful in measuring the effectiveness of any CSR initiative on the society to foster business sustainability.

  7. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield. (United States)

    Zhang, Youjun; Yu, Laura; Yung, Ka-Fu; Leung, Dennis Yc; Sun, Feng; Lim, Boon L


    Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2) promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

  8. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Youjun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2 promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries spread all over the world. After having tested and rejected certain exogenous variables initially considered, such as imports or exports, we have finally retained the external debt and foreign direct investments as explanatory items of the dependent variable. The results revealed that both of them positively affect the gross domestic product of the analysed countries, this one being inelastic in relation to the exogenous variables considered. Even if the relationship between the economic growth and the external debt of a country is usually negative, as the money exit out of the country due to the debt service causes non-achieved potential investments, yet, there is an inflexion point up to which the external debt has a positive influence on economic growth by the increase of the investments funds acquired as result of the external credit contracting, this being the case reflected by our study. As for the relationship existing between foreign direct investments and GDP, the economic theory confirms that FDI and economic growth are directly correlated, the former contributing to technical progress, production increase and, finally, to the improvement of the living standard.

  10. Green Growth, Resources and Resilience. Environmental Sustainability in Asia and the Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    While regional countries are driving the global 'green growth' agenda, policymakers are facing a new economic reality and heightened uncertainty. The challenge of eco-efficient economic growth and inclusive resource use is critical and growing in several countries. Fundamental, rather than incremental changes are needed. Governments must therefore take the lead in re-orienting both the 'visible' and the 'invisible' economic infrastructure. At the same time the implications of heightened uncertainty and risk for policymaking requires more attention. This report highlights changes in the policy landscape that have taken place since 2005, focuses on the emerging challenges of resources and resilience, presents new regional and country data produced by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation of Australia (CSIRO) and UNEP, and provides insights to key policy arenas for greening of growth. The report is the sixth in a series of reports produced every five years by ESCAP for the Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development. It is also the third in the ADB's Asian Environment Outlook series. This year, it complements a UNEP report: Resource Efficiency: Economics and Outlook for Asia and the Pacific (Canberra, CSIRO Publishing), providing new insights into regional use of key resources, and what that means for economies in the Asia-Pacific Region. The report is also intended to support stakeholders preparing for Rio+20.

  11. Hype, harmony and human factors: applying user-centered design to achieve sustainable telehealth program adoption and growth. (United States)

    Rossos, P G; St-Cyr, O; Purdy, B; Toenjes, C; Masino, C; Chmelnitsky, D


    Despite decades of international experience with the use of information and communication technologies in healthcare delivery, widespread telehealth adoption remains limited and progress slow. Escalating health system challenges related to access, cost and quality currently coincide with rapid advancement of affordable and reliable internet based communication technologies creating unprecedented opportunities and incentives for telehealth. In this paper, we will describe how Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and user-centric elements have been incorporated into the establishment of telehealth within a large academic medical center to increase acceptance and sustainability. Through examples and lessons learned we wish to increase awareness of HFE and its importance in the successful implementation, innovation and growth of telehealth programs.

  12. Plant growth-promoting actinobacteria: a new strategy for enhancing sustainable production and protection of grain legumes. (United States)

    Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam


    Grain legumes are a cost-effective alternative for the animal protein in improving the diets of the poor in South-East Asia and Africa. Legumes, through symbiotic nitrogen fixation, meet a major part of their own N demand and partially benefit the following crops of the system by enriching soil. In realization of this sustainability advantage and to promote pulse production, United Nations had declared 2016 as the "International Year of pulses". Grain legumes are frequently subjected to both abiotic and biotic stresses resulting in severe yield losses. Global yields of legumes have been stagnant for the past five decades in spite of adopting various conventional and molecular breeding approaches. Furthermore, the increasing costs and negative effects of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production necessitate the use of biological options of crop production and protection. The use of plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria for improving soil and plant health has become one of the attractive strategies for developing sustainable agricultural systems due to their eco-friendliness, low production cost and minimizing consumption of non-renewable resources. This review emphasizes on how the PGP actinobacteria and their metabolites can be used effectively in enhancing the yield and controlling the pests and pathogens of grain legumes.

  13. Do Private Sustainability Standards Contribute to Income Growth and Poverty Alleviation? A Comparison of Different Coffee Certification Schemes in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikadu Mitiku


    Full Text Available Private sustainability standards are increasingly important in food trade with developing countries, but the implications for smallholder farmers are still poorly understood. We analyze the implications of different coffee certification schemes in Ethiopia using cross-sectional survey data, and regression and propensity-score-matching techniques. We find that: Rainforest Alliance (RA and double Fairtrade-Organic (FT-Org certifications are associated with higher incomes and reduced poverty, mainly because of higher prices; Fairtrade (FT certification hardly affects welfare; and Organic (Org certification reduces incomes, chiefly due to lower yields. Cooperative heterogeneity importantly shapes these results. Results imply that private standards may not always deliver what they promise to consumers.

  14. Orientationally ordered island growth of higher fullerenes on Ag/Si(111)-(3×3)R30° (United States)

    Butcher, M. J.; Nolan, J. W.; Hunt, M. R. C.; Beton, P. H.; Dunsch, L.; Kuran, P.; Georgi, P.; Dennis, T. J. S.


    The adsorption of the higher endohedral and empty fullerenes La\\@C82 and C84 on Ag/Si(111)-(3×3)R30° has been investigated using ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy. At low coverage these molecules form single-layer islands with orientational order, a consequence of the commensurability between the intermolecular separation for each species and the surface lattice constant. The preferred adsorption site for the molecules is above an Ag trimer. Several other domains are observed at higher coverage which may be understood using a simple model. Following annealing, domains with a single orientation remain and the possibilities for epitaxial and heteroepitaxial growth are discussed.

  15. Global health and development: conceptualizing health between economic growth and environmental sustainability. (United States)

    Borowy, Iris


    After World War II, health was firmly integrated into the discourse about national development. Transition theories portrayed health improvements as part of an overall development pattern based on economic growth as modeled by the recent history of industrialization in high-income countries. In the 1970s, an increasing awareness of the environmental degradation caused by industrialization challenged the conventional model of development. Gradually, it became clear that health improvements depended on poverty-reduction strategies including industrialization. Industrialization, in turn, risked aggravating environmental degradation with its negative effects on public health. Thus, public health in low-income countries threatened to suffer from lack of economic development as well as from the results of global economic development. Similarly, demands of developing countries risked being trapped between calls for global wealth redistribution, a political impossibility, and calls for unrestricted material development, which, in a world of finite land, water, air, energy, and resources, increasingly looked like a physical impossibility, too. Various international bodies, including the WHO, the Brundtland Commission, and the World Bank, tried to capture the problem and solution strategies in development theories. Broadly conceived, two models have emerged: a "localist model," which analyzes national health data and advocates growth policies with a strong focus on poverty reduction, and a "globalist" model, based on global health data, which calls for growth optimization, rather than maximization. Both models have focused on different types of health burdens and have received support from different institutions. In a nutshell, the health discourse epitomized a larger controversy regarding competing visions of development.

  16. Fair Trade in Sustainable Development. The Potential for Fair Trade Market Growth in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Śmigielska


    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of Fair Trade, which is considered an alternative to conventional trade, and becomes increasingly popular in the Western countries. In addition, some results of empirical research, conveyed in Poland and aimed at diagnosis and assessment of Fairtrade products market, are provided. Fair trade is analysed not only in the broad theoretical context which shows its contribution to sustainable development and relation to corporate social responsibility, but also in the framework of supply chains management. The benefits from the Fairtrade label, including transaction costs reduction are indicated. The assumption is that to achieve them, consumer acceptance of the idea and willingness to buy Fairtrade products are necessary. The empirical research was focused on answering the question whether a market niche for Fairtrade goods exists in Poland and how to develop it by the means of communication tools. The market niche, although very small, has been identified and described. It is apparent that, in order to develop it, a public policy, aimed at raising the awareness of Fair Trade idea, is necessary as well as marketing activities like social marketing Internet campaigns and better and more prominently products display.

  17. Intratumoral chemotherapy with a sustained-release drug delivery system inhibits growth of human pancreatic cancer xenografts. (United States)

    Smith, J P; Stock, E; Orenberg, E K; Yu, N Y; Kanekal, S; Brown, D M


    This study provides the first evidence that treatment of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma is markedly improved by the intratumoral administration of chemotherapeutic agents in a novel drug delivery system. The effect of chemotherapeutic agents delivered in a sustained-release, protein-based, injectable gel was evaluated on the growth of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, BxPC-3. In vitro chemosensitivity of BxPC-3 cells exposed for 24 or 72 h to fluorouracil (0.01-5 mM), cisplatin or doxorubicin (0.1-50 microM) and floxuridine, vinblastine, mitomycin or paclitaxel (1.0-100 microM) was compared with that of untreated cells. In vitro chemosensitivity was also studied with fluorouracil and mitomycin in the poorly differentiated PANC-1, human pancreatic cancer cell line. Survival was determined after 7-10 days. All drugs decreased cell growth in a dose-dependent fashion. The efficacy of fluorouracil, cisplatin and doxorubicin increased with prolonged exposure, rendering these drugs most appropriate for a sustained-release preparation. For in vivo studies, athymic nude mice bearing BxPC-3 xenografts were treated either with fluorouracil, cisplatin or doxorubicin in the therapeutic injectable gel containing epinephrine or with vehicle alone administered intratumorally on days 1 and 4. After 28 days, the mice were sacrificed and tumors dissected and weighed. Tumors in mice treated with the injectable gel decreased in size by 72-79% compared with tumors in untreated controls and tumors treated with vehicle alone. Intratumoral injection of drug solution and intraperitoneal injection of drug in the injectable gel did not change tumor size compared with controls. In a drug-retention study, mice were injected intratumorally with [3H]fluorouracil either in the injectable gel or in solution. Sustained radioactivity was observed in tumors injected with the gel, and, conversely, greater radioactivity was detected in the liver and kidneys in mice receiving the radiolabeled

  18. Effects of a higher incubation temperature between embryonic day 9 and 12 on growth and meat quality characteristics of turkeys. (United States)

    Krischek, C; Gerken, M; Wicke, M


    1. The study investigated the influence of manipulating incubation temperature for a short period on the post-hatch development up to week 16 in male and female BUT Big 6 turkeys. 2. Eggs were incubated at a control temperature of 37·5°C and 55% RH until d 18 when transferred to a hatcher at 37·5°C and 85% RH. For a 4 d period between embryonic day 9 (ED 9) and 12, eggs were incubated at 38·5°C and 55% RH (HT). 3. Birds were slaughtered at 16 weeks of age to analyse meat quality parameters of the Musculus pectoralis superficialis (MPS). 4. Across both incubation treatments, the turkey males had significantly higher live and breast weights, but lower breast yields than the females. The sex of the animals only influenced the yellowness of the MPS with lower values in the males. 5. Temperature manipulation resulted in significantly decreased live weights of HT birds compared with the control animals across all ages in both sexes. No impact of incubation treatment on meat quality characteristics was found. 6. The results indicate a negative effect of higher incubation temperature on the post-hatch growth, possibly by influencing the mechanisms that regulate the hypertrophic growth of the muscle fibres.

  19. Assessing the Impacts of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation on the Dynamics of Urban Growth: A Case Study of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zheng


    Full Text Available Although China has promoted the construction of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation (CSGT to guide sustainable development, it may create substantial challenges, such as rapid urban growth and land limitations. This research assessed the effects of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge on impervious surface growth in Cixi County, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. Changes in impervious surfaces were mapped based on Landsat images from 1995, 2002, and 2009 using a combination of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA and landscape metrics. The results indicated that the area and density of impervious surfaces increased significantly during construction of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge (2002–2009. Additionally, the bridge and connected road networks promoted urban development along major roads, resulting in compact growth patterns of impervious surfaces in urbanized regions. Moreover, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge promoted the expansion and densification of impervious surfaces in Hangzhou Bay District, which surrounds the bridge. The bridge also accelerated socioeconomic growth in the area, promoting rapid urban growth in Cixi County between 2002 and 2009. Overall, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge is an important driver of urban growth in Cixi County, and policy suggestions for sustainable urban growth should be adopted in the future.

  20. Modeling of Diversification of Market as a Basis for Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derunova Elena Anatol’evna


    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of dependence of key macroeconomic indicators on the energy supply price dynamics, especially oil price, relevant to the modern Russian economy. In order to overcome the negative trends related to oil price dynamics, the authors propose to consider the measures on the gradual diversification of the Russian economy as an effective tool of state regulation. To test the hypothesis that diversification contributes to the increase in sustainability of the national economic system, the authors review the simultaneous equations model, the endogenous variables of which include structural values which reflect the structure of national production system. The share of gross value added (hereinafter, GVA generated in the i-th sector in the total GVA and the base GVA index generated in the i-th sector similar to the industry output index sequentially serve as endogenous variables in this study. The test of the hypothesis was carried out in two stages: at the first stage, according to the results of econometric modeling, the indicator of the real effective ruble exchange rate to foreign currencies was chosen as the main exogenous variable; at the second stage, the basic system of equations was evaluated. Econometric calculations have been made for the following types of economic activity (according to the classification of the\tRussian National Classifier of Economic Activities: agriculture, hunting and forestry; mineral extraction; manufacturing; wholesale and retail trade; repairs of motor vehicles, motorcycles, household goods and personal appliances. During the econometric modeling, co-integrated equations for the pairs of indicators under study have been obtained; it has also been concluded that there are significant disparities in the selected economic sectors. The analysis of the obtained data has helped develop a set of measures of state regulation aimed at overcoming the existing disparities

  1. Physiological Functions of Cyclic Electron Transport Around Photosystem I in Sustaining Photosynthesis and Plant Growth. (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Shikanai, Toshiharu


    The light reactions in photosynthesis drive both linear and cyclic electron transport around photosystem I (PSI). Linear electron transport generates both ATP and NADPH, whereas PSI cyclic electron transport produces ATP without producing NADPH. PSI cyclic electron transport is thought to be essential for balancing the ATP/NADPH production ratio and for protecting both photosystems from damage caused by stromal overreduction. Two distinct pathways of cyclic electron transport have been proposed in angiosperms: a major pathway that depends on the PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5 (PGR5) and PGR5-LIKE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHENOTYPE 1 (PGRL1) proteins, which are the target site of antimycin A, and a minor pathway mediated by the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex. Recently, the regulation of PSI cyclic electron transport has been recognized as essential for photosynthesis and plant growth. In this review, we summarize the possible functions and importance of the two pathways of PSI cyclic electron transport.

  2. Sustained Partial Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Immune Modulation and Growth Factors (United States)

    Mullington, Janet M.


    The vulnerability to medical emergencies is greatest in space where there are real limits to the availability or effectiveness of ground based assistance. Moreover, astronaut safety and health maintenance will be of increasing importance as we venture out into space for extended periods of time. It is therefore critical to understand the mechanisms of the regulatory physiology of homeostatic systems (sleep, circadian, neuroendocrine, fluid and nutritional balance) and the key roles played in adaptation. This synergy project has combined aims of the "Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team"; the "Immunology, Infection and Hematology Team"; and the "Muscle Alterations and Atrophy Team", to broadly address the effects of long term sleep reduction, as is frequently encountered in space exploration, on neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and circulating growth factors. Astronaut sleep is frequently curtailed to averages of between 4- 6.5 hours per night. There is evidence that this amount of sleep is inadequate for maintaining optimal daytime functioning. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effects of chronic sleep restriction, or reduction, on regulatory physiology in general, and there have been no controlled studies of the cumulative effects of chronic sleep reduction on neuroendocrine and neuroimmune parameters. This synergy project represents a pilot study designed to characterize the effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and growth factors. This project draws its subjects from two (of 18) conditions of the larger NSBRI project, "Countermeasures to Neurobehavioral Deficits from Cumulative Partial Sleep Deprivation During Space Flight", one of the projects on the "Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team ". For the purposes of this study, to investigate the effects of chronic sleep loss on neuroendocrine and neuroimmune function, we have focused on the two extreme sleep conditions

  3. Peginterferon alpha-2a is associated with higher sustained virological response than peginterferon alfa-2b in chronic hepatitis C: systematic review of randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Tahany; Thorlund, Kristian; Hauser, Goran


    A combination of weekly pegylated interferon (peginterferon) alpha and daily ribavirin represents the standard of care for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C according to current guidelines. It is not established which of the two licensed products (peginterferon alpha-2a or peginterferon alfa-2b...... alfa-2b plus ribavirin. Overall, peginterferon alpha-2a significantly increased the number of patients who achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) versus peginterferon alfa-2b (47% versus 41%; risk ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.19; P = 0.004 [eight trials]). Subgroup analyses......-2a is associated with higher SVR than peginterferon alfa-2b. However, the paucity of evidence on adverse events curbs the decision to definitively recommend one peginterferon over the other, because any potential benefit must outweigh the risk of harm....

  4. Measurement and Sustainability of the Qualifications Frameworks in the European Higher Education Area through an Employment Survey on Access to the Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia Serrano


    Full Text Available There is a clear need to measure the correct implementation of the European Framework through the employability of the alumni. The evaluation of the deployment of the Qualifications Frameworks in the European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA/QF should shed significant light on the action that must be taken by legislators and higher education managers to foster employability and guarantee the sustainability of the EHEA. We propose a methodology based on a Survey on Access to the Labour Market (SALM to assess the correlation between the education provided to the students and the practical utility of the knowledge acquired in the workplace. A questionnaire has been produced to measure the competencies and descriptors that had been theoretically defined within the QF-EHEA. Fifteen questions were disguised so that the six QF-EHEA descriptors were quantified through the difference between education and utility. The quantification methodology for the framework has been tested successfully on the former students of a higher education center in Spain. In this center, the alumni perceived that the utility of their acquired competencies and their employability level was greater than their education content, while both levels were reasonably high. The results hold for both Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees.

  5. The gompertz function can coherently describe microbial mineralization of growth-sustaining pesticides. (United States)

    Johnsen, Anders R; Binning, Philip J; Aamand, Jens; Badawi, Nora; Rosenbom, Annette E


    Mineralization of (14)C-labeled tracers is a common way of studying the environmental fate of xenobiotics, but it can be difficult to extract relevant kinetic parameters from such experiments since complex kinetic functions or several kinetic functions may be needed to adequately describe large data sets. In this study, we suggest using a two-parameter, sigmoid Gompertz function for parametrizing mineralization curves. The function was applied to a data set of 252 normalized mineralization curves that represented the potential for degradation of the herbicide MCPA in three horizons of an agricultural soil. The Gompertz function fitted most of the normalized curves, and trends in the data set could be visualized by a scatter plot of the two Gompertz parameters (rate constant and time delay). For agricultural topsoil, we also tested the effect of the MCPA concentration on the mineralization kinetics. Reduced initial concentrations lead to shortened lag-phases, probably due to reduced need for bacterial growth. The effect of substrate concentration could be predicted by simply changing the time delay of the Gompertz curves. This delay could to some extent also simulate concentration effects for 2,4-D mineralization in agricultural soil and aquifer sediment and 2,6-dichlorobenzamide mineralization in single-species, mineral medium.

  6. Ecophysiological traits sustaining tree growth and survival under drying climate in the Mediterranean (United States)

    Yakir, D.; Klein, T.; Cohen, S.


    The rate of evolutionary adaptation in long-lived organisms such as forest trees cannot compete with the current and predicted rate of climate change. Tree growth and survival under warming and drying climate, such as predicted for the Mediterranean and other regions, will depend therefore on the existing plasticity of physiological and phenological traits. We examined seven physiological and phenological parameters in Pinus halepensis, a drought resistant Mediterranean tree species, using five ecotypes growing under meso-Mediterranean (MM), thermo-Mediterranean (TM), and semi-arid (SA) climates. The results revealed that both phenotypic plasticity and locally adapted ecotypes contributed, differentially, to the success of this species across a wide range of climatic conditions. While some ecotypes had an inherent xylem resistance to embolism (percent loss of conductivity halepensis performs well under drought conditions it has a sensitive hydraulic system. This was reflected in 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at relatively high leaf water potential of -3.1 MPa. This, however, was compensated for by a narrow safety margin allowing leaf gas exchange up to leaf water potential of -2.8 MPa. The hydraulic sensitivity also requires fast cavitation reversal, which was indeed observed in the dry season on hourly time-scale: Two cycles of cavitation and reversal observed during morning and afternoon, which were also reflected in a decoupling between sap flow and leaf transpiration. The results indicate newly observed hydraulic capabilities of trees that together with plasticity of other traits facilitate the adjustment to increasingly dry conditions, and the potential of P. halepensis to maintain its current geographical distribution even in face of predicted warming and drying trends.

  7. Engineered cost-effective growth of Co-based nanoflakes as a sustainable water oxidation electrocatalyst (United States)

    Pourreza, M.; Naseri, N.


    Developing low-cost, scalable and reproducible synthesis methods for water oxidation reaction (WOR) catalysts is highly desirable and also challenging in energy, environmental and industrial applications. In this context, electrochemical deposition is known as an easy and cost-effective technique in nanomaterial growth. Herein, cobalt-based nanoflakes were grown on a flexible and commercially available steel mesh substrate by electrodeposition approach with a crystalline structure as a mixture of oxide, hydroxide and oxyhydroxide phases. For the first time, the correlation between electrodeposition parameters, time and current density, and morphological characteristics of the grown nanoflakes (density and aspect ratio based on SEM results) has been derived. According to a comprehensive study of the flakes’ electrocatalytic performance in WOR, the optimized sample fabricated with a moderate electrodeposition current density (7 mA cm‑2) and duration time (2000 s) revealed the highest density (7.6  ×  108 cm‑2) and aspect ratio (7.1) as well as the lowest values for overpotential (OP  =  324 mV) and charge transfer resistance (14 Ω). This designed array of Co-based nanoflakes also showed the lowest value of overpotential for bare cobalt-based WOR electrocatalysts reported yet. High and low values for deposition current density and/or deposition time had a negative effect on the sample surface, leaving some areas without any flakes or with incomplete and inefficient formation of nanoflakes with low densities and aspect ratios. A similar effect was observed for annealed samples in the range of 200–400 °C. Based on recorded overpotentials and extracted surface morphological parameters, a linear and logarithmic behavior in overpotential–flake density dependency was proposed for current density and time controlled systems, respectively.

  8. Dormancy of growth-stunted malignant melanoma: sustainable and smoldering patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont


    Full Text Available The presentations of primary and metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM are very diverse. Evidence increasingly indicates that single CMM cells spread to distant sites quite early during cancer progression and are soon eliminated before they become clinically detectable. However bulky metastases which appear at a later stage might derive from some of these early neoplastic cells. It seems that local CMM single cell micro-metastases commonly predict sentinel lymph node involvement without overtly reflecting CMM progression to bulky visceral metastases. This study is intended to review the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying two CMM presentations. The first is the long interval, apparently disease-free, with persistent CMM dormancy, which may precede overt metastatic growth. Immunosurveillance may induce dormancy in single CMM cells disseminated in the body by blocking their proliferation cycle. The second is the socalled CMM smoldering phenomenon, which is marked by an alternate progression and regression of CMM locally with metastases that wax and wane for long periods of time over restricted skin areas. These very diverse patterns of CMM progression are likely to be ascribable to a number of biological factors, including the activation of CMM stem cells, and the combined phenotypic heterogeneity and variability in proliferative amplification in CMM cell clusters. Furthermore an adequate stimulation of CMM immune-surveillance and the induction of a specific stromal structure and vascular response are required. In this context, most early CMM tumors are in part controlled by lymphocytemediated responses before they become clinically detectable. However both the role of immune-surveillance and the mechanisms underlying both persistent and smoldering CMM dormancy remain unclear.

  9. Dormancy of growth-stunted malignant melanoma: sustainable and smoldering patterns. (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Delvenne, Philippe; Piérard, Gerald E


    The presentations of primary and metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) are very diverse. Evidence increasingly indicates that single CMM cells spread to distant sites quite early during cancer progression and are soon eliminated before they become clinically detectable. However bulky metastases which appear at a later stage might derive from some of these early neoplastic cells. It seems that local CMM single cell micro-metastases commonly predict sentinel lymph node involvement without overtly reflecting CMM progression to bulky visceral metastases. This study is intended to review the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying two CMM presentations. The first is the long interval, apparently disease-free, with persistent CMM dormancy, which may precede overt metastatic growth. Immunosurveillance may induce dormancy in single CMM cells disseminated in the body by blocking their proliferation cycle. The second is the so-called CMM smoldering phenomenon, which is marked by an alternate progression and regression of CMM locally with metastases that wax and wane for long periods of time over restricted skin areas. These very diverse patterns of CMM progression are likely to be ascribable to a number of biological factors, including the activation of CMM stem cells, and the combined phenotypic heterogeneity and variability in proliferative amplification in CMM cell clusters. Furthermore an adequate stimulation of CMM immune-surveillance and the induction of a specific stromal structure and vascular response are required. In this context, most early CMM tumors are in part controlled by lymphocyte-mediated responses before they become clinically detectable. However both the role of immune-surveillance and the mechanisms underlying both persistent and smoldering CMM dormancy remain unclear.

  10. Technological upgrading in global value chains and clusters and their contribution to sustaining economic growth in low and middle income economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplinsky, R.


    This paper begins with a discussion of the role played by upgrading in the promotion of sustainable growth. Upgrading is discussed in two different contexts, that of industrial clusters and that of global value chains (GVCs). Drawing on global and African experiences, the paper addresses the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciane Costa Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the perception of undergraduate students in accounting, of Federal Institutions of Higher Education of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, on sustainable development. It is a descriptive survey with a quantitative approach. Respondents were beginners and graduates students, of the course in Accounting, in classroom mode, of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM and the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, held in second semester 2014. The results showed, in general trhat students have mean perception of the issue, though on some emphases have high perception, such as alternative energy sources, use of chemicals, water consumption and food, recycle reusable materials, long-term basic resources, preservation of biodiversity and ecosystems; according to studied assertive, and the graduating students have greater insight than beginners. Its recommends for future research a comparative analysis of the degree of environmental perception between students who attended the discipline of environmental accounting and environmental or not the attended one same, seeking to highlight the importance this discipline to higher education.

  12. Requirements of blue, UV-A, and UV-B light for normal growth of higher plants, as assessed by actions spectra for growth and related phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T. [Kobe Women`s Univ., Higashisuma (Japan)


    It is very important for experimental purposes, as well as for the practical use of plants when not enough sunlight is available. To grow green higher plants in their normal forms under artificial lighting constructing efficient and economically reasonable lighting systems is not an easy task. One possible approach would be to simulate sunlight in intensity and the radiation spectrum, but its high construction and running costs are not likely to allow its use in practice. Sunlight may be excessive in irradiance in some or all portions of the spectrum. Reducing irradiance and removing unnecessary wavebands might lead to an economically feasible light source. However, removing or reducing a particular waveband from sunlight for testing is not easy. Another approach might be to find the wavebands required for respective aspects of plant growth and to combine them in a proper ratio and intensity. The latter approach seems more practical and economical, and the aim of this Workshop lies in advancing this approach. I summarize our present knowledge on the waveband requirements of higher plants for the regions of blue, UV-A and UV-B.

  13. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  14. Long-Term Urban Growth and Land Use Efficiency in Southern Europe: Implications for Sustainable Land Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zitti


    Full Text Available The present study illustrates a multidimensional analysis of an indicator of urban land use efficiency (per-capita built-up area, LUE in mainland Attica, a Mediterranean urban region, along different expansion waves (1960–2010: compaction and densification in the 1960s, dispersed growth along the coasts and on Athens’ fringe in the 1970s, fringe consolidation in the 1980s, moderate re-polarization and discontinuous expansion in the 1990s and sprawl in remote areas in the 2000s. The non-linear trend in LUE (a continuous increase up to the 1980s and a moderate decrease in 1990 and 2000 preceding the rise observed over the last decade reflects Athens’ expansion waves. A total of 23 indicators were collected by decade for each municipality of the study area with the aim of identifying the drivers of land use efficiency. In 1960, municipalities with low efficiency in the use of land were concentrated on both coastal areas and Athens’ fringe, while in 2010, the lowest efficiency rate was observed in the most remote, rural areas. Typical urban functions (e.g., mixed land uses, multiple-use buildings, vertical profile are the variables most associated with high efficiency in the use of land. Policies for sustainable land management should consider local and regional factors shaping land use efficiency promoting self-contained expansion and more tightly protecting rural and remote land from dispersed urbanization. LUE is a promising indicator reflecting the increased complexity of growth patterns and may anticipate future urban trends.

  15. Long-acting combination anti-HIV drug suspension enhances and sustains higher drug levels in lymph node cells than in blood cells and plasma. (United States)

    Kraft, John C; McConnachie, Lisa A; Koehn, Josefin; Kinman, Loren; Collins, Carol; Shen, Danny D; Collier, Ann C; Ho, Rodney J Y


    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a combination of anti-HIV drugs - tenofovir (TFV), lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) - in a lipid-stabilized nanosuspension (called TLC-ART101) could enhance and sustain intracellular drug levels and exposures in lymph node and blood cells above those in plasma. Four macaques were given a single dose of TLC-ART101 subcutaneously. Drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells of the blood (PBMCs) and lymph nodes (LNMCs) were analysed using a validated combination LC-MS/MS assay. For the two active drugs (TFV, LPV), plasma and PBMC intracellular drug levels persisted for over 2 weeks; PBMC drug exposures were three- to four-fold higher than those in plasma. Apparent terminal half-lives (t1/2) of TFV and LPV were 65.3 and 476.9 h in plasma, and 169.1 and 151.2 h in PBMCs. At 24 and 192 h, TFV and LPV drug levels in LNMCs were up to 79-fold higher than those in PBMCs. Analysis of PBMC intracellular TFV and its active metabolite TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) indicated that intracellular exposures of total TFV and TFV-DP were markedly higher and persisted longer than in humans and macaques dosed with oral TFV prodrugs, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). A simple, scalable three-drug combination, lipid-stabilized nanosuspension exhibited persistent drug levels in cells of lymph nodes and the blood (HIV host cells) and in plasma. With appropriate dose adjustment, TLC-ART101 may be a useful HIV treatment with a potential to impact residual virus in lymph nodes.

  16. Sustained-released mixture of vascular endothelial growth factor 165 and fibrin glue strengthens healing of ileal anastomoses in a rabbit model with intraperitoneal infection. (United States)

    Li, Zhanwu; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaozhou; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Fengyi; Liu, Qiang


    To investigate the effects of a sustained-released mixture of vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) and fibrin glue (FG) local administration on postoperative rabbit ileal anastomoses. One hundred twenty-eight male and female New Zealand white rabbits underwent intraperitoneal infection subsequent ileal anastomosis surgery were divided randomly into 4 groups, including 32 animals in each, applied with saline solution, FG, rhVEGF165 and a mixture of rhVEGF165 with FG (VEGF + FG) on the anastomoses, respectively. The incidences of anastomotic leakage were observed. Histopathological examination for inflammatory infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, and capillary vascular proliferation were performed. Then, bursting pressure and hydroxyproline concentrations were assessed in anastomoses sits on postoperative days 3, 5, 7, and 14. Rabbits in VEGF + FG group had the lowest incidence of leakage (P < 0.05). Histological evaluations revealed that granulation tissue was formed on days 5 after anastomosis; fibroblast proliferation and capillary vascular proliferation were significantly increased on days 7 and 14 in VEGF + FG group. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference in the mean bursting pressures between VEGF + FG group and other groups on days 7 and 14 (P < 0.05), and rabbits in VEGF + FG group exhibited a higher concentration than VEGF group (P < 0.05) and FG group (P < 0.05) on day 14. Administration of VEGF165 mixed with FG to ileal anastomosis accelerates wound healing and enhances the anastomosis by increased angiogenesis.

  17. Nucleation and condensational growth to CCN sizes during a sustained pristine biogenic SOA event in a forested mountain valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Pierce


    Full Text Available The Whistler Aerosol and Cloud Study (WACS 2010, included intensive measurements of trace gases and particles at two sites on Whistler Mountain. Between 6–11 July 2010 there was a sustained high-pressure system over the region with cloud-free conditions and the highest temperatures of the study. During this period, the organic aerosol concentrations rose from <1 μg m−3 to ∼6 μg m−3. Precursor gas and aerosol composition measurements show that these organics were almost entirely of secondary biogenic nature. Throughout 6–11 July, the anthropogenic influence was minimal with sulfate concentrations <0.2 μg m−3 and SO2 mixing ratios ≈ 0.05–0.1 ppbv. Thus, this case provides excellent conditions to probe the role of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in aerosol microphysics. Although SO2 mixing ratios were relatively low, box-model simulations show that nucleation and growth may be modeled accurately if Jnuc = 3 × 10−7[H2SO4] and the organics are treated as effectively non-volatile. Due to the low condensation sink and the fast condensation rate of organics, the nucleated particles grew rapidly (2–5 nm h−1 with a 10–25% probability of growing to CCN sizes (100 nm in the first two days as opposed to being scavenged by coagulation with larger particles. The nucleated particles were observed to grow to ∼200 nm after three days. Comparisons of size-distribution with CCN data show that particle hygroscopicity (κ was ∼0.1 for particles larger 150 nm, but for smaller particles near 100 nm the κ value decreased near midway through the period from 0.17 to less than 0.06. In this environment of little anthropogenic influence and low SO2, the rapid growth rates of the regionally nucleated particles – due to condensation of biogenic SOA – results in an unusually high efficiency of conversion of

  18. Technology and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.


    In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an

  19. Safety and efficacy of sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor using gelatin hydrogel in patients with critical limb ischemia. (United States)

    Kumagai, Motoyuki; Marui, Akira; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Takeda, Takahide; Yamamoto, Masaya; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Tanaka, Shiro; Yanagi, Shigeki; Ito-Ihara, Toshiko; Ikeda, Takafumi; Murayama, Toshinori; Teramukai, Satoshi; Katsura, Toshiya; Matsubara, Kazuo; Kawakami, Koji; Yokode, Masayuki; Shimizu, Akira; Sakata, Ryuzo


    As a form of therapeutic angiogenesis, we sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of a sustained-release system of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) using biodegradable gelatin hydrogel in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). We conducted a phase I-IIa study that analyzed 10 CLI patients following a 200-μg intramuscular injection of bFGF-incorporated gelatin hydrogel microspheres into the ischemic limb. Primary endpoints were safety and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcO2) at 4 and 24 weeks after treatment. During the follow-up, there was no death or serious procedure-related adverse event. After 24 weeks, TcO2 (28.4 ± 8.4 vs. 46.2 ± 13.0 mmHg for pretreatment vs after 24 weeks, p < 0.01) showed significant improvement. Regarding secondary endpoints, the distance walked in 6 min (255 ± 105 vs. 318 ± 127 m, p = 0.02), the Rutherford classification (4.4 ± 0.5 vs. 3.1 ± 1.4, p = 0.02), the rest pain scale (1.7 ± 1.0 vs. 1.2 ± 1.3, p = 0.03), and the cyanotic scale (2.0 ± 1.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.9, p < 0.01) also showed improvement. The blood levels of bFGF were within the normal range in all patients. A subanalysis of patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans (n = 7) or thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) (n = 3) revealed that TcO2 had significantly improved in both subgroups. TcO2 did not differ between patients with or without chronic kidney disease. The sustained release of bFGF from biodegradable gelatin hydrogel may offer a safe and effective form of angiogenesis for patients with CLI.

  20. Evidence that higher CO2 increases tree growth sensitivity to temperature: a comparison of modern and paleo oaks (United States)

    Aim: To test the growth-sensitivity to temperature under different ambient CO2 concentrations, we determined paleo tree growth rates as they relate to variation in temperature during the last deglacial period, and compare these to modern tree growth rates as they relate to spatia...

  1. Evidence that higher [CO2] increases tree growth sensitivity to temperature: a comparison of modern and paleo oaks (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Michael C. Stambaugh; J. Renée Brooks; Frederick C. Meinzer; Barbara Lachenbruch; Richard P. Guyette


    To test tree growth-sensitivity to temperature under different ambient CO2 concentrations, we determined stem radial growth rates as they relate to variation in temperature during the last deglacial period, and compare these to modern tree growth rates as they relate to spatial variation in temperature across the modern species distributional...

  2. Association mapping for phenology and plant architecture in maize shows higher power for developmental traits compared with growth influenced traits. (United States)

    Bouchet, S; Bertin, P; Presterl, T; Jamin, P; Coubriche, D; Gouesnard, B; Laborde, J; Charcosset, A


    Plant architecture, phenology and yield components of cultivated plants have repeatedly been shaped by selection to meet human needs and adaptation to different environments. Here we assessed the genetic architecture of 24 correlated maize traits that interact during plant cycle. Overall, 336 lines were phenotyped in a network of 9 trials and genotyped with 50K single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Phenology was the main factor of differentiation between genetic groups. Then yield components distinguished dents from lower yielding genetic groups. However, most of trait variation occurred within group and we observed similar overall and within group correlations, suggesting a major effect of pleiotropy and/or linkage. We found 34 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for individual traits and six for trait combinations corresponding to PCA coordinates. Among them, only five were pleiotropic. We found a cluster of QTLs in a 5 Mb region around Tb1 associated with tiller number, ear row number and the first PCA axis, the latter being positively correlated to flowering time and negatively correlated to yield. Kn1 and ZmNIP1 were candidate genes for tillering, ZCN8 for leaf number and Rubisco Activase 1 for kernel weight. Experimental repeatabilities, numbers of QTLs and proportion of explained variation were higher for traits related to plant development such as tillering, leaf number and flowering time, than for traits affected by growth such as yield components. This suggests a simpler genetic determinism with larger individual QTL effects for the first category.

  3. Technologies for sustainable growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Climate change is real. And it's happening much faster than was predicted just a few years ago. The good news is that there is a good chance that we really can do something about the problem. And this is in a way where we don't need to compromise the well-being of our global economy. All it takes is to follow a Bright Green strategy where we get the most out of the energy we produce and where we deploy the clean energy technologies we already know can work. Doing so would deliver the affordability, stability and confidence our economies need, as well as help solve the climate crisis. Although our reliance on fossil fuels has created global warming, we now have the opportunity and obligation to begin a transformation towards a robust clean energy economy. This is the opportunity of our generation. To begin a transformation to an economy that is robust without causing environmental harm. But there won't be a single, 'silver bullet' solution. We will need to address energy production, carbon mitigation and efficient consumption of energy. A new approach is needed that both avoids dangerous climate change and is advantageous for the economy - a Bright Green strategy with a strong focus on deploying and investing in climate friendly technologies. Denmark has done this for several decades and we are a clear example that it is possible to both grow our economy and at the same time take care of the environment and especially the global environment. This book tells the Bright Green story of Denmark, and presents a wide range of technologies and solutions that can help pave the way towards a more climate friendly future. (au)

  4. Beneath Our Eyes: An Exploration of the Relationship between Technology Enhanced Learning and Socio-Ecological Sustainability in Art and Design Higher Education (United States)

    Sclater, Madeleine


    This article uses published research to explore how Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) can help to sustain learning communities to engage in creative exploration and open investigation. It then draws on this research to ask: how could we use TEL to support pedagogies of socio-ecological sustainability in the Art and Design education community?…

  5. Livestock biodiversity and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, I.


    Sustainable development equally includes environmental protection including biodiversity, economic growth and social equity, both within and between generations. The paper first reviews different aspects related to the sustainable use of livestock biodiversity and property regimes that influence

  6. Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Methanobacterium congolense: Global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Y.; Feil, H.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Shah, M.B.; Johnson, D.R.; Lee, P.K.H; West, K.A.; Zinder, S.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.


    Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (DE195) was grown in a sustainable syntrophic association with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DVH) as a co-culture, as well as with DVH and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium congolense (MC) as a tri-culture using lactate as the sole energy and carbon source. In the co- and tri-cultures, maximum dechlorination rates of DE195 were enhanced by approximately three times (11.0±0.01 lmol per day for the co-culture and 10.1±0.3 lmol per day for the tri-culture) compared with DE195 grown alone (3.8±0.1 lmol per day). Cell yield of DE195 was enhanced in the co-culture (9.0±0.5 x 107 cells per lmol Cl{sup -} released, compared with 6.8±0.9x 107 cells per lmol Cl{sup -} released for the pure culture), whereas no further enhancement was observed in the tri-culture (7.3±1.8x 107 cells per lmol Cl{sup -} released). The transcriptome of DE195 grown in the co-culture was analyzed using a whole-genome microarray targeting DE195, which detected 102 significantly up- or down-regulated genes compared with DE195 grown in isolation, whereas no significant transcriptomic difference was observed between co- and tri-cultures. Proteomic analysis showed that 120 proteins were differentially expressed in the co-culture compared with DE195 grown in isolation. Physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic results indicate that the robust growth of DE195 in co- and tri-cultures is because of the advantages associated with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri-culture provided no significant additional benefits beyond those of DVH.

  7. STARS: A Sustainability Assessment and Rating System for Colleges and Universities (United States)

    Walton, Judy


    Given the rapid growth of sustainability initiatives at institutions of higher education in the United States, measuring and assessing progress toward sustainability goals has become increasingly important. While many institutions have undertaken campus-wide assessments of their progress toward sustainability, and while a variety of sustainability…

  8. Nová publikace "Exploring regional sustainable development issues. Using the case study approach in higher education" dostupná on-line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Dlouhý


    Full Text Available S tématem udržitelného rozvoje na regionální (a globální úrovni souvisí nedávno publikovaná kniha "Exploring regional sustainable development issues. Using the case study approach in higher education" editorů Andrew Bartona a Jany Dlouhé. Jsou zde rekapitulována teoretická východiska pro užití případových studií ve výuce (především na vysokoškolské úrovni, kde představují vhodnou formupředstavení kvalitativních metod výzkumu a jejich využití praxi; obsahuje dále celkem sedm případových studií udržitelného rozvoje, které byly použity jako otevřené vzdělávací zdroje v mezinárodních programech výuky (především v programu ISPoS a EVS. Plný text knihy je dostupný zde. Vznik publikace byl podpořen z projektu MOSUR a projektů TAČR Omega "Metodika tvorby a využití tzv. Open Educational Resources (TD020400" a "Studium a podpora procesů participativní tvorby regionálních strategií UR (TD020120".

  9. Diameter growth rates in tropical dry forests: contributions to the sustainable management of forests in the Bolivian Cerrado biogeographical province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Peña-Claros, M.


    Growth ring variations were used to provide the rates in diameter growth for seven tree species in the Bolivian Cerrado biogeographical province. Ten to 50 trees were measured per species. Ring width measurements provided accurate data on the rates of tree growth. Variations in growth rates were

  10. "Education Is as Important for Me as Water Is to Sustaining Life": Perspectives on the Higher Education of Women in Afghanistan (United States)

    Burridge, Nina; Payne, Anne Maree; Rahmani, Nasima


    Progress in education in Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban has been described as "fragile, limited in reach, depth and uncertainty of sustainability" [UNICEF. 2013. "Basic Education and Gender Equality: Afghanistan." United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.…

  11. Growth - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  12. What Do We Know about Risk Factors for Fetal Growth Restriction in Africa at the Time of Sustainable Development Goals? A Scoping Review. (United States)

    Accrombessi, Manfred; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel; Briand, Valérie


    The reduction in the under-5 year mortality rate to at least as low as 25 per 1000 livebirths by 2030 has been implemented as one of the new Sustainable Development Goals. Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is one of the most important determinants of infant mortality in developing countries. In this review, we assess the extent of the literature and summarize its findings on the main preventable factors of FGR in Africa. A scoping review was conducted using the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Five bibliographic databases and grey literature were used to identify studies assessing at least one risk factor for FGR. Aggregate risk estimates for the main factors associated with FGR were calculated. Forty-five of a total of 671 articles were selected for the review. The prevalence of FGR varied between 2.6 and 59.2% according to both the African region and the definition of FGR. The main preventable factors reported were a low maternal nutritional status (aggrerate odds ratio [OR]: 2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59, 3.25), HIV infection (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.38, 2.50), malaria (aOR 1.95, 95% CI 1.04, 3.66), and gestational hypertension (aOR 2.61, 95% CI 2.42, 2.82). FGR is, to a large extent, preventable through existing efficacious interventions dedicated to malaria, HIV and nutrition. Further studies are still needed to assess the influence of risk factors most commonly documented in high-income countries. Improving research on FGR in Africa requires a consensual and standardized definition of FGR-for a higher comparability-between studies and settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Sustainable higher education 2002. State-of-the-art of the integration of sustainable development in the education of academies and universities in the Netherlands; Duurzaam Hoger Onderwijs 2002. Stand van zaken van de integratie van duurzame ontwikkeling in het onderwijs van hogescholen en universiteiten in Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heideveld, A.; Wieman, A.; Van Zonneveld, H.


    In 1998 students and professors set up the Sustainable Higher Education network. The aim of the network is to integrate sustainable development in higher education, so that every student learns about the relation between sustainable development and his or her own discipline and how to cooperate with representatives of other disciplines in solving sustainability problems. [Dutch] In 1998 is door studenten en docenten het netwerk Duurzaam Hoger Onderwijs opgezet. Doel van het netwerk is integratie van duurzame ontwikkeling in het hoger onderwijs: iedere student dient aan het eind van de studie te weten wat de relatie van duurzame ontwikkeling met het eigen vakgebied is en in interdisciplinair verband te kunnen samenwerken met vertegenwoordigers van andere disciplines aan de oplossing van actuele duurzaamheidsvraagstukken. Hiertoe wordt gepoogd de, nog immer toenemende, stroom van activiteiten op het gebied van integratie van duurzame ontwikkeling te kanaliseren en waar mogelijk te bundelen.

  14. Towards the development of an integrated sustainability and resilience benefits assessment framework of urban green growth interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Grafakos (Stelios); A. Gianoli (Alberto); Tsatsou, A. (Alexandra)


    textabstractConsidering the current emerging demographic, urbanization and climatic trends, integrating sustainability and resilience principles into urban development becomes a key priority for decision-makers worldwide. Local and national governments, project developers and other urban

  15. Do private sustainability standards contribute to income growth and poverty alleviation? A comparison of different coffee certification schemes in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitiku, Fikadu; Mey, de Yann; Nyssen, Jan; Maertens, Miet


    Private sustainability standards are increasingly important in food trade with developing countries, but the implications for smallholder farmers are still poorly understood. We analyze the implications of different coffee certification schemes in Ethiopia using cross-sectional survey data, and

  16. Analysis of the Sustainable Growth Indicator in the Area of Climate Change from the Point of View of Europe 2020 Strategy Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Blatná


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the results of an analysis of the indicator Greenhouse gas emissions (GGE. The GGE is one of the headline indicators tracked under the EU’s main socioeconomic strategy until the year 2020 – the EUROPE 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. In the area of sustainable growth, the Resource-efficient Europe initiative was established. For 2020, the EU has made a unilateral commitment to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions from its 28 member states by 20 % compared to 1990 levels. The GGE indicator shows total man-made emissions of the so-called Kyoto basket of greenhouse gases. It presents annual total emissions in relation to those observed in 1990. The aggregate greenhouse gas emissions are expressed in units of CO2 equivalent. The development of the GGE indicator in the EU and in the Czech Republic from 2000 to 2014 from the point of view of the ability to achieve the Strategy objectives is analyzed. In terms of the level of the analyzed indicator, the set of the EU countries can be divided into two significantly different groups – the euro area and the non-euro area; or into groups by the year of their joining the EU. Analyses of the dependency between the growth of GGE and the GDP growth for both the set of the 28 EU countries and the Czech Republic are presented as well.

  17. Analysing Italian Regional Patterns in Green Economy and Climate Change. Can Italy Leverage on Europe 2020 Strategy to Face Sustainable Growth Challenges ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco BONSINETTO


    Full Text Available European cities and regions are facing the crucial challenge of greening their economy towards more sustainable patterns. Politicians and policy-makers should promote new policies for sustainable growth including renewables, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and biodiversity. All of these aspects can be considered as a boost for local and regional economy. In this regard, European countries and regions can benefit from the Europe 2020 Strategy which is defined as Europe’s blueprint for a smart, sustainable and inclusive future, providing a ten year roadmap for growth and jobs. EU2020S was designed as a European exit strategy from the global economic and financial crisis in view of new European economic governance. This study discusses the above issues regarding Italy and intends to provide some answers on the perspectives of the new EU2020S. It draws from a research project supported by ESPON, the S.I.E.S.T.A. Project, focused on the territorial dimension of the EU2020S. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing Italian regional patterns on climate change, green economy and energy within the context of EU2020S and at providing policy recommendations for better achieving the goals of the Strategy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Eremia VLAICU POPA


    Full Text Available In the context of what is implemented through dualism "ecosystem-efficient", sustainable development involves the care of the human potential of the present situation and the future of its natural resources, energy, materials and information. As an effect of responsibility for future generations, the efficient use of resources requires, at the same time, the operation of a sustainable economy, by diversification and development of the labour market in order to meet present and future demands of human society. At local and regional level, through the closing of mines and large enterprises, with an effect in restructuring the economic sector and employment, development strategies and rehabilitation of the affected industrial areas as a common principle approach, analyzing the problems, defining the objectives and policies, identifying actions to attack problems and provide for mechanisms that will enable the progress control. In this paper it is presented the concept of sustainable development as imperative for economic growth, diversification and development of the labour market, being dealt the representative criteria and principles of sustainable development strategy of any company. Are defined the components and objectives of a strategy for local and regional development of industrial areas affected by the restructuring.

  19. A Joint Vision for Secondary and Higher Education for All in Europe: The Road towards Realising Sustainable Development Goal 4 in Europe (United States)

    European Students' Union, 2016


    The present joint action programme is proposed by the Organising Bureau of European School Student Unions (OBESSU), the European Students' Union (ESU), and Education International (EI) to their members and partners, in order to advance the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 related goals, which the United Nations adopted in…

  20. Interpreting the Economic Growth and Development Policies of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence on Higher Education and Prospects for Women (United States)

    Eynon, Diane E.


    This dissertation is structured as a critical policy analysis employing historical methods. It examines how the post apartheid government's economic growth and development polices have informed the higher education system and how this has changed women's financial, occupational, political, social, and educational prospects in South Africa. Through…

  1. Reconciling Post-Recession Strategies for Economic Growth with Higher Education's Current Fiscal Challenges: Part 1, New Realities (United States)

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010


    This week, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is publishing the findings of new research undertaken to explore the relationship between educational spending and economic growth. The report, "The High Cost of Low Educational Performance--The Long-Run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes", employs recent…

  2. A nanomedicine approach to effectively inhibit contracture during bladder acellular matrix allograft-induced bladder regeneration by sustained delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor. (United States)

    Xiong, Qianwei; Lin, Houwei; Hua, Xiaolin; Liu, Li; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Zhen; Shen, Xiaowei; Cui, Daxiang; Xu, Maosheng; Chen, Fang; Geng, Hongquan


    Macroscopic evidence of contracture has been identified as a major issue during the regeneration process. We hypothesize that lack of angiogenesis is the primary cause of contracture and explore a nanomedicine approach to achieve sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to stimulate angiogenesis. We evaluate the efficacy of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for long-term (3 months) sustained release of VEGF in bladder acellular matrix allografts (BAMA) in a swine model. We anticipate that the sustained release of VEGF could stimulate angiogenesis along the regeneration process and thereby inhibit contracture. Bladder was replaced with BAMA (5×5 cm), modified with PLGA NPs encapsulated with VEGF in a pig model. The time points chosen for sampling were 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks. The regenerated areas were then measured to obtain the contracture rate, and the extent of revascularization was calculated using histological and morphological features. In the control group of animals, the bladder was replaced with only BAMA. The in vivo release of VEGF was evident for ∼3 months, achieving the goal of long-acting sustained release, and successfully promoted the regeneration of blood vessels and smooth muscle fibers. In addition, less collagen deposition was observed in the experimental group compared with control. Most importantly, the inhibition of contracture was highly significant, and the ultimate contracture rate decreased by ∼57% in the experimental group compared with control. In isolated strips analysis, there were no significant differences between BAMA-regenerated (either VEGF added or not) and autogenous bladder. BAMA modified with VEGF-loaded PLGA-NPs can sustainably release VEGF in vivo (>3 months) to stimulate angiogenesis leading to the inhibition of contracture. This is the first study to report a viable nanomedicine-based strategy to overcome contracture during bladder regeneration induced by BAMA. Furthermore

  3. Projecting Future Urbanization with Prescott College's Spatial Growth Model to Promote Environmental Sustainability and Smart Growth, A Case Study in Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Limaye, Ashutosh; Johnson, Hoyt; Quattrochi, Dale; Lapenta, William; Khan, Maudood


    Planning is an integral element of good management and necessary to anticipate events not merely respond to them. Projecting the quantity and spatial distribution of urban growth is essential to effectively plan for the delivery of city services and to evaluate potential environmental impacts. The major drivers of growth in large urban areas are increasing population, employment opportunities, and quality of life attractors such as a favorable climate and recreation opportunities. The spatial distribution of urban growth is dictated by the amount and location of developable land, topography, energy and water resources, transportation network, climate change, and the existing land use configuration. The Atlanta region is growing very rapidly both in population and the consumption of forestland or low-density residential development. Air pollution and water availability are significant ongoing environmental issues. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model (SGM) was used to make growth projections for the metropolitan Atlanta region to 2010,2020 and 2030 and results used for environmental assessment in both business as usual and smart growth scenarios. The Prescott SGM is a tool that uses an ESRI ArcView extension and can be applied at the parcel level or more coarse spatial scales and can accommodate a wide range of user inputs to develop any number of growth rules each of which can be weighted depending on growth assumptions. These projections were used in conjunction with meteorological and air quality models to evaluate future environmental impacts. This presentation will focus on the application of the SGM to the 13-County Atlanta Regional Commission planning jurisdiction as a case study. The SGM will be described, including how rule sets are developed and the decision process for allocation of future development to available land use categories. Data inputs required to effectively run the model will be discussed. Spatial growth projections for ten, twenty, and thirty

  4. G20 Priorities and Decisions under Turkey’s 2015 Presidency: Implementation, Inclusiveness and Investment for Strong, Sustainable and Balanced Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova


    Full Text Available Turkey held the presidency of the G20 (Group of 20 from December 2014 to November 2015. During this period geopolitical tensions started to spread beyond the borders of the regions involved. Turkey went through a challenging time, with a slowing economy, two elections in 2015, revived political confrontations, two million refugees and frustrations in securing its borders and handling terrorism. Turkey defined three priorities for its presidency: inclusiveness, implementation and investment for growth. To combat inequality and ensure inclusive growth, it aimed to address the issues of small and medium-sized enterprises, such as access to finance, skills and global value chains, employment for youth and women, and support to the development of low-income countries. Inclusiveness was also explicit in G20 engagement with social partners. Implementation was emphasized, particularly related to the imperative to deliver on the G20 members’ commitments regarding growth strategies made at the 2014 Brisbane Summit. This article assesses the G20’s performance under the Turkey presidency within a functional paradigm focusing on the three main objectives of plurilateral summitry institutions: strengthening capacity for political leadership to launch new ideas and overcome deadlocks, reconciling domestic and international pressures, and consolidating collective management. To attain those objectives, institutions are expected to demonstrate leadership, solidarity, sustainability, acceptability, consistency and continuity. Efficiency is perceived as G20 performance on a combination of the criteria. Given the G20’s ultimate mission to achieve strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth, all the issues on Turkey’s G20 agenda were grouped according to these four growth pillars. G20 performance on each of the issue areas was assessed on six criteria using a three-point scale: high (1, medium (0 and low (−1 degree of performance. The overall

  5. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sectors Industry, Agriculture and Horticulture; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening Energieakkoord. Sectoren industrie en land- en tuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)


    On September 4, 2013, representatives of employers' associations, trade union federations, environmental organizations, the Dutch government and civil society have signed an Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. ECN and PBL have been asked to evaluate this agreement. This report gives background information on the evaluation of the measures aimed at improving energy efficiency in industry and agriculture [Dutch] Op 4 september 2013 is het 'Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei' getekend. ECN en PBL zijn gevraagd het akkoord te beoordelen en door te rekenen. Dit rapport dient als achtergronddocument bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de industrie en land- en tuinbouw.

  6. Towards systems biology of the gravity response of higher plants -multiscale analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana root growth (United States)

    Palme, Klaus; Aubry, D.; Bensch, M.; Schmidt, T.; Ronneberger, O.; Neu, C.; Li, X.; Wang, H.; Santos, F.; Wang, B.; Paponov, I.; Ditengou, F. A.; Teale, W. T.; Volkmann, D.; Baluska, F.; Nonis, A.; Trevisan, S.; Ruperti, B.; Dovzhenko, A.

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development. Up to now, little is known about the molecular organisation of the signal transduction cascades and networks which co-ordinate gravity perception and response. By using an integrated systems biological approach, a systems analysis of gravity perception and the subsequent tightly-regulated growth response is planned in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This approach will address questions such as: (i) what are the components of gravity signal transduction pathways? (ii) what are the dynamics of these components? (iii) what is their spatio-temporal regulation in different tis-sues? Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model-we use root growth to obtain insights in the gravity response. New techniques enable identification of the individual genes affected by grav-ity and further integration of transcriptomics and proteomics data into interaction networks and cell communication events that operate during gravitropic curvature. Using systematic multiscale analysis we have identified regulatory networks consisting of transcription factors, the protein degradation machinery, vesicle trafficking and cellular signalling during the gravire-sponse. We developed approach allowing to incorporate key features of the root system across all relevant spatial and temporal scales to describe gene-expression patterns and correlate them with individual gene and protein functions. Combination of high-resolution microscopy and novel computational tools resulted in development of the root 3D model in which quantitative descriptions of cellular network properties and of multicellular interactions important in root growth and gravitropism can be integrated for the first time.

  7. The Seeds of Growth. (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.


    Argues that human capital formation is the key to economic growth, that U.S. students are falling behind the rest of the World in math and science achievement because of the decline in the quality of their schooling, and that without better schools, other factors such as a quality higher education system may not sustain future U.S. economic…

  8. Sustainable agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...

  9. The early effects of sustained platelet-derived growth factor administration on the functional and structural properties of repaired intrasynovial flexor tendons: an in vivo biomechanic study at 3 weeks in canines. (United States)

    Gelberman, Richard H; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E; Das, Rosalina; Silva, Matthew J


    A bioactive fibrin-based delivery system was used to provide sustained administration of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) in a clinically relevant model of intrasynovial flexor tendon repair. We hypothesized that PDGF-BB administered in this manner would improve the sutured tendon's functional and structural properties 3 weeks after repair. A delivery system consisting of 30 microL of fibrin matrix, peptide, heparin, and 100 ng of PDGF-BB was incorporated into the repair sites of randomly selected medial or lateral forepaw flexor digitorum profundus tendons of 8 adult mongrel dogs. The remaining forepaw flexor digitorum profundus tendons were repaired without the growth-factor and fibrin-based delivery system and served as controls. The surgically treated forelimbs were treated with controlled passive motion rehabilitation. The animals were killed at 3 weeks, at which time the tendons were tested for range of motion with a motion analysis system and for tensile properties with a materials testing machine. Proximal interphalangeal joint and distal interphalangeal joint rotation values were significantly higher for the PDGF-BB-treated tendons compared with the repair-alone tendons. Excursion values were also significantly higher in the PDGF-BB-treated tendons. There were no significant differences in tensile properties when comparing PDGF-BB-treated with repair-alone tendons. The functional properties of repaired intrasynovial flexor tendons were significantly improved with the sustained administration of PDGF-BB. The failure to achieve improvements in ultimate load, stiffness, and strain in the experimental group may have been due to suboptimal PDGF-BB dosage or suboptimal release kinetics.

  10. Implications of late-in-life density-dependent growth for fishery size-at-entry leading to maximum sustainable yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gemert, Rob; Andersen, Ken Haste


    Currently applied fisheries models and stock assessments rely on the assumption that density-dependent regulation only affects processes early in life, as described by stock–recruitment relationships. However, many fish stocks also experience density-dependent processes late in life......, such as density-dependent adult growth. Theoretical studies have found that, for stocks which experience strong late-in-life density dependence, maximum sustainable yield (MSY) is obtained with a small fishery size-at-entry that also targets juveniles. This goes against common fisheries advice, which dictates...... that primarily adults should be fished. This study aims to examine whether the strength of density-dependent growth in actual fish stocks is sufficiently strong to reduce optimal fishery size-at-entry to below size-at-maturity. A size-structured model is fitted to three stocks that have shown indications of late-in-life...

  11. Glucose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 under different aeration conditions: Requirement of acetate to sustain growth under microaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Mikkel; Jensen, N.B.S.; Villadsen, John


    resulted in acetate, CO2, and acetoin replacing formate and ethanol as end products. Under microaerobic conditions, growth came to a gradual halt, although more than 60% of the glucose was still left. A decline in growth was not observed during microaerobic cultivation when acetate was added to the medium....... We hypothesize that the decline in growth was due to a lack of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) needed for fatty acid synthesis since acetyl-CoA can be synthesized from acetate by means of acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase activities....... with air was used as the reference). The maximum specific growth rate was high (0.78 to 0.91 h(-1)) under all aeration conditions but decreased with increasing aeration, and more than 90% of the glucose was converted to lactate. However, a shift in by-product formation was observed. Increasing aeration...

  12. House Price Growth When Children Are Teenagers: A Path to Higher Earnings? Working Paper No. 14-13 (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel; Luengo-Prado, María José


    This paper examines whether a rise in house prices that occurs immediately prior to children entering college has an impact on their earnings as adults. Higher house prices provide homeowners with additional funds to invest in their children's human capital. The results show that a 1 percentage point increase in house prices, when children are 17…

  13. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan


    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  14. Smart Growth and Transportation (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  15. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano


    The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...

  16. Low dose growth hormone treatment in infants and toddlers with Prader-Willi syndrome is comparable to higher dosage regimens. (United States)

    Scheermeyer, Elly; Harris, Mark; Hughes, Ian; Crock, Patricia A; Ambler, Geoffrey; Verge, Charles F; Bergman, Phil; Werther, George; Craig, Maria E; Choong, Catherine S; Davies, Peter S W


    Evaluate benefit and risk of low dose growth hormone treatment (GHT, 4.5mg/m2/week) in very young children with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Prospective longitudinal clinical intervention. We evaluated 31 infants (aged 2-12months) and 42 toddlers (13-24months) from the PWS-OZGROW database for height, weight and BMI using the World Health Organization standard deviation scores (SDSWHO) and PWS specific BMI (SDSPWS), bone age, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) levels and adverse events over 3years of GHT. At commencement of GHT infants had a lower BMI SDSWHO (-0.88 vs 0.40) than toddlers, while toddlers had a lower height SDSWHO (-1.44 vs -2.09) (both P<0.05). All increased height SDSWHO (2year delta height infants +1.26 SDS, toddlers+1.21 SDS), but infants normalised height sooner, achieving a height SDS of -0.56 within 1year, while toddlers achieved a height SDS of -0.88 in two years. BMI SDSWHO increased, while BMI SDSPWS decreased (both P<0.0001) and remained negative. The GHT response did not differ with gestation (preterm 23%) or genetic subtype (deletion vs maternal uniparental disomy). Bone age advancement paralleled chronological age. All children had low serum IGF-I at baseline which increased, but remained within the age-based reference range during GHT (for 81% in first year). Four children had spinal curvature at baseline; two improved, two progressed to a brace and two developed an abnormal curve over the observation period. Mild to severe central and/or obstructive sleep apnoea were observed in 40% of children prior to GHT initiation; 11% commenced GHT on positive airway pressure (PAP), oxygen or both. Eight children ceased GHT due to onset or worsening of sleep apnoea: 2 infants in the first few months and 6 children after 6-24months. Seven resumed GHT usually after adjusting PAP but five had adenotonsillectomy. One child ceased GHT temporarily due to respiratory illness. No other adverse events were reported. Two children substantially improved

  17. Idiopathic and secondary osteonecrosis of the femoral head show different thrombophilic changes and normal or higher levels of platelet growth factors (United States)


    Background and purpose Thrombophilia represents a risk factor both for idiopathic and secondary osteonecrosis (ON). We evaluated whether clotting changes in idiopathic ON were different from corticosteroid-associated ON. As platelet-rich plasma has been proposed as an adjuvant in surgery, we also assessed whether platelet and serum growth factors were similar to those in healthy subjects. Methods 18 patients with idiopathic ON and 18 with corticosteroid-associated ON were compared with 44 controls for acquired and inherited thrombophilia. Platelet factor 4 (PF4), transforming growth factor-β1, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), and vascular endothelial growth factor were assayed in the supernatants of thrombin-activated platelets, in platelet lysates, and in serum from 14 ON patients and 10 controls. Results Idiopathic ON patients had higher plasminogen levels (median 118%) than controls (101%) (p = 0.02). Those with corticosteroid-associated ON had significantly higher D-dimer (333 ng/mL) and lower protein C levels (129%) than controls (164 ng/mL, p = 0.004; 160%, p = 0.02). The frequency of inherited thrombophilia was not different from the controls. No statistically significant differences were found between idiopathic and corticosteroid-associated ON. 20 of the 36 ON patients were smokers. (The controls were selected from smokers because nicotine favors hypercoagulability). ON patients had significantly higher serum PF4 levels (7,383 IU/mL) and PDGF-BB levels (3.1 ng/mL) than controls (4,697 IU/mL, p = 0.005; 2.2 ng/mL, p = 0.02). Interpretation Acquired hypercoagulability was common in both ON types, but the specific changes varied. The release of GF from platelets was not affected, providing a biological basis for platelet-rich plasma being used as an adjuvant in surgical treatment. PMID:21281264

  18. Sustained delivery of insulin-like growth factor-1/hepatocyte growth factor stimulates endogenous cardiac repair in the chronic infarcted pig heart. (United States)

    Koudstaal, Stefan; Bastings, Maartje M C; Feyen, Dries A M; Waring, Cheryl D; van Slochteren, Frebus J; Dankers, Patricia Y W; Torella, Daniele; Sluijter, Joost P G; Nadal-Ginard, Bernardo; Doevendans, Pieter A; Ellison, Georgina M; Chamuleau, Steven A J


    Activation of endogenous cardiac stem/progenitor cells (eCSCs) can improve cardiac repair after acute myocardial infarction. We studied whether the in situ activation of eCSCs by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) could be increased using a newly developed hydrogel in chronic myocardial infarction (MI). One-month post-MI pigs underwent NOGA-guided intramyocardial injections of IGF-1/HGF (GF: both 0.5 μg/mL, n = 5) or IGF-1/HGF incorporated in UPy hydrogel (UPy-GF; both 0.5 μg/mL, n = 5). UPy hydrogel without added growth factors was administered to four control (CTRL) pigs. Left ventricular ejection fraction was increased in the UPy-GF and GF animals compared to CTRLs. UPy-GF delivery reduced pathological hypertrophy, led to the formation of new, small cardiomyocytes, and increased capillarization. The eCSC population was increased almost fourfold in the border zone of the UPy-GF-treated hearts compared to CTRL hearts. These results show that IGF-1/HGF therapy led to an improved cardiac function in chronic MI and that effect size could be further increased by using UPy hydrogel.

  19. Sustainable nitrogen fertilisation in sweet pepper: assessing growth and fruit quality and the potential nitrate pollution from different organic manures. (United States)

    Gómez-López, María D; del Amor, Francisco M


    The use of organic cultivation with manures does not avoid the risk of high nitrate concentrations if nutrient management is inefficient. So we studied the influence of three organic manures combined or not with additional chemical fertilisers on growth and yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), and on the soil and plant N concentrations. After 3 years of organic cultivation, poultry manure caused the highest soil pollution. The evolution of nitrate and organic matter in soil showed a pattern close to that of plant growth. The addition of mineral fertiliser increased vegetative growth and yield, and a cumulative season effect was observed. In treatments with no additional mineral fertiliser N translocation from leaves to fruits happened. A cumulative effect of seasons on fruit quality and a reduction near to 30% was observed in the first fruit quality category after 3 years. The fruit vitamin C content was reduced by increasing N fertilisation. The effects of organic fertiliser on soil and plant growth and yield depended on the type of manure used, its rate, and consecutive crop seasons. Horse manure gave the best combination of agricultural and environmental characteristics and could be used without additional fertigation. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Contemporary statecraft for sustained and 'sustainable' growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focusing on state structure and behaviour, the 'good governance' agenda, political settlement, and the current path, this article describes and elaborates – in a problematic manner – the hurdles we will encounter in simultaneously walking and making the road of state construction that is messy, complex and replete with ...

  1. Contemporary statecraft for sustained and 'sustainable' growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    our world? In full recognition of the fact that contemporary statecraft and the construction ..... the operations of core state developmental agencies (Jayasuriya, 2001: 188). .... Embeddedness provides sources of intelligence and channels of ...

  2. The bowel cancer awareness campaign 'Be Clear on Cancer': sustained increased pressure on resources and over-accessed by higher social grades with no increase in cancer detected. (United States)

    Hall, S J; Peacock, J D H; Cochrane, L A; Peacock, O; Tierney, G M; Tou, S I H; Lund, J N


    To evaluate the impact of the national 'Be Clear on Cancer' bowel cancer reminder campaign on service and diagnosis at a single UK institution. Secondly, to evaluate the socio-economic background of patients referred before and after the reminder campaign compared with the regional demographic. Suspected cancer 2-week wait patients in the 3 months precampaign, postcampaign and after the reminder campaign were included. Demographics, investigations and diagnosis were recorded. The postcode was used to allocate a National Readership Survey social grade. Three hundred and eighty-three referrals were received in the 3 months precampaign, 550 postcampaign and 470 postreminder campaign. There were significant increases in the monthly referral rates following the campaign (P social grades AB and C1C2 than expected from regional demographics were referred precampaign and after the reminder campaign (P campaign has had a significant sustained impact on resources. It has failed to increase referrals among lower socio-economic grades, leading to an increase in 'worried well' referrals and no change in numbers, or the stage, of colorectal cancers diagnosed. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. The effect of female labour force in economic growth and sustainability in transition economies - case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu


    Full Text Available In this research paper, the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: female labour force participation in transition countries, female employment in economic sectors and their main barriers, and the contributions of female labour force in economic growth. In methodology, the secondary data are used, and they are calculated through STATA program. The main analysis include: descriptive statistic, regression analysis and correlation matrix. Based on empirical results, the regression analysis has found that economic growth and government effectiveness has a negative impact on female labour force. Financial market development, enterprises reforms, and innovation have a positive impact on female labour force in SEE (South Eastern European countries. In T-statistic analysis all independent variables have shown a negative significance (T <2 on female labour force. In correlation, economic growth and financial development market have negative correlation on female labour force, but other variables have shown positive correlation. SEE countries should develop the female labour force in their economies, so their role may be crucial toward different economic problems and challenges in the modern economy.

  4. Promoting sustainable economic growth in South Africa through the production and export of low-carbon environmental goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette van Niekerk


    Full Text Available Many countries, particularly those in the developing world, are under increasing pressure to improve their growth rates in order to tackle pressing economic problems at the domestic level. Increasing export volumes can make a positive contribution to a country’s economic growth rate, but it can also endanger the environment. How to reconcile the often conflicting phenomena of increased export activity, stronger economic growth and a lower carbon footprint is the focus of this study. A core outcome of the study was the creation of a single list using a cross-section of international sources, of low-carbon environmental goods, and their ranking according to their inherent ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, South Africa’s capacity to produce them, and their economic benefits, as reflected in the export opportunities they present. These export opportunities were revealed through the application of the Decision Support Model (DSM, an export market selection tool that incorporates a systematic filtering and screening system. The results of the analysis should help guide policymakers in their strategic deliberations on which export sectors to incentivise and support with a view to encouraging more ‘green’ growth in South Africa in the years ahead. diffusion of such goods. If the production and export of environmental goods were to increase, it could have a potentially positive effect on economic and environmental objectives, such as raising economic growth rates and lowering greenhouse gas intensity, respectively. For the purpose of this study, an analysis of four existing lists of environmental goods led to the identification of 39 core environmental goods. These 39 goods were ranked according to three criteria: i the potential environmental benefits of each environmental good, using consensus among role players as a proxy; ii South Africa’s capacity to produce each environmental good, using the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA

  5. Promoting sustainable economic growth in South Africa through the production and export of low-carbon environmental goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette van Niekerk


    Full Text Available Many countries, particularly those in the developing world, are under increasing pressure to improve their growth rates in order to tackle pressing economic problems at the domestic level.  Increasing export volumes can make a positive contribution to a country’s economic growth rate, but it can also endanger the environment.  How to reconcile the often conflicting phenomena of increased export activity, stronger economic growth and a lower carbon footprint is the focus of this study.A core outcome of the study was the creation of a single list using a cross-section of international sources, of low-carbon environmental goods, and their ranking according to their inherent ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, South Africa’s capacity to produce them, and their economic benefits, as reflected in the export opportunities they present. These export opportunities were revealed through the application of the Decision Support Model (DSM, an export market selection tool that incorporates a systematic filtering and screening system.The results of the analysis should help guide policymakers in their strategic deliberations on which export sectors to incentivise and support with a view to encouraging more ‘green’ growth in South Africa in the years ahead.diffusion of such goods.  If the production and export of environmental goods were to increase, it could have a potentially positive effect on economic and environmental objectives, such as raising economic growth rates and lowering greenhouse gas intensity, respectively.  For the purpose of this study, an analysis of four existing lists of environmental goods led to the identification of 39 core environmental goods.  These 39 goods were ranked according to three criteria: i the potential environmental benefits of each environmental good, using consensus among role players as a proxy; ii South Africa’s capacity to produce each environmental good, using the Revealed Comparative Advantage

  6. Effect of the ICT Ecosystem Structure on the Sustainable Growth of ICT Firms: A Metafrontier Analysis on China, South Korea, the United States, and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungsun Lee


    Full Text Available We study how the information and communications technology (ICT ecosystem affects the sustainable growth of ICT firms. For our study, we analyze the efficiencies of ICT firms in China, South Korea, the United States, and Japan, which are the current leaders in the global ICT industry, each with different ICT ecosystem structures. We use metafrontier analysis (MFA to compare the efficiencies among countries with different structures, and then use Tobit regression to identify the causes of the efficiency gaps. Our results reveal that the US has the highest efficiency, followed by Japan, South Korea, and China, in that order, and the countries with more balanced ICT ecosystems across sub-industries—manufacturing, software and IT services, content, and telecommunications—have more efficient ICT industries. This suggests that a more balanced industrial development is important to enhancing the overall competitiveness of the ICT industry.

  7. Extracellular Matrix (ECM Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Sim Yang

    Full Text Available Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3 is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs using western blot and circular dichroism (CD analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+ rhTGF-β3 EMLDS in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair.

  8. Higher Education and the Minerals Boom: A View from the Regions (United States)

    Bell, Philip


    This paper examines the impact of the minerals boom to date on the demand for higher education in Central Queensland, and the sustainability of higher education providers in high economic growth environments. Several datasets were used to examine changes in the demand for higher education among specific student groups within the region, the…

  9. Sustainability and shared smart and mutual--green growth (SSaM-GG) in Korean medical waste management. (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Jeong, Seung-Ik


    Since medical insurance was introduced in the Republic of Korea, there have been several increases concerning medical waste. In order to solve these problems, we have applied life cycle assessment and life cycle cost. But these methods cannot be a perfect decision-making tool because they can only evaluate environmental and economic burdens. Thus, as one of many practical methods the shared smart and mutual - green growth considers economic growth, environmental protection, social justice, science technology and art, and mutual voluntarism when applied to medical waste management in the Republic of Korea. Four systems were considered: incineration, incineration with heat recovery, steam sterilisation, and microwave disinfection. This research study aimed to assess pollutant emissions from treatment, transport, and disposal. Global warming potential, photochemical oxidant creation potential, acidifications potential, and human toxicity are considered to be environmental impacts. Total investment cost, transport cost, operation, and maintenance cost for the medical waste are considered in the economy evaluations though life cycle cost. The social development, science technology and art, and mutual voluntarism are analysed through the Delphi-method conducted by expert groups related to medical waste. The result is that incineration with heat recovery is the best solution. However, when heat recovery is impossible, incineration without heat recovery becomes the next best choice. That is why 95% of medical waste is currently treated by both incineration and incineration with heat recovery within the Republic of Korea. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Orthopedic surgery and bone fracture pain are both significantly attenuated by sustained blockade of nerve growth factor. (United States)

    Majuta, Lisa A; Longo, Geraldine; Fealk, Michelle N; McCaffrey, Gwen; Mantyh, Patrick W


    The number of patients suffering from postoperative pain due to orthopedic surgery and bone fracture is projected to dramatically increase because the human life span, weight, and involvement in high-activity sports continue to rise worldwide. Joint replacement or bone fracture frequently results in skeletal pain that needs to be adequately controlled for the patient to fully participate in needed physical rehabilitation. Currently, the 2 major therapies used to control skeletal pain are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates, both of which have significant unwanted side effects. To assess the efficacy of novel therapies, mouse models of orthopedic and fracture pain were developed and evaluated here. These models, orthopedic surgery pain and bone fracture pain, resulted in skeletal pain-related behaviors that lasted 3 weeks and 8 to 10 weeks, respectively. These skeletal pain behaviors included spontaneous and palpation-induced nocifensive behaviors, dynamic weight bearing, limb use, and voluntary mechanical loading of the injured hind limb. Administration of anti-nerve growth factor before orthopedic surgery or after bone fracture attenuated skeletal pain behaviors by 40% to 70% depending on the end point being assessed. These data suggest that nerve growth factor is involved in driving pain due to orthopedic surgery or bone fracture. These animal models may be useful in developing an understanding of the mechanisms that drive postoperative orthopedic and bone fracture pain and the development of novel therapies to treat these skeletal pains.

  11. Sustainable Practices Innovation (United States)

    Better sustainability means more environmentally conscious and efficient businesses and communities. EPA helps modify the way we consume energy, deal with waste, and grow our economy through programs such as Energy Star, E3, Smart Growth, and WaterSense.

  12. The U.S. Partnership for Education for Sustainable Development: Progress and Challenges Ahead (United States)

    Rowe, Debra; Gentile, Susan Jane; Clevey, Lilah


    There has been substantial growth in Education for Sustainability (EfS) in the United States over the past 10 years. Efforts within higher education have created thousands of new programs, majors, minors, specializations, certificates, and across-the-curricula integrations of sustainability learning with an emphasis on real-world problem-solving…

  13. Sustainability of National Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mihai Cristea


    Full Text Available In the European Union, cohesion policy is the third country after the domestic and social policy, as this policy is a tool for economic growth and also a balancing factor. Through its solidarity funds contribute to the other sectorial policies: the Common Agricultural Policy, social policy, environmental policy. This article aims to demonstrate the importance of cohesion policy in the national economy and how to improve its implementation by ensuring sustainable development and sustainable economic growth

  14. Efficient Encapsulation and Sustained Release of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Nanofilm: Extension of the Feeding Cycle of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture. (United States)

    Han, Uiyoung; Park, Hee Ho; Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Tai Hyun; Park, Ju Hyun; Hong, Jinkee


    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has an established pivotal function in biomedical engineering, especially for the human pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, the limitation of bFGF is the ease of denaturation under normal physiological conditions, inducing loss of its activity. In this study, we designed multi-trilayered nanofilm composed of a repeating polycation/polyanion/bFGF structure, which has high loading efficiency and short buildup time. We also investigated that the loading and release of bFGF from the nanofilm with two parameters (counter-polyanion and film architectures). Then, we prepared the optimized nanofilm which maintains a sustained bFGF level in physiological condition to apply the nanofilm to human iPSCs culture. The amount of bFGF release from 12 trilayer nanofilm was 36.4 ng/cm(2), and activity of bFGF encapsulated into the nanofilm was maintained (60%) until 72 h during incubation at 37 °C. As a result, the iPSCs grown in the presence of the nanofilm with tridaily replacement of growth medium maintained undifferentiated morphology and expression levels of pluripotency marker proteins.

  15. Calpain-Mediated Positional Information Directs Cell Wall Orientation to Sustain Plant Stem Cell Activity, Growth and Development. (United States)

    Liang, Zhe; Brown, Roy C; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Opsahl-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn


    Eukaryotic development and stem cell control depend on the integration of cell positional sensing with cell cycle control and cell wall positioning, yet few factors that directly link these events are known. The DEFECTIVE KERNEL1 (DEK1) gene encoding the unique plant calpain protein is fundamental for development and growth, being essential to confer and maintain epidermal cell identity that allows development beyond the globular embryo stage. We show that DEK1 expression is highest in the actively dividing cells of seeds, meristems and vasculature. We further show that eliminating Arabidopsis DEK1 function leads to changes in developmental cues from the first zygotic division onward, altered microtubule patterns and misshapen cells, resulting in early embryo abortion. Expression of the embryonic marker genes WOX2, ATML1, PIN4, WUS and STM, related to axis organization, cell identity and meristem functions, is also altered in dek1 embryos. By monitoring cell layer-specific DEK1 down-regulation, we show that L1- and 35S-induced down-regulation mainly affects stem cell functions, causing severe shoot apical meristem phenotypes. These results are consistent with a requirement for DEK1 to direct layer-specific cellular activities and set downstream developmental cues. Our data suggest that DEK1 may anchor cell wall positions and control cell division and differentiation, thereby balancing the plant's requirement to maintain totipotent stem cell reservoirs while simultaneously directing growth and organ formation. A role for DEK1 in regulating microtubule-orchestrated cell wall orientation during cell division can explain its effects on embryonic development, and suggests a more general function for calpains in microtubule organization in eukaryotic cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  16. Nuclear Symbiosis - A Means to Achieve Sustainable Nuclear Growth while Limiting the Spread of Sensititive Nuclear Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire


    Global growth of nuclear energy in the 21st century is creating new challenges to limit the spread of nuclear technology without hindering adoption in countries now considering nuclear power. Independent nuclear states desire autonomy over energy choices and seek energy independence. However, this independence comes with high costs for development of new indigenous fuel cycle capabilities. Nuclear supplier states and expert groups have proposed fuel supply assurance mechanisms such as fuel take-back services, international enrichment services and fuel banks in exchange for recipient state concessions on the development of sensitive technologies. Nuclear states are slow to accept any concessions to their rights under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. To date, decisions not to develop indigenous fuel cycle capabilities have been driven primarily by economics. However, additional incentives may be required to offset a nuclear state’s perceived loss of energy independence. This paper proposes alternative economic development incentives that could help countries decide to forgo development of sensitive nuclear technologies. The incentives are created through a nuclear-centered industrial complex with “symbiotic” links to indigenous economic opportunities. This paper also describes a practical tool called the “Nuclear Materials Exchange” for identifying these opportunities.

  17. Fully aligned academic health centers: a model for 21st-century job creation and sustainable economic growth. (United States)

    Reece, E Albert; Chrencik, Robert A; Miller, Edward D


    Alignment is the degree to which component parts of academic health centers (AHCs) work cohesively. Full alignment allows AHCs to act quickly and cohesively toward common goals and to take advantage of opportunities that present themselves, particularly where collaboration is essential. Maryland's two major AHCs-University of Maryland Medicine (UMM) and Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM)-have experienced periods of significant misalignment during each of their histories. Their most recent periods of misalignment caused significant negative economic and academic impacts. However, the process of realigning their clinical and research missions has not only given them a renewed economic vigor but has also paid significant dividends for the state of Maryland, helping it weather the current recession much better than other regions of the country. The two AHCs' continued economic success during the recession has led Maryland lawmakers to increasingly seek out their expertise in attempts to stimulate economic development. Indeed, UMM, JHM, and other fully aligned AHCs have shown that they can be powerful economic engines and offer a model of job growth and economic development in the 21st century.

  18. Application of Heavy Metal Rich Tannery Sludge on Sustainable Growth, Yield and Metal Accumulation by Clarysage (Salvia sclarea L.). (United States)

    Chand, Sukhmal; Yaseen, M; Rajkumari; Patra, D D


    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effective utilization of tannery sludge for cultivation of clarysage (Salvia sclarea) at CIMAP research farm, Lucknow, India during the year 2012-2013. Six doses (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 tha(-1)) of processed tannery sludge were tested in randomised block design with four replications. Results revealed that maximum shoot, root, dry matter and oil yield were obtained with application of 80 tha(-1)of tannery sludge and these were 94, 113 and 61% higher respectively, over control. Accumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb) were relatively high in shoot portion of the plant than root. Among heavy metals, magnitude of chromium accumulation was higher than nickel, iron and lead in shoot as well as in root. Linalool, linalyl acetate and sclareol content in oil increased by 13,8 and 27% respectively over control, with tannery sludge application at 80 tha(-1). Heavy metals such as chromium, cadmium and lead content reduced in postharvest soil when compared to initial status. Results indicated that clarysage (Salvia sclarea) can be grown in soil amended with 80 tha(-1)sludge and this can be a suitable accumulator of heavy metals for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils.

  19. Mixed microalgae consortia growth under higher concentration of CO2from unfiltered coal fired flue gas: Fatty acid profiling and biodiesel production. (United States)

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Manzoor, Maleeha; Jabeen, Faiza; Iqbal, Munawar; Uz Zaman, Qamar; Schenk, Peer M; Asif Tahir, M


    Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from oleaginous microalgae feedstock. Biodiesel fuel properties were studied and compared with biodiesel standards. Qualitative analysis of FAME was done while cultivating mixed microalgae consortia under three concentrations of coal fired flue gas (1%, 3.0% and 5.5% CO 2 ). Under 1% CO 2 concentration (flue gas), the FAME content was 280.3 μg/mL, whereas the lipid content was 14.03 μg/mL/D (day). Both FAMEs and lipid contents were low at other CO 2 concentrations (3.0 and 5.5%). However, mixed consortia in the presence of phosphate buffer and flue gas (PB + FG) showed higher saturated fatty acids (SFA) (36.28%) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (63.72%) versus 5.5% CO 2 concentration, which might be responsible for oxidative stability of biodiesel. Subsequently, higher cetane number (52) and low iodine value (136.3 gI 2 /100 g) biodiesel produced from mixed consortia (PB + FG) under 5.5% CO 2 along with 50 mM phosphate buffer were found in accordance with European (EN 14214) standard. Results revealed that phosphate buffer significantly enhanced the biodiesel quality, but reduced the FAME yield. This study intended to develop an integrated approach for significant improvement in biodiesel quality under surplus phosphorus by utilizing waste flue gas (as CO 2 source) using microalgae. The CO 2 sequestration from industrial flue gas not only reduced greenhouse gases, but may also ensure the sustainable and eco-benign production of biodiesel. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Comparative growth characteristics and yield attributes of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) on different substrates in India. (United States)

    Jandaik, Savita; Singh, Rajender; Sharma, Mamta


    The present study investigated the effects of four forestry byproducts (sawdust of oak, mango, khair, and tuni) and three agricultural residues (paddy straw, wheat straw, and soybean waste) along with four supplements (wheat bran, rice bran, corn flour, and gram powder) on growth characteristics (spawn run and primordial formation) and yield of Ganoderma lucidum. There were significant differences (P=0.05) in yield regardless of substrates and supplements used in experimentation. Among substrates, agriculture residues supported better yield and biological efficiency of G. lucidum compared to forestry byproducts irrespective of the supplements. The highest yield (82.5 g) and biological efficiency (27.5%) were recorded from paddy straw supplemented with wheat bran, which invariably resulted in significantly higher yield compared to the unsupplemented check(s) or other supplements used in this study.

  1. Insulin, IGF-I, and muscle MAPK pathway responses after sustained exercise and their contribution to growth and lipid metabolism regulation in gilthead sea bream. (United States)

    Sánchez-Gurmaches, J; Cruz-Garcia, L; Ibarz, A; Fernández-Borrás, J; Blasco, J; Gutiérrez, J; Navarro, I


    Herein, we studied whether sustained exercise positively affects growth of gilthead sea bream by alterations in a) plasma concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, b) signaling pathways in muscle, or c) regulation of lipid metabolism. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of moderated swimming (1.5 body lengths per second; BL/s) on the circulating concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, morphometric parameters, and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in gilthead sea bream (80-90 g BW). Exercise increased the specific growth rate (P growth and metabolic homeostasis during swimming. The observed decrease in plasma insulin concentrations (P = 0.016) could favor the mobilization of tissue reserves in exercised fish. In this sense, the increase in liver fatty acid content (P = 0.041) and the changes in expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPARα (P = 0.017) and PPARγ (P = 0.033) indicated a hepatic lipid mobilization. Concentration of glycogen in both white and red muscles was decreased (P = 0.021 and P = 0.017, respectively) in exercised (n = 12) relative to control (n = 12) gilthead sea bream, whereas concentrations of glucose (P = 0.016) and lactate (P = 0.0007) were decreased only in red muscle, indicating the use of these substrates. No changes in the glucose transporter and in lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression were found in any of the tissues studied. Exercised sea bream had decreased content of PPARβ mRNA in white and red muscle relative to control sea bream expression (P = 0.001 and P = 0.049, respectively). Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was significantly down-regulated in both white and red muscles of exercised sea bream (P = 0.0374 and P = 0.0371, respectively). Tumor necrosis factor-α expression of white muscle was down-regulated in exercised gilthead sea bream (P = 0.045). Collectively, these results contribute to the knowledge base about hormonal regulation of growth and lipid metabolism in exercised gilthead

  2. Sustained delivery of activated Rho GTPases and BDNF promotes axon growth in CSPG-rich regions following spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Jain


    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI often results in permanent functional loss. This physical trauma leads to secondary events, such as the deposition of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG within astroglial scar tissue at the lesion.We examined whether local delivery of constitutively active (CA Rho GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac1 to the lesion site alleviated CSPG-mediated inhibition of regenerating axons. A dorsal over-hemisection lesion was created in the rat spinal cord and the resulting cavity was conformally filled with an in situ gelling hydrogel combined with lipid microtubes that slowly released constitutively active (CA Cdc42, Rac1, or Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Treatment with BDNF, CA-Cdc42, or CA-Rac1 reduced the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes, as well as CSPG deposition, at the interface of the implanted hydrogel and host tissue. Neurofilament 160kDa positively stained axons traversed the glial scar extensively, entering the hydrogel-filled cavity in the treatments with BDNF and CA-Rho GTPases. The treated animals had a higher percentage of axons from the corticospinal tract that traversed the CSPG-rich regions located proximal to the lesion site.Local delivery of CA-Cdc42, CA-Rac1, and BDNF may have a significant therapeutic role in overcoming CSPG-mediated regenerative failure after SCI.

  3. Effect of cost-effective substrates on growth cycle and yield of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) from Northwestern Himalaya (India). (United States)

    Mehta, Sheetal; Jandaik, Savita; Gupta, Dharmesh


    To find a cost-effective alternative substrate, the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum was grown on sawdusts of sheesham, mango, and poplar. Optimum spawn level was determined by spawning in substrates at various levels (1, 2, 3, and 4%). To determine the effect of supplementation, substrates were supplemented with wheat bran, rice bran and corn flour at different concentrations (10, 20, and 30%). Duration of growth cycle, mushroom yield, and biological efficiency data were recorded. Among substrates, mango sawdust was superior, with 1.5-fold higher yields than poplar sawdust, which was the least suitable. However with respect to fructification, mango sawdust produced the first primordia earlier (21±1 days) compared with the other investigated substrates. 3% spawn level was found to be optimal irrespective of the substrate. Yield and biological efficiency (BE) were maximally enhanced by supplementation with wheat bran, whereas rice bran was the least suitable supplement among those tested. Growth cycle shortened and mushroom yield increased to a maximum at the 20% level of supplements. Mango sawdust in combination with 20% wheat bran, if spawned at the 3% level, resulted in a high yield (BE = 58.57%).

  4. International Monetary Fund sacrifices higher growth, employment, spending, and public investment in health systems in order to keep inflation unnecessarily low. (United States)

    Rowden, Rick


    The International Monetary Fund's response to evidence on the impact of its programs on public health fails to address the fundamental criticisms about its policies. The IMF's demand for borrowers to achieve extremely low inflation targets is founded on very little empirical evidence in the peer-reviewed literature. The low-inflation policies privilege international creditors over domestic debtors and short-term priorities over long-term development goals, and contain high social costs, referred to by economists as a "sacrifice ratio." For example, governments' raising of interest rates to bring down inflation undermines the ability of domestic firms to expand production and employment and thus "sacrifices" higher economic growth and higher tax revenues and unnecessarily constrains domestic health spending. During financial crisis, most countries seek to lower interest rates to stimulate the economy, the opposite of the IMF's general advice. Perversely, compliance with IMF policies has become a prerequisite for receiving donor aid. Critiques of the IMF express significant concerns that IMF fiscal and monetary policies are unduly restrictive. Health advocates must weigh in on such matters and pressure their finance ministries, particularly in the G7, to take steps at the level of the IMF Executive Board to revisit and modify its policy framework on deficits and inflation. Such reforms are crucial to enable countries to generate more domestic resources while the global health community searches for ways to support strengthening health system capacity.

  5. Effects of lower versus higher phosphate diets on fibroblast growth factor-23 levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Tsai, Wan-Chuan; Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Yu-Sen; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Chiu, Yen-Ling; Chen, Hung-Yuan; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Ko, Mei-Ju; Pai, Mei-Fen; Tu, Yu-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Chien, Kuo-Liong


    Elevated fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) levels increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to compare the effects of different dietary interventions, lower versus higher phosphate levels, on FGF23 in patients with CKD. We conducted electronic literature searches of Medline, PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for publications up to 29 October 2016 for randomized clinical trials that compared lower versus higher phosphate dietary interventions in adults with CKD. The primary outcome was the difference in change-from-baseline FGF23 levels between intervention groups. Considering the difference in measurement units between intact FGF23 and C-terminal FGF23 assays, the treatment effect was analysed as the standardized mean difference (SMD) with the 95% confidence interval (CI). We identified five trials enrolling a total of 94 normophosphataemic patients with Stage 3B CKD. The study duration ranged from 1 to 12 weeks. Compared with higher phosphate diets, lower phosphate diets tended to reduce FGF23 levels (SMD -0.74, 95% CI -1.54 to 0.07, P = 0.07). Subgroup analyses showed a trend (P for interaction = 0.09) towards a better FGF23-lowering effect by lower phosphate diets in studies using the intact FGF23 assay (SMD -1.14, 95% CI -2.24 to -0.04) than those using the C-terminal FGF23 assay (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.67 to 0.57). Short-term dietary phosphate restriction tends to reduce FGF23 levels in patients with moderately decreased kidney function, and the FGF23-lowering effects tend to be more prominent when measured with the intact FGF23 assay.

  6. The Higher Response of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiotensin-II to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Qu


    Full Text Available Background: This research investigated the response of vascular active factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and angiotensin-II (AT-II to ovarian stimulation during 24 hours in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 52 patients with PCOS and 8 control cases were stimulated with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG on the 4th to 7th day of the patients’ natural or induced menstrual cycles. We measured VEGF and AT-II by radioimmunoassay before the injection (0 hour and 3, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours after the stimulation. Results: After ovarian stimulation, there was substantially higher level of VEGF in typical PCOS patients than the other three groups at the 3 hour time point (p<0.05, while there were no significant differences in VEGF at all the other time points among the four groups. As for AT-II, before and at all time points after the ovarian stimulation, it seemed that the AT-II levels in patients’ sera with different phenotypes of PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria were all higher than in the control group although the differences were not statistically significant. The level of AT-II in typical PCOS patients was also significantly higher than the other three groups at the 3 hour time point (p<0.05, while no significant differences at all the other time points among the four groups were observed. Conclusion: The response to the stimulation varied among patients with different phenotypes of PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. Serum VEGF and AT-II were possible contributors to an increased risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS in patients with typical PCOS during the early follicular phase (3 hours after ovarian stimulation (Registration Number: NCT02265861.

  7. Entrepreneurial Education in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions and Sustainable Development (United States)

    Agboola, B. M.


    The higher education in Nigeria has witnessed a tremendous growth in the last 50 years in terms of producing manpower that could bring about development. However, the problem of Nigeria today is not about human and natural resources, but how to translate the human potentials to meet the realization of its all round development and sustain economic…

  8. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics


    Alvarez, Mavis Dora


    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  9. Growth of symbiont fungi of some higher attine ants in mineral medium Crescimento do fungo simbionte de alguns attine superiores em meio mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alci Enimar Loeck


    Full Text Available Bioassays were conducted to verify the possibility of culturing the symbiont fungus of some higher attine in mineral medium and finding out the optimum pH value for their satisfactory mycelial growth. Three organic media and one mineral medium were inoculated with isolates from Atta sexdens piriventris and Acromyrmex heyeri. In mineral medium different values of pH (4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 were tested with isolates from A. laevigata and A. laticeps. The behavior of isolates (colony diameter was different in the mineral medium. However, even the one which grew the least of all provided enough mycelial for RAPD analysis. The best range of pH for fungal growth in mineral medium was between 4.0 and 5.0Foram conduzidos bioensaios para verificar a possibilidade de cultivar o fungo simbionte de alguns attine superiores em meio mineral e obter um valor de pH ótimo para o seu crescimento micelial. Três meios orgânicos e um meio mineral foram testados, avaliando-se o crescimento (diâmetro da colônia de isolados de fungos de Atta sexdens piriventris e Acromyrmex heyeri. No meio mineral, diferentes valores de pH (4,0, 5,0, 6,0 and 7,0 foram avaliados, por meio do mesmo parâmetro anterior, com isolados de fungos de A. laevigata e A. laticeps. No meio mineral, os isolados testados apresentaram crescimento diferenciado, entretanto mesmo aquele que menos cresceu, forneceu material suficiente para as análises de RAPD. No mesmo meio, verificou-se que a melhor faixa de pH para o crescimento micelial está entre 4,0 e 5,0.

  10. Impact of the 3 °C temperature rise on bacterial growth and carbon transfer towards higher trophic levels: Empirical models for the Adriatic Sea (United States)

    Šolić, Mladen; Krstulović, Nada; Šantić, Danijela; Šestanović, Stefanija; Kušpilić, Grozdan; Bojanić, Natalia; Ordulj, Marin; Jozić, Slaven; Vrdoljak, Ana


    The Mediterranean Sea (including the Adriatic Sea) has been identified as a 'hotspot' for climate change, with the prediction of the increase in water temperature of 2-4 °C over the next few decades. Being mainly oligotrophic, and strongly phosphorus limited, the Adriatic Sea is characterized by the important role of the microbial food web in production and transfer of biomass and energy towards higher trophic levels. We hypothesized that predicted 3 °C temperature rise in the near future might cause an increase of bacterial production and bacterial losses to grazers, which could significantly enlarge the trophic base for metazoans. This empirical study is based on a combined 'space-for-time substitution' analysis (which is performed on 3583 data sets) and on an experimental approach (36 in situ grazing experiments performed at different temperatures). It showed that the predicted 3 °C temperature increase (which is a result of global warming) in the near future could cause a significant increase in bacterial growth at temperatures lower than 16 °C (during the colder winter-spring period, as well as in the deeper layers). The effect of temperature on bacterial growth could be additionally doubled in conditions without phosphorus limitation. Furthermore, a 3 °C increase in temperature could double the grazing on bacteria by heterotrophic nanoflagellate (HNF) and ciliate predators and it could increase the proportion of bacterial production transferred to the metazoan food web by 42%. Therefore, it is expected that global warming may further strengthen the role of the microbial food web in a carbon cycle in the Adriatic Sea.

  11. Dietary histidine requirement to reduce the risk and severity of cataracts is higher than the requirement for growth in Atlantic salmon smolts, independently of the dietary lipid source. (United States)

    Remø, S C; Hevrøy, E M; Olsvik, P A; Fontanillas, R; Breck, O; Waagbø, R


    The present study was carried out to investigate whether the dietary histidine requirement to reduce cataract development is higher than that for growth in Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.) after seawater transfer and whether dietary vegetable oils contribute to cataractogenesis. Duplicate groups of salmon smolts were fed ten experimental diets with either fish oil (FO) or a vegetable oil (VO) mix replacing 70 % FO and histidine at five target levels (10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 g His/kg diet) for 13 weeks after seawater transfer. The VO diet-fed fish exhibited somewhat inferior growth and feed intakes compared with the FO diet-fed fish, irrespective of the dietary histidine concentration. Both cataract prevalence and severity were negatively correlated with the dietary histidine concentration, while lens N-acetyl-histidine (NAH) concentrations were positively correlated with it. The fatty acid profiles of muscle, heart and lens reflected that of the dietary oils to a descending degree and did not affect the observed cataract development. Muscle, heart and brain histidine concentrations reflected dietary histidine concentrations, while the corresponding tissue imidazole (anserine, carnosine and NAH) concentrations appeared to saturate differently with time. The expression level of liver histidase was not affected by the dietary histidine concentration, while the liver antioxidant response was affected in the VO diet-fed fish on a transcriptional level. The lowest severity of cataracts could be achieved by feeding 13·4 g His/kg feed, independently of the dietary lipid source. However, the present study also suggests that the dietary histidine requirement to minimise the risk of cataract development is 14·4 g His/kg feed.

  12. Implementing Sustainable Institutional Practices (United States)

    Shepard, Joseph; Johnson, Lewis


    Recent research has found that few institutions of higher education implemented the necessary strategies to make their campuses sustainable (Thompson and Green 2005). Ironically, universities are the segment of society with the most access to the intellectual capital needed to provide sound sustainable practices and measurements. Having top…

  13. Higher neonatal growth rate and body condition score at 7 months are predictive factors of obesity in adult female Beagle dogs. (United States)

    Leclerc, Lucie; Thorin, Chantal; Flanagan, John; Biourge, Vincent; Serisier, Samuel; Nguyen, Patrick


    The risks during early growth on becoming overweight in adulthood are widely studied in humans. However, early-life predictive factors for canine adult overweight and obesity have not yet been studied. To identify factors that may help explain the development of overweight and obesity at adulthood in dogs, a longitudinal study of 2 years was conducted in 24 female Beagle dogs of the same age, sexual status, and raised under identical environmental conditions. By means of a hierarchical classification on principal components with the following quantitative values: fat-free mass (FFM), percentage fat mass and pelvic circumference at 2 years of age, three groups of dogs were established and were nominally named: ideal weight (IW, n = 9), slightly overweight (OW1, n = 6) and overweight (OW2, n = 9). With the aim of identifying predictive factors of development of obesity at adulthood parental characteristics, growth pattern, energy balance and plasma factors were analysed by logistic regression analysis. At 24 months, the group compositions were in line with the body condition scores (BCS 1-9) values of the IW (5 or 6/9), the OW1 (6/9) and the OW2 (7 or 8/9) groups. Logistic regression analysis permitted the identification of neonatal growth rate during the first 2 weeks of life (GR2W) and BCS at 7 months as predictors for the development of obesity at adulthood. Seventy percent of dogs with either GR2W >125% or with BCS > 6/9 at 7 months belonged to the OW2 group. Results from energy intake and expenditure, corrected for FFM, showed that there was a greater positive energy imbalance between 7 and 10 months for the OW2, compared to the IW group. This study expands the understanding of previously reported risk factors for being overweight or obese in dogs, establishing that (i) 15 out of 24 of the studied dogs became overweight and (ii) GR2W and BCS at 7 months of age could be used as predictive factors as overweight adult dogs in the OW2 group

  14. Sustaining and promoting professional growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    The aim of this study is to design responsive and supportive interventions across a school to embed practice initiated through participation in a previous professional development program. An initial survey and focus group discussions were used to identify teachers' current understandings....... This is a two-year project. At this early stage, changes have been identified in cross-school curriculum planning to incorporate professional learning; classroom practices are being shared among researchers and teachers through modelled lessons and discussions; the school leadership team are supporting ongoing...

  15. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B


    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  16. Higher Education Institutions and Social Responsibility in the Context of Sustainability Las instituciones de educación superior y la responsabilidad social en el marco de la sustentabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro César Cantú-Martínez


    Full Text Available This review article explores an issue of vital importance to higher education institutions, that is, social responsibility. The social responsibility approach is back on the table of the environmental crisis and sustainable development debates. This review article explains how higher education institutions, particularly in México, should have a permanent highly relevant qualitative-quantitative development to contextualize the demands of society. It refers toRecibido 28 de enero de 2013 •  Corregido 10 de junio de 2013 • Aceptado 19 de junio de 2013El presente artículo de revisión aborda un tema de trascendental importancia para las instituciones de educación superior, como es la responsabilidad social. El enfoque de responsabilidad social retoma un apogeo en el dominio de los debates por la crisis ambiental y por la búsqueda del desarrollo sustentable. Este artículo de revisión expone, en particular, cómo en México, las instituciones de educación superior deben contar con un desarrollo, tanto cualitativo como cuantitativo, muy relevante que trascienda y sea permanente para contextualizar las demandas de nuestra sociedad. Además, se menciona la experiencia de implementación de la responsabilidad social en la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León.

  17. 2016 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries: Gaps, Growth, and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. (United States)

    Mollura, Daniel J; Soroosh, Garshasb; Culp, Melissa P


    The 2016 RAD-AID Conference analyzed the accelerated global activity in the radiology community that is transforming medical imaging into an effective spearhead of health care capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. Global health efforts historically emphasized disaster response, crisis zones, and infectious disease outbreaks. However, the projected doubling of cancer and cardiovascular deaths in developing countries in the next 15 years and the need for higher technology screening and diagnostic technologies in low-resource regions, as articulated by the United Nations' new Sustainable Development Goals of 2016, is heightening the role of radiology in global health. Academic US-based radiology programs with RAD-AID chapters achieved a threefold increase in global health project offerings for trainees in the past 5 years. RAD-AID's nonprofit radiology volunteer corps continue to grow by more than 40% yearly, with a volunteer base of 5,750 radiology professionals, serving in 23 countries, donating close to 20,000 pro bono hours globally in 2016. As a high-technology specialty interfacing with nearly all medical and surgical disciplines, radiology underpins vital health technology infrastructure, such as digital imaging archives, electronic medical records, and advanced diagnosis and treatment, essential for long-term future health care capacity in underserved areas of the world. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Decision Guidance for Sustainable Manufacturing (United States)

    Shao, Guodong


    Sustainable manufacturing has significant impacts on a company's business performance and competitiveness in today's world. A growing number of manufacturing industries are initiating efforts to address sustainability issues; however, to achieve a higher level of sustainability, manufacturers need methodologies for formally describing, analyzing,…

  19. Adult growth hormone deficiency treatment with a combination of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 resulting in elevated sustainable insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 plasma levels: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madigan Margaret


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Adult Growth hormone Deficiency is a well known phenomenon effecting both males and females. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency is marked by a number of neuropsychiatric, cognitive performance, cardiac, metabolic, muscular, and bone symptoms and clinical features. There is no known standardized acceptable therapeutic modality to treat this condition. A recent meta-analysis found that after 16 years of Growth Hormone replacement therapy a large proportion of the patients still had Growth Hormone associated symptoms especially related to executive functioning. A major goal is to increase plasma levels of both insulin-like growth factor (insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. Case Presentation We report a case of a 45-year-old caucasian woman with early ovarian failure for 2 years and amenorrhea since the age of 43, who presented with Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency and an IGF-1 of 126 ng/mL. Since her insulin-like growth factor-1 was lowest at 81 ng/mL, she was started on insulin-like growth factor-1 Increlex at 0.2 mg at bedtime, which immediately raised her insulin-like growth factor-1 levels to 130 ng/mL within 1 month, and 193 ng/mL, 249 ng/mL, and 357 ng/mL, after 3, 4, and 5 months, respectively, thereafter. Her insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 continued to decrease. It was at this point when we added back the Growth Hormone and increased her Increlex dosage to 1.3 - 1.5 mg that her insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 began to increase. Conclusion It appears that in some patients with Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency, insulin-like growth factor-1 elevation is resistant to direct Growth Hormone treatment. Furthermore, the binding protein may not rise with insulin-like growth factor-1. However, a combination of Growth Hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment may be a solution.

  20. Sustained elevation of circulating growth and differentiation factor-15 and a dynamic imbalance in mediators of muscle homeostasis are associated with the development of acute muscle wasting following cardiac surgery. (United States)

    Bloch, Susannah A A; Lee, Jen Y; Wort, S John; Polkey, Michael I; Kemp, Paul R; Griffiths, Mark J D


    Acute muscle wasting in the critically ill is common and causes significant morbidity. In a novel human model of acute muscle wasting following cardiac surgery, known or potential circulating modulators of muscle mass--insulin-like growth factor-1, myostatin, and growth and differentiation factor-15--were measured over a week. It was hypothesized that patients who developed acute muscle wasting would show distinct patterns of change in these mediators. A prospective longitudinal observational study of high-risk elective cardiac surgical patients identifying, by ultrasound, those developing muscle wasting. Tertiary cardiothoracic referral center: Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK. Forty-two patients undergoing elective high-risk cardiothoracic surgery. Circulating insulin-like growth factor-1, myostatin, and growth and differentiation factor-15 were assayed preoperatively and over the first week postoperatively. The ability of growth and differentiation factor-15 to cause muscle wasting in vitro was determined in C2C12 myotubes. Of the 42 patients, 23 (55%) developed quadriceps atrophy. There was an acute decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 and unexpectedly myostatin, known mediators of muscle hypertrophy and atrophy, respectively. By contrast, plasma growth and differentiation factor-15 concentrations increased in all patients. This increase in growth and differentiation factor-15 was sustained at day 7 in those who developed muscle wasting (day 7 compared with baseline, p0.05). Insulin-like growth factor-1 did not recover in those who developed muscle wasting (day 7 compared with baseline, p0.05). Finally, we demonstrated that growth and differentiation factor-15 caused atrophy of myotubes in vitro. These data support the hypothesis that acute muscle loss occurs as a result of an imbalance between drivers of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. Growth and differentiation factor-15 is a potential novel factor associated with muscle atrophy, which may become a