WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustain equitable intellectually

  1. Commentary: BESTTuna: Benefiting from Equitable and Sustainable Trans-boundary Tuna fisheries in the Western Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Bailey, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary we introduce the BESTTuna research programme which addresses the challenges of governing sustainable and equitable tuna fisheries in the Western Pacific. The research in this programme attempts to build an inter-disciplinary understanding of the complex social-ecological

  2. Sustainable and equitable sanitation in informal settlements of Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainability and equity are two desirable but ambiguous concepts often used to describe goals for sanitation services internationally and in South Africa. Both concepts are mentioned repeatedly in policy documents and government reports. There is, however, a gap between policy and implementation, and part of the ...

  3. Recomposing consumption: defining necessities for sustainable and equitable well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Ian

    2017-06-13

    This paper focuses on consumption in the affluent world and the resulting level, composition and distribution of consumption-based emissions. It argues that public policy should foster the recomposition of consumption, while not disadvantaging poorer groups in the population. To combine these two imperatives entails making a distinction between goods and services that are necessary for a basic level of well-being, and those that are surplus to this requirement. The argument proceeds in six stages. First, the paper outlines a theory of universal need, as an alternative conception of well-being to consumer preference satisfaction. Second, it proposes a dual strategy methodology for identifying need satisfiers or necessities in a given social context. Then, it applies this methodology to identify a minimum bundle of necessary consumption items in the UK and speculates how it might be used to identify a maximum bundle for sustainable consumption. The next part looks at corporate barriers and structural obstacles in the path of sustainable consumption. The following part reveals a further problem: mitigation policies can result in perverse distributional outcomes when operating in contexts of great inequality. The final section suggests four ecosocial public policies that would simultaneously advance sustainable and equitable consumption in rich nations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Recomposing consumption: defining necessities for sustainable and equitable well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Ian

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on consumption in the affluent world and the resulting level, composition and distribution of consumption-based emissions. It argues that public policy should foster the recomposition of consumption, while not disadvantaging poorer groups in the population. To combine these two imperatives entails making a distinction between goods and services that are necessary for a basic level of well-being, and those that are surplus to this requirement. The argument proceeds in six stages. First, the paper outlines a theory of universal need, as an alternative conception of well-being to consumer preference satisfaction. Second, it proposes a dual strategy methodology for identifying need satisfiers or necessities in a given social context. Then, it applies this methodology to identify a minimum bundle of necessary consumption items in the UK and speculates how it might be used to identify a maximum bundle for sustainable consumption. The next part looks at corporate barriers and structural obstacles in the path of sustainable consumption. The following part reveals a further problem: mitigation policies can result in perverse distributional outcomes when operating in contexts of great inequality. The final section suggests four ecosocial public policies that would simultaneously advance sustainable and equitable consumption in rich nations. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  5. Privately funded quality health care in India: a sustainable and equitable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samandar, R; Kleefield, S; Hammel, J; Mehta, M; Crone, R

    2001-08-01

    As the cost and degree of training necessary to provide state of the art health care has increased throughout the world, the present challenge in health care is to establish institutions that are financially sound and responsive to the dynamic needs of the communities in which they exist. As public funds have diminished, the role of the private sector in estabhshing innovative health care institutions has increased. This paper reviews the case of the LV Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI), an ophthalmologic institute in Hyderabad, India, that is financially sound and medically vital. With an annual budget of US$3 million, 180 000 patients are seen and 23 000 surgeries are performed at the Institute and its satellites each year. The Institute provides patient care at a ratio of 1:1 non-paying to paying patients through fee cross-subsidization. The Institute uses a combination of financial modalities, including donations, grants and fees to administer its non-patient care programs. Non-clinical programs of the Institute include a paramedical training program and a fellowship in ophthalmology, an internationally accredited eye bank for the preservation of corneal tissues, a rural out-reach and education program, a basic science and epidemiology program that directs health policy activities of the Institute and a rehabilitation program for patients with incurable visual deficits. To evaluate its effectiveness, LVPEI uses quality improvement measures, including patient surveys, post-operative outcomes studies and service utlization reviews. This case report of a privately-funded medical institution describes a successful model through which high-quality, equitable health care can be provided in a developing country. The LVPEI's active program of quality management, its academic commitment and programmatic relevance to the needs of its community should be modularized and replicated to establish equitable, efficient and effective health care institutions in the developing world.

  6. Are Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening Programmes Equitable? The Case of Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobigo, V.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Balogh, R.; Leung, F.; Lin, E.; Lunsky, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective cancer screening must be available for all eligible individuals without discrimination. Lower rates of cervical and breast cancer screening have been reported in certain groups compared with women from the general population, such as women with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Research on the factors…

  7. Are federal sustained yield units equitable? A case study of the Grays Harbor unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con H Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki

    1986-01-01

    The Grays Harbor Federal Sustained Yield Unit (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service) was established in 1949 to enhance the economic stability of the forest products industry and dependent communities in Grays Harbor County, Washington. Provisions of the unit's charter require that all logs harvested from the Quinault Ranger District of the Olympic...

  8. Sustainability, Efficiency and Equitability of Water Consumption and Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin M. Mekonnen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the sustainability, efficiency and equity of water use in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC by means of a geographic Water Footprint Assessment (WFA. It aims to provide understanding of water use from both a production and consumption point of view. The study identifies priority basins and areas from the perspectives of blue water scarcity, water pollution and deforestation. Wheat, fodder crops and sugarcane are identified as priority products related to blue water scarcity. The domestic sector is the priority sector regarding water pollution from nitrogen. Soybean and pasture are priority products related to deforestation. We estimate that consumptive water use in crop production could be reduced by 37% and nitrogen-related water pollution by 44% if water footprints were reduced to certain specified benchmark levels. The average WF per consumer in the region is 28% larger than the global average and varies greatly, from 912 m3/year per capita in Nicaragua to 3468 m3/year in Bolivia. Ironically, the LAC region shows significant levels of undernourishment, although there is abundant water and food production in the region and substantial use of land and water for producing export crops like soybean.

  9. A New Sustainability City Index Based on Intellectual Capital Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis Alfaro-Navarro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban sustainability is a key factor that must be considered at the local level, however, there are few studies that consider sustainability using the triple bottom line approach and apply it to a large number of cities. In this paper, we develop a sustainability city index based on the triple bottom line using an intellectual capital approach that attempts to solve the negative aspects identified in the main indices proposed in the existing literature, such as the use of: subjective weightings, an arithmetic average or index that is not comparable. Here, we have used information available in the Urban Audit database for 2009. The results for 158 cities in 24 European countries show that the cities with the best positions are in the northern European countries. German cities occupied the best positions in the three dimensions of sustainability, albeit with a slightly worse performance in the social dimension. Moreover, the proposal index is consistent, without redundancy among the variables considered in the three dimensions.

  10. Intellectual capital and relational capital: The role of sustainability in developing corporate reputation Intellectual capital and relational capital: The role of sustainability in developing corporate reputation Intellectual capital and relational capital: The role of sustainability in developing corporate reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Rodríguez del Bosque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intellectual capital offers a potential source of sustainable competitive advantage and is believed to be the source from which economic growth may sprout. However, not many papers analyze the effect of sustainability in the elements involving intellectual capital. This paper seeks to highlight the key role played by corporate sustainability on corporate reputation as one of the key components of relational capital based on the knowledge-based theory.Design/methodology/approach: Authors develop a structural equation model to test the hypothesis. The study was tested using data collected from a sample of 400 Spanish consumers.Findings: The structural equation model shows that sustainability plays a vital role as antecedent of corporate reputation and relational capital. Findings suggest that economic, social and environmental domains of sustainability have a positive direct effect on corporate reputation. Additionally, this study shows that economic sustainability is considered to be the most important dimension to enhance corporate reputation.Research limitations/implications: The complicated economic environment currently experienced worldwide may affect the perceptions of Spanish consumers and their ratings. The crosscutting nature of this research inhibits an understanding of the variations in the perceptions of the customers surveyed over time, suggesting that this research could be expanded by a longitudinal study. Finally, the current study has been conducted with consumers of hotel companies in Spain and it is not clear in how far the findings can be generalized to other industries, stakeholders or countries.Practical implications: This research allows managers to identify the activities in which companies can devote resources to in order to increase firm´s reputation. By knowing these specific economic, social and environmental activities, companies can understand, analyze and make decisions in a better way about its sector and

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory Human and Intellectual Capital for Sustaining Nuclear Deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlpine, Bradley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current human and intellectual capital at Los Alamos National Laboratory, through specific research into the statistics and demographics as well as numerous personal interviews at all levels of personnel. Based on this information, a series of recommendations are provided to assist Los Alamos National Laboratory in ensuring the future of the human and intellectual capital for the nuclear deterrence mission. While the current human and intellectual capital is strong it stands on the precipice and action must be taken to ensure Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains leadership in developing and sustaining national nuclear capabilities. These recommendations may be applicable to other areas of the nuclear enterprise, including the Air Force, after further research and study.

  12. International intellectual property agreements as agents of sustainable development of developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ihugba, Bethel Uzoma; Onyesi, Ikenna Stanley

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the implication of International Intellectual Property (ip) laws and agreements on the sustainable development of Least Developed Countries (ldcs) and Developed Countries (dcs) and suggests approaches for improving the development and wellbeing of people in the developing world through national ip laws. The paper argues that generally international ip agreements may appear biased against developing countries and most dcs are reluctant to challenge the status quo and/or use ...

  13. Intellectual Property as a Drive for Sustainable Medical Tourism – The Ana Aslan case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolos Mihaela Daciana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies the way intellectual property rights may encourage sustainable medical tourism, meaning the advantages that a patent, traditional knowledge, a trademark, or other IP right may offer to a hospital in order to attract foreign patients. The analysis is done trough the Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics “Ana Aslan” case study, seen not from a medical point of view but from the perspective of the intellectual property importance for the development of medical tourism. The Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics “Ana Aslan” was founded in 1952 and become an international renowned center in the study and the diminishing of old age effects. Many celebrities (artist and state presidents came to receive treatment here, even though Romania had, at that time, a communist regime.

  14. Equity and globalisation. On the necessity of equitable, sustainable global energy and resource policies; Gerechtigkeit und Globalisierung. Zur Notwendigkeit einer gerechten und nachhaltigen globalen Energie- und Ressourcenpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Anja

    2009-01-15

    The trend towards globalisation is steadily increasing and, whether directly or indirectly, gaining an influence on more and more areas of our lives. At the same time, more and more negative effects of human activities attending the globalisation process are becoming apparent, especially for poor populations, but also for future generations. One essential trait of globalisation is that no-one can flee from it - or, to be more precise, from the negative impact of the deeds done in its name. Globalisation therefore poses a global-scale equity problem. This can be demonstrated with particular clarity by reference to current global energy and resource policies. The foremost intent of this thesis therefore is to search for a more equitable and sustainable kind of globalisation than the one being practised at present. As we can learn from the political philosophy of international relations, this primarily requires an internationally binding code of behaviour or regulatory framework. Otherwise, as our present reality teaches us, whatever efforts are made, the outcome will be extremely meagre. This kind of commitment has been demanded on many occasions in the past. However, where it has been codified to date, this has largely only been in the form of inter-country peace orders. The most prominent writings to this end are those of John Rawls. However, theories such as his are no longer commensurate with the complexity of today's globalisation process. The author of the present dissertation therefore addresses the better known of the few approaches that go beyond Rawl's thinking, some of which evolved directly from a critical study of his writings. She deliberately also reviews some of the lesser known works. Based on a critical examination of the practicality of these approaches the author presents a draft for a binding global regulatory framework for the environment, economy and peace. [German] Globalisierungstendenzen nehmen immer staerker zu und beeinflussen

  15. Exploring How Knowledge Translation Can Improve Sustainability of Community-Based Health Initiatives for People with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spassiani, Natasha A.; Parker Harris, Sarah; Hammel, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Community-based health initiatives (CBHI) play an important role in maintaining the health, function and participation of people with intellectual/developmental disabilities (I/DD) living in the community. However, implementation and long-term sustainability of CBHI is challenging. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services…

  16. Late intellectual and academic outcomes following traumatic brain injury sustained during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R; Kramer, Larry; Cox, Charles S; Baumgartner, James; Fletcher, Stephen; Mendez, Donna; Barnes, Marcia; Zhang, Xiaoling; Swank, Paul

    2006-10-01

    Although long-term neurological outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained early in life are generally unfavorable, the effect of TBI on the development of academic competencies is unknown. The present study characterizes intelligence quotient (IQ) and academic outcomes an average of 5.7 years after injury in children who sustained moderate to severe TBI prior to 6 years of age. Twenty-three children who suffered inflicted or noninflicted TBI between the ages of 4 and 71 months were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Their mean age at injury was 21 months; their mean age at assessment was 89 months. The authors used general linear modeling approaches to compare IQ and standardized academic achievement test scores from the TBI group and a community comparison group (21 children). Children who sustained early TBI scored significantly lower than children in the comparison group on intelligence tests and in the reading, mathematical, and language domains of achievement tests. Forty-eight percent of the TBI group had IQs below the 10th percentile. During the approximately 5-year follow-up period, longitudinal IQ testing revealed continuing deficits and no recovery of function. Both IQ and academic achievement test scores were significantly related to the number of intracranial lesions and the lowest postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale score but not to age at the time of injury. Nearly 50% of the TBI group failed a school grade and/or required placement in self-contained special education classrooms; the odds of unfavorable academic performance were 18 times higher for the TBI group than the comparison group. Traumatic brain injury sustained early in life has significant and persistent consequences for the development of intellectual and academic functions and deleterious effects on academic performance.

  17. Smart Growth and Equitable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page discusses how smart growth, environmental justice, and equitable development can improve communities and provide economic, environmental, health, and social benefits to underserved communities.

  18. Indigenous Knowledge and Intellectual Property Rights: Confronting Modern Norms to Promote Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole-Chaudhuri, Pragati; Srikantaiah, Deepa; van Fleet, Justin

    2008-01-01

    The global proliferation of intellectual property rights (IPRs), most recently through the World Trade Organization's Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, poses a grave threat for Indigenous knowledge systems. There is an increasing amount of "piracy" of Indigenous knowledge, whereby corporations and scientists…

  19. From waste to resource: a systems-based approach to sustainable community development through equitable enterprise and agriculturally-derived polymeric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Elisa

    Rural communities in developing countries are most vulnerable to the plight of requiring repeated infusions of charitable aid over time. Micro-business opportunities that effectively break the cycle of poverty in resource-rich countries in the developing world are limited. However, a strong model for global commerce can break the cycle of donor-based economic supplements and limited local economic growth. Sustainable economic development can materialize when a robust framework combines engineering with the generous investment of profits back into the community. This research presents a novel, systems-based approach to sustainable community development in which a waste-to-resource methodology catalyzes the disruption of rural poverty. The framework developed in this thesis was applied to the rural communities of Cagmanaba and Badian, Philippines. An initial assessment of these communities showed that community members are extremely poor, but they possess an abundant natural resource: coconuts. The various parts of the coconut offer excellent potential value in global commerce. Today the sale of coconut water is on the rise, and coconut oil is an established $3 billion market annually that is also growing rapidly. Since these current industries harvest only two parts of the coconut (meat and water), the 50 billion coconuts that grow annually leave behind approximately 100 billion pounds of coconut shell and husk as agricultural waste. Coconuts thus provide an opportunity to create and test a waste-to-resource model. Intensive materials analysis, research, development, and optimization proved that coconut shell, currently burned as a fuel or discarded as agricultural waste, can be manufactured into high-grade coconut shell powder (CSP), which can be a viable filler in polymeric composites. This framework was modeled and tested as a case study in a manufacturing facility known as a Community Transformation Plant (CTP) in Cagmanaba, Philippines. The CTP enables local

  20. The Idea of Sustainable Development to Reconcile the Environmental and Intellectual Property Protection of Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebreselassie, Abeba T.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development calls for environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and socio-political sustainability.The concept of sustainable development is enshrined in a number of global and regional treaties, declarations, and reports such as the Brundtland Commission Report, the Rio...... Declaration, Agenda 21, the Millennium Development Goals[MDGs], the Johannesburg Declaration and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, and the 2000 Cotonou Agreement between African, Caribbean and Pacific States and the European Union [the Cotonou Agreement]. The purpose of this Article is to integrate...... in the following sections shows, the successful implementation of the CBD partly depends on the cooperation of other states and that there is thus a need for an international integration of environmental protection into development laws, policies and programs. Second, the intersection between the CBD...

  1. Stability and Change in Sustainability of Daily Routines and Social Networks in Families of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Jenny; Granlund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) demand intense family accommodations from birth and onwards. This study used an exploratory and qualitative study design to investigate stability and change in sustainability of daily routines and social networks of Swedish families of children with PIMD. Materials…

  2. 7 CFR 1400.8 - Equitable treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable treatment. 1400.8 Section 1400.8... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS General Provisions § 1400.8 Equitable treatment. (a... Administrator deems necessary to provide fair and equitable treatment to such person or legal entity. (b...

  3. Spectral partitioning in equitable graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Graph partitioning problems emerge in a wide variety of complex systems, ranging from biology to finance, but can be rigorously analyzed and solved only for a few graph ensembles. Here, an ensemble of equitable graphs, i.e., random graphs with a block-regular structure, is studied, for which analytical results can be obtained. In particular, the spectral density of this ensemble is computed exactly for a modular and bipartite structure. Kesten-McKay's law for random regular graphs is found analytically to apply also for modular and bipartite structures when blocks are homogeneous. An exact solution to graph partitioning for two equal-sized communities is proposed and verified numerically, and a conjecture on the absence of an efficient recovery detectability transition in equitable graphs is suggested. A final discussion summarizes results and outlines their relevance for the solution of graph partitioning problems in other graph ensembles, in particular for the study of detectability thresholds and resolution limits in stochastic block models.

  4. Land Reform and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Stanton; Peter Rosset; James Boyce

    2005-01-01

    Land reform, equitable distribution, economic development, environmental quality, land reform strategies, Brazil, Landless Workers’ Movement, East Asia, rural poverty, land productivity, sustainable agriculture, comparative advantage, small farms.

  5. On equitable coloring of corona of wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vernold Vivin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of equitable colorability was introduced by Meyer in $1973$ \\cite{meyer}. In this paper we obtain interesting results regarding the equitable chromatic number $\\chi_{=}$ for the corona graph of a simple graph with a wheel graph $G\\circ W_n$. Some extensions into $l$-corona products are also determined.

  6. The advent of equitation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D

    2007-11-01

    The lengthy association of humans with horses has established traditional equestrian techniques that have served military and transport needs well. Although effective, these techniques have by-passed the research findings of modern psychologists, who developed the fundamentals of learning theory. That said, the pools of equestrian debate are far from stagnant. The latest wave of horse whisperers has offered some refinements and some novel interpretations of the motivation of horses undergoing training. Additionally, the Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) has introduced the concept of the 'happy equine athlete' and, in the light of the hyperflexion (Rollkür) debate, recently examined the possible effects of some novel dressage modalities on equine 'happiness'. However, many still question the welfare of the ridden horse since it is largely trained using negative reinforcement, has to respond to pressure-based signals and is seldom asked to work for positive rewards. Science holds tremendous promise for removing emotiveness from the horse-riding welfare debate by establishing how much rein tension is too much; how much contact is neutral; how contact can be measured; how discomfort can be measured; how pain can be measured; and how learned helplessness manifests in horses. These are some of the topics addressed by equitation science, an emerging discipline that combines learning theory, physics and ethology to examine the salience and efficacy of horse-training techniques.

  7. Evolving protocols for research in equitation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierard, M.; Hall, C.; Konig von Borstel, U.; Averis, A.; Hawson, L.; Mclean, A.; Nevison, C.; Visser, E.K.; McGreevy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Within the emerging discipline of Equitation Science, the application of consistent methodology, including robust objective measures, is required for sound scientific evaluation. This report aims to provide an evaluation of current methodology and to propose some initial guidelines for future

  8. Intellectual Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  9. Equitable research: a bridge too far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Leon

    2017-06-01

    This paper is written in response to Angela Chapman and Allan Feldman's research study, "Cultivation of science identity through authentic science in an urban high school". I utilize this forum piece to extend the call for "awakening a dialogue" that critically assesses the effectiveness of current K-12 science education research in addressing the needs of populations of color. I take the opportunity to first discuss elements of what an equitable research focus might look like. I finish by critiquing and ultimately commending the authors on the degree to which they succeed in demonstrating an equitable approach to the design and carrying out of their study.

  10. The National Sustainable Development Strategy for 2010-2013: towards a green and fair economy; La Strategie Nationale de Developpement Durable 2010-2013 - Vers une economie verte et equitable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    While briefly defining the nine challenges identified within the French National Sustainable Development Strategy which has been adopted in July 2010 in the wake of the Grenelle de l'Environnement and within a more general World and European context, this document recalls the main challenges at the origin of this strategy. It states the 15 key (energy and socio-economic) indicators and the 4 context indicators which have been defined for the strategy. It recalls that many countries are implementing such strategies, and that the French strategy has been defined in coherence with the European one. It evokes the differences which can be noticed between the strategies elaborated in the European countries

  11. Towards an Equitable Development of Telecommunications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Present and future equitable development of telecommunications services calls for an immediate development of an indigenous telecommunications technology capability in order to effectively and efficiently utilizes the services provided by the country's presently imported telecommunications systems while at the same time ...

  12. towards an equitable development of telecommunications services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering. University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. (Original manuscript received August 8, 1979 and in revised from March 20, 1980). ABSTRACT. Present and future equitable development of telecommunications services calls for an immediate development of an ...

  13. 7 CFR 760.106 - Equitable relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with the FCIA (7 U.S.C. 1501-1524) or (ii) Application closing date for NAP. (b) Equitable relief will not be granted to participants in instances of: (1) A scheme or device that had the effect or intent of defeating the purposes of a program of insurance, NAP, or any other program administered under...

  14. Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, John V.

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

  15. Sustainable and equitable sanitation in informal settlements of Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is, however, a gap between policy and implementation, and part of the problem lies in the challenge of reconciling the pressure to deliver .... Qualitative. *In South Africa, informal settlement users typically do not pay for water and sanitation services although backyard dwellers in formal settlements may do so.

  16. EQUITABLE ACCESS TO HEALTH SERVICE IN BANYUWANGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusi Herawati Sunyoto Usman Mark Zuidgeest

    2012-06-01

    as indicators. Flowmap tool is used to analyze catchment area of each health facility using different transport modes choice:becak and public transport for poor group and motorcycle and car for non-poor group with different travel time within 30, 60 and more than 60 minutes. It is concluded that there was an accessibility difference between poor and non-poor group. The accessibility to the health facilities of poor group was lower than non-poor group. This condition occurred because the government policy of equitable access to health service facility did not pay attention to accessibility of poor group.

  17. Managing intellectual property to develop medicines for the world's poorest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteilles-Drabek, Sylvie; Reddy, David; Wells, Timothy N C

    2017-04-01

    It has been argued that patents impede the development and access of medicines for tropical diseases such as malaria. However, we believe that intellectual property can be a key tool to enable timely progression of drug development projects involving multiple partners and to ensure equitable access to successful products.

  18. Intellectual property right in genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are necessary in food production and biodiversity conservation. These are the most important natural resources, in addition to air, water and soil. Unfortunately, during the evolution large number of plant genetic resources has been lost. The biggest negative impact on loss of plant genetic resources had been made by humans through the modernization of agriculture and the creation of varieties of high genetic uniformity. FAO and its operation through international mechanisms, such as the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the first legal act which regulates all levels of biodiversity: ecosystems, species and genetic resources, biotechnology, including the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (regulates the transfer of genetic material across the border, contributed to the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. In addition to the Convention on Biological Diversity, FAO has been defined by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in more specific and detailed way, the preservation of genetic resources. The objectives of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture are the conservation and sustainable use of all plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use. There are four basic pillars which form the substance of the Contract, Sustainable use of plant genetic resources, Farmers' Rights, the Multilateral System and the Global Information System. Two organizations, the International Biodiversity and the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants trying to solve the issues of protection of the population and old varieties as intellectual property.

  19. Intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high bilirubin levels in babies) Nutritional (such as malnutrition) Toxic ( intrauterine exposure to ... a family, you may suspect your child has an intellectual disability when your child has ...

  20. Intellectual Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  1. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adoption. 222.34 Section 222.34 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... equitable adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an equitably...

  2. Equitability, mutual information, and the maximal information coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Justin B; Atwal, Gurinder S

    2014-03-04

    How should one quantify the strength of association between two random variables without bias for relationships of a specific form? Despite its conceptual simplicity, this notion of statistical "equitability" has yet to receive a definitive mathematical formalization. Here we argue that equitability is properly formalized by a self-consistency condition closely related to Data Processing Inequality. Mutual information, a fundamental quantity in information theory, is shown to satisfy this equitability criterion. These findings are at odds with the recent work of Reshef et al. [Reshef DN, et al. (2011) Science 334(6062):1518-1524], which proposed an alternative definition of equitability and introduced a new statistic, the "maximal information coefficient" (MIC), said to satisfy equitability in contradistinction to mutual information. These conclusions, however, were supported only with limited simulation evidence, not with mathematical arguments. Upon revisiting these claims, we prove that the mathematical definition of equitability proposed by Reshef et al. cannot be satisfied by any (nontrivial) dependence measure. We also identify artifacts in the reported simulation evidence. When these artifacts are removed, estimates of mutual information are found to be more equitable than estimates of MIC. Mutual information is also observed to have consistently higher statistical power than MIC. We conclude that estimating mutual information provides a natural (and often practical) way to equitably quantify statistical associations in large datasets.

  3. Igualdad, equidad, solidaridad Equality, equitableness and solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fernández Enguita

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Se propone descomponer la idea inespecífica de igualdad o, mejor, justicia distributiva, en las más específicas de igualdad estricta, equidad (acorde con la contribución o el esfuerzo, excelencia (incentivos a las aportaciones extraordinarias y solidaridad (compensación para los discapacitados. Estos son los criterios de justicia de la sociedad actual - aunque no haya acuerdo sobre como alcanzarlos - y la escuela no necesita inventar otros sino adaptarlos a su contexto. Por otra parte, se diferencia entre las desigualdades intracomunitarias - clase, género y etnia - y las intercomunitarias - entre países, entre comunidades, entre nacionales e inmigrantes.This paper suggests to decompose the unspecific idea of equality or, rather, of distributive justice, into the more specific ideas of strict equality, equitableness (according to contribution or effort, excellence (incentives for extraordinary contributions and solidarity (compensation for the disabled. These are the criteria of justice in modern society - even though there is no agreement on how to reach them. School need not make up any new ones but adapt those to its own context. Besides, a distinction is made between intracommunity - class, gender and ethnicity - and intercommunity inequalities - between countries, communities and between nationals and immigrants.

  4. An Initial Evaluation of a Long-Term, Sustainable, Integrated Community-Based Physical Activity Program for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lante, Kerrie A.; Walkley, Jeff W.; Gamble, Merrilyn; Vassos, Maria V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) programs for adults with intellectual disability (ID) have positive impacts, at least in the short term. No research has been reported on the effect of long-term engagement in PA programs for adults with ID. This paper explores the physical and psychosocial benefits gained by two individuals with mild ID who…

  5. Intellectual Entrepreneurship: An Authentic Foundation for Higher Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Gary D.; Cherwitz, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Our position in this article is that "intellectual entrepreneurship" provides an intellectually authentic philosophical foundation that can sustain cross-campus and interdisciplinary entrepreneurship education. Drawing upon initiatives begun at The University of Texas at Austin, we document how intellectual entrepreneurship educates…

  6. Intellectual and ecological traditional knowledge: can it be sustained through natural products development? Case studies from Thailand, Tibet, Ghana, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish. Flaster

    2001-01-01

    Sustainability, as defined by Charles Peters (1994), means having a greater abundance of mixed ages of keystone plant species growing than being harvested within a forest. In this presentation, I hope to demonstrate, through case studies, not only how sustainability is indeed ecologically what Dr. Peters said, but also how it is enriched and further sustained by the...

  7. Intellectual emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev, Igor A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the laboratory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the phenomenon of the acute emotional regulation of productive thinking was justified. This regulation is realized by means of the elaboration of the axiological profile of cognition. The following definition of intellectual emotions can be given: intellectual emotions are the appraisals of specific cognitive objects — contradictions, assumptions, probabilities, and the intermediate and final results of operations. The main aspect of the method used in the research consisted of the synchronous registration of an external (tactile elaboration of problems, skin galvanic response and verbal utterances regarding tasks to be completed in a game of chess. The principle position in Tikhomirov`s group is the following: intellectual emotions represent not only the energetic resource or catalysts for the thinking process, but also the determinants of its structure.

  8. The complex role of social care services in supporting the development of sustainable identities: Insights from the experiences of British South Asian women with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Kulsoom Jawaid; Unwin, Gemma; Larkin, Michael; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Rose, John

    2017-04-01

    Carers and service users with intellectual disabilities from minority ethnic groups have typically been reported to be dissatisfied with the social care services they receive. However, service users themselves have rarely been asked directly about their experiences of social care. This paper aims to understand the meaning of social care services in the lives of South Asian women with intellectual disabilities, in the United Kingdom. 10 British South Asian women with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities were interviewed about their experiences of social care services. The transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The analysis produced three super-ordinate themes, which focus on how services facilitate the development of complex identities, how the participants explored their sense of being 'stuck' between cultures as they negotiated their journeys towards independence, and the triple disadvantage which they experienced as a consequence of the intersection between gender, ethnicity and disability. The participants were broadly satisfied with the role which services played in these domains, and appeared to find them valuable and helpful. The results suggest that the participants successfully managed complex identity issues, such as acculturation processes, with the support of services. It may be helpful to give more explicit consideration to the positive role which good services can play in supporting people with intellectual disabilities in the development of their identities and goals, alongside the more traditionally 'concrete' objectives of such social care. Engagement with families in 'positive risk-taking' is likely to be an important component of success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Jan; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...

  10. Intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Lang, R.

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps the most common and most debilitating comorbid disorder with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is intellectual disability (ID). The overlap of these conditions has been studied extensively. This chapter provides an overview of the research that has been published on the topic. Subjects such as

  11. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  12. The Intellectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Novak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Book jackets sometimes provide insightful provocation about the content and flavour of a text. Certainly the designers of the front jacket for Steve Fuller’s The Intellectual intended to be provocative when they placed the words, “the positive power of negative thinking,” at the top centre.

  13. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.

  14. Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Montenue, a distinct French scholar of intellectual property, has suggested that IP is a “tool which surprisingly helps a lot”, and this definition on science, arts, culture, since the 16th century. Now, what would be the definition of intellectual property for the 21st century? Apparently not a “strange” tool, but a necessary tool, primary for enriching human knowledge, and for the new world order, especially in the global market sphere. Intellectual property is an integral part of international trade, and its importance keeps increasing, since effective use of knowledge is increasingly influencing the economic prosperity of peoples. One may say that there is little originality in the creative sphere. Naturally, this originality can only be reflected by individuality and human identity in intellectual creativity The author rights in the Kosovo legislation is a novelty, a necessity of developing a creative environment in the fields of science, arts and industrial property. First and foremost, the individual benefit, which is secured by the author as the creator of the work, is a moral and material right. Secondly, there is a need for harmonization, not only of values for the creator, but also for the development of science, culture, increased competitive advantage, and the public sphere, as a benefit for the public health and security, and the fiscal policy. The deficiency one must record is with the Office for Copy Rights, which is to play a strong role in implementing and protecting copy rights and other related rights by licensing collective management agencies, imposing administrative fines, awareness raising, provision of information, and other capacity building and educative measures. Naturally, the enactment of good legislation is a system without any meaning or sense if not associated with the court practice. Any establishment of a legal system not pursued with enforcement mechanisms remains only in legal frameworks.

  15. Intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W M

    2000-01-01

    "Intellectual property" (IP) is a generic legal term for patents, copyrights, and trademarks, all of which provide legal rights to protect ideas, the expression of ideas, and the inventors of such ideas (1). Intellectual property has many of the characteristics of real property (houses, buildings, and so forth); intellectual property can be bought, sold, assigned, and licensed. Additionally, the owner of IP can prevent "trespass" on his property by others, though in IP this is referred to as infringement. A patent provides legal protection for a new invention, that is, an application of a new idea, discovery, or concept that is useful. Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work (e.g., works of art, literature [fiction ornonfiction], music, lyrics, photographs), as well as business and scientific publications, computer software, and compilations of information. A trademark provides rights to use symbols, particular words, logos, or other markings that indicate the source of a product or service. A further method of benefitting from an invention is simply to keep it secret, rather than to disclose it; the most famous trade secret of all time is the formula for Coca-Cola, still a closely guarded secret to this day (2,3). Trade secrets have the advantage that they never expire, but special measures are required to ensure the continued secrecy, and should it be violated, there is little legal protection for the owner (2,3).

  16. Implementation of national sustainable development strategy 2010-2013, towards a green and fair economy. First report to Parliament; Mise en oeuvre de la strategie nationale de developpement durable 2010 -> 2013 vers une economie verte et equitable. 1. rapport au parlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report proposes a presentation of the strategy by distinguishing several challenges. For each of them, the report describes the context, presents a key measure or a key indicator, describes the different strategic choices, and gives some quantitative objectives. These challenges are: sustainable consumption and production, knowledge society (education and training, research and development), governance, climate change and energy, sustainable transport and mobility, biodiversity and natural resource preservation and management, public health and risk prevention and management, demography, immigration and social inclusion, international challenges in terms of sustainable development and poverty in the word. A table precisely presents the various sustainable development indicators

  17. Violation of the Morality of Resource Management and Equitable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I examined the ethicalmoral response to resource management as it affects principles guiding equitable distribution of power, services and burdens in a democratic system. Also examined were the consequences of unfair and unjust systems of management and distribution of power, human and natural ...

  18. Examining the Relationship between Creativity and Equitable Thinking in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Sarah R.; Kaufman, James C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationship between creativity and equitable thinking and the individual differences in personality, demographic, and experiential factors that influence both concepts as they affect each other. Given the nationwide push to increase equity in public schools, interventions beyond teaching about equity are becoming…

  19. Building equitable health systems in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Latin America, primary health care (PHC) is often of poor quality and delivered unevenly. The region's segmented health systems make it difficult to provide equal access to services across multiple subsystems. To ensure more equitable health care and universal access to PHC in Latin America, health systems must be ...

  20. Andrea Passoni, Giustizia come equità e socialismo liberale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo di Andrea Passoni, Giustizia come equità e socialismo liberale, appena pubblicato nell'archivio "Giuliano Marini", discute l’idea rawlsiana di socialismo liberale, allo scopo di dimostrare che può essere almeno parzialmente riempire di significato tramite la promozione e lo sviluppo di un’economia di mercato di tipo cooperativo.

  1. Equitable Coloring of Graphs. Recent Theoretical Results and New Practical Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furmańczyk Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many applications in sequencing and scheduling it is desirable to have an underlaying graph as equitably colored as possible. In this paper we survey recent theoretical results concerning conditions for equitable colorability of some graphs and recent theoretical results concerning the complexity of equitable coloring problem. Next, since the general coloring problem is strongly NP-hard, we report on practical experiments with some efficient polynomial-time algorithms for approximate equitable coloring of general graphs.

  2. Are Ontario Teachers Paid More Equitably? Do Local Variables Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Ontario’s education funding reform of 1998 made teacher salaries more equitable. It also examined whether selected local variables had the same influence on teacher salaries in 2001-02 as they did in 1995-96 before the reform. Average teacher salaries before the reform in 1995-96 and after the reform in 2001-02 among school boards and among census divisions were compared to see whether the variation in teacher salaries increased or decreased. A partial correlation analysis was conducted to examine the influence on teacher salaries from local variables, which were derived from a literature review. This study finds that (a teachers are paid more equitably today than before the reform, and (b local variables no longer really matter, as a result of the changed provincial funding formula.

  3. Policy Priorities In Rural Women Empowerment Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In like manner, equitability can not be divorced from sustainability as it is one major issue in sustainability. History has revealed that Nigerian women are not always allowed by men to exert themselves fully. Some encumbrances are placed on the road to development of the feminine gender by the society. Such inequities ...

  4. Species richness, equitability, and abundance of ants in disturbed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J.H.; Krzysik, A.J.; Kovacic, D.A.; Duda, J.J.; Freeman, D.C.; Emlen, J.M.; Zak, J.C.; Long, W.R.; Wallace, M.P.; Chamberlin-Graham, C.; Nutter, J.P.; Balbach, H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Ants are used as indicators of environmental change in disturbed landscapes, often without adequate understanding of their response to disturbance. Ant communities in the southeastern United States displayed a hump-backed species richness curve against an index of landscape disturbance. Forty sites at Fort Benning, in west-central Georgia, covered a spectrum of habitat disturbance (military training and fire) in upland forest. Sites disturbed by military training had fewer trees, less canopy cover, more bare ground, and warmer, more compact soils with shallower A-horizons. We sampled ground-dwelling ants with pitfall traps, and measured 15 habitat variables related to vegetation and soil. Ant species richness was greatest with a relative disturbance of 43%, but equitability was greatest with no disturbance. Ant abundance was greatest with a relative disturbance of 85%. High species richness at intermediate disturbance was associated with greater within-site spatial heterogeneity. Species richness was also associated with intermediate values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a correlate of net primary productivity (NPP). Available NPP (the product of NDVI and the fraction of days that soil temperature exceeded 25 ??C), however, was positively correlated with species richness, though not with ant abundance. Species richness was unrelated to soil texture, total ground cover, and fire frequency. Ant species richness and equitability are potential state indicators of the soil arthropod community. Moreover, equitability can be used to monitor ecosystem change. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Equitable mitigation to achieve the Paris Agreement goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robiou Du Pont, Yann; Jeffery, M. Louise; Gütschow, Johannes; Rogelj, Joeri; Christoff, Peter; Meinshausen, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarks to guide countries in ratcheting-up ambition, climate finance, and support in an equitable manner are critical but not yet determined in the context of the Paris Agreement. We identify global cost-optimal mitigation scenarios consistent with the Paris Agreement goals and allocate their emissions dynamically to countries according to five equity approaches. At the national level, China's Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) is weaker than any of the five equity approaches, India's NDC is aligned with two, and the EU's and the USA's with three. Most developing countries' conditional (Intended) NDCs (INDCs) are more ambitious than the average of the five equity approaches under the 2 °C goal. If the G8 and China adopt the average of the five approaches, the gap between conditional INDCs and 2 °C-consistent pathways could be closed. For an equitable, cost-optimal achievement of the 1.5 °C target, emissions in 2030 are 21% lower (relative to 2010) than for 2 °C for the G8 and China combined, and 39% lower for remaining countries. Equitably limiting warming to 1.5 °C rather than 2 °C requires that individual countries achieve mitigation milestones, such as peaking or reaching net-zero emissions, around a decade earlier.

  6. Equitable sampling of participants in biomedical research and clinical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klajn-Tatić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several aspects of the requirement to provide for an equitable sampling of research participants. On the one hand, equitable sampling implies that the scientific research objectives shall be the cornerstone for determining the groups and individuals to be selected and included as research participants, rather than some other properties which are unrelated to research objectives (such as the subjects' vulnerability or privileges]. On the other hand, groups and individuals should not be denied the opportunity to participate in scientific research without a solid scientific justification. The concept of equitable sampling also implies that groups and individuals that have borne the risks and burden of research should enjoy some benefit from the research. The unjustified and excessive inclusion of certain groups as research participants is equally unfair and inequitable as their unjustified and excessive exclusion from research. In many cases, the excessive inclusion of some groups is often based on the administrative availability of population rather than on the scientific rationale, which is considered unacceptable. In the British and American law, the sampling of research participants has to be a reflection of the multi-cultural society, which implies taking into account the participants' ethnicity, gender, disability, age and sexual orientation in the process of planning, executing and implementing the research plan. However, literature shows that the exclusion of some groups from participation in the research is not the most important issue in sampling but whether it concurrently implies the exclusion from the benefits stemming from the research results, which would be unfair. In addressing these issues, the literature differentiates between equitable sampling in terms of benefits from a quantitative research and equitable sampling in terms of benefits from a qualitative research. Generally, sampling in the quantitative research is

  7. Implementing Sustainable Institutional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Joseph; Johnson, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has found that few institutions of higher education implemented the necessary strategies to make their campuses sustainable (Thompson and Green 2005). Ironically, universities are the segment of society with the most access to the intellectual capital needed to provide sound sustainable practices and measurements. Having top…

  8. Doing Better: Illuminating a Framework of Equitable Science Pedagogy through a Cross- Case Analysis of Urban High School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Manali J.

    Students of color are routinely asked to participate in science education that is less intellectually rich and self-affirming. Additionally, teachers have trouble embarking on professional growth related to issues of equity and diversity in science. The purpose of this dissertation research is to develop a multi-dimensional framework for equitable science pedagogy (ESP) through analyzing the efforts and struggles of high school science teachers. This study is grounded in a conceptual framework derived from scholarship in science education, multicultural education, critical science studies, and teacher learning. The following questions guide this research: 1) What visions and enactments emerge in teachers' practices towards equitable science pedagogy? 2) How are teachers' practice decisions towards ESP influenced by their personal theories of race/culture, science, and learning and sociocultural contexts? 3) Why are there consistencies and variances across teachers' practices? This study employs a qualitative multiple case study design with ethnographic data collection to explore the practices of three urban high school science teachers who were identified as being committed to nurturing the science learning of students of color. Data include over 120 hours of classroom observation, 60 hours of teacher interviews, and 500 teacher- and student-generated artifacts. Data analysis included coding teachers' practices using theory- and participant generated codes, construction of themes based on emergent patterns, and cross-case analysis. The affordances and limitations of the participants' pedagogical approaches inform the following framework for equitable science pedagogy: 1) Seeing race and culture and sharing responsibility for learning form foundational dimensions. Practices from the other three dimensions--- nurturing students' identities, re-centering students' epistemologies, and critiquing structural inequities---emerge from the foundation. As emergent practices

  9. What is an Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short What Is an Intellectual Disability? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Is an Intellectual Disability? ... and becoming an independent person. continue What Causes Intellectual Disabilities? Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured ...

  10. Value for money? An examination of the relationship between need and cost in intellectual disability services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Jodi; Bourke, Jane

    2017-05-01

    The recent economic crisis along with changing demographic trends has stimulated an increased interest in the value obtained from social care expenditure so as to ensure the sustainability of systems in the future. In Ireland, the Department of Health, further to a recent review of its disability services, commited to a new approach that will reshape and redesign its service provision. It specifically outlined a reorganisation of financing services, from a model of prospective block grant funding to a system of individualised budgeting based on an assessment of need. This paper examines the relationship between need, service utilisation and cost for high-cost users of adult intellectual disability residential services in an Irish county under the current model of block grant financing. The analysis reported is based on primary data collected from 68 high-cost users of adult intellectual disability residential services in an Irish county in 2013. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the relationship between need and cost, and also to examine the variations in the cost of support between the service provider organisations. Our analysis determined an association between need and cost, with poorer levels of psychological well-being related to higher costs. However, the study found no evident relationship between staff/client ratios, the numbers of staff engaged at the residential units and need. An examination of cost variations between the service provider organisations revealed that agency status; service unit size; client and staff characteristics all contributed to variations in the cost of care. This study supports the development of a national resource allocation framework as being fundamental to the equitable and transparent distribution of scarce resources, as recommended by the Department of Health in Ireland. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. "It Is Only Natural….": Attitudes of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities toward Sexuality in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karellou, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    Although there is an increasing awareness of the rights of people with intellectual disabilities, limited progress has been made in supporting people with intellectual disabilities to create and sustain intimate personal relationships in Greece. This article looks at the attitudes of 66 adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities…

  12. Cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with intellectual disabilities-A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is the ability of the circulatory, respiratory and muscular systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels have been found in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), which puts them at higher risk for

  13. Equitable benefit-sharing or self-interest?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna

    2010-09-15

    A legally binding protocol on access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing is to be adopted by the 193 governments that are party to the Convention on Biological Diversity in October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan. The protocol aims to ensure that the benefits derived from the use of genetic resources are shared fairly and equitably with biodiversity-rich but financially poor countries. This could help reverse the rapid loss of biodiversity and genetic resources. But unless governments make some major progress in their final negotiating session, the protocol will make little difference.

  14. Food Tourism in Indigenous Settings as a Strategy of Sustainable Development: The Case of Ilex guayusa Loes. in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Laura Sidali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to contribute to the discussion on how to enhance food tourism in emerging, tropical countries characterized by a large number of indigenous groups and a high biodiversity. A sacred plant for the Kichwa indigenous communities labelled Ilex guayusa Loes. (Aquifoliceae is used as a case study. Twelve recorded interviews with different stakeholders of the Amazon region of Napo in Ecuador were analysed. The results of this qualitative research show that the Western-based theory on niche tourism based on experiential and intimacy theory is compatible with four principles which are related to the cosmovision (worldview of Kichwa indigenous groups, namely: mutual learning, empowerment, regulated access to intellectual property and community legislation. The framework proposed seems suitable to understand food tourism in an indigenous setting. Furthermore, the integration of Western-based food tourism with an indigenous cosmovision might contribute to a more sustainable land use and more equitable social development.

  15. Equitable Written Assessments for English Language Learners: How Scaffolding Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.; Menon, Deepika; Sinha, Somnath; Promyod, Nattida; Wissehr, Cathy; Halverson, Kristy L.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of the use of scaffolds in written classroom assessments through the voices of both native English speakers and English language learners from two middle schools. Students responded to assessment tasks in writing, by speaking aloud using think aloud protocols, and by reflecting in a post-assessment interview. The classroom assessment tasks were designed to engage students in scientific sense making and multifaceted language use, as recommended by the Next Generation Science Standards. Data analyses showed that both groups benefitted from the use of scaffolds. The findings revealed specific ways that modifications were supportive in helping students to comprehend, visualize and organize thinking, and elicit responses. This study offers a model for both sensitizing teachers and strengthening their strategies for scaffolding assessments equitably.

  16. 20 CFR 219.40 - Evidence of relationship by equitable adoption-child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of relationship by equitable adoption-child. 219.40 Section 219.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... relationship by equitable adoption—child. (a) Preferred evidence. If the claimant is a person who claims to be...

  17. Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR): Towards Equitable Involvement of Community in Psychology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Clifasefi, Seema L; Stanton, Joey; Straits, Kee J E; Gil-Kashiwabara, Eleanor; Rodriguez Espinosa, Patricia; Nicasio, Andel V; Andrasik, Michele P; Hawes, Starlyn M; Miller, Kimberly A; Nelson, Lonnie A; Orfaly, Victoria E; Duran, Bonnie M; Wallerstein, Nina

    2018-01-22

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) answers the call for more patient-centered, community-driven research approaches to address growing health disparities. CBPR is a collaborative research approach that equitably involves community members, researchers, and other stakeholders in the research process and recognizes the unique strengths that each bring. The aim of CBPR is to combine knowledge and action to create positive and lasting social change. With its origins in psychology, sociology, and critical pedagogy, CBPR has become a common research approach in the fields of public health, medicine, and nursing. Although it is well aligned with psychology's ethical principles and research aims, it has not been widely implemented in psychology research. The present article introduces CBPR to a general psychology audience while considering the unique aims of and challenges in conducting psychology research. In this article, we define CBPR principles, differentiate it from a more traditional psychology research approach, retrace its historical roots, provide concrete steps for its implementation, discuss its potential benefits, and explore practical and ethical challenges for its integration into psychology research. Finally, we provide a case study of CBPR in psychology to illustrate its key constructs and implementation. In sum, CBPR is a relevant, important, and promising research framework that may guide the implementation of more effective, culturally appropriate, socially just, and sustainable community-based psychology research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Discourses of transparency in the Intellectual Capital reporting debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Madsen, Mona Toft

      Our study of the field intellectual capital reporting indicates the necessity of an emancipation from the normative understanding of transparency being merely a question of disclosing as much information as possible. Through a critical discourse analysis of the intellectual capital reporting...... debate, we identify a movement from generic reporting models to frameworks based on management defined information. The latter discourse argues that transparency is a question of providing fewer, more structured disclosures as well as focusing on illustrating flows, e.g. of intellectual capital and value...... information in business reporting, e.g. concerning intellectual capital and sustainability. This, however, has the implication that users of intellectual capital reporting may become victims of management's selected "right" information, by Strathern (2000) designated as the "tyranny of transparency"....

  19. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...

  20. Parents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuengel, Carlo; Kef, Sabina; Hodes, Marja W.; Meppelder, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    Questions around parents with intellectual disability have changed according to sociocultural shifts in the position and rights of people with intellectual disability. The early research focus on capacity for parenting has given way to a contextual model of parenting and child outcomes, increasingly

  1. Learning from doing the EquitAble project: Content, context, process, and impact of a multi-country research project on vulnerable populations in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac MacLachlan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ‘EquitAble’ project carried out content analyses of policies and collected and analysed qualitative and quantitative data concerning access to health services in Sudan, Malawi, Namibia and South Africa. Our particular concern was to address the situation of people with disabilities, although not in isolation from other marginalised or vulnerable groups.Objectives: This article reports on the content, context, process and impact of project EquitAble, funded by the European Commission Seventh Research Framework Programme, which brought together researchers from Ireland, Norway, South Africa, Namibia, Sudan and Malawi.Method: After the 4-year project ended in February 2013, all members of the consortium were asked to anonymously complete a bespoke questionnaire designed by the coordinating team. The purpose of the questionnaire was to capture the views of those who collaborated on the research project in relation to issues of content, context, process and impact of the EquitAble project.Results: Our results indicated some of the successes and challenges encountered by our consortium.Conclusion: We identified contextual and process learning points, factors often not discussed in papers, which typically focus on the reporting of the ‘content’ of results.

  2. Developing Preservice Teachers' Expertise in Equitable Assessment for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2014-04-01

    This study illustrated a pathway of growth that a preservice teacher might traverse when learning to use and develop equitable assessments (EA). The study is rare in that it looks at the development of preservice teachers' understanding and ability to design EA. I examined the understanding and implementation of EA of 23 secondary preservice teachers within two classes. The methods classes focused on the academic content area of science. Participants' journals, teaching philosophies, and inquiry-based science units served as data sources. Participants progressed from a simple view of EA as "fairness" to a more sophisticated view of EA, including: ways to increase fairness, the importance of challenging students, and using assessments for learning. Results also showed changes in preservice teachers' views of learners and the purpose of assessment. While understanding developed robustly, teachers' assessment plans in their units were not as strong. Teacher education programs need to place more emphasis on developing critical understanding of EA practices to meet the needs of diverse learners.

  3. The role of higher education in equitable human development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peercy, Chavanne; Svenson, Nanette

    2016-04-01

    As developing countries continue to battle poverty despite strong economic growth, understanding the relationship between equity and human development becomes increasingly important. In this context, equity is not equivalent to equality for any specific outcome such as health status, education or income. It is an objective ideal whereby people's achievements are increasingly dependent upon personal effort, choice and initiative rather than predetermined characteristics such as race, gender and socioeconomic background. As such, equity becomes an issue of moral equality based on the belief that people should be treated as equals, with equal access to life chances. This ideal pursues equal access to public services, infrastructure and rights for all citizens, including the right to education. While evidence suggests that education builds healthier, richer, more equitable societies, research on this has focused predominantly on primary and secondary schooling. The authors of this paper begin with an extensive review of existing research and relevant literature. In the second part of their article, they then report on their own study which furthers the discussion by exploring connections between tertiary education and development using equity as a reflection of human development - a holistic extension of economic development. After extracting relevant data from a number of available world reports by the United Nations, the World Bank and other organisations, they carried out a cross-national statistical analysis designed to examine the relationship between tertiary enrolment levels and a composite equity variable. Their results indicate a strong association between higher post-secondary education levels and higher levels of social equity.

  4. Sport mega-events: can legacies and development be equitable and sustainable?

    OpenAIRE

    Coakley, Jay; SOUZA,Doralice Lange de

    2013-01-01

    Sport mega-events (SMEs) involve struggles to determine the definition of legacy and the outcome priorities that guide legacy planning, funding, and implementation processes. History shows that legacies reflect the interests of capital, and legacy benefits are enjoyed primarily, if not exclusively, by powerful business interests, a few political leaders, and organizations that govern high performance sports. This paper addresses challenges faced by cities and countries that host SMEs, and sho...

  5. Sustaining Scientist-Community Partnerships that are Just, Equitable, and Trustworthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, N.

    2016-12-01

    Communities of color, indigenous people, and low income communities throughout the United States are on the front lines of environmental and health impacts from polluting sources, and yet don't fully benefit from public policies that are intended to reduce or prevent those impacts. Many of the challenges faced by environmental justice communities can and should be addressed, in part, through science-based public policies. Community-relevant scientific information and equal access to this information is needed to protect people from public health and environmental hazards. Too often, however, the scientific community has failed to work collaboratively with environmental justice communities. This session will explore the challenges and opportunities faced by environmental justice advocates and scientists in working with one another. This talk will share findings from a recently-held forum, specifically discussing a formal set of principles and best practices for community-scientist partnerships to guide future collaborations between scientists and communities. When community members and scientists collaborate, they bring together unique strengths and types of knowledge that can help address our most pressing challenges, inform decision making, and develop solutions that benefit all people. The speaker will address institutional and historic barriers that hinder such collaboration, potential pitfalls to avoid, and share how institutional systems of scientific research can incorporate equity analyses into their work to ensure solutions that are truly effective.

  6. A Cycle-Adjusted Fiscal Rule for Sustainable and More Equitable Growth in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga, Jimena; Capello, Marcelo; Butler, Inés; Grión, Néstor

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to identify the most promising fiscal strategy to boost long-term economic growth in Argentina and quantify its effects. To this end, the authors updated a growth-diagnostics study for Argentina and corroborated that low appropriability of social returns and insufficient public infrastructure are key constraints to private investment. Further, low appropriability stands out among the key constraints to productivity-enhancing activities. Because low appropriability is largely ...

  7. Sustainable, efficient, and equitable water use: the three pillars under wise freshwater allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    There are many river basins in the world where human water footprint needs to be reduced substantially. This article proposes three pillars under wise freshwater allocation: water footprint caps per river basin, water footprint benchmarks per product, and fair water footprint shares per community.

  8. Mobile Learning via SMS at Open University Malaysia: Equitable, Effective, and Sustainable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Lim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes Open University Malaysia’s efforts at enhancing the blended learning approach for undergraduate distance learners with the successful implementation of the Mobile Learning via SMS initiative. The pilot project was implemented in the May 2009 semester, and the January 2011 semester was its sixth consecutive semester. Aspects such as the conceptual model, the process flow of group messaging, and challenges faced, as well as effectiveness of the initiative, are discussed.

  9. Rushing for land: equitable and sustainable development in Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.

    2011-01-01

    The global land grab is causing radical changes in the use and ownership of land. This ‘foreignization’ of space is driven primarily by the acquisition of land for growing biofuels, food crops and/or nature conservation. In addition, pressure on the land is rapidly increasing due to entrepreneurs

  10. The Intellect and Intellectual Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylen, Gunnar

    This guide describes, from the perspecitve of J. Piaget's theories, the nature of intellectual handicaps and their significance for cognitive development, personality development, and interaction with the environment. A description of intellectual capacity and intellectual development is followed by an analysis of the role of intellectual capacity…

  11. Equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements: guidelines and tools for integrated provision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available looks at equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements and offers guidelines and tools for integrated provision that incorporates the 1) development of fully provisioned quality living environments, 2) improvement of access...

  12. Could participant-produced photography augment therapeutic interventions for people with intellectual disabilities? A systematic review of the available evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Natalie E; Williams, Jonathan; Jones, Robert Sp

    2016-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities are entitled to equitable access to psychological support. Traditional therapeutic approaches often rely on a person's ability to verbally articulate a description of their life, which can be particularly difficult for emotionally salient information. A systematic literature review was undertaken to determine the evidence base underpinning the use of participant-produced photography within therapeutic settings. Evidence across a range of specialisms was examined in order to extrapolate areas of best practice and make recommendations for its implementation alongside people with intellectual disabilities. A systematic search of peer-reviewed journals identified 13 relevant documents. Participant-produced photography showed promise, although evidence pertaining specifically to people with intellectual disabilities was sparse ( n = 2). Participant-produced photography within therapeutic settings shows promise for people with intellectual disabilities. Methodological limitations made it difficult to derive firm conclusions regarding the effectiveness of different approaches. Implications for clinical and research practice are discussed.

  13. Wine tourism and sustainable environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Luisa González San José

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a model of development in which the present actions should not compromise the future of future generations, and is linked to economic and social development which must respect the environment. Wine tourism or enotourism is a pleasant mode of tourism that combines the pleasure of wine-tasting, with cultural aspects related to the wine culture developing in wine regions over time until the present day. It can be affirmed that wine culture, and its use through wine tourism experiences, is clearly correlated to social (socially equitable, economic (economically feasible, environmental (environmentally sound and cultural aspects of the sustainability of winegrowing regions and territories.

  14. Towards an indicator system to assess equitable management in protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafra Calvo, Noelia; Pascual, U.; Brockington, D.

    2017-01-01

    Aichi Target 11 (AT11), adopted by 193 Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2010, states that protected areas (PAs) must be equitably managed by 2020. However, significant challenges remain in terms of actual implementation of equitable management in PAs. These challenges...... of social equity in protected areas: recognition, procedure and distribution. The indicators target information on social equity regarding cultural identity, statutory and customary rights, knowledge diversity; free, prior and informed consent mechanisms, full participation and transparency in decision...

  15. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos Get to Know NICHD Podcasts and Audio Social Media Join NICHD Listservs About NICHD Organization Office of ... IDDs; and the effect of individual factors on social interactions, behavior, and emotions. Common Name Intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) Medical ...

  16. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self-identify wit......Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self......-identify with and which will allow companies to focus on the IP and IP Management issues most relevant to them. By doing so, the authors offer further insights as to the use of IP and IP management practices across firms. By looking at empirical data covering the population of firms, the findings not only pertain...

  17. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....

  18. Latin American intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos MONSIVÁIS

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The article carefully reviews the intellectual history of Latin America since the 19th Century, when the process of cultural secularization took place, until current times when the literary city has been replaced by its cybernetic version. Employing analyses of the multiple definitions, polemics, conducts, masks and pretenses of the intellectual class, the article draws a reliable portrait that serves as a conceptual frame that looks deeply into the most significant names and schools of the period.

  19. Supporting primary healthcare professionals to care for people with intellectual disability: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Nicholas; Van Driel, Mieke L; van Dooren, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The vast health inequities experienced by people with intellectual disability remain indisputable. Persistent and contemporary challenges exist for primary healthcare providers and researchers working to contribute to improvements to the health and well-being of people with intellectual disability. Over two decades after the only review of supports for primary healthcare providers was published, this paper contributes to an evolving research agenda that aims to make meaningful gains in health-related outcomes for this group. The present authors updated the existing review by searching the international literature for developments and evaluations of multinational models of care. Based on our review, we present three strategies to support primary healthcare providers: (i) effectively using what we know, (ii) considering other strategies that offer support to primary healthcare professionals and (iii) researching primary health care at the system level. Strengthening primary care by supporting equitable provision of health-related care for people with intellectual disability is a much needed step towards improving health outcomes among people with intellectual disability. More descriptive quantitative and qualitative research, as well as intervention-based research underpinned by rigorous mixed-methods evaluating these strategies at the primary care level, which is sensitive to the needs of people with intellectual disability will assist primary care providers to provide better care and achieve better health outcomes. Many people with intellectual disability have poor health. The authors reviewed what has been written by other researchers about how to improve the health of people with intellectual disability. In the future, people who support adults with intellectual disability should continue doing what they do well, think of other ways to improve health, and do more research about health. At all times, the needs of people with intellectual disability should be the

  20. Canadian initiative leading the way for equitable health systems and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Reflecting Canada's sustained commitment to improving maternal and child health, IDRC in partnership with Global Affairs Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research launched a new $36 ... Read more on the results of the Africa Health Systems Initiative in the following journal supplements:.

  1. Benchmarking in the National Intellectual Capital Measurement: Is It the Best Available Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januškaite, Virginija; Užiene, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable economic development is an aspiration of every nation in today's knowledge economy. Scientists for a few decades claim that intellectual capital management is the answer how to reach this goal. Currently, benchmarking methodology is the most common approach in the national intellectual capital measurement intended to provide…

  2. Assistive technology pricing in Australia: is it efficient and equitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Michael P; Verikios, George

    2017-02-06

    Objective To examine available systematically collected evidence regarding prices for assistive technology (AT; e.g. disability aids and equipment) in Australia with other comparable countries. Issues of appropriate AT pricing are coming to the fore as a consequence of efforts to move to consumer-centric purchasing decisions with the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) and also in the recent aged care reforms.Methods We identified and present three sets of AT price comparisons. Two comparisons were based solely on the lowest prices advertised on the internet, and one comparison examined recommended retail prices. Variables essential to ensuring accurate comparisons, as well as significant supply-chain issues were also examined and considered in the analyses.Results The first internet-only price comparison found that overall AT prices were 38% higher in Australia compared to other countries, but did not factor in shipping and other related costs that are essential to include given that most AT is imported. The second internet-only price comparison found that overall Australian prices were 24% lower when shipping and related costs were included. The recommended retail price comparisons found that Australian prices were between 14% and 27% lower. Prices for internet-only retailers (those with no bricks-and-mortar presence) are consistently lower for all products than those sold by retailers with actual shop-fronts. Further, there is no evidence of suppliers earning supranormal profits in Australia.Conclusions The results indicate that AT prices in Australia are efficient and equitable, with no significant indicators of market failure which would require government intervention. Efforts to reduce prices through the excessive use of large-scale government procurement programs are likely to reduce diversity and innovation in AT and raise AT prices over time. Open markets and competition with centralised tracking of purchases and providers to minimise possible

  3. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Starling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare.

  4. Authority and Intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Batygin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the «authority and intellectuals» problem through the concepts of L. Edwards' sociology of revolution. The author singles out «the transfer of intellectuals loyalty», i.e. modification of values and conduct within the groups, responsible for culturally legitimate «image of the world», who support this or that institutional forms of social order and authority. The process is seen as one of the symptoms of approaching revolution with its preconditions, mechanisms and character.

  5. Nietzsche: An intellectual Nebuchadnezzar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R M

    1987-09-01

    The essay introduces and defines the concept of "an intellectual Nebuchadnezzar"-one who, despite his hostility to religion, serves God's purposes by the depth of his ideas. In terms of this notion, some of Friedrich Nietzsche's views are explored. Specifically, Nietzsche's perspective on artistic creativity is analyzed and applied to the notion of creativity in human relationships. In addition to concluding that Nietzsche is himself an "intellectual Nebuchadnezzar," the broader point is made that truth and insight should be welcomed by the religious community even if the source of that truth is one ostensibly hostile to religion.

  6. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self......-identify with and which will allow companies to focus on the IP and IP Management issues most relevant to them. By doing so, the authors offer further insights as to the use of IP and IP management practices across firms. By looking at empirical data covering the population of firms, the findings not only pertain...

  7. Intellectual property rights management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self-identify wit...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....

  8. Measuring Strategic Value-Drivers for Managing Intellectual Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S.; Oh, K. B.

    2004-01-01

    In an evolving business environment characterised by globalisation and a challenging competitive paradigm, it is imperative for strategic management processes to focus on the financial perspectives of value and risk in intellectual capital to create sustainability in long-term value. This paper presents the key issues pertaining to the strategic…

  9. Measuring global water security towards sustainable development goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Gain, A.K.; Giupponi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Water plays an important role in underpinning equitable, stable and productive societies and ecosystems. Hence, United Nations recognized ensuring water security as one (Goal 6) of the seventeen sustainable development goals(SDGs). Many international river basins are likely to experience ‘low water

  10. Open Education and the Sustainable Development Goals: Making Change Happen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Education for All has been a concept at the heart of international development since 1990 and has found its latest instantiation within the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as SDG 4, "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Open education, in the form of resources and…

  11. Perspectives: Intellectual Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Ask a college administrator about students and risk management, and you're likely to get a quick and agitated speech about alcohol consumption and bad behavior or a meditation on mental health and campus safety. But in colleges and universities, we manage intellectual risk-taking too. Bring that up, and you'll probably get little out of that same…

  12. Intellectual Disability and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a…

  13. Intellectual Property in Ethnomathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Aldo Ivan Parra

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from the reflections about a methodology used in a research project with an indigenous Colombian community, this paper outlines some possibilities for ethnomathematical research. Issues like intellectual property and social relevance are discussed in order to propose a broader concept...

  14. Statement on Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Professors, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The management of university-generated intellectual property is complex and carries significant consequences for those involved in direct negotiations (faculty inventors, companies, university administrators, attorneys, and invention-management agents) as well as those who may be affected (competing companies, the public, patients, and the wider…

  15. Perry's Intellectual Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Patrick G.; Guthrie, Victoria L.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes William Perry's intellectual scheme and places it in the context of the 1990's. Perry's scheme of cognitive development, though more than thirty years old, is still being used by practitioners today to enhance practice in and out of the classroom. It laid a foundation for new research to extend, challenge, and build onto the scheme.…

  16. Heterogeneity of Intellectual Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus; Valentin, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with methodological issues of assessing the composition and level ofheterogeneity of firms' intellectual assets. It develops an original metric - referred to asthe H-index - for measuring heterogeneity using data extracted from patent documents.The main purpose is to improve...

  17. Intellectual Property in Ethnomathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Aldo Ivan Parra

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from the reflections about a methodology used in a research project with an indigenous Colombian community, this paper outlines some possibilities for ethnomathematical research. Issues like intellectual property and social relevance are discussed in order to propose a broader concept o...

  18. Protecting Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasaway, Laura N.; Rush, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Two articles consider different aspects of the issue of protecting intellectual property rights. The first discusses the effects of a recent court ruling on information centers in the for-profit sector, focusing on fair use under the Copyright Act of 1976; and the second examines moral and economic issues in electronic information dissemination.…

  19. Balancing public health, trade and intellectual monopoly privileges: recent Australian IP legislation and the TPPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Tim; Crow, Kim; Faunce, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Over the past year, several significant reforms to Australia's intellectual property regime have been proposed and passed by Parliament. The Intellectual Property Laws Amendment (Raising the Bar) Act 2012 (Cth) made various improvements to Australian patent law, including an improved threshold for patentability, greater clarity around "usefulness" requirements, and the introduction of an experimental use exemption from infringement. Another Bill, the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Bill 2012 (Cth), currently out for public consultation, would implement a 2003 decision of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Council and the 2005 Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health (Doha Declaration). If enacted, this Bill would facilitate equitable access to essential medicines by amending the compulsory licensing regime set out in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The underlying intention of this Bill--meeting public health goals outlined in the 2005 Doha Declaration--stands in juxtaposition to proposed reforms to intellectual property standards pursuant to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade and Investment Agreement (TPPA) that Australia is involved in. Although at a preliminary stage, leaked drafts of relevant intellectual property provisions in the TPPA suggest a privileging of patent monopoly privileges over public health goals. This column weighs the sentiments of the proposed Bill against those of the proposed provisions in the TPPA.

  20. Sustainable competence development of business students : Effectiveness of using serious games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Rink; Bekebrede, Geertje; Nikolic, Igor

    2016-01-01

    A transition towards a safer, healthier, more equitable and more sustainable world requires focused Sustainable Development education. While this is true for all forms of education, it is particularly vital for business education curricula, and here it is sorely lacking. The main problem is that

  1. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  2. Sustainable Urban Development and Social Sustainability in the Urban Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruq Ibnul Haqi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social sustainability and sustainable urban developments are major challenges across the world both developed and developing countries. In general there is a conflict between the approach of sustainable development and social sustainability in the urban context. The concept of sustainability brings a key framework for extensive literature on urban design, architecture and planning. Nevertheless there is a considerable overlap between the social dimensions of sustainability and the theories or notions, for instance the ‘sustainable societies’ that are highlighted in the midst of other aspects: social equity and justice. Such society is widely expected to offer a situation for long-term social relations and activities which are sustainable, inclusive and equitable in a wider perception of the term (environmentally, socially and economically. The method adopted to address this aim involves a content analysis of available academic literature, with focus on the planning sustainable development, built environment, social sustainability, and urban planning fields. The findings demonstrate that in spite of some opposing evidence, many studies have confirmed that there has been displacement of the debate on the term of ‘sustainability’ from ‘ecological and environmental aspects into social and economic aspects’. It is related to how the community feel safe and comfortable living in their own communities, how have they felt of proud of the place where they live. The aim of the paper is to improve our understanding of current theories and practices of planning sustainable development and discuss whether the approach of sustainable development aligns with social sustainability objectives.

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES How equitable is the scaling up of HIV service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess the extent of inequalities in availability and utilisation of HIV services across South Africa. Design. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting. Three districts ... School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape. Vera Scott, MB ... The implementation of an equitable HIV service in. South Africa is a ...

  4. Low Cost Private Schooling in India: Is It Pro Poor and Equitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harma, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    India has seen an explosion in low-fee private (LFP) schooling aimed at the poorer strata of society, and this once-urban phenomenon has spread in the last decade to rural areas, with implications for equity due to the level of direct costs involved. This study explores whether or not LFP schooling in rural India is pro-poor and equitable, and…

  5. A Methodology for Equitable Performance Assessment and Presentation of Wave Energy Converters Based on Sea Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Pecher, Arthur; Margheritini, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a methodology for the analysis and presentation of data obtained from sea trials of wave energy converters (WEC). The equitable aspect of this methodology lies in its wide application, as any WEC at any scale or stage of development can be considered as long as the tests are p...

  6. Providing an Equitable Service to Bilingual Children in the UK: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Carol; Dodd, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Background: The UK is a multicultural, multilingual society and the majority of paediatric speech and language therapists in England have at least one bilingual child on their caseload. There are many imperatives driving the profession to provide an equitable service for bilingual children. Evidence is beginning to emerge, however, that bilingual…

  7. Equitable Education for All: Using a Comprehensive Instructional Model to Improve Preschool Teacher Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Abby G.; Curby, Timothy W.; Brown, Chavaughn A.; Trygstad, Kelly M.; Truong, Felicia R.

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluates the effectiveness of a comprehensive instructional model, ("Every Child Ready"), as a vehicle to provide equitable education experiences for all children by compensating for gaps in teacher knowledge. The ECR instructional model addresses several challenges facing the early childhood landscape. Specifically,…

  8. Education in a Diverse Society Necessitates the Implementation of an Equitable Language Policy: The Russian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinagatullin, Ilghiz M.

    2013-01-01

    Russia's secondary school populations are becoming increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity, culture, language, and religion. The growing diversity makes a considerable impact on the functions and goals of schools, the realization of which requires the implementation of an equitable language policy. In this article, I briefly represent Russia as…

  9. Demographic Inertia Revisited: An Immodest Proposal to Achieve Equitable Gender Representation among Faculty in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschke, Robyn; Laursen, Sandra; Nielsen, Joyce McCarl; Rankin, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Progress toward equitable gender representation among faculty in higher education has been "glacial" since the early 1970s (Glazer-Raymo, 1999; Lomperis, 1990; Trower & Chait, 2002). Women, who now make up a majority of undergraduate degree earners and approximately 46% of Ph.D. earners nationwide (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES],…

  10. Pluralism and Equitability: Multicultural Curriculum Strategies for Schools. NACCME Commissioned Research Paper No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis, Mary; Cope, Bill

    This paper compares pluralistic and equitable approaches to sociocultural and language teaching in Australian schools. The pluralistic view of multiculturalism overemphasizes ethnic differences with the hope that appreciation and tolerance will follow. In fact, fostering feelings of difference may increase racism and cultural chauvinism. This…

  11. Keeping Kids Moving: How Equitable Transportation Policy Can Prevent Childhood Obesity--What It Is

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The nation faces an obesity crisis, especially among low-income children and children of color. Today, nearly one-third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and physical inactivity is a leading cause of this epidemic. Equitable transportation policy that fosters healthy, opportunity-rich communities has a critical role to play in…

  12. 48 CFR 52.250-5 - SAFETY Act-Equitable Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... institutions of the United States. Block certification means SAFETY Act certification of a technology class... certification means a determination by DHS pursuant to 6 U.S.C. 442(d), as further delineated in 6 CFR 25.9... Act—Equitable Adjustment (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Act of terrorism means...

  13. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self......-identify with and which will allow companies to focus on the IP and IP Management issues most relevant to them. By doing so, the authors offer further insights as to the use of IP and IP management practices across firms. By looking at empirical data covering the population of firms, the findings not only pertain...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....

  14. INTELLECTUAL DISHONESTY IN SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikolić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to obtain answers about the most important questions involving dishonesty in science. If we consider scientific work, we have to mention that various forms of errors need to be divided into two groups: reputable and disreputable errors. The third group, called the “grey zone”, includes “cooking” and “trimming”. When we consider the problem of dishonesty in science we should mention the most important question: who and for what reasons commits plagiarism and other forms of intellectual crookedness? Is it for financial benefits or for advancement? It is difficult to say, but it is necessary to use all available remedies to eradicate all forms of intellectual dishonesty, which is hard, especially in biomedical sciences. However, some reputable journals in this field use some special software packages to detect plagiarism.

  15. Institutionalised Exclusion: The Political Economy of Benefit Sharing and Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon West

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing (Protocol has been hailed as providing unprecedented legal support for indigenous and community control over genetic resources and associated knowledge by ensuring that such groups benefit more equitably from the use and subsequent proceeds of biological resources. This paper will analyse this claim critically, situating access and benefit sharing (ABS regimes within the broader political economy of intellectual property articulated in the negotiations of the TRIPS Council monitoring the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS and the Conference of the Parties (COP to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. While the CBD principle of sovereignty over natural resources allows biodiverse developing state parties to regulate access to intellectual and genetic resources subject to national laws and the aims of the CBD, the concept of ‘facilitated access’ used to fulfil this right attaches itself purely to state parties and does not necessarily improve the lot of local and indigenous peoples. Indeed, the implementation of state level access regimes together with the principle of downstream benefit-sharing effectively excludes local people from exercising any autonomous legal rights over resources and rather creates a state of legal dependency among knowledge and resource rich communities on dominant and exclusionary IPR structures. Therefore while the material interests of local and indigenous communities may have been addressed in a limited manner by the Protocol – for instance in terms of strengthening provider state obligation to implement benefit-sharing schemes – ABS regimes inherently preclude secure legal recognition for local and indigenous control over intellectual and genetic resources. Moreover the general lack of legalisation achieved by the Protocol stakes even these limited ‘gains’ upon further negotiations designed

  16. An intellectual property primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Mark D

    2008-06-01

    While many may think of it as an "invention" of the modern age, intellectual property ("IP") has existed since at least as early as the 17th Century with the advent of the Statute of Monopolies in the U.K. Intellectual property has evolved significantly since then into an important aspect of modern day society touching all of our lives in some form or another Canadian health care in the 21st Century is no exception. This article attempts to provide health care professionals who may not be familiar with this subject matter with a general overview of what is "intellectual property". Many readers may be aware ofintellectual property on some level but may not understand how the various types of IP function and interrelate, as well as the possible impact on the nature and scope of health care services. The purpose of this article is to attempt to provide the reader with the tools, definition and 'jargon" to understand IP so that they can appreciate the issues discussed in greater detail in the remaining papers of this special edition.

  17. Financing equitable access to antiretroviral treatment in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Susan; McIntyre, Di

    2010-07-02

    While South Africa spends approximately 7.4% of GDP on healthcare, only 43% of these funds are spent in the public system, which is tasked with the provision of care to the majority of the population including a large proportion of those in need of antiretroviral treatment (ART). South Africa is currently debating the introduction of a National Health Insurance (NHI) system. Because such a universal health system could mean increased public healthcare funding and improved access to human resources, it could improve the sustainability of ART provision. This paper considers the minimum resources that would be required to achieve the proposed universal health system and contrasts these with the costs of scaled up access to ART between 2010 and 2020. The costs of ART and universal coverage (UC) are assessed through multiplying unit costs, utilization and estimates of the population in need during each year of the planning cycle. Costs are from the provider's perspective reflected in real 2007 prices. The annual costs of providing ART increase from US$1 billion in 2010 to US$3.6 billion in 2020. If increases in funding to public healthcare only keep pace with projected real GDP growth, then close to 30% of these resources would be required for ART by 2020. However, an increase in the public healthcare resource envelope from 3.2% to 5%-6% of GDP would be sufficient to finance both ART and other services under a universal system (if based on a largely public sector model) and the annual costs of ART would not exceed 15% of the universal health system budget. Responding to the HIV-epidemic is one of the many challenges currently facing South Africa. Whether this response becomes a "resource for democracy" or whether it undermines social cohesiveness within poor communities and between rich and poor communities will be partially determined by the steps that are taken during the next ten years. While the introduction of a universal system will be complex, it could generate a

  18. Envisioning Equitable Classrooms That Enhance "All" Students' Wonderful Ideas: A Duckworth Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Suzanne M.; Trumble, Jason F.; Haugh-Villareal, Sarah J.; Porter, Kelsie S.; Schaum, Megan A.; Spencer, Erin M.; Stephens, Jessica N.

    2014-01-01

    This synopsis centers on Eleanor Duckworth's ideas about the relationship between education and intellectual development. Specifically, Duckworth described the essence of intellectual development as the "having of wonderful ideas" and the essence of pedagogy as the creation of occasions to "have wonderful ideas." As…

  19. Outlook for Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... singing, with their peers who are not intellectually disabled. Increasingly, children with mild cognitive impairments (i.e., mild intellectual disabilities) are being mainstreamed into inclusion classrooms. Vocational training Preparing children with intellectual disabilities ...

  20. Interventions to promote physical activity for adults with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviene A Temple

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe interventions designed to promote physical activity for adults with intellectual disabilities and the effects on overall physical activity levels and on health outcomes. Materials and methods. A systematic review of eight databases until January 31, 2015 identified 383 citations. The inclusion criteria were: a the study sample consisted of adults with intellectual disabilities, b the study implemented an intervention to initiate, increase, or maintain physical activity, and c quantitative or qualitative data were used to report the effectiveness of the intervention. Six articles from the 383 citations met this criterion. Results. Three studies resulted in significant increases in physical activity behaviour; however well-controlled trials designed to improve weight status by increasing physical activity did not produce significant effects. Conclusion. Overall, the results indicate that interventions to increase physical activity should simultaneously target the individual with intellectual disability as well as their proximal environment over a sustained period of time.

  1. Intellectual Capital dan Keunggulan Kompetitif (Studi Empiris Perusahaan Manufaktur versi Jakarta Stock Industrial Classification-JASICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Utari Widyaningdyah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the differences on value added and intellectual capital (IC efficiency of the companies with sustained and un-sustained competitive advantage. This research uses manufacturing companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2009-2011 according to JASICA version. This research indicates that the value creation (proxied by value added intellectual coefficient-VAICTM and IC efficiency (proxied by intellectual capital efficiency-ICE of companies with sustained competitive advantage significantly different from companies with unsustained competitive advantage. This finding supports the Resource-based Theory which asserts that company with sustained competitive advantage has an ability to create value for its stakeholder and manages its VRIN (Valuable, Rare, Inimitable, and Non-substitutable strategic assets efficiently.

  2. How Should Organizations Promote Equitable Distribution of Benefits from Technological Innovation in Health Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambisan, Satish; Nambisan, Priya

    2017-11-01

    Technological innovations typically benefit those who have good access to and an understanding of the underlying technologies. As such, technology-centered health care innovations are likely to preferentially benefit users of privileged socioeconomic backgrounds. Which policies and strategies should health care organizations adopt to promote equitable distribution of the benefits from technological innovations? In this essay, we draw on two important concepts-co-creation (the joint creation of value by multiple parties such as a company and its customers) and digitalization (the application of new digital technologies and the ensuing changes in sociotechnical structures and relationships)-and propose a set of policies and strategies that health care organizations could adopt to ensure that benefits from technological innovations are more equitably distributed among all target populations, including resource-poor communities and individuals. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Intellectual Video Filming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    Like everyone else university students of the humanities are quite used to watching Hollywood productions and professional TV. It requires some didactic effort to redirect their eyes and ears away from the conventional mainstream style and on to new and challenging ways of using the film media...... in favour of worthy causes. However, it is also very rewarding to draw on the creativity, enthusiasm and rapidly improving technical skills of young students, and to guide them to use video equipment themselves for documentary, for philosophical film essays and intellectual debate. In the digital era...

  4. Employee Attitude to Management Style : case: International equitable association Nigeria Limited.

    OpenAIRE

    Osondu, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to reveal employees’ attitudes to management style in International equitable association Limited, Aba, Nigeria (IEA). IEA is a soap and detergent manufacturing company. The company uses modern management styles to drive employee performance. This study set out to investigate employee attitudes to the various management styles in use at IEA. The study used a framework which shows that employee attitude is driven by the employee’s awareness, the employee’s application o...

  5. Towards a Fair and Equitable ABS Regime: Is Nagoya Leading us in the Right Direction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram De Jonge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A historical overview of the concept of Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS suggests that ABS is all about compensation, i.e. a benefit sharing mechanism that provides one with compensation for allowing access to one’s resources. The principles of entitlement (based on sovereign rights and desert (based on contributions may then guide a fair and equitable sharing of the resources in question. Yet, the principles of need and equity appear equally important, as it is exactly because of the inequalities and neediness in the world that the demand for benefit sharing as a compensation mechanism has evolved. Unfortunately, we have to conclude that, for several reasons, the current bilateral exchange model of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD can never be fair and equitable. While the Multilateral System of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGR bypasses some of the main problems that frustrate fair and equitable benefit sharing under the CBD, it is currently being criticised for its weak benefit-sharing component. This article therefore proposes an alternative ABS regime based on the utilisation of resources instead of their exchange. One of the main advantages of such a model – apart from the fact that it does not depend on controlling the movement of plant genetic resources – is that it emphasises the responsibilities for benefit sharing on the user side. This article analyses whether the Nagoya Protocol is leading us in the right direction and, with the aforementioned principles of justice in mind, makes recommendations on how to realise a fair and equitable ABS regime.

  6. “A More Equitable Society”: The Politics of Global Fairness in Paralympic Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Leslie; Bantjes, Jason; Rall, Divan; Ferreira, Suzanne; Blauwet, Cheri; Derman, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Paralympic Movement explicitly sets out to create a more equitable society and promote participation for all and fairness in disability sport. This is primarily achieved through the use of a range of interventions with less attention given to how economic factors may hinder access and achievement in Paralympic sport. We investigated how country-level economic variables influence the level of participation and achievement in the 2015 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) Athletics Champ...

  7. The impact of training on teacher knowledge about children with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Helen; McKenzie, Karen; Murray, George

    2011-03-01

    The present study examines the impact of a short training session on the knowledge of teaching staff in Scotland about children with an intellectual disability. Despite the majority of participants reporting that they had a child with an intellectual disability in their classroom, the initial level of knowledge concerning intellectual disability was low. This was partly considered to be due to terminology differences that exist between the health and education sectors and a lack of training specific to the needs of children with an intellectual disability. Training was shown to significantly improve the basic knowledge needed to understand intellectual disability immediately after training and at a 1 month follow-up, suggesting that the knowledge gains would be sustained in the longer term.

  8. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  9. THE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL OF UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratianu Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present some of our research results concerning the intellectual capital of universities. This is an important topic of the intellectual research area since universities are knowledge intensive organizations. They contain b

  10. Global Academe: Engaging Intellectual Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy-Zekmi, Silvia, Ed.; Hollis, Karyn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The representation of the economic, political, cultural and, more importantly, global interrelations between agents involved in the process of intellectual activity is at the core of the inquiry in this volume that scrutinizes a distinct transformation occurring in the modalities of intellectual production also detectable in the changing role of…

  11. Intellectual Work and Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The university as a site of public intellectuals and intellectual work is facing challenge. Historically this has happened and continues apace through the inter-relationship of a number of trends: first, the entry of disciplines into bureaucratic specialisation, where status is through a named school, disciplinary paradigms and networks, journals…

  12. British sociology and public intellectuals: consumer society and imperial decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S

    2006-06-01

    The following is the lecture given for the BJS 2005 Public Sociology Debate given at the London School of Economics and Political Science on ll October 2005. This lecture on the character of British sociology provides a pretext for a more general inquiry into public intellectual life in postwar Britain. The argument put forward falls into several distinctive sections. First, British social science has depended heavily on the migration of intellectuals, especially Jewish intellectuals who were refugees from fascism. Second, intellectual innovation requires massive, disruptive, violent change. Third, British sociology did nevertheless give rise to a distinctive tradition of social criticism in which one can argue there were (typically home-grown) public intellectuals. The main theme of their social criticism was to consider the constraining and divisive impact of social class, race and gender on the enjoyment of expanding social citizenship. Fourth, postwar British sociology came to be dominated by the analysis of an affluent consumer society. Finally, the main failure of British sociology in this postwar period was the absence of any sustained, macro-sociological analysis of the historical decline of Britain as a world power in the twentieth century.

  13. Supplier relationship management leverages intellectual capital for increased competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Van Zyl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how supplier relationship management (SRM enables the capture and creation of intellectual capital, thereby attaining and sustaining a strategic competitive advantage and increasing supply chain profitability. In order to achieve this purpose, a large part of the article is devoted to exploring the relatively new and unknown field of SRM. It is shown that an organisation must possess a thorough understanding of good supplier characteristics and of the drivers, benefits and requirements for the successful implementation of SRM, in order to enable that organisation to leverage their supplier relationships to ensure the capture of supplier expertise, patents, experiences etc. (i.e. their intellectual capital. The article then explores how the integration of technology in SRM applications can improve the efficiency of supplier collaboration and intellectual capital capture and creation. It is then demonstrated how efficient and collaborative supplier relationships improve supply chain profitability and competitiveness. Lastly, the article explores the implementation pitfalls and trends of SRM that must be constantly considered and monitored by an organisation in order to continually capture and create intellectual capital and reap the full benefits of SRM. This exploration involved an examination of contemporary literature, theories and business cases and subsequently revealed that SRM is a vital discipline/philosophy that must be implemented by any organisation wishing to achieve greater supply chain efficiency and competitiveness. This competitiveness can only be achieved through the mutual unlocking, sharing and leveraging of intellectual capital.

  14. [Robots and intellectual property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  15. Social Sciences and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available At the time when the journal Sustainability [1] was launched, as a chemist and a scientist, I started to believe that social sciences may be more important to make humans sustainable. The broad journal title Social Sciences presents the opportunity for all social science scholars to have integrated consideration regarding the sustainability of humanity, because I am sure that science and technology alone cannot help. Science and technology may have in fact been contributing to accelerate the depletion of nonrenewable natural resources and putting human sustainability at risk since the industrial revolution about 150 years ago. I hope all intellectuals studying anthropology, archaeology, administration, communication, criminology, economics, education, government, linguistics, international relations, politics, sociology and, in some contexts, geography, history, law, and psychology publish with us to seek a solution to sustain humanity. Sustainability itself will also be a main topic of the journal Social Sciences. In addition to this integrated forum for social sciences, more topic specific journals, such as the already publishing Societies [2], will be launched. [...

  16. An exploration of equitable science teaching practices for students with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marlene

    In this study, a mixed methods approach was used to gather descriptive exploratory information regarding the teaching of science to middle grades students with learning disabilities within a general education classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and their practices concerning providing equitable opportunities for students with learning disabilities in a general education science classroom. Equitable science teaching practices take into account each student's differences and uses those differences to inform instructional decisions and tailor teaching practices based on the student's individualized learning needs. Students with learning disabilities are similar to their non-disabled peers; however, they need some differentiation in instruction to perform to their highest potential achievement levels (Finson, Ormsbee, & Jensen, 2011). In the quantitative phase, the purpose of the study was to identify patterns in the beliefs of middle grades science teachers about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom. In the qualitative phase, the purpose of the study was to present examples of instruction in the classrooms of science education reform-oriented middle grades science teachers. The quantitative phase of the study collected data from 274 sixth through eighth grade teachers in the State of Florida during the 2007--2008 school year using The Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory. Overall, the quantitative findings revealed that middle grades science teachers held positive beliefs about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education science classroom. The qualitative phase collected data from multiple sources (interviews, classroom observations, and artifacts) to develop two case studies of reform-oriented middle grades science teachers who were expected to provide equitable science teaching practices. Based on their responses to The

  17. Intellectual Property and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Francis Gurry has led WIPO as Director General since 1st October, 2008. He was reappointed in May 2014 for a second six-year term, which runs until September 2020. Under his leadership, WIPO is addressing major challenges. These include managing the stress on the international patent and copyright systems produced by rapid technological change, by globalisation and increased demand; reducing the knowledge gap between developed and developing countries; and ensuring that the intellectual property (IP) system serves its fundamental purpose of encouraging creativity and innovation in all countries. Every year, WIPO publishes the Global Innovation Index (GII), which provides detailed metrics about the innovation performance of countries and economies around the world. The 2016 edition highlighted CERN as an example of successful, regional innovation initiatives. In this seminar Mr. Gurry will share his knowledge and views on the role of IP in innovation. You can read a message from Mr. Gurry here : http://...

  18. Intellectual Disability and Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently. Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.

  19. Intellectual disability and parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Isack; Morad, Mohammed; Vardi, Gideon; Merrick, Joav

    2005-01-21

    Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID) is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently). Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.

  20. Linking intellectual capital and intellectual property to company performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure the effects of intellectual capital components; namely, human capital, structural capital and relational capital on company performance in Iranian auto industry. The study uses a questionnaire consists of 100 questions to cover intellectual capital and company performance in Likert scale and it is distributed among 180 experts in one of Iranian auto industry. Cronbach alphas for intellectual capital components, i.e. human capital, relational capital and structural capital are 0.82, 0.80 and 0.80, respectively. In addition, Cronbach alpha for company performance is 0.82. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and company performance. The study has also determined a positive and meaningful relationship between human capital and structural capital. Among components of performance, efficiency maintained the highest effect while innovation represents the minimum effect.

  1. Remaining missed opportunities of child survival in Peru: modelling mortality impact of universal and equitable coverage of proven interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Yvonne; Huicho, Luis; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara

    2016-10-04

    Peru has made great improvements in reducing stunting and child mortality in the past decade, and has reached the Millennium Development Goals 1 and 4. The remaining challenges or missed opportunities for child survival needs to be identified and quantified, in order to guide the next steps to further improve child survival in Peru. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to project the mortality impact of proven interventions reaching every women and child in need, and the mortality impact of eliminating inequalities in coverage distribution between wealth quintiles and urban-rural residence. Our analyses quantified the remaining missed opportunities in Peru, where prioritizing scale-up of facility-based case management for all small and sick babies will be most effective in mortality reduction, compared to other evidenced-based interventions that prevent maternal and child deaths. Eliminating coverage disparities between the poorest quintiles and the richest will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 22.0 and 40.6 %, while eliminating coverage disparities between those living in rural and urban areas will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 29.3 and 45.2 %. This projected neonatal mortality reduction achieved by eliminating coverage disparities is almost comparable to that already achieved by Peru over the past decade. Although Peru has made great strides in improving child survival, further improvement in child health, especially in newborn health can be achieved if there is universal and equitable coverage of proven, quality health facility-based interventions. The magnitude of reduction in mortality will be similar to what has been achieved in the past decade. Strengthening health system to identify, understand, and direct resources to the poor and rural areas will ensure that Peru achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

  2. Safe Delivery Posts: an intervention to provide equitable childbirth care services to vulnerable groups in Zahedan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudi, Zahra; Ghazi Tabatabaie, Mahmood; Mahdi Tabatabaei, Seyed; Vedadhir, AbouAli

    2014-10-01

    Recently, there has been a shift towards alternative childbirth services to increase access to skilled care during childbirth. This study aims to assess the past 10 years of experience of the first Safe Delivery Posts (SDPs) established in Zahedan, Iran to determine the number of deliveries and the intrapartum transfer rates, and to examine the reasons why women choose to give birth at a Safe Delivery Post and not in one of the four large hospitals in Zahedan. A mixed-methods research strategy was used for this study. In the quantitative phase, an analysis was performed on the existing data that are routinely collected in the health-care sector. In the qualitative phase, a grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyse narrative data from in-depth interviews with women who had given birth to their children at the Safe Delivery Posts. Women were selected from two Safe Delivery Posts in Zahedan city in southeast Iran. Nineteen mothers who had given birth in the Safe Delivery Posts were interviewed. During the 10-year period, 22,753 low-risk women gave birth in the Safe Delivery Posts, according to the records. Of all the women who were admitted to the Safe Delivery Posts, on average 2.1% were transferred to the hospital during labour or the postpartum period. Three key categories emerged from the analysis: barriers to hospital use, opposition to home birth and finally, reasons for choosing the childbirth care provided by the SDPs. Implementing a model of midwifery care that offers the benefits of modern medical care and meets the needs of the local population is feasible and sustainable. This model of care reduces the cost of giving birth and ensures equitable access to care among vulnerable groups in Zahedan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Corporate governance and intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Alizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between corporate governance and Intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2009 using a regression based model. The study investigates the impacts of three some independent variables of the corporate governance (i.e. the number of board members, the relative extent of nonexecutive to executive directors, the auditing committee. The results suggest that corporate governance had no special effect on intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore among corporate governance's variables, the first one (i.e. board size had negative impact on firms' intellectual capital and the second and the third variables had no effects on intellectual capital.

  4. Immanuel Kant on intellectual property

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzo, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    This text initially discusses the notion of intellectual property in Kant's philosophy and in the eighteenth century. Next, it restates the problem within a contemporary setting, taking into account the new technologies on reproduction of information.

  5. Promoting equitable global health research: a policy analysis of the Canadian funding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Katrina; Walters, Dylan; Campbell, Sandy; Hatfield, Jennifer

    2017-08-29

    Recognising radical shifts in the global health research (GHR) environment, participants in a 2013 deliberative dialogue called for careful consideration of equity-centred principles that should inform Canadian funding polices. This study examined the existing funding structures and policies of Canadian and international funders to inform the future design of a responsive GHR funding landscape. We used a three-pronged analytical framework to review the ideas, interests and institutions implicated in publically accessible documents relevant to GHR funding. These data included published literature and organisational documents (e.g. strategic plans, progress reports, granting policies) from Canadian and other comparator funders. We then used a deliberative approach to develop recommendations with the research team, advisors, industry informants and low- and middle-income country (LMIC) partners. In Canada, major GHR funders invest an estimated CA$90 M per annum; however, the post-2008 re-organization of funding structures and policies resulted in an uncoordinated and inefficient Canadian strategy. Australia, Denmark, the European Union, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America invest proportionately more in GHR than Canada. Each of these countries has a national strategic plan for global health, some of which have dedicated benchmarks for GHR funding and policy to allow funds to be held by partners outside of Canada. Key constraints to equitable GHR funding included (1) funding policies that restrict financial and cost burden aspects of partnering for GHR in LMICs; and (2) challenges associated with the development of effective governance mechanisms. There were, however, some Canadian innovations in funding research that demonstrated both unconventional and equitable approaches to supporting GHR in Canada and abroad. Among the most promising were found in the International Development Research Centre and the (no longer active) Global Health

  6. Using Intellectual Property Rights Strategically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus

    2003-01-01

    With the share of intellectual property among corporate value constantly rising,management's understanding of the strategic use of patents, trademarks, andcopyrights becomes ever more crucial. The vast majority of articles on patent ortrademark strategies, however, is written by and for lawyers...... be directly applicable bystrategy makers. Thus, up to the present a comprehensive description of thecomplexity and variety of using intellectual property rights as additional strategicelements is still missing in the literature. Elaborating on the premise that patentsand trademarks represent important assets...

  7. Legal ramifications of intellectual property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent government policy changes that have resulted in encouraging or requiring increased intellectual property rights of federally funded research and development activities are examined. The reasons for these changes are discussed, including considerations related to technology transfer, patent rights, copyrights, trade secrets, and computer software issues. The effect of these changes on traditional approaches to the dissemination of federally funded scientific and technical information is considered and predictions concerning future trends in intellectual property rights are given.

  8. PISA for Development and the Sustainable Development Goals. PISA for Development Brief 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The PISA for Development brief series is a set of concise monthly education policy-oriented notes published by the OECD which are designed to describe a specific PISA for Development topic. In this brief, PISA's role in monitoring the fourth United Nations Sustainable Development Goal--to "ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and…

  9. Technical Education as a Tool for Ensuring Sustainable Development: A Case of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gagan Deep; Uppal, Raminder Singh; Mahendru, Mandeep

    2016-01-01

    This paper notes that education needs to essentially lead to sustainable development serving two-fold purpose--eradicating the problems of unemployment and poverty; and ensuring equitable distribution of wealth while ensuring the right understanding leading to a peaceful, prosperous and developed world. In its current state, technical education…

  10. For Function or Transformation? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Education under the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissett, Nigel; Mitter, Radhika

    2017-01-01

    We conduct a critical discourse analysis of the extent to which Sustainable Development Goal 4, "to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education for all and promote lifelong learning," promotes a utilitarian and/or transformative approach to education. Our findings show that despite transformative language used throughout the Agenda,…

  11. Connecting SLCE with Sustainability in Higher Education: Cultivating Citizens with an Ecocentric Vision of Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Catherine; Keel, Melanie; Fleurizard, Tyrone

    2017-01-01

    An important future direction for service-learning and community engagement (SLCE) is to collaborate with the sustainability in higher education (SHE) movement. SHE is a diverse, transdisciplinary area of inquiry and practice that seeks to help lead efforts to create a "thriving, equitable and ecologically healthy world." When SLCE…

  12. Cities and systemic change for sustainability: Prevailing epistemologies and an emerging research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wolfram (Marc); N. Frantzeskaki (Niki)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCities are key for sustainability and the radical systemic changes required to enable equitable human development within planetary boundaries. Their particular role in this regard has become the subject of an emerging and highly interdisciplinary scientific debate. Drawing on a

  13. The Role of Social and Intergenerational Equity in Making Changes in Human Well-Being Sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Human well-being is described by four primary elements—basic human needs, economic needs, environmental needs, and subjective well-bein...

  14. Dilemmas of hydropower development in Vietnam : between dam-induced displacement and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ty, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to explain the controversies related to hydropower development in Vietnam in order to make policy recommendations for equitable and sustainable development. This book focuses on the analysis of emerging issues, such as land acquisition, compensation for losses, displacement

  15. Expressions of Liberal Justice? Examining the Aims of the UN's Sustainable Development Goals for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderDussen Toukan, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for education, which sets benchmarks for member states to "ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong opportunities for all" by the year 2030. I examine ways in which the underlying philosophical rationale for the targets invokes a…

  16. Commentary: A call to leadership: the role of the academic medical center in driving sustainable health system improvement through performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedza, Susan M

    2009-12-01

    As the government attempts to address the high cost of health care in the United States, the issues being confronted include variations in the quality of care administered and the inconsistent application of scientifically proven treatments. To improve quality, methods of measurement and reporting with rewards or, eventually, penalties based on performance, must be developed. To date, well-intentioned national policy initiatives, such as value-based purchasing, have focused primarily on the measurement of discrete events and on attempts to construct incentives. While important, the current approach alone cannot improve quality, ensure equitability, decrease variability, and optimize value. Additional thought-leadership is required, both theoretical and applied. Academic medical centers' (AMCs') scholarly and practical participation is needed. Although quality cannot be sustainably improved without measurement, the existing measures alone do not ensure quality. There is not enough evidence to support strong measure development and, further, not enough insight regarding whether the existing measures have their intended effect of enhancing health care delivery that results in quality outcomes for patients. Perhaps the only way that the United States health care system will achieve a standard of quality care is through the strong embrace, effective engagement, intellectual insights, educational contributions, and practical applications in AMCs. Quality will never be achieved through public policies or national initiatives alone but instead through the commitment of the academic community to forward the science of performance measurement and to ensure that measurement leads to better health outcomes for our nation.

  17. Food Security Is None Of Your Business? : Food Supply Chain Management In Support Of A Sustainable Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Paloviita, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Food security is the principal outcome of any given food system and it can be defined in terms of a sustainable food system where the core goal is to feed everyone sustainably, equitably and healthily. A sustainable food system addresses needs for availability, affordability and accessibility, is diverse, ecologically-sound and resilient, and builds the capabilities and skills necessary for future generations. This paper identifies the essential elements of food supply ch...

  18. Using peer review to distribute group work marks equitably between medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alex R; Hartman, Mikael; Luo, Nan; Sng, Judy; Fong, Ngan Phoon; Lim, Wei Yen; Chen, Mark I-Cheng; Wong, Mee Lian; Rajaraman, Natarajan; Lee, Jeannette Jen-Mai; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat

    2017-09-20

    Although peer assessment has been used for evaluating performance of medical students and practicing doctors, it has not been studied as a method to distribute a common group work mark equitably to medical students working in large groups where tutors cannot observe all students constantly. The authors developed and evaluated a mathematical formulation whereby a common group mark could be distributed among group members using peer assessment of individual contributions to group work, maintaining inter-group variation in group work scores. This was motivated by community health projects undertaken by large groups of year four medical students at the National University of Singapore, and the new and old formulations are presented via application to 263 students in seven groups of 36 to 40 during the academic year 2012/2013. This novel formulation produced a less clustered mark distribution that rewarded students who contributed more to their team. Although collusion among some members to form a voting alliance and 'personal vendettas' were potential problems, the former was not detected and the latter had little impact on the overall grade a student received when working in a large group. The majority of students thought the new formulation was fairer. The new formulation is easy to implement and arguably awards grades more equitably in modules where group work is a major component.

  19. Whose place in the sun? Residential tourism and its implications for equitable and sustainable development in Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorloos, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    This book is about residential tourism, a phenomenon that has recently become more prominent in developing countries. Residential tourism is the temporary or permanent mobility of relatively well-to-do citizens from mostly western countries to a variety of tourist destinations, where they buy (or

  20. Deregulation, Distrust, and Democracy: State and Local Action to Ensure Equitable Access to Healthy, Sustainably Produced Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2015-01-01

    Environmental, public health, alternative food, and food justice advocates are working together to achieve incremental agricultural subsidy and nutrition assistance reforms that increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables. When it comes to targeting food and beverage products for increased regulation and decreased consumption, however, the priorities of various food reform movements diverge. This article argues that foundational legal issues, including preemption of state and local authority to protect the public's health and welfare, increasing First Amendment protection for commercial speech, and eroding judicial deference to legislative policy judgments, present a more promising avenue for collaboration across movements than discrete food reform priorities around issues like sugary drinks, genetic modification, or organics. Using the Vermont Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Labeling Act litigation, the Kauai GMO Cultivation Ordinance litigation, the New York City Sugary Drinks Portion Rule litigation, and the Cleveland Trans Fat Ban litigation as case studies, I discuss the foundational legal challenges faced by diverse food reformers, even when their discrete reform priorities diverge. I also 'explore the broader implications of cooperation among groups that respond differently to the "irrationalities" (from the public health perspective) or "values" (from the environmental and alternative food perspective) that permeate public risk perception for democratic governance in the face of scientific uncertainty.

  1. FORMATION OF ENTERPRISE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IN CONTEXT OF RESOURCE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Revutska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main content of the resource theory and description of it evolution in three stages were considered in this article. The first stage was the formation of the classical concept of the resource, the second – the origin and development of the concept of core competencies and dynamic organizational capabilities, and the third is associated with the formation of the theory of resource advantages. The nature and the necessity to identify new resource elements (core competencies, dynamic capabilities and organizational routines were characterized in the context of the selected stages. The signs of sustainable competitive advantage and types of economic rents that arise on the resource base were generalized. There is a connection between resource theory and concept of knowledge management based on identification of intellectual component in the economic nature of the core competencies and organizational abilities. The basic approach to the classification of resources and their elements, which form the intellectual capital of the company was described. New elements of economic resources such as competencies, organizational abilities, rutin and elements of intellectual capital are in close connection. It is concluded that the core competencies are best developed in human client and networking elements of intellectual capital, dynamic organizational capability in innovative capital and routines in process capital of an enterprise.

  2. Genuine Saving as a Sustainability Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    Growth theory provides the intellectual underpinning for expanded national accounting and, through the measure of genuine saving, an indicator of when economies are on an unsustainable development path. This theory points in useful directions for countries concerned with sustainable development. The genuine savings analysis raises an important set of policy questions that goes beyond the t...

  3. Sustained Experiential Learning: Modified Monasticism and Pilgrimage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone-Moore, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines a template for sustained experiential learning designed to provide a context for learning the affective and performative as well as intellectual power of religion. This approach was developed for a traditional academic framework, adapting pedagogies developed for experiential learning, aesthetic training, and study abroad,…

  4. Sustained Satellite Missions for Climate Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David

    2012-01-01

    Satellite CDRs possess the accuracy, longevity, and stability for sustained moni toring of critical variables to enhance understanding of the global integrated Earth system and predict future conditions. center dot Satellite CDRs are a critical element of a global climate observing system. center dot Satellite CDRs are a difficult challenge and require high - level managerial commitment, extensive intellectual capital, and adequate funding.

  5. Intellectual property and information controversy(I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper deals with intellectual property as the results of various intellectual activities such as R & D, and intellectual proprietary rights which protect it. New technology, designs, literary works, computer programs, semiconductor chips, new plant breeding, brands, trading secrets, CI and others, and legislations which protect them are described. Then, the background of the fact that intellectual proprietary rights are emphasized as analyzed. The author points out items as follows; movement toward much larger size of R & D, generation of the areas to be newly protected, trend in enforcement of intellectual property protection, commercialization of intellectual property, trend in software evolution, movement in technological protectionism, and the present status on each item.

  6. The Relationship Between Intellectual Capital and Firm Value: A Study in Istanbul Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim CENGİZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and firm value. The study is significant in that it makes intellectual capital, which is of vital importance in ensuring firms’ sustainability, more apparent and it provides a chance to make comparisons with other studies. The companies operating in energy sector in Borsa Istanbul (abbreviated as BIST, former Istanbul Stock Exchange during the period of 2009-2011, are taken into the scope of analysis. Within this scope, the findings obtained by using “Calculated Intangible Value Management” are compared with firms’ market value/book value practices in order to determine the relationship between intellectual capital and firm value. The findings reveal that energy companies operating in Turkey do not consider their intellectual capital assets important and tangible assets are the main factors affecting business performance.

  7. Debates on Intellectual Property Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula – Angela VIDRAŞCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper supports the understanding of the definition of intellectual property rights and strong connection with intangible assets and, on the other hand, provides a brief presentation of the organizations supporting the protection of such rights. The essential aim of this article is represented by the detailed information obtained as a result of research carried out in order to define, identify and study the application of IPR in general and especially in our country. At the end of the paper I mentioned what involves protecting intellectual property rights and brought little concerned how our country is perceived to protect such rights. Most often, intellectual property is defined as a formal document of title, like a lease, which means that the property is a legal concept distinct from real property that are actually good without concrete material form. Constitute a special category of assets being perceived as an original creation, derived from creative ideas; has or may have a commercial value due to its contribution to earnings for its owner. The need for protection of intellectual property rights has emerged because of the changes in the contemporary society. The aim and purpose of which is to protect human intelligence product and, at the same time, ensuring that consumers benefit from the use of the attributes of this product. Always remember that the violation of intellectual property rights, causes injury to major economic, signifying a strong threat to the consumers health and safety.

  8. [Written language and intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando-Lucas, M T; Banús-Gómez, P; Hoz-Rosales, A G

    2005-01-15

    Following the diagnosis of intellectual disability, a prognosis can be offered concerning the degree of autonomy the child will be able to achieve based on prior experience, but which depends on the aetiology of the disability. It is still difficult to give a prospective answer regarding the capacity to reach an operative level of written language. The goal of being able to offer an experience-based prognosis involves prior analysis of how learning dysfunctions are approached in the disabled population. Although we have an increasingly deeper understanding of the neurocognitive foundations of specific learning difficulties and the careful neuropsychological management of children with disorders affecting the acquisition of written language with a typical intellectual level, those with intellectual disability continue to be treated using a simplistic approach in which their intelligence quotient is still taken as the most relevant feature. Little attention is paid to neuropsychological aspects, the pedagogical and social environment or comorbid aspects that may affect the acquisition of the function. Yet, these are aspects that are submitted to thorough evaluation in children who are not disabled. The current concept of intellectual disability has gone beyond the definition based on the intelligence quotient. The wide variability in the reading function in children with intellectual disability cannot be explained only according to a psychometric assessment. A more complete neuropsychological approach, as carried out in the population with no disability, will enable us to detect cognitive, pedagogical, social and pathological dysfunctions that interfere with the acquisition of written language.

  9. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL: GENDER EQUALITY FOR WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sudershan Kumar Pathania

    2017-01-01

    Empowerment of women and girls is to be realized through sustainable development. Sustainable development depends on an equitable distribution of resources and it cannot be achieved without gender equality. Gender Equity is the process of allocating resources, programs, and decision making fairly to both males and females without any discrimination on the basis of sex…and addressing any imbalances in the benefits available to males and females. Diane Elson, an adviser to UN Women, argues in h...

  10. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  11. Intellectual Property Law as an Internal Limit on Intellectual Property Rights and Autonomous Source of Liability for Intellectual Property Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Elizabeth F.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between intellectual property rights and classic property rights raised by Hoffman v. Monsanto (2005) and advances the idea that intellectual property law can serve as an autonomous source of liability for intellectual property owners. The article develops the conceptual advantages of demarcating physical and…

  12. Biotechnology as an intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, R G

    1984-04-27

    Recent advances in biotechnology have created many public policy and legal issues, one of the most significant of which is the treatment of biotechnological industrial products, particularly under the patent system. Patents represent one of several types of intellectual property; their ownership confers the right to exclude others from benefitting from the tangible products of a proprietary subject matter. Intellectual property law and its protections will play a major role in the rate at which biotechnology develops in the United States. In this article biotechnological intellectual property issues are reviewed in the context of their underlying legal requirements. The implications of other factors, such as international competition, research funding, and gene ownership, are also considered.

  13. UNIVERSITY REFORM AND INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valdecantos Alcaide

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The university reforms undertaken after the 1999 Bologna Declaration do not constitute a strictly academic phenomenon, but also a social reform at a high level, that affects the concept itself of society and the role of intellectual freedom in the whole Freedom System of the liberal thought and ideology. Contrary to the basics of this tradition, it is maintained that the intellectual sphere must be included in the economic sphere and that institutions in which intellectual freedom could be practised must be considered -even with a certain amount of independence- as a part of the market. The purpose of this article is to show that present university reform is against what has been the usual way of constructing the idea of society from the 18th century onwards.

  14. Intellectual Capital Management in Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Znakovaitė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellectual capital factor model, the relationship between indicators, multi-asset return correlation and regression analysis and generation of alternatives to intellectual capital performance-enhancing. Following an assessment of intellectual capital of Lithuanian and Latvian transport sectors, on the basis of the results, it was found that the intellectual capital is a key factor in corporation management to increase revenue. Article in Lithuanian

  15. Intellectual Capital and Intangible Assets Analysis and Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Anghel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Today the intellectual capital is a key factor in company’s profitability. Two major forces have driven the high performance workplace over the past two decades: globalization and increasing in technological changes. In this environment, the intellectual capital and intangible assets is fundamental to success. In the new economic competition, knowledge assets provide a sustainable competitive advantage. The measurement is fundamental to support management decision in allocation investment and investor’s decision regarding the value versus price. In our research we consider a group of Romanian listed companies on Bucharest Stock Exchange and analyze the importance of intangible value into the total market value of the equity. From accounting point of view the importance of intangible assets is very low but from the market evidence was indicated 47% importance of intangible value in total market value for the Romanian listed companies.

  16. E-LEARNING SYSTEMS USING INTELLECTUAL TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy M. Trembatch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers key stages of e-learning systems development. We try and describe reasons for introduction of intellectual education systems, content of modern intellectual techniques. We also present perspectives for development of intellectual education systems using repeatedly employed components (the typical technical solutions. We present the design of an intellectual education system. Demo-examples are offered as well. 

  17. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Suicidal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  18. Judo and people with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kunčič, Jera

    2013-01-01

    In graduation thesis we present how would judo as martial art with its elements impact developing independence of people with intellectual disabilities. In accordance with the object and problem of graduation thesis we present judo and its impacts on the general population and on people with intellectual disabilities, we study the impact of sport on people with intellectual disabilities, the meaning of developing independence for people with intellectual disabilities and to synthesize the pos...

  19. Getting smart about intellectual property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Bruce A.

    2010-08-01

    Intellectual Property, particularly a patent portfolio, is a critical part of many companies' assets. Yet many of these companies act dumb when it comes to Intellectual Property. Blundering forward without a plan or a manager, the company may throw money at a patent attorney pursuing a patent of little value; it may fool itself into thinking it has protection with a "provisional patent" it may fail to act in a timely fashion and lose its rights to a valuable patent. This paper highlights some of the mistakes some companies make so that you can avoid falling into the same pitfalls.

  20. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-07-17

    Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.

  1. Is the high-risk strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease equitable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Diderichsen, Finn; Krasnik, Allan

    2012-01-01

    : To examine whether the Danish implementation of the strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) by initiating statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) therapy in high-risk individuals is equitable across socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Design: Cohort study. Setting and participants: Applying individual......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Statins are increasingly prescribed to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in asymptomatic individuals. Yet, it is unknown whether those at higher CVD risk - i.e. individuals in lower socio-economic position (SEP) - are adequately reached by this high-risk strategy. Aim...... quintile. In women the proportion was 23%, IRR 1.23 (1.16-1.29). An analogous pattern was seen applying education as SEP indicator and among subjects aged 65-84. CONCLUSION: The high-risk strategy to prevent CVD by initiating statin therapy seems to be inequitable, reaching primarily high-risk subjects...

  2. To reduce urban disparities in health, strengthen and enforce equitably environmental and consumer laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kenneth; Ramos, Rose Marie; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2009-11-01

    While observers agree that reducing disparities in health is an important health priority for the USA, there is little agreement and no comprehensive plan to achieve this goal. In this commentary, we make the case for reducing the disproportionate exposure to environmental and consumer hazards as a promising strategy for reducing health disparities. Exposures to environmental risks such as air pollution, lead, and hazardous wastes and to consumer products such as tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food have been identified as significant threats to health and important contributors to disparities in health. Strengthening the regulations that prevent exposure to these harmful substances and enforcing these rules equitably could bring benefits to the population as a whole and especially to the disenfranchised, primarily urban, populations that are most exposed. The current policy environment may present a window of opportunity for pursuing this strategy.

  3. Efficient and equitable spatial allocation of renewable power plants at the country scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Martin; Egerer, Jonas; Lange, Martin; Masurowski, Frank; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Oehlmann, Malte

    2017-09-01

    Globally, the production of renewable energy is undergoing rapid growth. One of the most pressing issues is the appropriate allocation of renewable power plants, as the question of where to produce renewable electricity is highly controversial. Here we explore this issue through analysis of the efficient and equitable spatial allocation of wind turbines and photovoltaic power plants in Germany. We combine multiple methods, including legal analysis, economic and energy modelling, monetary valuation and numerical optimization. We find that minimum distances between renewable power plants and human settlements should be as small as is legally possible. Even small reductions in efficiency lead to large increases in equity. By considering electricity grid expansion costs, we find a more even allocation of power plants across the country than is the case when grid expansion costs are neglected.

  4. 39 CFR 501.19 - Intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intellectual property. 501.19 Section 501.19... POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.19 Intellectual property. Providers submitting Postage Evidencing Systems to the Postal Service for approval are responsible for obtaining all intellectual property licenses...

  5. 32 CFR 37.1310 - Intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intellectual property. 37.1310 Section 37.1310... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1310 Intellectual property. Inventions, data, works of authorship, and other intangible products of intellectual effort that...

  6. Conceptual problems of the intellectual labor economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the detailed analysis of the intellectual labor and takes into account theoretical and practical aspects of the intellectual labor economics in the transition to the information society. The author describes the nature, specific features, content, structure and the bases for classification of the intellectual labor.

  7. A philosophical approach to intellectual property rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the legitimacy of intellectual property by focusing on three topical issues, viz., the question of indigenous cultural rights, of computer software intellectual rights, and of intellectual property rights to essential drugs. A scheme of different arguments for the legitimacy...

  8. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING THE VALUE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Katulskij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence at the enterprise znanievyh resources determines its capacity for sustainable and competitive development. The set of knowledge, skills and abilities (which has operational and management personnel, including transformed in intangible and other assets are considered to be the intellectual capital of the enterprise. Empirically, the presence of the intellectual capital of the enterprise can be identified by its success in the market and the ability to generate a high value added product. However, scientific and methodological point of view, approaches to assessing intellectual capital are currently not standardized and do not provide an objective valuation of the capital.This paper presents an overview of the methodological approaches to the valuation of the intellectual capital of companies and shows the problems of using these approaches in analytical procedures. Based on the materials conclusion about the necessity of further development of the intellectual capital evaluation methods enterprises it was made.The purpose / goal. The purpose of this article is to study the specifics of basic methodological approaches to the valuation of the intellectual capital of enterprises. Moreover, among the main tasks is to provide: an analysis of the most frequently used techniques in the Russian and international practice, assessment of intellectual capital.Methodology. The article is a content analysis of the theoretical and scientific-methodical positions, describing the key and the most frequently used Russian and international approaches to the evaluation of the intellectual capital of enterprises.Conclusions / relevance. The practical significance of this paper is to identify the main issues that arise in the evaluation of the intellectual capital of the enterprises, which determines the need for further scientific development and complement the currently used evaluation methods.

  9. Carework and caring: A path to gender equitable practices among men in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewkes Rachel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between men who engage in carework and commitment to gender equity. The context of the study was that gender inequitable masculinities create vulnerability for men and women to HIV and other health concerns. Interventions are being developed to work with masculinity and to 'change men'. Researchers now face a challenge of identifying change in men, especially in domains of their lives beyond relations with women. Engagement in carework is one suggested indicator of more gender equitable practice. Methods A qualitative approach was used. 20 men in three South African locations (Durban, Pretoria/Johannesburg, Mthatha who were identified as engaging in carework were interviewed. The men came from different backgrounds and varied in terms of age, race and socio-economic status. A semi-structured approach was used in the interviews. Results Men were engaged in different forms of carework and their motivations to be involved differed. Some men did carework out of necessity. Poverty, associated with illness in the family and a lack of resources propelled some men into carework. Other men saw carework as part of a commitment to making a better world. 'Care' interpreted as a functional activity was not enough to either create or signify support for gender equity. Only when care had an emotional resonance did it relate to gender equity commitment. Conclusions Engagement in carework precipitated a process of identity and value transformation in some men suggesting that support for carework still deserves to be a goal of interventions to 'change men'. Changing the gender of carework contributes to a more equitable gender division of labour and challenges gender stereotypes. Interventions that promote caring also advance gender equity.

  10. Carework and caring: A path to gender equitable practices among men in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Robert; Jewkes, Rachel

    2011-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between men who engage in carework and commitment to gender equity. The context of the study was that gender inequitable masculinities create vulnerability for men and women to HIV and other health concerns. Interventions are being developed to work with masculinity and to 'change men'. Researchers now face a challenge of identifying change in men, especially in domains of their lives beyond relations with women. Engagement in carework is one suggested indicator of more gender equitable practice. A qualitative approach was used. 20 men in three South African locations (Durban, Pretoria/Johannesburg, Mthatha) who were identified as engaging in carework were interviewed. The men came from different backgrounds and varied in terms of age, race and socio-economic status. A semi-structured approach was used in the interviews. Men were engaged in different forms of carework and their motivations to be involved differed. Some men did carework out of necessity. Poverty, associated with illness in the family and a lack of resources propelled some men into carework. Other men saw carework as part of a commitment to making a better world. 'Care' interpreted as a functional activity was not enough to either create or signify support for gender equity. Only when care had an emotional resonance did it relate to gender equity commitment. Engagement in carework precipitated a process of identity and value transformation in some men suggesting that support for carework still deserves to be a goal of interventions to 'change men'. Changing the gender of carework contributes to a more equitable gender division of labour and challenges gender stereotypes. Interventions that promote caring also advance gender equity.

  11. Carework and caring: A path to gender equitable practices among men in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between men who engage in carework and commitment to gender equity. The context of the study was that gender inequitable masculinities create vulnerability for men and women to HIV and other health concerns. Interventions are being developed to work with masculinity and to 'change men'. Researchers now face a challenge of identifying change in men, especially in domains of their lives beyond relations with women. Engagement in carework is one suggested indicator of more gender equitable practice. Methods A qualitative approach was used. 20 men in three South African locations (Durban, Pretoria/Johannesburg, Mthatha) who were identified as engaging in carework were interviewed. The men came from different backgrounds and varied in terms of age, race and socio-economic status. A semi-structured approach was used in the interviews. Results Men were engaged in different forms of carework and their motivations to be involved differed. Some men did carework out of necessity. Poverty, associated with illness in the family and a lack of resources propelled some men into carework. Other men saw carework as part of a commitment to making a better world. 'Care' interpreted as a functional activity was not enough to either create or signify support for gender equity. Only when care had an emotional resonance did it relate to gender equity commitment. Conclusions Engagement in carework precipitated a process of identity and value transformation in some men suggesting that support for carework still deserves to be a goal of interventions to 'change men'. Changing the gender of carework contributes to a more equitable gender division of labour and challenges gender stereotypes. Interventions that promote caring also advance gender equity. PMID:21549020

  12. Retaining Intellectual Capital in U.S. Organizations: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bobby

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) is a vital to the functionality of information technology (IT) businesses. Many companies recognize that enhancing and maintaining IC is critical to sustainability. The problem is that Fortune 500 IT businesses lack human resources in the United States needed for innovative development, resulting in an overreliance on…

  13. The dilemma of intellectual property rights for pharmaceuticals: the tension between ensuring access of the poor to medicines and committing to international agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jillian Clare; Illingworth, Patricia

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of how the outcomes of the Uruguay Round affected the application of pharmaceutical intellectual property rights globally. Second, we explain how specific pharmaceutical policy tools can help developing states mitigate the worst effects of the TRIPS Agreement. Third, we put forward solutions that could be implemented by the World Bank to help overcome the divide between creating private incentives for research and development of innovative medicines and ensuring access of the poor to medicine. Fourth, we evaluate these solutions on the basis of utilitarian considerations and urge that equitable pricing is morally preferable to the other solutions.

  14. 41 CFR 302-11.441 - How must we determine if an employee holds equitable title interest in his/her property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must we determine if an employee holds equitable title interest in his/her property? 302-11.441 Section 302-11.441 Public... interest in his/her property? To determine if an employee holds equitable title interest in his/her...

  15. Community-Based Equity Audits: A Practical Approach for Educational Leaders to Support Equitable Community-School Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To equitably transform urban schools of color and the neighborhoods where they are nested requires approaches that promote community equity and foster solidarity among a range of stakeholders. However, most school-community approaches solely focus on improving school-based outcomes and leave educational leaders with little guidance for…

  16. Learning to teach science in contemporary and equitable ways: The successes and struggles of first-year science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Julie A.; Johnston, Carol C.; Oram, Susannah Y.; Cavazos, Lynnette M.

    2003-05-01

    Recent studies of beginning science teachers make clear that learning to integrate contemporary nature of science descriptions and equitable instructional strategies into educational practices is a complex and challenging endeavor. In this research project, we examined the views and practices of three first-year science teachers, recent graduates of a teacher education program in California known for its attention to gender equitable and multicultural content and instruction. We explored these beginning teachers' attempts to present contemporary descriptions of the nature of science and implement equitable instructional strategies in their classrooms; we videotaped two of their curricular units and conducted individual interviews after each unit lesson. From qualitative analysis of these interviews, we developed case studies that described the ideas and practices these beginning teachers took up from their preservice experiences, as well as the reasons provided and constraints identified for science topics taught and instructional approaches used. In our discussion, we examined commonalties across beginning teachers' successes and struggles in learning to teach science in contemporary and equitable ways, as well as lessons we learned about ways to improve preservice science teacher education.

  17. Strategic competences for concrete action towards sustainability: : An oxymoron? : Engineering education for a sustainable future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F. (Karel Mulder

    2016-01-01

    In the current discourses on sustainable development, one can discern two main intellectual cultures: an analytic one focusing on measuring problems and prioritizing measures, (Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Mass Flow Analysis (MFA), etc.) and; a policy/management one, focusing on long term change,

  18. Strategic competences for concrete action towards sustainability : An oxymoron? Engineering education for a sustainable future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.F.

    2017-01-01

    In the current discourses on sustainable development, one can discern two main intellectual cultures: an analytic one focusing on measuring problems and prioritizing measures, (Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Mass Flow Analysis (MFA), etc.) and; a policy/management one, focusing on long term change,

  19. Business model and Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    When practicing business model (BM) innovation releasing intellectual capital (IC) strategically from SME´s BMs through the innovation process can be extremely difficult and complex to carry out especially to small and medium size enterprises (SME). There are so many opportunities and resources...

  20. Intellectual property and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramalho, A.; Kakanowski, A.; Narusevich, M.

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this chapter is to explore the relation between intellectual property and social justice. Particularly, the aim is assessing the impact of the former on the shaping of the latter. Hence, and after summarising a possible approach to social justice, the special characteristics of

  1. Intellectualization through Terminology Development | Khumalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In our South African context intellectualization entails a carefully planned process of hastening the cultivation and growth of indigenous official African languages so that they effectively function in all higher domains as languages of teaching and learning, research, science and technology. This article critically exam-ines the ...

  2. Intellectual Disabilities and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herer, Gilbert R.

    2012-01-01

    Undetected/untreated hearing loss imposes significant limitations upon individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). It can interfere with cognitive development, impede communicative and social interactions, and limit vocational aspirations. Over the past decade, the hearing of 9961 people with ID was evaluated at Special Olympics sports…

  3. Commercializing Intellectual Property in Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Charbonneau, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    This presentation analyzes the Commercializing of intellectual Property in Universities. Patents and the quest for science imposes certain constraints based on how research projects are financed and the ownership of the results. Then, Copyright issues are explored, primarly open access, fair dealings as well as the Theses Canada program.

  4. The Performance of Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    's budgeting processes. Research limitations/implications – The findings suggest future development of accounts of the role and performance (strength) of intellectual capital be developed around imaginative, perhaps recursive and certainly dynamic, statistical models and/or more inclusive case studies...

  5. Achieving the 1.5 °C objective: just implementation through a right to (sustainable) development approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gupta (Joyeeta); Arts, K. (Karin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAchieving the 1.5 °C objective of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change in a just manner requires equitably sharing the responsibilities and rights that relate to this objective. This paper examines how international law concerning the Right to Promote (Sustainable) Development can

  6. Cognitive and Interpersonal Features of Intellectual Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Diebels, Kate J; Davisson, Erin K; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Raimi, Kaitlin T; Deffler, Samantha A; Hoyle, Rick H

    2017-06-01

    Four studies examined intellectual humility-the degree to which people recognize that their beliefs might be wrong. Using a new Intellectual Humility (IH) Scale, Study 1 showed that intellectual humility was associated with variables related to openness, curiosity, tolerance of ambiguity, and low dogmatism. Study 2 revealed that participants high in intellectual humility were less certain that their beliefs about religion were correct and judged people less on the basis of their religious opinions. In Study 3, participants high in intellectual humility were less inclined to think that politicians who changed their attitudes were "flip-flopping," and Study 4 showed that people high in intellectual humility were more attuned to the strength of persuasive arguments than those who were low. In addition to extending our understanding of intellectual humility, this research demonstrates that the IH Scale is a valid measure of the degree to which people recognize that their beliefs are fallible.

  7. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MANAGEMENT – A NEW MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita-Maria GOGAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain competitive advantage organizations need more efficient use of intellectual capital. Therefore, management of intellectual capital has become one of the functions of growth in companies today. Focus on managing intelectul capital is due to the role intelectula competencies and knowledge in contemporary business which is significant. The most common terms for intellectual capital management functions at the organizational level are competence management and competence development. Managers conduct activities to manage intellectual capital in the need for knowledge on personnel competencies and their development in operative functions. The literature presents a series of intellectual capital management models, most belonging to the researchers in the Nordic countries. The aim of this paper is to developea new model of managing intellectual capital that improve the existing models. Thus, by using the proposed model is expected that the relationship between intellectual capital management and strategy of a company should intensify on medium term.

  8. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  9. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  10. A Model for Sustainable Humanitarian Engineering Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The engineering profession should embrace a new mission statement—to contribute to the building of a more sustainable, stable, and equitable world. Recently, engineering students and professionals in the United States have shown strong interest in directly addressing the needs of developing communities worldwide. That interest has taken the form of short-and medium-term international trips through Engineers Without Borders—USA and similar organizations. There are also several instances where this kind of outreach work has been integrated into engineering education at various US institutions such as the University of Colorado at Boulder. This paper addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with balancing two goals in engineering for humanitarian development projects: (i effective sustainable community development, and (ii meaningful education of engineers. Guiding principles necessary to meet those two goals are proposed.

  11. Shaping professional identity for sustainability. Evidence in Finnish public catering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Minna

    2009-08-01

    Catering for sustainability is often presented as a legitimate perspective for caterers to promote more equitable economic development locally and across distances through food procurement, integrated with environmental protection and concern for the welfare of customers and staff. Caterers are thus seen as agents responsible for sustainable food systems within their reach. This paper explores how public caterers use their position and productive intelligence in promoting a sustainable food system within the power field of their contextual networks. This article crystallises this 'agency for sustainability' as professional identity for sustainability, the shaping of which is analysed in Finnish public catering. The paper identifies eased and positive, troubled and critical as well as delimited and distancing approaches for sustainability, with respective views and efforts for sustainable food systems. The shaping of professional identity for sustainability could serve as co-operative platform for future contextual developments towards more sustainable food systems. Such progress could result in better alignment with political guidelines for sustainability and caterers' satisfaction due to their heightened professional position reaching beyond 'kitchen walls' to construct everyday sustainability.

  12. Intellectual Property and biodiversity: interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Ravi; Dave, Shreya

    2017-05-01

    Potentially divergent objectives and thereby obligations under the Convention on Biodiversity and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement are also reflected in respective domestic legislations in India. The review article focuses on Biological Diversity Act, 2002 vis-à-vis Patents Act, 1970 of India with intricacies involved thereunder. Authors have analyzed the obligations under these domestic legislations. The article goes on to make a few suggestions to aid effective implementation of both the statutes. The scope of this review article is limited in two aspects; first, it speaks only about Indian landscape and second, it discusses about interplay of biodiversity law only with respect to patent law instead of all the domestic Intellectual Property enactments of India.

  13. Constitutional Analysis of Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ van der Walt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Constitutional Court’s treatment of property interests in the face of state regulation to gain an understanding of the type of state interference that is justifiable in terms of section 25(1 of the Bill of Rights. This is done by examining the Constitutional Court’s dicta relating to the meaning of deprivation and how these inform the meaning of property in the constitutional context. The methodology that the Constitutional Court has formulated to assess if state interference complies with the provisions of section 25 is explained to show the type of state regulation that has been found legitimate. We then consider how this understanding of constitutional property and the state’s legitimate exercise of its inherent police power interact in the setting of intellectual property by contrasting the various policy objectives underlying the different statutory regimes governing intellectual property. This theoretical analysis is then applied to two contemporary examples of feasible state interference with existing intellectual property interests, namely the proposed plain packaging measures which severely restrict the use of tobacco trade marks, and a fair dealing exception allowing the use of copyright works for the purpose of parody. These examples serve to illustrate the context and manner in which intellectual property interests may come before the Court and the necessary differentiation with which these interests should be treated. The appropriate judicial assessment of the true impact that state action could have on vested property interests is explained and contrasted with the balancing exercise that is employed at the earlier stage of policy making. This discussion is concluded by highlighting some of the interpretational issues that will arise and how some constitutional values could be curtailed in the absence of legislative intervention.

  14. Personality development and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Meera; Retzer, Ameeta; Sikabofori, Tonye

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the factors that shape personality and how they can inform on the behaviour of people with intellectual disability both to help them function at least at their cognitive level and add a developmental dimension to treatment plans. People with intellectual disability experience more failure, rejection and social deprivation leading to personality traits that may impede their ability to learn and predispose them to depression. Brain changes due to genetic conditions may be responsible for the behavioural phenotypes, although the autism phenotype is associated with different causes. Schizophrenia has a strong neurodevelopmental component and it could be on a gradient of decreasing neurodevelopmental impairment between intellectual disability and autism on one hand and bipolar disorder on the other. Understanding how early-life experience and current-life situations give rise to personality traits and taking a developmental perspective, for example, mental age, could clarify the clinical presentation. Developments in molecular genetics and brain imaging may clarify how brain changes lead to personality features. Finally, it may be time to address whether it is still helpful to have categorical diagnoses when there is increasing evidence from genetic studies supporting a continuum of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  15. A Human Rights Approach to Localising The MDGs Through Gender-Equitable Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron McGill

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the United Nations Capital Development Fund’s (UNCDF Gender Equitable Local Development (GELD programme has not been presented within an explicit human rights framework. This is strange given that the human rights based approach to development (HRBAD aims to ensure that all human beings can live their lives fully and with dignity. HRBAD is fundamentally about the healthy and full development of individuals and communities. In addition, one of human rights’ central concerns is that people have equal access to the benefits of society. Initiatives to realize human rights therefore give priority to the most marginalized - the poorest - in a society. It is those individuals who have most difficulty in securing the basics that are essential to living their lives with dignity. Women in all communities are disproportionately represented among the poor. Thus, human rights have gender equity as a central focus. Put another way, we are dealing with the feminization of poverty. We are dealing with the concept of equal access (to development. In short, we are dealing with those who need (and deserve greater priority in access to infrastructure and supporting services in order to reach a point of equality.

  16. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care: Designing Equitable Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiger, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good.

  17. Assessing equitable care for Indigenous and Afrodescendant women in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Arachu; Savage, Virginia; Kaufman, Hannah

    2015-08-01

    To identify and understand the barriers to equitable care within health care settings that women of ethnic minorities encounter in Latin America and to examine possible strategies for mitigating the issues. This was a comprehensive review of the literature from 2000-2015 available from the online databases PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, and SciELO in Spanish, English, and Portuguese, using a keyword search that included the Region and country names. Health provider discrimination against Indigenous and Afrodescendant women is a primary barrier to quality health care access in Latin America. Discrimination is driven by biases against ethnic minority populations, women, and the poor in general. Discriminatory practices can manifest as patient-blaming, purposeful neglect, verbal or physical abuse, disregard for traditional beliefs, and the non-use of Indigenous languages for patient communication. These obstacles prevent delivery of appropriate and timely clinical care, and also produce fear of shame, abuse, or ineffective treatment, which, in addition to financial barriers, deter women from seeking care. To ensure optimal health outcomes among Indigenous and Afrodescendant women in Latin America, the issue of discrimination in health care settings needs to be understood and addressed as a key driver of inequitable health outcomes. Strategies that target provider behavior alone have limited impact because they do not address women's needs and the context of socioeconomic inequality in which intra-hospital relations are built.

  18. FLORISTIC DIVERSITY AND EQUITABILITY IN FOREST FRAGMENTS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dias Cabacinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the predictive efficiency of Shannon index (H’ and Pielou Equitability index (J in forest fragments from the Brazilian Cerrado biome, from the vegetation indices and landscape metrics using artificial neural networks (ANN. Feedforward networks were used and they were trained through a back propagation error algorithm. The variables used as ANN input for simultaneous estimation of indices were: the categorical (H’ and J and the numbers related to the mean and standard deviation of vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, EVI, and MVI5, MVI7 and landscape metrics (AREA, GYRATE, SHAPE, CONTIG, CORE and ENN. It was generated five models of ANN from the functional relationships between numerical variables inherent to vegetation indices in two seasons, a dry season (June and a rainy season (February. The architecture of the networks was the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, to estimate simultaneously the H’ and J: 500 using vegetation indices in the wet season (100 for each vegetation index and 500 in dry (100 for each vegetation index. The precision, accuracy and realism of biological ANN were assessed. The nets built during the rainy season and dry season that used vegetation indices MVI5 (Moisture Vegetation Index and SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, respectively, were more appropriate, accurate and biologically realistic to estimate both indices H’ and J. The ANN modeling demonstrated to be adequate to estimate the diversity index.

  19. “A More Equitable Society”: The Politics of Global Fairness in Paralympic Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Rall, Divan; Ferreira, Suzanne; Blauwet, Cheri; Derman, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Paralympic Movement explicitly sets out to create a more equitable society and promote participation for all and fairness in disability sport. This is primarily achieved through the use of a range of interventions with less attention given to how economic factors may hinder access and achievement in Paralympic sport. We investigated how country-level economic variables influence the level of participation and achievement in the 2015 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) Athletics Championships held in Doha. We used multiple regression analysis to show how levels of participation and achievement in the Championships were significantly determined by economic factors independent of population size. Our data show that in spite of the ideals of inclusion and fairness within the Paralympic Movement and the considerable effort expended on the use of technologies to achieve this, economic factors continue to exert a statistically significant influence on both the level of participation and achievement of Paralympic athletes. LMICs participate at lower levels and achieve fewer medals when compared to HICs. These differences are particularly marked in events that have a high cost of participation. Our findings raise questions regarding the use of current technologies and the level to which they are able to truly disrupt the politics of global inequality in sport. PMID:27941981

  20. "A More Equitable Society": The Politics of Global Fairness in Paralympic Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Leslie; Bantjes, Jason; Rall, Divan; Ferreira, Suzanne; Blauwet, Cheri; Derman, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Paralympic Movement explicitly sets out to create a more equitable society and promote participation for all and fairness in disability sport. This is primarily achieved through the use of a range of interventions with less attention given to how economic factors may hinder access and achievement in Paralympic sport. We investigated how country-level economic variables influence the level of participation and achievement in the 2015 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) Athletics Championships held in Doha. We used multiple regression analysis to show how levels of participation and achievement in the Championships were significantly determined by economic factors independent of population size. Our data show that in spite of the ideals of inclusion and fairness within the Paralympic Movement and the considerable effort expended on the use of technologies to achieve this, economic factors continue to exert a statistically significant influence on both the level of participation and achievement of Paralympic athletes. LMICs participate at lower levels and achieve fewer medals when compared to HICs. These differences are particularly marked in events that have a high cost of participation. Our findings raise questions regarding the use of current technologies and the level to which they are able to truly disrupt the politics of global inequality in sport.

  1. Science, Open Communication and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Wilbanks

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the prerequisites for sustainable development is knowledge, in order to inform coping with sustainability threats and to support innovative sustainability pathways. Transferring knowledge is therefore a fundamental challenge for sustainability, in a context where external knowledge must be integrated with local knowledge in order to promote user-driven action. But effective local co-production of knowledge requires ongoing local access to existing scientific and technical knowledge so that users start on a level playing field. The information technology revolution can be a powerful enabler of such access if intellectual property obstacles can be overcome, with a potential to transform prospects for sustainability in many parts of the world.

  2. Intellectualism and Spirituality in Miguel de Unamuno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Villar Ezcurra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Miguel de Unamuno, one of the most prominent intellectuals of Spain towards the end of the 19th century and first third of the 20th century, since his crisis in 1987 strived to warn of the limits to intellectualism. In his paper Intellectualism and Spirituality (March 1904, he reflected on the bodily, intellectual and spiritual dimensions of the human being, mindful of the First Letter of St. Paul to the Corinthians. He defined three types of people: the carnal (the downright uneducated, the intellectual (those who show logic and common sense and the spiritual (dreamers and poets. Without undermining intellectualism and facing the reductionism of any sign, as Pascal Unamuno highlighted the importance and significance of spirituality by being aware that it focuses on creating meaning and conquering the ideal, paving the way for a more fruitful life.

  3. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  4. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL VALUATION USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnóczi Tibor; Tóth Réka; Fenyves Veronika

    2010-01-01

    We present a simulation model in this paper to determine the value of intellectual capital. In frame of the simulation model we have used the Baruch Lev’s intellectual capital valuation modell.We have built in the Baruch Lev model in a two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation modell. We have determined the intellectual capital in case of some stock exchange company. The calculation are presented in case of a selected company.

  5. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL VALUATION USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnóczi Tibor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a simulation model in this paper to determine the value of intellectual capital. In frame of the simulation model we have used the Baruch Lev’s intellectual capital valuation modell.We have built in the Baruch Lev model in a two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation modell. We have determined the intellectual capital in case of some stock exchange company. The calculation are presented in case of a selected company.

  6. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  7. The experiences of registered intellectual disability nurses caring for the older person with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Doody, Catriona M.; Markey, Kathleen; Doody, Owen

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Aim and objectives. To explore the experiences of registered intellectual disability nurses caring for the older person with intellectual disability. Background. Increased longevity for the older person with intellectual disability is relatively a new phenomenon with social and medical factors having significantly increased the lifespan. The ageing population of people with intellectual disability is growing in Ireland, and they are outliving or expected to out...

  8. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: A latent class analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nouwens, P.J.G.; Lucas, R.; Smulders, N.B.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2017-01-01

    Background Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Methods Latent clas...

  9. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  10. Intellectual property and information controversy (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    As advanced information has been proceeded rapidly, intellectual property has become more important than ever as business resources of enterprises. Based on the former report by the author "present status of and trend in intellectual property" this paper describes "information" related intellectual property controversy which have been occurred, that is, 1) affairs related to computer hardwares and softwares (the case of compatible machines and OS, the case of application softwares, computer crimes) and 2) affairs on trade secret (the case of revealing enterprises'secret, the case of industrial espionage). It also discusses how intellectual property should be protected and utilized from now on.

  11. Abschlussbericht des Arbeitskreises Intellectual Property Management

    OpenAIRE

    Martin A. Bader; Gassmann, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    (unveröffentlicht) - Abschlussprotokoll zum Arbeitskreis ?Intellectual Property Management? (7/03?3/04); branchenübergreifend mit neun grossen deutschen, schweizerischen und liechtensteinischen Industrieteilnehmern

  12. Intellectual Capital Statements -When Rhetoric meets Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Lotte

    of representation is calculus and mathematical rules. To illustrate the importance of describing a firm by not only using numbers the article illustrates the differences between intellectual capital statements and traditional balance sheets. The intellectual capital statement is often accused of not being a valid...... document to assess a company's value by, but this article argues that although intellectual capital statements make use of another way of presenting arguments than traditional balance sheets do they are still valid for describing a firm. The article argues that the intellectual capital statement uses...

  13. [Etiology and diagnosis of intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pu; Gui, Bao-Heng; Wu, Ling-Qian

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual disability, occurring in 1%-3% of the general population, is a common disease of the nervous system in children. Since diverse genetic and environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis, the etiological diagnosis of intellectual disability is challenging with respect to the selection of diagnostic tests. It is important to determine the etiology of intellectual disability for the assessment of prognosis, treatment and the family plan. This paper summarizes the research progress in etiology and diagnosis for intellectual disability and introduces the recommended clinical genetics diagnostic approach from the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina VITALIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society can not be imposed only by political, society as a whole must adopt certain principles (political, economic, social, thinking. Sustainable development can be defined simply as a better quality of life for everyone, both now and for future generations. Sustainable development means: balanced and equitable economic development; high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusion; a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources; generating a coherent political system open, transparent and accountable; effective international cooperation to promote global sustainable development (Gothenburg Strategy, 2001.

  15. Pluralism and Context: Intellectual Property and the Social Understandings of Intellectual Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual property affects an increasingly large range of social life. Despite the breadth of goods and activities affected by intellectual property schemas, policy-makers, legislators, jurists and even many social theorists have a narrow understanding of the basis for instituting intellectual property rights and understanding their limits:…

  16. Language Revitalization in Native North America – Issues of Intellectual Property Rights and Intellectual Sovereignty

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsch, Sheri

    2004-01-01

    Language revitalization, oral tradition and epistemology are expressions of Native peoples intellectual sovereignty, and thus the foundation for indigenous intellectual property rights. As the people of California move towards language and cultural revitalization the question arises: What constitutes or constructs the definitions of intellectual property and how can appropriation of indigenous knowledge be protected? Looking at the issues faced by the California's indigenous po...

  17. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  18. Does Integrating Family Planning into HIV Services Improve Gender Equitable Attitudes? Results from a Cluster Randomized Trial in Nyanza, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmann, Sara J; Rocca, Corinne H; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Cohen, Craig R

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated whether integrating family planning (FP) services into HIV care was associated with gender equitable attitudes among HIV-positive adults in western Kenya. Surveys were conducted with 480 women and 480 men obtaining HIV services from 18 clinics 1 year after the sites were randomized to integrated FP/HIV services (N = 12) or standard referral for FP (N = 6). We used multivariable regression, with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering, to assess whether gender attitudes (range 0-12) were associated with integrated care and with contraceptive use. Men at intervention sites had stronger gender equitable attitudes than those at control sites (adjusted mean difference in scores = 0.89, 95 % CI 0.03-1.74). Among women, attitudes did not differ by study arm. Gender equitable attitudes were not associated with contraceptive use among men (AOR = 1.06, 95 % CI 0.93-1.21) or women (AOR = 1.03, 95 % CI 0.94-1.13). Further work is needed to understand how integrating FP into HIV care affects gender relations, and how improved gender equity among men might be leveraged to improve contraceptive use and other reproductive health outcomes.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: CASK-related intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions CASK-related intellectual disability CASK-related intellectual disability Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description CASK -related intellectual disability is a disorder of brain development that has ...

  20. Alternative Communications about Sustainability Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L. T. McGregor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In preparation for the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, UNESCO communicated its conceptualization of education for sustainable development (ESD. This paper does not assume that UNESCO was ineffective in communicating its approach to ESD; rather, the premise is that UNESCO’s actual message was not well received by everyone, with some pushing back with alternative communications of their own. This paper identifies and profiles seven vanguard theoretical and pedagogical approaches to the problem of unsustainability, including, but not limited to: sustainable contraction, unlearning unsustainability, a 3D-heuristic, an integrative, place-based approach, and a Gaia-informed, ecological approach. It concludes with a discussion of seven overarching alternative messages for communicating about sustainability including: refocused education; complexity, chaos and living systems; Gaia and ecology; paradigm shifts for uncertainty; knowledge integration; existentialism; and fear and hope. Intellectual and pedagogical discourse can be kindled and stimulated by drawing on alternative communications about the normative concept of sustainability.

  1. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  2. Sustaining dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability

  3. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    . Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...... campus performance....

  4. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  5. Sustainable Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  6. Evolution of Views on the “Intellectual Capital” Notion

    OpenAIRE

    Klymovych Natalia I.

    2014-01-01

    The article conducts analysis of approaches to definition of the "intellectual capital" notion. It studies experience of both Ukrainian and foreign scientists. It conducts a thorough analysis of basic notions of the studied category - "intellectual capital", "intellect", "capital" and "knowledge". It compares the "intellectual capital" term with the "intellectual potential" and "intellectual property" terms. It offers a clarified definition of the "intellectual capital" term, in which it focu...

  7. The intellectual potential of FEA business: nature and structure

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyurenko, V.

    2013-01-01

    The paper built a number of categories of terms "intellectual capacity" and set the relationship between terms such as "intellectual resource", "intellectual capital" and "intellectual capacity". Based on the theoretical analysis singles out certain approaches to determining the nature category "intellectual capacity". A synthesis of current approaches to the understanding of the category of "intellectual capacity" of foreign trade enterprises and are refined definition of this category. Sing...

  8. The fight against the greenhouse effect. Equity and efficiency; La lutte contre l'effet de serre. Equite et efficacite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, A. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France)

    2003-07-01

    The author discusses the definition of an equitable division rule of the global effort of greenhouse gases emissions decrease, the research of the economic efficiency, the flexibility mechanisms and the emissions trading. (A.L.B.)

  9. Effective vaccine safety systems in all countries: a challenge for more equitable access to immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Ananda; Black, Steve; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Carvalho, Sandra M Deotti; Dodoo, Alexander; Eskola, Juhani; Larson, Heidi; Shin, Sunheang; Olsson, Sten; Balakrishnan, Madhava Ram; Bellah, Ahmed; Lambach, Philipp; Maure, Christine; Wood, David; Zuber, Patrick; Akanmori, Bartholomew; Bravo, Pamela; Pombo, María; Langar, Houda; Pfeifer, Dina; Guichard, Stéphane; Diorditsa, Sergey; Hossain, Md Shafiqul; Sato, Yoshikuni

    2013-04-18

    Serious vaccine-associated adverse events are rare. To further minimize their occurrence and to provide adequate care to those affected, careful monitoring of immunization programs and case management is required. Unfounded vaccine safety concerns have the potential of seriously derailing effective immunization activities. To address these issues, vaccine pharmacovigilance systems have been developed in many industrialized countries. As new vaccine products become available to prevent new diseases in various parts of the world, the demand for effective pharmacovigilance systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is increasing. To help establish such systems in all countries, WHO developed the Global Vaccine Safety Blueprint in 2011. This strategic plan is based on an in-depth analysis of the vaccine safety landscape that involved many stakeholders. This analysis reviewed existing systems and international vaccine safety activities and assessed the financial resources required to operate them. The Blueprint sets three main strategic goals to optimize the safety of vaccines through effective use of pharmacovigilance principles and methods: to ensure minimal vaccine safety capacity in all countries; to provide enhanced capacity for specific circumstances; and to establish a global support network to assist national authorities with capacity building and crisis management. In early 2012, the Global Vaccine Safety Initiative (GVSI) was launched to bring together and explore synergies among on-going vaccine safety activities. The Global Vaccine Action Plan has identified the Blueprint as its vaccine safety strategy. There is an enormous opportunity to raise awareness for vaccine safety in LMIC and to garner support from a large number of stakeholders for the GVSI between now and 2020. Synergies and resource mobilization opportunities presented by the Decade of Vaccines can enhance monitoring and response to vaccine safety issues, thereby leading to more equitable

  10. The Ultrasonic Directional Tidal Breathing Pattern Sensor: Equitable Design Realization Based on Phase Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Arijit; Rakshit, Raj; Khasnobish, Anwesha; Chakravarty, Tapas; Ghosh, Deb; Pal, Arpan

    2017-08-11

    Pulmonary ailments are conventionally diagnosed by spirometry. The complex forceful breathing maneuver as well as the extreme cost of spirometry renders it unsuitable in many situations. This work is aimed to facilitate an emerging direction of tidal breathing-based pulmonary evaluation by designing a novel, equitable, precise and portable device for acquisition and analysis of directional tidal breathing patterns, in real time. The proposed system primarily uses an in-house designed blow pipe, 40-kHz air-coupled ultrasound transreceivers, and a radio frequency (RF) phase-gain integrated circuit (IC). Moreover, in order to achieve high sensitivity in a cost-effective design philosophy, we have exploited the phase measurement technique, instead of selecting the contemporary time-of-flight (TOF) measurement; since application of the TOF principle in tidal breathing assessments requires sub-micro to nanosecond time resolution. This approach, which depends on accurate phase measurement, contributed to enhanced sensitivity using a simple electronics design. The developed system has been calibrated using a standard 3-L calibration syringe. The parameters of this system are validated against a standard spirometer, with maximum percentage error below 16%. Further, the extracted respiratory parameters related to tidal breathing have been found to be comparable with relevant prior works. The error in detecting respiration rate only is 3.9% compared to manual evaluation. These encouraging insights reveal the definite potential of our tidal breathing pattern (TBP) prototype for measuring tidal breathing parameters in order to extend the reach of affordable healthcare in rural regions and developing areas.

  11. Malnutrition, poverty and intellectual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J L; Pollitt, E

    1996-02-01

    New findings with important policy implications have revealed that malnutrition in childhood impairs intellectual function in more ways than was previously recognized, but also that some of the damage to the brain caused by malnutrition may be reversed. Early research indicated that malnourished animals lacked the energy to interact with their environment and, thus, performed poorly on tests of mental ability. To determine the effect of poor diet and an impoverished environment on mental development in humans, an extensive follow-up study was made of Guatemalan children who received two different nutritional supplements in a 1969-77 study. Mothers and children in two villages received a high-protein supplement (Atole), and those in two additional villages received a supplement with no protein (Fresco). Both supplements reduced mortality, but Atole villages saw a 69% reduction in infant mortality (vs. 24% in the Fresco villages). The 1988-89 follow-up of 70% of the original participants involved extensive cognitive testing and socioeconomic assessment. Atole subjects performed significantly better on the cognitive tests, and the lowest-income children did as well as their more economically advantaged (but still poor) peers. Those who received Atole exhibited an increased benefit from their years of education and grew up faster and stronger than those who received Fresco. Smaller children who appear younger than their age may receive less stimulation from adult expectations than larger children. These findings indicate that the deleterious effects of early malnutrition on intellectual development can continue into adulthood. Other research has revealed that iron supplements can improve the intellectual and motor abilities of infants. While enriched educational programs can ameliorate some of the problems associated with malnutrition, poor children rarely live where such programs are available. The best and least expensive policy would be to prevent malnutrition among

  12. Intellectual system for images restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Igor

    2005-02-01

    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  13. Accounting of the intellectual capital

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Tito; Jiménez Arias, Ramón Elías; Ruíz Tibaná, Myriam

    2007-01-01

    El capital intelectual es un valor intangible que debe incorporarse a los estados financieros, como parte de la generación de valor de todos los trabajadores de una organización. Existen algunos modelos que permiten cuantificarlo, aunque es preciso reconocer que debemos ahondar con más precisión con el objeto de contar con un mayor número de adeptos a esta importante referencia. The intellectual capital is an intangible value that should incorporate to the financial states, like part of t...

  14. Poverty and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a significant association between poverty and the prevalence of intellectual disabilities. The available evidence suggests that this association reflects two distinct processes. First, poverty causes intellectual disabilities, an effect mediated through the association between poverty and exposure…

  15. Management Consulting Practice on Intellectual Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2005-01-01

    Today, Intellectual Capital plays a principal role in the delivery of corporate performance. This importance is reflected in the fact that companies, without the force of any regulations, start to produce intellectual capital statements to communicate their performance; accounting guidelines are

  16. 10 CFR 603.1285 - Intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intellectual property. 603.1285 Section 603.1285 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1285 Intellectual property. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, mask works, protected data, and other forms of comparable property protected by Federal law and foreign counterparts. ...

  17. Partner Selection for People with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Claire; Terry, Louise; Popple, Keith

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research was to understand the characteristics that adults with intellectual disabilities look for in a partner. There have been numerous studies that have explored partner selection for people without intellectual disabilities, but no research that specifically identified the traits valued in a partner by people with intellectual disabilities. In-depth interviews were conducted with eleven participants across two UK sites. All participants were adults with an intellectual disability who had been in a relationship with a partner for over a year. The narratives were analysed utilizing hermeneutic phenomenology, guided by the theory of Van Manen (1990). The findings highlighted that, regardless of age, participant's relationships typically developed within a segregated environment for people with intellectual disabilities over the past 10 years. People with intellectual disabilities expressed a wish to be loved, to be treated kindly and to have companionship. However, they did not place high value on attributes such as financial security, social status or intelligence. The research demonstrated how poorly integrated people with intellectual disabilities are within mainstream society. Desired characteristics and expectations for participant's relationships were rooted in a shared history and culture, which was shaped by their intellectual disability and support needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Intellectual Honesty in the Era of Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Frank W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the need for intellectual honesty in using technology. Topics include intellectual property laws; ethics; indirect results of copying software and images; the need for institutional policy; and the provision of facilities and resources that encourage respect for policy. A sidebar provides "A Bill of Rights and Responsibilities for…

  19. 228 THE INTELLECTUAL DISABLED (MENTALLY IMPAIRED) IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    The emphasis on education is seen in the late 20th century. The schools are responsible for providing appropriate education and many teachers and parents' feels that inclusion of intellectual disabled in their educational system will make the intellectual disabled feel as a part of the society and will make others understand.

  20. Waponahki Intellectual Tradition of Weaving Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockbeson, Rebecca Cardinal

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an articulation of a Waponahki intellectual tradition from the experience of a Waponahki woman attempting to position Indigenous knowledge systems in the academy. The author shows how the Waponahki intellectual tradition of weaving baskets can serve as a theoretical framework and foundation for understanding Waponahki…

  1. Expanding Opportunities for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangreco, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Research and experience tell us a great deal about how to successfully educate students with intellectual disability, but unfortunately this knowledge remains underutilized and inconsistently applied, writes researcher Michael F. Giangreco. Students with intellectual disability who have virtually identical profiles but live in different locales…

  2. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship in the Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…

  3. Exemplary Teachers: Teaching for Intellectual Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual freedom has long been a desirable ideal and a foundational value for supporting democratic governance. Since 1948, it has been a universal human right. Given the unique nature of education in democratic societies, schools serve as a crucible for helping children understand and practise the rudiments of intellectual freedom. Drawing on…

  4. Stigma and restriction on the social life of families of children with intellectual disabilities in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hong; Shin, Jin Y; Nhan, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Lawrence H

    2012-07-01

    Intellectual disabilities are as prevalent in East Asian countries as in the West (0.06%-1.3%). Widespread discrimination against intellectual disabilities in Asia may initiate stigma that places unfair restrictions on the social life of these individuals and their caregivers. We utilised established stigma frameworks to assess the extent to which a child's intellectual disability contributes to the social exclusion of caregivers in Vietnam. A mixed quantitative and qualitative approach was employed to examine the experience of social life restriction among parents of children with intellectual disabilities. The child's disability level and restrictions on caregivers' social experiences were assessed among 70 mothers and fathers recruited from schools in Hue City, Vietnam. Qualitative responses describing social exclusion were also recorded. Caregivers reported elevated levels of social exclusion. As hypothesised, parents of children with greater intellectual disability experienced more restrictions on their social life (Beta = 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.27-1.30, standard error = 0.26, p stigma, which in turn restricts key social interactions among caregivers. Psycho-educational interventions may address the social domains in which caregivers are impacted and encourage sustained help-seeking among caregivers for their children.

  5. Designing an AHP methodology to prioritize critical elements for product innovation: an intellectual capital perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, R. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital has for the past decades been evidenced as an important source of competitive advantages and differentiation at the firm level. At the same time, innovation has become a critical factor for companies to ensure their sustainability and even their survival in a globalized business landscape. Having in mind these two crucial concepts for business success, this study intends to build on the relationships between intellectual capital and product innovation at the firm level. Specifically, we will design and test a model based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process, whose aim is to allow the prioritization of intellectual capital elements according to their relative importance for product innovation performance at the firm level. The main goal of this research is to build a diagnosis and action tool that helps business managers incorporate an intellectual capital perspective into their product innovation initiatives. This framework will help managers to better understand which intellectual capital elements are more critical to their product innovation efforts, and thereby systematize actions and clarify resource allocation priorities to improve their product innovation capabilities. In order to validate the practicability of this proposal, the methodology was empirically applied to a Portuguese innovative company.

  6. Towards Science for Democratic Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jonas Egmose

    through a theoretical conceptualisation of democratic sustainable development. In this framework sustainability is understood as the immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without eroding its own foundation for existence. Consequently societal......This PhD thesis considers how community-based action research can further new research orientations towards sustainable development. The thesis is empirically situated in the area of upstream public engagement where new forms of bottom-up citizen participation are developed to engage local...... sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, thus contrasting scientific progress perceived as intellectual commodity production driving the knowledge economy. In this perspective, social environmental problems represent societal, cultural and democratic challenges, calling...

  7. In the Zone: Vygotskian-Inspired Pedagogy for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Lev Vygotsky's (1978) Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provides inspiration for a teaching approach for sustainability in a social science discipline, where students often lack or have widely varied levels of foundational understanding. This qualitative case study describes intellectual processes and aspects of the educational…

  8. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  9. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  10. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  11. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  12. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  13. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  14. Sustainable finance

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector

  15. Drought Water Rationing Necessitates an Equitable and Multidimensional Approach: Evidence from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de Leon Barido, D.; Fildier, B.; Cucchi, K.

    2016-12-01

    less drought affected high-income communities, and that even after tight conservation standards on large consumers, high-income communities still consumed 30% more water per capita than low-income communities. We conclude with a suggested framework for how more equitable rationing could be implemented in the future.

  16. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  17. Incorporating permaculture and strategic management for sustainable ecological resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Faiza; Lodhi, Suleman A; Khan, Safdar Shah; Sarwar, Farhana

    2016-09-01

    Utilization of natural assets to the best efficient level without changing natural balance has become a critical issue for researchers as awareness on climate change takes central position in global debate. Conventional sustainable resource management systems are based on neoclassical economic approach that ignores the nature's pattern and therefore are not actually capable of sustainable management of resources. Environmentalists are lately advocating incorporation of Permaculture as holistic approach based on ethics, equitable interaction with eco-systems to obtain sustainability. The paper integrates philosophy of permaculture with strategic management frameworks to develop a pragmatic tool for policy development. The policy design tool augments management tasks by integrating recording of natural assets, monitoring of key performance indicators and integration of sectorial policies in real time, bringing out policy as a truly live document. The tool enhances the edifice process, balancing short term viewpoints and long term development to secure renewability of natural resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  19. Intellectual property and intangible assets: Alternative valuation and financing approaches for the knowledge economy in Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Karius, Tim

    2016-01-01

    With the disappearance of the bank secrecy and loss of e-commerce tax in year 2015, Luxembourg will be confronted to an existential challenge. Therefore, Luxembourgish economy has to reinvent itself and develop new key drivers boosting country's economic growth. Well known for the strong fund industry, Luxembourg needs alternative burst of growth to ensure long-term sustainability. An option could be innovation that arises from a knowledge-based economy. Intellectual property (IP) and intelle...

  20. The Role of Intellectuals in Modern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pažanin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This paper proceeds from Dahrendorf’s concept of the intellectual as a committed observer and tester of his times, through Rorty’s 11 theses, contrary to Dahrendorf, about humanistic intellectuals, and through Etzioni’s public intellectual, to Coser’s famous intellectual. Dahrendorf draws upon the case of Erasmus Roterodamus and his followers, although he distinguishes Erasmus’s times from our epoch, particularly the 20th century. Those who consider Erasmus a model in modern times are called by Dahrendorf “Erasmians” and, even though, as Dahrendorf himself admits, it sounds a bit out of date, there can be no harm in fostering the concept “Erasmians” in the future for all those who find freedom valuable. He illustrates this with the cases not only of liberal intellectuals, but of the liberal spirit in general, and he develops a political ethics not only for intellectuals, but for all citizens of new Europe. As a reminder, one might add that intellectuals often put themselves in the service of authoritarian regimes and dictatorships.

  1. Children with intellectual disability and hospice utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Colman, Mari Beth; Meadows, John T

    2017-02-01

    Over 42,000 children die each year in the United States, including those with intellectual disability (ID). Survival is often reduced when children with intellectual disability also suffer from significant motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities. Yet, little is known about hospice care for children with intellectual disability. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization. Additionally, we explored whether intellectual disability combined with motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities influenced pediatric hospice utilization. Using a retrospective cohort design and data from the 2009 to 2010 California Medicaid claims files, we conducted a multivariate analysis of hospice utilization. This study shows that intellectual disability was negatively related to hospice enrollment and length of stay. We also found that when children had both intellectual disability and comorbidities, there was a positive association with enrolling in hospice care. A number of clinical implications can be drawn from the study findings that hospice and palliative care nurses use to improve their clinical practice of caring for children with ID and their families at end of life.

  2. Involuntary transfer of Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed habiba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available IPR owners have a right about voluntary transfer but sometimes Intellectual property right transfer by force and thus, there are challenge that this article regard for its. IPR shall be devolved to their legitimate heirs after their death unless, owner indicate otherwise in their wills. The heirs have the exclusive right to exercise economic and moral rights, they decide upon publication of the work and in general do every exploitation. But, they shall exercise The decisive manner that IPR of holder intended before his death. On other hand, IPR may be liable to seizure or IPR have been used in mortgage loan. Thus they can be transfer to new person.Here, we regard to Involuntary transfer.This article highlight subject of involuntary transfer and analysis on aspects

  3. Management of intellectual property rights in India: An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, R; Tiwari, G; Rai, A K; Srivastawa, Birendra

    2011-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The present review elaborates all aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in detail, along with their protection criteria.

  4. Evolution of approaches to intellectual property’s classification

    OpenAIRE

    Virchenko V.

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to analysis of the theoretical approaches to intellectual property classification. History of development of theoretical approaches to intellectual property classification is investigated. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to intellectual property classification are considered. The contents and peculiarities of incorporate intellectual property are analyzed.

  5. Management of intellectual property rights in India: An updated review

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, R.; G Tiwari; Rai, A. K.; Srivastawa, Birendra

    2011-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The present review elaborates all aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in detail, along with their protection criteria.

  6. Is Intellectual Character Growth a Realistic Educational Aim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Responsibilist approaches to virtue epistemology examine the epistemic significance of intellectual virtues like curiosity, attentiveness, intellectual humility, open-mindedness, intellectual courage, and intellectual tenacity. On one way of thinking about these traits, they are the deep personal qualities or character traits of a good thinker or…

  7. [Intellectual property in natural sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardowski, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    The way from scientific finding through invention to production line and finally to the consument is long and expensive and patent should be taken into account. This is evident because the investment connected with the new application needs clear definition of intellectual property rights. Independently what we personally think about patenting in nature sciences--this is a common practice around the world. The positive and negative parameters of patenting are focus on biotechnology. The development of biotechnology is a cumulative effect of co-operation of several disciplines: biology, biochemistry, chemistry, engineering, genetics, medicines and pharmacy and many more. Between not cited here is law and consequently the needs of cooperation between researchers and lawyers. There are several barriers in this co-operation, for example: nomenclature as well as the way of thinking. These borders could be pass only with intercommunication and cross-understanding. The dialog and transfer of knowledge is a must for understanding the nomenclature, terminology of nature by lawyers and by researchers in case of law. Polish legislation concerning intellectually rights is regulated by the law "Prawo własności przemysłowej" (30 June, 2000; Dz. U. 2003, Nr 119, pos. 1117, with later amendments). This legislation is related to European Union directives and Munich Convention. Accordingly patenting of product and process is possible in Poland. However, the procedure is time and money consuming, particularly in the case of patent submission in several countries. Amendment of the Polish law to biotechnology made possible patenting of living organism and their parts. It is worth to stress that patented inventions can be used free of charge for research and teaching.

  8. Rethinking traditional methods for measuring intellectual capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, John A

    2007-01-01

    Historically, approaches to measuring intellectual capital have included both conventional accounting-based measures, such as variants of the market-to-book ratio, and more progressive measures, such as the measurement of intangible assets found in approaches such as the Balanced Scorecard and Human Resource Accounting. As greater emphasis is placed on intellectual capital and its various aspects in the continually growing service and knowledge economy, the use of assessment instruments to inventory the alignment, balance, and variety of intellectual capacities and metrics that assess the effectiveness of succession planning may represent new directions in which organizations can head in the measurement of this important construct.

  9. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...

  10. Sustainability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  11. ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT AT THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kornilova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical issues of organizational support of intellectual property management at the enterprise. It is defined the nature, goals, objectives organization of intellectual property. It is selected the features, factors of influence on the choice of organizational structure and organizational form of intellectual property management on an enterprise. It is proposed systematization forms of organizational maintenance of intellectual property management at different classification criteria. Attention is paid to consider outsourcing forms of operations with intellectual property.

  12. Intellectual property : national and international perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    A consistent approach to managing intellectual property (IP) permits the effective transfer of the results of research : and encourages the use of products and services by client organizations. This Preliminary Investigation seeks to : capture curren...

  13. Accounting management software intellectual rent companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T.S. Osadcha

    2015-01-01

    .... At present the issue of the accounting reflection of transactions that form intellectual rent remains to be not thoroughly disclosed and requires more depth study for improving the performance...

  14. Intellectual capital disclosure and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Farooq, Omar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to document the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and dividend policies of biotechnology firms listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during the period between 2001 and 2010. The firms’ intellectual capital disclosures were computed from the annual...... financial reports, while data on dividend policies was retrieved from Worldscope. This paper defines dividend policies by three variables: (1) Dividend payout ratio, (2) Decision to pay dividend, and (3) Increase in dividend payout. The results show that firms with higher intellectual capital disclosures...... not only have high payout ratios, but also have a greater likelihood of increasing and paying dividends. Our findings are consistent with our hypothesis that lower information asymmetries of firms with high intellectual capital disclosure lead to more favourable dividend policies. In opposition...

  15. Contemporary intellectual property law and policy

    CERN Document Server

    MacQueen, Hector; Laurie, Graeme; Brown, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Intellectual Property: Law and Policy offers a unique perspective on intellectual property law, unrivalled amongst IP textbooks available today. Beyond providing an up-to-date account of intellectual property law, the text examines the complex policies that inform and guide modern IP law at the domestic (including Scottish), European and international levels, giving the reader a true insight into the discipline and the shape of things to come. The focus is on contemporary challenges to intellectual property law and policy and the reader is encouraged to engage critically both with the text and the subject matter. Carefully developed to ensure that the complexities of the subject are addressed in a clear and approachable manner, the extensive use of practical examples, exercises and visual aids throughout the text enliven the subject and stimulate the reader.

  16. Intellectual capital: Measurement, recognition and reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Johannes Cronje

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, the economy has moved from an industrial to a knowledge economy. Consequently, basic factors of production now no longer comprise only natural resources, capital and labour, but also intellectual capital. Despite the shift from an industrial to a knowledge economy, the accounting framework and financial reporting have not changed sufficiently to include intellectual capital. The research problem attempts to explore whether the theory of accounting should be modified for a standardised and comparable approach when accounting and reporting on intellectual capital. To solve the research problem, a literature review and content analysis on corporate annual reports were used. The results of this study indicate that the theory of accounting should be modified to ensure a standardised and comparable approach when accounting and reporting on intellectual capital in corporate annual reports.

  17. SPECIFIC MODELS OF REPRESENTING THE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Feraru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various scientists in the modern age of management have launched different models for evaluating intellectual capital, and some of these models are analysed critically in this study, too. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. In a spectral dynamic analysis, organisational intellectual capital is structured in: organisational knowledge, organisational intelligence, organisational values, and their value is built on certain mechanisms entitled integrators, whose chief constitutive elements are: individual knowledge, individual intelligence and individual cultural values. The organizations, as employers, must especially reconsider those employees’ work who value knowledge because they are free to choose how, and especially where they are inclined to invest their own energy, skills and time, and they can be treated as freelancers or as some little entrepreneurs .

  18. The new character of intellectual dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Beigel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The question of "intellectual" dependence is one of the oldest and systematic concerns of Latin American thought. In this paper we examine recent changes in the forms of intellectual production and circulation that cross national spaces, segmenting processes of prestige-building and local recognition. We argue that intellectual colonialism does not describe the current situation of our academic fields rather characterized by the conflictive coexistence of autonomy and heteronomy. Academic dependency, however, exists, but it is necessary to observe and analyze it as a "concrete situation" being its background the relational approach of Latin American historical-structural tradition. In this line, we first analyze the itinerary of the Latin American debate on intellectual dependency, and then propose an operational definition of academic dependency. Finally, we develop our analytical focus to observe the production of knowledge in the periphery from the standing point of the articulation of the concept of "field" and "circuit"

  19. Mortality in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Pauline; Lauer, Emily; Hoghton, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews why an understanding of mortality data in general, and in relation to people with intellectual disabilities in particular, is an important area of concern, and introduces the papers in this Special Edition.

  20. Librarians and Intellectual Freedom: Are Opinions Changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Mary Lee; Stakem, Teresa

    1982-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey of public librarians in the United States conducted to determine their attitudes toward intellectual freedom with emphasis on responses regarding extension services to poor and minorities, attitude changes, and factors that influence attitudes. (CHC)

  1. Posterior Fossa Tumors and Intellectual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cerebellar damage on intellectual function in 76 children treated surgically for malignant posterior fossa tumor was investigated at the Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, and the Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Necker Hospital, Paris, France.

  2. Contemporary intellectual property law and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Waelde, Charlotte; Kheria, Smita; Cornwell, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary Intellectual Property: Law and Policy offers a unique perspective on intellectual property law. It goes beyond an up-to-date account of the law and examines the complex policies that inform and guide modern intellectual property law at the domestic (including Scottish), European and international levels, giving the reader a true insight into the discipline and the shape of things to come. The focus is on contemporary challenges to intellectual property law and policy and the reader is encouraged to engage critically both with the text and the subject matter. Carefully developed to ensure that the complexities of the subject are addressed in a clear and approachable manner, the extensive use of practical examples, exercises and visual aids throughout the text enliven the subject and stimulate the reader.

  3. GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING THE RELATION INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY BUSINESS VERSUS HUMAN RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speriusi-Vlad Alin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, the intellectual property protection is no longer an absolute social and legal that justifies adoption of any measures necessary to protect it. Initially seen as the prerequisite for sustainable development, implementation of new technologies, and encouragement of international trade, the intellectual property, especially prior to ACTA (Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement international trial implementation, and also thereafter, was increasingly identified as a source of violation of fundamental rights and civil liberties, i.e. the right to protection of personal data, the right to privacy, freedom to send and receive information freedom of information, freedom to contract, and freedom to carry out economic activities (freedom of commerce. As far as international trade transactions have often a component of intellectual property that requires to be protected, it is necessary to identify the landmarks, the rules establishing de facto limits in order to protect the intellectual property without risk of infringement of fundamental rights and civil liberties of other persons, in particular users or potential users of goods and services incorporating intellectual property. The best guidelines in this regard may be provided by the CJEU (Court of Justice of the European Union case-law both due to its reasoning underlying the decision of the Parliament to reject ACTA ratification and the fact that the case-law of this Court, especially the most recent one, is highly complex and nuanced, not denying in any way the importance of intellectual property, and identifying certain cases where their primacy persist and whose analysis leads to laying down some general rules in the field.

  4. Promoting justice in stem cell intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenberg, Alan; Mathews, Debra J H

    2011-11-01

    According to the World Trade Organization, intellectual property rights are "rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time." The rationale behind intellectual property rights is to offer a quid pro quo, between creators and the public, intended to spur innovation. Inventors gain exclusivity (and an opportunity for profits) in exchange for publicly disclosing details about their creations. The public gains free access to information - information that can then be used to support further innovation. Innovation is seen as an inherent good in this context, as it can lead to the development of things people need (e.g., treatments for disease, green energy technologies or a better mousetrap). Exclusive rights to intellectual property are managed via patents and licenses, with patenting being primarily regulated at the national level. Intellectual property rights are the dominant mechanism used in innovation policy, particularly in science. However, myriad modifications and alternatives to intellectual property rights have been proposed and utilized, including patent pooling, intellectual property exchanges and clearing houses, innovation prizes and open-source licenses. The challenges related to competing models of innovation policy present in a fairly consistent manner across most fields of science. However, this paper will focus exclusively on intellectual property rights and models of innovation policy in the context of stem cell science. It is not that the issues themselves are unique in this context, but rather that there are a series of factors that make a discussion of intellectual property rights and models of innovation policy particularly important in the context of stem cell science.

  5. Anticompetitive Settlement of Intellectual Property Disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Hovenkamp, Herbert; Janis, Mark; Lemley, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of intellectual property lawsuits settle before trial. These settlements involve agreements between the patentee and the accused infringer, parties who are often competitors before the lawsuit. Because these competitors may agree to stop competing, to regulate the price each charges, and to exchange information about products and prices, settlements of intellectual property disputes naturally raise antitrust concerns. In this paper, we suggest a way to reconcile the ...

  6. Progress and Innovation through Evaluation Intellectual Property

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel I. NĂSTASE

    2011-01-01

    Practical assessment of intellectual property is a complex and difficult issue because there are many factors that influence it, and apply the methodologies differ from one country to another, from one continent to another. Therefore, the responsibility of carrying out transactions these intangible assets is maximum, because they have social implications and / or political. Classical methods of assessment of intellectual property are the same as those used for measuring intangible assets or i...

  7. Sexuality of adolescents with mild intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Resman, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation is about sexuality of adolescents with mild intellectual disability. Theoretical part focuses on sexuality of adolescents and who are adolescents with mild intellectual disability, and also the topics that involve their sexuality, such as sexual behavior, sexual information, social status, sexual disorders and integration in education. Empirical part describes the research and the results of it. Research instrument is a questionnaire, which was answered by pupils of eighth an...

  8. People with intellectual disabilities and dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Janet; Chadwick, Darren; Baines, Susannah; Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris

    2017-03-12

    Dysphagia (difficulties in eating, drinking or swallowing) is associated with serious health complications and psychosocial sequelae. This review aims to summarise the state of the evidence regarding dysphagia in people with intellectual disabilities (excluding prevalence), identify gaps in the evidence base and highlight future research priorities. Studies published from 1 January 1990 to 19 July 2016 were identified using Medline, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Web of Science, email requests and cross citations. Studies were reviewed narratively in relation to identified themes. A total of 35 studies were included in the review. Themes identified were as follows: health conditions associated with dysphagia; mortality; health service use; practice and knowledge in supporting people with intellectual disabilities and dysphagia; intervention effectiveness and quality of life. Dysphagia is associated with respiratory infections and choking and may be under-recognised. Silent aspiration is common and may go unnoticed. Management practices exist, but there are few intervention studies and no randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and hence, the effectiveness of these is currently unclear. Dysphagia is a key concern in relation to people with intellectual disabilities. There is urgent need for research on the management of dysphagia in people with intellectual disabilities, including mealtime support offered, positioning, dietary modification and impact on wellbeing. Implications for Rehabilitation Dysphagia is common in people with intellectual disabilities, associated with serious health risks and may be under-recognised. Caregivers of people with intellectual disabilities should be educated about dysphagia. There is an urgent need for research on improving the management of dysphagia in people with intellectual disabilities. Improved recognition and management of dysphagia may reduce the occurrence of associated health conditions and reduce hospital admissions and premature death

  9. Zevedei Barbu: an exercise in intellectual biography

    OpenAIRE

    Stan, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Based on my postdoctoral monograph project focused on one of the main voices in the totalitarian debates during the first decades of the Cold War, the article retrieves the political and intellectual biography of the Romanian-British sociologist Zevedei Barbu (1914-1993). The main goal is to apprehend and deconstruct the canvas of apostasy related to the humanist Leftist intellectual turned into an important antitotalitarian thinker. Furthermore, the article discusses Barbu's main contributio...

  10. Joan Maragall: Poet, intellectual and thinker

    OpenAIRE

    Moreta Tusquets, Ignasi

    2014-01-01

    Joan Maragall (Barcelona, 1860-1911) is an indisputable part of the Catalan canon of contemporary poetry. However, his intellectual contributions also came in the field of journalism, through a clear desire to affect his times by acting as an intellectual in the sense that this word acquired from Zola, as well as in his essays with philosophical pretensions. This article aims to spotlight the importance not only of Maragall’s poetic oeuvre but also his journalistic and philosophical ...

  11. Is the Non-rivalrousness of Intellectual Objects a Problem for the Moral Justification of Economic Rights to Intellectual Property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2015-08-01

    It is often argued that the fact that intellectual objects-objects like ideas, inventions, concepts, and melodies-can be used by several people simultaneously makes intellectual property rights impossible or particularly difficult to morally justify. In this article, I assess the line of criticism of intellectual ownership in connection with a central category of intellectual property rights, economic rights to intellectual property. I maintain that it is unconvincing.

  12. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  13. Sustainable agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...

  14. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Abstract. This article examines the concept of sustainable development after the Post-. 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. Various African countries are vulnerable to climate change, as is evidenced by recent droughts. Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in.

  15. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  16. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  17. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  18. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  19. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  20. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  1. Accelerating the transition towards sustainability dynamics into supply chain relationship management and governance structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Seuring, Stefan; Zhu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholders and competitive priorities drive profit and non-profit organizations towards the implementation of sustainability-related measures, in their internal operations, and in their supply chains planning. It is believed by some that investments in sustainability may help them to attain more...... successful futures by maintaining a healthy balance among economic, environmental, and social resources/dimensions. Consequently, some organizations have begun to integrate these dimensions in recent years. Researchers and practitioners are also working to accelerate the transition for more equitable...

  2. Order Without Intellectual Property Law: Open Science in Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Amy

    Today, intellectual property (IP) scholars accept that IP as an approach to information production has serious limits. But what lies beyond IP? A new literature on "intellectual production without IP" (or "IP without IP") has emerged to explore this question, but its examples and explanations have yet to convince skeptics. This Article reorients this new literature via a study of a hard case: a global influenza virus-sharing network that has for decades produced critically important information goods, at significant expense, and in a loose-knit group--all without recourse to IP. I analyze the Network as an example of "open science," a mode of information production that differs strikingly from conventional IP, and yet that successfully produces important scientific goods in response to social need. The theory and example developed here refute the most powerful criticisms of the emerging "IP without IP" literature, and provide a stronger foundation for this important new field. Even where capital costs are high, creation without IP can be reasonably effective in social terms, if it can link sources of funding to reputational and evaluative feedback loops like those that characterize open science. It can also be sustained over time, even by loose-knit groups and where the stakes are high, because organizations and other forms of law can help to stabilize cooperation. I also show that contract law is well suited to modes of information production that rely upon a "supply side" rather than "demand side" model. In its most important instances, "order without IP" is not order without governance, nor order without law. Recognizing this can help us better ground this new field, and better study and support forms of knowledge production that deserve our attention, and that sometimes sustain our very lives.

  3. Intellectual Disability: A Critical Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariseau-Legault, Pierre; Holmes, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Over the last number of years, the emergence of new scientific and social constructions of intellectual disability has contributed to many terminological, conceptual, and structural changes. As a result, the expression "mental retardation" has gradually been abandoned in favor of "intellectual disability" for classification and diagnosis. In addition to helping redefine intellectual disability, the implementation of new deinstitutionalized mechanisms of governmentality required the adoption of different clinical models. Concrete applications of those models have yet to be studied in nursing practice. The main objective of this article is to analyze the concept of intellectual disability in light of recent developments to clarify its philosophical bases, influence, and relevance for clinical practice. This concept analysis was realized following a literature review of scientific articles and monographs addressing topics related to intellectual disability. Inspired by a poststructuralist approach, we will discuss about the ambiguity of nurses' role regarding people labeled as having an intellectual disability. Lastly, we will address the clinical implications of our analysis and we will propose an actualized understanding of the nursing practice in such context.

  4. THE INTELLECTUALS AND THE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Máuri de Carvalho Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is a no pretentious contribution to the question of the dialetical method, as a process of research and logical ordination of an activity, in this case, the production of the knowledge. The objective of this study is to claim that the task of the criticism is to report that in the physical education the enemies of the marxism when they produce acientific researches and “uninterested” apologetic speeches, not engaged, they reinforce the role of the capitalist State and they justify the perverse structures where is built the city of the capital. As a conclusion, the marxist criticism is indispensable to the clearance of the positivist rhetoric still hegemonic in the Brazilian public university that should be a place for a non validation of the bourgeois order and reconstruction of the real revealed as history and whose content is the world created by the labor and by the fight of men against the nature. Prefering to live an empty of principles existence , to take as inexorable the criticized everyday, changing the side towards the negligible social quakes, the intellectuals of the order keep living on the illusion and on the dreamlike hope without action from a world that they, the enlightened, would have the illumination.

  5. SUSTAINABLE CORPORATE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the image of the international business environment has changed significantly. Studies conducted by UNCTAD shows that corporate phenomenon developments in the world economy is growing. Without claiming to present an exhaustive topic so vast we tried to capture some "facets" of sustainable development from the perspective of multinational corporations, given the expansion of these economic entities and strengthening their power in the global economy. We present more negative aspects of the actions of multinational corporations in terms of sustainable development, it is very important to know both sides of the coin, which will not only help transnational giants including release. Based on issues such as corporate social responsibility, environmental pollution and workers' rights, we sought to counter official statements. The conclusion is that these economic entities are real forces that can not be ignored in today's world and the obvious problem of sustainable development can not be addressed independently of the phenomenon, context we also identified some possible solutions to conflict of corporations and essence of the concept of sustainable development.

  6. Treat me right, treat me equal: using national policy and legislation to create positive changes in local health services for people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda; Townsend, Samantha; Morris, Jennifer; Rushbrooke, Elizabeth; Greenhill, Beth; Whitehead, Richard; Matthews, Tim; Golding, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Creative use of legislation can produce positive change in the lives of people with intellectual disabilities. This may be 'bottom-up' or 'top-down' or at multiple levels and with multiple stakeholders. Using a human rights-based approach (HRBA), four initiatives to improve services for people with intellectual disabilities in the UK are described. The first example explains the process of co-producing a DVD and board game to enable people with intellectual disabilities to understand their human rights. The second example considers the impact of organizational culture in the process of embedding a pilot evaluation of practical, human rights-based risk assessment and management tools. A third pilot project examines how the guiding principles of Mental Health Act (MHA) (2007) for England and Wales can be operationalized using an HRBA. Finally, improving equitable access to health care through a 'top-down' process of change involving the Green Light Toolkit is reported. The authors consider how to approach the process and where to focus in the system, to realize meaningful change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Motor Performance of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability and Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and healthy lifestyles. The present study compares…

  8. Motor performance of children with mild intellectual disability and borderline intellectual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and

  9. Motor performance of children with mild intellectual disability and borderline intellectual functioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuijk, P.J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and

  10. Psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder): forensic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Mark J; Olson, Erick; Drogin, Eric Y

    2014-03-01

    Persons with intellectual disability come into frequent and underreported contact with the legal system. Advances in forensic psychiatry help better identify persons with intellectual disability in forensic contexts, inform evaluation and treatment, and elucidate unique characteristics of this population. With the release of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), forensic psychiatrists must adjust to changes in the diagnostic process. This review examines the past year's contributions to the literature, including predictors among offenders with intellectual disability, concurrent diagnoses, efficacy of competence restoration, means of studying individuals with intellectual disability, and impact of DSM-5. Impoverished personal relationships are found to be an important predictor of offense among persons with intellectual disability. A Personality Disorder Characteristics Checklist allows screening for personality disorders (indicative of increased risk of violence) among intellectual disability offenders. Referrals to specialists for treatment more often occur for violent and sexual offenses than for other offenses. Competence restoration is historically low among those with intellectual disability, specially compared with those referred for substance abuse and personality disorders. However, the Slater Method results in higher rates of restoration than traditional training methods. DSM-5 alters the definition of intellectual disability, moving from an IQ-oriented diagnosis system to a multifaceted approach, introducing more flexibility and nuance.

  11. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning : A latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, P.J.G.; Lucas, R.; Smulders, N.B.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    Background Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of

  12. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...... biophysical, distributional and economic conditions for high consumption in rich countries and then zooms in on the coevolution of provision systems and consumption, and how consumption is shaped by practices and projects in everyday life. Furthermore, the paper discusses whether and how transition...

  13. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems that ...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings.......The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  14. Sustainable and resource-conserving utilization of global land areas and biomass; Globale Landflaechen und Biomasse nachhaltig und ressourcenschonend nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jering, Almut; Klatt, Anne; Seven, Jan; Ehlers, Knut; Guenther, Jens; Ostermeier, Andreas; Moench, Lars

    2012-10-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the state of the art of biomass based land use as well as on existing and future global development trends. An ecologically compatible and socially equitable utilization of resources as well as priorities in the production and utilization of biomass are described in order to achieve their goals. Approaches to action, measures and policy recommendations are presented with respect to the development of a globally sustainable, resource-conserving utilization of land.

  15. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  16. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  17. A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienciu Nicoleta Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The term intellectual capital has been appeared recently in economy being debated in literature since 90s playing an important role in the economic activity of an entity of nowadays. The emerging of the "new economy”, mainly driven by information and knowledge, has been identified by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development as the explanation lying at the base of the development of intellectual capital, a fundamental topic in business (Hornery, 1999. One way or another, intellectual capital plays a significant role in the economic, administrative, technological and social development of contemporary times, being difficult to quantify. Many researchers avoid defining intellectual capital, but consider it the basic value of an entity, as it contains non-financial and related information (Amir and Lev, 1996; Edvinsson and Malone, 1997; Stewart, 1997; Bontis, 2001. The purpose of our paper is to highlights the contributions of researchers in the field of intellectual capital as far as the published articles in the high quality journals are concerned. Our paper presents a quantitative research by performing, on one side, a content analysis of the prestigious international journals which include papers related to intellectual capital and, on the other side, a content analysis of those articles. The originality of the present article is represented by the personal contribution to the stage of knowledge in the field of intellectual capital by means of analyzing already existent researches in the field. The results of our analysis, demonstrate that the studies conducted until now are very few by comparison to the number it should have existed until now in the literature, which demonstrates that this field of research is still at its early stage.

  18. Meeting the support needs of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: still a long way to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, P J G; Smulders, N B M; Embregts, P J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, C

    2017-12-01

    Among persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning, differences in their characteristics imply that a differentiated approach is required to meet their needs. This retrospective study examined whether the history of support/treatment programs and the type of healthcare providers involved matched the specific support needs of persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning. Five (previously identified) profiles of persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were used to investigate to what extent the support needs of this group had been met. For the 250 persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning who matched these five profiles, data were collected retrospectively from their case files. Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning received a very similar amount and type of support/treatment programs. Differences between the profiles were found for non-verbal therapy, residential treatment and contacts with social work. Regarding the type of healthcare providers involved, differences between the profiles emerged for specialised intellectual disability services, youth services and specialised addiction services. The support programs for a heterogeneous population of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning seem to be suboptimal, indicating that more differentiation is required in the services offered to these individuals. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mental health policy in Kenya -an integrated approach to scaling up equitable care for poor populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Rachel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most donor and development agency attention is focussed on communicable diseases in Kenya, the importance of non-communicable diseases including mental health and mental illness is increasingly apparent, both in their own right and because of their influence on health, education and social goals. Mental illness is common but the specialist service is extremely sparse and primary care is struggling to cope with major health demands. Non health sectors e.g. education, prisons, police, community development, gender and children, regional administration and local government have significant concerns about mental health, but general health programmes have been surprisingly slow to appreciate the significance of mental health for physical health targets. Despite a people centred post colonial health delivery system, poverty and global social changes have seriously undermined equity. This project sought to meet these challenges, aiming to introduce sustainable mental health policy and implementation across the country, within the context of extremely scarce resources. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning, sustained intersectoral policy dialogue at national and regional level; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of at each level (national, regional, district and primary care; development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at national, regional, district and local levels; public education; and integration of mental health into health management systems. Results The programme has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, annual operational plans, mental health policy guidelines

  20. Biological diversity, indigenous knowledge, drug discovery and intellectual property rights: creating reciprocity and maintaining relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S R; Carlson, T J; Moran, K

    1996-04-01

    When new plant-derived therapeutics based on indigenous knowledge are being explored, it is important that the pharmaceutical companies return benefits to the native populations and the local governments from which the research material was obtained. When a potentially marketable plant product is being developed, it is essential that equitable agreements have already been established between the pharmaceutical companies and the people and/or countries from which this indigenous knowledge was acquired. Equally important is the commitment to provide immediate reciprocity that will enhance the welfare, the biocultural diversity and the well-being of the forest peoples. These measures should commence when a research project begins and continue during its duration. The development of these measures must be based upon the expressed needs of the indigenous communities. The relationship between the stability of the rain forest biocultural diversity, the creation and development of agro-forest resources and the long term benefits to the forest people is highlighted. Examples of initiatives taken by Shaman Pharmaceuticals Inc. and the Healing Forest Conservancy are described and discussed in the context of exploring appropriate use of intellectual property law to address the ethical issues facing all business and research groups working in the tropics.

  1. Alternative Perspectives on Sustainability: Indigenous Knowledge and Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Parsons

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK is now recognized as being critical to the development of effective, equitable and meaningful strategies to address socio-ecological crises. However efforts to integrate IK and Western science frequently encounter difficulties due to different systems of knowledge production and underlying worldviews. New approaches are needed so that sustainability can progress on the terms that matter the most for the people involved. In this paper we discuss a case study from Aotearoa New Zealand where an indigenous community is in the process of renegotiating and enacting new indigenous-led approaches to address coupled socio-ecological crises. We reflect on novel methodological approaches that highlight the ways in which projects/knowledge are co-produced by a multiplicity of human and non-human actors. To this end we draw on conceptualizations of environmental ethics offered by indigenous scholars and propose alternative bodies of thought, methods, and practices that can support the wider sustainability agenda.

  2. Breaking new ground: mining, minerals and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Society's continuing need for minerals is clear. However, the way in which minerals are extracted, processed, used and recycled - in the context of sustainable development - is less than clear and often bitterly controversial. This publication presents the principal conclusions of the IIED/WBCSD project Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD) - the most ambitious study yet undertaken on the role of minerals in sustainable development carried out by the IIED and World Bank Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). Drawing on the project's two-year process of consultation and research, Breaking New Ground describes the minerals sector and its relationship with concepts of sustainable development, and offers an 'Agenda for Change' for immediate and future actions. The report is based on four regional processes, activities in 16 countries and over 200 pieces of commissioned research contained in an accompanying CD-ROM. The report calls for elaboration of an industry protocol for sustainable development; a commitment to address the negative legacy of the past; support for legalization of artisanal and small-scale mining; integrated management of the full mineral chain (exploration, extraction, smelting, refining, fabrication, manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling and disposal); more effective government management of mineral investment; and a more equitable international trade regime for minerals.

  3. Constitutionalization of international investment law: Indirect expropriation cases, fair and equitable treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Higa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of international investment law rules in the Economic Constitutional Law, especially those included in investment chapters of Peruvian’s Free Trade Treaties. In particular, it is expected to demonstrate the following (i International Investment Law is part of Peruvian Legal System; (ii provisions of these laws are mandatory and should be applied domestically; and (iii interpretation and implementation of this legal right should be executed consistently with domestic legal system and Peruvian international obligations. This agreed Interpretation between Investment Law and Economic Constitution will have a positive effect in rationalization of public entities actions avoiding abuses and maltreatment to investors, in order to improve investment climate as a key element forachieving country’s sustainable development.

  4. CORRELATION BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Shust

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article is dedicated to the analysis of legal nature and peculiarities of optimal correlation between the notions of intellectual property and scientific activity. Nowadays intellectual property as institution goes through the period of establishment in Ukraine. As the Soviet system of civil law was based on recognition and regulation of authors’ rights for the authors of scientific works, discoveries, inventions and innovation proposals as the ones having mainly relative, i.e. legally mandatory, but not absolute character.  Getting started to define the notion of intellectual property and intellectual property right in the system of interaction with scientific activity, it is important to say that such notion as “intellectual property” still needs enhancement. Its imperfection is due to the fact that this kind of property implies being formed by intellectual efforts of the author of scientific work, but legally it is processed with the help of documents that guarantee property right. Methods. General scientific method, philosophical method, specially-legal method of scientific research, system analysis method. Results: It is important to emphasize that not every result of scientific or creative work can become the object of intellectual property right, but the one that corresponds with law. Any scientific work falls within the purview of law if it corresponds with law demands. Scientific and technical results obtain legal protection only in case of appropriate qualification established by specific agency of State administration and issuement of law-enforcement document being limited by the territory of Ukraine. Protection of rights on the territory of other countries is realized only on the basis of correspondent international conventions and treaties. Discussion: Advanced modern countries realized the meaning and importance of usage and proper protection of creative and scientific work results known as “intellectual

  5. Intellectual Liabilities: Lessons from The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaan Stam

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Intellectual capital theory and practice predominantly focus on measuring and managing intangible assets. However, if we want to balance the intellectual capital books (Harvey and Lusch, 1999), we should recognize both intellectual assets and intellectual liabilities (Caddy, 2000).

  6. Shared Housing Arrangements in Germany-An Equitable Alternative to Long Term Care Services beyond Homes and Institutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetter, Lorraine Frisina; Schmid, Achim

    2018-02-14

    Given the saliency of socio-demographic pressures, the highly restrictive definition of "need for care" characterizing the German long-term care system at its foundations in 1994 has since been subject to various expansionary reforms. This has translated into greater interest in innovative care models that provide more choice and flexibility to beneficiaries. One such model is 'shared housing arrangements' ("ambulant betreute Wohngemeinschaften"), where a small group of people rent private rooms, while sharing a common space, domestic support, and nursing care. Using interview and secondary data, this study examines the potential for such arrangements to provide an equitable alternative to care that is accessible to a larger population of beneficiaries than presently seen in Germany.

  7. "What's going to happen when we're gone?" Family caregiving capacity for older people with an intellectual disability in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Damien; Murphy, Rebecca; McCallion, Philip; McCarron, Mary

    2018-03-01

    Changing family sociodemographic factors, increased life expectancy for people with an intellectual disability, deinstitutionalization and policy prioritization of the family as the principal care provider, presents new challenges to care sustainability. A qualitative study design was employed, entailing focus groups and semistructured interviews, with purposive sampling via the parent study population of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to The Irish Longitudinal Database on Ageing. The traditional sociodemographic facilitators of family caregiving are in rapid decline. Families perceived limited support from services and limited future care options. Few future care plans have been formulated. A strong possibility exists of placement of older family members with an intellectual disability in out-of-family home care. To anticipate and provide for quality care supports, there is a need to establish proactive initiatives, for both people with an intellectual disability and their families', to facilitate the early formation of long-term care plans. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Intellectual disability and the prison setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tort, V; Dueñas, R; Vicens, E; Zabala, C; Martínez, M; Romero, D M

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. 1) To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2) Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. 1) A TONI II test was performed on a sub-sample (n = 398) of a prevalence study in Spanish prisons to identify inmates with intellectual disabilities. 2) We reviewed the reports of the psychiatric department of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu to establish the diagnosis at discharge of patients with a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability 3) Data from the Directorate General of Prisons on the prevalence of ID in Prison Psychiatric Hospitals was reviewed. The data obtained from the TONI II test found 3.77% of the study population has an IQ below 70, and 7.54 % has a borderline IQ rate. Assessment of penitentiary psychiatric hospitalization data showed these figures to be higher. The data from a Spanish prison population showed that ID levels were higher than those in the community, especially amongst prisoners requiring specialized psychiatric care. What is also evident is that adequate resources are required in prisons and in the community to provide better care for people with intellectual disabilities who are in the pathway of the criminal justice system.

  9. Features of Intellectual Property Rights Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Fedorovna Maslenkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the current situation in lending intellectual property (IP rights in Russia. Furthermore, I investigate the existing legal framework for this type of lending. Special attention is paid to Russian and foreign literature review, including dissertations. The author studied the dynamics of lending trademarks license contracts and based on the official data of Federal Service for Intellectual Property of the Russian Federation archives and intellectual activity of 2009 — 2016. I describe borrowers and lenders as well as Russian regional banks having experience in intellectual property rights lending in 2014 — 2016. The author identified and commented the benefits of implementing such credit for a commercial bank and the company-borrower. Special attention is paid to difficulties and risks for both the lender and the borrower. The author has developed a mechanism of intellectual property rights lending, which describes procedures for parties. The study has defined the preferred algorithms for both the company-borrower and profitable bank. Moreover, I have described the “problem loan”, or late repayment of credit and interest. The paper describes conditions, which are necessary for the successful implementation of the developed credit schemes. I have revealed the impact of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation on the status of lending of IP and proposed measures to improve the situation. Recommendations of the author would help to promote secured bank lending of IP rights. This will have positive results for both the borrowers and the regional banks

  10. Intellectual Disability in Children; a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasteh Goli N.*BSc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.

  11. High and equitable mass vitamin A supplementation coverage in Sierra Leone: a post-event coverage survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary H; Sesay, Fatmata F; Kamara, Habib I; Turay, Mohamed; Koroma, Aminata S; Blankenship, Jessica L; Katcher, Heather I

    2013-08-01

    In Sierra Leone, children ages 6-59 months receive twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation (VAS) through Maternal and Child Health Week (MCHW) events. VAS coverage in 2011 was calculated using government tally sheets of vitamin A capsule distribution and outdated population projections from the 2004 census. We conducted a national post-event coverage (PEC) survey to validate coverage and inform strategies to reach universal coverage of VAS in Sierra Leone. Immediately following the November 2011 MCHW event, we conducted a national PEC survey by interviewing caregivers with children ages 6-59 months using a randomized 30X30 cluster design (N = 900). We also interviewed one health worker and one community health worker in each cluster to determine their knowledge about VAS (N = 60). VAS coverage was 91.8% among children ages 6-59 months, which was lower than the 105.1% reported through tally sheets. Coverage was high and equitable among all districts and between age groups (98.5% for infants ages 6-11 months and 90.5% for children ages 12-59 months). Major reasons for not receiving VAS were that the child was out of the area (42.4%), the household was not visited by community health workers (28.0%), and the caretaker was not aware of the event (11.9%). Twice-yearly delivery of VAS through MCHW events achieved consistently high and equitable coverage in Sierra Leone. Universal coverage may be achieved through continued focus on communication and targeted outreach to hard-to-reach areas during the MCHWs.

  12. Promoting an equitable and supportive school climate in high schools: the role of school organizational health and staff burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2014-12-01

    In response to persistent racial disparities in academic and behavioral outcomes between Black and White students, equitable school climate has drawn attention as a potential target for school reform. This study examined differences in Black and White students' experiences of school climate and explored whether indicators of school organizational health and staff burnout moderated differences in students' school experiences by race. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of 18,397 Black students (n=6228) and White students (n=12,169) and 2391 school staff in 53 schools, we found a consistent pattern of racial inequalities, such that Black students reported less positive experiences than White students across three indicators of school climate (caring γ=-0.08, pschool organizational health and student-reported school climate (e.g., staff affiliation and student-perceived equity, γ=0.07, pschool organizational health indicators were more strongly associated with positive perceptions of school climate among White students than Black students, translating into greater racial disparities in perceived school climate at schools with greater organizational health (e.g., supportive leadership by race on student-perceived engagement, γ=-0.03, p=.042). We also found negative associations between staff-reported burnout and students' experience of equity, such that the racial gap was smaller in schools with high ratings of burnout (γ=0.04, p=.002). These findings have implications for educators and education researchers interested in promoting school social contexts that equitably support student engagement and success. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY FOR SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rizzuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundry Alfe Chem is an industrial reality working in the field of lubrication and chemical auxiliaries for industrial processes, which falls within the framework of the emerging and increasingly important «green chemistry». The goal of the company is to develop products that are more environmentally friendly by using raw materials from renewable sources; specifically, Foundry Alfe Chem has a program of self-sustainability that contemplates, for the foreseeable future, the direct production of renewable raw materials. The company has developed a new dedicated product line, Olitema, whose purpose is to offer highly technological solutions with complete environmental sustainability. In this context, Foundry Alfe CHEM has created a new product which represents a breakthrough in the class of HFC hydraulic fluids: Ecosafe Plus is a biodegradable fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with high engineering and technological performances, high environmental sustainability and the best security guarantees in workplaces. Its formulation is glycols-free, and it allows for easier disposal of the exhausted fluid, compared to a traditional water/ glycol-based HFC hydraulic fluid. For what concern the technological properties, Ecosafe Plus has been tested by accredited laboratories with tribological trials (4 Ball wear test ASTM D 4172, Ball on disc test ASTM 6425, Brugger test DIN 51347, Vickers test ASTM D 2882, with elastomer compatibility test (ASTM D 471 and biodegradability test (OECD 310 F.

  14. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...... as subject to substantial regulatory compliance obligations external to the process of procurement. In short, procurement has been transformed in a way to enforce regulatory obligations that are not intrinsic to the process of buying. This leads to the conclusion that questions such as the cost and trade...

  15. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  16. Drug patents and intellectual property rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Gerard Marshall; Priyadarshini, Rekha; Mathaiyan, Jayanthi

    2015-04-01

    Inquisitive scientists are untiring and relentless in the hard work they perform day in and day out. In this pursuit, a researcher has to exercise their intellectual expertise in its entirety. Eventually, all credit of the invention is vested with the inventor who has the right of control over their intellectual creation. Likewise, pharmaceutical companies spend extravagantly in successfully introducing a novel drug from hundreds and thousands of lead compounds. Hence, it is a prerogative for every company to protect its innovative products from unauthorized duplication. Certainly, "patents" are the sole custodians of these products of medical intelligence - the drugs! This review focuses on the various intricacies of the drug patent system all over the world with special emphasis on India, Europe, and the United States. A note on other intellectual properties such as copyrights, trademarks, and designs is also added.

  17. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW IN INDONESIA AFTER 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Selvie Sinaga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major changes of intellectual property condition in Indonesia after 2001. In that year, Indonesia, which has become a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS since 1994, was ready to meet its commitment under TRIPS. To do so, Indonesiahas made changes in the areas of legislation, administration, court proceedings, and law enforcement. The paper also discusses problematic issues surrounded the implementation of such changes in Indonesia. Tulisan ini melihat kembali perubahan-perubahan besar dalam bidang hak kekayaan intelektual di Indonesia setelah tahun 2001. Pada tahun tersebut, Indonesia, yang telah menjadi anggota Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS sejak 1994, siap untuk memenuhi komitmennya dalam TRIPS. Untuk memenuhi komitmen tersebut, Indonesia telah membuat perubahan-perubahan dalam bidang legislatif, administratif, tata cara pengadilan dan penegakan hukum. Tulisan ini juga membahas permasalahan di seputar pelaksanaan perubahan-perubahan tersebut.

  18. PENGARUH INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL TERHADAP KINERJA KEUANGAN PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Andriana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of intellectual capital and its components, represented by physical capital (capital employed, human capital, and structural capital,on financial performance of mining and manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia – BEI period of 2010 – 2012. Total population observed during this research shows 169 mining and manufacturing companies.The sample was determined by purposive sampling method and found a total of 70 samples as the research subjects. The analytical technique for the quantitaive data uses a statistical tool, i.e. multiple regression. Intellectual capital and its components were measured by Pulic Model, while financial performance uses Return on Equty (ROE ratio. The results show that intellectual capital and human capital have negative influence, yet insignificant, impacton companies financial performance. While physical capital (capital employed and structural capital do have positive influence but not significanton companies financial performance.

  19. Suicide Behavior in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is today in the Western world one of the leading causes of death and most people have had suicidal ideation at some time during their life. In the population of persons with intellectual disability some researchers have thought that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidal behavior, but the fact is that the few studies conducted in that population contest this assumption and showed that the characteristics of suicidality in this population are very similar to persons without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population. Professionals working with this population should therefore be aware of and assess for this behavior. Sadness or depression are symptoms that could indicate later suicidal behavior.

  20. The assessment of intellectual capital in Polish regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ophem, van J.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a knowledge-based economy intangible assets are indispensable to achieve competitive advantages. Resources like intellectual capital are perceived as crucial factors especially for regional growth. Intellectual capital is comprehended as a multidimensional concept, defined and explained in many

  1. Intellectual Property Experimentalism By Way Of Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Wu

    2013-01-01

    Competition law and Intellectual Property have divergent intellectual cultures–the former more pragmatic and experimentalist; the latter influenced by natural law and vested rights. Tim Wu (US Federal Trade Commission)

  2. Identifying genes responsible for intellectual disability in consanguineous families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, Z.; Bokhoven, H. van

    2014-01-01

    Consanguinity is an important determinant of birth defects including intellectual disability (ID). Consanguineous populations have a relative high prevalence of autosomal recessive forms of intellectual disability (ARID), which constitute a highly heterogeneous group of disorders both in their

  3. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning in children with syndromic craniosynostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, M.; Mathijssen, I.M.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Okkerse, J.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis and to explore differences between diagnostic subgroups. METHODS: A national sample of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis participated in this study. Intellectual,

  4. Privacy, Dependency, Discegenation: Toward a Sexual Culture for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Adams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Monica and David, (Alexandra Codina 2010, Girlfriend (Justin Lerner 2010, and Me Too [Yo también] (Antonio Naharro and Álvaro Pastor, 2009 are recent films that explore the need for companionship, intimacy, and sexual expression among people with intellectual disabilities. They break ground in showing people with intellectual disabilities as capable of sexual agency as well as sustaining committed, mutually satisfying relationships. However they also consider the meaning of sex in the context of dependency. More challenging still, they probe the taboo of "discegenation," sex in which only one partner is disabled. In doing so, they raise complicated questions about consent, desire, and privacy in all sexual encounters.

  5. [Improving global access to new vaccines: intellectual property, technology transfer, and regulatory pathways].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crager, Sara Eve

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 World Health Assembly Global Vaccine Action Plan called for global access to new vaccines within 5 years of licensure. Current approaches have proven insufficient to achieve sustainable vaccine pricing within such a timeline. Paralleling the successful strategy of generic competition to bring down drug prices, a clear consensus is emerging that market entry of multiple suppliers is a critical factor in expeditiously bringing down prices of new vaccines. In this context, key target objectives for improving access to new vaccines include overcoming intellectual property obstacles, streamlining regulatory pathways for biosimilar vaccines, and reducing market entry timelines for developing-country vaccine manufacturers by transfer of technology and know-how. I propose an intellectual property, technology, and know-how bank as a new approach to facilitate widespread access to new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries by efficient transfer of patented vaccine technologies to multiple developing-country vaccine manufacturers.

  6. Improving global access to new vaccines: intellectual property, technology transfer, and regulatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crager, Sara Eve

    2014-11-01

    The 2012 World Health Assembly Global Vaccine Action Plan called for global access to new vaccines within 5 years of licensure. Current approaches have proven insufficient to achieve sustainable vaccine pricing within such a timeline. Paralleling the successful strategy of generic competition to bring down drug prices, a clear consensus is emerging that market entry of multiple suppliers is a critical factor in expeditiously bringing down prices of new vaccines. In this context, key target objectives for improving access to new vaccines include overcoming intellectual property obstacles, streamlining regulatory pathways for biosimilar vaccines, and reducing market entry timelines for developing-country vaccine manufacturers by transfer of technology and know-how. I propose an intellectual property, technology, and know-how bank as a new approach to facilitate widespread access to new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries by efficient transfer of patented vaccine technologies to multiple developing-country vaccine manufacturers.

  7. Language revitalization in Native North America--issues of intellectual property rights and intellectual sovereignty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsch, Sheri

    2004-01-01

    Language revitalization, oral tradition and epistemology are expressions of Native peoples intellectual sovereignty, and thus the foundation for indigenous intellectual property rights. As the people of California move towards language and cultural revitalization the question arises: What constitutes or constructs the definitions of intellectual property and how can appropriation of indigenous knowledge be protected? Looking at the issues faced by the California's indigenous populace and by implication, other indigenous peoples in the United States, this essay examines how protection may be afforded under the United Nations definition of 'heritage'. Given that the holding safe of a 'culture' or 'heritage' is inclusive of language, and thus has been determined to be a human right.

  8. Managing intellectual capital in libraries beyond the balance sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Kostagiolas, Petros

    2012-01-01

    In the knowledge economy, professionals have to make decisions about non-tangible, non-monetary, and largely invisible resources. Information professionals need to understand the potential uses, contributions, value, structure, and creation of broadly intangible intellectual capital in libraries. In order to fully realize intellectual capital in libraries, new practices and skills are required for library management practitioners and researchers.Managing Intellectual Capital in Libraries provides research advances, guidelines, methods and techniques for managing intellectual capital in a libra

  9. Asthma in intellectual disability: are we managing our patients appropriately?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Davis

    2016-12-01

    To understand general principles of health of people with intellectual disability and how this affects the healthcare professional’s approach to asthma management. To understand how intellectual disability affects cognition, autonomy and communication, and therefore the ability of a person to self-manage asthma. To recognise ways of mitigating respiratory disease risk in people with intellectual disability. To describe ways for healthcare professionals to support people with intellectual disability and their caregivers in asthma management.

  10. MITIGATING INNOVATION RISKS CONCERNING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As protection of innovation is possible using a variety of intellectual property instruments, the current paper aims at emphasizing the vulnerabilities of these instruments in order to facilitate the right choice in terms of protection, exploitation and dissemination of innovation. Based on a review of the intellectual property instruments and their related risk factors, the study identifies and formulates specific proactive strategies which arise from the fact that an instrument alone does not allow for effective protection, exploitation and dissemination and oftentimes the owners of innovation should combine traditional and alternative instruments. Therefore, the results of this analysis represent a helpful tool for managers in the decisional process.

  11. Genetic Approach to Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Ratna Dua; Tuteja, Moni; Verma, I C

    2016-10-01

    Intellectual disability is a non-specific phenotype present in a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. It is characterized by deficits in intellectual and adaptive functioning, presenting before 18 y of age. Identifying the cause of ID is important to provide treatment where available, genetic counseling, recurrence risks and reproductive options for subsequent pregnancies. Advances in technology, especially next generation sequencing and microarrays, have greatly increased the diagnostic yield of evaluation in cases of ID. This paper describes the points in history taking and examination in the evaluation of a proband, and discusses the proper use of newer diagnostic technologies.

  12. THE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL PERFORMANCE OF POLISH BANKS: AN APPLICATION OF VAIC™ MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Śledzik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge based economy intangible resources are the primary value drivers. This is particularly true of companies such as banks. However, intangible resources (also called Intellectual Capital appear difficult to measure. Today, there are several methods that allow us to measure Intellectual Capital in listed companies. However, not all methods of measurement are adequate for listed banks. This paper uses the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient™ (VAIC™ ratio to measure the Intellectual Capital efficiency of the Polish listed banks using a five years period data set from 2005 to 2009. Three value efficiency indicators, Human Capital Efficiency (HCE, Capital Employed Efficiency (CEE and Structural Capital Efficiency (SCE which are the components of the VAIC™ ratio, were used in the analysis. The data set was divided into two groups of banks. The first group was that of 10 listed Polish banks and the second group was comprised of 10 listed comparable banks from Europe (which was the peer group. The results of the rankings of the banks for the average of five years (2005-2009 showed that for VAIC™ the top two performers in the study were Komercni Banka and BRD Groupe Societe Generale S.A. The BCGE - Banque Cantonale de Geneve, Bankas Snoras and BOŚ Bank were the worst performers. The results of ranking based on Human Capital Efficiency (HCE, showed similar results as that of VAIC™. There was observed a significant decrease of the VAIC™ ratio in the years 2008 and 2009 which was caused by the crisis on financial markets. The results extend the understanding of Intellectual Capital’s role in creation of sustainable advantages for banks in developing economies.

  13. Autonomy support in people with mild-to-borderline intellectual disability : Testing the Health Care Climate Questionnaire-Intellectual Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, Noud; Schuengel, Carlo; Embregts, Petri J.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Autonomy support in people with intellectual disability (ID) is an important yet understudied topic. Psychometrically sound instruments are lacking. This study tested the factor structure and reliability of an instrument for assessing the extent people with intellectual disability

  14. Intellectual Capital Import for the Benefit of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenca, Airita; Gravite, Aija

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the role of intellectual capital in the development of higher education system. The description of economic and marketing values of intellectual capital demonstrates its importance for an institution's establishing in education market. Import and export of intellectual capital is a reality of globalisation processes, and it is…

  15. Intellectual Property Rights and The Classroom: What Teachers Can Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Intellectual property rights restrict teachers' and students' ability to freely explore the intellectual realms of the classroom. Copyright laws protect the author and their work but disable other intellectuals from investigating probable learning environments. This paper will look at key issues where educational institutions are conflicting with…

  16. 10 CFR 603.550 - Acceptability of intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptability of intellectual property. 603.550 Section... AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 603.550 Acceptability of intellectual property. (a... costs associated with intellectual property if the costs are based on sound estimates of market value of...

  17. 75 FR 54086 - Global Intellectual Property Academy Program Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... . Include ``0651- 00xx Global Intellectual Property Academy Program Survey comment'' in the subject line of..., Program Manager, Global Intellectual Property Academy, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box... Global Intellectual Property Academy (GIPA) technical assistance programs. The survey data will be...

  18. Measurement and Application of Intellectual Capital in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozbura, F. Tunc

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the elements of intellectual capital of firms in Turkey and to empirically investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and market value of firms in Istanbul Stock Exchange. To create a suitable intellectual capital measurement model for this study, a wide literature research was made. In almost…

  19. Data management in academic settings: an intellectual property perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Intellectual property can be an important asset for academic institutions. Good data management practices are important for capture, development and protection of intellectual property assets. Selected issues focused on the relationship between data management and intellectual property are reviewed and a thesis that academic institutions and scientists should honor their obligations to responsibly manage data.

  20. Advancements in Automated Circuit Grouping for Intellectual Property Trust Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    Advancements in Automated Circuit Grouping for Intellectual Property Trust Analysis James Inge, Matthew Kwiec, Stephen Baka, John Hallman...grouping assembles related circuitry into hierarchical blocks of functions that can be independently analyzed. Keywords: Trust ; analysis...intellectual property; automation; functional discovery Introduction In today’s global supply chain, trusting intellectual property that makes up our most

  1. Intellectual Freedom in Academic Libraries: Surveying Deans about Its Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, deans and directors of academic libraries were surveyed about intellectual freedom. The survey found that most respondents said they rarely think about intellectual freedom yet said it was "somewhat" or "very" important in their libraries. Most did not have formal intellectual freedom policies; they often relied…

  2. The sustainability transition. Beyond conventional development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, P.; Chadwick, M.; Jackson, T.; Leach, G.

    1996-10-01

    This paper synthesizes findings of the first phase in SEI`s PoleStar Project - a project aimed at developing long-term strategies and policies for sustainable development. Taking a global and long-range perspective, the paper aims to describe a theoretical framework for addressing sustainability, to identify emerging issues and outline directions for future action. The paper begins by setting today`s development and environmental challenges in historical context, and describing the scenario method for envisioning and evaluating alternative futures, and identifying propitious areas for policy and action. It next summarizes a detailed scenario based on conventional development assumptions, and discusses the implications of this scenario for demographic and economic patterns, energy and water resources, land resources and agriculture, and pollution loads and the environment to the year 2050. The conventional scenario relies in part on the sectorally-oriented work discussed in Papers 3 through 6 of the PoleStar Project report series, and makes use of the PoleStar System, software designed for integrated resource, environment and socio-economic accounting and scenario analysis (described in Paper 2). The paper then examines the critical risks to social, resource and environmental systems lying ahead on the conventional development path. Finally, the paper surveys the requirements for sustainability across a number of policy dimensions, and raises key questions for the future. The PoleStar Project is proceeding to examine a range of alternative development scenarios, in the context of the work of the regionally-diverse Global Scenario Group, convened by SEI. The hope remains to offer wise counsel for a transition to an equitable, humane and sustainable future for the global community. 144 refs, 30 figs, 9 tabs

  3. Advancing Water Footprint Assessment Research: Challenges in Monitoring Progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is a collection of recent papers in the field of Water Footprint Assessment (WFA, an emerging area of research focused on the analysis of freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution in relation to consumption, production, and trade. As increasing freshwater scarcity forms a major risk to the global economy, sustainable management of water resources is a prerequisite to development. We introduce the papers in this special issue by relating them to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG number 6 of the United Nations, the goal on water. We will particularly articulate how each paper drives the understanding needed to achieve target 6.3 on water quality and pollution and target 6.4 on water-use efficiency and water scarcity. Regarding SDG 6, we conclude that it lacks any target on using green water more efficiently, and while addressing efficiency and sustainability of water use, it lacks a target on equitable sharing of water. The latter issue is receiving limited attention in research as well. By primarily focusing on water-use efficiency in farming and industries at the local level, to a lesser extent to using water sustainably at the level of total water systems (like drainage basins, aquifers, and largely ignoring issues around equitable water use, understanding of our water problems and proposed solutions will likely remain unbalanced.

  4. "What's Going to Happen When We're Gone?" Family Caregiving Capacity for Older People with an Intellectual Disability in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Damien; Murphy, Rebecca; McCallion, Philip; McCarron, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Background: Changing family sociodemographic factors, increased life expectancy for people with an intellectual disability, deinstitutionalization and policy prioritization of the family as the principal care provider, presents new challenges to care sustainability. Method: A qualitative study design was employed, entailing focus groups and…

  5. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  6. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  7. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  8. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (IPRS) AND MECHANISMS FOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION (IPP): A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Dogra*, Vijay Dhiman and Nipun Gupta

    2012-01-01

    We have experienced a growing importance of intellectual capital and intangible assets and an increased tendency for firms and public institutions to privatize, by the use of patents or copyrights, their knowledge assets and creative expressions. Because control over the use of an intellectual property right (IPR) requires ownership or a licence, the growing importance of knowledge-based assets and creative expressions has been accompanied by recognition that patents and copyrights represent ...

  9. The experiences of registered intellectual disability nurses caring for the older person with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Doody, Catriona; Markey, Kathleen; Doody, Owen

    2013-04-01

    To explore the experiences of registered intellectual disability nurses caring for the older person with intellectual disability. Increased longevity for the older person with intellectual disability is relatively a new phenomenon with social and medical factors having significantly increased the lifespan. The ageing population of people with intellectual disability is growing in Ireland, and they are outliving or expected to outlive their family carers. A qualitative Heideggerigan phenomenological approach allowed the researcher become immersed in the essence of meaning and analyse how registered intellectual disability nurses working with the older person perceive, experience and express their experience of caring. After ethical approval was granted, data were collected through semi-structured interviews from seven participants and were transcribed and analysed thematically using Burnard's framework for data analysis. Three key themes were identified: 'care delivery', 'inclusiveness' and 'client-focused care'. The study highlights the need for effective planning, an integrated approach to services and that the registered intellectual disability nurse needs to be integrated into the care delivery system within the health service to support client and family carers in the home environment. Overall, the study shows the importance of teamwork, proactive planning, inclusion, attitudes, individualised care, knowing the person and best practice in providing care for older people with intellectual disability. This paper reports on the findings of a study which explored the experiences of caring for the older person with intellectual disability. Teamwork, proactive planning, client-centred approach and supporting clients living at home are important as ageing is inevitable. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Aging in Rare Intellectual Disability Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several methodological challenges involved in research on aging, health, and mortality in adults with rare intellectual disability syndromes. Few studies have been performed in this area, with research obstacles that include: the ascertainment of older adults with genetic versus clinical diagnoses; likelihood that adults…

  11. Asian and western Intellectual Capital in encounter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen; Marien van den Boom

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to start a dialogue about differences between Western and Eastern cultures in the way they conceptualize knowledge and discuss the implications of these differences for a global intellectual capital (IC) theory and practice. A systematic metaphor analysis of the concept

  12. Distance Learning and Intellectual Property Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisacreta, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines laws governing intellectual property that affect distance education. Topics addressed include copyright law, particularly the concept of fair use; traditional applications of copyright law in education, including photocopying and the Classroom Guidelines; and distance learning and copyright law, including works transmitted via…

  13. Corporate governance mechanisms and intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Tejedo-Romero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the corporate governance characteristics of Spanish companies included in the Ibex35 stock price index that influence the voluntary information disclosure policy regarding their Intellectual Capital. Design/methodology/approach – The methodology used was content analysis of 115 annual reports from 23 Ibex35 companies over five years; this allowed for the development of an index to quantify Intellectual Capital information. Findings – Based on Agency-Stakeholders Theory postulates, the main results reveal that companies that disclose most information about their Intellectual Capital are those in which managers have greater managerial ownership, fewer independent directors, separation of functions between the chairman and the chief executive, and larger Boards of Directors. Originality/value – With this study, we contribute to agency-stakeholder theory by analyzing a non-Anglo-Saxon market (characterized by strong executive power and low protection of minority shareholders and other stakeholders, stating that certain characteristics of Corporate Governance condition the disclosure of Intellectual Capital.

  14. Contraception and Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contraception is widely prescribed to women with intellectual disabilities, yet little is known about what the women think and feel about this. One of the aims of the study was to explore what women understood and to what extent they were able to exercise choice and control. Method: Twenty-three women with mild and moderate…

  15. Indigenous Research, Publishing, and Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kenneth D.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author makes a case for a greater understanding of Native research and how the academy can learn from it to become more sensitive to the concerns of the research constituencies. How academics handle the intellectual property that results from their research is also critical. What they make public and what they decide is better…

  16. Intellectual Property in the Connected Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Diane J

    2015-07-01

    Concerns about intellectual property for nursing are becoming increasingly acute as information becomes highly accessible in the digital age. Nurse faculty members need to check policies of the agencies that they work for to evaluate explicit written policies for their protection and full understanding of the agency's rights. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Intellectual Property Rights, Globalization and Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stryszowski, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    I present a model that combines the key features of a Schumpeterian growth model without scale effects and a North - South model of trade.All open economies converge to parallel growth paths because of costly technological transfer.I study the e¤ects of intellectual property rights (IPR) regimes and

  18. Caregivers: the intellectual capital of healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, Philip

    2007-01-01

    This article helps you to make a distinction that CARING not only fits under the classification of intellectual capital but is also one of the most valuable assets a healthcare organization can have. It takes this basic concept, which is often seen as soft, or even ignored by some, and ties it into the success of the future healthcare system.

  19. Anti-Intellectualism in Modern Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suther, Judith D.

    1969-01-01

    In an attack on the current oral-aural approach to teaching foreign languages in the secondary school, the author laments the loss of intellectual involvement on the part of the student in the learning process. Resultant limitations in student preparation for advanced study in literature and linguistics are observed. A set of objectives is…

  20. Who Owns Online Course Intellectual Property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranch, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Faculty develop intellectual property needed for online courses while employed by an academic institution. That institution has a claim on the copyright because the instructional materials developed by the faculty members could be seen as "works for hire." On the other hand, both tradition and case law have seen faculty as the copyright…

  1. Obesity and Intellectual Disability in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Kurstyn V.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The international literature suggests that obesity is likely to be more pronounced in the population of people with intellectual disability (ID). However, there are no published New Zealand data for this population. Method: We accessed a database containing anonymous data for a New Zealand ID population. Ninety-eight people of 141 had…

  2. Implementing the World Intellectual Property Organization's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-04-23

    Apr 23, 2009 ... This book should be read by all those interested in the complex connections amongst international governance, intellectual property rights, and development. —Peter Drahos, Australian National University With contributions from leading scholars from around the world, this essential collection represents ...

  3. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  4. Communicative Empowerment of People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nijnatten, Carolus; Heestermans, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Personal narratives are conditional for victims of sexual abuse to overcome their trauma. Counsellors can help victims with intellectual disability to take an active position in conversations about sexuality and to co-construct a personal narrative. Method: Using discourse and conversational analysis, we studied 4 conversations between…

  5. Computer Software & Intellectual Property. Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper reviews copyright, patent, and trade secret protections as these issues are related to computer software. Topics discussed include current issues regarding legal protection for computer software including the necessity for defining intellectual property, determining what should or should not be protected, commerical piracy,…

  6. Knowledge management and intellectual capacitation through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge management and intellectual capacitation through patent and technology transfer. ... The article commences with many attempts made by writers to give precise definition for an 'invention', which is a key requirement for patentability, but no single definition has been accepted by all and sundry, as a result, each ...

  7. New Trends on Intellectual Assessment in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Sheyla

    2016-01-01

    The history of intellectual assessment with children and youth in Peru is presented from the foundation of scientific psychology in Peru until now. Current practices are affected by the multicultural ethnolinguistic diversity of the country, the quality of the different training programs, as well as by Peruvian regulations for becoming an academic…

  8. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  9. Facial emotion recognition in intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaja, Rebecca H; Rojahn, Johannes

    2008-09-01

    Interpreting facial emotion is a requisite skill that enables us to navigate our social environment. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by shortcomings in socio-cognitive abilities in general, and in emotion recognition in particular, and much has been written on this subject. Less research, however, has been conducted on individuals with intellectual disabilities. This review discusses recent emotion recognition research in this population. Facial emotion recognition research in individuals with intellectual disabilities can be divided into two broad categories: studies on the causes of emotion recognition deficits (i.e. primary deficits or secondary phenomena) and studies on the effects of emotion recognition deficits (behavioral implications). Recent research on causes has not yet produced definitive conclusions and current research on specific effects has been limited to aggression and self-reported anger. Some evidence exists that individuals with intellectual disability of heterogeneous etiology (excluding autism) have facial affect recognition deficits that cannot be fully accounted for by cognitive-intellectual abilities. In addition, cognitive processing strategies and genetic syndrome-specific differences in facial affect recognition have been discovered but further research is needed. We found no evidence that emotion recognition deficits contribute to the emergence of later antisocial behavior.

  10. Reading Skills among Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Christoph; Lenhard, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Students with intellectual disabilities (ID) display an extremely wide variety of skills in the field of literacy, and the ability to read and write are central learning aims in the education of students with ID. It is vital to gain detailed knowledge on the literacy skills of students with ID in order to plan instruction, create learning…

  11. Intellectual Disabilities. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #8

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Intellectual disability" is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Following a brief story about a child with an intellectual…

  12. Introduction: The Intellectual Roots of Media Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Casey Man Kong

    2000-01-01

    Introduces this special issue as an attempt to provide its readers with a coherent introduction to media ecology as both an intellectual tradition and a theoretical perspective. Describes how the special issue focuses on several of the many scholars whose thinking and writings have contributed to media ecology as a way of thinking about media,…

  13. John Dinsdale on Intellectual Self-knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael Stenskjær

    2017-01-01

    This is an edition of the prologue and two questions concerning intellectual self-knowledge from John Dinsdale's Quaestiones in De anima. The edition is supplied with a translation, and in an appendix the prologue is compared with Giles of Rome's prologue to his Expositio De anima, on which...

  14. Postsecondary Outcomes for Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Lindsey Beth

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 89 post secondary youth with intellectual impairments exiting a college based school-to-work program tracked school and post school experiences to identify significant correlates and predictors of post school outcomes. The three significant predictors were self-determination training, course taking patterns, and home care skills…

  15. Parent training support for intellectually disabled parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Hutchfield, Jemeela; Thomae, Manuela; Gustafsson, Carina

    2010-06-16

    Intellectual disability may impact on an individual's capacity to parent a child effectively. Research suggests that the number of intellectually disabled people with children is increasing. Children of parents with intellectual disabilities may be at increased risk of neglectful care which could lead to health, developmental and behavioural problems, or increased risk of intellectual disability.However, there is some indication that some parents with intellectual disabilities are able to provide adequate child care if they are given appropriate training and support to do so. To assess the effectiveness of parent training interventions to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts International, MetaRegister of Controlled Trials, and ZETOC. Randomised controlled trials comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disabilities with usual care or with a control group. Outcomes of interest were: the attainment of parenting skills specific to the intervention, safe home practices and the understanding of child health. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. Three trials met the inclusion criteria for this review but no meta-analysis was possible. One study reported improved maternal-child interaction following group parent training compared with the control group. The second study reported some improvements in parents knowledge of life threatening emergencies, ability to recognise dangers and identify precautions and smaller improvements in their ability to implement precautions, use medicines safely and recognise child illness and symptoms. The third study reported improvement in child care and safety skills following the intervention. There is some risk of bias in the

  16. COMMUNITY POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRO-TOURISM : A CASE IN DAORUANG SUB-DISTRICT, SARABURI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nartsuda CHEMNASIRI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop community potential for sustainable agro-tourism by community participation and develop training manual for community potential development. It showed that there were already existed infrastructure and enough places for tourists but the people lacked of knowledge on tourism management. Hence, development potential of people in the community for tourism should be offered. It can be concluded that for sustainable tourism, economic growth together with conservation of local culture and environment with community participation and equitable distribution of income sharing should be considered. This small business will be developed to help people in the community earn more income and be self-reliance.

  17. Towards building equitable health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons from case studies on operational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolhurst Rachel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published practical examples of how to bridge gaps between research, policy and practice in health systems research in Sub Saharan Africa are scarce. The aim of our study was to use a case study approach to analyse how and why different operational health research projects in Africa have contributed to health systems strengthening and promoted equity in health service provision. Methods Using case studies we have collated and analysed practical examples of operational research projects on health in Sub-Saharan Africa which demonstrate how the links between research, policy and action can be strengthened to build effective and pro-poor health systems. To ensure rigour, we selected the case studies using pre-defined criteria, mapped their characteristics systematically using a case study development framework, and analysed the research impact process of each case study using the RAPID framework for research-policy links. This process enabled analysis of common themes, successes and weaknesses. Results 3 operational research projects met our case study criteria: HIV counselling and testing services in Kenya; provision of TB services in grocery stores in Malawi; and community diagnostics for anaemia, TB and malaria in Nigeria. Political context and external influences: in each case study context there was a need for new knowledge and approaches to meet policy requirements for equitable service delivery. Collaboration between researchers and key policy players began at the inception of operational research cycles. Links: critical in these operational research projects was the development of partnerships for capacity building to support new services or new players in service delivery. Evidence: evidence was used to promote policy dialogue around equity in different ways throughout the research cycle, such as in determining the topic area and in development of indicators. Conclusion Building equitable health systems means

  18. Intellectual disability and the prison setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tort

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. Objectives: 1 To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2 Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. Methods: 1 A TONI II test was performed on a sub-sample (n = 398 of a prevalence study in Spanish prisons33 to identify inmates with intellectual disabilities. 2 We reviewed the reports of the psychiatric department of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu to establish the diagnosis at discharge of patients with a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability 3 Data from the Directorate General of Prisons on the prevalence of ID in Prison Psychiatric Hospitals was reviewed. Results: The data obtained from the TONI II test found 3.77% of the study population has an IQ below 70, and 7.54 % has a borderline IQ rate. Assessment of penitentiary psychiatric hospitalization data showed these figures to be higher. Conclusions: The data from a Spanish prison population showed that ID levels were higher than those in the community, especially amongst prisoners requiring specialized psychiatric care. What is also evident is that adequate resources are required in prisons and in the community to provide better care for people with intellectual disabilities who are in the pathway of the criminal justice system.

  19. Sustainable Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  20. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  1. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN INDIVIDULAS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag VUJOVIKJ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A successful treatment of any disorder, condition or disease requires timely detection and accurate diagnostics. This is precisely what is missing in individuals with a dual diagnosis of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder, both in Macedonia and worldwide. In order to overcome the deficiencies in the treatment, and to improve the quality of life for these individuals as well, they should be detected on time and then approached with diagnosing and preparation of a plan for treating them. Goal: The main goal of this research is obtaining a result of the presence of intellectual disability among institutionalized individuals with mental disorders on the basis of the type of mental disorder, the age and the gender of the person. Also, one of the main goals is presenting the mental deterioration in individuals with mental disorders, as well as its connection with the age of the individuals with mental disorder. Despite having the basic goals, this research, as well as research on this subject from all over the world, serves as an example for raising the awareness about the diversity and atypical presentations of the patients with a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental disorder. Methodology: For achieving the goal and tasks of this research, 50 individuals with different diagnosis of mental disorder, different age and different gender were tested. The sample that took part in this research was a suitable sample, i.e. individuals that during the research were hospitalized in the below mentioned public health institution. The research took place in PHI Psychiatric Hospital „Skopje“ from Skopje. For collecting the data in this research, as well as for achieving the goals of the research, two methods, three research techniques and two instruments were used. The methods that were used during this research included the method of comparative analysis and the method of correlation analysis, while the techniques

  2. Marine biotechnologies and synthetic biology, new issues for a fair and equitable profit-sharing commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Jean-François; Tardieu-Guigues, Elisabeth

    2014-10-01

    The sea will be a source of economic development in the next years. Today the research works in marine biotechnologies supply new products and processes. The introduction in the laboratories of a new technology, synthesis biology, is going to increase the possibilities of creation of new products. Exploitation of product stemming from marine biodiversity has to be made with regard to various rights among which industrial property law, maritime law and the Convention on BioDiversity. All participants involved in the promotion of research in marine biotechnology must address the fair and equitable sharing of any commercial exploitation. Carrying out work involving synthetic biology has increased the number of unanswered questions about how operators should manage in order to avoid any threat of being sued for infringements of IP rights or for alleged bio-piracy. This paper, by no means exhaustive in the field, analyzes some of the issues raised on the modification to the landscape in marine biotechnology by the advent of synthetic biology. Such issues indicate how important the collaboration between researchers, industrialists, lawyers is for allowing proper use of marine biotech. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  4. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  5. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  6. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  7. Knowledge exchange and integrated services: experiences from an integrated community intellectual (learning) disability service for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, C; Clare, I C H; Holland, A J; Barrett, M; Oborn, E

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines knowledge exchange dynamics in a specialist integrated intellectual (learning) disability service, comprising specialist healthcare provision with social care commissioning and management, and considers their significance in terms of integrated service delivery. A qualitative study focusing on knowledge exchange and integrated services. Semi-structured interviews (n = 25) were conducted with members of an integrated intellectual disability service in England regarding their perceptions of knowledge exchange within the service and the way in which knowledge exchange impinges on the operation of the integrated service. Exchange of 'explicit' (codifiable) knowledge between health and care management components of the service is problematic because of a lack of integrated clinical governance and related factors such as IT and care record systems and office arrangements. Team meetings and workplace interactions allowed for informal exchange of explicit and 'tacit' (non-codifiable) knowledge, but presented challenges in terms of knowledge exchange completeness and sustainability. Knowledge exchange processes play an important role in the functioning of integrated services incorporating health and care management components. Managers need to ensure that knowledge exchange processes facilitate both explicit and tacit knowledge exchange and do not rely excessively on informal, 'ad hoc' interactions. Research on integrated services should take account of micro-scale knowledge exchange dynamics and relationships between social dynamics and physical factors. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. New Humanism and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han d'Orville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The call for a new humanism in the 21st century roots in the conviction that the moral, intellectual and political foundations of globalization and international cooperation have to be rethought. Whilst the historic humanism was set out to resolve tensions between tradition and modernity and to reconcile individual rights with newly emerging duties of citizenship, the new humanism approach goes beyond the level of the nation state in seeking to unite the process of globalization with its complex and sometimes contradictory manifestations. The new humanism therefore advocates the social inclusion of every human being at all levels of society and underlines the transformative power of education, sciences, culture and communications. Therefore, humanism today needs to be perceived as a collective effort that holds governments, civil society, the private sector and human individuals equally responsible to realize its values and to design creatively and implement a humanist approach to a sustainable society, based on economic, social and environmental development. New humanism describes the only way forward for a world that accounts for the diversity of identities and the heterogeneity of interests and which is based on inclusive, democratic, and, indeed, humanist values. Humanism did evolve into the grand movement of human spiritual and creative liberation, which enabled an unparalleled acceleration of prosperity and transformation of civilizations. In line with humanist ethics, the material growth was understood as a collective good, which was to serve all participants of a community and meant to enable the socio-economic progress of society. The exact definition of humanism has historically fluctuated in accordance with successive and diverse strands of intellectual thought. The underlying concept rests on the universal ideas of human emancipation, independence and social justice. Humanism can hence be understood as a moral inspiration for

  9. Intellectual Capital: Perceptions of Productivity and Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Isidoro Ferreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the influence intellectual capital has on employees’ perceptions as related to both company investments and productivity levels. The data was obtained from 440 employees at 13 Portuguese companies. Both ANOVA and Regression Analysis were conducted in order to understand the impact three Intellectual Capital Scale components have on perceptions of investment and organizational productivity. Results show that companies with higher scores of Structural Capital have a lower perception of investment in human resources and research, as well as a higher perception of investment in marketing and sales. Moreover, employees of companies with higher Structural Capital scores also have higher perceptions of productivity. On the other hand, organizations with higher investment in Customer Capital tend to be associated with a lower perception of organizational productivity.

  10. Open innovation and intellectual property rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Nylund, Petra A.; Hitchen, Emma L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between open innovation and the use of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The authors consider patents, industrial designs (i.e. design patents in the USA), trademarks, and copyrights...... sizes highlights the importance of further investigation into IP strategies and into open innovation in SMEs. Practical implications: Industrial designs are currently the most efficient IPR for SMEs to protect their intellectual property in open innovation collaborations. Depending on the company size....../value: This paper opens the black box of IPR in relation to open innovation in SMEs, and draws distinctive conclusions with regards to patents, industrial designs, trademarks, and copyrights....

  11. International Geneva: intellectual property under the spotlight

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 17 July, the Director-General of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Francis Gurry, will present his organisation to CERN people. You are invited to take part and discover the UN’s specialised agency for services, policy, information and cooperation relating to intellectual property.   This is the third in the “International Geneva comes to CERN” series of seminars, which presents other Geneva-based international organisations to CERN’s internal audience. In his seminar, Gurry will discuss how WIPO finds the right balance between the interests of innovators and the wider public and how the IP system aims to foster an environment in which creativity and innovation can flourish. In 2010, CERN and WIPO signed a collaboration agreement designed to strengthen the partnership between the two organisations. The agreement focused on four main areas for cooperation, namely: capacity building, awareness raising and knowledge sharing; tra...

  12. Inclusive Education for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki Balakrishnan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces briefly the evolution of Inclusive Education for students with special education needs (SEN and discusses some significant challenges in its implementation. While the aim of Inclusive Education is to include all children with SEN in mainstream schools, there are many challenges that have to be overcome for their education to be meaningful. This paper focuses primarily on the inclusion of students with intellectual disability, since they are likely to be the largest number with special education needs in ‘inclusive’ schools. It offers the outline of a curriculum that may be derived from the mainstream one in use, and suggests a model that emphasises the replacement of age / grade placement, as is the present practice, with experience and maturity underpinning learning in persons with intellectual disability. The proposed model needs, of course, to be field-tested.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.111

  13. Dynamic Intellectual Capital Model in a Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shatrevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to indicate the relations between company’s value added (VA and intangible assets. Authors declare that Intellectual capital (IC is one of the most relevant intangibles for a company, and the concept with measurement, and the relation with value creation is necessary for modern markets. Since relationship between IC elements and VA are complicated, this paper is aimed to create a usable dynamic model for building company’s value added through intellectual capital. The model is incorporating that outputs from IC elements are not homogeneously received and made some contributions to dynamic nature of IC relation and VA. Variables that will help companies to evaluate contribution of each element of IC are added to the model. This paper emphasizes the importance of a company’s IC and the positive interaction between them in generating profits for company.

  14. Intellectual capital: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Boostani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates different components on intellectual capital including human capital, structural capital and customer capital in banking industry in city of Salmas, Iran. The study uses the questionnaire developed by Bontis (1998 [Bontis, N. (1998. Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models. Management Decision, 36(2, 63-76.] to measure the effects of human capital. The questionnaire consists of 42 questions and all of them are designed in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas for human capital, structural capital and relationship capital were calculated as 0.79, 0.76 and 0.72, respectively. The implementation of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has indicated that the data were normally distributed. Using t-student test, the study determined that while management team did not pay enough attention on human capital, there were some statistically significant evidence that social and relationship capitals gained good attention.

  15. Intellectual Capital During the Worldwide Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Candidate Anca Domnica Lupu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Reality revealed a very important resource that can act for or against a business, its administration having a crucial influence.It is the intellectual capital we are talking about, mainly based on knowledge. Under the current economic situation we have to find that ideal solution that is able to get the economy out of the crysis, to find the blue ocean. The main question here is that if a correct evaluation of intellectual capital will help economies get their goals. The main idea we can withdraw out of these theories is that values have changed the ierarchy, that is the psyhical resources ceased their place to intangible assets that tend to become more and more important for the companies.

  16. Pre-trial reported defendants in the Netherlands with intellectual disability, borderline and normal intellectual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkers, David J

    2013-09-01

    Intellectually disabled offenders may have different characteristics than offenders with average intellectual functioning. We therefore compared pre-trial reported defendants with an IQ score ≤70, 71-84 and ≥85 points. Nationwide database of pre-trial psychiatric reports requested by Dutch courts between 2000 and 2006 with a reported level of intellectual functioning (n = 12 186). Defendants with an IQ score between 71 and 84 (n = 2 439 reports; 20.0%) and ≤70 (n = 539 reports; 4.4%) were younger, more often from an ethnic minority and more often diagnosed with psycho-organic syndromes, developmental and conduct disorders as compared with defendants with an IQ score of 85 or higher. In addition, there was an increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and rape as indicted crime and a decreased odds ratio of having a steady job and cannabis abuse in defendants with an IQ score of 71-84. Intellectually disabled defendants have different characteristics than defendants without intellectually disability. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Intellectual Property Rights in Computer Science

    OpenAIRE

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) is crucial in order to facilitate commercialization of academic research and research performed in private companies. Unprotected inventions are usually wasted inventions. Research and development take a lot of time and require significant amount of money spent on equipment, technology, and salaries. Therefore, it is very important to secure the outcome by restricting other people from copying and selling the invention. There are several wa...

  18. FINANCIAL COMMUNICATION AND INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL REPORTING PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELENESI (BUMBA MARIOARA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive economy, driven by globalization, the abundance of digital information and communication facilities, the investor directs its capital to those companies that promise added value of the invested capital. Even so, companies seek to obtain favorable terms of financing by rendering sensitive the investors. To achieve their goal, they must provide information about their financial and non financial performance with sufficient regularity to meet the information needs of actual or potential capital bidders in decision making. Financial communication through standardized annual statements of financial reporting in the context of corporate governance is no longer sufficient. The organization has more resources than those included in its balance sheet, capable of attracting huge benefits, but which do not meet the criteria for recognition in the financial statements. It requires, therefore, a voluntary disclosure of information on intangible resources, which are key factors in creating future value for both the organization itself and the industry it is part of. The reports of intellectual capital can effectively complement the shortcomings of the traditional model of accounting and financial reporting. In our paper we wanted to analyze financial communication in the context of corporate governance, presented through financial statements, reaching the intellectual capital reporting practices, as a means to improve communication of the organization with the outside. In this sense we presented two examples of good practice of two service companies (consultancy and design that publish annually intellectual capital reports. To alleviate the negative consequences of non-recognition of intangible assets in the financial statements, we are for the voluntary disclosure of information on intangible assets in the intellectual capital reports, annual reports, those regarding corporate responsibility, or at least in the explanatory notes of

  19. Intellectual productivity under task ambient lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Hirotake; Kanagawa, Hidehiro; Shimamura, Yuta; Uchiyama, Kosuke; Miyagi, Kazune; Obayashi, Fumiaki; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A subjective experiment was conducted to evaluate intellectual productivity in three lighting conditions: (a) conventional ambient lighting, (b) task ambient lighting with normal colour temperature (5000 K), and (c) task ambient lighting with high colour temperature (6200 K). In the experiment, cognitive tasks were given to 24 participants. The concentration time ratio, which is a quantitative and objective evaluation index of the degree of concentration, was measured. The results showed that...

  20. Intellectual Property Rights and Market Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Cesaroni; Paola Giuri

    2005-01-01

    Two opposite models are currently operating in the modern economy, the strong intellectual property rights (IPR) model, and the open source/open science model. They have traditionally been applied to alternative institutional contexts. The strong IPR model has been associated to the business environment, while the open science model has been associated to the academic or research system. More recently, a strengthening of the IPR system has occurred in the public research system, and open scie...

  1. Diagnosing autism in adults with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Sappok, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are at risk for additional autism spectrum disorders (ASD). One in four individuals with ID is diagnosed with additional ASD. However, ASD often remains unrecognized until adulthood. Carefully diagnosing ASD in affected individuals would allow for more tailored clinical interventions that would improve mental health and quality of life. The aim of the present study was to optimize the diagnostic process for adults with ID and suspected comorbid AS...

  2. [Executive functions and high intellectual capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, S; Viana-Saenz, L

    2016-01-01

    High intellectual capacity is a process in development in which the executive functions (inhibition, working memory and flexibility) play a role in the optimal manifestation of their potential. To explore the effectiveness of executive functioning among the profiles of high capacity giftedness and (convergent or divergent) talent. The study examines 78 children with high intellectual capacity aged 8-15 years with profiles of giftedness (n = 21), convergent talent (n = 39) or divergent talent (n = 18). A series of tests were administered including the Battery of Differential and General Aptitudes or the Differential Aptitude Test (depending on the age) and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, as well as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Corsi Test and the Go-No Go Test by means of the Psychology Experiment Building Language platform. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed to determine the relationship between executive function and intellectual profile. Significant differences are obtained between the profiles studied and the executive functions of flexibility and inhibition, but not in working memory. Working memory is similar across the profiles studied, but the complex profile of giftedness displays better executive functioning, with greater flexibility and inhibition than talent, especially of the convergent type.

  3. The use of agrobiodiversity for plant improvement and the intellectual property paradigm: institutional fit and legal tools for mass selection, conventional and molecular plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur, Fulya; Dedeurwaerdere, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Focused on the impact of stringent intellectual property mechanisms over the uses of plant agricultural biodiversity in crop improvement, the article delves into a systematic analysis of the relationship between institutional paradigms and their technological contexts of application, identified as mass selection, controlled hybridisation, molecular breeding tools and transgenics. While the strong property paradigm has proven effective in the context of major leaps forward in genetic engineering, it faces a systematic breakdown when extended to mass selection, where innovation often displays a collective nature. However, it also creates partial blockages in those innovation schemes rested between on-farm observation and genetic modification, i.e. conventional plant breeding and upstream molecular biology research tools. Neither overly strong intellectual property rights, nor the absence of well delineated protection have proven an optimal fit for these two intermediary socio-technological systems of cumulative incremental innovation. To address these challenges, the authors look at appropriate institutional alternatives which can create effective incentives for in situ agrobiodiversity conservation and the equitable distribution of technologies in plant improvement, using the flexibilities of the TRIPS Agreement, the liability rules set forth in patents or plant variety rights themselves (in the form of farmers', breeders' and research exceptions), and other ad hoc reward regimes.

  4. NATURE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INSURANCE AND ITS ROLE IN MODERN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    V. Bazylevych; V. Virchenko

    2015-01-01

    Article is devoted to theoretical analysis of nature and mechanism of intellectual property insurance. Types of intellectual property relations and its role in public reproduction are investigated. Peculiarities of intellectual property relations are considered. Classification of intellectual property objects depending on their most essential features is analyzed. Different approaches to classification of intellectual property subjects are considered. Nature and preconditions of origin of int...

  5. Vacation homes, spatial planning and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The vacation home is a distinct feature of modern societies in Europe, particularly in Nordic realm. The mass development of vacation homes in Denmark can be traced back to the 1950s and vacation-home tourism is still a predominant type of leisure activities today. The spatial development and use...... spatial planning has responded to the environmental consequences of vacation homes in this complexity. By doing so, the paper contributes to the debates on spatial planning for housing, urban and rural sustainability....... on sustainability of vacation homes is integrated into the spatial planning in the Danish context. The lack of ontological and theoretical debates on the environmental sustainability of vacation homes will be reflected upon before investigating the Danish case. A deep realist approach is adopted to explore...... the ontological meanings of vacation homes as (1) a leisure activity where the relationship between leisure and sustainability will be discussed, as (2) part of total housing consumption where the use of vacation homes is conceived as a reflection of urban-based intellectual value and a rebound effect...

  6. Introduction to intellectual property rights for investigators in health research and institutional intellectual property policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemdoe, Georges S

    2009-11-01

    The concept of Intellectual Property (IP) in the domain of technology has assumed enhanced importance and the subject matter has attracted more interest with time. As the world moves towards a knowledge-based economy, where wealth creation is no longer based on the capital investment per se, but rather more and more on the brainpower and ability to create, Intellectual Property has become an integral part of world business and a major source for wealth creation and economic growth (ARIPO, 2002). In recognizing the importance of IPR, African Malaria Network Trust (AMANET) has decided to include a module of intellectual property rights in its Health Research Ethics Training Courses for Investigators. This paper is introducing the subject of IP to investigators in health research so that they are able to recognize its importance as IP creators and utilizers of the IP system.

  7. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL: A CRITICAL APPROACH ON DEFINITIONS AND CATEGORIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GIOACASI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital has become the leading resource for creating economic value and there are an important number of publications focused on this area of research. In spite of the interest for this area of research, the existence of different terms regarding intellectual capital makes the process of definition and classification difficult. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concepts related to intellectual capital by establishing the connections and correlations between the terms in order to make the term of intellectual capital fully understandable and also to explain how the components of intellectual capital can be structured. The analysis of intellectual capital definitions is significant because it is a first step in intangible factors understanding, having implications on the company pattern of knowledge evaluation. Of all the terms analyzed, intangible assets allows a clear definition of its meaning, its components and thus provides insight into ways of assessing the knowledge of an entity.

  8. The Romanian Intellectual in Transition. Repositionings after 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Ivancu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing the trajectories of the Romanian intellectuals immediately after the Revolution in 1989, and the fall of Communism. During the Communist years, the term itself (intellectual had been used with ideological connotations. The intellectual (as a social value was discussed according to the Marxist ideology, taking into consideration his concrete usefulness and his contribution to the Communist society. Immediately after 1989, the fundamental dilemma faced by the Romanian intellectual represents the necessity of the implication of the intellectuals inside the society or, on the contrary, the isolation in an Ivory Tower of creation. The second challenge aimed at the necessity of synchronizing the Romanian elite with the European one; the topics for debate in Western and Eastern Europe during the Cold War were fundamentally different. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence and the commitment of the Romanian intellectuals in reshaping the Post-Communist Romanian society.

  9. Measuring motor skills in Finnish children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Pauli; Loovis, E Michael

    2013-02-01

    This investigation examined differences in motor skill development between Finnish children (12 boys, 8 girls) with mild intellectual disability and typically developing Finnish children between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Ulrich's Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) assessed the performances of 20 children with intellectual disability and an age- and sex-matched sample of 20 children without disabilities. Videotaped performances were assessed by the authors who were very familiar with the TGMD-2. The group with intellectual disability performed at a statistically significantly lower level on the Gross Motor Quotient, Locomotor, and Object Control subtests of TGMD-2, compared to the group without intellectual disability. The delay was equivalent to 3 to 4 years behind the Finnish normative group in gross motor development. In five out of 12 subtests, the group with intellectual disability achieved 0% mastery. Given low gross motor skills, children with intellectual disability require additional fundamental motor skill training in their active school or free time.

  10. An Equitable Approach for Compensating Municipalities of the Rio Grande Watershed for Electricity Generated by the Furnas Hydropower Plant, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. A. A. S.; Mounts, D. J.; Menezes, S. C., Jr.; Rocha, R. R. C.; Chaves, M. A.; Castro, N. L. M.; Barros, K. O.; Martins, B. F.; Gleriani, J. M.; Soares, V. P.

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil, ninety percent of total electric power comes from renewable sources, where hydropower represents 2/3 of the national energy matrix. In 2012, the new Federal Forest Code eliminated environmental protection along drainage divides and reduced the mandatory width of riparian zones, allowing for land cover change in these environmentally sensitive areas. The conversion of forestlands to agriculture will subject hydroelectric reservoirs to a growing load of sediments, shortening their useful life. In this study of the Furnas hydropower plant and its contributing basin, in the upper reaches of the Rio Grande, a re-evaluation of factors that determine the distribution of finances accrued from hydroelectric generation is recommended. Under the current policy, royalties are paid by the Furnas facility to states and municipalities in direct relation to the area of land flooded by its reservoir, whereas contributing rainfall precipitating in municipalities upstream of the lake is not considered. Currently, the 31 municipalities with lands flooded by the reservoir receive an average of R 213,107 (US 67,226) annually, while the remaining 172 municipalities in the basin receive no water royalties. In the proposed approach to redistribute these funds, each of the 203 municipalities will receive compensation determined by their contributing catchment area, averaging R32,543 (US 10,266) per year. By considering distribution of rainfall in order to equitably allocate hydroelectric royalties, a system for the payment of environmental services is conceived. Such a system intends to incent stakeholders to protect or replant native forests along drainage divides and riparian zones, in recognition of the value this vegetation has in the reduction of long term costs for hydroelectric facilities.

  11. Tracking progress towards equitable child survival in a Nicaraguan community: neonatal mortality challenges to meet the MDG 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Lars-Åke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicaragua has made progress in the reduction of the under-five mortality since 1980s. Data for the national trends indicate that this poor Central American country is on track to reach the Millennium Development Goal-4 by 2015. Despite this progress, neonatal mortality has not showed same progress. The aim of this study is to analyse trends and social differentials in neonatal and under-five mortality in a Nicaraguan community from 1970 to 2005. Methods Two linked community-based reproductive surveys in 1993 and 2002 followed by a health and demographic surveillance system providing information on all births and child deaths in urban and rural areas of León municipality, Nicaragua. A total of 49 972 live births were registered. Results A rapid reduction in under-five mortality was observed during the late 1970s (from 103 deaths/1000 live births and the 1980s, followed by a gradual decline to the level of 23 deaths/1000 live births in 2005. This community is on track for the Millennium Development Goal 4 for improved child survival. However, neonatal mortality increased lately in spite of a good coverage of skilled assistance at delivery. After some years in the 1990s with a very small gap in neonatal survival between children of mothers of different educational levels this divide is increasing. Conclusions After the reduction of high under-five mortality that coincided with improved equity in survival in this Nicaraguan community, the current challenge is the neonatal mortality where questions of an equitable perinatal care of good quality must be addressed.

  12. Towards an equitable healthcare in China: evaluating the productive efficiency of community health centers in Jiangsu Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lulin; Xu, Xinglong; Antwi, Henry Asante; Wang, Linna

    2017-05-25

    While the demand for the health service keeps escalating at the grass root or rural areas of China, a substantial portion of healthcare resources remains stagnant in the more developed cities and this has entrenched health inequity in many parts of China. At its conception, the Deepening Health Care Reform in 2012 China was intended to flush out these discrepancies and promote a more equitable and efficient distribution of health resources. Nearly half a decade of this reform, there are uncertainties as to whether the attainment of the objectives of the reform is in sight. We divided Jiangsu Province into 3 zones according to the level of economic and social development i.e. developed, developing, and undeveloped areas. Using a hybrid of Panel data analysis and an augmented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), we model human resources, capital inputs of Community Health Centers to comprehensively determine the technical and scale efficiency of community health resources in 3 zones in Jiangsu Province. We sampled data and analysed efficiency and productivity growth of 75 Community Health Centers in 13 cities of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2015, which shows that a significant productive growth among Community Health Centers between 2011 and 2015. Mirroring the behavior of Community Health Centers, technological progress was the underlying force for the growth and the deterioration in efficiency change was found. This can be credited partly to the Deepening Health Care Reform measures aimed at improving technology availability in health centers in sub-urban areas. The regional summary of the DEA result shows that the stage of economic development and the efficiency performance of hospital did not necessarily go hand in hand among the 3 zones of Jiangsu. The government of China in general and Jiangsu province in particular could improve the efficiency of health resources allocation by improving the community health service system, rationalizing the allocation of health

  13. Assessing the relevance of indicators in tracking social determinants and progress toward equitable population health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasella, Davide; Machado, Daiane Borges; Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeirrer; Paim, Jairnilson; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Lima, Diana; Magno, Laio; Pedrana, Leo; Medina, Maria Guadalupe; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the social determinants of health (SDH) and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare have been widely recognized but not previously studied in the context of universal healthcare coverage (UHC) in Brazil and other developing countries. To evaluate a set of proposed indicators of SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare - proposed by the SDH unit of the World Health Organization - with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in moving toward equitable population health and UHC in Brazil. This study had a mixed methodology, combining a quantitative analysis of secondary data from governmental sources with a qualitative study comprising two focus group discussions and six key informant interviews. The set of indicators tested covered a broad range of dimensions classified by three different domains: environment quality; accountability and inclusion; and livelihood and skills. Indicators were stratified according to income quintiles, urbanization, race, and geographical region. Overall, the indicators were adequate for tracking progress in terms of the SDH, equity, gender, and human rights in Brazil. Stratifications showed inequalities. The qualitative analysis revealed that many of the indicators were well known and already used by policymakers and health sector managers, whereas others were considered less useful in the Brazilian context. Monitoring and evaluation practices have been developed in Brazil, and the set of indicators assessed in this study could further improve these practices, especially from a health equity perspective. Socioeconomic inequalities have been reduced in Brazil in the last decade, but there is still much work to be done in relation to addressing the SDH.

  14. Mechanism of Intellectual Property Management in Engineering Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Pukhalskaya Anastasiya P.

    2013-01-01

    The article offers a mechanism of intellectual property management in engineering companies, which envisages synthesis of a system of opinions upon provision of management with existing objects of intellectual property (IP) in a company with the aim to attract them into economic turnover and increase efficiency of their use. Application of the described mechanism of IP management would provide a company with realisation of monopoly rights on results of intellectual activity and would facilita...

  15. Pragmatic abilities of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Šilc, Mateja

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis examines characteristics of pragmatic abilities of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities. The research analyses the characteristics of vocabulary, grammatical and substantive structures of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities in storytelling, and concludes the characteristics of storytelling according to gender and age. Uncoincidental, scheduled pattern has been used in data collection of 60 pupils with mild intellectual disabilities, aging from 7 to 9 years. ...

  16. Trusted Module Acquisition Through Proof-Carrying Hardware Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    hardware intellectual property (PCHIP) framework, which aims to ensure the trustworthiness of third-party hardware IPs utilizing formal methods. We...published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Trusted Module Acquisition Through Proof-Carrying Hardware Intellectual Property Report Title By...borrowing ideas from the proof carrying code (PCC) in software domain, in this project we introduced the proof carrying hardware intellectual property

  17. The multiple traditions of social movement research: theorising intellectual diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    This paper reflects on the implications of the contemporary diversity of intellectual approaches to the study of social movements. Sketching some of the key dimensions of difference in the field, it explores the normative intellectual questions raised by /acknowledging this diversity as well as the intellectual history questions involved in explaining it. In a global perspective, the question of what a “social movement studies of the global South” might mean exemplifies the challe...

  18. Parents and the Adulthood of their Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATA CYTOWSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Author has chosen the intellectual disability to be the topic of her divagations. Therefore she enumerates certain factors which make the process of growing up more difficult or sometimes even impossible for people with intellectual disability. The article involves the analysis of several interviews with parents of adult children with intellectual disability. The main subject of those conversations was the perception of their children's adulthood

  19. Animal models of intellectual disability: towards a translational approach

    OpenAIRE

    Scorza, Carla A.; Cavalheiro, Esper A

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual disability is a prevalent form of cognitive impairment, affecting 2-3% of the general population. It is a daunting societal problem characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. Intellectual disability is a clinically important disorder for which the etiology and pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Moreover, although tremendous progress has been made, pharm...

  20. Intellectual self-learning in the modern Russian pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Levina

    2015-01-01

    In modern conditions, intellectual potential of the individual - one of the most important bases of the progressive development of society. Intelligent production is one of the decisive factors of economic development and a key form of ownership - intellectual property. Intelligent self-development of students and ways of thinking have become one of the urgent problems of education. The article describes the basic concepts of the studied phenomenon: intelligence, intellectual development, int...

  1. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Organizing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M.; Hamburger, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    A successful campus sustainability effort catalyzes broad engagement of the campus community and integration of sustainability principles into the academic and operational components of campus life. Although many universities have embraced sustainability as a new core value, others have been more sluggish in adopting sustainability principles to…

  3. Technology and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.

    2011-01-01

    In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an

  4. Intellectual Capital dan Ukuran Fundamental Kinerja Keuangan Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josepha C. Shanti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of intellectual capital and the fundamental measurements of company financial performance. This study also used several control variables, namely size and type of industry. Samples used in this study is the type of company that intensively used the intellectual capital, that is the service industry. The hypothesis are tested using multiple regression. Intellectual capital in the service industry showed the influence to the company's financial performance. External size of the companies used to measure the intellectual capital is market-to-book value. Market responds to the company's profitability and company’s productivity.

  5. CONTEMPORARY APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS OF GENETIC CAUSES OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Peterlin; Borut Peterlin

    2016-01-01

      Intellectual disability is a lifelong debilitating developmental disorder with important genetic contribution, which remains challenging to investigate due to high clinical and genetic variability...

  6. Successful ageing for people with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppermund, Simone; Trollor, Julian N

    2016-03-01

    Successful ageing has not yet been defined in people with an intellectual disability. The purpose of this review is to discuss and define successful ageing in the context of intellectual disability and to propose strategies to improve health and wellbeing for this population. People with an intellectual disability experience higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease, and higher rates of mental disorders than people without an intellectual disability. People with an intellectual disability engage in more passive leisure activities because many active leisure activities require the participation of or assistance by others. Health promotion programmes tailored to people with an intellectual disability consisting of exercise and health education can result in more positive attitudes toward exercise and improvements in psychosocial outcomes. With modifications for people with an intellectual disability, the concept of successful ageing can be used as a template for development of strategies to improve health and wellbeing for people with an intellectual disability as they age. Targeted programmes focused on health promotion and prevention of age-related morbidities is required. There is a need for policies addressing positive ageing, including social participation and maximizing community participation. Appropriate and ongoing education for people with an intellectual disability and their carers on healthy living in areas of physical, social, and cognitive activity, nutrition and avoidance of risk factors is essential.

  7. Consensus statement of the International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia on valuing the perspectives of persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P; Udell, Leslie; Hogan, Mary; Quinn, Sam; Beránková, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia covered a range of issues related to dementia and intellectual disability, including the dearth of personal reflections of persons with intellectual disability affected by dementia. This article reflects on this deficiency and explores some of the personal perspectives gleaned from the literature, from the Summit attendees and from the experiences of persons with intellectual disability recorded or scribed in advance of the two-day Summit meeting. Systemic recommendations included reinforcing the value of the involvement of persons with intellectual disability in (a) research alongside removing barriers to inclusion posed by institutional/ethics review boards, (b) planning groups that establish supports for dementia and (c) peer support. Practice recommendations included (a) valuing personal perspectives in decision-making, (b) enabling peer-to-peer support models, (c) supporting choice in community-dwelling arrangements and (d) broadening availability of materials for persons with intellectual disability that would promote understanding of dementia.

  8. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  9. Sustainable Investment. Literature Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-08-15

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns sustainability at the investment, fund or portfolio level and involves screening the sustainability of companies before investing in them. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on 'sustainable investment', amongst others addressing the economic rationale for CSR and SRI. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Carbon Trading; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability.

  10. 76 FR 60114 - Section 306 Monitoring of Paraguay: Memorandum of Understanding on Intellectual Property Rights...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... successfully entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Intellectual Property Rights. USTR subsequently... enforcement of intellectual property rights. Dates: Submissions from the general public and foreign... ``Paraguay Memorandum of Understanding on Intellectual Property Rights'' in the ``Type comment'' field on...

  11. 78 FR 5755 - Change in Terminology: “Mental Retardation” to “Intellectual Disability”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... ``Intellectual Disability'' AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: We propose to replace the term ``mental retardation'' with ``intellectual disability'' in our... rules. This change would reflect the widespread adoption of the term ``intellectual disability'' by...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linked intellectual disability syndrome Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects many ...

  13. Achieving and sustaining full employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, S M

    1995-01-01

    Human rights and public health considerations provide strong support for policies that maximize employment. Ample historical and conceptual evidence supports the feasibility of full employment policies. New factors affecting the labor force, the rate of technological change, and the globalization of economic activity require appropriate policies--international as well as national--but do not invalidate the ability of modern states to apply the measures needed. Among these the most important include: (I) systematic reduction in working time with no loss of income, (2) active labor market policies, (3) use of fiscal and monetary measures to sustain the needed level of aggregate demand, (4) restoration of equal bargaining power between labor and capital, (5) social investment in neglected and outmoded infrastructure, (6) accountability of corporations for decisions to shift or reduce capital investment, (7) major reductions in military spending, to be replaced by socially needed and economically productive expenditures, (8) direct public sector job creation, (9) reform of monetary policy to restore emphasis on minimizing unemployment and promoting full employment. None are without precedent in modern economies. The obstacles are ideological and political. To overcome them will require intellectual clarity and effective advocacy.

  14. Intellectual Disabilities and Power Spectra Analysis during Sleep: A New Perspective on Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M.; Carotenuto, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of sleep in cognitive processes has been confirmed by a growing number of reports for all ages of life. Analysing sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra may be useful to study cortical organisation in individuals with Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF), as seen in other disturbances even if it is not considered a…

  15. "The Fruits of Intellectual Labor": International Student Views of Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datig, Ilka; Russell, Beth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the results of a study conducted at New York University Abu Dhabi in the fall of 2013. Our goal in the study was to gain a global college student perspective on issues related to intellectual property, including copyright and plagiarism. We found that, contrary to popular opinion, most of our students have a solid…

  16. Genetic Testing in Intellectual Disability Psychiatry: Opinions and Practices of UK Child and Intellectual Disability Psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kate; Stueber, Kerstin; McQuillin, Andrew; Jichi, Fatima; Patch, Christine; Flinter, Frances; Strydom, André; Bass, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of genetic causes of intellectual disabilities (ID) are identifiable by clinical genetic testing, offering the prospect of bespoke patient management. However, little is known about the practices of psychiatrists and their views on genetic testing. Method: We undertook an online survey of 215 psychiatrists, who…

  17. Vision assessment in persons with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, Werner

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the degree of visual acuity in workers with intellectual disabilities and the impact of vision on their working conditions. We recruited 224 workers (mean age 43.77 years, SD ± 12.96; range, 19-72 years) from a workshop for those with intellectual disabilities, to participate in a vision examination program. The assessment consisted of objective refraction, visual acuity, ocular motility, near-point of convergence, cover/uncover test, stereo acuity and colour perception. Individuals with vision deficits were fitted with spectacles following the screening program. Within the past three years, 38.9 per cent of the participants received eye care, 14.3 per cent of participants had not received eye care in more than three years, and 6.7 per cent had not received any eye care. As many as 39.7 per cent of participants did not know whether they had ever received eye care. Entering visual acuity for far vision was 0.52 dec (-0.29 logMAR) and 0.42 dec (-0.38 logMAR) for near vision. Only 14.9 per cent, 11 of all participants aged ≥50 years, owned spectacles for near vision before the examination. After subjective determination of refraction, best corrected visual acuity for far vision was 0.61 dec (-0.22 logMAR) and 0.56 dec (-0.25 logMAR) for near vision (in both cases with p vision deficiency was measured in 12.5 per cent of participants. Workers with intellectual disabilities are often unaware of their visual deficits. We found that some of their abnormalities can be solved by appropriate optical means and that they could benefit from regular eye care. These workers should be encouraged to be tested and to improve their vision with appropriate lenses. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  18. Insafing: New Promising Form of Intellectual Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury P. Dus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores a new form of intellectual communication built in accordance with an in-advance-prepared sense scheme. This type of communication utilizes the elements of Activity Organizing Games called Insafing. The article suggests a retrospective review of the scientific researches, particularly, the researches of the Russian scientific schools that served as the basis for Insafing technology development. Furthermore, the scientific and methodological fundamentals of Insafing based on the Theory of Dynamic Information Systems (TDIS and the methods of cognitive engineering are discussed. The article also provides an example of Insafing application to tourism industry development in an urban area.

  19. Intellectual property protection: strategies for antibody inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, therapeutic antibodies have become one of the commercially most successful classes of biopharmaceutical drugs. Major drug manufacturers who have successfully managed to occupy this new market, as well as biotechnology firms, some of which have experienced a quick growth and are now on par with the former, owe part of their success to suitable intellectual property strategies. This article provides an overview of the current thinking on antibody-related patents, and discusses strategies for protecting the antibody products of the future.

  20. Menstrual issues for women with intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jane; Grover, Sonia; Macgibbon, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Summary The approach to menstrual management in girls with intellectual disabilities should be the same as it is for other girls. Advice may need to be tailored according to the severity of the disability. Girls who can manage their own toilet hygiene can usually learn to manage their menses independently. They need preparation for the menarche with information appropriate to their level of understanding. When assessing menstrual problems, it may help to chart any symptoms against the menstrual cycle to confirm that they are related. The management options for problems such as dysmenorrhoea or heavy bleeding are the same as they are for other women. PMID:27340323