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Sample records for sustain epigeal insect

  1. Transgenes sustain epigeal insect biodiversity in diversified vegetable farm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, T W; Hoheisel, G A; Biddinger, D J; Rohr, J R; Fleischer, S J

    2007-02-01

    Many ecological studies have focused on the effects of transgenes in field crops, but few have considered multiple transgenes in diversified vegetable systems. We compared the epigeal, or soil surface-dwelling, communities of Coleoptera and Formicidae between transgenic and isoline vegetable systems consisting of sweet corn, potato, and acorn squash, with transgenic cultivars expressing Cry1(A)b, Cry3, or viral coat proteins. Vegetables were grown in replicated split plots over 2 yr with integrated pest management (IPM) standards defining insecticide use patterns. More than 77.6% of 11,925 insects from 1,512 pitfall traps were identified to species, and activity density was used to compare dominance distribution, species richness, and community composition. Measures of epigeal biodiversity were always equal in transgenic vegetables, which required fewer insecticide applications than their near isolines. There were no differences in species richness between transgenic and isoline treatments at the farm system and individual crop level. Dominance distributions were also similar between transgenic and isoline farming systems. Crop type, and not genotype, had a significant influence on Carabidae and Staphylinidae community composition in the first year, but there were no treatment effects in the second year, possibly because of homogenizing effects of crop rotations. Communities were more influenced by crop type, and possibly crop rotation, than by genotype. The heterogeneity of crops and rotations in diversified vegetable farms seems to aid in preserving epigeal biodiversity, which may be supplemented by reductions in insecticide use associated with transgenic cultivars.

  2. Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems comprehensively covers the basic principles of entomology and population dynamics; edible insects and culture; nutrition and health; gastronomy; insects as animal feed; factors influencing preferences and acceptability of insects; environmental impacts...... and conservation; considerations for insect farming and policy and legislation. The book contains practical information for researchers, NGOs and international organizations, decision-makers, entrepreneurs and students...

  3. The insect cookbook : food for a sustainable planet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Gurp, van H.; Dicke, M.

    2014-01-01

    In The Insect Cookbook, two entomologists and a chef make the case for insects as a sustainable source of protein for humans and a necessary part of our future diet. They provide consumers and chefs with the essential facts about insects for culinary use, with recipes simple enough to make at home

  4. SUSTAINABILITY OF INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR TRANSGENIC BT CORN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing interest in the responsible management of technology in the industrial and agricultural sectors of the economy has been met through the development of broadly applicable tools to assess the "sustainability" of new technologies. An arena ripe for application of such ana...

  5. Sustainable manufacture of insect repellents derived from Nepeta cataria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Gregory S; Karirekinyana, Ginette; Galli, Federico; Patience, Nicolas A; Kubwabo, Cariton; Collin, Guy; Bizimana, Jean Claude; Boffito, Daria C

    2018-02-02

    Malaria devastates sub-Saharan Africa; the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 212 million people contract malaria annually and that the plasmodium virus will kill 419 000 in 2017. The disease affects rural populations who have the least economic means to fight it. Impregnated mosquito nets have reduced the mortality rate but the Anopheles mosquitoes are changing their feeding patterns and have become more active at dusk and early morning rather than after 22h00 as an adaptation to the nets. Everyone is susceptible to the Anopheles at these times but infants and pregnant women are the most vulnerable to the disease. Plant-based mosquito repellents are as effective as synthetic repellents that protect people from bites. They are sustainable preventative measures against malaria not only because of their efficacy but because the local population can produce and distribute them, which represents a source of economic growth for rural areas. Here, we extract and test the essential oil nepetalactone from Nepeta cataria via steam distillation. Families in endemic areas of Burundi found them effective against bites but commented that the odor was pungent. An epidemiological study is required to establish its clinical efficacy.

  6. Gene silencing in non-model insects: Overcoming hurdles using symbiotic bacteria for trauma-free sustainable delivery of RNA interference: Sustained RNA interference in insects mediated by symbiotic bacteria: Applications as a genetic tool and as a biocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Miranda; Dyson, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Insight into animal biology and development provided by classical genetic analysis of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster was an incentive to develop advanced genetic tools for this insect. But genetic systems for the over one million other known insect species are largely undeveloped. With increasing information about insect genomes resulting from next generation sequencing, RNA interference is now the method of choice for reverse genetics, although it is constrained by the means of delivery of interfering RNA. A recent advance to ensure sustained delivery with minimal experimental intervention or trauma to the insect is to exploit commensal bacteria for symbiont-mediated RNA interference. This technology not only offers an efficient means for RNA interference in insects in laboratory conditions, but also has potential for use in the control of human disease vectors, agricultural pests and pathogens of beneficial insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Surge in insect resistance to transgenic crops and prospects for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Carrière, Yves

    2017-10-11

    Transgenic crops have revolutionized insect pest control, but their effectiveness has been reduced by evolution of resistance in pests. We analyzed global monitoring data reported during the first two decades of transgenic crops, with each case representing the responses of one pest species in one country to one insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The cases of pest resistance to Bt crystalline (Cry) proteins produced by transgenic crops increased from 3 in 2005 to 16 in 2016. By contrast, in 17 other cases there was no decrease in pest susceptibility to Bt crops, including the recently introduced transgenic corn that produces a Bt vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip). Recessive inheritance of pest resistance has favored sustained susceptibility, but even when inheritance is not recessive, abundant refuges of non-Bt host plants have substantially delayed resistance. These insights may inform resistance management strategies to increase the durability of current and future transgenic crops.

  8. Sensitive indicators of side-effects of pesticides on the epigeal fauna of Arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible impact of pesticides on epigeal arthropods in arable land. It was also envisaged to develop a predictive model for possible undesirable effects of pesticides on the epigeal arthropod fauna using an indicator species from

  9. Epigeic spiders of the pastures of northern Wielkopolska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźny, Marek

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of epigeic spiders (Araneae occurring on three different types of pastures in northern Wielkopolska was analysed. Studies were conducted from May 1992 to October 1993. The 18,995 specimens collected were classified as belonging to 137 species and 17 families. The family Linyphiidae proved the richest in species while Lycosidae was the most abundantly in terms of number of specimens. Zoocenological analysis of spider communities showed their differentiation testifying to differences in the sites studied. The dominants were: 1 Osowo Stare (Site 1: Pardosa palustris, 2 Sycyn Dolny (Site 2: Xerolycosa miniata, P. palustris, Xysticus kochi, 3 Braczewo (Site 3: Erigone dentipalpis, P. palustris. Seasonal changes of dominance of the species at each site were established. A comparison of changes of the species’ dominances in the years 1992 and 1993 disclosed similar values of the individual dominance coefficient at the sites in Osowo Stare and Braczewo. This result indicates the occurrence of the process of stabilization of these biocenoses and a tendency to equilibrium in the environment. The least stable proved to be the site at Sycyn Dolny. Analysis of the seasonal dynamics of epigeic spider communities was also made by determining the mean number of species at each site in the two years of study. The highest number of species was noted in spring. It is interesting to note the appearance of species which are rare or very rare in Poland such as: Lepthyphantes insignis, Ostearius melanopygius, Enoplognatha mordax and Enoplognatha oelandica.

  10. Epigeal Fauna and Soil Chemical Attributes in Grazing and Regeneration Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ribeiro Nogueira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of natural pasture and spontaneous regeneration on soil chemical properties and epigeal fauna community using a secondary Atlantic Forest as reference. The study areas were located in Passa Vinte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. In each study area, pitfall traps were used to sample epigeal fauna in the dry and rainy seasons. Earth samples were collected at a depth of 0-5 cm in the dry and rainy seasons for analysis of chemical attributes. The pasture and regeneration areas showed an overall activity of epigeal fauna and functional groups similar to the forest area. However, the diversity evaluated by the Shannon and Pielou evenness indices and the total richness were lower than the observed in the forest. The best fertility attributes were observed in the forest and pasture areas.

  11. Effect of post-harvest forestry residue management practices on the diversity of epigeal coleopterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ramírez Aliaga

    2017-01-01

    and summer, the treatment with residues left registered significantly greater abundance and species richness. In the residue management, the practices of intact leaving residue should be considered as the least impacting on diversity and abundance of epigeal coleopterans and is recommended for creating refugee areas to promote diversity of beetles in this area of study.

  12. SPATIAL VARIABILITY AND VITALITY OF EPIGEOUS TERMITE MOUNDS IN PASTURES OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigeous termite mounds are frequently observed in pasture areas, but the processes regulating their population dynamics are poorly known. This study evaluated epigeous termite mounds in cultivated grasslands used as pastures, assessing their spatial distribution by means of geostatistics and evaluating their vitality. The study was conducted in the Cerrado biome in the municipality of Rio Brilhante, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In two pasture areas (Pasture 1 and Pasture 2, epigeous mounds (nests were georeferenced and analyzed for height, circumference and vitality (inhabited or not. The area occupied by the mounds was calculated and termite specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. The spatial distribution pattern of the mounds was analyzed with geostatistical procedures. In both pasture areas, all epigeous mounds were built by the same species, Cornitermes cumulans. The mean number of mounds per hectare was 68 in Pasture 1 and 127 in Pasture 2, representing 0.4 and 1 % of the entire area, respectively. A large majority of the mounds were active (vitality, 91 % in Pasture 1 and 84 % in Pasture 2. A “pure nugget effect” was observed in the semivariograms of height and nest circumference in both pastures reflecting randomized spatial distribution and confirming that the distribution of termite mounds in pastures had a non-standard distribution.

  13. Consequences for the biodiversity and mobility of epigeic beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Deichsel, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The thesis focused on the investigation of consequences of urban habitat fragmentation for the biodiversity and mobility of epigeic beetles in woodland fragments. Species richness and species composition was investigated using pitfall traps in deciduous forest fragments along a rural-urban gradient in southeastern Berlin. For the population genetic studies, three rural woodland fragments located south of Berlin were added to the sampling sites. Length polymorphism of microsatellite DNA-marker...

  14. Epigeal and Hypogeal Macroinvertebrate Diversity in Different Microhabitats of the Yusmarg Hill Resort (Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abroo Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil macroinvertebrate communities are important within the soil system and contribute to a wide variety of soil processes. A soil study was conducted to assess the composition and diversity of soil macroinvertebrates in Yusmarg hill resort of Kashmir valley at four sites characterised by different types of vegetation and interferences like grazing or fencing, during the months of May, June, November and December 2010. During the study, it was observed that different sites exhibited variations in diversity of both epigeal as well as hypogeal soil macroinvertebrates. For epigeal macroinvertebrates, highest diversity was recorded in forest edge (2.089 and inner forest (2.058 and relatively low diversity in grazed (1.61 and fenced areas (1.09. For hypogeal macroinvertebrates, diversity was recorded highest for inner forest site (2.216 than forest edge (1.9 and relatively lower in fenced (1.22 and grazed (1.21 sites. The physical disturbance in the form of grazing and fencing probably reduce the diversity of the soil macro fauna as is inferred from the present study.

  15. DIVERSITY AND THE MAIN ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE EPIGEIC SPECIES OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SIBIU COUNTY, IN THE YEARS 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STANCA-MOISE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Epigeous insects in the “Dumbrava Sibiului” oak forest were captured between 2013-2014. From April to September in each year. 12 traps were installed in a circle 147 individuals collected belonged to 28 species and 6 families: Carabidae – 14 species (50.0%, 187 individuals (77.37 %, Staphylinidae – 7 species (25.0 %, 15 individuals (6.17 %, Silphidae – 3 species (10.72 %, 29 individuals (11.93 %, Elateridae – 1 species (3.51 %, 1 individual (0.41 % , Scarabaeidae – 2 species (7.14 %, 8 individuals (3.29 %, Forficulidae – 1 species (3.51 %, 2 individuals (0.82 %. Also, we presented in tables the ecological requirements of the species of Carabidae collected, the variation of their relative abundance and the structure of dominance Composition of species corresponded to communities from drier forms of irregularly flooded the floodplain forests with decreased level of ground water, known from Central Europe.

  16. Water sources and controls on water-loss rates of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarps during summer drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik A. Lilleskov; Thomas D. Bruns; Todd E. Dawson; Francisco J. Camacho

    2009-01-01

    Access to deeper soil water and water-conserving traits should reduce water stress for ectomycorrhizal fungi, permitting function during drought. Here, we explored whether epigeous fruiting of ectomycorrhizal fungi during drought was facilitated by access to deep soil water, how much water was lost from sporocarps, and how sporocarp surface to volume ratios affected...

  17. Vermicomposting of solid waste generated from leather industries using epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, B; Dinesh, S L; Kennedy, L John; Sekaran, G

    2008-12-01

    Animal fleshing (ANFL) generated as solid waste from tannery industries was vermicomposted using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida. The mixing ratio of ANFL with cow dung and agricultural residues as feed mixtures was maintained to be 3:1:1 respectively during the vermicomposting experiments for 50 days. Vermicomposting resulted in the reduction of pH 6.74 and C:N ratio 15.5 compared to the control sample. A notable increase in earthworm biomass was also observed in the vermin bioreactor. The germination index of 84% for tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1) was observed for the vermicomposted soil. Scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were recorded to identify the changes in surface morphology and functional groups in the control and vermicomposted samples. The results obtained from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. foetida was able to convert ANFL into nutrient-enriched products.

  18. An inventory of epigeal ants of the western Soutpansberg Mountain Range, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinandavha C. Munyai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, abundance and sensitivity invertebrates to habitat change are largely unknown. Long-term monitoring of ecological gradients with standardised and comparable protocols can form the basis of a better understanding. Altitudinal gradients are particularly relevant within this context. Here we provide a check list and baseline data for ant species collected over a 5-year period across the Soutpansberg Mountain Range, South Africa. Standardised pitfall surveys across 11 sites yielded a total of 133 species in 38 genera and 6 subfamilies. Sample coverage of epigeal ants was 0.98 for the transect as a whole. Of these species, 21% were restricted to the southern slope of the mountain and 14% to the northern slope. Extrapolated richness estimates reached an asymptote for all, except for three sites. These were the only sites impacted by bush encroachment. Observed richness was the highest at a low-altitude mesic site that is exposed to considerable disturbance by megaherbivores and mechanical clearing of woody vegetation. Structural classification of vegetation was predictive of a broad-scale ant assemblage structure. On a smaller scale, however, structure was a function of elevation, space and temperature.Conservation implications: Future monitoring should target indicator taxa associated with bush encroachment, particularly with reference to their impacts on grasslands. Bush encroachment could endanger several ant species associated with mesic grasslands and woodlands on the mountain, as well as ant diversity, as these were the habitats with the highest ant diversity.

  19. Effects of cultivation of genetically modified Bt maize on epigeic arthropods (Araneae; Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschki, A; Hothorn, L A; Ross-Nickoll, M

    2007-08-01

    A field study was conducted in Germany to determine the possible effects of transgenic maize cultivation on nontarget epigeic predator organisms. During the growing period of 2001-2003, the activity abundances of spiders and carabid beetles were recorded and compared in three treatments: (1) Bt-maize (Mon 810) expressing the Cry1ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), (2) an isogenic variety, and (3) the isogenic variety treated with insecticide. All three treatments were replicated in eight plots. The results were evaluated using three different methods. The activity abundances of single species were statistically analyzed by confidence interval methods. In addition, the phenological behaviors of the spider and carabid beetle species were determined, and multivariate statistical evaluation of the community by principal component analysis was conducted. Significantly different activity abundances in Bt plots compared with isogenic control plots were observed both for spiders and carabid beetles during 2001. However, in 2002 and 2003, no changes in community structure were detectable in any of the treatments. The change in the first year may have been caused by the influence of a massive cornborer infestation and accompanying large changes in microclimatic factors.

  20. Epigênese e epigenética: as muitas vidas do vitalismo ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Silva

    Full Text Available Resumo A análise da história e dos usos contemporâneos dos termos epigênese, atribuído a Aristóteles, e epigenética, criado no século XX pelo biólogo C. H. Waddington, revela as tensões entre as perspectivas vitalistas e mecanicistas – ou epigenistas e pré-formacionistas – que têm se contraposto regularmente no seio das ciências da vida na cultura ocidental desde o século XVII. O campo demarcado pelo último termo abriga intensas discussões sobre os limites do neodarwinismo, abrindo espaço para a influência do meio na transmissão transgeracional. Essas tensões e polêmicas encontram fundo eco nas ciências humanas, por postularem diferentes pesos e implicações da herança “natural” para a vida mental, social ou cultural no desenvolvimento e efetivação da humanidade.

  1. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  2. Edible Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Dunkel, F.V.

    2016-01-01

    The interest in insects as human food in the Western world is increasingly considered as a viable alternative to other protein sources. In tropical countries it is common practice and about 2000 insect species are eaten. Insects emit low levels of greenhouse gases, need little water, and require

  3. Insect Neurohormones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although insects and vertebrates appear to have roughly the same nwnber of hormones, those of insects are almost all neurohormones, synthesized in neurosecretory cells distributed throughout the nervous system. Most of the insect neurohor- mones have been discovered in the last 20 years. Only very recently have ...

  4. Epigeic earthworms exert a bottleneck effect on microbial communities through gut associated processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez-Brandón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms play a critical role in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The ingestion, digestion, assimilation of organic material in the gut and then casting is the first step in earthworm-microorganism interactions. The current knowledge of these direct effects is still limited for epigeic earthworm species, mainly those living in man-made environments. Here we tested whether and to what extent the earthworm Eisenia andrei is capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter through gut associated processes; and if these direct effects are related to the earthworm diet. METHODOLOGY: To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles and microbial activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis in the earthworm casts derived from three types of animal manure (cow, horse and pig manure, which differed in microbial composition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The passage of the organic material through the gut of E. andrei reduced the total microbial biomass irrespective of the type of manure, and resulted in a decrease in bacterial biomass in all the manures; whilst leaving the fungi unaffected in the egested materials. However, unlike the microbial biomass, no such reduction was detected in the total microbial activity of cast samples derived from the pig manure. Moreover, no differences were found between cast samples derived from the different types of manure with regards to microbial community structure, which provides strong evidence for a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveal that earthworm gut is a major shaper of microbial communities, thereby favouring the existence of a reduced but more active microbial population in the egested materials, which is of great importance to understand how biotic interactions

  5. Taxonomic and functional diversity of the culturable microbiomes of epigeic earthworms and their prospects in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arjun; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Sharma, Anamika; Adak, Anurup; Singh, Surender; Prasanna, Radha; Saxena, Anil K; Nain, Lata; Singh, Ran Vir

    2016-09-01

    Eisenia foetida and Perionyx excavatus are potent vermicomposting earthworms having immense importance in organic matter recycling under tropical conditions, particularly in India. Comparative assessment of the cultivable gut microbiome of these two epigeic earthworms after growth on lignocellulosic biomass, revealed populations of 3.2-8.3 × 10(9) CFU. Diversity analyses using 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the major dominating classes were Firmicutes (50-60%), followed by Actinobacteria (26.7-33%), and Alphaproteobacteria (5.6-6.7%). Despite exhibiting similar diversity indices and species richness, Betaproteobacteria (6.7%) and Gammaproteobacteria (11.1%) were solely present in E. foetida and P. excavatus, respectively. A set of 33 distinct morphotypes, including 18 from E. foetida and 15 from P. excavatus were selected. Carbohydrate utilization profiles generated using Hi-Carbo™ kits revealed that the isolates from the gut of P. excavatus - Arthrobacter pascens IARI-L13 and Bacillus subtilis IARIC were able to utilize 54 and 51.4% of the carbohydrates tested. Sorbose was not utilized, while unusual carbohydrates - adonitol and methyl-d-mannoside were utilized only by members from the gut of P. excavatus, while melizitose was utilized by those uniquely by E. foetida microbiome. Functional characterization revealed that β-glucosidase activity was most prevalent in the culturable microbial community. Alkaline and acid phosphatase activity was more widespread in the E. foetida gut microbiome. All the culturable gut bacterial isolates produced ammonia, but IAA was detected only in five cultures. The unique functional attributes of the two culturable microbiomes, grown on a similar diet, reveals the significance of proper selection of earthworm substrate combinations for effective vermicomposting. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  7. Temperature effects on pitfall catches of epigeal arthropods: a model and method for bias correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saska, Pavel; van der Werf, Wopke; Hemerik, Lia; Luff, Martin L; Hatten, Timothy D; Honek, Alois; Pocock, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Carabids and other epigeal arthropods make important contributions to biodiversity, food webs and biocontrol of invertebrate pests and weeds. Pitfall trapping is widely used for sampling carabid populations, but this technique yields biased estimates of abundance ('activity-density') because individual activity - which is affected by climatic factors - affects the rate of catch. To date, the impact of temperature on pitfall catches, while suspected to be large, has not been quantified, and no method is available to account for it. This lack of knowledge and the unavailability of a method for bias correction affect the confidence that can be placed on results of ecological field studies based on pitfall data.Here, we develop a simple model for the effect of temperature, assuming a constant proportional change in the rate of catch per °C change in temperature, r, consistent with an exponential Q10 response to temperature. We fit this model to 38 time series of pitfall catches and accompanying temperature records from the literature, using first differences and other detrending methods to account for seasonality. We use meta-analysis to assess consistency of the estimated parameter r among studies.The mean rate of increase in total catch across data sets was 0·0863 ± 0·0058 per °C of maximum temperature and 0·0497 ± 0·0107 per °C of minimum temperature. Multiple regression analyses of 19 data sets showed that temperature is the key climatic variable affecting total catch. Relationships between temperature and catch were also identified at species level. Correction for temperature bias had substantial effects on seasonal trends of carabid catches.Synthesis and Applications. The effect of temperature on pitfall catches is shown here to be substantial and worthy of consideration when interpreting results of pitfall trapping. The exponential model can be used both for effect estimation and for bias correction of observed data. Correcting for temperature

  8. Insect Keepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  9. III. Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron

    2011-01-01

    RMRS research on insect pests focuses mostly on conifer pests. There is a long history of invasive insects causing significant impacts, mortality, and changes in forest ecosystem structure in North America. Perhaps the most evident example is the introduction of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, into eastern North America in the 1860s (Forbush and Frenald 1896)....

  10. Edible insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    Is it an impossible task to convince consumers to eat insects? This does not only apply to western consumers who are less familiar with this food habit than consumers in tropical countries. In the tropics too, many people do not consume insects, even though they are easier to collect as food than

  11. Eating insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards eating

  12. Insect phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, S K

    2015-08-01

    Phylogenomics, the integration of phylogenetics with genome data, has emerged as a powerful approach to study the evolution and systematics of species. Recently, several studies employing phylogenomic tools have provided better insights into insect evolution. Next-generation sequencing methods are now increasingly used by entomologists to generate genomic and transcript sequences of various insect species and strains. These data provide opportunities for comparative genomics and large-scale multigene phylogenies of diverse lineages of insects. Phy-logenomic investigations help us to better understand systematic and evolutionary relationships of insect species that play important roles as herbivores, predators, detritivores, pollinators and disease vectors. It is important that we critically assess the prospects and limitations of phylogenomic methods. In this review, I describe the current status, outline the major challenges and remark on potential future applications of phylogenomic tools in studying insect systematics and evolution. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Potential of Insect-Derived Ingredients for Food Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Fogliano, V.

    2017-01-01

    Insects are a sustainable and efficient protein and lipid source, compared with conventional livestock. Moreover, insect proteins and lipids are highly nutritional. Therefore, insect proteins and lipids can find its place as food ingredients. The use of insect proteins and lipids as food ingredients

  14. Diversidade de formigas epigéicas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em dois ambientes no Centro-Oeste do Brasil Diversity of epigeic ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in two environments in Central-Western of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela de Almeida Soares

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversidade de formigas epigéicas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em ambientes no Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Foi comparada, através do uso de índices de diversidade e modelos de abundância de espécies, a diversidade das comunidades de formigas epigéicas que ocorrem em duas estruturas vegetacionais diferentes: mata nativa e cultura de eucalipto. Para a captura das formigas foram utilizadas 800 armadilhas de solo do tipo pitfall, em oito amostras distintas. Um total de 85 espécies, distribuídas em 36 gêneros de sete subfamílias foram coletadas nos dois ambientes, sendo que destas, 83 ocorreram na mata nativa e 60 na cultura de eucalipto. A diversidade de espécies de formigas calculada pelo índice de Simpson não foi significativamente diferente entre os ambientes, ao contrário do resultado obtido a partir da aplicação do índice de Shannon, o qual indicou maior diversidade de espécies na mata nativa. O modelo log-series não se ajustou satisfatoriamente aos dados das comunidades de formigas encontradas na cultura de eucalipto e na mata nativa, mas o modelo log-normal mostrou-se adequado para descrever a estrutura das comunidades dos dois ambientes. O modelo broken-stick, que representa uma comunidade bem estruturada, ajustou-se apenas aos dados da mata nativa.We compared, through the use of diversity indices and species abundance models, the diversity of communities of epigeous ants occurring in two different vegetational structures: native forest and eucalyptus plantation. To capture the ants, 800 soil pitfall traps were used, in eight sample series. A total of 85 species, belonging to 36 genera of seven subfamilies were collected in the two environments. Of these species, 83 occurred in the native forest and 60 in the eucalyptus plantation. The species diversity as evaluated by Simpson's index was not significantly different between the environments, but the Shannon index indicated a higher diversity of species in the native forest. The

  15. Notes on epilithic and epigeic lichens from granite and gneiss outcrops in mountains of Makedonia, Greece, with emphasis on northern species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The epilithic and epigeic lichen flora of eight localities with granite and gneiss outcrops in the mountains of Makedonia, N Greece has been investigated. Of the 46 taxa reported, seven species are new to Greece, viz.: Brodoa oroarcti­ca, Candelariella coralliza, Cetraria ericetorum, Lecanora...

  16. Insect Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature and environment derived from beetle and other insect fossils. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional...

  17. Eating insects

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards eating creatures that are not regarded as food. The low consumer acceptance of this culturally inappropriate food is currently considered to be one of the key barriers to attaining the benefits of this po...

  18. Vermicomposting of sugar industry waste (press mud) mixed with cow dung employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, P; Kaushik, C P; Garg, V K

    2010-01-01

    In India, millions of tons of press mud (PM) are generated by sugar mills every year. This paper reports the potential of vermitechnology to convert sugar industry waste PM mixed with cow dung (CD) into vermicompost, employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. A total of six different reactors were established having different ratios of PM and CD including one control (CD only). The growth and fecundity of E. fetida was monitored for 13 weeks. Maximum growth was recorded in 100% CD, but earthworms grew and reproduced favourably up to 1:1 PM and CD feed composition. However, greater percentages of PM in different reactors significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Vermicomposting resulted in a decrease in carbon concentration and an increase in nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium concentrations of the vermicompost. Investigations indicated that vermicomposting could be an alternative technology for the management of PM into useful fertilizing material, if mixed at maximum 50% with CD.

  19. Consuming insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; van Huis, A.

    2017-01-01

    as a part of a varied diet. They also have the potential to provide bioactive compounds that have health benefits beyond simple nutritional values, as is the case for other food groups such as fruits and vegetables. Various recent studies have indicated such bioactivity in different insect species...

  20. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  1. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  2. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  3. Epigeal fauna of a degraded soil treated with mineral fertilizer and compound cellulose cultivated of tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giácomo, R. G.; de Arruda, O. G.; Souto Filho, S. N.; Alves, M. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Frigério, G. C.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the epigeal fauna in a degraded soil in the recovery process after one year of cultivated with tree species. The experiment was established in February 2010 in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots with five treatments and four replications. In the main plots, pure cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis (exotic species - hybrids) and Mabea fistulifera Mart. (native species) and the subplot treatments: Control; D0 - without fertilization; DM - mineral fertilizer according to crop need; DC - with compost manure according to crop need (10 t ha-1); D15 - 15 t ha-1 and D20 - 20 t ha-1 of the compound. In February of the years 2010 and 2011 were installed in the central region of each treatment two traps "pitt fall" which remained for seven days in the field. We calculated Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness indices, and richness of wildlife activity groups. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Scott Knott test at 5% significance level. In 2010, the area with M. fistulifera, was captured a total of 2697 organisms distributed mainly in: Hymenoptera with 45.83% of the total collected, Collembola (36.93%), Hemiptera Heteroptera (6.56%). In the area with E. urograndis, 1938 organisms were captured, being 50.67% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 26.83%, 7.59% Hemiptera Heteroptera. It was found that there was no significant difference between treatments and between species for all variables. Collected in 2011 were 4970 organisms in 56.22% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 18.49% and 7.12% beetle in the area of M. fistulifera. In the area of E. urograndis were 4200 organisms, 55.29% (Hymenoptera), 23.79% (Collembola) and 5.86% (Coleoptera). It appears that the activity values and richness of the fauna groups were significantly higher in treatments with organic fertilization in both cultive. It is concluded that after one year there was a variation of the dominant

  4. Epigeic spiders (Araneae from the Malá Dohoda Quarry (Moravian Karst Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Košulič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This publication makes a faunistic contribution to knowledge of the epigeic spider species composition in the limestone quarry Malá Dohoda which is located in Moravian Karst PLA. The spiders were collected by pitfall trapping between catching period 19. 3.–1. 11. 2012. We chose 6 plots all around the quarry – in the inner part, edges of quarry and outside part of quarry. A total of 1 474 adult specimens were collected and determined as 78 species of 21 families. The most significant finding is vulnerable species (VU Parapelecopsis nemoralis (Blackwall, 1841 which is the second record for Moravia. Among the other significant findings, both in term of rarity and bioindication, were Ceratinella major Kulczynski, 1894, Micaria formicaria (Sundevall, 1831, Ozyptila claveata (Walckenaer, 1837, Pelecopsis parallela (Wider, 1834, Zelotes longipes (L. Koch, 1866 and Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914. Also, we present finding of an invasive species Mermessus trilobatus (Emerton, 1882 which is spreading in the Czech Republic since 2007. Together, we found 13 species as a novelty for studied faunistic square 6666 and we extended knowledge about new recorded species for the area of the Moravian Karst.

  5. Insect abatement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

  6. Insect inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andy; Beheshti, Novid

    2008-04-01

    The innocuous looking bombardier beetle is one of the most remarkable creatures around. This tiny insect is endowed with a defence mechanism that would be the envy of any comic-strip superhero - it can fight off any spider, frog, ant or bird that comes too close by blasting the attacker with a powerful jet of hot, toxic fluid. Furthermore, the beetle can aim its weapon in any direction (even over its head) with pinpoint accuracy, and can reach distances of up to 20 cm with its spray.

  7. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...

  8. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from

  9. Bioconversion of herbal industry waste into vermicompost using an epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mamta; Kumar, Sudhir; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Ravikanth, K

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bioconversion of industrial herbal waste to vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermibeds were made using a mixture of herbal waste and cowdung (1 : 1) in comparison with the use of cowdung alone as substrate, resulting in vermicomposts 1 and 2, respectively. Different parameters were studied and it was observed that the nutrient profile of vermicompost 1 strongly influenced the growth of pea (Pisum sativum) and marigold plant (Tagetus erectus). The dry and fresh weight of shoots and roots, number of flowers, total yield in terms of fruit showed significant increase with vermicompost 1. Furthermore, vermicompost 1 (herbal waste and cow dung as substrate) resulted in a significant reduction in TOC by 58% in comparison with vermicompost 2 (cowdung as substrate). The C : N ratio was less than 20 in vermicompost 1 as well as in vermicompost 2, which indicated an advanced degree of stabilization and mineralization. The ability of earthworms to survive, grow and breed in the vermibed fed with the herbal waste indicates the sustainability and efficiency of a heterogeneous kind of organic waste. The results of the study suggested that bulk industrial herbal waste can be utilized as a substrate for vermicomposting and this can be proposed as an alternative for waste disposal in a clean green manner, promoting the concept of organic farming.

  10. Insect Growth Regulators for Insect Pest Control*

    OpenAIRE

    Tunaz, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Insecticides with growth regulating properties (IGR) may adversely affect insects by regulating or inhibiting specific biochemical pathways or processes essential for insect growth and development. Some insects exposed to such compounds may die due to abnormal regulation of hormone-mediated cell or organ development. Other insects may die either from a prolonged exposure at the developmental stage to other mortality factors (susceptibility to natural enemies, environmental conditions etc) or ...

  11. Endocrinology of insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Roger G. H; Laufer, Hans

    1983-01-01

    ... - Metabolic homeostasis - Myotropic factors and regulation of pigmentation - Novel systems for studying insect endocrines - Pheromones - Intracellular communication - Distribution and role of insect hormones...

  12. Species richness, abundance, and composition of hypogeous and epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarps in young, rotation-age, and old-growth stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the Cascade Range of Oregon, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Smith; R. Molina; M.M.P. Huso; D.L. Luoma; D. McKay; M.A. Castellano; T. Lebel; Y. Valachovic

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi among successional forest age-classes is critical for conserving fungal species diversity. Hypogeous and epigeous sporocarps were collected from three replicate stands in each of three forest age-classes (young, rotation-age, and old-growth) of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  13. Hearing in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpfert, Martin C; Hennig, R Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Insect hearing has independently evolved multiple times in the context of intraspecific communication and predator detection by transforming proprioceptive organs into ears. Research over the past decade, ranging from the biophysics of sound reception to molecular aspects of auditory transduction to the neuronal mechanisms of auditory signal processing, has greatly advanced our understanding of how insects hear. Apart from evolutionary innovations that seem unique to insect hearing, parallels between insect and vertebrate auditory systems have been uncovered, and the auditory sensory cells of insects and vertebrates turned out to be evolutionarily related. This review summarizes our current understanding of insect hearing. It also discusses recent advances in insect auditory research, which have put forward insect auditory systems for studying biological aspects that extend beyond hearing, such as cilium function, neuronal signal computation, and sensory system evolution.

  14. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  15. Insects of the riparian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  16. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  17. Insects and Scorpions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH INSECTS AND SCORPIONS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Stinging or biting insects or scorpions can be hazardous to outdoor workers. ...

  18. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  19. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Facey, Paul D; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T; Evans, Meirwyn C; Mitchell, Jacob J; Bodger, Owen G; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-02-24

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Miranda M. A.; Facey, Paul D.; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T.; Evans, Meirwyn C.; Mitchell, Jacob J.; Bodger, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects. PMID:26911963

  1. Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Zhang, S.; Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Insects have been proposed as a high-quality, efficient and sustainable dietary protein source. The present study evaluated the protein quality of a selection of insect species. Insect substrates were housefly pupae, adult house cricket, yellow mealworm larvae, lesser mealworm larvae, Morio worm

  2. Broadening insect gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Münke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a trend among chefs to diversify their ingredients and techniques, drawing inspiration from other cultures and creating new foods by blending this knowledge with the flavours of their local region. Edible insects, with their plethora of taste, aromatic, textural...... and visual characteristics, is an example of an area of nature that requires further gastronomic exploration. Many parts of the world consume insects, neither as a novelty nor as a fall-­back famine food (FAO, 2013). Insect-­consuming populations often eat them as a delicacy, seeing each insect...... as an ingredient in its own right – not collectively as ‘insects’, as it is easy for many uninitiated to do. Many of these insects frequently fetch higher prices than other meat sources in the market, and it is this approach of investigating insects as a delicious gastronomic product that interests us. Indeed...

  3. Insect enemies of birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Conklin

    1969-01-01

    Native birches are subject to attack by insects at all stages of growth from the germinating seedling to the mature tree. All parts of the tree—roots, stem, branches, foliage, and even the developing seed—may be utilized as feeding sites by insects of one kind or another. An enumeration of the many insects recorded in the literature as feeders on...

  4. Endocrinology of insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Roger G. H; Laufer, Hans

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Organization of the neuroendocrine system - Chemistry of insect hormones and neurohormones - Regulation of metamorphosis - Regulation of reproduction - Regulation of growth and development...

  5. Epigénesis y validez: El papel de la embriología en el programa transcendental de Kant. (Epigenesis and validity: The role of the embriology in Kant’s transcendental program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio MOYA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo hace una lectura naturalizada y novedosa del transcendentalismo kantiano, a partir de la idea de epigénesis, una idea, extraída del campo embriológico, que Kant utiliza no sólo para plantear una interesantísima teoría de la evolución natural, sino también para explicar el origen y validez de los conocimientos a priori.

  6. Epigénesis y validez: El papel de la embriología en el programa transcendental de Kant (Epigenesis and validity: The role of the embriology in Kant’s transcendental program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio MOYA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo hace una lectura naturalizada y novedosa del transcendentalismo kantiano, a partir de la idea de epigénesis, una idea, extraída del campo embriológico, que Kant utiliza no sólo para plantear una interesantísima teoría de la evolución natural, sino también para explicar el origen y validez de los conocimientos a priori.

  7. Evaluation of hazardous chemicals in edible insects and insect-based food intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Giulia; Cuykx, Matthias; Amato, Elvio; Calaprice, Chiara; Focant, Jean Francois; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Due to the rapid increase in world population, the waste of food and resources, and non-sustainable food production practices, the use of alternative food sources is currently strongly promoted. In this perspective, insects may represent a valuable alternative to main animal food sources due to their nutritional value and sustainable production. However, edible insects may be perceived as an unappealing food source and are indeed rarely consumed in developed countries. The food safety of edible insects can thus contribute to the process of acceptance of insects as an alternative food source, changing the perception of developed countries regarding entomophagy. In the present study, the levels of organic contaminants (i.e. flame retardants, PCBs, DDT, dioxin compounds, pesticides) and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) were investigated in composite samples of several species of edible insects (greater wax moth, migratory locust, mealworm beetle, buffalo worm) and four insect-based food items currently commercialized in Belgium. The organic chemical mass fractions were relatively low (PCBs: 27-2065 pg/g ww; OCPs: 46-368 pg/g ww; BFRs: up to 36 pg/g ww; PFRs 783-23800 pg/g ww; dioxin compounds: up to 0.25 pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) and were generally lower than those measured in common animal products. The untargeted screening analysis revealed the presence of vinyltoluene, tributylphosphate (present in 75% of the samples), and pirimiphos-methyl (identified in 50% of the samples). The levels of Cu and Zn in insects were similar to those measured in meat and fish in other studies, whereas As, Co, Cr, Pb, Sn levels were relatively low in all samples (insect species with no additional hazards in comparison to the more commonly consumed animal products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  9. Insects and Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  10. Magnetic compasses in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of magnetic information for orientation and navigation is a widespread phenomenon in animals. In contrast to navigational systems in vertebrates, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the insect magnetic perception and use of the information is at an early stage. Some insects use ma...

  11. Insect-plant Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, L.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    Half of all insect species are dependent on living plant tissues, consuming about 10% of plant annual production in natural habitats and an even greater percentage in agricultural systems, despite sophisticated control measures. Plants are generally remarkably well-protected against insect attack,

  12. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  13. Genetic Engineering of Insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic transformation of insects that involves introduction of. DNA from external sources was first tried .... For genetic modification of insects, the transgene of interest has to be introduced into the germline of an egg and transposons are .... mosquitoes, spread a number of human diseases like malaria, yellow fever and viral ...

  14. Insects as a culinary ingredient : consumer acceptance and neophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Wendin, Karin; Normann, Cecilia; Forsberg, Sarah; Davidsson, Fredrik; Josell, Åsa; Prim, Mia; Langton, Maud

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The world´s population is increasing and thus the pressure on the earth´s resources. To ensure food supply and sustainability, food habits in western societies have to change. A significant contribution to global sustainability can be achieved by, for example, decreasing meat consumption 1. Advantages concerning nutrition and sustainability have been found by inclusion of insects in the diet2. Insects as food has a large potential, and the “culinary way” seems to be an effective...

  15. Forest biomass sustainability and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.E. Skog; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides a synthesis of information on potential supply of forest biomass given needs for sustainable development of forestry. Sustainability includes maintenance of water supply, biodiversity, and carbon storage as well as timber products, community development, and recreation. Biomass removals can reduce fire hazard and insect and disease attack, restore...

  16. THE ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE EPIGEAL FAUNA IN THE CORN AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEM IN OCNA SIBIU (SIBIU COUNTY IN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana ANTONIE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The arthropods have the role of biologic indicators, of diagnosis instruments regarding the negative effects of the human intervention in the structure and functioning of the agricultural ecosystems. Their presence or absence, the growth or lowering of their populations in the agricultural ecosystems can indicate the state of health of these systems and their good functioning. The aim of our researches is establishing the fauna structure of the community of arthropods at the soil level in the corn agricultural ecosystem in Ocna Sibiu, (Sibiu County; the characterization of the communities of invertebrates under the aspect of numerical abundance and of that of relative one; framing the entomologic fauna into a beneficial or pest one, the identification of the culture technology for the researched area. Regarding the applied researched methods, they were as follows: the using of pitfall traps (Barber traps that were at the level of the soil as well as the method of direct collecting of the fauna from the plants. As a result of our researches there was established the taxonomic and quantitative structure of the collected fauna through the methods of pitfall traps (Barber traps in Ocna Sibiu during 2012; there were identified 13 taxonomic groups. From the total of the collected agricultural fauna gathered by the help of pitfall traps in Ocna Sibiu locality there were identified 51 species of insects from which 30 were beneficial ones and 21 pest ones, the dominating order being Coleopteron with 35 species. The establishment of the group of arthropods, especially of the entomologic fauna, beneficial or pest indicates the equilibrium or the disequilibrium state from the researched corn three field systems. The ratio between the two types of fauna permits choosing the optimum method of maintaining the equilibrium between the species of the system and applying those measures of management in order to affect less the system in its assembly and to

  17. Allergies to Insect Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment of local reactions in people without a history of insect sting sensitivity includes aspirin for pain and ice to reduce swelling.  For those with a history of large local reactions, taking an oral antihistamine ( ...

  18. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects, bees, and spiders; Black widow spider bite; Brown recluse bite; Flea bite; Honey bee or hornet sting; ... spider bites, such as the black widow or brown recluse, can cause serious illness or death. Most spider ...

  19. Evolution of the Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  20. Insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  1. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  2. Converting pest insects into food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwittaya, Decha

    2010-01-01

    Canopy dwelling weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are used to control a variety of pests in a number of tropical tree crops. What is less familiar is the existence of commercial markets where these ants and their brood are sold for (i) human consumption, (ii) pet food or (iii) traditional medicine...... on management, 32-115 kg ant brood (mainly new queens) was harvested per ha per year without detrimental effect on colony survival and worker ant densities. This suggest that ant biocontrol and ant harvest can be sustainable integrated in plantations and double benefits derived. As ant production is fuelled...... by pest insects, problematic pests are converted into food and additional earnings. To assess the profitability of providing additional food for the ants, O. smaragdina food conversion efficiency (ECI) was estimated in the laboratory. This estimate suggests the feeding of weaver ants in ant farms...

  3. Ecology of forest insect invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. Brockerhoff; A.M. Liebhold

    2017-01-01

    Forests in virtually all regions of the world are being affected by invasions of non-native insects. We conducted an in-depth review of the traits of successful invasive forest insects and the ecological processes involved in insect invasions across the universal invasion phases (transport and arrival, establishment, spread and impacts). Most forest insect invasions...

  4. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-05-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. InsectBase: a resource for insect genomes and transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chuanlin; Shen, Gengyu; Guo, Dianhao; Wang, Shuping; Ma, Xingzhou; Xiao, Huamei; Liu, Jinding; Zhang, Zan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yiqun; Yu, Kaixiang; Huang, Shuiqing; Li, Fei

    2016-01-04

    The genomes and transcriptomes of hundreds of insects have been sequenced. However, insect community lacks an integrated, up-to-date collection of insect gene data. Here, we introduce the first release of InsectBase, available online at http://www.insect-genome.com. The database encompasses 138 insect genomes, 116 insect transcriptomes, 61 insect gene sets, 36 gene families of 60 insects, 7544 miRNAs of 69 insects, 96,925 piRNAs of Drosophila melanogaster and Chilo suppressalis, 2439 lncRNA of Nilaparvata lugens, 22,536 pathways of 78 insects, 678,881 untranslated regions (UTR) of 84 insects and 160,905 coding sequences (CDS) of 70 insects. This release contains over 12 million sequences and provides search functionality, a BLAST server, GBrowse, insect pathway construction, a Facebook-like network for the insect community (iFacebook), and phylogenetic analysis of selected genes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  7. New feed ingredients: the insect opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Jong, J

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle 'no, unless'. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.

  8. The Insect Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Brian; St Leger, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    Fungi are the most common disease-causing agents of insects; aside from playing a crucial role in natural ecosystems, insect-killing fungi are being used as alternatives to chemical insecticides and as resources for biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. Some common experimentally tractable genera, such as Metarhizium spp., exemplify genetic diversity and dispersal because they contain numerous intraspecific variants with distinct environmental and insect host ranges. The availability of tools for molecular genetics and multiple sequenced genomes has made these fungi ideal experimental models for answering basic questions on the genetic and genomic processes behind adaptive phenotypes. For example, comparative genomics of entomopathogenic fungi has shown they exhibit diverse reproductive modes that often determine rates and patterns of genome evolution and are linked as cause or effect with pathogenic strategies. Fungal-insect pathogens represent lifestyle adaptations that evolved numerous times, and there are significant differences in host range and pathogenic strategies between the major groups. However, typically, spores landing on the cuticle produce appressoria and infection pegs that breach the cuticle using mechanical pressure and cuticle-degrading enzymes. Once inside the insect body cavity, fungal pathogens face a potent and comprehensively studied immune defense by which the host attempts to eliminate or reduce an infection. The Fungal Kingdom stands alone in the range, extent, and complexity of their manipulation of arthropod behavior. In part, this is because most only sporulate on cadavers, so they must ensure the dying host positions itself to allow efficient transmission.

  9. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  10. Egg dumping in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallamy, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Females that place eggs under the care of conspecifics have been labeled egg dumpers. Egg dumping is an effective reproductive alternative that lowers risks for, and has the potential to increase fecundity in, its practitioners. Although insect egg dumpers can be social parasites of the maternal behavior of egg recipients, dumping is more likely to be a viable reproductive alternative when the costs to egg recipients are low and thus the defense by potential hosts against egg dumping intrusions is minimal. These conditions are met in insects that guard only eggs or in insects whose eggs hatch into self-supporting precocial young that need little beyond defense from parents. When this is the case, egg dumping is favored by natural and/or kin selection as a mechanism by which dumpers can avoid parental risks and increase fecundity, and egg recipients can enhance offspring survival by diluting predation.

  11. Psychophysics in insect hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyttenbach, Robert A; Farris, Hamilton E

    2004-04-15

    Psychophysics has much to offer the study of insect hearing. Not only is there a rich set of experimental methods to apply, there is a large body of experimental work on vertebrate hearing that can suggest topics for investigation and provide material for cross-species comparisons. We present an overview of the methods of psychophysics, followed by specific examples of their use in insects. Topics covered include intensity discrimination, frequency analysis and discrimination, temporal integration and acuity, and localization. We conclude by pointing out additional areas of research suggested by the reviewed work and areas in which a psychophysical approach would be useful. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  13. Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods*

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Guido; Zhang, Sheng; Dennis G A B Oonincx; Hendriks, Wouter H.

    2014-01-01

    Insects have been proposed as a high-quality, efficient and sustainable dietary protein source. The present study evaluated the protein quality of a selection of insect species. Insect substrates were housefly pupae, adult house cricket, yellow mealworm larvae, lesser mealworm larvae, Morio worm larvae, black soldier fly larvae and pupae, six spot roach, death's head cockroach and Argentinean cockroach. Reference substrates were poultry meat meal, fish meal and soyabean meal. Substrates were ...

  14. Eicosanoid actions in insect immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects express three lines of protection from infections and invasions. Their cuticles and peritrophic membranes are physical barriers. Infections and invasions are quickly recognized within insect bodies; recognition launches two lines of innate immune reactions. Humoral reactions involve induc...

  15. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  16. Investigation--Insects!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities on insects for second grade students. In the first activity, students build a butterfly garden. In the second activity, students observe stimuli reactions with mealworms in the larval stage. Describes the assessment process and discusses the effects of pollution on living things. (YDS)

  17. Insects for turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Veldkamp, T.

    2017-01-01

    In a trial with 14 pens with in each 20 turkey pullets (males, not treated) research has been conducted to the effect of feeding 12% insect larvae (Black Soldier Fly) on technical results and behaviour. The birds were kept until 5 weeks of age. The larvae fed groups ate less, had a higher growth

  18. Colour constancy in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects.

  19. Insects and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual

  20. Insect walking and robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcomyn, Fred

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of significant collaborations between researchers who study insect walking and robotics engineers interested in constructing adaptive legged robots, insect walking is once again poised to make a more significant scientific contribution than the numbers of participants in the field might suggest. This review outlines current knowledge of the physiological basis of insect walking with an emphasis on recent new developments in biomechanics and genetic dissection of behavior, and the impact this knowledge is having on robotics. Engineers have begun to team with neurobiologists to build walking robots whose physical design and functional control are based on insect biology. Such an approach may have benefits for engineering, by leading to the construction of better-performing robots, and for biology, by allowing real-time and real-world tests of critical hypotheses about how locomotor control is effected. It is argued that in order for the new field of biorobotics to have significant influence it must adopt criteria for performance and an experimental approach to the development of walking robots.

  1. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Desmedt, Sandrine; Blecker, Christophe; Béra, François; Haubruge, Éric; Alabi, Taofic; Francis, Frédéric

    2017-01-13

    Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g). Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step) before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  2. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Caparros Megido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g. Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  3. Insects: a protein-rich feed ingredient in pig and poultry diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Bosch, G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of insects as a sustainable protein-rich feed ingredient in
    pig and poultry diets is technically feasible. Insects can turn lowgrade
    biowaste into proteins.
    • The amino acid profile of yellow mealworm, common housefly,
    and black soldier fly is close to the profile of soybean

  4. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...

  5. The promise of insect genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Insects are the largest animal group in the world and are ecologically and economically extremely important. This importance of insects is reflected by the existence of currently 24 insect genome projects. Our perspective discusses the state-of-the-art of these genome projects and the impacts...

  6. Ethical aspects of insect production for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gamborg, Christian; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Given a growing global human population and high pressures on resources, interest in insects as a source of protein for human food (entomophagy) and for animal feed is growing. So far, the main issues discussed have been the embedded technical challenges of scaling up the production. The use...... of insects as a major human food and feed source is thought to present two major challenges: (1) how to turn insects into safe, tasty socially acceptable feed and food; and (2) how to cheaply yet sustainably produce enough insects? Entomophagy, however, as any utilisation of animals and the rest of nature...... as protein providers in the Western food and feed production chains. We identify five areas where ethical questions are especially pertinent: environmental impact, human and animal health, human preferences and social acceptability, animal welfare and finally broader animal ethics issues. Especially...

  7. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Van Itterbeeck, Joost

    2017-02-17

    Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems.

  8. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L. R. Payne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems.

  9. Evaluating insect-microbiomes at the plant-insect interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Clare L; Hansen, Allison K

    2014-07-01

    Plants recognize biotic challengers and respond with the appropriate defense by utilizing phytohormone signaling and crosstalk. Despite this, microbes and insects have evolved mechanisms that compromise the plant surveillance system and specific defenses, thus ensuring successful colonization. In nature, plants do not experience insect herbivores and microbes in isolation, but in combination. Over time, relationships have developed between insects and microbes, varying on a continuum from no-relationship to obligate relationships that are required for both organisms to survive. While many reviews have examined plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions and the mechanisms of plant defense, few have considered the interface where microbes and insects may overlap, and synergies may develop. In this review, we critically evaluate the requirements for insect-associated microbes to develop synergistic relationships with their hosts, and we mechanistically discuss how some of these insect-associated microbes can target or modify host plant defenses. Finally, by using bioinformatics and the recent literature, we review evidence for synergies in insect-microbe relationships at the interface of plant-insect defenses. Insect-associated microbes can influence host-plant detection and/or signaling through phytohormone synthesis, conserved microbial patterns, and effectors, however, microbes associated with insects must be maintained in the environment and located in opportunistic positions.

  10. Insect endosymbionts: manipulators of insect herbivore trophic interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily L; Karley, Alison J; Hubbard, Stephen F

    2010-08-01

    Throughout their evolutionary history, insects have formed multiple relationships with bacteria. Although many of these bacteria are pathogenic, with deleterious effects on the fitness of infected insects, there are also numerous examples of symbiotic bacteria that are harmless or even beneficial to their insect host. Symbiotic bacteria that form obligate or facultative associations with insects and that are located intracellularly in the host insect are known as endosymbionts. Endosymbiosis can be a strong driving force for evolution when the acquisition and maintenance of a microorganism by the insect host results in the formation of novel structures or changes in physiology and metabolism. The complex evolutionary dynamics of vertically transmitted symbiotic bacteria have led to distinctive symbiont genome characteristics that have profound effects on the phenotype of the host insect. Symbiotic bacteria are key players in insect-plant interactions influencing many aspects of insect ecology and playing a key role in shaping the diversification of many insect groups. In this review, we discuss the role of endosymbionts in manipulating insect herbivore trophic interactions focussing on their impact on plant utilisation patterns and parasitoid biology.

  11. Flying Insects and Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Floreano, Dario; Zufferey, Jean-Christophe; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.; Ellington, Charlie

    2009-01-01

    Flying insects are intelligent micromachines capable of exquisite maneuvers in unpredictable environments. Understanding these systems advances our knowledge of flight control, sensor suites, and unsteady aerodynamics, which is of crucial interest to engineers developing intelligent flying robots or micro air vehicles (MAVs). The insight we gain from synthesizing bioinspired systems can in turn benefit the fields of neurophysiology, ethology and zoology by providing real-life tests of t...

  12. Undergraduates' mental models about insect anatomy and insect life cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Arlene Edith

    Educational studies focused on students' alternative conceptions have shown the importance of developing strategies to correct understanding. Identifying and comprehending student mental models are important since they may reflect alternate conceptions about scientific concepts. Mental models have been identified in various science education studies, but little is known about mental models undergraduates hold about insects. This research is significant because it identified mental models undergraduates have about insect anatomy and insect life cycles, exposed students to cognitive conflict by having them complete an online insect tutorial, and analyzed the effectiveness of this insect tutorial in correcting student understanding. An insect assessment was developed and administered pre- and post-instruction to probe students' mental models about insects. Different numbers of undergraduate students participated in different parts of the assessment; 276, 249, 166, and 58 students participated in the listing, drawing. definition, and life cycle parts of the assessment, respectively. The tutorial contained a variety of manipulated insect and non-insect images that challenged the students' understanding and generated cognitive conflict. This intervention guided students in replacing alternate conceptions with correct understanding. It was hypothesized that the tutorial would have a positive impact on student learning about insects. The results suggest that the tutorial had a positive impact on learning.

  13. Cleptobiosis in Social Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Breed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review of cleptobiosis, we not only focus on social insects, but also consider broader issues and concepts relating to the theft of food among animals. Cleptobiosis occurs when members of a species steal food, or sometimes nesting materials or other items of value, either from members of the same or a different species. This simple definition is not universally used, and there is some terminological confusion among cleptobiosis, cleptoparasitism, brood parasitism, and inquilinism. We first discuss the definitions of these terms and the confusion that arises from varying usage of the words. We consider that cleptobiosis usually is derived evolutionarily from established foraging behaviors. Cleptobionts can succeed by deception or by force, and we review the literature on cleptobiosis by deception or force in social insects. We focus on the best known examples of cleptobiosis, the ectatommine ant Ectatomma ruidum, the harvester ant Messor capitatus, and the stingless bee Lestrimellita limão. Cleptobiosis is facilitated either by deception or physical force, and we discuss both mechanisms. Part of this discussion is an analysis of the ecological implications (competition by interference and the evolutionary effects of cleptobiosis. We conclude with a comment on how cleptobiosis can increase the risk of disease or parasite spread among colonies of social insects.

  14. Polyphenism in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stephen J; Sword, Gregory A; Lo, Nathan

    2011-09-27

    Polyphenism is the phenomenon where two or more distinct phenotypes are produced by the same genotype. Examples of polyphenism provide some of the most compelling systems for the study of epigenetics. Polyphenisms are a major reason for the success of the insects, allowing them to partition life history stages (with larvae dedicated to feeding and growth, and adults dedicated to reproduction and dispersal), to adopt different phenotypes that best suit predictable environmental changes (seasonal morphs), to cope with temporally heterogeneous environments (dispersal morphs), and to partition labour within social groups (the castes of eusocial insects). We survey the status of research on some of the best known examples of insect polyphenism, in each case considering the environmental cues that trigger shifts in phenotype, the neurochemical and hormonal pathways that mediate the transformation, the molecular genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in initiating and maintaining the polyphenism, and the adaptive and life-history significance of the phenomenon. We conclude by highlighting some of the common features of these examples and consider future avenues for research on polyphenism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. We will eat disgusting foods together – evidence of the cultural basis of Western entomophagy-disgust from an insect tasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Lieberoth, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Insects are a highly sustainable and nutritional source of protein, and, thus, incorporating insects in to Western food culture would address major global challenges such as global warming, deforestation, and obesity. Consumer studies show, however, that Westerners’ willingness to eat insect...

  16. Ethical issues in insect production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röcklinsberg, Helena; Gamborg, Christian; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    Insect rearing is often presented as a promising novel source of protein in many industrialised countries in the West. In this chapter, we will first give an overview of the different ethical concerns insect production for food and feed give rise to. This is followed by an elaboration of two...... of the ethical issues that have, so far, been least discussed. (1) Animal welfare: What are the typical reasons given for including welfare considerations in animal production system, and to what extent do they apply to insects? In order to answer these questions, we will discuss how one may conceptualise insect...... welfare and present an account of what is known, or can be inferred, about the capability of insects to experience welfare and where future research needs lie. (2) Animal integrity: Do insects possess integrity and can it be violated through large-scale production systems? To clarify this, we will discuss...

  17. In Vitro Iron Availability from Insects and Sirloin Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Yang, Wenge; Vera Aviles, Mayra

    2016-11-09

    Interest in the consumption of insects (entomophagy) as an alternative environmentally sustainable source of protein in the diet of humans has recently witnessed a surge. Knowledge of the nutrient composition and, in particular, the bioavailability of minerals from insects is currently sparse. This study evaluated the availability of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn from four commonly eaten insects and compared these to sirloin beef. Soluble iron from the samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Iron bioavailability was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Cricket and sirloin beef had comparably higher levels of Fe, Ca, and Mn than grasshopper, meal, and buffalo worms. However, iron solubility was significantly higher from the insect samples than from beef. The complementation of whole-wheat flour with insect or beef protein resulted in overall decreases in mineral content and iron solubility in the composite mixtures. Collectively, the data show that grasshopper, cricket, and mealworms contain significantly higher chemically available Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn than sirloin. However, buffalo worms and sirloin exhibited higher iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO4. Commonly consumed insect species could be excellent sources of bioavailable iron and could provide the platform for an alternative strategy for increased mineral intake in the diets of humans.

  18. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material......Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  19. The Insect SNMP Gene Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    chemosensory neurons in insects ; in Drosophila melanogaster, SNMP1 has been shown to be essential for the detection of the pheromone cis- vaccenyl...Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction SNMPs are insect membrane proteins which associate with pheromone sensitive neurons in Lepidoptera and...melanogaster, SNMP1 has been shown to be essential for the detection of the pheromone cisvaccenyl acetate (CVA). SNMPs are one of three insect gene clades

  20. Vers des relations durables entre insectes auxiliaires, cultures et protection intégrée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Jacqueline

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available One purpose of the sustainable agriculture is not having adverse effects on the beneficial insects. Presently non target insects are still exposed to high doses of various pesticides used on various crops. The major beneficial insects are domesticated pollinators such as honeybee. Regarding this one, no direct correlation between diffuse mortality, sublethal effects or colony collapse disorder and pesticides is clearly demonstrated. Nevertheless, studies have shown the complexity of the combined toxic effects between pesticides (principally synergy between insecticides and fungicides, their incidence on the insect health and their putative relationship with insect pathogens (bacteria, virus, fungi or mites. That leads to consider that the reduction of pesticides (qualitatively and quantitatively is needed to prevent non target insects from excessive mortality even if other causes of over mortality exist.

  1. Dynamic of epigeous macrofauna under organic soil management in the Brazilian semi-arid regionDinâmica da macrofauna epígea sob manejo orgânico do solo no semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Sampaio Pimentel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil macrofauna is responsible for soil fertility through cycling of nutrients, tillage and fragmentation of organic matter, as well as through the association between groups of fauna with conserved and/or degraded pedoenvironments. Nevertheless, under the conditions of the Brazilian semi-arid region, there is little information about this resource. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epigeous macrofauna in successive cropping using previous green manure and subsequent planting of melon (Cucumis melo L. in Juazeiro county, Bahia, Brazil. Sampling dates were undertaken in November 2007 and February, April and July 2008, using traps containing 4 % formaldehyde for seven days in plots of 64 m2. Results obtained indicate that there is no difference among the treatments with mixed cover crops, and epigeous macrofauna is influenced by the time of collection. Diversity and uniformity are inversely correlated with total density of epigeous macrofauna. Diversification of plant species favors the increase of diversity and uniformity of epigeous macrofauna. Formicidae, followed by Isopoda, Coleoptera and Oligochaeta are the groups of fauna most numerous in the areas. A macrofauna do solo é responsável pela melhoria da fertilidade do solo através da ciclagem de nutrientes, revolvimento e fragmentação da matéria orgânica, como também, pela associação entre grupos de fauna com pedoambientes conservados e/ou degradados. No entanto, nas condições de semi-árido brasileiro pouca informação se tem a respeito deste recurso. Neste sentido, na região do sub-médio do Rio São Francisco, pólo de desenvolvimento da agricultura irrigada objetivou-se avaliar a macrofauna epígea em sucessão cultural utilizando prévia adubação verde e subseqüente plantio de melão (Cucumis melo L.. As coletas foram realizadas em novembro de 2007 e fevereiro, abril e julho de 2008 no município de Juazeiro, BA, utilizando armadilhas contendo formol 4

  2. Stinging insect allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, R E

    1992-07-01

    Insect sting anaphylaxis is a relatively common problem estimated to affect at least 0.4% of the population and is responsible for at least 40 deaths per year in the United States. The allergic reactions are mediated by IgE antibodies directed at constituents in honeybee, yellow jacket, hornet, and wasp venoms. In addition, increasing numbers of reactions occur from fire ant stings, non-winged Hymenoptera present in the Southeastern United States. The anaphylactic symptoms are typical of those occurring from any cause. Most reactions in children are mild, frequently involving dermal manifestations (hives, edema) only. The more severe reactions, such as shock and loss of consciousness, can occur at any age but are relatively more common in adults. Following sting anaphylaxis, approximately 50% of unselected patients will continue to have allergic reactions to subsequent stings. The natural history of the disease process is influenced by the severity of the anaphylactic symptoms. Children with dermal reactions only have a benign course and are unlikely to have recurrent reactions. Patients with more severe reactions are at risk for repeat anaphylaxis. Patients with a history of insect sting anaphylaxis and positive venom skin tests should have epinephrine available and are candidates for subsequent venom immunotherapy, which provides almost 100% protection against subsequent re-sting reactions. Recommendations for the duration of immunotherapy are evolving. Venom therapy can be stopped if skin test reactions become negative. For most patients, 3 years of therapy appears adequate, despite persistence of positive venom skin tests.

  3. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  4. Insect symbionts as hidden players in insect-plant interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frago, E.; Dicke, M.; Godfray, H.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the importance of microbial mutualistic symbioses in insect-plant interactions. Mutualists may affect host plant range and enable insects to manipulate plant physiology for their own benefit. The plant can also be a route for the horizontal transfer of mutualistic

  5. 7 CFR 51.2290 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2290 Section 51.2290 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2290 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, frass or other evidence of insects is present on the portion of kernel. ...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2122 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2122 Section 51.2122 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2122 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, or frass is present or there is definite evidence of insect feeding. ...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2008 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2008 Section 51.2008 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2008 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, frass or web is present inside the nut or the kernel shows definite evidence of insect...

  8. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  9. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects. K N Ganeshaiah is at the. University of Agriculatural. Sciences ... mvara', its striking similarity to many behaviours related to reproduction seen in insects and other animals is interesting. In ... The female, on the right, is eating the prey given to her as a nuptial gift by the male.

  10. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  11. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects. K N Ganeshaiah. General Article Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 36-46. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  13. Advances on polyphenism in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xian-Ci; Yu, Li

    2017-09-20

    Polyphenism denotes that one genome produces two or more distinct phenotypes due to environmental inductions. Many cases have been reported in insects, for example, metamorphosis, seasonal polyphenism, the caste of eusocial insects and so on. Polyphenism is one of the most important reasons for insects to survive and thrive, because insects can adapt and use the environmental cues around them in order to avoid predators and reproduce by changing their phenotypes. Polyphenism has received growing attentions, ranging from the earlier description of this phenomenon to the exploration of possible inducing factors. With the recent advent of the genomic era, more and more studies based on next generation sequencing, gene knockout and RNA interference have been reported to reveal the molecular mechanism of polyphenism. In this review, we summarize the progresses of the polyphenism in insects and envision prospects of future researches.

  14. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Forest insect pests in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The papers presented in this book cover the range of forest insect pest management activities in Canada. The first section contains papers on the current status of insect pests by region, including data on insect populations and extent of defoliation caused by the insect. The next section covers pest management technology, including the use of insecticides, insect viruses, fungal pathogens, growth regulators, antifeedants, pheromones, natural predators, and aerial spraying. The third section contains papers on the application of technology and equipment for forest pest control, and includes papers on the impacts of insecticides on the forest environment. The fourth section describes operational control programs by province. The final paper presents future strategies for the management of forest pests. An author index is included.

  16. Edible insects contributing to food security?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huis, van, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    .... Edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact than livestock. Insect meal can replace scarce fishmeal as feed ingredient, in particular in the fast growing aquaculture industry...

  17. The influence of product preparation, familiarity and individual traits on the consumer acceptance of insects as food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Berg, van den Eva; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Insects are highly valued as food in many cultures but have only recently gained interest in the West as a sustainable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of meat production. Despite the growing consumer interest in insect consumption, there is still a great disparity between curious

  18. [Effect of transgenic insect-resistant rice on biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Zhen

    2011-05-01

    Rice is the most important food crops in maintaining food security in China. The loss of China's annual rice production caused by pests is over ten million tons. Present studies showed that the transgenic insect-resistant rice can substantially reduce the application amount of chemical pesticides. In the case of no pesticide use, the pest density in transgenic rice field is significantly lower than that in non-transgenic field, and the neutral insects and natural enemies of pests increased significantly, indicating that the ecological environment and biodiversity toward the positive direction. The gene flow frequency from transgenic rice is dramatically reduced with the distance increases, reaching less than 0.01% at the distance of 6.2 m. Application of transgenic insect-resistant rice in China has an important significance for ensuring food security, maintaining sustainable agricultural development, and protecting the ecological environment and biodiversity. This review summarized the research progress in transgenic insect-resistant rice and its effect on biodiversity. The research directions and development trends of crop pest controlling in future are discussed. These help to promote better use of transgenic insect-resistant rice.

  19. Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of the Five Species of Aquatic Edible Insects Consumed in Manipur, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantibala, T.; Lokeshwari, R. K.; Debaraj, H.

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability.

  20. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-26

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  1. Learning and cognition in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurfa, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Insects possess small brains but exhibit sophisticated behavioral performances. Recent works have reported the existence of unsuspected cognitive capabilities in various insect species, which go beyond the traditional studied framework of simple associative learning. In this study, I focus on capabilities such as attention, social learning, individual recognition, concept learning, and metacognition, and discuss their presence and mechanistic bases in insects. I analyze whether these behaviors can be explained on the basis of elemental associative learning or, on the contrary, require higher-order explanations. In doing this, I highlight experimental challenges and suggest future directions for investigating the neurobiology of higher-order learning in insects, with the goal of uncovering l architectures underlying cognitive processing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Identifying Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cloudy fluid in area of bite. Fire ants usually attack intruders and are commonly found in pastures, meadows, lawns and parks in southern states. Bees and Wasps These winged insects are usually found near flowers, shrubs, picnic ...

  3. Insects of bur oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1971-01-01

    During 1961-1969, the insects found damaging acorns of bur oak, Quercus macrocarpa Michauxii, in their order of importance were the weevils: Curculio pardalis (Chittenden), C. strictus (Casey), C. sulcatulus (Casey), C. iowensis (Casey), C. proboscideus...

  4. Aquatic Insects and their Potential to Contribute to the Diet of the Globally Expanding Human Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. Dudley; Williams, Siân S.

    2017-01-01

    Of the 30 extant orders of true insect, 12 are considered to be aquatic, or semiaquatic, in either some or all of their life stages. Out of these, six orders contain species engaged in entomophagy, but very few are being harvested effectively, leading to over-exploitation and local extinction. Examples of existing practices are given, ranging from the extremes of including insects (e.g., dipterans) in the dietary cores of many indigenous peoples to consumption of selected insects, by a wealthy few, as novelty food (e.g., caddisflies). The comparative nutritional worth of aquatic insects to the human diet and to domestic animal feed is examined. Questions are raised as to whether natural populations of aquatic insects can yield sufficient biomass to be of practicable and sustained use, whether some species can be brought into high-yield cultivation, and what are the requirements and limitations involved in achieving this? PMID:28754025

  5. Entomophagy – why should it bug you? The ethics of insect production for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gamborg, Christian; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2015-01-01

    for animal feed is developing. Compared to most other sources of animal protein insects are considered to be an environmentally low-impact source of nutrients. In a Western context the search for sustainable food and feed products has therefore lead to a growing interest in the area. However, as insects......Humans have, as far as the archeological records show, always eaten insects, reaching over 2000 edible species today. Given a growing global human population and high pressure on resources, interest in insects as a nutrious protein source for human food (entomophagy) and novel protein source...... and cons for ecosystems, animals and humans? In this thematic survey of welfare and ethical issues we build both on the at present scarce literature of insect welfare and ethics and the ever-increasing literature on ethics of animal production....

  6. Aquatic Insects and their Potential to Contribute to the Diet of the Globally Expanding Human Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D Dudley; Williams, Siân S

    2017-07-21

    Of the 30 extant orders of true insect, 12 are considered to be aquatic, or semiaquatic, in either some or all of their life stages. Out of these, six orders contain species engaged in entomophagy, but very few are being harvested effectively, leading to over-exploitation and local extinction. Examples of existing practices are given, ranging from the extremes of including insects (e.g., dipterans) in the dietary cores of many indigenous peoples to consumption of selected insects, by a wealthy few, as novelty food (e.g., caddisflies). The comparative nutritional worth of aquatic insects to the human diet and to domestic animal feed is examined. Questions are raised as to whether natural populations of aquatic insects can yield sufficient biomass to be of practicable and sustained use, whether some species can be brought into high-yield cultivation, and what are the requirements and limitations involved in achieving this?

  7. Environmental RNAi in herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Ramaseshadri, Partha; Segers, Gerrit C; Johnson, Steven; Meyer, Steve E; Kerstetter, Randy A; McNulty, Brian C; Bolognesi, Renata; Heck, Gregory R

    2015-05-01

    Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of eRNAi remains unknown under natural insect living conditions. Our analysis of coleopteran insects sensitive to eRNAi fed on wild-type plants revealed uptake of plant endogenous long dsRNAs, but not small RNAs. Subsequently, the dsRNAs were processed into 21 nt siRNAs by insects and accumulated in high quantities in insect cells. No accumulation of host plant-derived siRNAs was observed in lepidopteran larvae that are recalcitrant to eRNAi. Stability of ingested dsRNA in coleopteran larval gut followed by uptake and transport from the gut to distal tissues appeared to be enabling factors for eRNAi. Although a relatively large number of distinct coleopteran insect-processed plant-derived siRNAs had sequence complementarity to insect transcripts, the vast majority of the siRNAs were present in relatively low abundance, and RNA-seq analysis did not detect a significant effect of plant-derived siRNAs on insect transcriptome. In summary, we observed a broad genome-wide uptake of plant endogenous dsRNA and subsequent processing of ingested dsRNA into 21 nt siRNAs in eRNAi-sensitive insects under natural feeding conditions. In addition to dsRNA stability in gut lumen and uptake, dosage of siRNAs targeting a given insect transcript is likely an important factor in order to achieve measurable eRNAi-based regulation in eRNAi-competent insects that lack an apparent silencing amplification mechanism. © 2015 Ivashuta et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. Social insects inspire human design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  9. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    OpenAIRE

    Strauß Johannes; Lakes-Harlan Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propos...

  10. 46 CFR 108.215 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 108.215 Section 108.215 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.215 Insect screens. (a) Accommodation spaces must be protected against the admission of insects. (b) Insect screens must be installed when natural ventilation is...

  11. How Do Insects Help the Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevel, Gary

    2005-01-01

    There are some 5 to 30 million insect species estimated in the world--and the majority of these have yet to be collected or named by science! Of course, the most well known insects are those that cause disease or compete for human agricultural products, but these insects represent only a small fraction of the world's insect population. In reality,…

  12. Oviposition pheromones in haematophagous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasagan, T; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2010-01-01

    Pheromones influencing oviposition behavior in females of haematophagous insects have been the interest of recent past by many group of scientists working on oviposition pheromones. Finding and choosing a good site for oviposition is a challenging task for females of haematophagous insects, especially in those insects which does not have the parental care. Their decisions have far-reaching and profound consequences for the life history of the offspring. In such blood feeding insects, the choice of oviposition site is affected by pheromones, which may function either as deterrents or stimulants in short range, while they may also act as repellents or attractants in long range perception. During the location of a suitable oviposition site for egg laying or a potential host for blood feeding, haematophagous insects mainly use olfactory and visual cues. These pheromones are produced by the ovipositing female or by conspecific larvae co-occurring with gravid females. Adult females detect oviposition pheromones by odor receptors on the antennae, as well as by contact chemoreceptors on tarsi, mouthparts and antennae. Different cues exploited by gravid females from a diversified arena include egg, larva, habitat, microbes, infusions and plant produced volatiles influence the oviposition behavior. Traps baited with pheromones, infusions, and insecticides shall be promising tools for monitoring and control of target insect using integrated vector management strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Insect acid-base physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J F

    2001-01-01

    Acid-base status influences many aspects of insect biology, including insect distributions in aquatic systems, insect-plant and insect-pathogen interactions, membrane transport phenomena, and the mode of action of pesticides. Acid-base status in the hemolymph and gut lumen of insects is generally well regulated but varies somewhat within individuals owing to effects of temperature, activity, discontinuous ventilation, and diet. The pH of the midgut lumen varies with the phylogeny and feeding ecology. Insect fluids have buffer values similar to those of vertebrates. The respiratory system participates in acid-base homeostasis primarily by regulating the internal carbon dioxide (partial) pressure via changes in spiracular opening and convective ventilation. The epithelia of the renal system and gut participate in hemolymph acid-base regulation by varying acid-base transport in response to organismal acid-base status. Evidence to date suggests that the dominant mechanisms for control of renal acid-base excretion involve hormonal regulation of H+-V-ATPase activity.

  14. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  15. Can insects develop resistance to insect pathogenic fungi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Whitten, Miranda M A; Yaroslavtseva, Olga N; Greig, Carolyn; Kryukov, Vadim Y; Grizanova, Ekaterina V; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Glupov, Viktor V; Butt, Tariq M

    2013-01-01

    Microevolutionary adaptations and mechanisms of fungal pathogen resistance were explored in a melanic population of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Under constant selective pressure from the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, 25(th) generation larvae exhibited significantly enhanced resistance, which was specific to this pathogen and not to another insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae. Defense and stress management strategies of selected (resistant) and non-selected (susceptible) insect lines were compared to uncover mechanisms underpinning resistance, and the possible cost of those survival strategies. We hypothesize that the insects developed a transgenerationally primed resistance to the fungus B. bassiana, a costly trait that was achieved not by compromising life-history traits but rather by prioritizing and re-allocating pathogen-species-specific augmentations to integumental front-line defenses that are most likely to be encountered by invading fungi. Specifically during B. bassiana infection, systemic immune defenses are suppressed in favour of a more limited but targeted repertoire of enhanced responses in the cuticle and epidermis of the integument (e.g. expression of the fungal enzyme inhibitor IMPI, and cuticular phenoloxidase activity). A range of putative stress-management factors (e.g. antioxidants) is also activated during the specific response of selected insects to B. bassiana but not M. anisopliae. This too occurs primarily in the integument, and probably contributes to antifungal defense and/or helps ameliorate the damage inflicted by the fungus or the host's own immune responses.

  16. Functional diversity of staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in maize fields: testing the possible effect of genetically modified, insect resistant maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Z; Skoková Habuštová, O; Boháč, J; Sehnal, F

    2016-08-01

    Staphylinid beetles are recommended bioindicators for the pre-market environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) insect protected maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Our multiannual study is a unique European analysis of a staphylinid community within a 14 ha maize field. GM maize, its near-isogenic hybrid (with or without insecticide treatment), and two other reference hybrids were each grown in five 0.5 ha plots. The opportunity for exposure to Cry toxin from plant residues ploughed into the soil was shown by the presence of saprophagous dipteran larvae that are common prey of predatory staphylinid species and hosts of the parasitoid species. 2587 individuals belonging to 77 staphylinid species were sampled using pitfall traps. Lesteva longoelytrata (31%), Oxypoda acuminata (12%), Aloconota sulcifrons (8%) and Anotylus rugosus (7%) were the most abundant beetles in the field. Bionomics, food specialization, temperature requirements and size group were assigned for 25 most common species. These traits determine the occurrence of staphylinid beetles in the field, the food sources they could utilize and thus also their likely contact with the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Statistical analysis of activity abundance, Rao indices and multivariate analysis of distribution of particular categories of functional traits in the field showed negligible effects of the experimental treatments, including the GM maize, upon the staphylinid community. Staphylinid beetles represent a considerably diverse part of epigeic field fauna with wide food specialization; these features render them suitable for the assessment of environmental safety of GM insect protected maize. However, the availability of prey and the presence of particular staphylinid species and their abundance are highly variable; this complicates the interpretation of the results.

  17. Delayed insect access alters carrion decomposition and necrophagous insect community assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M. Eric; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-01-01

    ...s. We hypothesized that delayed insect access to carrion (insects excluded for five days) would demonstrate marked shifts in necrophagous insect community structure, turnover rates and assembly with overall effects on carrion decomposition...

  18. Evolutionary origin of insect pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, Johannes; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    Communication via chemical signals, that is, pheromones, is of pivotal importance for most insects. According to current evolutionary theory, insect pheromones originated either from extant precursor compounds being selected for information transfer or by the pheromone components exploiting a pre-existing sensory bias in the receiver. Here, we review the available experimental evidence for both hypotheses. Existing data indicate that most insect pheromones evolved from precursor compounds that were emitted as metabolic by-products or that previously had other non-communicative functions. Many studies have investigated cuticular hydrocarbons that have evolved a communicative function, although examples of pheromones exist that have arisen from defensive secretions, hormones or dietary compounds. We summarize and discuss the selective pressures shaping the pheromone during signal evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Visual cognition in social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Deisig, Nina; Giurfa, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Visual learning admits different levels of complexity, from the formation of a simple associative link between a visual stimulus and its outcome, to more sophisticated performances, such as object categorization or rules learning, that allow flexible responses beyond simple forms of learning. Not surprisingly, higher-order forms of visual learning have been studied primarily in vertebrates with larger brains, while simple visual learning has been the focus in animals with small brains such as insects. This dichotomy has recently changed as studies on visual learning in social insects have shown that these animals can master extremely sophisticated tasks. Here we review a spectrum of visual learning forms in social insects, from color and pattern learning, visual attention, and top-down image recognition, to interindividual recognition, conditional discrimination, category learning, and rule extraction. We analyze the necessity and sufficiency of simple associations to account for complex visual learning in Hymenoptera and discuss possible neural mechanisms underlying these visual performances.

  20. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  1. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kenis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica (Diptera Muscidae and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (Diptera Stratiomyiidae, which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small production units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability

  2. Dissecting insect development : baculovirus-mediated gene silencing in insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajós, J.P.; Vermunt, A.W.M.; Zuidema, D.; Kulcsár, P.; Varjas, L.; Kort, de C.A.D.; Závodszky, P.; Vlak, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A novel concept applying baculovirus-mediated gene silencing to study insect gene function and regulation is described in this paper. A recombinant baculovirus, Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), was constructed with the juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) gene from the

  3. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bidochka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  4. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2013-07-31

    Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively) are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF) provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  5. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2017-02-22

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  6. Agricultural genomics and sustainable development: perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    representative microbial, insect, animal and plant genomes. The research .... existence of heritable genetic or molecular (usually DNA) markers that are .... to manipulate or improve plant traits for agricultural uses in an environmentally sustainable manner. One key trait that has defied scientific unravelling is the phenomenon.

  7. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  8. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  9. Insect response to plant defensive protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-07

    Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are natural plant defense proteins that inhibit proteases of invading insect herbivores. However, their anti-insect efficacy is determined not only by their potency toward a vulnerable insect system but also by the response of the insect to such a challenge. Through the long history of coevolution with their host plants, insects have developed sophisticated mechanisms to circumvent antinutritional effects of dietary challenges. Their response takes the form of changes in gene expression and the protein repertoire in cells lining the alimentary tract, the first line of defense. Research in insect digestive proteases has revealed the crucial roles they play in insect adaptation to plant PIs and has brought about a new appreciation of how phytophagous insects employ this group of molecules in both protein digestion and counterdefense. This review provides researchers in related fields an up-to-date summary of recent advances.

  10. Trapping of insects in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Some insects caught on RV Gaveshani, while on a cruise in the Arabian Sea in May-June 1986 is reported Of the 23 insects caught, 16 were lepidopterans An interesting flight behaviour of Psychota sp is described...

  11. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett A. Klein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  12. Palaeontology: Chinese amber insects bridge the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew

    2014-07-21

    n the study of fossil insects, Chinese amber from Fushun has been largely overlooked. A new study now reveals a highly diverse biota and provides a wealth of new information on the past Asian insect fauna.

  13. FAQ: Insect Repellent Use and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Surveillance Resources Related Links Mosquito Surveillance Software Insect Repellent Use & Safety Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the repellent with you. Top of Page Can insect repellents be used on children? Yes. Most products ...

  14. Symbiont-mediated functions in insect hosts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Su, Qi; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    .... Bacterial symbionts play a prominent role in insect nutritional ecology by aiding in digestion of food or supplementing nutrients that insect hosts can't obtain sufficient amounts from a restricted diet of plant phloem...

  15. Anaphylaxis to Insect Venom Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollert, Markus; Blank, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis due to Hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe consequences of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, diagnostic tests are still hampered......, and to contribute to the understanding of the immunological mechanisms elicited by insect venoms....

  16. Social-insect fungus farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    the farming insects with most of their food ( Figure 1 ). No secondary reversals to the ancestral life style are known in either group, which suggests that the transitions to farming were as drastically innovative and irreversible as when humans made this step about 10,000 years ago....

  17. Developmental constraint of insect audition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; Strauss, Johannes

    2006-12-12

    Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  18. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  19. Insect Detectives-Forensic Entomology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 8. Insect Detectives - Forensic Entomology. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 7 Issue 8 August 2002 pp 51-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/08/0051-0058. Keywords.

  20. Insects and Diseases of Cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Morris; T.H. Filer; J.D. Solomon; Francis I. McCracken; N.A. Overgaard; M.J. Weiss

    1975-01-01

    Insects and disease organisms are a continuing threat to cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), especially during the tree's first 5 years. The danger is intensified in large plantings of a single species and age because rapid buildup of damaging agents can occur. This booklet, will help forest nurserymen and plantation managers identify and...

  1. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  2. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  3. Selectivity of Odorant Receptors in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    Selectivity of odorant receptors in insects Jonathan D. Bohbot and Joseph C. Dickens* Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, Plant Sciences...Germany Guenter Gisselmann, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany *Correspondence: Joseph C. Dickens, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory...Building 007, Room 030, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. e-mail: joseph.dickens@ars.usda.gov Insect olfactory receptors (ORs

  4. Edible insects contributing to food security?

    OpenAIRE

    Huis, van, Marijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Because of growing demand for meat and declining availability of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternative protein sources. Edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact than livestock. Insect meal can replace scarce fishmeal as feed ingredient, in particular in the fast growing aquaculture industry. Edible insects can alleviate waste disposal problems by growing them on organic by-products. About 2000 insect species are eaten worldwide, mostly in tropical...

  5. Symbiont-mediated functions in insect hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Qi; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial endosymbionts occur in a diverse array of insect species and are usually rely within the vertical transmission from mothers to offspring. In addition to primary symbionts, plant sap-sucking insects may also harbor several diverse secondary symbionts. Bacterial symbionts play a prominent role in insect nutritional ecology by aiding in digestion of food or supplementing nutrients that insect hosts can?t obtain sufficient amounts from a restricted diet of plant phloem. Currently, s...

  6. Buckling failures in insect exoskeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parle, Eoin; Herbaj, Simona; Sheils, Fiona; Larmon, Hannah; Taylor, David

    2015-12-17

    Thin walled tubes are often used for load-bearing structures, in nature and in engineering, because they offer good resistance to bending and torsion at relatively low weight. However, when loaded in bending they are prone to failure by buckling. It is difficult to predict the loading conditions which cause buckling, especially for tubes whose cross sections are not simple shapes. Insights into buckling prevention might be gained by studying this phenomenon in the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods. We investigated the leg segments (tibiae) of five different insects: the locust (Schistocerca gergaria), American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), death's head cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis), stick insect (Parapachymorpha zomproi) and bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax). These were tested to failure in cantilever bending and modelled using finite element analysis (FEA). The tibiae of the locust and the cockroaches were found to be approximately circular in shape. Their buckling loads were well predicted by linear elastic FEA, and also by one of the analytical solutions available in the literature for elastic buckling. The legs of the stick insect are also circular in cross section but have several prominent longitudinal ridges. We hypothesised that these ridges might protect the legs against buckling but we found that this was not the case: the loads necessary for elastic buckling were not reached in practice because yield occurred in the material, causing plastic buckling. The legs of bees have a non-circular cross section due to a pollen-carrying feature (the corbicula). We found that this did not significantly affect their resistance to buckling. Our results imply that buckling is the dominant failure mode in the tibia of insects; it likely to be a significant consideration for other arthropods and any organisms with stiff exoskeletons. The interactions displayed here between material properties and cross sectional geometry may provide insights for the

  7. Genetics of insect resistance to plant defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, K.M.C.A.

    2014-01-01

      Plants are chemically defended against insect herbivory in various ways. They produce a broad range of secondary metabolites that may be toxic or deterrent to insects. Specialist insects, however, are often capable of overcoming these defences. The yellow striped flea beetle (Phyllotreta

  8. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  9. Applications of acoustics in insect pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acoustic technology has been applied for many years in studies of insect communication and in the monitoring of calling-insect population levels, geographic distributions, and diversity, as well as in the detection of cryptic insects in soil, wood, container crops, and stored products. Acoustic devi...

  10. Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)

  11. Insect Pheromone-Alfa Chemistry.pptx

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Tylor

    2017-01-01

    Pheromones are substances produced as messengers that affect the behavior of other insects, animals and members of the same species. Alfa Chemistry offers a wide range of different insect pheromones that respond to control pests effectively and respectfully with the environment. Visit http://www.alfa-chemistry.com/products/insect-pheromone-5.htm for more.

  12. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  13. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be... generally accepted methods of insect control. ...

  14. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  15. Insect stereopsis demonstrated using a 3D insect cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nityananda, Vivek; Tarawneh, Ghaith; Rosner, Ronny; Nicolas, Judith; Crichton, Stuart; Read, Jenny

    2016-01-07

    Stereopsis - 3D vision - has become widely used as a model of perception. However, all our knowledge of possible underlying mechanisms comes almost exclusively from vertebrates. While stereopsis has been demonstrated for one invertebrate, the praying mantis, a lack of techniques to probe invertebrate stereopsis has prevented any further progress for three decades. We therefore developed a stereoscopic display system for insects, using miniature 3D glasses to present separate images to each eye, and tested our ability to deliver stereoscopic illusions to praying mantises. We find that while filtering by circular polarization failed due to excessive crosstalk, "anaglyph" filtering by spectral content clearly succeeded in giving the mantis the illusion of 3D depth. We thus definitively demonstrate stereopsis in mantises and also demonstrate that the anaglyph technique can be effectively used to deliver virtual 3D stimuli to insects. This method opens up broad avenues of research into the parallel evolution of stereoscopic computations and possible new algorithms for depth perception.

  16. Communities of epigeic beetles in tree line from montane spruce forest to secondary meadow in the different stage of the forest decline in the area of Modrava (Bohemian forest, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boháč Jaroslav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Communities of epigeic beetles were studied using pitfall trapping on 10 plots with the different stage of decline and clear-cut plots without coarse woody debris. Species richness (number of all species, S, total species diversity as the Shannon-Wiener’s index (H and equitability (e were calculated in the DBreleve. The Ward’s method of hierarchical agglomerative classification with Euclidean distance was used for the differentiation of the communities on the plots. Species data for this analyse were represented by logarithm-transformed activities [log(x+1]. The single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical testing of differences in structural parameters (e.g. species richness and diversity amongst distinguished groups of the plots. The species diversity and activity differs on glades without trees and coarse woody debris. The highest number of species was found in clear-cut areas. The lowest number of species was found on the plots with the living forest particularly invaded by bark beetle. This fact is caused by the fact that the clear-cut plots are invaded by ubiquitous and anthropotolerant species with good migration possibilities. These species are adapted to habitats without trees and are able to leave even in the habitats with very sparse or without vegetation. Species living in the forest even under the bark beetle attack are often stenotopic and adapted to the forest microclimate (higher humidity and low average temperature. These species are very sensitive to great difference in the daily changes of microclimate. The study of beetle communities support the hypothesis that the keeping of dead tree stands on plots after bark beetle outbreak is better for biodiversity conservation than the cutting down of trees and the abolishment of stems.

  17. Superorganism resilience: Eusociality and susceptibility of ecosystem service providing insects to stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects provide crucial ecosystem services for human food security and maintenance of biodiversity. Therefore, major declines in wild species combined with losses of managed bees have raised concern over the sustainability of their ecosystem services. Recent data suggest that honey bees appear to be...

  18. In vitro digestibility and fermentability of selected insects for dog foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Insects are considered as a sustainable protein source for future pet foods. Here we aimed to evaluate the protein quality of larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF), housefly (Musca domestica, HF) and yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, YMW) and to evaluate the fermentation

  19. In vitro digestibility and fermentability of selected insects for dog foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Guido; Vervoort, J. J M; Hendriks, W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Insects are considered as a sustainable protein source for future pet foods. Here we aimed to evaluate the protein quality of larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF), housefly (Musca domestica, HF) and yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, YMW) and to evaluate the fermentation

  20. Is mealworm or shrimp allergy indicative for food allergy to insects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, H.C.H.P.; Knulst, A.C.; Jong, G. de; Gaspari, M.; Hartog Jager, C.F. den; Houben, G.F.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: The growing world population is a key driver for the exploration of sustainable protein sources to ensure food security. Mealworm and other insects are promising candidates. Previously we found that shrimp allergic patients are at risk for mealworm allergy, and that mealworm can induce a

  1. Impacts of Insect Herbivores on Plant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Judith H; Sarfraz, Rana M

    2017-01-31

    Apparent feeding damage by insects on plants is often slight. Thus, the influences of insect herbivores on plant populations are likely minor. The role of insects on host-plant populations can be elucidated via several methods: stage-structured life tables of plant populations manipulated by herbivore exclusion and seed-addition experiments, tests of the enemy release hypothesis, studies of the effects of accidentally and intentionally introduced insect herbivores, and observations of the impacts of insect species that show outbreak population dynamics. These approaches demonstrate that some, but not all, insect herbivores influence plant population densities. At times, insect-feeding damage kills plants, but more often, it reduces plant size, growth, and seed production. Plant populations for which seed germination is site limited will not respond at the population level to reduced seed production. Insect herbivores can influence rare plant species and need to be considered in conservation programs. Alterations due to climate change in the distributions of insect herbivores indicate the possibility of new influences on host plants. Long-term studies are required to show if density-related insect behavior stabilizes plant populations or if environmental variation drives most temporal fluctuations in plant densities. Finally, insects can influence plant populations and communities through changing the diversity of nonhost species, modifying nutrient fluxes, and rejuvenating over mature forests.

  2. Phase Coexistence in Insect Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    2017-10-01

    Animal aggregations are visually striking, and as such are popular examples of collective behavior in the natural world. Quantitatively demonstrating the collective nature of such groups, however, remains surprisingly difficult. Inspired by thermodynamics, we applied topological data analysis to laboratory insect swarms and found evidence for emergent, material-like states. We show that the swarms consist of a core "condensed" phase surrounded by a dilute "vapor" phase. These two phases coexist in equilibrium, and maintain their distinct macroscopic properties even though individual insects pass freely between them. We further define a pressure and chemical potential to describe these phases, extending theories of active matter to aggregations of macroscopic animals and laying the groundwork for a thermodynamic description of collective animal groups.

  3. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  4. 75 FR 47592 - Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... AGENCY Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other... Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other Arthropods Test Guidelines... ``Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insects and Other Arthropods'' (OPPTS Test...

  5. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  6. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  8. The insect spermatheca: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascini, Tales V; Martins, Gustavo F

    2017-04-01

    In the female insect, the spermatheca is an ectodermal organ responsible for receiving, maintaining, and releasing sperm to fertilize eggs. The number and morphology of spermathecae vary according to species. Within the spermathecal lumen, substances in the semen and secretions from the spermathecal gland nourish the sperm. Thus, the spermatheca provides an appropriate environment that ensures the long-term viability of sperm. Maintaining sperm viability for long periods within the spermatheca is crucial for insect reproductive success; however, the details of this process remain poorly understood. This review examines several aspects of and gaps in the current understanding of spermatheca biology, including morphology, function, reservoir filling, development, and biochemistry. Despite the importance of the spermatheca in insects, there is little information on the gland secretions and their role in the maintenance and protection of male gametes. Furthermore, in this review, we highlight the current information on spermathecal gland secretions and the likely roles they play in the maintenance and protection of sperm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  10. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  11. Sustaining dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability

  12. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    . Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...... campus performance....

  13. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  14. Sustainable Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  15. Calcitonin-like diuretic hormones in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandawala, Meet

    2012-10-01

    Insect neuropeptides control various biological processes including growth, development, homeostasis and reproduction. The calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CT/DH) is one such neuropeptide that has been shown to affect salt and water transport by Malpighian tubules of several insects. With an increase in the number of sequenced insect genomes, CT/DHs have been predicted in several insect species, making it easier to characterize the gene encoding this hormone and determine its function in the species in question. This mini review summarizes the current knowledge on insect CT/DHs, focusing on mRNA and peptide structures, distribution patterns, physiological roles, and receptors in insects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Guido; Zhang, Sheng; Oonincx, Dennis G A B; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2014-01-01

    Insects have been proposed as a high-quality, efficient and sustainable dietary protein source. The present study evaluated the protein quality of a selection of insect species. Insect substrates were housefly pupae, adult house cricket, yellow mealworm larvae, lesser mealworm larvae, Morio worm larvae, black soldier fly larvae and pupae, six spot roach, death's head cockroach and Argentinean cockroach. Reference substrates were poultry meat meal, fish meal and soyabean meal. Substrates were analysed for DM, N, crude fat, ash and amino acid (AA) contents and for in vitro digestibility of organic matter (OM) and N. The nutrient composition, AA scores as well as in vitro OM and N digestibility varied considerably between insect substrates. For the AA score, the first limiting AA for most substrates was the combined requirement for Met and Cys. The pupae of the housefly and black soldier fly were high in protein and had high AA scores but were less digestible than other insect substrates. The protein content and AA score of house crickets were high and similar to that of fish meal; however, in vitro N digestibility was higher. The cockroaches were relatively high in protein but the indispensable AA contents, AA scores and the in vitro digestibility values were relatively low. In addition to the indices of protein quality, other aspects such as efficiency of conversion of organic side streams, feasibility of mass-production, product safety and pet owner perception are important for future dog and cat food application of insects as alternative protein source.

  17. Active Auditory Mechanics in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, D.; Göpfert, M. C.

    2003-02-01

    Evidence is presented that hearing in some insects is an active process. Audition in mosquitoes is used for mate-detection and is supported by antennal receivers, whose sound-induced vibrations are transduced by Johnston's organs. Each of these sensory organs contains ca. 15,000 sensory neurons. As shown by mechanical analysis, a physiologically vulnerable mechanism is at work that nonlinearly enhances the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of antennal hearing. This process of amplification correlates with the electrical activity of the auditory mechanoreceptor units in Johnston's organ.

  18. Insect Peptides - Perspectives in Human Diseases Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Szymon; Adamski, Zbigniew; Lubawy, Jan; Marciniak, Pawel; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Slocinska, Malgorzata; Spochacz, Marta; Szymczak, Monika; Urbanski, Arkadiusz; Walkowiak-Nowicka, Karolina; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Insects are the largest and the most widely distributed group of animals in the world. Their diversity is a source of incredible variety of different mechanisms of life processes regulation. There are many agents that regulate immunology, reproduction, growth and development or metabolism. Hence, it seems that insects may be a source of numerous substances useful in human diseases treatment. Especially important in the regulation of insect physiology are peptides, like neuropeptides, peptide hormones or antimicrobial peptides. There are two main aspects where they can be helpful, 1) Peptides isolated from insects may become potential drugs in therapy of different diseases, 2) A lot of insect peptide hormones show structural or functional homology to mammalian peptide hormones and the comparative studies may give a new look on human disorders. In our review we focused on three group of insect derived peptides: 1) immune-active peptides, 2) peptide hormones and 3) peptides present in venoms. In our review we try to show the considerable potential of insect peptides in searching for new solutions for mammalian diseases treatment. We summarise the knowledge about properties of insect peptides against different virulent agents, anti-inflammatory or anti-nociceptive properties as well as compare insect and mammalian/vertebrate peptide endocrine system to indicate usefulness of knowledge about insect peptide hormones in drug design. The field of possible using of insect delivered peptide to therapy of various human diseases is still not sufficiently explored. Undoubtedly, more attention should be paid to insects due to searching new drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Methods for maintaining insect cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Dwight E. Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are now commonly used in insect physiology, developmental biology, pathology, and molecular biology. As the field has advanced from methods development to a standard procedure, so has the diversity of scientists using the technique. This paper describes methods that are effective for maintaining various insect cell lines. The procedures are differentiated between loosely or non-attached cell strains, attached cell strains, and strongly adherent cell strains.

  20. Using Insects to Make Healthy Space Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kok, Robert; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. Foods fill not only physiological requirements to sustain life, but psychological needs for refreshment and joy during the long and hard mission to extraterrestrial planets. We designed joyful and healthy recipe with materials (plants, insects, fish et.cet. la.), which can be produced by the bio-regenerative agricultural system operated at limited resources available in spaceship or on Moon and Mars. And we need to get the storage method of the food without the problem of food poisoning. The consideration about the food allergy is necessary, too. Nutritional analysis on the basic vegetable menu consisting of rice, barley, soybean, sweet potato cassava, quinoa and green reveals a shortage of vitamins D and B12, cholesterol and sodium salt. Since vitamin D deficiency results in demineralization of bone. Vitamin B12 is essential to prevent pernicious anemia. Fish contains both vitamins D and B12. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the important nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein. A law of nature shakes high quality oils and fats included in termite for cooking. I use the bee as food after having used it for the pollination of the plant. Of course the honey becomes the important food, too. The snail and mud snail become the food as protein. We decided to use the menu consisting of the basic vegetarian menu plus insect and loach for further conceptual design of space agriculture. We succeeded to develop joyful and nutritious space recipe at the end. Since energy consumption for physical exercise activities under micro-or sub-gravity is less than the terrestrial case, choice of our space foods is essential to suppress blood sugar level, and prevent the metabolic syndrome. Because of less need of agricultural resources at choosing

  1. Genetic diversity and distribution patterns of host insects of Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Qing-Mei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Wang, Xi; Li, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Yun-Guo; Wang, Mu; Cheng, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family Hepialidae (Lepidoptera) to complete its life cycle. However, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the O. sinensis distribution. Abundant haplotype and nucleotide diversity mainly existed in the areas of Nyingchi, ShangriLa, and around the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where are considered as the diversity center or micro-refuges of the host insects of O. sinensis. However, there was little genetic variation among host insects from 72.1% of all populations, indicating that the host species composition might be relatively simple in large-scale O. sinensis populations. All host insects are monophyletic except for those from four O. sinensis populations around Qinghai Lake. Significant phylogeographic structure (NST>GST, Pinsects, and the three major phylogenetic groups corresponded with specific geographical areas. The divergence of most host insects was estimated to have occurred at ca. 3.7 Ma, shortly before the rapid uplift of the QTP. The geographical distribution and star-like network of the haplotypes implied that most host insects were derived from the relicts of a once-widespread host that subsequently became fragmented. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and expansion time estimation confirmed that most host insects presented recent demographic expansions that began ca. 0.118 Ma in the late Pleistocene. Therefore, the genetic diversity and distribution of the present-day insects should be attributed to effects of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and glacial advance/retreat cycles during the Quaternary ice age. These results provide valuable information to guide the protection and sustainable use of these host

  2. WAVE-LENGTH DISCRIMINATION IN INSECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INSECTS , *VISION), ELECTRORETINOGRAPHY, MONOCHROMATIC LIGHT, ADAPTATION(PHYSIOLOGY), EYE, ARTHROPODA, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), PHOTORECEPTORS, COLOR VISION, ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA, VISIBLE SPECTRA, SENSITIVITY

  3. BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS IN INSECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS, *BLATTIDAE, *DROSOPHILA, INSECTS , BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS, BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS, NERVE CELLS, ESOPHAGUS, GANGLIA, SECRETION, MOTION, TISSUE EXTRACTS, BIOASSAY, NERVOUS SYSTEM, LIGHT, HISTOLOGY, UNITED KINGDOM.

  4. Insect biodiversity and conservation in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S

    2010-01-01

    Australasia, which consists of Australia and the adjacent islands of the southwestern Pacific Ocean, has an insect diversity approximately proportional to the land mass. This diversity is distinctive, with some major groups missing and others having radiated. Iconic species are familiar to most people living in Australia and New Zealand, and a range of insects once contributed to Aboriginal Australian culture and diet. Conservation of Australasian entomological biodiversity is an increasing challenge for contemporary scientists. Examples are provided of insect conservation schemes from New Guinea, New Zealand, and Australia. Funding for insect biodiversity studies beyond flagship species is needed.

  5. Genetically Modifying the Insect Gut Microbiota to Control Chagas Disease Vectors through Systemic RNAi

    OpenAIRE

    Taracena, Mabel L.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Almendares, Olivia; Uma?a, Claudia; Lowenberger, Carl; Dotson, Ellen M.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.; Pennington, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Technologies based on RNA interference may be used for insect control. Sustainable strategies are needed to control vectors of Chagas disease such as Rhodnius prolixus. The insect microbiota can be modified to deliver molecules to the gut. Here, Escherichia coli HT115(DE3) expressing dsRNA for the Rhodnius heme-binding protein (RHBP) and for catalase (CAT) were fed to nymphs and adult triatomine stages. RHBP is an egg protein and CAT is an antioxidant enzyme expressed in all tissues by all de...

  6. Quantifying the Movement of Multiple Insects Using an Optical Insect Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    QUANTIFYING THE MOVEMENT OF MULTIPLE INSECTS USING AN OPTICAL INSECT COUNTER WESLEY C. HOFFMANN,1 PHILIP C. JANK,2 JEROME A. KLUN2 AND BRADLEY K...FRITZ1 ABSTRACT. An optical insect counter (OIC) was designed and tested. The new system integrated a line- scan camera and a vertical light sheet along...with data collection and image-processing software to count flying insects crossing a vertical plane defined by the light sheet. The system also

  7. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  8. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  9. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  10. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  11. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  12. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  13. Predicting the potential establishment of two insect species using the simulation environment INSIM (INsect SIMulation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemerik, Lia; Nes, van Egbert H.

    2016-01-01

    Degree-day models have long been used to predict events in the life cycle of insects and therewith the timing of outbreaks of insect pests and their natural enemies. This approach assumes, however, that the effect of temperature is linear, whereas developmental rates of insects are non-linearly

  14. Sustainable finance

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector

  15. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  16. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  17. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  18. Comparative insect mitochondrial genomes: Differences despite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a comparative analysis of select insect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) representing four insect orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera and Coleoptera) consisting of 12 different species in an effort to study a common set of genes and to understand the evolution of mitochondrial genome. A functional analysis of ...

  19. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  20. Diversity in protein glycosylation among insect species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vandenborre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A very common protein modification in multicellular organisms is protein glycosylation or the addition of carbohydrate structures to the peptide backbone. Although the Class of the Insecta is the largest animal taxon on Earth, almost all information concerning glycosylation in insects is derived from studies with only one species, namely the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the differences in glycoproteomes between insects belonging to several economically important insect orders were studied. Using GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin affinity chromatography, different sets of glycoproteins with mannosyl-containing glycan structures were purified from the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, the silkworm (Bombyx mori, the honeybee (Apis mellifera, the fruit fly (D. melanogaster and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum. To identify and characterize the purified glycoproteins, LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. For all insect species, it was demonstrated that glycoproteins were related to a broad range of biological processes and molecular functions. Moreover, the majority of glycoproteins retained on the GNA column were unique to one particular insect species and only a few glycoproteins were present in the five different glycoprotein sets. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that insect glycoproteins can be decorated with mannosylated O-glycans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results presented here demonstrate that oligomannose N-glycosylation events are highly specific depending on the insect species. In addition, we also demonstrated that protein O-mannosylation in insect species may occur more frequently than currently believed.

  1. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it

  2. Insects associated with ponderosa pine in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Stevens; J. Wayne Brewer; David A. Leatherman

    1980-01-01

    Ponderosa pine serves as a host for a wide variety of insects. Many of these, including all the particularly destructive ones in Colorado, are discussed in this report. Included are a key to the major insect groups, an annotated list of the major groups, a glossary, and a list of references.

  3. Testing mechanistic models of growth in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maino, James L; Kearney, Michael R

    2015-11-22

    Insects are typified by their small size, large numbers, impressive reproductive output and rapid growth. However, insect growth is not simply rapid; rather, insects follow a qualitatively distinct trajectory to many other animals. Here we present a mechanistic growth model for insects and show that increasing specific assimilation during the growth phase can explain the near-exponential growth trajectory of insects. The presented model is tested against growth data on 50 insects, and compared against other mechanistic growth models. Unlike the other mechanistic models, our growth model predicts energy reserves per biomass to increase with age, which implies a higher production efficiency and energy density of biomass in later instars. These predictions are tested against data compiled from the literature whereby it is confirmed that insects increase their production efficiency (by 24 percentage points) and energy density (by 4 J mg(-1)) between hatching and the attainment of full size. The model suggests that insects achieve greater production efficiencies and enhanced growth rates by increasing specific assimilation and increasing energy reserves per biomass, which are less costly to maintain than structural biomass. Our findings illustrate how the explanatory and predictive power of mechanistic growth models comes from their grounding in underlying biological processes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  5. Insect Biodiversity in the Palearctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of insect biological diversity in the Palearctic is provided. Among World greatest biogeographic Regions, Palearctic is the largest with the longest history of faunistic and biodiversity studies, it is the best known with respect to its overall insect diversity. The following subdivision of...

  6. What Do Elementary Students Know about Insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview-based study of (n=56) elementary school students. Determines students' understanding about insect characteristics, life cycles, environmental conditions, and impact on humans. Suggests building units of instruction based on students' personal questions about insects. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  7. Applications of genome editing in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect genome editing was first reported 1991 in Drosophila melanogaster but the technology used was not portable to other species. Not until the recent development of facile, engineered DNA endonuclease systems has gene editing become widely available to insect scientists. Most applications in inse...

  8. Polydnaviruses: Roles in insect pathology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the more unusual groups of insect pathogens consists of members of the family Polydnaviridae, DNA insect viruses that live in mutual symbioses with their associated parasitoid wasp (Hymentoptera) carriers until they are injected into specific Lepidopteran hosts. Once inside this secondary hos...

  9. The Evolution of Agriculture in Insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Ulrich G.; Gerardo, Nicole M.; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    Agriculture has evolved independently in three insect orders: once in ants, once in termites, and seven times in ambrosia beetles. Although these insect farmers are in some ways quite different from each other, in many more ways they are remarkably similar, suggesting convergent evolution. All...

  10. Insect Bites and Stings: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or movement. AskMayoExpert. Stinging insect allergy (adult and pediatric). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. Stinging insect allergy: Tips to remember. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/ ...

  11. Social insect symbionts: evolution in homeostatic fortresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David P; Pierce, Naomi E; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    The massive environmentally buffered nests of some social insects can contain millions of individuals and a wide variety of parasites, commensals and mutualists. We suggest that the ways in which these homeostatic fortress environments affect the evolution of social insect symbionts are relevant ...

  12. Testing mechanistic models of growth in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maino, James L.; Kearney, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Insects are typified by their small size, large numbers, impressive reproductive output and rapid growth. However, insect growth is not simply rapid; rather, insects follow a qualitatively distinct trajectory to many other animals. Here we present a mechanistic growth model for insects and show that increasing specific assimilation during the growth phase can explain the near-exponential growth trajectory of insects. The presented model is tested against growth data on 50 insects, and compared against other mechanistic growth models. Unlike the other mechanistic models, our growth model predicts energy reserves per biomass to increase with age, which implies a higher production efficiency and energy density of biomass in later instars. These predictions are tested against data compiled from the literature whereby it is confirmed that insects increase their production efficiency (by 24 percentage points) and energy density (by 4 J mg−1) between hatching and the attainment of full size. The model suggests that insects achieve greater production efficiencies and enhanced growth rates by increasing specific assimilation and increasing energy reserves per biomass, which are less costly to maintain than structural biomass. Our findings illustrate how the explanatory and predictive power of mechanistic growth models comes from their grounding in underlying biological processes. PMID:26609084

  13. Edible insects contributing to food security?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Because of growing demand for meat and declining availability of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternative protein sources. Edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact than livestock. Insect meal can replace scarce fishmeal as feed ingredient, in particular

  14. Applications of genome editing in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, William; O'Brochta, David A

    2016-02-01

    Insect genome editing was first reported 1991 in Drosophila melanogaster but the technology used was not portable to other species. Not until the recent development of facile, engineered DNA endonuclease systems has gene editing become widely available to insect scientists. Most applications in insects to date have been technical in nature but this is rapidly changing. Functional genomics and genetics-based insect control efforts will be major beneficiaries of the application of contemporary gene editing technologies. Engineered endonucleases like Cas9 make it possible to create powerful and effective gene drive systems that could be used to reduce or even eradicate specific insect populations. 'Best practices' for using Cas9-based editing are beginning to emerge making it easier and more effective to design and use but gene editing technologies still require traditional means of delivery in order to introduce them into somatic and germ cells of insects-microinjection of developing embryos. This constrains the use of these technologies by insect scientists. Insects created using editing technologies challenge existing governmental regulatory structures designed to manage genetically modified organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 8 Aquatic Insect Fauna.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    period of one year during the wet, dry and intermediate seasons for aquatic insect fauna. Fifteen sampling sites were chosen based on certain ... objects as well as aquatic plants and leaves. Fifty seven (57) species of aquatic insects .... Both litter and household waste littered the river bank. D4 UP. Sampling was done at ...

  16. Symbiont-mediated functions in insect hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qi; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial endosymbionts occur in a diverse array of insect species and are usually rely within the vertical transmission from mothers to offspring. In addition to primary symbionts, plant sap-sucking insects may also harbor several diverse secondary symbionts. Bacterial symbionts play a prominent role in insect nutritional ecology by aiding in digestion of food or supplementing nutrients that insect hosts can’t obtain sufficient amounts from a restricted diet of plant phloem. Currently, several other ecologically relevant traits mediated by endosymbionts are being investigated, including defense toward pathogens and parasites, adaption to environment, influences on insect-plant interactions, and impact of population dynamics. Here, we review recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations of these traits mediated by endosymbionts and suggest that clarifying the roles of symbiotic microbes may be important to offer insights for ameliorating pest invasiveness or impact. PMID:23710278

  17. Multiorganismal Insects: Diversity and Function of Resident Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contributing to nutrition, especially by providing essential amino acids, B vitamins, and, for fungal partners, sterols. Some microorganisms protect their insect hosts against pathogens, parasitoids, and other parasites by synthesizing specific toxins or modifying the insect immune system. Priorities for future research include elucidation of microbial contributions to detoxification, especially of plant allelochemicals in phytophagous insects, and resistance to pathogens; as well as their role in among-insect communication; and the potential value of manipulation of the microbiota to control insect pests. PMID:25341109

  18. Spatial distribution of aquatic insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    Species associated with freshwater ecosystems are currently undergoing severe global declines and freshwater ecosystems are regarded as some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world. These declines are a consequence of decades of human overexploitation, pollution and climate change. If adeq......Species associated with freshwater ecosystems are currently undergoing severe global declines and freshwater ecosystems are regarded as some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world. These declines are a consequence of decades of human overexploitation, pollution and climate change...... niche is derived from local distribution patterns, without incorporating landscape history it can lead to an erroneous niche definition. Chapter III provides some of the first evidence for differences in dispersal phenology related to flight potential in aquatic insects. The chapter highlights...

  19. Pangênese, genes, epigênese

    OpenAIRE

    Arcanjo, Fernanda Gonçalves; Silva, Edson Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Resumo Em 1868, Darwin publica seu livro The variation of animals and plants under domestication, no qual expõe sua teoria da hereditariedade. Nela se encontrava o pressuposto de que o desenvolvimento era fundamental para compreensão do processo evolutivo. No presente trabalho, é feita uma releitura da teoria darwiniana da pangênese, no intuito de rediscutir seu valor histórico. Conclui-se que a teoria da pangênese estava bem adequada a seu tempo e, mais do que isso, é possível encontrar ress...

  20. Pangênese, genes, epigênese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gonçalves Arcanjo

    Full Text Available Resumo Em 1868, Darwin publica seu livro The variation of animals and plants under domestication, no qual expõe sua teoria da hereditariedade. Nela se encontrava o pressuposto de que o desenvolvimento era fundamental para compreensão do processo evolutivo. No presente trabalho, é feita uma releitura da teoria darwiniana da pangênese, no intuito de rediscutir seu valor histórico. Conclui-se que a teoria da pangênese estava bem adequada a seu tempo e, mais do que isso, é possível encontrar ressonâncias de seu pressuposto em trabalhos das novas áreas biologia evolutiva do desenvolvimento (evo-devo e epigenética.

  1. A call to insect scientists: Challenges and opportunities of managing insect communities under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jessica J.; Grundel, Ralph; Hoving, Chris; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2016-01-01

    As climate change moves insect systems into uncharted territory, more knowledge about insect dynamics and the factors that drive them could enable us to better manage and conserve insect communities. Climate change may also require us revisit insect management goals and strategies and lead to a new kind of scientific engagement in management decision-making. Here we make five key points about the role of insect science in aiding and crafting management decisions, and we illustrate those points with the monarch butterfly and the Karner blue butterfly, two species undergoing considerable change and facing new management dilemmas. Insect biology has a strong history of engagement in applied problems, and as the impacts of climate change increase, a reimagined ethic of entomology in service of broader society may emerge. We hope to motivate insect biologists to contribute time and effort toward solving the challenges of climate change.

  2. A call to insect scientists: challenges and opportunities of managing insect communities under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jessica J; Grundel, Ralph; Hoving, Chris; Schuurman, Gregor W

    2016-10-01

    As climate change moves insect systems into uncharted territory, more knowledge about insect dynamics and the factors that drive them could enable us to better manage and conserve insect communities. Climate change may also require us to revisit insect management goals and strategies and lead to a new kind of scientific engagement in management decision-making. Here we make five key points about the role of insect science in aiding and crafting management decisions, and we illustrate those points with the monarch butterfly and the Karner blue butterfly, two species undergoing considerable change and facing new management dilemmas. Insect biology has a strong history of engagement in applied problems, and as the impacts of climate change increase, a reimagined ethic of entomology in service of broader society may emerge. We hope to motivate insect biologists to contribute time and effort toward solving the challenges of climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Smads and insect hemimetabolan metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carolina G; Fernandez-Nicolas, Ana; Belles, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    In contrast with Drosophila melanogaster, practically nothing is known about the involvement of the TGF-β signaling pathway in the metamorphosis of hemimetabolan insects. To partially fill this gap, we have studied the role of Smad factors in the metamorphosis of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. In D. melanogaster, Mad is the canonical R-Smad of the BMP branch of the TGF-β signaling pathway, Smox is the canonical R-Smad of the TGF-β/Activin branch and Medea participates in both branches. In insects, metamorphosis is regulated by the MEKRE93 pathway, which starts with juvenile hormone (JH), whose signal is transduced by Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which stimulates the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) that acts to repress E93, the metamorphosis trigger. In B. germanica, metamorphosis is determined at the beginning of the sixth (final) nymphal instar (N6), when JH production ceases, the expression of Kr-h1 declines, and the transcription of E93 begins to increase. The RNAi of Mad, Smox and Medea in N6 of B. germanica reveals that the BMP branch of the TGF-β signaling pathway regulates adult ecdysis and wing extension, mainly through regulating the expression of bursicon, whereas the TGF-β/Activin branch contributes to increasing E93 and decreasing Kr-h1 at the beginning of N6, crucial for triggering adult morphogenesis, as well as to regulating the imaginal molt timing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial volatile emissions as insect semiochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Crippen, Tawni L; Hofstetter, Richard W; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-07-01

    We provide a synthesis of the literature describing biochemical interactions between microorganisms and insects by way of microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) production. We evaluated the functionality and ecological context of MVOC signals, and explored important metabolic pathways involved in MVOC production. The cosmopolitan distribution of microorganisms creates a context for frequent, and frequently overlooked, insect responses to microbial emissions. There are numerous instances of MVOCs being closely associated with insect feeding behaviors, but some MVOCs are also powerful repellants. Emissions from microorganisms in situ may signal aspects of habitat suitability or potential exposure to entomopathogens. In some ecosystems, bacterial or fungal volatiles can also incite insect aggregations, or MVOCs can resemble sexual pheromones that elicit mating and oviposition behaviors from responding insects. A single microorganism or MVOC can have different effects on insect behaviors, especially across species, ontogenies, and habitats. There appears to be a multipartite basis for insect responses to MVOCs, and complex tritrophic interactions can result from the production of MVOCs. Many biochemical pathways for behaviorally active volatile production by microbial species are conserved across large taxonomic groupings of microorganisms. In addition, there is substantial functional redundancy in MVOCs: fungal tissues commonly produce polyketides and short-chain alcohols, whereas bacterial tissues tend to be more commonly associated with amines and pyrazines. We hypothesize that insect olfactory responses to emissions from microorganisms inhabiting their sensory environment are much more common than currently recognized, and that these signals represent evolutionarily reliable infochemicals. Insect chemoreception of microbial volatiles may contribute to the formation of neutral, beneficial, or even harmful symbioses and provide considerable insight into the

  5. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...

  6. Sustainability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  7. Can insects increase food security in developing countries? An analysis of Kenyan consumer preferences and demand for cricket flour buns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Achieving food security in an environmentally sustainable manner is one of the biggest challenges of our time. Using insects as food can serve this purpose because they are nutritionally valuable and environmentally friendly. Embracing insects as food requires information on potential consumer...... market shares than standard buns. Results also suggested that a market for breads made with cricket flour is likely in Kenya since the demand is present. This signals that insect-based food products may serve as a viable and demand-driven way to increase food security in Kenya in the future....... demand as this would determine the success of product development. In this study, we present one of the first thorough assessments of consumer demand for an insect-based food. We assessed the demand in terms of Kenyan consumer preferences and willingness to pay for buns containing varying amounts...

  8. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  9. Sustainable agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...

  10. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Abstract. This article examines the concept of sustainable development after the Post-. 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. Various African countries are vulnerable to climate change, as is evidenced by recent droughts. Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in.

  11. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  12. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  13. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  14. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  15. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  16. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  17. Insect prophenoloxidase: the view beyond immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anrui eLu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO is an important innate immunity protein due to its involvement in cellular and humoral defense. It belongs to a group of type-3 copper-containing proteins that occurs in almost all organisms. Insect PPO has been studied for over a century, and the PPO activation cascade is becoming clearer. The insect PPO activation pathway incorporates several important proteins, including pattern-recognition receptors (PGRP, βGRP and C-type lectins, serine proteases, and serine protease inhibitors (serpins. Due to their complexity, PPO activation mechanisms vary among insect species. Activated phenoloxidase (PO oxidizes phenolic molecules to produce melanin around invading pathogens and wounds. The crystal structure of Manduca sexta PPO shows that a conserved amino acid, phenylalanine (F, can block the active site pocket. During activation, this blocker must be dislodged or even cleaved at the N-terminal sequence to expose the active site pockets and allow substrates to enter. Thanks to the crystal structure of M. sexta PPO, some domains and specific amino acids that affect PPO activities have been identified. Further studies of the relationship between PPO structure and enzyme activities will provide an opportunity to examine other type-3 copper proteins, and trace when and why their various physiological functions evolved. Recent researches show that insect PPO has a relationship with neuron activity, longevity, feces melanization (phytophagous insects and development, which suggests that it is time for us to look back on insect PPO beyond the view of immunity in this review.

  18. Modern Stored-Product Insect Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagstrum David William

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stored-product entomologists have a variety of new monitoring, decision-making, biological, chemical, and physical pest management tools available to them. Two types of stored-product insect populations are of interest: insects of immediate economic importance infesting commodities, and insects that live in food residues in equipment and facilities. The sampling and control methods change as grain and grain products move from field to consumer. There are also some changes in the major insect pest species to take into consideration. In this review, we list the primary insect pests at each point of the marketing system, and indicate which sampling methods and control strategies are most appropriate. Economic thresholds for insect infestation levels developed for raw commodity storage, processing plants, and retail business allow sampling-based pest management to be done before insect infestations cause economic injury. Taking enough samples to have a representative sample (20-30 samples will generally provide enough information to classify a population as above or below an economic threshold.

  19. Incidence of epigeal nest-building termites in Brachiaria pastures in the Cerrado = Incidência de térmitas de ninhos epígeos em pastagens de Brachiaria no Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Lopes de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the number of termite epigeal nests and estimate the soil turning capacity of termites in cultivated pasture environments and in a native vegetation area. Surveys were conducted in four areas: three pasture areas and a Cerrado area, measuring 5 ha each. For each nest, the height, the perimeter and diameter at the base were measured. The volume of each mound was calculated. Turned soil was determined by randomly sampling 30 termite mounds in a pasture area for bulk density determinations. The mean number oftermite mounds per ha was 408; the highest number of termite nests (672 per ha was found in the 10-year-old pasture. In terms of termite mound density, there was no difference between the Cerrado, 3-year-old pasture, and 3-year-old intercropped pasture treatments. The total area occupied by termite nests ranged from 0.4 to 1.0%. The mean bulk density of the nest materials was 1.05 g cm-3. The total nests volume ranged from 4 to 11 m3 ha-1. The total mass of the soilturned by the termites ranged from 3.4 to 13.4 ton. ha-1.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o número de ninhos epígeos e estimar a capacidade de revolvimento do solo pelos térmitas em ambientes de pastagens cultivadas e uma área nativa de Cerrado. Foram feitos levantamentos em quatro áreas, sendo três de pastagem e uma de Cerrado com 5 ha cada. Para cada ninho, foram mensurados a altura, o perímetro basal e diâmetro na base. Foi calculado o volume de cada montículo. Para determinar a densidade do solo mobilizado foi feita amostragem ao acaso em ninhos epígeos numa área de pastagem. O número médio de ninhos epígeos por ha foi de 408, o maior número de cupinzeiros está na pastagem dez anos (672 ninhos. Em termos de densidade média de ninhos epígeos não houve diferença entre os tratamentos: Cerrado, pastagem três anos e pastagem consorciada trêsanos. A área total ocupada pelos ninhos epígeos variou de 0,4 a 1 %. A

  20. Mutations and their use in insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alan S

    2002-06-01

    Traditional chemically based methods for insect control have been shown to have serious limitations, and many alternative approaches have been developed and evaluated, including those based on the use of different types of mutation. The mutagenic action of ionizing radiation was well known in the field of genetics long before it was realized by entomologists that it might be used to induce dominant lethal mutations in insects, which, when released, could sterilize wild female insects. The use of radiation to induce dominant lethal mutations in the sterile insect technique (SIT) is now a major component of many large and successful programs for pest suppression and eradication. Adult insects, and their different developmental stages, differ in their sensitivity to the induction of dominant lethal mutations, and care has to be taken to identify the appropriate dose of radiation that produces the required level of sterility without impairing the overall fitness of the released insect. Sterility can also be introduced into populations through genetic mechanisms, including translocations, hybrid incompatibility, and inherited sterility in Lepidoptera. The latter phenomenon is due to the fact that this group of insects has holokinetic chromosomes. Specific types of mutations can also be used to make improvements to the SIT, especially for the development of strains for the production of only male insects for sterilization and release. These strains utilize male translocations and a variety of selectable mutations, either conditional or visible, so that at some stage of development, the males can be separated from the females. In one major insect pest, Ceratitis capitata, these strains are used routinely in large operational programs. This review summarizes these developments, including the possible future use of transgenic technology in pest control.

  1. Prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eStanley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (PGs and their known receptors in insect biology. PGs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a growing body of literature indicates the biological significance of these compounds extends throughout the animal kingdom, and possibly beyond. PGs act in several crucial areas of insect biology. In reproduction, a specific PG, PGE2, releases oviposition behavior in most crickets and a few other insect species; PGs also mediate events in egg development in some species, which may represent all insects. PGs play major roles in modulating fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, rectum and salivary glands, although, again, this has been studied in only a few insect species that may represent the Class. Insect immunity is a very complex defense system. PGs and other eicosanoids mediate a large number of immune reactions to infection and invasion. The actions of most PGs are mediated by specific receptors. Biomedical research has discovered a great deal of knowledge about PG receptors in mammals, including their structures, pharmacology, molecular biology and cellular locations. Studies of PG receptors in insects lag behind the biomedical background, however, recent results hold the promise of accelerated research in this area. A PG receptor has been identified in a class of lepidopteran hemocytes and experimentally linked to the release of prophenoloxidase. We conclude that research into PGs and their receptors in insects will lead to important advances in our understanding of insect biology.

  2. Physical gills prevent drowning of many wetland insects, spiders and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D

    2012-03-01

    Insects, spiders and plants risk drowning in their wetland habitats. The slow diffusion of O(2) can cause asphyxiation when underwater, as O(2) supply cannot meet respiratory demands. Some animals and plants have found a common solution to the major challenge: how to breathe underwater with respiratory systems evolved for use in air? Hydrophobic surfaces on their bodies possess gas films that act as a 'physical gill' to collect O(2) when underwater and thus sustain respiration. In aquatic insects, this feature/process has been termed 'plastron respiration'. Here, we demonstrate the similarities in function between underwater respiration of insect (Aphelocheirus aestivalis) plastrons and gas films on leaves of wetland plants (Phalaris arundinacea) and also show the importance of these physical gills by the resulting changes upon their removal. The gas films provide an enlarged gas-water interface to enhance O(2) uptake underwater that is above that if only spiracles (insects) or stomata (plants) provided the gas-phase contact with the water. Body-surface gas films contribute to the survival of many insects, spiders and plants in aquatic and flood-prone environments.

  3. Specialized Pathogen of a Social Insect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Małagocka, Joanna

    Entomopathogenic fungi from the order Entomophthorales are highly specialized, host-specific and obligatory pathogens, which infect, consume and eventually kill their host insect within a few days. Established infection can effectively wipe out the majority of a host population. Social insects......, various aspects of the interaction with a social insect host are studied. Like a number of other entomophthoralean fungi, P. formicae manipulates pre-death behavior of its host to secure favorable position for transmission of actively discharged conidia to new hosts. Before dying, infected ants climb...

  4. How will better products improve the sensory-liking and willingness to buy insect-based foods?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace; Verbaan, Yoeri Timothy; Stieger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Insects have been established to be a more sustainable alternative source of protein in comparison to conventional meats, but have little appeal to those who are unfamiliar with their taste. Yet little attention has been given to understanding how more appealing products could be developed, and

  5. Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Broekhoven, Van Sarah; Huis, Van Arnold; Loon, Van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from byproducts of food

  6. Degradation and excretion of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol by an edible insect, the Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, van S.; Mota Gutierrez, J.; Rijk, de T.C.; Nijs, de W.C.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Insects could provide an alternative and more sustainable source of animal protein compared to conventional livestock. Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) can be grown on diets composed of organic by-products. However, these diets could be contaminated with mycotoxins. Thus far, little is

  7. Protecting the environment through insect farming as a means to produce protein for use as livestock, poultry, and aquaculture feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomberlin, J.K.; Huis, van A.; Benbow, M.E.; Jordan, H.; Astuti, D.A.; Azzollini, D.; Banks, I.; Bava, V.; Borgemeister, C.; Cammack, J.A.; Chapkin, R.S.; Cickova, H.; Crippen, T.L.; Day, A.; Dicke, M.; Drew, D.W.J.; Emhart, C.; Epstein, M.; Finke, M.; Fischer, C.H.; Gatlin, D.; Grabowski, N.Th.; He, C.; Heckman, L.; Hubert, A.; Jacobs, J.; Josephs, J.; Khanal, S.K.; Kleinfinger, J.F.; Klein, G.; Leach, C.; Liu, Y.; Newton, G.L.; Olivier, R.; Pechal, J.L.; Picard, C.J.; Rojo, S.; Roncarati, A.; Sheppard, C.; Tarone, A.M.; Verstappen, B.; Vickerson, A.; Yang, H.; Yen, A.L.; Yu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, L.

    2015-01-01

    Securing protein for the approximate 10 billion humans expected to inhabit our planet by 2050 is a major priority for the global community. Evidence has accrued over the past 30 years that strongly supports and justifies the sustainable use of insects as a means to produce protein products as feed

  8. Beneficial insect borders provide northern bobwhite brood habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Moorman

    Full Text Available Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes, including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus, but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species. Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds.

  9. SUSTAINABLE CORPORATE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the image of the international business environment has changed significantly. Studies conducted by UNCTAD shows that corporate phenomenon developments in the world economy is growing. Without claiming to present an exhaustive topic so vast we tried to capture some "facets" of sustainable development from the perspective of multinational corporations, given the expansion of these economic entities and strengthening their power in the global economy. We present more negative aspects of the actions of multinational corporations in terms of sustainable development, it is very important to know both sides of the coin, which will not only help transnational giants including release. Based on issues such as corporate social responsibility, environmental pollution and workers' rights, we sought to counter official statements. The conclusion is that these economic entities are real forces that can not be ignored in today's world and the obvious problem of sustainable development can not be addressed independently of the phenomenon, context we also identified some possible solutions to conflict of corporations and essence of the concept of sustainable development.

  10. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...... biophysical, distributional and economic conditions for high consumption in rich countries and then zooms in on the coevolution of provision systems and consumption, and how consumption is shaped by practices and projects in everyday life. Furthermore, the paper discusses whether and how transition...

  11. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems that ...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings.......The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  12. Conserving herbivorous and predatory insects in urban green spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Luis; Threlfall, Caragh G.; Williams, Nicholas S. G.; Hahs, Amy K.; Malipatil, Mallik; Stork, Nigel E.; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Insects are key components of urban ecological networks and are greatly impacted by anthropogenic activities. Yet, few studies have examined how insect functional groups respond to changes to urban vegetation associated with different management actions. We investigated the response of herbivorous and predatory heteropteran bugs to differences in vegetation structure and diversity in golf courses, gardens and parks. We assessed how the species richness of these groups varied amongst green space types, and the effect of vegetation volume and plant diversity on trophic- and species-specific occupancy. We found that golf courses sustain higher species richness of herbivores and predators than parks and gardens. At the trophic- and species-specific levels, herbivores and predators show strong positive responses to vegetation volume. The effect of plant diversity, however, is distinctly species-specific, with species showing both positive and negative responses. Our findings further suggest that high occupancy of bugs is obtained in green spaces with specific combinations of vegetation structure and diversity. The challenge for managers is to boost green space conservation value through actions promoting synergistic combinations of vegetation structure and diversity. Tackling this conservation challenge could provide enormous benefits for other elements of urban ecological networks and people that live in cities. PMID:28102333

  13. Prospects of genetic engineering for robust insect resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A

    2014-06-01

    Secondary plant metabolites are potentially of great value for providing robust resistance in plants against insect pests. Such metabolites often comprise small lipophilic molecules (SLMs), and can be similar also in terms of activity to currently used insecticides, for example, the pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and butenolides, which provide more effective pest management than the resistance traits exploited by breeding. Crop plants mostly lack the SLMs that provide their wild ancestors with resistance to pests. However, resistance traits based on the biosynthesis of SLMs present promising new opportunities for crop resistance to pests. Advances in genetic engineering of secondary metabolite pathways that produce insecticidal compounds and, more recently, SLMs involved in plant colonisation and development, for example, insect pheromones, offer specific new approaches but which are more demanding than the genetic engineering approaches adopted so far. In addition, nature also offers various opportunities for exploiting induction or priming for resistance metabolite generation. Thus, use of non-constitutively expressed resistance traits delivered via the seed is a more sustainable approach than previously achieved, and could underpin development of perennial arable crops protected by sentinel plant technologies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The city as a refuge for insect pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Damon M; Camilo, Gerardo R; Tonietto, Rebecca K; Ollerton, Jeff; Ahrné, Karin; Arduser, Mike; Ascher, John S; Baldock, Katherine C R; Fowler, Robert; Frankie, Gordon; Goulson, Dave; Gunnarsson, Bengt; Hanley, Mick E; Jackson, Janet I; Langellotto, Gail; Lowenstein, David; Minor, Emily S; Philpott, Stacy M; Potts, Simon G; Sirohi, Muzafar H; Spevak, Edward M; Stone, Graham N; Threlfall, Caragh G

    2017-02-01

    Research on urban insect pollinators is changing views on the biological value and ecological importance of cities. The abundance and diversity of native bee species in urban landscapes that are absent in nearby rural lands evidence the biological value and ecological importance of cities and have implications for biodiversity conservation. Lagging behind this revised image of the city are urban conservation programs that historically have invested in education and outreach rather than programs designed to achieve high-priority species conservation results. We synthesized research on urban bee species diversity and abundance to determine how urban conservation could be repositioned to better align with new views on the ecological importance of urban landscapes. Due to insect pollinators' relatively small functional requirements-habitat range, life cycle, and nesting behavior-relative to larger mammals, we argue that pollinators put high-priority and high-impact urban conservation within reach. In a rapidly urbanizing world, transforming how environmental managers view the city can improve citizen engagement and contribute to the development of more sustainable urbanization. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Conserving herbivorous and predatory insects in urban green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Luis; Threlfall, Caragh G; Williams, Nicholas S G; Hahs, Amy K; Malipatil, Mallik; Stork, Nigel E; Livesley, Stephen J

    2017-01-19

    Insects are key components of urban ecological networks and are greatly impacted by anthropogenic activities. Yet, few studies have examined how insect functional groups respond to changes to urban vegetation associated with different management actions. We investigated the response of herbivorous and predatory heteropteran bugs to differences in vegetation structure and diversity in golf courses, gardens and parks. We assessed how the species richness of these groups varied amongst green space types, and the effect of vegetation volume and plant diversity on trophic- and species-specific occupancy. We found that golf courses sustain higher species richness of herbivores and predators than parks and gardens. At the trophic- and species-specific levels, herbivores and predators show strong positive responses to vegetation volume. The effect of plant diversity, however, is distinctly species-specific, with species showing both positive and negative responses. Our findings further suggest that high occupancy of bugs is obtained in green spaces with specific combinations of vegetation structure and diversity. The challenge for managers is to boost green space conservation value through actions promoting synergistic combinations of vegetation structure and diversity. Tackling this conservation challenge could provide enormous benefits for other elements of urban ecological networks and people that live in cities.

  16. Comparative psychoneuroimmunology: evidence from the insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2006-09-01

    Interactions between immune systems, nervous systems, and behavior are well established in vertebrates. A comparative examination of these interactions in other animals will help us understand their evolution and present adaptive functions. Insects show immune-behavioral interactions similar to those seen in vertebrates, suggesting that many of them may have a highly conserved function. Activation of an immune response in insects results in illness-induced anorexia, behavioral fever, changes in reproductive behavior, and decreased learning ability in a broad range of species. Flight-or-fight behaviors result in a decline in disease resistance. In insects, illness-induced anorexia may enhance immunity. Stress-induced immunosuppression is probably due to physiological conflicts between the immune response and those of other physiological processes. Because insects occupy a wide range of ecological niches, they will be useful in examining how some immune-behavioral interactions are sculpted by an animal's behavioral ecology.

  17. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  18. Searching for cognitive processes underlying insect learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MIZUNAMI, MAKOTO; SATO-MATSUMOTO, CHIHIRO; MATSUMOTO, YUKIHISA

    2017-01-01

    Elucidation of neural mechanisms of learning and memory in insects and their comparison with those in mammals should help to deepen our understanding of evolution of the brain and behavior in animals...

  19. Stinging insect allergies. Assessing and managing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaspole, I; Douglass, J; Czarny, D; O'Hehir, R

    1997-12-01

    Mortality secondary to insect sting anaphylaxis, though uncommon in this country, is a genuine risk to patients with venom hypersensitivity. A number of non specific and specific preventive measures are available to minimise this risk. They include proper patient counselling regarding sting avoidance and the use of self injectable adrenaline, as well as venom specific immunotherapy. This article attempts to review the spectrum of insect sting reactions, their appropriate assessment and subsequent management. Anaphylaxis is particularly emphasised with regard to first aid treatment and subsequent prevention. The most common causes of insect stings in Australia are bees and wasps. Insect sting reactions cover a spectrum of responses, from normal to anaphylactic. Immunotherapy is indicated in those patients who experience anaphylactic responses. The presence of venom specific IgE must be demonstrated before commencing immunotherapy. Venom sensitive patients should be educated in anaphylaxis first aid with adrenaline self injectable syringes.

  20. Insects that damage northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1982-01-01

    From 1961 to 1964 and in 1979, the insects found damaging acorns of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in their relative order of abundance were: Curculio proboscideus F., C. sulcatulus (Casey), Melissopus latiferreanus (Wals.), C. nasicus (Say), C. orthorhynchus...

  1. First Aid: Insect Stings and Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe reaction: If your child has injectable epinephrine (EpiPen), give it right away, then call 911. Tell ... to a stinging or biting insect injectable epinephrine (EpiPen) was used the site looks infected (increasing redness, ...

  2. Learning in Insect Pollinators and Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia L; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2017-01-31

    The relationship between plants and insects is influenced by insects' behavioral decisions during foraging and oviposition. In mutualistic pollinators and antagonistic herbivores, past experience (learning) affects such decisions, which ultimately can impact plant fitness. The higher levels of dietary generalism in pollinators than in herbivores may be an explanation for the differences in learning seen between these two groups. Generalist pollinators experience a high level of environmental variation, which we suggest favors associative learning. Larval herbivores employ habituation and sensitization-strategies useful in their less variable environments. Exceptions to these patterns based on habitats, mobility, and life history provide critical tests of current theory. Relevant plant traits should be under selection to be easily learned and remembered in pollinators and difficult to learn in herbivores. Insect learning thereby has the potential to have an important, yet largely unexplored, role in plant-insect coevolution.

  3. Insect trypanosomatids: the need to know more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A Podlipaev

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Of ten recognized trypanosomatid genera, only two -- pathogenic Trypanosoma and Leishmania -- have been actively investigated for any length of time while the plant flagellates -- Phytomonas -- have recently begun to attract attention due to their role as agricultural parasites. The remaining genera that comprise parasites associated with insects have been largely neglected except for two or three containing popular isolates. This publication reviews current knowledge of trypanosomatids from insects.

  4. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe de Mello Vigoder; Michael Gordon Ritchie; Gabriella Gibson; Alexandre Afranio Peixoto

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and se...

  5. A new family of insect tyramine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Klærke, Dan Arne; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2005-01-01

    in the genomic databases from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the honeybee Apis mellifera. These four tyramine or tyramine-like receptors constitute a new receptor family that is phylogenetically distinct from the previously identified insect octopamine/tyramine receptors. The Drosophila tyramine...... receptor is, to our knowledge, the first cloned insect G protein-coupled receptor that appears to be fully specific for tyramine....

  6. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Dupont

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  7. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ke

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent...

  8. Harnessing Insect-Microbe Chemical Communications To Control Insect Pests of Agricultural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John J; Vannette, Rachel L

    2017-01-11

    Insect pests cause serious economic, yield, and food safety problems to managed crops worldwide. Compounding these problems, insect pests often vector pathogenic or toxigenic microbes to plants. Previous work has considered plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions separately. Although insects are well-understood to use plant volatiles to locate hosts, microorganisms can produce distinct and abundant volatile compounds that in some cases strongly attract insects. In this paper, we focus on the microbial contribution to plant volatile blends, highlighting the compounds emitted and the potential for variation in microbial emission. We suggest that these aspects of microbial volatile emission may make these compounds ideal for use in agricultural applications, as they may be more specific or enhance methods currently used in insect control or monitoring. Our survey of microbial volatiles in insect-plant interactions suggests that these emissions not only signal host suitability but may indicate a distinctive time frame for optimal conditions for both insect and microbe. Exploitation of these host-specific microbe semiochemicals may provide important microbe- and host-based attractants and a basis for future plant-insect-microbe chemical ecology investigations.

  9. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W. Hofstetter; J. C. Moser

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on...

  10. Insect Pathogenic Fungi as Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonjely, S; Barelli, L; Bidochka, M J

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore some of the evolutionary, ecological, molecular genetics, and applied aspects of a subset of insect pathogenic fungi that also have a lifestyle as endophytes and we term endophytic insect pathogenic fungi (EIPF). We focus particularly on Metarhizium spp. and Beauveria bassiana as EIPF. The discussion of the evolution of EIPF challenges a view that these fungi were first and foremost insect pathogens that eventually evolved to colonize plants. Phylogenetic evidence shows that the lineages of EIPF are most closely related to grass endophytes that diverged c. 100MYA. We discuss the relationship between genes involved in "insect pathogenesis" and those involved in "endophytism" and provide examples of genes with potential importance in lifestyle transitions toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been coopted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. The interactions of EIPF with their host plants are discussed in some detail. The genetic basis for rhizospheric competence, plant communication, and nutrient exchange is examined and we highlight, with examples, the benefits of EIPF to plants, and the potential reservoir of secondary metabolites hidden within these beneficial symbioses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Isotope labeling of proteins in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skora, Lukasz; Shrestha, Binesh; Gossert, Alvar D

    2015-01-01

    Protein targets of contemporary research are often membrane proteins, multiprotein complexes, secreted proteins, or other proteins of human origin. These are difficult to express in the standard expression host used for most nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies, Escherichia coli. Insect cells represent an attractive alternative, since they have become a well-established expression system and simple solutions have been developed for generation of viruses to efficiently introduce the target protein DNA into cells. Insect cells enable production of a larger fraction of the human proteome in a properly folded way than bacteria, as insect cells have a very similar set of cytosolic chaperones and a closely related secretory pathway. Here, the limited and defined glycosylation pattern that insect cells produce is an advantage for structural biology studies. For these reasons, insect cells have been established as the most widely used eukaryotic expression host for crystallographic studies. In the past decade, significant advancements have enabled amino acid type-specific as well as uniform isotope labeling of proteins in insect cells, turning them into an attractive expression host for NMR studies. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tomographic reconstruction of neopterous carboniferous insect nymphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Garwood

    Full Text Available Two new polyneopteran insect nymphs from the Montceau-les-Mines Lagerstätte of France are presented. Both are preserved in three dimensions, and are imaged with the aid of X-ray micro-tomography, allowing their morphology to be recovered in unprecedented detail. One-Anebos phrixos gen. et sp. nov.-is of uncertain affinities, and preserves portions of the antennae and eyes, coupled with a heavily spined habitus. The other is a roachoid with long antennae and chewing mouthparts very similar in form to the most generalized mandibulate mouthparts of extant orthopteroid insects. Computer reconstructions reveal limbs in both specimens, allowing identification of the segments and annulation in the tarsus, while poorly developed thoracic wing pads suggest both are young instars. This work describes the morphologically best-known Palaeozoic insect nymphs, allowing a better understanding of the juveniles' palaeobiology and palaeoecology. We also consider the validity of evidence from Palaeozoic juvenile insects in wing origin theories. The study of juvenile Palaeozoic insects is currently a neglected field, yet these fossils provide direct evidence on the evolution of insect development. It is hoped this study will stimulate a renewed interest in such work.

  13. Attention-like processes in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nityananda, Vivek

    2016-11-16

    Attention is fundamentally important for sensory systems to focus on behaviourally relevant stimuli. It has therefore been an important field of study in human psychology and neuroscience. Primates, however, are not the only animals that might benefit from attention-like processes. Other animals, including insects, also have to use their senses and select one among many stimuli to forage, avoid predators and find mates. They have evolved different mechanisms to reduce the information processed by their brains to focus on only relevant stimuli. What are the mechanisms used by insects to selectively attend to visual and auditory stimuli? Do these attention-like mechanisms achieve the same functions as they do in primates? To investigate these questions, I use an established framework for investigating attention in non-human animals that proposes four fundamental components of attention: salience filters, competitive selection, top-down sensitivity control and working memory. I discuss evidence for each of these component processes in insects and compare the characteristics of these processes in insects to what we know from primates. Finally, I highlight important outstanding questions about insect attention that need to be addressed for us to understand the differences and similarities between vertebrate and insect attention. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Individual versus collective cognition in social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinerman, Ofer; Korman, Amos

    2017-01-01

    The concerted responses of eusocial insects to environmental stimuli are often referred to as collective cognition at the level of the colony. To achieve collective cognition, a group can draw on two different sources: individual cognition and the connectivity between individuals. Computation in neural networks, for example, is attributed more to sophisticated communication schemes than to the complexity of individual neurons. The case of social insects, however, can be expected to differ. This is because individual insects are cognitively capable units that are often able to process information that is directly relevant at the level of the colony. Furthermore, involved communication patterns seem difficult to implement in a group of insects as they lack a clear network structure. This review discusses links between the cognition of an individual insect and that of the colony. We provide examples for collective cognition whose sources span the full spectrum between amplification of individual insect cognition and emergent group-level processes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Extracellular ice phase transitions in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, T C

    2014-01-01

    At temperatures below their temperature of crystallization (Tc), the extracellular body fluids of insects undergo a phase transition from liquid to solid. Insects that survive the transition to equilibrium (complete freezing of the body fluids) are designated as freeze tolerant. Although this phenomenon has been reported and described in many Insecta, current nomenclature and theory does not clearly delineate between the process of transition (freezing) and the final solid phase itself (the frozen state). Thus freeze tolerant insects are currently, by convention, described in terms of the temperature at which the crystallization of their body fluids is initiated, Tc. In fact, the correct descriptor for insects that tolerate freezing is the temperature of equilibrium freezing, Tef. The process of freezing is itself a separate physical event with unique physiological stresses that are associated with ice growth. Correspondingly there are a number of insects whose physiological cryo-limits are very specifically delineated by this transitional envelope. The distinction also has considerable significance for our understanding of insect cryobiology: firstly, because the ability to manage endogenous ice growth is a fundamental segregator of cryotype; and secondly, because our understanding of internal ice management is still largely nascent.

  16. Tomographic Reconstruction of Neopterous Carboniferous Insect Nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Russell; Ross, Andrew; Sotty, Daniel; Chabard, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Sutton, Mark; Withers, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Two new polyneopteran insect nymphs from the Montceau-les-Mines Lagerstätte of France are presented. Both are preserved in three dimensions, and are imaged with the aid of X-ray micro-tomography, allowing their morphology to be recovered in unprecedented detail. One–Anebos phrixos gen. et sp. nov.–is of uncertain affinities, and preserves portions of the antennae and eyes, coupled with a heavily spined habitus. The other is a roachoid with long antennae and chewing mouthparts very similar in form to the most generalized mandibulate mouthparts of extant orthopteroid insects. Computer reconstructions reveal limbs in both specimens, allowing identification of the segments and annulation in the tarsus, while poorly developed thoracic wing pads suggest both are young instars. This work describes the morphologically best-known Palaeozoic insect nymphs, allowing a better understanding of the juveniles’ palaeobiology and palaeoecology. We also consider the validity of evidence from Palaeozoic juvenile insects in wing origin theories. The study of juvenile Palaeozoic insects is currently a neglected field, yet these fossils provide direct evidence on the evolution of insect development. It is hoped this study will stimulate a renewed interest in such work. PMID:23049858

  17. Linking energetics and overwintering in temperate insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-12-01

    Overwintering insects cannot feed, and energy they take into winter must therefore fuel energy demands during autumn, overwintering, warm periods prior to resumption of development in spring, and subsequent activity. Insects primarily consume lipids during winter, but may also use carbohydrate and proteins as fuel. Because they are ectotherms, the metabolic rate of insects is temperature-dependent, and the curvilinear nature of the metabolic rate-temperature relationship means that warm temperatures are disproportionately important to overwinter energy use. This energy use may be reduced physiologically, by reducing the slope or elevation of the metabolic rate-temperature relationship, or because of threshold changes, such as metabolic suppression upon freezing. Insects may also choose microhabitats or life history stages that reduce the impact of overwinter energy drain. There is considerable capacity for overwinter energy drain to affect insect survival and performance both directly (via starvation) or indirectly (for example, through a trade-off with cryoprotection), but this has not been well-explored. Likewise, the impact of overwinter energy drain on growing-season performance is not well understood. I conclude that overwinter energetics provides a useful lens through which to link physiology and ecology and winter and summer in studies of insect responses to their environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tomographic reconstruction of neopterous carboniferous insect nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Russell; Ross, Andrew; Sotty, Daniel; Chabard, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Sutton, Mark; Withers, Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Two new polyneopteran insect nymphs from the Montceau-les-Mines Lagerstätte of France are presented. Both are preserved in three dimensions, and are imaged with the aid of X-ray micro-tomography, allowing their morphology to be recovered in unprecedented detail. One-Anebos phrixos gen. et sp. nov.-is of uncertain affinities, and preserves portions of the antennae and eyes, coupled with a heavily spined habitus. The other is a roachoid with long antennae and chewing mouthparts very similar in form to the most generalized mandibulate mouthparts of extant orthopteroid insects. Computer reconstructions reveal limbs in both specimens, allowing identification of the segments and annulation in the tarsus, while poorly developed thoracic wing pads suggest both are young instars. This work describes the morphologically best-known Palaeozoic insect nymphs, allowing a better understanding of the juveniles' palaeobiology and palaeoecology. We also consider the validity of evidence from Palaeozoic juvenile insects in wing origin theories. The study of juvenile Palaeozoic insects is currently a neglected field, yet these fossils provide direct evidence on the evolution of insect development. It is hoped this study will stimulate a renewed interest in such work.

  19. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Jørgen; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-Leroux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each...... pathogen group (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists and nematodes) are described and illustrated, with a selection of examples from the most commonly produced insect species for food and feed. Honeybee and silkworm are mostly produced for other reasons than as human food, yet we can still use them...... control, insect diseases, insects for food and feed, insect pathogens...

  20. Functional morphology of insect mechanoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, T A

    1997-12-15

    This paper reviews the structure and function of insect mechanoreceptors with respect to their cellular, subcellular, and cuticular organization. Four types are described and their function is discussed: 1, the bristles; 2, the trichobothria; 3, the campaniform sensilla; and 4, the scolopidia. Usually, bristles respond to touch, trichobothria to air currents and sound, campaniform sensilla to deformation of the cuticle, and scolopidia to stretch. Mechanoreceptors are composed of four cells: a bipolar sensory neuron, which is enveloped by the thecogen, the trichogen, and the tormogen cells. Apically, the neuron gives off a ciliary dendrite which is attached to the stimulus-transmitting cuticular structures. In types 1-3, the tip of the dendrite contains a highly organized cytoskeletal complex of microtubules, the "tubular body," which is connected to the dendritic membrane via short rods, the "membrane-integrated cones" (MICs). The dendritic membrane is attached to the cuticle via fine attachment fibers. The hair-type sensilla (types 1, 2) are constructed as first-order levers, which transmit deflection of the hair directly to the dendrite tip. In campaniform sensilla (type 3), there is a cuticular dome instead of a hair and the dendrite is stimulated by deformation of the cuticle. In these three types, a slight lateral compression of the dendrite tip is most probably the effective stimulus. In scolopidia, the dendritic membrane is most probably stimulated by stretch. On the subcellular level, connectors between the cytoskeleton, the dendritic membrane, and extracellular (cuticular) structures are present in all four types and are thought to be engaged in membrane depolarization.

  1. SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY FOR SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rizzuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundry Alfe Chem is an industrial reality working in the field of lubrication and chemical auxiliaries for industrial processes, which falls within the framework of the emerging and increasingly important «green chemistry». The goal of the company is to develop products that are more environmentally friendly by using raw materials from renewable sources; specifically, Foundry Alfe Chem has a program of self-sustainability that contemplates, for the foreseeable future, the direct production of renewable raw materials. The company has developed a new dedicated product line, Olitema, whose purpose is to offer highly technological solutions with complete environmental sustainability. In this context, Foundry Alfe CHEM has created a new product which represents a breakthrough in the class of HFC hydraulic fluids: Ecosafe Plus is a biodegradable fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with high engineering and technological performances, high environmental sustainability and the best security guarantees in workplaces. Its formulation is glycols-free, and it allows for easier disposal of the exhausted fluid, compared to a traditional water/ glycol-based HFC hydraulic fluid. For what concern the technological properties, Ecosafe Plus has been tested by accredited laboratories with tribological trials (4 Ball wear test ASTM D 4172, Ball on disc test ASTM 6425, Brugger test DIN 51347, Vickers test ASTM D 2882, with elastomer compatibility test (ASTM D 471 and biodegradability test (OECD 310 F.

  2. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...... as subject to substantial regulatory compliance obligations external to the process of procurement. In short, procurement has been transformed in a way to enforce regulatory obligations that are not intrinsic to the process of buying. This leads to the conclusion that questions such as the cost and trade...

  3. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  4. Residual efficacy of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen for control of stored product insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen is registered in the USA as an aerosol and as a surface treatment to control stored product insects. Field trials with the aerosol show that residues from an application of pyrethrin + pyriproxyfen gave residual control of the red flour beetle, Tribolium cast...

  5. The mechanisms underlying the production of discontinuous gas exchange cycles in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philip G D

    2017-08-17

    This review examines the control of gas exchange in insects, specifically examining what mechanisms could explain the emergence of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs). DGCs are gas exchange patterns consisting of alternating breath-hold periods and bouts of gas exchange. While all insects are capable of displaying a continuous pattern of gas exchange, this episodic pattern is known to occur within only some groups of insects and then only sporadically or during certain phases of their life cycle. Investigations into DGCs have tended to emphasise the role of chemosensory thresholds in triggering spiracle opening as critical for producing these gas exchange patterns. However, a chemosensory basis for episodic breathing also requires an as-of-yet unidentified hysteresis between internal respiratory stimuli, chemoreceptors, and the spiracles. What has been less appreciated is the role that the insect's central nervous system (CNS) might play in generating episodic patterns of ventilation. The active ventilation displayed by many insects during DGCs suggests that this pattern could be the product of directed control by the CNS rather than arising passively as a result of self-sustaining oscillations in internal oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. This paper attempts to summarise what is currently known about insect gas exchange regulation, examining the location and control of ventilatory pattern generators in the CNS, the influence of chemoreceptor feedback in the form of O2 and CO2/pH fluctuations in the haemolymph, and the role of state-dependent changes in CNS activity on ventilatory control. This information is placed in the context of what is currently known regarding the production of discontinuous gas exchange patterns.

  6. Are edible insects more or less 'healthy' than commonly consumed meats? A comparison using two nutrient profiling models developed to combat over- and undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, C L R; Scarborough, P; Rayner, M; Nonaka, K

    2016-03-01

    Insects have been the subject of recent attention as a potentially environmentally sustainable and nutritious alternative to traditional protein sources. The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that insects are nutritionally preferable to meat, using two evaluative tools that are designed to combat over- and under-nutrition. We selected 183 datalines of publicly available data on the nutrient composition of raw cuts and offal of three commonly consumed meats (beef, pork and chicken), and six commercially available insect species, for energy and 12 relevant nutrients. We applied two nutrient profiling tools to this data: The Ofcom model, which is used in the United Kingdom, and the Nutrient Value Score (NVS), which has been used in East Africa. We compared the median nutrient profile scores of different insect species and meat types using non-parametric tests and applied Bonferroni adjustments to assess for statistical significance in differences. Insect nutritional composition showed high diversity between species. According to the Ofcom model, no insects were significantly 'healthier' than meat products. The NVS assigned crickets, palm weevil larvae and mealworm a significantly healthier score than beef (Pinsects were statistically less healthy than meat. Insect nutritional composition is highly diverse in comparison with commonly consumed meats. The food category 'insects' contains some foods that could potentially exacerbate diet-related public health problems related to over-nutrition, but may be effective in combating under-nutrition.

  7. Are edible insects more or less ‘healthy' than commonly consumed meats? A comparison using two nutrient profiling models developed to combat over- and undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, C L R; Scarborough, P; Rayner, M; Nonaka, K

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Insects have been the subject of recent attention as a potentially environmentally sustainable and nutritious alternative to traditional protein sources. The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that insects are nutritionally preferable to meat, using two evaluative tools that are designed to combat over- and under-nutrition. Subjects/Methods: We selected 183 datalines of publicly available data on the nutrient composition of raw cuts and offal of three commonly consumed meats (beef, pork and chicken), and six commercially available insect species, for energy and 12 relevant nutrients. We applied two nutrient profiling tools to this data: The Ofcom model, which is used in the United Kingdom, and the Nutrient Value Score (NVS), which has been used in East Africa. We compared the median nutrient profile scores of different insect species and meat types using non-parametric tests and applied Bonferroni adjustments to assess for statistical significance in differences. Results: Insect nutritional composition showed high diversity between species. According to the Ofcom model, no insects were significantly ‘healthier' than meat products. The NVS assigned crickets, palm weevil larvae and mealworm a significantly healthier score than beef (Pinsects were statistically less healthy than meat. Conclusions: Insect nutritional composition is highly diverse in comparison with commonly consumed meats. The food category ‘insects' contains some foods that could potentially exacerbate diet-related public health problems related to over-nutrition, but may be effective in combating under-nutrition. PMID:26373961

  8. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Mello Vigoder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.

  9. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoder, Felipe de Mello; Ritchie, Michael Gordon; Gibson, Gabriella; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound "signatures" may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.

  10. Neuropeptidergic regulation of reproduction in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Badisco, Liesbeth; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2013-07-01

    Successful animal reproduction depends on multiple physiological and behavioral processes that take place in a timely and orderly manner in both mating partners. It is not only necessary that all relevant processes are well coordinated, they also need to be adjusted to external factors of abiotic and biotic nature (e.g. population density, mating partner availability). Therefore, it is not surprising that several hormonal factors play a crucial role in the regulation of animal reproductive physiology. In insects (the largest class of animals on planet Earth), lipophilic hormones, such as ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones, as well as several neuropeptides take part in this complex regulation. While some peptides can affect reproduction via an indirect action (e.g. by influencing secretion of juvenile hormone), others exert their regulatory activity by directly targeting the reproductive system. In addition to insect peptides with proven activities, several others were suggested to also play a role in the regulation of reproductive physiology. Because of the long evolutionary history of many insect orders, it is not always clear to what extent functional data obtained in a given species can be extrapolated to other insect taxa. In this paper, we will review the current knowledge concerning the neuropeptidergic regulation of insect reproduction and situate it in a more general physiological context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  12. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  13. Computational Aerodynamics of Insects' Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyung Dong; Kyung, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The kinematics of the Insects' flapping flight is modeled through mathematical and computational observations with commercial software. Recently, study on the insects' flapping flight became one of the challenging research subjects in the field of aeronautics because of its potential applicability to intelligent micro-robots capable of autonomous flight and the next generation aerial-vehicles. In order to uncover its curious unsteady characteristics, many researchers have conducted experimental and computational studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of insects' flapping flight. In the present paper, the unsteady flow physics around insect wings is carried out by utilizing computer software e-AIRS. The e-AIRS (e-Science Aerospace Integrated Research System) analyzes and models the results of computational and experimental aerodynamics, along with integrated research process of these two research activities. Stroke angles and phase angles, the important two factors in producing lift of the airfoils are set as main parameters to determine aerodynamic characteristics of the insects' flapping flight. As a result, the optimal phase angle to minimize the drag and to maximize the lift are found. Various simulations indicate that using proper value of variables produce greater thrust due to an optimal angle of attack at the initial position during down stroke motion.

  14. Shifting behaviour: epigenetic reprogramming in eusocial insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalano, Solenn; Hore, Timothy A; Reik, Wolf; Sumner, Seirian

    2012-06-01

    Epigenetic modifications are ancient and widely utilised mechanisms that have been recruited across fungi, plants and animals for diverse but fundamental biological functions, such as cell differentiation. Recently, a functional DNA methylation system was identified in the honeybee, where it appears to underlie queen and worker caste differentiation. This discovery, along with other insights into the epigenetics of social insects, allows provocative analogies to be drawn between insect caste differentiation and cellular differentiation, particularly in mammals. Developing larvae in social insect colonies are totipotent: they retain the ability to specialise as queens or workers, in a similar way to the totipotent cells of early embryos before they differentiate into specific cell lineages. Further, both differentiating cells and insect castes lose phenotypic plasticity by committing to their lineage, losing the ability to be readily reprogrammed. Hence, a comparison of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying lineage differentiation (and reprogramming) between cells and social insects is worthwhile. Here we develop a conceptual model of how loss and regain of phenotypic plasticity might be conserved for individual specialisation in both cells and societies. This framework forges a novel link between two fields of biological research, providing predictions for a unified approach to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying biological complexity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contact chemosensation of phytochemicals by insect herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burse, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Contact chemosensation, or tasting, is a complex process governed by nonvolatile phytochemicals that tell host-seeking insects whether they should accept or reject a plant. During this process, insect gustatory receptors (GRs) contribute to deciphering a host plant's metabolic code. GRs recognise many different classes of nonvolatile compounds; some GRs are likely to be narrowly tuned and others, broadly tuned. Although primary and/or secondary plant metabolites influence the insect's feeding choice, their decoding by GRs is challenging, because metabolites in planta occur in complex mixtures that have additive or inhibitory effects; in diverse forms composed of structurally unrelated molecules; and at different concentrations depending on the plant species, its tissue and developmental stage. Future studies of the mechanism of insect herbivore GRs will benefit from functional characterisation taking into account the spatio-temporal dynamics and diversity of the plant's metabolome. Metabolic information, in turn, will help to elucidate the impact of single ligands and complex natural mixtures on the insect's feeding choice. PMID:28485430

  16. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Kevin J.; Moore, Allen J.; Schmitz, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. PMID:28025279

  17. Mechanosensation and Adaptive Motor Control in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, John C; Wilson, Rachel I

    2016-10-24

    The ability of animals to flexibly navigate through complex environments depends on the integration of sensory information with motor commands. The sensory modality most tightly linked to motor control is mechanosensation. Adaptive motor control depends critically on an animal's ability to respond to mechanical forces generated both within and outside the body. The compact neural circuits of insects provide appealing systems to investigate how mechanical cues guide locomotion in rugged environments. Here, we review our current understanding of mechanosensation in insects and its role in adaptive motor control. We first examine the detection and encoding of mechanical forces by primary mechanoreceptor neurons. We then discuss how central circuits integrate and transform mechanosensory information to guide locomotion. Because most studies in this field have been performed in locusts, cockroaches, crickets, and stick insects, the examples we cite here are drawn mainly from these 'big insects'. However, we also pay particular attention to the tiny fruit fly, Drosophila, where new tools are creating new opportunities, particularly for understanding central circuits. Our aim is to show how studies of big insects have yielded fundamental insights relevant to mechanosensation in all animals, and also to point out how the Drosophila toolkit can contribute to future progress in understanding mechanosensory processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Uncontrolled Stability in Freely Flying Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, James, Jr.; Wang, Z. Jane

    2015-11-01

    One of the key flight modes of a flying insect is longitudinal flight, traveling along a localized two-dimensional plane from one location to another. Past work on this topic has shown that flying insects, unless stabilized by some external stimulus, are typically unstable to a well studied pitching instability. In our work, we examine this instability in a computational study to understand whether it is possible for either evolution or an aero-vehicle designer to stabilize longitudinal flight through changes to insect morphology, kinematics, or aerodynamic quantities. A quasi-steady wingbeat averaged flapping flight model is used to describe the insect. From this model, a number of non-dimensional parameters are identified. The effect of these parameters was then quantified using linear stability analysis, applied to various translational states of the insect. Based on our understanding of these parameters, we demonstrate how to find an intrinsically stable flapping flight sequence for a dragonfly-like flapping flier in an instantaneous flapping flight model.

  19. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Insect Immunity Varies Idiosyncratically During Overwintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura V; Sinclair, Brent J

    2017-03-20

    Overwintering insects face multiple stressors, including pathogen and parasite pressures that shift with seasons. However, we know little of how the insect immune system fluctuates with season, particularly in the overwintering period. To understand how immune activity changes across autumn, winter, and spring, we tracked immune activity of three temperate insects that overwinter as larvae: a weevil (Curculio sp., Coleoptera), gallfly (Eurosta solidaginis, Diptera), and larvae of the lepidopteran Pyrrharctia isabella. We measured baseline circulating hemocyte numbers, phenoloxidase activity, and humoral antimicrobial activity, as well as survival of fungal infection and melanization response at 12°C and 25°C to capture any potential plasticity in thermal performance. In Curculio sp. and E. solidaginis, hemocyte concentrations remained unchanged across seasons and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria was lowest in autumn; however, Curculio sp. were less likely to survive fungal infection in autumn, whereas E. solidaginis were less likely to survive infection during the winter. Furthermore, hemocyte concentrations and antimicrobial activity decreased in P. isabella overwintering beneath snow cover. Overall, seasonal changes in activity were largely species dependent, thus it may be difficult to create generalizable predictions about the effects of a changing climate on seasonal immune activity in insects. However, we suggest that the relationship between the response to multiple stressors (e.g., cold and pathogens) drives changes in immune activity, and that understanding the physiology underlying these relationships will inform our predictions of the effects of environmental change on insect overwintering success. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  2. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  3. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  4. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena

    2016-06-14

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  5. Insect host location: a volatile situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Toby J A; Wadhams, Lester J; Woodcock, Christine M

    2005-06-01

    Locating a host plant is crucial for a phytophagous (herbivorous) insect to fulfill its nutritional requirements and to find suitable oviposition sites. Insects can locate their hosts even though the host plants are often hidden among an array of other plants. Plant volatiles play an important role in this host-location process. The recognition of a host plant by these olfactory signals could occur by using either species-specific compounds or specific ratios of ubiquitous compounds. Currently, most studies favor the second scenario, with strong evidence that plant discrimination is due to central processing of olfactory signals by the insect, rather than their initial detection. Furthermore, paired or clustered olfactory receptor neurons might enable fine-scale spatio-temporal resolution of the complex signals encountered when ubiquitous compounds are used.

  6. "Qupirruit": insects and worms in Inuit traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugrand, Frédéric; Oosten, Jarich

    2010-01-01

    Although small beings such as the "qupirruit" (insects and worms) appear in many different contexts in Inuit culture, they have not received much attention from scholars. In this paper we examine the symbolism associated with these small animals. We show that their small size makes them suitable to operate on the level of the "tarniq," a miniature image of a being. We discuss how insects often connect different scales and easily transform into other beings. We first deal with the perceptions of insects as they take shape in narratives and practices, and their roles in the manufacture and use of amulets. Then we move to a more specific analysis of the distinctive features of the various "qupirruit".

  7. Democratizing evolutionary biology, lessons from insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert R; Beasley, DeAnna E

    2016-12-01

    The engagement of the public in the scientific process is an old practice. Yet with recent advances in technology, the role of the citizen scientist in studying evolutionary processes has increased. Insects provide ideal models for understanding these evolutionary processes at large scales. This review highlights how insect-based citizen science has led to the expansion of specimen collections and reframed research questions in light of new observations and unexpected discoveries. Given the rapid expansion of human-modified (and inhabited) environments, the degree to which the public can participate in insect-based citizen science will allow us to track and monitor evolutionary trends at a global scale. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Parametric structural modeling of insect wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Barraja, M; Mittal, R

    2009-09-01

    Insects produce thrust and lift forces via coupled fluid-structure interactions that bend and twist their compliant wings during flapping cycles. Insight into this fluid-structure interaction is achieved with numerical modeling techniques such as coupled finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics, but these methods require accurate and validated structural models of insect wings. Structural models of insect wings depend principally on the shape, dimensions and material properties of the veins and membrane cells. This paper describes a method for parametric modeling of wing geometry using digital images and demonstrates the use of the geometric models in constructing three-dimensional finite element (FE) models and simple reduced-order models. The FE models are more complete and accurate than previously reported models since they accurately represent the topology of the vein network, as well as the shape and dimensions of the veins and membrane cells. The methods are demonstrated by developing a parametric structural model of a cicada forewing.

  9. Sustainable farming of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor for the production of food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Thorben; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Joop, Gerrit

    2017-09-26

    The farming of edible insects is an alternative strategy for the production of protein-rich food and feed with a low ecological footprint. The industrial production of insect-derived protein is more cost-effective and energy-efficient than livestock farming or aquaculture. The mealworm Tenebrio molitor is economically among the most important species used for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass into protein. Here, we review the mass rearing of this species and its conversion into food and feed, focusing on challenges such as the contamination of food/feed products with bacteria from the insect gut and the risk of rapidly spreading pathogens and parasites. We propose solutions to prevent the outbreak of infections among farmed insects without reliance on antibiotics. Transgenerational immune priming and probiotic bacteria may provide alternative strategies for sustainable insect farming.

  10. Damage signals in the insect immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eKrautz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects and mammals share an ancient innate immune system comprising both humoral and cellular responses. The insect immune system consists of the fat body, which secretes effector molecules into the hemolymph and several classes of hemocytes, which reside in the hemolymph and of protective border epithelia. Key features of wound- and immune responses are shared between insect and mammalian immune systems including the mode of activation by commonly shared microbial (nonself patterns and the recognition of these patterns by dedicated receptors. It is unclear how metazoan parasites in insects, which lack these shared motifs, are recognized. Research in recent years has demonstrated that during entry into the insect host, many eukaryotic pathogens leave traces that alert potential hosts of the damage they have afflicted. In accordance with terminology used in the mammalian immune systems, these signals have been dubbed danger- or damage-associated signals. Damage signals are necessary byproducts generated during entering hosts either by mechanical or proteolytic damage. Here, we briefly review the current stage of knowledge on how wound closure and wound healing during mechanical damage is regulated and how damage-related signals contribute to these processes. We also discuss how sensors of proteolytic activity induce insect innate immune responses. Strikingly damage-associated signals are also released from cells that have aberrant growth, including tumor cells. These signals may induce apoptosis in the damaged cells, the recruitment of immune cells to the aberrant tissue and even activate humoral responses. Thus, this ensures the removal of aberrant cells and compensatory proliferation to replace lost tissue. Several of these pathways may have been co-opted from wound healing and developmental processes.

  11. Insect resistance in sweetpotato plant introduction accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D Michael; Harrison, Howard F; Ryan-Bohac, J R

    2012-04-01

    Fifty-five sweetpotato cultivars, experimental breeding clones, and plant introduction (PI) accessions were evaluated in 17 field experiments at the USDA, ARS, U.S. Vegetable Laboratory (Charleston, SC; 12 evaluations, 1997-2010), the Clemson University, Edisto Research and Education Center (Blackville, SC; two evaluations, 1998-1999), and the University of Florida, Tropical Research and Education Center (Homestead, FL; three evaluations, 2005-2007). These experiments included two insect-susceptible control entries ('Beauregard' and 'SC1149-19') and three insect-resistant control cultivars ('Regal,' 'Ruddy,' and 'Sumor'). At each location, genotypes differed significantly in the percentage of uninjured roots WDS (wireworm, Diabrotica, Systena) index, the percentage of roots damaged by the sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius (F.)), the percentage of roots damaged by the sweetpotato flea beetle (Chaetocnema confinis Crotch), and the percentage of roots damaged by white grub larvae (including Plectris aliena Chapin and Phyllophaga spp.). 'SC1149-19' had a significantly lower percentage of uninjured roots, a significantly higher WDS index rating, and significantly higher percentages of infestation by flea beetles, grubs, and sweetpotato weevils than most other sweetpotato genotypes in this study. In addition, 43 of 55 genotypes had significantly less overall insect damage than 'Beauregard,' one of the leading commercial orange-fleshed cultivars in the United States. Ten genotypes had significantly less insect injury than 'Picadito,' a commercial boniato-type sweetpotato grown extensively in southern Florida. Many of these sweetpotato genotypes have high levels of resistance to soil insect pests, and they may be useful as sources of insect resistance for use in sweetpotato breeding programs.

  12. Toxicological actions of plant-derived and anthropogenic methylenedioxyphenyl-substituted chemicals in mammals and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The methylenedioxyphenyl (MDP) substituent is a structural feature present in many plant chemicals that deter foraging by predatory insects and herbivores. With increasing use of herbal extracts in alternative medicine, human exposure to MDP-derived plant chemicals may also be significant. Early studies found that most MDP agents themselves possess relatively low intrinsic toxicity, but strongly influence the actions of other xenobiotics in mammals and insects by modulating cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-dependent biotransformation. Thus, after exposure to MDP chemicals an initial phase of CYP inhibition is followed by a sustained phase of CYP induction. In insects CYP inhibition by MDP agents underlies their use as pesticide synergists, but analogous inhibition of mammalian CYP impairs the clearance of drugs and foreign compounds. Conversely, induction of mammalian CYP by MDP agents increases xenobiotic oxidation capacity. Exposure of insects to MDP-containing synergists in the environment, in the absence of coadministered pesticides, may also enhance xenobiotic detoxication. Finally, although most MDP agents are well tolerated, several, typified by safrole, aristolochic acid, and MDP-kavalactones, are associated with significant toxicities, including the risk of hepatotoxicity or tumorigenesis. Thus, the presence of MDP-substituted chemicals in the environment may produce a range of direct and indirect toxicities in target and nontarget species.

  13. Plant protection i willow plantations - Insects. Final report; Vaextskydd i Salixodlingar - Insekter. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology

    2000-04-01

    Attacks by herbivorous insects reduce biomass production in willow plantations. The long-term goal of our research is to develop sustainable plant protection against these insect pests. Two lines of research are pursued. The first concentrates on identifying factors involved in the regulation of leaf-eating beetles. These insects vary in density among plantations, sometimes reaching outbreak levels resulting in complete defoliation. Mortality factors of eggs and larvae in plantations with low and high beetle densities have been investigated. The importance of plant resistance has also been investigated. The second line of research considers the mechanisms behind an earlier demonstrated resistance in certain willow clones against a gall midge. By using molecular techniques we have searched for markers of resistance. Promising results have been found concerning so called PR proteins; in particular chitinase seems to be present in high activities in plants expressing resistance. We conclude that a better understanding of how factors such as natural enemies and plant resistance affect insect population dynamics will allow us to design sound cultivation systems.

  14. Sustainable restitution/recultivation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RECHERCHE02

    and named species on earth and play great role in ecosystem functions. This has motivated to study insect diversity in ... that the abundance and diversity of insects were related to habitat conditions such as litter cover, shade, and soil ..... Costanza R. d‟Arge R., Groot R., et al., (1997). The value of the world‟s ecosystem ...

  15. Chlorinated tyrosine derivatives in insect cuticle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2004-01-01

    A method for quantitative measurement of 3-monochlorotyrosine and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine in insect cuticles is described, and it is used for determination of their distribution in various cuticular regions in nymphs and adults of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. The two chlorinated tyrosine...... during sample hydrolysis. Mono- and dichlorotyrosine are also present in cuticular samples from other insect species, such as the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, the moth Hyalophora cecropia, the cockroach Blaberus craniifer, and the bug Rhodnius prolixus, but not in the sclerotized puparial cuticle...

  16. Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura A; Hedrick, Ty; Robinson, Alice; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Lowe, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\approx 10$. Differences in the general structures of the wakes generated by each species are observed. The differences in the wakes correspond to changes in the ratio of lift forces (vertical component) to drag forces (horizontal component) generated.

  17. Studying insect diversity in the tropics.

    OpenAIRE

    Godfray, H C; Lewis, T; Memmott, J

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the extent and causes of insect diversity in the humid tropics is one of the major challenges in modern ecology. We review some of the current approaches to this problem, and discuss how future progress may be made. Recent calculations that there may be more than 30 million species of insect on earth have focused attention on the magnitude of this problem and stimulated several new lines of research (although the true figure is now widely thought to be between five and ten milli...

  18. Learning and Memory in Disease Vector Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinauger, Clément; Lahondère, Chloé; Cohuet, Anna; Lazzari, Claudio R; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Learning and memory plays an important role in host preference and parasite transmission by disease vector insects. Historically there has been a dearth of standardized protocols that permit testing their learning abilities, thus limiting discussion on the potential epidemiological consequences of learning and memory to a largely speculative extent. However, with increasing evidence that individual experience and associative learning can affect processes such as oviposition site selection and host preference, it is timely to review the recently acquired knowledge, identify research gaps and discuss the implication of learning in disease vector insects in perspective with control strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integration of Insect Infestations into Dynamic Global Vegetation Models Using Insect Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Smith, E.

    2011-12-01

    Many have explored the impact of climate change on insects and explored predictions under future scenarios. But the converse has been limited: no DGVM simulates insect infestation. We are assessing the potential impact of simulating insect infestation processes on DGVMs, and creating a framework for development of insect functional types (IFTs) for integration with DGVMs. Some work have been done devising IFTs for conservation and resource management, but results are limited to qualitative groupings of insect taxa based on resource usage and response to environment. The integration of IFTs into DGVMs would enable exploration of interaction between climate change and vegetation dynamics at the global scale. IFTs have the potential to significantly impact global carbon balance and vegetation distributions, and interaction with other disturbance regimes already modeled in DGVMs (e.g., fire, drought, herbivory). We identify relevant features of existing DGVMs, including spatial and temporal scales, extents, and focuses; how other disturbances are modeled; and model areas where IFTs would link to DGVMs. We identify relevant features of insect models, including hazard and risk models; spatial and temporal resolutions and extents; spatial processes; and commonly used variables. We outline the key considerations, including tradeoffs between accuracy of representation and the breadth of applicability; morphology, physiology, biochemistry, reproductive and demographic characteristics; functional effects vs. functional responses; major axes of specialization that are consistent across environments, biogeographic regions, and major insect taxa; and whether IFTs can be empirically evaluated. We propose major axes to define IFTs, and present a sample IFT, the westwide pine beetle.

  20. Insect Innate Immunity Database (IIID: an annotation tool for identifying immune genes in insect genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Brucker

    Full Text Available The innate immune system is an ancient component of host defense. Since innate immunity pathways are well conserved throughout many eukaryotes, immune genes in model animals can be used to putatively identify homologous genes in newly sequenced genomes of non-model organisms. With the initiation of the "i5k" project, which aims to sequence 5,000 insect genomes by 2016, many novel insect genomes will soon become publicly available, yet few annotation resources are currently available for insects. Thus, we developed an online tool called the Insect Innate Immunity Database (IIID to provide an open access resource for insect immunity and comparative biology research (http://www.vanderbilt.edu/IIID. The database provides users with simple exploratory tools to search the immune repertoires of five insect models (including Nasonia, spanning three orders, for specific immunity genes or genes within a particular immunity pathway. As a proof of principle, we used an initial database with only four insect models to annotate potential immune genes in the parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia. Results specify 306 putative immune genes in the genomes of N. vitripennis and its two sister species N. giraulti and N. longicornis. Of these genes, 146 were not found in previous annotations of Nasonia immunity genes. Combining these newly identified immune genes with those in previous annotations, Nasonia possess 489 putative immunity genes, the largest immune repertoire found in insects to date. While these computational predictions need to be complemented with functional studies, the IIID database can help initiate and augment annotations of the immune system in the plethora of insect genomes that will soon become available.

  1. Insect Innate Immunity Database (IIID): an annotation tool for identifying immune genes in insect genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Robert M; Funkhouser, Lisa J; Setia, Shefali; Pauly, Rini; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system is an ancient component of host defense. Since innate immunity pathways are well conserved throughout many eukaryotes, immune genes in model animals can be used to putatively identify homologous genes in newly sequenced genomes of non-model organisms. With the initiation of the "i5k" project, which aims to sequence 5,000 insect genomes by 2016, many novel insect genomes will soon become publicly available, yet few annotation resources are currently available for insects. Thus, we developed an online tool called the Insect Innate Immunity Database (IIID) to provide an open access resource for insect immunity and comparative biology research (http://www.vanderbilt.edu/IIID). The database provides users with simple exploratory tools to search the immune repertoires of five insect models (including Nasonia), spanning three orders, for specific immunity genes or genes within a particular immunity pathway. As a proof of principle, we used an initial database with only four insect models to annotate potential immune genes in the parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia. Results specify 306 putative immune genes in the genomes of N. vitripennis and its two sister species N. giraulti and N. longicornis. Of these genes, 146 were not found in previous annotations of Nasonia immunity genes. Combining these newly identified immune genes with those in previous annotations, Nasonia possess 489 putative immunity genes, the largest immune repertoire found in insects to date. While these computational predictions need to be complemented with functional studies, the IIID database can help initiate and augment annotations of the immune system in the plethora of insect genomes that will soon become available.

  2. Sustainable Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  3. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  4. Tritrophic Interactions: Microbe-Mediated Plant Effects on Insect Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Ikkei; Rosa, Cristina; Tan, Ching-Wen; Felton, Gary W

    2017-08-04

    It is becoming abundantly clear that the microbes associated with plants and insects can profoundly influence plant-insect interactions. Here, we focus on recent findings and propose directions for future research that involve microbe-induced changes to plant defenses and nutritive quality as well as the consequences of these changes for the behavior and fitness of insect herbivores. Insect (herbivore and parasitoid)-associated microbes can favor or improve insect fitness by suppressing plant defenses and detoxifying defensive phytochemicals. Phytopathogens can influence or manipulate insect behavior and fitness by altering plant quality and defense. Plant-beneficial microbes can promote plant growth and influence plant nutritional and phytochemical composition that can positively or negatively influence insect fitness. Lastly, we suggest that entomopathogens have the potential to influence plant defenses directly as endophytes or indirectly by altering insect physiology.

  5. Joint Statement on Insect Repellents by EPA and CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA and the CDC are recommending the public to use insect repellents and take other precautions to avoid biting insects that carry serious diseases. This statement discusses diseases of concern, government roles, and repellent selection and use.

  6. Machine learning for characterization of insect vector feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects that feed by ingesting plant and animal fluids cause devastating damage to humans, livestock, and agriculture worldwide, primarily by transmitting phytopathogenic and zoonotic pathogens. The feeding processes required for successful disease transmission by sucking insects can be recorded by ...

  7. Insect mechanoreception: what a long, strange TRP it's been.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, A; García-Añoveros, J; Corey, D P

    2000-05-18

    Insect bristles are model mechanosensory organs. An ion channel of the TRP superfamily has recently been identified which is required for production of mechanoreceptor currents by insect bristles, and seems likely to represent a new kind of mechanically gated channel.

  8. Pathogenesis induced by (recombinant) baculoviruses in insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Infection of insect larvae by a baculovirus leads to cessation of feeding and finally to the death of the larva. Under optimal conditions this process may take as little as five days during which the virus multiplies approximately a billion times and transforms 30% of the larval weight into

  9. Insect pest management in stored grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored grain is vulnerable to attach by a variety of insect pests, that can generally be classified as external or internal feeders. Infestations primarily occur after grain is stored, though there is some evidence that infestations can occur in the field right before harvest. There are a variety of...

  10. Personal Insect Repellents and Minimum Risk Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    An exempt pesticide product may not bear claims to control rodent, insect or microbial pests in a way that links the pests with specific disease. We are considering a proposal to remove personal mosquito and tick repellents from the minimum risk exemption.

  11. Structure-activity relationships of insect defensins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehbach, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    Insects make up the largest and most diverse group of organisms on earth with several million species to exist in total. Considering the sheer number of insect species and the vast variety of ways they interact with their environment through chemistry, it is clear that they have significant potential as a source of new lead molecules. They have adapted to a range of ecological habitats and exhibit a symbiotic lifestyle with various microbes such as bacteria and fungi. Accordingly, numerous antimicrobial compounds have been identified including for example defensin peptides. Insect defensins were found to have broad-spectrum activity against various gram-positive/negative bacteria as well as fungi. They exhibit a unique structural topology involving the complex arrangement of three disulfide bonds as well as an alpha helix and beta sheets, which is known as cysteine-stabilized αβ motif. Their stability and amenability to peptide engineering make them promising candidates for the development of novel antibiotics lead molecules. This review highlights the current knowledge regarding the structure-activity relationships of insect defensin peptides and provides basis for future studies focusing on the rational design of novel cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides.

  12. Eco-Evolutionary Theory and Insect Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, David J; Dukic, Vanja; Dushoff, Jonathan; Fleming-Davies, Arietta; Dwyer, Greg

    2017-06-01

    Eco-evolutionary theory argues that population cycles in consumer-resource interactions are partly driven by natural selection, such that changes in densities and changes in trait values are mutually reinforcing. Evidence that the theory explains cycles in nature, however, is almost nonexistent. Experimental tests of model assumptions are logistically impractical for most organisms, while for others, evidence that population cycles occur in nature is lacking. For insect baculoviruses in contrast, tests of model assumptions are straightforward, and there is strong evidence that baculoviruses help drive population cycles in many insects, including the gypsy moth that we study here. We therefore used field experiments with the gypsy moth baculovirus to test two key assumptions of eco-evolutionary models of host-pathogen population cycles: that reduced host infection risk is heritable and that it is costly. Our experiments confirm both assumptions, and inserting parameters estimated from our data into eco-evolutionary insect-outbreak models gives cycles closely resembling gypsy moth outbreak cycles in North America, whereas standard models predict unrealistic stable equilibria. Our work shows that eco-evolutionary models are useful for explaining outbreaks of forest insect defoliators, while widespread observations of intense selection on defoliators in nature and of heritable and costly resistance in defoliators in the lab together suggest that eco-evolutionary dynamics may play a general role in defoliator outbreaks.

  13. Insect photoreceptor adaptations to night vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Anna; Immonen, Esa-Ville; Salmela, Iikka; Heimonen, Kyösti; Weckström, Matti

    2017-04-05

    Night vision is ultimately about extracting information from a noisy visual input. Several species of nocturnal insects exhibit complex visually guided behaviour in conditions where most animals are practically blind. The compound eyes of nocturnal insects produce strong responses to single photons and process them into meaningful neural signals, which are amplified by specialized neuroanatomical structures. While a lot is known about the light responses and the anatomical structures that promote pooling of responses to increase sensitivity, there is still a dearth of knowledge on the physiology of night vision. Retinal photoreceptors form the first bottleneck for the transfer of visual information. In this review, we cover the basics of what is known about physiological adaptations of insect photoreceptors for low-light vision. We will also discuss major enigmas of some of the functional properties of nocturnal photoreceptors, and describe recent advances in methodologies that may help to solve them and broaden the field of insect vision research to new model animals.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  15. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Lipophorin Receptor: The Insect Lipoprotein Receptor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. Lipophorin Receptor: The Insect Lipoprotein Receptor. G Ravikumar N B Vijayaprakash. General Article Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 748-755. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Insects: Little Things That Run the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Insects are easily the most abundant and diverse group of animals, with over 24,000 species in the UK alone. They can be found in almost every habitat on Earth and are fundamentally important to ecology, conservation, food production, animal and human health, and biodiversity. They are a prominent feature of almost every food web in the UK and…

  18. Eicosanoid-mediated immunity in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicosanoid is a collective term for oxygenated metabolites of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. As seen in mammals, eicosanoids play crucial roles in mediating various physiological processes, including immune responses, in insects. Upon microbial pathogen infection, non-self recognition signals are ...

  19. Natural products from microbes associated with insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Guo, Huijuan; Rischer, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Here we review discoveries of secondary metabolites from microbes associated with insects. We mainly focus on natural products, where the ecological role has been at least partially elucidated, and/or the pharmaceutical properties evaluated, and on compounds with unique structural features. We...

  20. Proceedings: North American forest insect work conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.C. Allen; L.P. Abrahamson

    1992-01-01

    A proceedings of a conference held to stimulate interaction among people working in areas of forest protection and silviculture and on issues of national and international concern relative to forest insect and disease management, education, and research. National issues addressed were forest productivity, stewardship, biological diversity, and new perspectives and how...

  1. Pheromones in the life of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Ingolf; Schmolz, Erik; Schricker, Burkhard

    2008-09-01

    Life in insect societies asks for a permanent flow of information, often carried by rather simple organic molecules. Some originate from plants as odours of blossoms or exudates from trees. Especially important are the intra- and interspecific combinations of compounds produced by the insects themselves. These are called pheromones or ecto-hormones and serve a variety of tasks. The paper deals mainly with honeybee pheromones, but takes also into consideration those of wasps and hornets. Effects of pheromones are monitored ethologically by direct observation and filming as well as in a more quantitative manner with using direct and indirect calorimetry. In all experimental set-ups alarm pheromones were used as controls. They show an up to fourfold increase of activity after a few seconds, determined for small groups of insects as well as for a whole hornet nest placed in a 25-l calorimeter. A variety of cosmetics like soaps, shampoos, lotions and perfumes are included in the investigations because of repeated reports about unwarranted insect attacks which are said to be provoked by such products. None of the applied substances provoked a significant reaction of the bees (p > 0.05). A short appendix discusses the still questionable existence of pheromones in man, which were confirmed under laboratory conditions, but not yet for daily life.

  2. Short notes and reviews Insect history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Frederick R.

    2003-01-01

    Review of: History of Insects, edited by A. P. Rasnitsyn and D. L. J. Quicke. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2002, 517 pp., ISBN 14 0200 026 X In the winter of 1977, I visited the Paleontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow. I wanted to study the type specimens of

  3. Insectes ravageurs du piment Capsicum chinense Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... (Solanaceae) à Port-Bouët (Abidjan-Côte d'Ivoire) : Pratiques de lutte par les pesticides chimiques. 8667. Insectes ravageurs du piment Capsicum chinense. Jacq. (Solanaceae) à Port-Bouët (Abidjan-Côte d'Ivoire) : Pratiques de lutte par les pesticides chimiques. AKESSE E. N.1*, OUALI-N'GORAN S-W.

  4. Allergen immunotherapy for insect venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, S; Zaman, H; Varga, E-M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of insect venom allergy. To inform this process, we sought to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety...

  5. Asymmetric radar echo patterns from insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radar echoes from insects, birds, and bats in the atmosphere exhibit both symmetry and asymmetry in polarimetric patterns. Symmetry refers to similar magnitudes of polarimetric variables at opposite azimuths, and asymmetry relegates to differences in these magnitudes. Asymmetry can be due to diffe...

  6. Studying insect diversity in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfray, H C; Lewis, T; Memmott, J

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the extent and causes of insect diversity in the humid tropics is one of the major challenges in modern ecology. We review some of the current approaches to this problem, and discuss how future progress may be made. Recent calculations that there may be more than 30 million species of insect on earth have focused attention on the magnitude of this problem and stimulated several new lines of research (although the true figure is now widely thought to be between five and ten million species). We discuss work based on insecticidal logging surveys; studies of herbivore and parasitoid specificity; macroecological approaches; and the construction of food webs. It is argued that progress in estimating insect diversity and in understanding insect community dynamics will be enhanced by building local inventories of species diversity, and in descriptive and experimental studies of the trophic structure of communities. As an illustration of work aimed at the last goal, we discuss the construction and analysis of quantitative host-parasitoid food webs, drawing on our work on leaf miner communities in Central America. PMID:11605624

  7. Some insects affecting Penstemon seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Hammon; Melissa Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Beardtongue (Penstemon Schmidel [Scrophulariaceae)) seeds are often produced without apparent damage from pests, but several species of native insects can adversely impact seed production fields. Tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot)) and western plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight [Hemiptera: Miridae]), penstemon weevil (Hesperobaris sp. Casey [Coleoptera:...

  8. Tolerance to insect defoliation: biocenotic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey A. Pleshanov; Victor I. Voronin; Elena S. Khlimankova; Valentina I. Epova

    1991-01-01

    Woody plant resistance to insect damage is of great importance in forest protection, and tree tolerance is an important element of this resistance. The compensating mechanisms responsible for tolerance are nonspecific as a rule and develop after damage has been caused by phytophagous animals or other unfavorable effects. Beyond that, plant tolerance depends on duration...

  9. Preference of dendrophagous insects for forest borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey V. Gurov

    1991-01-01

    Numerous investigations have shown that forest insect outbreaks usually occur in specific habitats. Frequently these outbreaks do not generally extend to other territories occupied by these same host trees. Moreover, in every stand subjected to an outbreak, both slightly undamaged plots and heavily damaged plots are found. Perhaps some plots are initially more...

  10. Evolution and phylogeny of insect endogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, C; Pélisson, A; Bucheton, A

    2001-01-01

    The genome of invertebrates is rich in retroelements which are structurally reminiscent of the retroviruses of vertebrates. Those containing three open reading frames (ORFs), including an env-like gene, may well be considered as endogenous retroviruses. Further support to this similarity has been provided by the ability of the env-like gene of DmeGypV (the Gypsy endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster) to promote infection of Drosophila cells by a pseudotyped vertebrate retrovirus vector. To gain insights into their evolutionary story, a sample of thirteen insect endogenous retroviruses, which represents the largest sample analysed until now, was studied by computer-assisted comparison of the translated products of their gag, pol and env genes, as well as their LTR structural features. We found that the three phylogenetic trees based respectively on Gag, Pol and Env common motifs are congruent, which suggest a monophyletic origin for these elements. We showed that most of the insect endogenous retroviruses belong to a major clade group which can be further divided into two main subgroups which also differ by the sequence of their primer binding sites (PBS). We propose to name IERV-K and IERV-S these two major subgroups of Insect Endogenous Retro Viruses (or Insect ERrantiVirus, according to the ICTV nomenclature) which respectively use Lys and Ser tRNAs to prime reverse transcription.

  11. Colour in the eyes of insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.

    Many insect species have darkly coloured eyes, but distinct colours or patterns are frequently featured. A number of exemplary cases of flies and butterflies are discussed to illustrate our present knowledge of the physical basis of eye colours, their functional background, and the implications for

  12. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cláudia P. T.; de Almeida, Adriana M.; Corso, Gilberto

    2011-03-01

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D1, and the plant network, D2. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D2 and D1 we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, ΔL, clustering coefficient difference, ΔC, and mean connectivity difference, Δ. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in ΔL, ΔC and Δ. Our results indicate that ΔL and Δ show a significative asymmetry.

  13. Insect-Plant Relationships in Ecological Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, G. L. A.; Wratten, S. D.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the current theories concerning the evolution of insect-plant relationships. Offers several experiments based on recent publications in this field, concerning relationships between herbivore number and plants' successional status, geographical range, geological history, and stage of growth, and also experiments on the chemical basis of…

  14. Polyphenism in insects and the juvenile hormone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    Wheeler D E and Nijhout H F 1984 Soldier determination in. Pheidole bicarinata: inhibition by adult soldiers; J. Insect. Physiol. 30 127–135. Wirtz P 1973 Differentiation in the honey bee larva – a histological, electron-microscopical and physiological study of caste induction in Apis mellifera L. (Wageningen: H Veenman and.

  15. Plant defences against herbivore and insect attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants deploy a number of defences against attack by insects and other herbivores. Direct defence is conferred by plant products and structures that deter or kill the herbivores. Chemical toxins and deterrents vary widely among plant species, and some typical toxins include alkaloids, terpenoids, st...

  16. Mini review: Multielectrode recordings in insect brains

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavsar, Balvantray; Heinrich, Ralf; Stumpner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Currently, more and more laboratories are acquiring the capability of simultaneously detecting the extracellular activity of neurons in anaesthetized and awake animals by multielectrode recordings. In insects, multielectrode recordings are challenging due to the small size of the nervous system. Nevertheless, multielectrode recordings have been successfully established in brains of cockroaches, honeybees, fruit flies and grasshoppers to study sensory processing related to mechanosensation, ol...

  17. Association mapping of plant resistance to insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloth, K.J.; Thoen, H.P.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Jongsma, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Association mapping is rapidly becoming an important method to explore the genetic architecture of complex traits in plants and offers unique opportunities for studying resistance to insect herbivores. Recent studies indicate that there is a trade-off between resistance against generalist and

  18. Democratizing evolutionary biology, lessons from insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Robert Roberdeau; Beasley, DeAnna E.

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of the public in the scientific process is an old practice. Yet with recent advances in technology, the role of the citizen scientist in studying evolutionary processes has increased. Insects provide ideal models for understanding these evolutionary processes at large scales. This ...

  19. Riparian forestry management and adult stream insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Briers

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of coniferous plantation forestry on the biology of upland streams in the UK are firmly established. Whilst benthic communities have been well studied, very little research has considered the impacts of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects, yet the essentially terrestrial adult (reproductive phase may be important in determining the abundance and distribution of larval stages. Riparian vegetation has a potentially strong impact on survival and success of adult stages through alteration of microclimate, habitat structure and potential food sources, in addition to effects carried over from larval stages. Here, current riparian management strategies are analysed in the light of available information on the ecology of adult stream insects. On the whole, management practices appear to favour adult stream insects, although an increase in tree cover in riparian areas could be beneficial, by providing more favourable microclimatic conditions for adults. This conclusion is drawn based on rather limited information, and the need for further research into the effects of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects is highlighted. Keywords: microclimate, plantation, life history, riparian vegetation

  20. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Claudia P T [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); De Almeida, Adriana M [Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); Corso, Gilberto, E-mail: claudia@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: adrianam@ufrn.br, E-mail: corso@cb.ufrn.br [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D{sub 1}, and the plant network, D{sub 2}. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, {Delta}L, clustering coefficient difference, {Delta}C, and mean connectivity difference, {Delta}. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in {Delta}L, {Delta}C and {Delta}. Our results indicate that {Delta}L and {Delta} show a significative asymmetry.

  1. Protease inhibitor mediated resistance to insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outchkourov, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) are among the defensive molecules that plants produce in order to defend themselves against herbivores. A major aim of this thesis is to develop novel insect resistance traits usingheterologous, non-plant PIs. Prerequisite for the success of the

  2. Book review: Insect morphology and phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Randolf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Beutel RG, Friedrich F, Ge S-Q, Yang X-K (2014 Insect Morphology and Phylogeny: A textbook for students of entomology. De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, 516 pp., softcover. ISBN 978-3-11-026263-6.

  3. Invasive pests—insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Duerr; Paul A. Mistretta

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsNonnative pest species have increasing impacts in the South regardless of climate change, patterns of land ownership, or changes in the composition of vegetation.“New” nonnative invasive insects and diseases will have serious impacts on southern forests over the next 50 years. Some species such as emerald ash borer...

  4. Interactions variations climatiques – insectes ravageurs et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactions variations climatiques – insectes ravageurs et perception des producteurs de cereales au sud Togo. ... In general, stem borer Sesamia calamistis was the most important species found in all surveyed areas with an abundance of 76.02% followed by Busseola fusca (21.7%) and Eldana saccharina (2.3%).

  5. Physical principles of fluid-mediated insect attachment - Shouldn't insects slip?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dirks, Jan-Henning

    2014-01-01

    .... To model adhesion and friction forces generated by insect footpads often a simple "wet adhesion" model is used, in which two flat undeformable substrates are separated by a continuous layer of fluid...

  6. Physical principles of fluid-mediated insect attachment - Shouldn’t insects slip?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dirks, Jan-Henning

    2014-01-01

    .... To model adhesion and friction forces generated by insect footpads often a simple “wet adhesion” model is used, in which two flat undeformable substrates are separated by a continuous layer of fluid...

  7. Entomopathogenic Nematodes for the Biological Control of Pest Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Ljerka Oštrec

    2001-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are part of 9 families, but only some species of these families: Heterorhabditidae, Mermithidae and Steinernematidae kill insects. Infective juveniles enter the insect host through the cuticle, or through the mouth, anus, etc., to reach the haemocel. The infective juveniles also enter the insect by the foot. After that the nematodes leave the insect who usually dies. The infective juveniles are associated with symbiotic bacterium (Xenorhabdus, Photorhabdus) which h...

  8. Insect-plant interactions in a crop protection perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, L; Ode, P.; van Nouhuys, S.; Calatayud, Paul-André; Colazza, S.; Cortesero, A.M.; Thiel, A.; J. Van der Baaren

    2017-01-01

    Populations of herbivorous insects are naturally consumed by other predacious or predatory insect species. These entomophagous insects are thus plant-dwelling organisms that use the plant for several vital functions and are affected by plant traits at the evolutionary, organism and population levels. Many entomophagous species are used for the biological control of insect pests worldwide. The aim of this chapter is to provide an exhaustive review of mechanisms underlying the interactions betw...

  9. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  10. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Adam J; Vogel, Kevin J; Moore, Allen J; Schmitz, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Physiology of cold tolerance in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariassen, K E

    1985-10-01

    From the available experimental data a relatively clear picture can be established with regard to the physiological importance of some of the mechanisms involved in insect cold hardening. In freeze-avoiding insects, all potent ice-nucleating agents are removed or inactivated, leading to a depression of the supercooling points to about 20 degrees C. Accumulation of polyols causes a further depression with a magnitude of about twice the corresponding melting-point depression. Production of thermal hysteresis factors causes a stabilization of the supercooled state. In freeze-tolerant insects, potent ice-nucleating agents are produced in the extracellular body fluid, ensuring a protective extracellular freezing at a few degrees below zero. Accumulation of polyols causes a steep drop in the lethal temperature, due to a reduction of the amount of ice by a colligative mechanism. However, there is still much to be learned about the mechanisms by which ice-nucleating agents, polyols, and thermal hysteresis agents are acting. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanisms involved in the production and elimination of these components from the body fluid of the insects are not understood. Also, when it comes to the influence of environmental factors, like photoperiod and temperature, there is much to be learned. In addition to giving attention to these topics, future research should be focused on the possible role of other factors in cold hardening such as bound water, dehydration, low-molecular-weight solutes other than polyols, and the biochemical mechanisms forming the basis of the seasonal changes in the cold hardiness of insects.

  12. Insect Innate Immunity Database (IIID): An Annotation Tool for Identifying Immune Genes in Insect Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Brucker, Robert M; Lisa J Funkhouser; Shefali Setia; Rini Pauly; Bordenstein, Seth R.

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system is an ancient component of host defense. Since innate immunity pathways are well conserved throughout many eukaryotes, immune genes in model animals can be used to putatively identify homologous genes in newly sequenced genomes of non-model organisms. With the initiation of the "i5k" project, which aims to sequence 5,000 insect genomes by 2016, many novel insect genomes will soon become publicly available, yet few annotation resources are currently available for insec...

  13. 46 CFR 72.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 72.20-55 Section 72.20-55 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects. ...

  14. 46 CFR 92.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 92.20-55 Section 92.20-55 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects. ...

  15. 46 CFR 190.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 190.20-55 Section 190.20-55 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects. ...

  16. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The Secretary...

  17. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin. ...

  18. 40 CFR 161.590 - Nontarget insect data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nontarget insect data requirements... § 161.590 Nontarget insect data requirements. (a) Table. Sections 161.100 through 161.102 describe how to use this table to determine the nontarget insect data requirements and the substance to be tested...

  19. Metabolomics reveals insect metabolic responses associated with fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Jiang; Luo, Feifei; Gao, Qiang; Shang, Yanfang; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-06-01

    The interactions between insects and pathogenic fungi are complex. We employed metabolomic techniques to profile insect metabolic dynamics upon infection by the pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silkworm larvae were infected with fungal spores and microscopic observations demonstrated that the exhaustion of insect hemocytes was coupled with fungal propagation in the insect body cavity. Metabolomic analyses revealed that fungal infection could significantly alter insect energy and nutrient metabolisms as well as the immune defense responses, including the upregulation of carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, and lipids, but the downregulation of eicosanoids and amines. The insect antifeedant effect of the fungal infection was evident with the reduced level of maclurin (a component of mulberry leaves) in infected insects but elevated accumulations in control insects. Insecticidal and cytotoxic mycotoxins like oosporein and beauveriolides were also detected in insects at the later stages of infection. Taken together, the metabolomics data suggest that insect immune responses are energy-cost reactions and the strategies of nutrient deprivation, inhibition of host immune responses, and toxin production would be jointly employed by the fungus to kill insects. The data obtained in this study will facilitate future functional studies of genes and pathways associated with insect-fungus interactions.

  20. Innovative Strategies for Control of Coffee Insect Pests in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee insect pests are one of the major factors which affect coffee production and quality. globally, coffee insect pests are estimated to cause losses of about 13%. However in Africa, yield losses can be much higher, particularly where Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown for a long time. In Tanzania the major insect pests ...

  1. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilenberg, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-LeRoux, C.; Capellozza, S.; Jensen, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each

  2. Influence of human activities on diversity and abundance of insects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An hectare block was centrally demarcated in each of the land use types where insects collection and enumeration of trees species took place. 13,578 insects distributed among 30 families belonging to 15 orders were collected and identified and preserved in the insect boxes in the Museum. Within the fallow land, a total of ...

  3. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in

  4. An extreme case of plant-insect codiversification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruaud, Astrid; Rønsted, Nina; Chanterasuwan, Bhanumas

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that speciation in phytophagous insects is often due to colonization of novel host plants, because radiations of plant and insect lineages are typically asynchronous. Recent phylogenetic comparisons have supported this model of diversification for both insect herbivores and speciali...

  5. Exploiting natural variation to identify insect-resistance genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekgaarden, C.; Snoeren, T.A.L.; Dicke, M.; Vosman, B.

    2011-01-01

    Herbivorous insects are widespread and often serious constraints to crop production. The use of insect-resistant crops is a very effective way to control insect pests in agriculture, and the development of such crops can be greatly enhanced by knowledge on plant resistance mechanisms and the genes

  6. Insects in the human food chain: global status and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Muenke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2014-01-01

    factor in considering insects as food, combined currently with their limited availability on the market, and a lack of regulations governing insects as food and feed, are major barriers for their further expansion. However, the biggest opportunity may well lie in the production of insect biomass...

  7. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  8. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  9. Insect genome content phylogeny and functional annotation of core insect genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Foox, Jonathan; DeSalle, Rob

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-one fully sequenced and well annotated insect genomes were examined for genome content in a phylogenetic context. Gene presence/absence matrices and phylogenetic trees were constructed using several phylogenetic criteria. The role of e-value on phylogenetic analysis and genome content characterization is examined using scaled e-value cutoffs and a single linkage clustering approach to orthology determination. Previous studies have focused on the role of gene loss in terminals in the insect tree of life. The present study examines several common ancestral nodes in the insect tree. We suggest that the common ancestors of major insect groups like Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera and Holometabola experience more gene gain than gene loss. This suggests that as major insect groups arose, their genomic repertoire expanded through gene duplication (segmental duplications), followed by contraction by gene loss in specific terminal lineages. In addition, we examine the functional significance of the loss and gain of genes in the divergence of some of the major insect groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Native Hawaiian Insect Microbiome Initiative: A Critical Perspective for Hawaiian Insect Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E. Poff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insects associate with a diversity of microbes that can shape host ecology and diversity by providing essential biological and adaptive services. For most insect groups, the evolutionary implications of host–microbe interactions remain poorly understood. Geographically discrete areas with high biodiversity offer powerful, simplified model systems to better understand insect–microbe interactions. Hawaii boasts a diverse endemic insect fauna (~6000 species characterized by spectacular adaptive radiations. Despite this, little is known about the role of bacteria in shaping this diversity. To address this knowledge gap, we inaugurate the Native Hawaiian Insect Microbiome Initiative (NHIMI. The NHIMI is an effort intended to develop a framework for informing evolutionary and biological studies in Hawaii. To initiate this effort, we have sequenced the bacterial microbiomes of thirteen species representing iconic, endemic Hawaiian insect groups. Our results show that native Hawaiian insects associate with a diversity of bacteria that exhibit a wide phylogenetic breadth. Several groups show predictable associations with obligate microbes that permit diet specialization. Others exhibit unique ecological transitions that are correlated with shifts in their microbiomes (e.g., transition to carrion feeding from plant-feeding in Nysius wekiuicola. Finally, some groups, such as the Hawaiian Drosophila, have relatively diverse microbiomes with a conserved core of bacterial taxa across multiple species and islands.

  11. Physical principles of fluid-mediated insect attachment - Shouldn’t insects slip?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects use either hairy or smooth adhesive pads to safely adhere to various kinds of surfaces. Although the two types of adhesive pads are morphologically different, they both form contact with the substrate via a thin layer of adhesive fluid. To model adhesion and friction forces generated by insect footpads often a simple “wet adhesion” model is used, in which two flat undeformable substrates are separated by a continuous layer of fluid. This review summarizes the key physical and tribological principles that determine the adhesion and friction in such a model. Interestingly, such a simple wet-adhesion model falls short in explaining several features of insect adhesion. For example, it cannot predict the observed high static friction forces of the insects, which enable them to cling to vertical smooth substrates without sliding. When taking a closer look at the “classic” attachment model, one can see that it is based on several simplifications, such as rigid surfaces or continuous layers of Newtonian fluids. Recent experiments show that these assumptions are not valid in many cases of insect adhesion. Future tribological models for insect adhesion thus need to incorporate deformable adhesive pads, non-Newtonian properties of the adhesive fluid and/or partially “dry” or solid-like contact between the pad and the substrate.

  12. Physical principles of fluid-mediated insect attachment - Shouldn't insects slip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Jan-Henning

    2014-01-01

    Insects use either hairy or smooth adhesive pads to safely adhere to various kinds of surfaces. Although the two types of adhesive pads are morphologically different, they both form contact with the substrate via a thin layer of adhesive fluid. To model adhesion and friction forces generated by insect footpads often a simple "wet adhesion" model is used, in which two flat undeformable substrates are separated by a continuous layer of fluid. This review summarizes the key physical and tribological principles that determine the adhesion and friction in such a model. Interestingly, such a simple wet-adhesion model falls short in explaining several features of insect adhesion. For example, it cannot predict the observed high static friction forces of the insects, which enable them to cling to vertical smooth substrates without sliding. When taking a closer look at the "classic" attachment model, one can see that it is based on several simplifications, such as rigid surfaces or continuous layers of Newtonian fluids. Recent experiments show that these assumptions are not valid in many cases of insect adhesion. Future tribological models for insect adhesion thus need to incorporate deformable adhesive pads, non-Newtonian properties of the adhesive fluid and/or partially "dry" or solid-like contact between the pad and the substrate.

  13. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  14. Insect-resistant biotech crops and their impacts on beneficial arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, A. M. R.; Ferry, N.; Edwards, M. G.; Bell, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    With a projected population of 10 billion by 2050, an immediate priority for agriculture is to achieve increased crop yields in a sustainable and cost-effective way. The concept of using a transgenic approach was realized in the mid-1990s with the commercial introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. By 2010, the global value of the seed alone was US $11.2 billion, with commercial biotech maize, soya bean grain and cotton valued at approximately US $150 billion. In recent years, it has become evident that insect-resistant crops expressing δ-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis have made a significant beneficial impact on global agriculture, not least in terms of pest reduction and improved quality. However, because of the potential for pest populations to evolve resistance, and owing to lack of effective control of homopteran pests, alternative strategies are being developed. Some of these are based on Bacillus spp. or other insect pathogens, while others are based on the use of plant- and animal-derived genes. However, if such approaches are to play a useful role in crop protection, it is desirable that they do not have a negative impact on beneficial organisms at higher trophic levels thus affecting the functioning of the agro-ecosystem. This widely held concern over the ecological impacts of GM crops has led to the extensive examination of the potential effects of a range of transgene proteins on non-target and beneficial insects. The findings to date with respect to both commercial and experimental GM crops expressing anti-insect genes are discussed here, with particular emphasis on insect predators and parasitoids. PMID:21444317

  15. Forest structure affects trophic linkages: How silvicultural disturbance impacts bats and their insect prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, L.E.; Lacki, M.J.; Britzke, E.R.; Buehler, D.A.; Keyser, P.D.; Larkin, J.L.; Rodewald, A.D.; Wigley, T.B.; Wood, P.B.; Rieske, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate insectivores such as bats are a pervasive top-down force on prey populations in forest ecosystems. Conservation focusing on forest-dwelling bats requires understanding of community-level interactions between these predators and their insect prey. Our study assessed bat activity and insect occurrence (abundance and diversity) across a gradient of forest disturbance and structure (silvicultural treatments) in the Central Appalachian region of North America. We conducted acoustic surveys of bat echolocation concurrent with insect surveys using blacklight and malaise traps over 2 years. Predator activity, prey occurrence and prey biomass varied seasonally and across the region. The number of bat echolocation pulses was positively related with forest disturbance, whereas prey demonstrated varied trends. Lepidopteran abundance was negatively related with disturbance, while dipteran abundance and diversity was positively related with disturbance. Coleoptera were unaffected. Neither bat nor insect response variables differed between plot interiors and edges. Correlations between bat activity and vegetative structure reflected differences in foraging behavior among ensembles. Activity of myotine bats was correlated with variables describing sub-canopy vegetation, whereas activity of lasiurine bats was more closely correlated with canopy-level vegetation. Lepidopteran abundance was correlated with variables describing canopy and sub-canopy vegetation, whereas coleopteran and dipteran occurrence were more closely correlated with canopy-level vegetative structure. Our study demonstrates regional variation in bat activity and prey occurrence across a forested disturbance gradient. Land management and conservation efforts should consider the importance of vegetation structure and plant species richness to sustain forest-dwelling bats and their insect prey.

  16. Aquatic insects as the main food resource of fish the community in a Neotropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Vidotto-Magnoni

    Full Text Available We evaluated the feeding of fish species of the Nova Avanhandava Reservoir, low Tietê River, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fishes were collected in two stretches of the reservoir: Santa Bárbara (14 samples and Bonito (two samples between September 2002 and March 2004, using gill and seining nets. The results of stomach contents analysis were expressed with the frequency of occurrence and gravimetric method, combined in the Alimentary Index (AI. The 20 species studied consumed 52 food items, grouped in 10 food categories: aquatic insects, terrestrial insects, crustaceans, fish, macroinvertebrates, microcrustaceans, algae, vegetal matter, detritus/sediment and scales. The aquatic insects (mainly Chironomidae, Odonata and Ephemeroptera were the most common food resources, consumed by 18 species. The diet composition of the community (species grouped indicated that the dominant food category in the diet of fishes was aquatic insects (AI = 77.6%, followed by crustaceans (AI = 7.1%. Four trophic guilds were identified according a cluster analysis (Pearson distance: insectivorous (10 species, omnivorous (4 species, detritivorous (3 species and piscivorous/carcinophagous (3 species. Despite the highest number of species, the insectivorous guild was responsible for more than 80% in captures in number and biomass (CPUEn and CPUEb. The low values of niche breadth presented by all species, along with the low values of diet overlap between species pairs indicate a high degree of food resources partitioning among species. The aquatic insects, despite being the main food resource of insectivorous fishes, also complemented the diet of other species, which demonstrate the importance of this food resource for the fish community, sustaining a high diversity, abundance and biomass of fishes.

  17. Interaction of phytophagous insects with Salmonella enterica on plants and enhanced persistence of the pathogen with Macrosteles quadrilineatus infestation or Frankliniella occidentalis feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Soto-Arias

    Full Text Available Recently, most foodborne illness outbreaks of salmonellosis have been caused by consumption of contaminated fresh produce. Yet, the mechanisms that allow the human pathogen Salmonella enterica to contaminate and grow in plant environments remain poorly described. We examined the effect of feeding by phytophagous insects on survival of S. enterica on lettuce. Larger S. enterica populations were found on leaves infested with Macrosteles quadrilineatus. In contrast, pathogen populations among plants exposed to Frankliniella occidentalis or Myzus persicae were similar to those without insects. However, on plants infested with F. occidentalis, areas of the infested leaf with feeding damage sustained higher S. enterica populations than areas without damage. The spatial distribution of S. enterica cells on leaves infested with F. occidentalis may be altered resulting in higher populations in feeding lesions or survival may be different across a leaf dependent on local damage. Results suggest the possibility of some specificity with select insects and the persistence of S. enterica. Additionally, we demonstrated the potential for phytophagous insects to become contaminated with S. enterica from contaminated plant material. S. enterica was detected in approximately 50% of all M. quadrilineatus, F. occidentalis, and M. persicae after 24 h exposure to contaminated leaves. Particularly, 17% of F. occidentalis, the smallest of the insects tested, harbored more than 10(2 CFU/F. occidentalis. Our results show that phytophagous insects may influence the population dynamics of S. enterica in agricultural crops. This study provides evidence of a human bacterial pathogen interacting with phytophagous insect during plant infestation.

  18. Interaction of Phytophagous Insects with Salmonella enterica on Plants and Enhanced Persistence of the Pathogen with Macrosteles quadrilineatus Infestation or Frankliniella occidentalis Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Arias, José Pablo; Groves, Russell; Barak, Jeri D.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, most foodborne illness outbreaks of salmonellosis have been caused by consumption of contaminated fresh produce. Yet, the mechanisms that allow the human pathogen Salmonella enterica to contaminate and grow in plant environments remain poorly described. We examined the effect of feeding by phytophagous insects on survival of S. enterica on lettuce. Larger S. enterica populations were found on leaves infested with Macrosteles quadrilineatus. In contrast, pathogen populations among plants exposed to Frankliniella occidentalis or Myzus persicae were similar to those without insects. However, on plants infested with F. occidentalis, areas of the infested leaf with feeding damage sustained higher S. enterica populations than areas without damage. The spatial distribution of S. enterica cells on leaves infested with F. occidentalis may be altered resulting in higher populations in feeding lesions or survival may be different across a leaf dependent on local damage. Results suggest the possibility of some specificity with select insects and the persistence of S. enterica. Additionally, we demonstrated the potential for phytophagous insects to become contaminated with S. enterica from contaminated plant material. S. enterica was detected in approximately 50% of all M. quadrilineatus, F. occidentalis, and M. persicae after 24 h exposure to contaminated leaves. Particularly, 17% of F. occidentalis, the smallest of the insects tested, harbored more than 102 CFU/F. occidentalis. Our results show that phytophagous insects may influence the population dynamics of S. enterica in agricultural crops. This study provides evidence of a human bacterial pathogen interacting with phytophagous insect during plant infestation. PMID:24205384

  19. External Insect Morphology: A Negative Factor in Attitudes toward Insects and Likelihood of Incorporation in Future Science Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated if the external morphology of an insect had a negative effect on United States (US) preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward insects and beliefs concerning the likelihood of incorporating insects into future science education settings. 270 US kindergarten through sixth grade preservice elementary teachers…

  20. Spectral composition of light sources and insect phototaxis, with an evaluation of existing spectral response models. Journal of Insect Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Donners, M.; Boekee, K.; Tichelaar, I.; Geffen, van K.G.; Groenendijk, D.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Artificial illumination attracts insects, but to what extent light attracts insects, depends on the spectral composition of the light. Response models have been developed to predict the attractiveness of artificial light sources. In this study we compared attraction of insects by existing light

  1. [Synergism of plant volatiles to insect pheromones and related mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-hua; Zhao, Hui; Li, Jin-fu; Zeng, Xian-dong; Chen, Jian-jun; Feng, Han-li; Xu, Jia-wen

    2008-11-01

    Host plant volatiles and insect pheromones are the most important semiochemicals for insects, and their synergism can modulate insect behaviors. The attraction to sex- and aggregation pheromones of insects can be greatly enhanced by specific plant volatiles through the increased electroantennogram, pheromone incepting neuron action potential, and pulse-frequency. When the specific plant volatiles are bound with octopamine receptors, the threshold of sex pheromone incepting neuron to sex pheromones is decreased, while the sensibility of sex pheromone incepting neuron is increased, which may be the main mechanism for the synergism of plant volatiles to insect pheromones.

  2. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J. A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from byproducts of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two speci...

  3. Emerging strategies for RNA interference (RNAi) applications in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandety, Raja Sekhar; Kuo, Yen-Wen; Nouri, Shahideh; Falk, Bryce W

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) in insects is a gene regulatory process that also plays a vital role in the maintenance and in the regulation of host defenses against invading viruses. Small RNAs determine the specificity of the RNAi through precise recognition of their targets. These small RNAs in insects comprise small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs) of various lengths. In this review, we have explored different forms of the RNAi inducers that are presently in use, and their applications for an effective and efficient fundamental and practical RNAi research with insects. Further, we reviewed trends in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and their importance for insect RNAi, including the identification of novel insect targets as well as insect viruses. Here we also describe a rapidly emerging trend of using plant viruses to deliver the RNAi inducer molecules into insects for an efficient RNAi response.

  4. Phylogenetic origin and diversification of RNAi pathway genes in insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Daniel; Pauli, Thomas; Donath, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    against transposable elements. Despite being well studied in model organisms, such as Drosophila, the distribution of core RNAi pathway genes and their evolution in insects is not well understood. Here we present the most comprehensive overview of the distribution and diversity of core RNAi pathway genes...... across 100 insect species, encompassing all currently recognized insect orders. We inferred the phylogenetic origin of insect-specific RNAi pathway genes and also identified several hitherto unrecorded gene expansions using whole-body transcriptome data from the international 1KITE (1000 Insect...... Transcriptome Evolution) project aswell asother resources such as i5K(5000InsectGenomeProject). Specifically,we traced the origin of the double stranded RNAbinding protein R2D2 to the lastcommon ancestor of winged insects (Pterygota), the loss of Sid-1/ Tag-130 orthologs in Antliophora (fleas, flies...

  5. Remote radio control of insect flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sato

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely-controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  6. Predator detection and evasion by flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, David D

    2012-04-01

    Echolocating bats detect prey using ultrasonic pulses, and many nocturnally flying insects effectively detect and evade these predators through sensitive ultrasonic hearing. Many eared insects can use the intensity of the predator-generated ultrasound and the stereotyped progression of bat echolocation pulse rate to assess risk level. Effective responses can vary from gentle turns away from the threat (low risk) to sudden random flight and dives (highest risk). Recent research with eared moths shows that males will balance immediate bat predation risk against reproductive opportunity as judged by the strength and quality of conspecific pheromones present. Ultrasound exposure may, in fact, bias such decisions for up to 24 hours through plasticity in the CNS olfactory system. However, brain processing of ultrasonic stimuli to yield adaptive prey behaviors remains largely unstudied, so possible mechanisms are not known. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lignin degradation in wood-feeding insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Scott M; Filley, Timothy R; Hatcher, Patrick G; Hoover, Kelli; Carlson, John E; Jimenez-Gasco, Maria del Mar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Sleighter, Rachel L; Tien, Ming

    2008-09-02

    The aromatic polymer lignin protects plants from most forms of microbial attack. Despite the fact that a significant fraction of all lignocellulose degraded passes through arthropod guts, the fate of lignin in these systems is not known. Using tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis, we show lignin degradation by two insect species, the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and the Pacific dampwood termite (Zootermopsis angusticollis). In both the beetle and termite, significant levels of propyl side-chain oxidation (depolymerization) and demethylation of ring methoxyl groups is detected; for the termite, ring hydroxylation is also observed. In addition, culture-independent fungal gut community analysis of A. glabripennis identified a single species of fungus in the Fusarium solani/Nectria haematococca species complex. This is a soft-rot fungus that may be contributing to wood degradation. These results transform our understanding of lignin degradation by wood-feeding insects.

  8. Insects as vectors: systematics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-04-01

    Among the many complex relationships between insects and microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, some have resulted in the establishment of biological systems within which the insects act as a biological vector for infectious agents. It is therefore advisable to understand the identity and biology of these vectors in depth, in order to define procedures for epidemiological surveillance and anti-vector control. The following are successively reviewed in this article: Anoplura (lice), Siphonaptera (fleas), Heteroptera (bugs: Cimicidae, Triatoma, Belostomatidae), Psychodidae (sandflies), Simuliidae (black flies), Ceratopogonidae (biting midges), Culicidae (mosquitoes), Tabanidae (horseflies) and Muscidae (tsetse flies, stable flies and pupipara). The authors provide a rapid overview of the morphology, systematics, development cycle and bio-ecology of each of these groups of vectors. Finally, their medical and veterinary importance is briefly reviewed.

  9. Interactions between parasites and insects vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Hurd

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This review stresses the importance of studies that will provide a basic understanding of the pathology of parasite-infected vector insects. This knowledge should be a vital component of the very focussed initiatives currently being funded in the areas of vector control. Vector fecundity reduction is discussed as an example of such pathology. Underlying mechanisms are being investigated in a model system, Hymenolepis diminuta-infected Tenebrio molitor and in Onchocerca-infected blackflies and Plasmodium-infected Anopheles stephensi. In all cases, host vitellogenesis is disrupted by the parasite and, in the tapeworm/beetle model, interaction between the parasite and the endocrine control of the insect's reproductive physiology has been demonstrated.

  10. The evolutionary biology of insect hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, J H; Yack, J E

    1993-07-01

    Few areas of science have experienced such a blending of laboratory and field perspectives as the study of hearing. The disciplines of sensory ecology and neuroethology interpret the morphology and physiology of ears in the adaptive context in which this sense organ functions. Insects, with their enormous diversity, are valuable candidates for the study of how tympanal ears have evolved and how they operate today in different habitats. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The presence of insect at composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudruňka, J.; Lyčková, B.; Kučerová, R.; Glogarová, V.; Závada, J.; Gibesová, B.; Takač, D.

    2017-10-01

    During composting biodegradable waste, microbic organisms reproduce massively, most of which belong to serious biopathogens which are able to penetrate various environmental layers. Their vector species include dipterous insect (Diptera) which reaches considerable amounts in composting plant premises as well as home composting units, mainly during summer months. Therefore measures must be taken to eliminate or reduce this unwanted phenomenon (sanitisation, disinfection). For evaluating obtained results, relative abundance calculation was chosen.

  12. Climate Change Effects Overwintering of Insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukasinovic, Dragana

    Climate change is modifying winter conditions rapidly and predicting species’ reactions to global warming has been the “the holy grail” of climate sciences, especially for managed systems, like agro-ecosystems. Intuitively, increased winter temperatures should release insects from coldinduced...... of a rapid, contemporary evolution, optimal formeasuring species response under constant selection pressure, including organismal physiology.Thus, the methodological approach applied in this study, could prove a valuable tool for improving predictability of field population dynamics during climate change....

  13. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sabolová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  14. The visual system of male scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschbeck, Elke K; Hauser, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Animal eyes generally fall into two categories: (1) their photoreceptive array is convex, as is typical for camera eyes, including the human eye, or (2) their photoreceptive array is concave, as is typical for the compound eye of insects. There are a few rare examples of the latter eye type having secondarily evolved into the former one. When viewed in a phylogenetic framework, the head morphology of a variety of male scale insects suggests that this group could be one such example. In the Margarodidae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea), males have been described as having compound eyes, while males of some more derived groups only have two single-chamber eyes on each side of the head. Those eyes are situated in the place occupied by the compound eye of other insects. Since male scale insects tend to be rare, little is known about how their visual systems are organized, and what anatomical traits are associated with this evolutionary transition. In adult male Margarodidae, one single-chamber eye (stemmateran ocellus) is present in addition to a compound eye-like region. Our histological investigation reveals that the stemmateran ocellus has an extended retina which is formed by concrete clusters of receptor cells that connect to its own first-order neuropil. In addition, we find that the ommatidia of the compound eyes also share several anatomical characteristics with simple camera eyes. These include shallow units with extended retinas, each of which is connected by its own small nerve to the lamina. These anatomical changes suggest that the margarodid compound eye represents a transitional form to the giant unicornal eyes that have been described in more derived species.

  15. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuropeptides as Regulators of Behavior in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoofs, Liliane; De Loof, Arnold; Van Hiel, Matthias Boris

    2017-01-31

    Neuropeptides are by far the largest and most diverse group of signaling molecules in multicellular organisms. They are ancient molecules important in regulating a multitude of processes. Their small proteinaceous character allowed them to evolve and radiate quickly into numerous different molecules. On average, hundreds of distinct neuropeptides are present in animals, sometimes with unique classes that do not occur in distantly related species. Acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones, or growth factors, they are extremely diverse and are involved in controlling growth, development, ecdysis, digestion, diuresis, and many more physiological processes. Neuropeptides are also crucial in regulating myriad behavioral actions associated with feeding, courtship, sleep, learning and memory, stress, addiction, and social interactions. In general, behavior ensures that an organism can survive in its environment and is defined as any action that can change an organism's relationship to its surroundings. Even though the mode of action of neuropeptides in insects has been vigorously studied, relatively little is known about most neuropeptides and only a few model insects have been investigated. Here, we provide an overview of the roles neuropeptides play in insect behavior. We conclude that multiple neuropeptides need to work in concert to coordinate certain behaviors. Additionally, most neuropeptides studied to date have more than a single function.

  17. The Azadirachtins: potent insect growth inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Rembold

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of their coevolution with insects, plants have learnt to protect themselves by chemical means. Semiochemical act as antifeedants or deterrents, others by disrupting growth and development. By use of the Epilachna varivestis bioassay we isolated from Azadirachta indica seed a group of triterpenoids which interfee with larval growth and development in ppm range. Main components are the azadirachtins A and B with identical biological activity. Various other azadirachtins were obtained, either as minor seed components or by chemical modification of the naturally occuring compounds. Structure vs. activity relation studies enabled us to postulate a basic structural element that should still be biologically active and with much simpler chemical structure than natural compounds. What underlies the biological activity of these insect growth inhibitors? Their interference with the hormonal regulation of development and reproduction has been studied in Locusta migratoria and Rhodnius prolixus. In addition, tritiated dihydroazadirachtin A was used. With this approach, a precise correlation between administered dose, resulting effects, and retention of the compound was established. The azadirachtins either interrupt, delay, or deviate whole developmental programs. Results from these studies provide another chemical probe for studies in insect endocrinology and physiology.

  18. Insect habitat management in pasture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. B.

    1983-01-01

    Two important habitat management strategies in pasture systems involve controlled burning and effective grazing manipulation schemes to maintain native climax grassland vegetation These climax grasslands have historically suffered less insect pest pressure than imported systems However, these types of grasslands are difficult to reestablish after relatively severe disruption by man Also, the proper diversity and stability is difficult to capture in developing imported systems. Imported pastures can exhibit substantial yields per land unit but are often composed of vegetation that rapidly mines nutrients stored by the native vegetation, and often need considerable inputs of fossil fuel, manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, because they are or become very susceptible to pestiferous insects. Habitat manipulation efforts can be effective in regulating forage pest populations below economic levels in imported pasture systems Such efforts include: 1) land use (coupled with plant diversity, grazing, and harvest manipulations), 2) sanitation (including controlled burning), 3) planting dates and harvest times (including grazing manipulations), 4) tillage methods, 5) fertilization, 6) trap crops, 7) water management, and 8) fire management for insect pest suppression and augmentation of natural enemies.

  19. Genitalia-associated microbes in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otti, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    In sexual reproduction different types of symbiotic relationships between insects and microbes have become established. For example, some bacteria have evolved almost exclusive vertical transmission and even define the compatibility of insect mating partners. Many strictly sexually transmitted diseases have also been described in insects. Apart from such rather specific relationships the role of opportunistic infections in the reproductive process has been widely neglected. Opportunistic microbes transmitted passively during mating might impose an energetic cost, as the immune system will need to be alert and will use resources to fight potential intruders. Through mating wounds and contaminated reproductive organs opportunistic microbes might be transferred to mating partners and even enter the body cavity. Females as the "receiving" sex are particularly likely to have evolved adaptations to avoid or reduce opportunistic infections. Males of several species show highly complex seminal fluids, which as well as containing components that influence a males' fertilization success, also possess antimicrobial substances. The role of antimicrobials in the reproductive process is not well understood. Some evidence hints at the protection of sperm against microbes, indicating a role for natural selection in shaping the evolution of reproductive traits. By highlighting the potential importance of microbes in sexual selection and their role in reproduction in general I will make a case for studies in sexual selection, especially the ones investigating postcopulatory processes, that should incorporate environmental, as well as genotypic variation, in reproductive traits. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Organizing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M.; Hamburger, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    A successful campus sustainability effort catalyzes broad engagement of the campus community and integration of sustainability principles into the academic and operational components of campus life. Although many universities have embraced sustainability as a new core value, others have been more sluggish in adopting sustainability principles to…

  1. Technology and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.

    2011-01-01

    In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an

  2. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  3. Sustainable Investment. Literature Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-08-15

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns sustainability at the investment, fund or portfolio level and involves screening the sustainability of companies before investing in them. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on 'sustainable investment', amongst others addressing the economic rationale for CSR and SRI. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Carbon Trading; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability.

  4. Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

    Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural

  5. Optoelectronic determination of insect presence in fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bim P.; Guyer, Daniel E.; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2004-03-01

    Opto-electronic methods represent a potential to identify the presence of insect activities on or within agricultural commodities. Such measurements may detect actual insect presence or indirect secondary changes in the product resulting from past or present insect activities. Preliminary imaging studies have demonstrated some unique spectral characteristics of insect larvae on cherries. A detailed study on spectral characteristics of healthy and infested tart cherry tissue with and without larvae (Plum Curculio) was conducted for reflectance, transmittance and interactance modes for each of UV and visible/NIR light sources. The intensity of transmitted UV signals through the tart cherry was found to be weak; however, the spectral properties of UV light in reflectance mode has revealed some typical characteristics of larvae on healthy and infested tissue. The larvae on tissue were found to exhibit UV induced fluorescence signals in the range of 400-700 nm. Multi spectral imaging of the halved tart cherry has also corroborated this particular behavior of plum curculio larvae. The gray scale subtraction between corresponding pixels in these multi-spectral images has helped to locate the larvae precisely on the tart cherry tissue background, which otherwise was inseparable. The spectral characteristics of visible/NIR energy in transmittance and reflectance mode are capable of estimating the secondary effect of infestation in tart cherry tissue. The study has shown the shifting in peaks of reflected and transmitted signals from healthy and infested tissues and coincides with the concept of browning of tissue at cell level as a process of infestation. Interactance study has been carried out to study the possibility of coupling opto-electronic devices with the existing pitting process. The shifting of peaks has been observed for the normalized intensity of healthy and infested tissues. The study has been able to establish the inherent spectral characteristic of these

  6. Atmospheric oxygen level and the evolution of insect body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jon F; Kaiser, Alexander; VandenBrooks, John M

    2010-07-07

    Insects are small relative to vertebrates, possibly owing to limitations or costs associated with their blind-ended tracheal respiratory system. The giant insects of the late Palaeozoic occurred when atmospheric PO(2) (aPO(2)) was hyperoxic, supporting a role for oxygen in the evolution of insect body size. The paucity of the insect fossil record and the complex interactions between atmospheric oxygen level, organisms and their communities makes it impossible to definitively accept or reject the historical oxygen-size link, and multiple alternative hypotheses exist. However, a variety of recent empirical findings support a link between oxygen and insect size, including: (i) most insects develop smaller body sizes in hypoxia, and some develop and evolve larger sizes in hyperoxia; (ii) insects developmentally and evolutionarily reduce their proportional investment in the tracheal system when living in higher aPO(2), suggesting that there are significant costs associated with tracheal system structure and function; and (iii) larger insects invest more of their body in the tracheal system, potentially leading to greater effects of aPO(2) on larger insects. Together, these provide a wealth of plausible mechanisms by which tracheal oxygen delivery may be centrally involved in setting the relatively small size of insects and for hyperoxia-enabled Palaeozoic gigantism.

  7. Three-way interaction among plants, bacteria, and coleopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielkopolan, Beata; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera, the largest and the most diverse Insecta order, is characterized by multiple adaptations to plant feeding. Insect-associated microorganisms can be important mediators and modulators of interactions between insects and plants. Interactions between plants and insects are highly complex and involve multiple factors. There are various defense mechanisms initiated by plants upon attack by herbivorous insects, including the development of morphological structures and the synthesis of toxic secondary metabolites and volatiles. In turn, herbivores have adapted to feeding on plants and further sophisticated adaptations to overcome plant responses may continue to evolve. Herbivorous insects may detoxify toxic phytocompounds, sequester poisonous plant factors, and alter their own overall gene expression pattern. Moreover, insects are associated with microbes, which not only considerably affect insects, but can also modify plant defense responses to the benefit of their host. Plants are also frequently associated with endophytes, which may act as bioinsecticides. Therefore, it is very important to consider the factors influencing the interaction between plants and insects. Herbivorous insects cause considerable damage to global crop production. Coleoptera is the largest and the most diverse order in the class Insecta. In this review, various aspects of the interactions among insects, microbes, and plants are described with a focus on coleopteran species, their bacterial symbionts, and their plant hosts to demonstrate that many factors contribute to the success of coleopteran herbivory.

  8. Plant-insect interactions: double-dating associated insect and plant lineages reveals asynchronous radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Diana M; Page, Roderic D M; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2004-02-01

    An increasing number of plant-insect studies using phylogenetic analysis suggest that cospeciation events are rare in plant-insect systems. Instead, nonrandom patterns of phylogenetic congruence are produced by phylogenetically conserved host switching (to related plants) or tracking of particular resources or traits (e.g., chemical). The dominance of host switching in many phytophagous insect groups may make the detection of genuine cospeciation events difficult. One important test of putative cospeciation events is to verify whether reciprocal speciation is temporally plausible. We explored techniques for double-dating of both plant and insect phylogenies. We use dated molecular phylogenies of a psyllid (Hemiptera)-Genisteae (Fabaceae) system, a predominantly monophagous insect-plant association widespread on the Atlantic Macaronesian islands. Phylogenetic reconciliation analysis suggests high levels of parallel cladogenesis between legumes and psyllids. However, dating using molecular clocks calibrated on known geological ages of the Macaronesian islands revealed that the legume and psyllid radiations were not contemporaneous but sequential. Whereas the main plant radiation occurred some 8 million years ago, the insect radiation occurred about 3 million years ago. We estimated that >60% of the psyllid speciation has resulted from host switching between related hosts. The only evidence for true cospeciation is in the much more recent and localized radiation of genistoid legumes in the Canary Islands, where the psyllid and legume radiations have been partially contemporaneous. The identification of specific cospeciation events over this time period, however, is hindered by the phylogenetic uncertainty in both legume and psyllid phylogenies due to the apparent rapidity of the species radiations.

  9. Differential sensitivity of two insect GABA-gated chloride channels to dieldrin, fipronil and picrotoxinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corronc, Hervé; Alix, Philippe; Hue, Bernard

    2002-04-01

    In the central nervous system of both vertebrates and invertebrates inhibitory neurotransmission is mainly achieved through activation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. Extensive studies have established the structural and pharmacological properties of vertebrate GABA receptors. Although the vast majority of insect GABA-sensitive responses share some properties with vertebrate GABAA receptors, peculiar pharmacological properties of these receptors led us to think that several GABA-gated chloride channels are present in insects. We describe here the pharmacological properties of two GABA receptor subtypes coupled to a chloride channel on dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurones of the adult male cockroach. Long applications of GABA induce a large biphasic hyperpolarization, consisting of an initial transient hyperpolarization followed by a slow phase of hyperpolarization that is not quickly desensitized. With GABA, the transient hyperpolarization is sensitive to picrotoxinin, fipronil and dieldrin whereas the slow response is insensitive to these insecticides.When GABA is replaced by muscimol and cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (CACA) a biphasic hyperpolarization consisting of an initial transient hyperpolarization followed by a sustained phase is evoked which is blocked by picrotoxinin and fipronil. Exposure to dieldrin decreases only the early phase of the muscimol and CACA-induced biphasic response, suggesting that two GABA-gated chloride channel receptor subtypes are present in DUM neurones. This study describes, for the first time, a dieldrin resistant component different to the dieldrin- and picrotoxinin-resistant receptor found in several insect species.

  10. More than a colour change: insect melanism, disease resistance and fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskiy, I M; Whitten, M M A; Kryukov, V Y; Yaroslavtseva, O N; Grizanova, E V; Greig, C; Mukherjee, K; Vilcinskas, A; Mitkovets, P V; Glupov, V V; Butt, T M

    2013-07-22

    A 'dark morph' melanic strain of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, was studied for its atypical, heightened resistance to infection with the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. We show that these insects exhibit multiple intraspecific immunity and physiological traits that distinguish them from a non-melanic, fungus-susceptible morph. The melanic and non-melanic morphs were geographical variants that had evolved different, independent defence strategies. Melanic morphs exhibit a thickened cuticle, higher basal expression of immunity- and stress-management-related genes, higher numbers of circulating haemocytes, upregulated cuticle phenoloxidase (PO) activity concomitant with conidial invasion, and an enhanced capacity to encapsulate fungal particles. These insects prioritize specific augmentations to those frontline defences that are most likely to encounter invading pathogens or to sustain damage. Other immune responses that target late-stage infection, such as haemolymph lysozyme and PO activities, do not contribute to fungal tolerance. The net effect is increased larval survival times, retarded cuticular fungal penetration and a lower propensity to develop haemolymph infections when challenged naturally (topically) and by injection. In the absence of fungal infection, however, the heavy defence investments made by melanic insects result in a lower biomass, decreased longevity and lower fecundity in comparison with their non-melanic counterparts. Although melanism is clearly correlated with increased fungal resistance, the costly mechanisms enabling this protective trait constitute more than just a colour change.

  11. Terpenoids in plant and arbuscular mycorrhiza-reinforced defence against herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Esha; Anand, Garima; Kapoor, Rupam

    2017-03-01

    Plants, though sessile, employ various strategies to defend themselves against herbivorous insects and convey signals of an impending herbivore attack to other plant(s). Strategies include the production of volatiles that include terpenoids and the formation of symbiotic associations with fungi, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). This constitutes a two-pronged above-ground/below-ground attack-defence strategy against insect herbivores. Terpenoids represent an important constituent of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that deter herbivores and/or attract their predators. Terpenoids serve as airborne signals that can induce defence responses in systemic undamaged parts of the plant and also prime defence responses in neighbouring plants. Colonization of roots by AM fungi is known to influence secondary metabolism in plants; this includes alteration of the concentration and composition of terpenoids, which can boost both direct and indirect plant defence against herbivorous insects. Enhanced nutrient uptake facilitated by AM, changes in plant morphology and physiology and increased transcription levels of certain genes involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway result in alterations in plant terpenoid profiles. The common mycorrhizal networks of external hyphae have added a dimension to the two-pronged plant defence strategy. These act as conduits to transfer defence signals and terpenoids. Improved understanding of the roles of terpenoids in plant and AM defences against herbivory and of interplant signalling in natural communities has significant implications for sustainable management of pests in agricultural ecosystems.

  12. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens - a promising source for sustainable production of proteins, lipids and bioactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ariane; Wolf, Diana; Gutzeit, Herwig O

    2017-09-26

    The growing demand worldwide for proteins and lipids cannot be met by the intensive use of agricultural land currently available. Insect mass cultures as a source for proteins and lipids have been in focus for various reasons. An insect with many positive properties is the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, whose larvae could be used for the sustainable production of proteins and lipids. Furthermore, the larvae produce bioactive substances which could potentially be used for human and animal welfare.

  13. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...... by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  14. Effects of defoliating insect resistance QTLs and a cry1Ac transgene in soybean near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S; Walker, D R; Boerma, H R; All, J N; Parrott, W A

    2008-02-01

    The crystal proteins coded by transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have shown considerable value in providing effective insect resistance in a number of crop species, including soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Additional sources of soybean insect resistance would be desirable to manage the development of tolerance/resistance to crystal proteins by defoliating insects and to sustain the deployment of Bt crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and interactions of three insect resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs; QTL-M, QTL-H, and QTL-G) originating from Japanese soybean PI 229358 and a cry1Ac gene in a "Benning" genetic background. A set of 16 BC(6)F(2)-derived near isogenic lines (NILs) was developed using marker-assisted backcrosses and evaluated for resistance to soybean looper [SBL, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)] and corn earworm [CEW, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] in field cage, greenhouse, and detached leaf assays. Both Bt and QTL-M had significantly reduced defoliation by both SBL and CEW and reduced larval weight of CEW. The antibiosis QTL-G had a significant effect on reducing CEW larval weight and also a significant effect on reducing defoliation by SBL and CEW in some assays. The antixenosis QTL-H had no main effect, but it appeared to function through interaction with QTL-M and QTL-G. Adding QTL-H and QTL-G further enhanced the resistance of the Bt and QTL-M combination to CEW in the field cage assay. These results should help guide the development of strategies for effective management of insect pests and for sustainable deployment of Bt genes.

  15. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  16. Insect gut microbiome - An unexploited reserve for biotechnological application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Muthukalingan; Bharathiraja, Chinnapandi; Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2014-05-01

    Metagenomics research has been developed over the past decade to elucidate the genomes of the uncultured microorganisms with an aim of understanding microbial ecology. On the other hand, it has also been provoked by the increasing biotechnological demands for novel enzymes, antibiotic and signal mimics. The gut microbiota of insects plays crucial roles in the growth, development and environmental adaptation to the host insects. Very recently, the insect microbiota and their genomes (microbiome), isolated from insects were recognized as a major genetic resources for bio-processing industry. Consequently, the exploitation of insect gut microbiome using metagenomic approaches will enable us to find novel biocatalysts and to develop innovative strategies for identifying smart molecules for biotechnological applications. In this review, we discuss the critical footstep in extraction and purification of metagenomic DNA from insect gut, construction of metagenomic libraries and screening procedure for novel gene identification. Recent innovations and potential applications in bioprocess industries are highlighted.

  17. Molecular identification of the insect adipokinetic hormone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staubli, Frank; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    The insect adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are a large family of peptide hormones that are involved in the mobilization of sugar and lipids from the insect fat body during energy-requiring activities such as flight and locomotion, but that also contribute to hemolymph sugar homeostasis. Here, we have...... identified the first insect AKH receptors, namely those from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the silkworm Bombyx mori. These results represent a breakthrough for insect molecular endocrinology, because it will lead to the cloning of all AKH receptors from all model insects used in AKH research, and......, therefore, to a better understanding of AKH heterogeneity and actions. Interestingly, the insect AKH receptors are structurally and evolutionarily related to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors from vertebrates....

  18. Insect Pathogenic Fungi: Genomics, Molecular Interactions, and Genetic Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengshu; Wang, Sibao

    2017-01-31

    Entomopathogenic fungi play a pivotal role in the regulation of insect populations in nature, and representative species have been developed as promising environmentally friendly mycoinsecticides. Recent advances in the genome biology of insect pathogenic fungi have revealed genomic features associated with fungal adaptation to insect hosts and different host ranges, as well as the evolutionary relationships between insect and noninsect pathogens. By using species in the Beauveria and Metarhizium genera as models, molecular biology studies have revealed the genes that function in fungus-insect interactions and thereby contribute to fungal virulence. Taken together with efforts toward genetic improvement of fungal virulence and stress resistance, knowledge of entomopathogenic fungi will potentiate cost-effective applications of mycoinsecticides for pest control in the field. Relative to our advanced insights into the mechanisms of fungal pathogenesis in plants and humans, future studies will be necessary to unravel the gene-for-gene relationships in fungus-insect interactive models.

  19. Tracing the evolutionary origins of insect renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, Kenneth A; Terhzaz, Selim; Cabrero, Pablo; Davies, Shireen A; Dow, Julian A T

    2015-04-21

    Knowledge on neuropeptide receptor systems is integral to understanding animal physiology. Yet, obtaining general insight into neuropeptide signalling in a clade as biodiverse as the insects is problematic. Here we apply fluorescent analogues of three key insect neuropeptides to map renal tissue architecture across systematically chosen representatives of the major insect Orders, to provide an unprecedented overview of insect renal function and control. In endopterygote insects, such as Drosophila, two distinct transporting cell types receive separate neuropeptide signals, whereas in the ancestral exopterygotes, a single, general cell type mediates all signals. Intriguingly, the largest insect Order Coleoptera (beetles) has evolved a unique approach, in which only a small fraction of cells are targets for neuropeptide action. In addition to demonstrating a universal utility of this technology, our results reveal not only a generality of signalling by the evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide families but also a clear functional separation of the types of cells that mediate the signal.

  20. Architectural diversity and galling insects on Caryocar brasiliense trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Veloso, Ronnie Von Dos Santos; Zanuncio, José Cola; Azevedo, Alcinei Mistico; Silva, Júlia Letícia; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga

    2017-11-30

    Galling insects are a highly sophisticated herbivore group on Caryocar brasiliense, a tree that represents the main income source for many communities. The effect of architectural diversity of C. brasiliense trees on galling insect community diversity and abundance was studied. The abundance of adult insects and galled leaves were seven and 1.6 times higher in trees with a greater height/width of canopy (RHW) ratio, respectively. Gall parasitoid richness was 1.8 times greater on trees with higher RHW. Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and ant numbers were 5.8 and 2.7 higher on trees with the largest and smallest RHW, respectively. More complex plant architectures favored species diversity for galling insects and their natural enemies. The competition among four galling insect species for space and feeding and the evidence of "prudence strategy" were, for the first time, observed for galling insects in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

  1. Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, Bernhard; Liu, Shanlin; Meusemann, Karen; Peters, Ralph S; Donath, Alexander; Mayer, Christoph; Frandsen, Paul B; Ware, Jessica; Flouri, Tomáš; Beutel, Rolf G; Niehuis, Oliver; Petersen, Malte; Izquierdo-Carrasco, Fernando; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes; Aberer, Andre J; Aspöck, Ulrike; Aspöck, Horst; Bartel, Daniela; Blanke, Alexander; Berger, Simon; Böhm, Alexander; Buckley, Thomas R; Calcott, Brett; Chen, Junqing; Friedrich, Frank; Fukui, Makiko; Fujita, Mari; Greve, Carola; Grobe, Peter; Gu, Shengchang; Huang, Ying; Jermiin, Lars S; Kawahara, Akito Y; Krogmann, Lars; Kubiak, Martin; Lanfear, Robert; Letsch, Harald; Li, Yiyuan; Li, Zhenyu; Li, Jiguang; Lu, Haorong; Machida, Ryuichiro; Mashimo, Yuta; Kapli, Pashalia; McKenna, Duane D; Meng, Guanliang; Nakagaki, Yasutaka; Navarrete-Heredia, José Luis; Ott, Michael; Ou, Yanxiang; Pass, Günther; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Pohl, Hans; von Reumont, Björn M; Schütte, Kai; Sekiya, Kaoru; Shimizu, Shota; Slipinski, Adam; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Song, Wenhui; Su, Xu; Szucsich, Nikolaus U; Tan, Meihua; Tan, Xuemei; Tang, Min; Tang, Jingbo; Timelthaler, Gerald; Tomizuka, Shigekazu; Trautwein, Michelle; Tong, Xiaoli; Uchifune, Toshiki; Walzl, Manfred G; Wiegmann, Brian M; Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Wipfler, Benjamin; Wong, Thomas K F; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Gengxiong; Xie, Yinlong; Yang, Shenzhou; Yang, Qing; Yeates, David K; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Wenwei; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhao, Jing; Zhou, Chengran; Zhou, Lili; Ziesmann, Tanja; Zou, Shijie; Li, Yingrui; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Kjer, Karl M; Zhou, Xin

    2014-11-07

    Insects are the most speciose group of animals, but the phylogenetic relationships of many major lineages remain unresolved. We inferred the phylogeny of insects from 1478 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relations hips. We dated the origin of insects to the Early Ordovician [~479 million years ago (Ma)], of insect flight to the Early Devonian (~406 Ma), of major extant lineages to the Mississippian (~345 Ma), and the major diversification of holometabolous insects to the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenomic study provides a comprehensive reliable scaffold for future comparative analyses of evolutionary innovations among insects. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. The diversity of insect antiviral immunity: insights from viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, João T; Imler, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Insects represent over 70% of all animal species. Recent virome analyses reveal unprecedented genetic diversity of insect viruses, which appears to match that of their hosts. Thus, insect-virus interactions may provide information on a vast repertoire of antiviral immune mechanisms. Tapping into this diversity is challenging because of several constraints imposed by the uniqueness of each insect model. Nevertheless, it is clear that many conserved and divergent pathways participate in the control of viral infection in insects. Co-evolution between hosts and viruses favors the development of immune evasion mechanisms by the pathogen. Viral suppressors can offer unique perspective on host pathways and emphasize the importance of RNA interference, apoptosis, but also NF-κB pathways and translation control in insect antiviral immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flight stability analysis under changes in insect morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Z. Jane

    2015-11-01

    Insect have an amazing ability to control their flight, being able to perform both fast aerial maneuvers and stable hovering. The insect's neural system has developed various mechanism by which it can control these flying feats, but we expect that insect morphology is equally important in facilitating the aerial control. We perform a computational study using a quasi-steady instantaneous flapping flight model which allows us to freely adapt the insect's morphological parameters. We picked a fruit fly as the basis for the body shape and wing motion, and study the effect of changes to the morphology for a range of wing stroke amplitudes. In each case we determine the periodic flight mode, with the period equal to a single wing beat, and do a Floquet stability analysis of the flight. To interpret our results we will compare the changed morphology to related insects. We discuss the implications of the insects location on the stability diagram.

  4. Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Thomson, James D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

    Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that flower constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that flower constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories may be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for flower constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.

  5. Plasma membranes from insect midgut cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Terra

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma membranes from insect midgut cells are separated into apical and basolateral domains. The apical domain is usually modified into microvilli with a molecular structure similar to other animals. Nevertheless, the microvillar structure should differ in some insects to permit the traffic inside them of secretory vesicles that may budd laterally or pinch-off from the tips of microvilli. Other microvillar modifications are associated with proton-pumping or with the interplay with an ensheathing lipid membrane (the perimicrovilllar membrane observed in the midgut cells of hemipterans (aphids and bugs. The perimicrovillar membranes are thought to be involved in amino acid absorption from diluted diets. The microvillar and perimicrovillar membranes have densities (and protein content that depend on the insect taxon. The role played by the microvillar and perimicrovillar proteins in insect midgut physiology is reviewed here trying to provide a coherent picture of data and highlighting further research areas.As membranas plasmáticas das células intestinais dos insetos apresentam um domínio apical e outro basal. O domínio apical é geralmente modificado em microvilosidades com organização molecular similar a de outros animais, embora possam diferir naqueles insetos que apresentam vesículas secretoras em trânsito que brotam lateralmente ou destacam-se das extremidades das microvilosidades. Outras modificações microvilares estão associadas a bombeamento de prótons ou a interrelações com uma membrana lipídica (a membrana perimicrovilar que reveste as microvilosidades de células intestinais de hemípteros (pulgões e percevejos. Admite-se que as membranas perimicrovilares estejam envolvidas na absorção de aminoácidos a partir de dietas diluídas. As membranas microvilares e perimicrovilares tem densidades distintas (e conteúdo protéico que dependem do táxon do inseto. O papel desempenhado pelas proteínas microvilares e

  6. Report of the Insect Development Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    Drosophila metanogaster was chosen as the insect species of choice, in regard to gravity response experiments involving normal reproduction and develop different strains. The specific gravity responses which might be affected by microgravity and are exhibited in normal reproduction and development include normal flight for courtship, mating and oviposition, tropisms for pupating or emergency of the adult, and crawling for gettering food by the larval instars at the organismic level. At the suborganismic elevel, it is believed that maturation of developing eggs in the virgin female and embryonic development of the developing egg could be affected by microgravity and warrant study.

  7. New pheromones and insect control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Guerrero, Angel

    2010-01-01

    A survey of the new environmentally safe strategies used for insect control is presented. The survey includes mating disruption, pheromone antagonists as chemical communication inhibitors, pheromones and plant-based volatiles, attractant-and-kill, and push-pull strategies. Important successes have been obtained, particularly in mating disruption with significant reduction in pesticide use in low to moderate pest infestations. One important factor of concern is the high cost of semiochemicals and formulations containing them in comparison to the conventional insecticide treatments, and a combined effort by scientists, producers, and farmers should be made to reduce the cost of application of these semiochemicals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanism for Visual Detection of Small Targets in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    1 Final Report for AOARD Grant FA2386-10-1-4114 AOARD 104114 “Mechanisms for Visual Detection of Small Targets in Insects ” 14 June...Final 3. DATES COVERED 15-06-2010 to 15-12-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mechanism for visual detection of small targets in insects 5a. CONTRACT...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Specialized Small Target Motion Detector Neurons (STMDs) in the optic lobes of the insect brain

  9. Sensorimotor Integration of Antennal Positioning in Flying Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Flying Insects 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-11-1-4057 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant AOARD-114057 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This research focuses primarily on insect flight. We look at this...migrations. Such an eclectic approach is necessary for a deeper understanding of the physics and biology of insect flight, its role in evolution and

  10. Mechanisms for Visual Detection of Small Targets in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    AOARD-09-4058 / FA2386-09-1-4058 Mechanisms for Visual Detection of Small Targets in Insects Final Performance Report December 1, 2009...SUBTITLE Mechanisms for Visual Detection of Small Targets in Insects 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23860914058 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...grantee investigated insect visual detection of small targets against a cluttered, moving background. The work focused on deducing neural mechanisms

  11. Biocontrol: the potential of entomophilic nematodes in insect management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J M

    1980-10-01

    A review of the development of entomophilic nematology and a commentary on the potential of entomophilic nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use of nematodes; nematodes which are most promising as biological control agents; and problems to be solved to facilitate the use of entomophilic nematodes in insect management.

  12. Exoskeletal chitin scales isometrically with body size in terrestrial insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Hilary M; Wolf, Blair O

    2010-06-01

    The skeletal system of animals provides the support for a variety of activities and functions. For animals such as mammals, which have endoskeletons, research has shown that skeletal investment (mass) scales with body mass to the 1.1 power. In this study, we ask how exoskeletal investment in insects scales with body mass. We measured the body mass and mass of exoskeletal chitin of 551 adult terrestrial insects of 245 species, with dry masses ranging from 0.0001 to 2.41 g (0.0002-6.13 g wet mass) to assess the allometry of exoskeletal investment. Our results showed that exoskeletal chitin mass scales isometrically with dry body mass across the Insecta as M(chitin) = a M(dry) (b), where b = 1.03 +/- 0.04, indicating that both large and small terrestrial insects allocate a similar fraction of their body mass to chitin. This isometric chitin-scaling relationship was also evident at the taxonomic level of order, for all insect orders except Coleoptera. We additionally found that the relative exoskeletal chitin investment, indexed by the coefficient, a, varies with insect life history and phylogeny. Exoskeletal chitin mass tends to be proportionally less and to increase at a lower rate with mass in flying than in nonflying insects (M(flying insect chitin) = -0.56 x M(dry) (0.97); M(nonflying insect chitin) = -0.55 x M(dry) (1.03)), and to vary with insect order. Isometric scaling (b = 1) of insect exoskeletal chitin suggests that the exoskeleton in insects scales differently than support structures of most other organisms, which have a positive allometry (b > 1) (e.g., vertebrate endoskeleton, tree secondary tissue). The isometric pattern that we document here additionally suggests that exoskeletal investment may not be the primary limit on insect body size.

  13. Sustainable Marketing : The Importance of Being a Sustainable Business

    OpenAIRE

    Reutlinger, Janina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with sustainable marketing, as well as the necessity for more sustainability. The purpose of this thesis was to determine the importance of sustainable marketing for companies. The theoretical part is divided into sustainability and sustainable marketing. Sustainability covers current issues and sustainable development, which form a background for a better understanding of sustainable marketing. Sustainable marketing includes a definition of the concept, as well as susta...

  14. Landscape constraints on functional diversity of birds and insects in tropical agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscharntke, Teja; Sekercioglu, Cagan H; Dietsch, Thomas V; Sodhi, Navjot S; Hoehn, Patrick; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze databases [corrected] on birds and insects to assess patterns of functional diversity in human-dominated landscapes in the tropics. A perspective from developed landscapes is essential for understanding remnant natural ecosystems, because most species experience their surroundings at spatial scales beyond the plot level, and spillover between natural and managed ecosystems is common. Agricultural bird species have greater habitat and diet breadth than forest species. Based on a global data base, bird assemblages in tropical agroforest ecosystems were composed of disproportionately more frugivorous and nectarivorous, but fewer insectivorous bird species compared with forest. Similarly, insect predators of plant-feeding arthropods were more diverse in Ecuadorian agroforest and forest compared with rice and pasture, while, in Indonesia, bee diversity was also higher in forested habitats. Hence, diversity of insectivorous birds and insect predators as well as bee pollinators declined with agricultural transformation. In contrast, with increasing agricultural intensification, avian pollinators and seed dispersers initially increase then decrease in proportion. It is well established that the proximity of agricultural habitats to forests has a strong influence on the functional diversity of agroecosystems. Community similarity is higher among agricultural systems than in natural habitats and higher in simple than in complex landscapes for both birds and insects, so natural communities, low-intensity agriculture, and heterogeneous landscapes appear to be critical in the preservation of beta diversity. We require a better understanding of the relative role of landscape composition and the spatial configuration of landscape elements in affecting spillover of functionally important species across managed and natural habitats. This is important for data-based management of tropical human-dominated landscapes sustaining the capacity of communities to

  15. Insect cell transformation vectors that support high level expression and promoter assessment in insect cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    A somatic transformation vector, pDP9, was constructed that provides a simplified means of producing permanently transformed cultured insect cells that support high levels of protein expression of foreign genes. The pDP9 plasmid vector incorporates DNA sequences from the Junonia coenia densovirus th...

  16. Intracellular regulation of the insect chemoreceptor complex impacts odour localization in flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Merid N; Thoma, Michael; Lavista-Llanos, Sofia; Keesey, Ian; Fandino, Richard A; Knaden, Markus; Wicher, Dieter; Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

    2016-11-01

    Flying insects are well known for airborne odour tracking and have evolved diverse chemoreceptors. While ionotropic receptors (IRs) are found across protostomes, insect odorant receptors (ORs) have only been identified in winged insects. We therefore hypothesized that the unique signal transduction of ORs offers an advantage for odour localization in flight. Using Drosophila, we found expression and increased activity of the intracellular signalling protein PKC in antennal sensilla following odour stimulation. Odour stimulation also enhanced phosphorylation of the OR co-receptor Orco in vitro, while site-directed mutation of Orco or mutations in PKC subtypes reduced the sensitivity and dynamic range of OR-expressing neurons in vivo, but not IR-expressing neurons. We ultimately show that these mutations reduce competence for odour localization of flies in flight. We conclude that intracellular regulation of OR sensitivity is necessary for efficient odour localization, which suggests a mechanistic advantage for the evolution of the OR complex in flying insects. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Meredith

    2017-06-01

    Fungi and insects live together in the same habitats, and many species of both groups rely on each other for success. Insects, the most successful animals on Earth, cannot produce sterols, essential vitamins, and many enzymes; fungi, often yeast-like in growth form, make up for these deficits. Fungi, however, require constantly replenished substrates because they consume the previous ones, and insects, sometimes lured by volatile fungal compounds, carry fungi directly to a similar, but fresh, habitat. Yeasts associated with insects include Ascomycota (Saccharomycotina, Pezizomycotina) and a few Basidiomycota. Beetles, homopterans, and flies are important associates of fungi, and in turn the insects carry yeasts in pits, specialized external pouches, and modified gut pockets. Some yeasts undergo sexual reproduction within the insect gut, where the genetic diversity of the population is increased, while others, well suited to their stable environment, may never mate. The range of interactions extends from dispersal of yeasts on the surface of insects (e.g., cactus- Drosophila -yeast and ephemeral flower communities, ambrosia beetles, yeasts with holdfasts) to extremely specialized associations of organisms that can no longer exist independently, as in the case of yeast-like symbionts of planthoppers. In a few cases yeast-like fungus-insect associations threaten butterflies and other species with extinction. Technical advances improve discovery and identification of the fungi but also inform our understanding of the evolution of yeast-insect symbioses, although there is much more to learn.

  18. Digestive Processes of Haematophagous Insects. I. A Literature Review,

    Science.gov (United States)

    INSECTS , *DIGESTIVE SYSTEM), (*ARTHROPODA, DIGESTIVE SYSTEM), ENTOMOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, BLOOD, INGESTION(PHYSIOLOGY), CULICIDAE, TICKS, ENZYMES, SALIVARY GLANDS, AEDES, ANOPHELES, DISEASE VECTORS, CULEX, DIPTERA

  19. [Molecular and physiological characterization of the pyrokinin insect neuropeptide family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Paweł; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Szymczak, Monika; Rosiński, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Peptides from the pyrokinin (PK) family are a large, structurally and functionally diverse group of the insect neuropeptides produced by neurosecretory cells of the insect nervous system. This family contains short and long peptides which share C-terminal -FXPRLa amino acid sequence. Pyrokinins regulate the visceral muscle contractions, pheromone biosynthesis, pupariation and diapause duration in insects. They are encoded by two genes PBAN and capa, which are mainly expressed in the suboesophageal ganglion. Peptides are then transported to the retrocerebral complex and released into haemolymph. Recent studies are focused on application of pyrokinins as biopesticides in the regulation of insect pests growth and development.

  20. Tyrosine metabolic enzymes from insects and mammals: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavricka, Christopher John; Han, Qian; Mehere, Prajwalini; Ding, Haizhen; Christensen, Bruce M; Li, Jianyong

    2014-02-01

    Differences in the metabolism of tyrosine between insects and mammals present an interesting example of molecular evolution. Both insects and mammals possess fine-tuned systems of enzymes to meet their specific demands for tyrosine metabolites; however, more homologous enzymes involved in tyrosine metabolism have emerged in many insect species. Without knowledge of modern genomics, one might suppose that mammals, which are generally more complex than insects and require tyrosine as a precursor for important catecholamine neurotransmitters and for melanin, should possess more enzymes to control tyrosine metabolism. Therefore, the question of why insects actually possess more tyrosine metabolic enzymes is quite interesting. It has long been known that insects rely heavily on tyrosine metabolism for cuticle hardening and for innate immune responses, and these evolutionary constraints are likely the key answers to this question. In terms of melanogenesis, mammals also possess a high level of regulation; yet mammalian systems possess more mechanisms for detoxification whereas insects accelerate pathways like melanogenesis and therefore must bear increased oxidative pressure. Our research group has had the opportunity to characterize the structure and function of many key proteins involved in tyrosine metabolism from both insects and mammals. In this mini review we will give a brief overview of our research on tyrosine metabolic enzymes in the scope of an evolutionary perspective of mammals in comparison to insects. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.