WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustain electrode gap

  1. Discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture with varying Xe contents and at varying sustain electrode gap lengths in the plasma display panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ohyung; Whang, Ki-Woong; Bae, Hyun Sook

    2009-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture in the plasma display panel were investigated using a two-dimensional numerical simulation to understand the effects of adding He and varying the Xe contents in the gas mixture, and also varying sustain electrode gap. With 5% Xe content and 60 μm sustain electrode gap, decreased ionization led to the improvement of the vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) efficacy at increasing He mixing ratios. However, at 20% Xe content and 60 μm sustain electrode gap, increased electron heating improved the vuv efficacy until the He mixing ratio reached 0.7, but the efficacy decreased beyond the ratio of 0.7 due to the increased ionization of Xe atoms. At 5% Xe content and 200 μm sustain electrode gap, the vuv efficacy increased as a result of increased electron heating at the gap space at increasing He mixing ratios.

  2. Sustainability Tools Inventory - Initial Gaps Analysis | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influence resource consumption, waste generation, and hazard generation including air pollution and greenhouse gases. In addition, the tools have been evaluated using four screening criteria: relevance to community decision making, tools in an appropriate developmental stage, tools that may be transferrable to situations useful for communities, and tools with requiring skill levels appropriate to communities. This document provides an initial gap analysis in the area of community sustainability decision support tools. It provides a reference to communities for existing decision support tools, and a set of gaps for those wishing to develop additional needed tools to help communities to achieve sustainability. It contributes to SHC 1.61.4

  3. Sustainability Tools Inventory Initial Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influence resource consu...

  4. Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Viorica-Alina; Renault, Stéven; Valvo, Mario; Brandell, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested. PMID:28773272

  5. SUSTAINABLE FOOD CONSUMPTION: EXPLORING THE CONSUMER ATTITUDE – BEHAVIOUR GAP

    OpenAIRE

    I. VERMEIR; W. VERBEKE

    2004-01-01

    Although public interest in sustainability increases and consumer attitudes are mainly positive, behavioural patterns are not univocally consistent with attitudes. The presumed gap between favourable attitude towards sustainable behaviour and behavioural intention to purchase sustainable food products is investigated in this study. The impact of involvement, perceived availability, certainty, perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE), values, and social norms on consumers’ attitudes and intentio...

  6. Direct fabrication of nano-gap electrodes by focused ion beam etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Takashi; Gamo, Kenji; Kubota, Tohru; Mashiko, Shinro

    2006-01-01

    A simple approach to increase the reliability of nano-gap electrode fabrication techniques is presented. The method is based on maskless sputter etching of Au electrodes using a focused ion beam (FIB) and in-situ monitoring of the etching steps by measuring a current fed to the Au electrodes. The in-situ monitoring is crucial to form nano-gaps much narrower than a FIB spot size. By using this approach, gaps of ∼3-6 nm are fabricated with the high yield of ∼90%, and most of the fabricated nano-gap electrodes showed high resistances of 10 GΩ-1 TΩ. The controllability of the fabrication steps is significantly improved by using triple-layered films consisting of top Ti, Au, and bottom adhesion Ti layers. The applicability of the fabricated nano-gap electrodes to electron transport studies of nano-sized objects is demonstrated by electrical measurement of Au colloidal nano-particles

  7. Advances in submerged arc, narrow-gap welding with strip electrodes and thin, dual-wire electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, H.

    1990-01-01

    Container and tank construction for nuclear installations traditionally is one of the major applications of narrow-gap welding with the submerged arc technique. This type of welding presents one problem, namely to completely and reliably remove the welding slag from the deep and narrow gap. The research report in hand explains the variants of welding techniques that have been tested and describes the results obtained, which primarily are reduced occurrence of faults, i.e. enhanced reliability, and better welding economy. As an alternative to welding with thick wire electrodes, which is the standard method for the applications under review, a new technique has been conceived and extensively tested, which uses thin strip electrodes at longitudinal position in the gap. This submerged arc, dual-wire technique with thin electrodes is characterised by a significantly higher thermal efficiency compared to welding with thick wires, so that the same energy input yields better efficiency of metal deposition. (orig./MM) [de

  8. Dress code: sustainable fashion : Bridging the attitude-behaviour gap

    OpenAIRE

    Billeson, Kristin; Klasander, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates previous research on four barriers that hinder consumers from buying sustainable fashion; style/design, price, convenience and information/knowledge. Using a mixed methods approach, a survey has been performed on members of the general public in London as well as interviews with two professionals in the fashion industry with knowledge on sustainability in fashion. Looking through the lens of the attitude-behaviour gap the consumers’ attitude and behaviour towards susta...

  9. A consumption value-gap analysis for sustainable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aindrila

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies on consumption behavior have depicted environmental apprehension resulting from across wide consumer segments. However, this has not been widely reflected upon the growth in the market shares for green or environment-friendly products mostly because gaps exist between consumers' expectations and perceptions for those products. Previous studies have highlighted the impact of perceived value on potential demand, consumer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The necessity to understand the effects of gaps in expected and perceived values on consumers' behavioral intention and potential demand for green products cannot be undermined as it shapes the consumers' inclination to repeated purchase and consumption and thus foster potential market demand. Pertaining to this reason, the study aims to adopt a consumption value-gap model based on the theory of consumption values to assess their impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand of green products. Consumption value refers to the level of fulfillment of consumer needs by assessment of net utility derived after effective comparison between the benefits (financial or emotional) and the gives (money, time, or energy). The larger the gaps the higher will be the adversarial impact on behavioral intentions. A structural equation modeling was applied to assess data collected through questionnaire survey. The results indicate that functional value-gap and environmental value-gap has the most adversarial impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand for green products.

  10. A Fabrication Technique for Nano-gap Electrodes by Atomic Force Microscopy Nano lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Rouhi; Shahrom Mahmud; Hutagalung, S.D.; Kakooei, S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple technique is introduced for fabrication of nano-gap electrodes by using nano-oxidation atomic force microscopy (AFM) lithography with a Cr/ Pt coated silicon tip. AFM local anodic oxidation was performed on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) surfaces by optimization of desired conditions to control process in contact mode. Silicon electrodes with gaps of sub 31 nm were fabricated by nano-oxidation method. This technique which is simple, controllable, inexpensive and fast is capable of fabricating nano-gap structures. The current-voltage measurements (I-V) of the electrodes demonstrated very good insulating characteristics. The results show that silicon electrodes have a great potential for fabrication of single molecule transistors (SMT), single electron transistors (SET) and the other nano electronic devices. (author)

  11. High-capacity aqueous zinc batteries using sustainable quinone electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Huang, Weiwei; Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Luojia; Lu, Yong; Li, Yixin; Li, Lin; Hu, Jinyan; Ma, Hua; Chen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Quinones, which are ubiquitous in nature, can act as sustainable and green electrode materials but face dissolution in organic electrolytes, resulting in fast fading of capacity and short cycle life. We report that quinone electrodes, especially calix[4]quinone (C4Q) in rechargeable metal zinc batteries coupled with a cation-selective membrane using an aqueous electrolyte, exhibit a high capacity of 335 mA h g−1 with an energy efficiency of 93% at 20 mA g−1 and a long life of 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 87% at 500 mA g−1. The pouch zinc batteries with a respective depth of discharge of 89% (C4Q) and 49% (zinc anode) can deliver an energy density of 220 Wh kg−1 by mass of both a C4Q cathode and a theoretical Zn anode. We also develop an electrostatic potential computing method to demonstrate that carbonyl groups are active centers of electrochemistry. Moreover, the structural evolution and dissolution behavior of active materials during discharge and charge processes are investigated by operando spectral techniques such as IR, Raman, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies. Our results show that batteries using quinone cathodes and metal anodes in aqueous electrolyte are reliable approaches for mass energy storage. PMID:29511734

  12. Closing Yield Gaps: How Sustainable Can We Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajal Pradhan

    Full Text Available Global food production needs to be increased by 60-110% between 2005 and 2050 to meet growing food and feed demand. Intensification and/or expansion of agriculture are the two main options available to meet the growing crop demands. Land conversion to expand cultivated land increases GHG emissions and impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services. Closing yield gaps to attain potential yields may be a viable option to increase the global crop production. Traditional methods of agricultural intensification often have negative externalities. Therefore, there is a need to explore location-specific methods of sustainable agricultural intensification. We identified regions where the achievement of potential crop calorie production on currently cultivated land will meet the present and future food demand based on scenario analyses considering population growth and changes in dietary habits. By closing yield gaps in the current irrigated and rain-fed cultivated land, about 24% and 80% more crop calories can respectively be produced compared to 2000. Most countries will reach food self-sufficiency or improve their current food self-sufficiency levels if potential crop production levels are achieved. As a novel approach, we defined specific input and agricultural management strategies required to achieve the potential production by overcoming biophysical and socioeconomic constraints causing yield gaps. The management strategies include: fertilizers, pesticides, advanced soil management, land improvement, management strategies coping with weather induced yield variability, and improving market accessibility. Finally, we estimated the required fertilizers (N, P2O5, and K2O to attain the potential yields. Globally, N-fertilizer application needs to increase by 45-73%, P2O5-fertilizer by 22-46%, and K2O-fertilizer by 2-3 times compared to the year 2010 to attain potential crop production. The sustainability of such agricultural intensification largely depends

  13. Closing Yield Gaps: How Sustainable Can We Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Fischer, Günther; van Velthuizen, Harrij; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Juergen P.

    2015-01-01

    Global food production needs to be increased by 60–110% between 2005 and 2050 to meet growing food and feed demand. Intensification and/or expansion of agriculture are the two main options available to meet the growing crop demands. Land conversion to expand cultivated land increases GHG emissions and impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services. Closing yield gaps to attain potential yields may be a viable option to increase the global crop production. Traditional methods of agricultural intensification often have negative externalities. Therefore, there is a need to explore location-specific methods of sustainable agricultural intensification. We identified regions where the achievement of potential crop calorie production on currently cultivated land will meet the present and future food demand based on scenario analyses considering population growth and changes in dietary habits. By closing yield gaps in the current irrigated and rain-fed cultivated land, about 24% and 80% more crop calories can respectively be produced compared to 2000. Most countries will reach food self-sufficiency or improve their current food self-sufficiency levels if potential crop production levels are achieved. As a novel approach, we defined specific input and agricultural management strategies required to achieve the potential production by overcoming biophysical and socioeconomic constraints causing yield gaps. The management strategies include: fertilizers, pesticides, advanced soil management, land improvement, management strategies coping with weather induced yield variability, and improving market accessibility. Finally, we estimated the required fertilizers (N, P2O5, and K2O) to attain the potential yields. Globally, N-fertilizer application needs to increase by 45–73%, P2O5-fertilizer by 22–46%, and K2O-fertilizer by 2–3 times compared to the year 2010 to attain potential crop production. The sustainability of such agricultural intensification largely depends on the way

  14. Test of freonless operation of resistive plate chambers with glass electrodes--1 mm gas gap vs 2 mm gas gap

    CERN Document Server

    Sakaue, H; Takahashi, T; Teramoto, Y

    2002-01-01

    Non-freon gas mixtures (Ar/iso-C sub 4 H sub 1 sub 0) were tested as the chamber gas for 1 and 2 mm gas gap Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with float glass as the resistive electrodes, operated in the streamer mode. With the narrower (1 mm) gas gap, streamer charge is reduced (approx 1/3), which reduces the dead time (and dead area), associated with each streamer, improving the detection efficiency. The best performance was obtained for two cases: Ar/iso-C sub 4 H sub 1 sub 0 =50/50 and 60/40. For the 50/50 mixture, a detection efficiency of better than 98% was obtained for the 1 mm gap RPC, while the efficiency was 95% for the 2 mm gap RPC, each operated as a double-gap RPC. The measured time resolution (rms) was 1.45+-0.05 (2.52+-0.09) ns for the 1 (2) mm gap RPC for the 50/50 mixture.

  15. Preparation of the spacer for narrow electrode gap configuration in ionization-based gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Burhanudin, Zainal Arif

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have started to be developed as the sensing element for ionization-based gas sensors due to the demand for improved sensitivity, selectivity, stability and other sensing properties beyond what can be offered by the conventional ones. Although these limitations have been overcome, the problems still remain with the conventional ionization-based gas sensors in that they are bulky and operating with large breakdown voltage and high temperature. Recent studies have shown that the breakdown voltage can be reduced by using nanostructured electrodes and narrow electrode gap. Nanostructured electrode in the form of aligned CNTs array with evenly distributed nanotips can enhance the linear electric field significantly. The later is attributed to the shorter conductivity path through narrow electrode gap. The paper presents the study on the design consideration in order to realize ionization based gas sensor using aligned carbon nanotubes array in an optimum sensor configuration with narrow electrode gap. Several deposition techniques were studied to deposit the spacer, the key component that can control the electrode gap. Plasma spray deposition, electron beam deposition and dry oxidation method were employed to obtain minimum film thickness around 32 μm. For plasma spray method, sand blasting process is required in order to produce rough surface for strong bonding of the deposited film onto the surface. Film thickness, typically about 39 μm can be obtained. For the electron beam deposition and dry oxidation, the film thickness is in the range of nanometers and thus unsuitable to produce the spacer. The deposited multilayer film consisting of copper, alumina and ferum on which CNTs array will be grown was found to be removed during the etching process. This is attributed to the high etching rate on the thin film which can be prevented by reducing the rate and having a thicker conductive copper film.

  16. Preparation of the spacer for narrow electrode gap configuration in ionization-based gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Burhanudin, Zainal Arif [Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Tronoh, Perak. (Malaysia); Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Tronoh, Perak. (Malaysia); Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Tronoh, Perak. (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have started to be developed as the sensing element for ionization-based gas sensors due to the demand for improved sensitivity, selectivity, stability and other sensing properties beyond what can be offered by the conventional ones. Although these limitations have been overcome, the problems still remain with the conventional ionization-based gas sensors in that they are bulky and operating with large breakdown voltage and high temperature. Recent studies have shown that the breakdown voltage can be reduced by using nanostructured electrodes and narrow electrode gap. Nanostructured electrode in the form of aligned CNTs array with evenly distributed nanotips can enhance the linear electric field significantly. The later is attributed to the shorter conductivity path through narrow electrode gap. The paper presents the study on the design consideration in order to realize ionization based gas sensor using aligned carbon nanotubes array in an optimum sensor configuration with narrow electrode gap. Several deposition techniques were studied to deposit the spacer, the key component that can control the electrode gap. Plasma spray deposition, electron beam deposition and dry oxidation method were employed to obtain minimum film thickness around 32 {mu}m. For plasma spray method, sand blasting process is required in order to produce rough surface for strong bonding of the deposited film onto the surface. Film thickness, typically about 39 {mu}m can be obtained. For the electron beam deposition and dry oxidation, the film thickness is in the range of nanometers and thus unsuitable to produce the spacer. The deposited multilayer film consisting of copper, alumina and ferum on which CNTs array will be grown was found to be removed during the etching process. This is attributed to the high etching rate on the thin film which can be prevented by reducing the rate and having a thicker conductive copper film.

  17. An Investigation of Ionic Flows in a Sphere-Plate Electrode Gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alisoy, H. Z.; Alagoz, B. B.; Alagoz, S.; Alisoy, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of ion flow characteristics and ion discharge pulses in a sphere-ground plate electrode system. As a result of variation in electric field intensity in the electrode gap, the ion flows towards electrodes generate non-uniform discharging pulses. Inspection of these pulses provides useful information on ionic stream kinetics, the effective thickness of ion cover around electrodes, and the timing of ion clouds discharge pulse sequences. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) based space-charge motion simulation is used for the numerical analysis of the spatio-temporal development of ionic flows following the first Townsend avalanche, and the simulation results demonstrate expansion of the positive ion flow and compression of the negative ion flow, which results in non-uniform discharge pulse characteristics

  18. An Investigation of Ionic Flows in a Sphere-Plate Electrode Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Alisoy, H.; Alagoz, S.; T. Alisoy, G.; B. Alagoz, B.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents analyses of ion flow characteristics and ion discharge pulses in a sphere-ground plate electrode system. As a result of variation in electric field intensity in the electrode gap, the ion flows towards electrodes generate non-uniform discharging pulses. Inspection of these pulses provides useful information on ionic stream kinetics, the effective thickness of ion cover around electrodes, and the timing of ion clouds discharge pulse sequences. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) based space-charge motion simulation is used for the numerical analysis of the spatio-temporal development of ionic flows following the first Townsend avalanche, and the simulation results demonstrate expansion of the positive ion flow and compression of the negative ion flow, which results in non-uniform discharge pulse characteristics.

  19. Growth and characterization of horizontally suspended CNTs across TiN electrode gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Claudia A; Cott, Daire J; Romo-Negreira, Ainhoa; Gendt, Stefan De; Groeseneken, Guido; Vereecken, Philippe M [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Capraro, Bernard D [Intel Ireland Limited, Collinstown Industrial Park, Leixlip, County Kildare (Ireland); Sanseverino, Stefano Riva, E-mail: claudia.santini@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: vereeck@imec.be [Department of Electrical, Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Palermo (Italy)

    2010-06-18

    A technique is proposed to grow horizontal carbon nanotubes (CNTs) bridging metal electrodes and to assess their electrical properties. A test structure was utilized that allows for selective electrochemical sidewall catalyst placement. The selectivity of the technique is based on the connection of the desired metal electrodes to the silicon substrate where the potential for electrochemical deposition was applied. Control over the Ni catalyst size (15-30 nm) and density (up to 3 x 10{sup 11} particles cm{sup -2}) is demonstrated. Horizontal CNTs with controlled diameter and density were obtained by CVD growth perpendicular to the sidewalls of patterned TiN electrode structures. Electrode gaps with spacings from 200 nm up to 5 {mu}m could be bridged by both direct CNT-electrode contact and CNT-CNT entanglement. The TiN-CNT-TiN and TiN-CNT-CNT-TiN bridges were electrically characterized without any further post-growth contacting. Resistance values as low as 40 {Omega} were measured for the smallest gap spacing and depended mainly on the number and configuration of the CNT bridges. The proposed method could be implemented for CNT-based horizontal interconnections and be a route to make different nanoelectronic devices such as chemical and electromechanical sensors.

  20. Growth and characterization of horizontally suspended CNTs across TiN electrode gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, Claudia A; Cott, Daire J; Romo-Negreira, Ainhoa; Gendt, Stefan De; Groeseneken, Guido; Vereecken, Philippe M; Capraro, Bernard D; Sanseverino, Stefano Riva

    2010-01-01

    A technique is proposed to grow horizontal carbon nanotubes (CNTs) bridging metal electrodes and to assess their electrical properties. A test structure was utilized that allows for selective electrochemical sidewall catalyst placement. The selectivity of the technique is based on the connection of the desired metal electrodes to the silicon substrate where the potential for electrochemical deposition was applied. Control over the Ni catalyst size (15-30 nm) and density (up to 3 x 10 11 particles cm -2 ) is demonstrated. Horizontal CNTs with controlled diameter and density were obtained by CVD growth perpendicular to the sidewalls of patterned TiN electrode structures. Electrode gaps with spacings from 200 nm up to 5 μm could be bridged by both direct CNT-electrode contact and CNT-CNT entanglement. The TiN-CNT-TiN and TiN-CNT-CNT-TiN bridges were electrically characterized without any further post-growth contacting. Resistance values as low as 40 Ω were measured for the smallest gap spacing and depended mainly on the number and configuration of the CNT bridges. The proposed method could be implemented for CNT-based horizontal interconnections and be a route to make different nanoelectronic devices such as chemical and electromechanical sensors.

  1. Influence of gap length on the field increase factor β of an electrode projection (whisker)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    β, the increase of the macroscopic electric field at the tip of a projection, varies with the gap length. The sign and magnitude of this variation depends upon how the gap length is defined. If gap length is defined as x, the distance from the projection tip to the opposing electrode, then β is a strong function of x and may be approximated by β(x) = β/sub infinity/x/(x+h) [h = projection height] in the region where x/h>10/β/sub infinity/. If gap length is defined as d, the interelectrode distance ignoring the projection, then β is a weak function of d and may be set equal to β/sub infinity/ in the region d/h>2

  2. Selective and lithography-independent fabrication of 20 nm nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels for nanoelectrofluidics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J Y; Wang, X F; Wang, X D; Fan, Z C; Li, Y; Ji, An; Yang, F H

    2010-01-01

    A new method has been developed to selectively fabricate nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels by conventional lithography. Based on a sacrificial spacer process, we have successfully obtained sub-100-nm nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels and further reduced the dimensions to 20 nm by shrinking the sacrificial spacer size. Our method shows good selectivity between nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels due to different sacrificial spacer etch conditions. There is no length limit for the nano-gap electrode and the nano-channel. The method reported in this paper also allows for wafer scale fabrication, high throughput, low cost, and good compatibility with modern semiconductor technology.

  3. Influence of Gap Distance on Vacuum Arc Characteristics of Cup Type AMF Electrode in Vacuum Interrupters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shaoyong; Xiu Shixin; Wang Jimei; Shen Zhengchao

    2006-01-01

    The greenhouse effect of SF 6 is a great concern today. The development of high voltage vacuum circuit breakers becomes more important. The vacuum circuit breaker has minimum pollution to the environment. The vacuum interrupter is the key part of a vacuum circuit breaker. The interrupting characteristics in vacuum and arc-controlling technique are the main problems to be solved for a longer gap distance in developing high voltage vacuum interrupters. To understand the vacuum arc characteristics and provide effective technique to control vacuum arc in a long gap distance, the arc mode transition of a cup-type axial magnetic field electrode is observed by a high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) video camera under different gap distances while the arc voltage and arc current are recorded. The controlling ability of the axial magnetic field on vacuum arc obviously decreases when the gap distance is longer than 40 mm. The noise components and mean value of the arc voltage significantly increase. The effective method for controlling the vacuum arc characteristics is provided by long gap distances based on the test results. The test results can be used as a reference to develop high voltage and large capacity vacuum interrupters

  4. Exponential model normalization for electrical capacitance tomography with external electrodes under gap permittivity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baidillah, Marlin R; Takei, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A nonlinear normalization model which is called exponential model for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) with external electrodes under gap permittivity conditions has been developed. The exponential model normalization is proposed based on the inherently nonlinear relationship characteristic between the mixture permittivity and the measured capacitance due to the gap permittivity of inner wall. The parameters of exponential equation are derived by using an exponential fitting curve based on the simulation and a scaling function is added to adjust the experiment system condition. The exponential model normalization was applied to two dimensional low and high contrast dielectric distribution phantoms by using simulation and experimental studies. The proposed normalization model has been compared with other normalization models i.e. Parallel, Series, Maxwell and Böttcher models. Based on the comparison of image reconstruction results, the exponential model is reliable to predict the nonlinear normalization of measured capacitance in term of low and high contrast dielectric distribution. (paper)

  5. Note: Erosion of W-Ni-Fe and W-Cu alloy electrodes in repetitive spark gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiawei; Han, Ruoyu; Ding, Weidong; Qiu, Aici; Tang, Junping

    2018-02-01

    A pair of W-Ni-Fe and W-Cu electrodes were tested under 100 kA level pulsed currents for 10 000 shots, respectively. Surface roughness and morphology characteristics of the two pairs of electrodes were obtained and compared. Experimental results indicated cracks divided the W-Cu electrode surface to polygons while the W-Ni-Fe electrode surface remained as a whole with pits and protrusions. Accordingly, the surface roughness of W-Ni-Fe electrodes increased to ∼3 μm while that of W-Cu electrodes reached ∼7 μm at the end of the test. The results reveal that the W-Ni-Fe alloy has a better erosion resistance and potential to be further applied in spark gaps.

  6. Large gap plasma display cell with auxiliary electrodes: macro-cell experiments and two-dimensional modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, J T; Callegari, Th; Caillier, B; Boeuf, J-P

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use a two-dimensional fluid model and a 'macroscopic' PDP cell to investigate the possibility of using large gap configurations with auxiliary electrodes to improve the efficiency of PDP discharge cells. The large gap allows operation in a transient positive column regime where energy is more efficiently deposited into xenon excitation, while the auxiliary electrodes are used to keep reasonable values of the operating voltage. Two types of auxiliary electrode configurations (floating and powered) are considered. The discharge characteristics and the discharge efficiency in exciting xenon are studied with simulations and by measuring the intensity of infrared emission from xenon and visible emission from neon in a macroscopic PDP cell. The results show that an efficient positive column regime can be achieved at reasonably low operating voltages when the auxiliary electrode configuration is carefully designed

  7. Using yield gap analysis to give sustainable intensification local meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, João Vasco

    2017-01-01

    Yield gap analysis is useful to understand the relative contribution of growth-defining, -limiting and -reducing factors to actual yields. This is traditionally performed at the field level using mechanistic crop growth simulation models, and directly up-scaled to the regional and global levels

  8. Assessing university’s sustainability programs from the perspective of university students: a gap analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulkhaq M. Mujiya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of universities in promoting sustainability has outstretched over the past decades as a result of abundant declarations related to the need for sustainability in higher education. As consequences, several universities have integrated sustainability into their curricula, research, programs, projects, partnerships, and assessments. However, despite the need for sustainable development in today’s highly competitive global network, many university members especially students are still unaware or ignorant of sustainability practices. This research tried to analyse the gap between what the university has done in campaigning for sustainability and what the students have perceived. A case study is conducted in Diponegoro University, Indonesia. Twelve indicators of four variables, i.e., community outreach; sustainability commitment and monitoring; waste and energy; as well as land use and planning are used to accomplish this research. Three hundred and fortyfive students spreading from all faculties participated in the survey. The result shows that an average gap of –0.38 is revealed; indicating that the respondents did not consider a significant impact on the sustainability programs. In addition, more than 50% of the respondents were not familiar with the sustainability programs. It is suggested that the university has to put more attention in fostering sustainability to its biggest stakeholders.

  9. Gaps in Sustainability Education: The Impact of Higher Education Coursework on Perceptions of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, P. Brian; McAdams, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine how both the amount and type of coursework impact students' conceptualizations of sustainability. Previous research demonstrates that academic coursework influences students' environmental attitudes, yet few studies have examined the impact of coursework on how students conceptualize "sustainability".…

  10. Laterally configured resistive switching device based on transition-metal nano-gap electrode on Gd oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Masatoshi; Okabe, Kyota [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kimura, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Research Center for Quantum Nano-Spin Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2016-01-11

    We have developed a fabrication process for a laterally configured resistive switching device based on a Gd oxide. A nano-gap electrode connected by a Gd oxide with the ideal interfaces has been created by adapting the electro-migration method in a metal/GdO{sub x} bilayer system. Bipolar set and reset operations have been clearly observed in the Pt/GdO{sub x} system similarly in the vertical device based on GdO{sub x}. Interestingly, we were able to observe a clear bipolar switching also in a ferromagnetic CoFeB nano-gap electrode with better stability compared to the Pt/GdO{sub x} device. The superior performance of the CoFeB/GdO{sub x} device implies the importance of the spin on the resistive switching.

  11. Band Gap Engineering of Boron Nitride by Graphene and Its Application as Positive Electrode Material in Asymmetric Supercapacitor Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanjit; Jana, Milan; Khanra, Partha; Samanta, Pranab; Koo, Hyeyoung; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kuila, Tapas

    2015-07-08

    Nanostructured hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite is prepared by insertion of h-BN into the graphene oxide through hydrothermal reaction. Formation of the super lattice is confirmed by the existence of two separate UV-visible absorption edges corresponding to two different band gaps. The composite materials show enhanced electrical conductivity as compared to the bulk h-BN. A high specific capacitance of ∼824 F g(-1) is achieved at a current density of 4 A g(-1) for the composite in three-electrode electrochemical measurement. The potential window of the composite electrode lies in the range from -0.1 to 0.5 V in 6 M aqueous KOH electrolyte. The operating voltage is increased to 1.4 V in asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device where the thermally reduced graphene oxide is used as the negative electrode and the h-BN/RGO composite as the positive electrode. The ASC exhibits a specific capacitance of 145.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 6 A g(-1) and high energy density of 39.6 W h kg(-1) corresponding to a large power density of ∼4200 W kg(-1). Therefore, a facile hydrothermal route is demonstrated for the first time to utilize h-BN-based composite materials as energy storage electrode materials for supercapacitor applications.

  12. Biomass-derived carbonaceous positive electrodes for sustainable lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyuan; Kavian, Reza; Chen, Zhongming; Cruz, Samuel S.; Noda, Suguru; Lee, Seung Woo

    2016-02-01

    Biomass derived carbon materials have been widely used as electrode materials; however, in most cases, only electrical double layer capacitance (EDLC) is utilized and therefore, only low energy density can be achieved. Herein, we report on redox-active carbon spheres that can be simply synthesized from earth-abundant glucose via a hydrothermal process. These carbon spheres exhibit a specific capacity of ~210 mA h gCS-1, with high redox potentials in the voltage range of 2.2-3.7 V vs. Li, when used as positive electrode in lithium cells. Free-standing, flexible composite films consisting of the carbon spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes deliver high specific capacities up to ~155 mA h gelectrode-1 with no obvious capacity fading up to 10 000 cycles, proposing to be promising positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries or capacitors. Furthermore, considering that the carbon spheres were obtained in an aqueous glucose solution and no toxic or hazardous reagents were used, this process opens up a green and sustainable method for designing high performance, environmentally-friendly energy storage devices.Biomass derived carbon materials have been widely used as electrode materials; however, in most cases, only electrical double layer capacitance (EDLC) is utilized and therefore, only low energy density can be achieved. Herein, we report on redox-active carbon spheres that can be simply synthesized from earth-abundant glucose via a hydrothermal process. These carbon spheres exhibit a specific capacity of ~210 mA h gCS-1, with high redox potentials in the voltage range of 2.2-3.7 V vs. Li, when used as positive electrode in lithium cells. Free-standing, flexible composite films consisting of the carbon spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes deliver high specific capacities up to ~155 mA h gelectrode-1 with no obvious capacity fading up to 10 000 cycles, proposing to be promising positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries or capacitors. Furthermore, considering

  13. How social stigma sustains the HIV treatment gap for MSM in Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleke, Kabelo; Daniels, Joseph; Lane, Tim; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James; Coates, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    There are gaps in HIV care for men who have sex with men (MSM) in African settings, and HIV social stigma plays a significant role in sustaining these gaps. We conducted a three-year research project with 49 HIV-positive MSM in two districts in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, to understand the factors that inform HIV care seeking behaviors. Semi-structured focus group discussions and interviews were conducted in IsiZulu, SiSwati, and some code-switching into English, and these were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English. We used a constant comparison approach to analyze these data. HIV social stigma centered around gossip that sustained self-diagnosis and delayed clinical care with decisions to use traditional healers to mitigate the impact of gossip on their lives. More collaboration models are needed between traditional healers and health professionals to support the global goals for HIV testing and treatment.

  14. Bridging the Gap: Ideas for water sustainability in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Passell, H. D.; Roach, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Incremental improvements in water sustainability in the western U.S. may not be able to close the growing gap between increasing freshwater demand, climate driven variability in freshwater supply, and growing environmental consciousness. Incremental improvements include municipal conservation, improvements to irrigation technologies, desalination, water leasing, and others. These measures, as manifest today in the western U.S., are successful in themselves but limited in their ability to solve long term water scarcity issues. Examples are plainly evident and range from the steady and long term decline of important aquifers and their projected inability to provide water for future agricultural irrigation, projected declines in states' abilities to meet legal water delivery obligations between states, projected shortages of water for energy production, and others. In many cases, measures that can close the water scarcity gap have been identified, but often these solutions simply shift the gap from water to some other sector, e.g., economics. Saline, brackish or produced water purification, for example, could help solve western water shortages in some areas, but will be extremely expensive, and so shift the gap from water to economics. Transfers of water out of agriculture could help close the water scarcity gap in other areas; however, loss of agriculture will shift the gap to regional food security. All these gaps, whether in water, economics, food security, or other sectors, will have a negative impact on the western states. Narrowing these future gaps requires both technical and policy solutions as well as tools to understand the tradeoffs. Here we discuss several examples from across the western U.S. that span differing scales and decision spaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear

  15. Sustained inhibition of rat myometrial gap junctions and contractions by lindane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grindatti Carmen M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gap junctions increase in size and abundance coincident with parturition, forming an intercellular communication network that permits the uterus to develop the forceful, coordinated contractions necessary for delivery of the fetus. Lindane, a pesticide used in the human and veterinary treatment of scabies and lice as well as in agricultural applications, inhibits uterine contractions in vitro, inhibits myometrial gap junctions, and has been associated with prolonged gestation length in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether brief exposures to lindane would elicit sustained inhibition of rat uterine contractile activity and myometrial gap junction intercellular communication. Methods To examine effects on uterine contraction, longitudinal uterine strips isolated from late gestation (day 20 rats were exposed to lindane in muscle baths and monitored for changes in spontaneous phasic contractions during and after exposure to lindane. Lucifer yellow dye transfer between myometrial cells in culture was used to monitor gap junction intercellular communication. Results During a 1-h exposure, 10 micro M and 100 micro M lindane decreased peak force and frequency of uterine contraction but 1 micro M lindane did not. After removal of the exposure buffer, contraction force remained significantly depressed in uterine strips exposed to 100 micro M lindane, returning to less than 50% basal levels 5 h after cessation of lindane exposure. In cultured myometrial myocytes, significant sustained inhibition of Lucifer yellow dye transfer was observed 24 h after lindane exposures as brief as 10 min and as low as 0.1 micro M lindane. Conclusion Brief in vitro exposures to lindane have long-term effects on myometrial functions that are necessary for parturition, inhibiting spontaneous phasic contractions in late gestation rat uterus and gap junction intercellular communication in myometrial cell cultures.

  16. The Three Pitfalls of Sustainable City: A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating the Theory-Practice Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Saiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades the environmental, economic and social crisis and the challenges and possibilities offered by new technologies have become the drivers of plans and projects for sustainable cities. In the face of a wide experimentation, the aim of this paper is to answer the question: what progress is implemented by the goal of sustainable city? To this end, I hold it is important point at the watershed between the declared intended goals of the projects realized to date and the results on the ground. To analyze this discrepancy, I have identified a common theory-practice gap in the form of the three pitfalls of sustainable city, which bring about economic and ethical conflicts and risks creating socio-spatial utopias. The three pitfalls are: (1 the idea of the city as a business; (2 the oversimplification of urban complexity; (3 the quest for the ideal community. This conceptual framework has two purposes. First, it helps to systematize the existing literature on the sustainable city project, focusing on few selected issues. Second, it offers a project evaluation framework, useful both for the management of resources and for the planning of urban space. To pinpoint these pitfalls in projects for sustainable cities could allow us to adopt a holistic approach to the city project and practice.

  17. WO3 nanorods-modified carbon electrode for sustained electron uptake from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 with suppressed biofilm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feng; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Chen, Jie-Jie; Ko, Chi-Chiu; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • WO 3 nanorods-modified carbon paper was used as the anode of MFC. • WO 3 nanorods suppressed biofilm growth on the electrode surface. • Sustained electron transfer from cells to electrode via riboflavin was achieved. • C–WO 3 nanorods enable stable and efficient EET process in long-time operation. - Abstract: Carbon materials are widely used as electrodes for bioelectrochemical systems (BES). However, a thick biofilm tends to grow on the electrode surface during continuous operation, resulting in constrained transport of electrons and nutrients at the cell-electrode interface. In this work, we tackled this problem by adopting a WO 3 -nanorods modified carbon electrode (C–WO 3 nanorods), which completely suppressed the biofilm growth of Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1. Moreover, the C–WO 3 nanorods exhibited high electric conductivity and strong response to riboflavin. These two factors together make it possible for the C–WO 3 nanorods to maintain a sustained, efficient process of electron transfer from the MR-1 planktonic cells. As a consequence, the microbial fuel cells with C–WO 3 nanorods anode showed more stable performance than the pure carbon paper and WO 3 -nanoparticles systems in prolonged operation. This work suggests that WO 3 nanorods have the potential to be used as a robust and biofouling-resistant electrode material for practical bioelectrochemical applications

  18. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to understand the Ethical Purchasing Gap of sustainable seafood consumption in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Musarskaya, M.; Birch, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    The sustainable seafood movement has the potential of reversing the current trends of seafood consumption which are leading toward a global breakdown of seafood species. A series of initiatives have been created to cultivate interest in consumption of sustainable seafood. However, research indicates that consumers’ intention to purchase sustainable seafood does not always translate into actual purchase behaviour, which creates an Ethical Purchasing Gap (EPG). The Theory of Planned Behaviour (...

  19. Influence of management and environment on Australian wheat: information for sustainable intensification and closing yield gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, B A; King, D; Zhao, G

    2014-01-01

    In the future, agriculture will need to produce more, from less land, more sustainably. But currently, in many places, actual crop yields are below those attainable. We quantified the ability for agricultural management to increase wheat yields across 179 Mha of potentially arable land in Australia. Using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), we simulated the impact on wheat yield of 225 fertilization and residue management scenarios at a high spatial, temporal, and agronomic resolution from 1900 to 2010. The influence of management and environmental variables on wheat yield was then assessed using Spearman’s non-parametric correlation test with bootstrapping. While residue management showed little correlation, fertilization strongly increased wheat yield up to around 100 kg N ha −1  yr −1 . However, this effect was highly dependent on the key environment variables of rainfall, temperature, and soil water holding capacity. The influence of fertilization on yield was stronger in cooler, wetter climates, and in soils with greater water holding capacity. We conclude that the effectiveness of management intensification to increase wheat yield is highly dependent upon local climate and soil conditions. We provide context-specific information on the yield benefits of fertilization to support adaptive agronomic decision-making and contribute to the closure of yield gaps. We also suggest that future assessments consider the economic and environmental sustainability of management intensification for closing yield gaps. (paper)

  20. Sustainable Water Infrastructure Asset Management: A Gap Analysis of Customer and Service Provider Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjong Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of urban water infrastructure asset management may be sustainable water supply with satisfaction for customers. In this work, we attempted to evaluate the gaps between the perspectives of customers and service providers in Korea’s water infrastructure asset management. To evaluate the customers’ perspective, a hierarchical questionnaire survey was conducted to estimate the weights of influence for six customer values and their attributes on Korean water utility management. To evaluate the service providers’ perspective, an AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process analysis was performed to estimate the weights of influence for the customer values and their PIs (performance indicators. The gap analysis results show that customers place higher value on customer service satisfaction (emotion and information than do the service providers (managers, whereas the managers place more value on affordability than do the customers. The findings from this work imply that improving customer service is effective in satisfying the desirable water LOS (level of service for customers. Recommendations have also been provided for administrators and engineers to develop integrated decision-making systems that can reflect customer needs regarding the improvement of their water infrastructure asset management. The findings from this work may be helpful for the Korean government and water supply utilities in improving the sustainability of their water infrastructure asset management.

  1. Influence of management and environment on Australian wheat: information for sustainable intensification and closing yield gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, B. A.; King, D.; Zhao, G.

    2014-04-01

    In the future, agriculture will need to produce more, from less land, more sustainably. But currently, in many places, actual crop yields are below those attainable. We quantified the ability for agricultural management to increase wheat yields across 179 Mha of potentially arable land in Australia. Using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), we simulated the impact on wheat yield of 225 fertilization and residue management scenarios at a high spatial, temporal, and agronomic resolution from 1900 to 2010. The influence of management and environmental variables on wheat yield was then assessed using Spearman’s non-parametric correlation test with bootstrapping. While residue management showed little correlation, fertilization strongly increased wheat yield up to around 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1. However, this effect was highly dependent on the key environment variables of rainfall, temperature, and soil water holding capacity. The influence of fertilization on yield was stronger in cooler, wetter climates, and in soils with greater water holding capacity. We conclude that the effectiveness of management intensification to increase wheat yield is highly dependent upon local climate and soil conditions. We provide context-specific information on the yield benefits of fertilization to support adaptive agronomic decision-making and contribute to the closure of yield gaps. We also suggest that future assessments consider the economic and environmental sustainability of management intensification for closing yield gaps.

  2. Spots on electrodes and images of a gap during pulsed discharges in an inhomogeneous electric field at elevated pressures of air, nitrogen and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Tao; Yang, Wenjin; Zhang, Cheng; Yan, Ping; Tarasenko, Victor F; Beloplotov, Dmitry V; Lomaev, Mikhail I; Sorokin, Dmitry A

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed discharge in a nonuniform electric field accompanied by the appearance of bright spots due to explosive electron emission on electrodes has been investigated. The experiments were carried out using three experimental setups, a voltage pulse duration at a matched load of 2 ns, 40 ns, and 130 ns, respectively. Data on the formation of electrode spots during diffuse discharges in tube-plate or needle-plate gap configurations filled with gases at elevated pressures (air, nitrogen and argon) were obtained. It was found that in the air and other gases, bright spots arise on the flat electrode, and on the negative polarity of the electrode with a small radius of curvature, during the direction change of the current through the gap and the increase of the voltage pulse duration. It was shown that at the positive polarity of the electrode with a small radius of curvature, bright spots on the flat electrode arise due to the participation of the dynamic displacement current in the gap conductance. (paper)

  3. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  5. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  6. Gap Models as Tools for Sustainable Development under Environmental Changes in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Wang, B.; Brazhnik, K.; Armstrong, A. H.; Foster, A.

    2017-12-01

    Agent-based models of complex systems or as used in this review, Individual-based Models (IBMs), emerged in the 1960s and early 1970s, across diverse disciplines from astronomy to zoology. IBMs arose from a deeply embedded ecological tradition of understanding the dynamics of ecosystems from a "bottom-up" accounting of the interactions of the parts. In this case, individual trees are principal among the parts. Because they are computationally demanding, these models have prospered as the power of digital computers has increased exponentially over the decades following the 1970s. Forest IBMs are no longer computationally bound from developing continental- or global-scale simulations of responses of forests to climate and other changes. Gap models simulate the changes in forests by simulating the birth, growth and death of each individual tree on small plots of land that in summation comprise a forest (or set of sample plots on a forested landscape or region). Currently, gap models have grown from continental-scale and even global-scale applications to assess the potential consequences of climate change on natural forests. These predictions are valuable in the planning and anticipatory decision-making needed to sustainably manage a vast region such as Northern Eurasia. Modifications to the models have enabled simulation of disturbances including fire, insect outbreak and harvest. These disturbances have significant exogenous drivers, notably weather variables, but their effects are also a function of the endogenous conditions involving the structure of forest itself. This feedback between the forest and its environment can in some cases produce hysteresis and multiple-stable operating-regimes for forests. Such responses, often characterized as "tipping points" could play a significant role in increasing risk under environmental change, notably global warming. Such dynamics in a management context imply regional systems that could be "unforgiving" of management

  7. Bridging gaps in discovery and development: chemical and biological sciences for affordable health, wellness and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prem Man Singh

    2011-05-01

    To commemorate 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists organized its 15th International Conference on 'Bridging Gaps in Discovery and Development: Chemical and Biological Sciences for Affordable Health, Wellness and Sustainability' at Hotel Grand Bhagwati, in association with Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India. Anamik Shah, President of the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists, was organizing secretary of the conference. Nicole Moreau, President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and Secretary General of the Comité National de la Chimie, National Centre for Scientific Research France, was chief guest of the function. The four-day scientific program included 52 plenary lectures, 24 invited lectures by eminent scientists in the field and 12 oral presentations. A total of 317 posters were presented by young scientists and PhD students in three different poster sessions. Approximately 750 delegates from India, the USA, UK, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Japan and other countries attended the conference. The majority of the speakers gave presentations related to their current projects and areas of interest and many of the talks covered synthesis, structure-activity relationships, current trends in medicinal chemistry and drug research.

  8. Students' Qualification in Environmental and Sustainability Education--Epistemic Gaps or Composites of Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasslöf, Helen; Lundegård, Iann; Malmberg, Claes

    2016-01-01

    In an "age of measurement" where students' "qualification" is a hot topic on the political agenda, it is of interest to ask what the "function of qualification" might implicate in relation to a complex issue as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and what function environmental and sustainability issues serve…

  9. Advanced and safer lithium-ion battery based on sustainable electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Xiang; Huang, Xiaobing; Jin, Junling; Ming, Hai; Wang, Limin; Ming, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Seeking advanced and safer lithium-ion battery with sustainable characteristic is significant for the development of electronic devices and electric vehicles. Herein, a new porous TiO nanobundles (PTNBs) is synthesized though a scalable and green

  10. Microstructure of the regions on a plane copper electrode surface affected by a spark discharge in air in the point-plane gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tren'kin, A. A.; Karelin, V. I.; Shibitov, Yu. M.; Blinova, O. M.; Yasnikov, I. S.

    2017-09-01

    The microstructure of the regions affected by spark discharge on the surface of a plane copper electrode in atmospheric air in the point-plane gap has been studied using a scanning electron microscope for both the positive and negative polarity of the point electrode. It has been found that the affected regions have the shape of round spots or groups of spots with diameters of individual spots varying in the range of 20-200 μm. It has been revealed that the spots have an internal spatial structure in the form of an aggregate of concentric rings. These rings are aggregates of a large number of microscopic craters with diameters of 0.1-1.0 μm.

  11. The energy trilogy: An integrated sustainability model to bridge wastewater treatment plant energy and emissions gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talibi, A. Adhim

    An estimated 4% of national energy consumption is used for drinking water and wastewater services. Despite the awareness and optimization initiatives for energy conservation, energy consumption is on the rise owing to population and urbanization expansion and to commercial and industrial business advancement. The principal concern is since energy consumption grows, the higher will be the energy production demand, leading to an increase in CO2 footprints and the contribution to global warming potential. This research is in the area of energy-water nexus, focusing on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) energy trilogy -- the group of three related entities, which includes processes: (1) consuming energy, (2) producing energy, and (3) the resulting -- CO2 equivalents. Detailed and measurable energy information is not readily obtained for wastewater facilities, specifically during facility preliminary design phases. These limitations call for data-intensive research approach on GHG emissions quantification, plant efficiencies and source reduction techniques. To achieve these goals, this research introduced a model integrating all plant processes and their pertinent energy sources. In a comprehensive and "Energy Source-to-Effluent Discharge" pattern, this model is capable of bridging the gaps of WWTP energy, facilitating plant designers' decision-making for meeting energy assessment, sustainability and the environmental regulatory compliance. Protocols for estimating common emissions sources are available such as for fuels, whereas, site-specific emissions for other sources have to be developed and are captured in this research. The dissertation objectives were met through an extensive study of the relevant literature, models and tools, originating comprehensive lists of processes and energy sources for WWTPs, locating estimation formulas for each source, identifying site specific emissions factors, and linking the sources in a mathematical model for site specific CO2 e

  12. A review on cellulose and lignin based binders and electrodes: Small steps towards a sustainable lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmale, Trupti C; Kale, Bharat B; Varma, Anjani J

    2017-10-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIB) are the most promising energy storage systems for portable electronics and future electric or hybrid-electric vehicles. However making them safer, cost effective and environment friendly is the key challenge. In this regard, replacing petro-derived materials by introducing renewable biomass derived cellulose derivatives and lignin based materials into the battery system is a promising approach for the development of green materials for LIB. These biomaterials introduce sustainability as well as improved safety in the final disposal of LIB batteries. In this review we introduce LIB materials technology in brief and recent developments in electrodes and binders based on cellulose and their derivatives and lignin for lithium ion batteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced and safer lithium-ion battery based on sustainable electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiang; Huang, Xiaobing; Jin, Junling; Ming, Hai; Wang, Limin; Ming, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Seeking advanced and safer lithium-ion battery with sustainable characteristic is significant for the development of electronic devices and electric vehicles. Herein, a new porous TiO2 nanobundles (PTNBs) is synthesized though a scalable and green hydrothermal strategy from the TiO2 powders without using any high-cost and harmful organic titanium-based compounds. The PTNBs exhibits an extremely high lithium storage capacity of 296 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, where the capacity can maintain over 146 mAh g-1 even after 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1. To pursue more reliable Li-ion batteries, full batteries of PTNBs/LiNixMn1-xO4 (x = 0, 0.5) using spinel structured cathode are constructed. The batteries have the features of sustainability and deliver high capacities of 112 mAh gcathode-1 and 102 mAh gcathode-1 with stable capacity retentions of 99% and 90% over 140 cycles. Note that the energy densities can achieve as high as 267 and 270 Wh kgcathode-1 (535 and 540 Wh kganode-1) respectively, which is feasible to satisfy diverse requirements for energy storage products. We believe that the universal synthetic strategy, appealing structure and intriguing properties of PTNBs is applicable for wider applications, while the concept of sustainable strategy seeking reliable and safer Li-ion battery can attract broad interest.

  14. Advanced and safer lithium-ion battery based on sustainable electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Xiang

    2018-02-17

    Seeking advanced and safer lithium-ion battery with sustainable characteristic is significant for the development of electronic devices and electric vehicles. Herein, a new porous TiO nanobundles (PTNBs) is synthesized though a scalable and green hydrothermal strategy from the TiO powders without using any high-cost and harmful organic titanium-based compounds. The PTNBs exhibits an extremely high lithium storage capacity of 296 mAh g at 100 mA g, where the capacity can maintain over 146 mAh g even after 500 cycles at 1000 mA g. To pursue more reliable Li-ion batteries, full batteries of PTNBs/LiNiMnO (x = 0, 0.5) using spinel structured cathode are constructed. The batteries have the features of sustainability and deliver high capacities of 112 mAh g and 102 mAh g with stable capacity retentions of 99% and 90% over 140 cycles. Note that the energy densities can achieve as high as 267 and 270 Wh kg (535 and 540 Wh kg ) respectively, which is feasible to satisfy diverse requirements for energy storage products. We believe that the universal synthetic strategy, appealing structure and intriguing properties of PTNBs is applicable for wider applications, while the concept of sustainable strategy seeking reliable and safer Li-ion battery can attract broad interest.

  15. Knowledge gaps and research needs concerning agroforestry's contribution to sustainable development goals in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbow, C.; Noordwijk, van M.; Prabhu, R.; Simons, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This review addresses the role of agroforestry in the links between food security and agricultural sustainability in Africa. We illustrate that the products and services flowing from the integration of trees within farming systems can contribute to food security, farmer livelihoods and environmental

  16. Bridging the gap between LCA, LCC and CBA as sustainability assessment tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogmartens, Rob, E-mail: rob.hoogmartens@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Acker, Karel, E-mail: karel.vanacker@lrd.kuleuven.be [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dubois, Maarten, E-mail: maarten.dubois@kuleuven.be [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Policy Research Centre for Sustainable Materials, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-09-15

    Increasing interest in sustainability has led to the development of sustainability assessment tools such as Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and Cost–Benefit Analysis (CBA). Due to methodological disparity of these three tools, conflicting assessment results generate confusion for many policy and business decisions. In order to interpret and integrate assessment results, the paper provides a framework that clarifies the connections and coherence between the included assessment methodologies. Building on this framework, the paper further focuses on key aspects to adapt any of the methodologies to full sustainability assessments. Aspects dealt with in the review are for example the reported metrics, the scope, data requirements, discounting, product- or project-related and approaches with respect to scarcity and labor requirements. In addition to these key aspects, the review shows that important connections exist: (i) the three tools can cope with social inequality, (ii) processes such as valuation techniques for LCC and CBA are common, (iii) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is used as input in both LCA and CBA and (iv) LCA can be used in parallel with LCC. Furthermore, the most integrated sustainability approach combines elements of LCA and LCC to achieve the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA). The key aspects and the connections referred to in the review are illustrated with a case study on the treatment of end-of-life automotive glass. - Highlights: • Proliferation of assessment tools creates ambiguity and confusion. • The developed assessment framework clarifies connections between assessment tools. • Broadening LCA, key aspects are metric and data requirements. • Broadening LCC, key aspects are scope, time frame and discounting. • Broadening CBA, focus point, timespan, references, labor and scarcity are key.

  17. Bridging the gap between LCA, LCC and CBA as sustainability assessment tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogmartens, Rob; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel; Dubois, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest in sustainability has led to the development of sustainability assessment tools such as Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and Cost–Benefit Analysis (CBA). Due to methodological disparity of these three tools, conflicting assessment results generate confusion for many policy and business decisions. In order to interpret and integrate assessment results, the paper provides a framework that clarifies the connections and coherence between the included assessment methodologies. Building on this framework, the paper further focuses on key aspects to adapt any of the methodologies to full sustainability assessments. Aspects dealt with in the review are for example the reported metrics, the scope, data requirements, discounting, product- or project-related and approaches with respect to scarcity and labor requirements. In addition to these key aspects, the review shows that important connections exist: (i) the three tools can cope with social inequality, (ii) processes such as valuation techniques for LCC and CBA are common, (iii) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is used as input in both LCA and CBA and (iv) LCA can be used in parallel with LCC. Furthermore, the most integrated sustainability approach combines elements of LCA and LCC to achieve the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA). The key aspects and the connections referred to in the review are illustrated with a case study on the treatment of end-of-life automotive glass. - Highlights: • Proliferation of assessment tools creates ambiguity and confusion. • The developed assessment framework clarifies connections between assessment tools. • Broadening LCA, key aspects are metric and data requirements. • Broadening LCC, key aspects are scope, time frame and discounting. • Broadening CBA, focus point, timespan, references, labor and scarcity are key

  18. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  19. Investigating the gap between citizens’ sustainability attitudes and food purchasing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Saab, Maria Stella Melo

    2011-01-01

    citizens with diversified attitudes towards pig production systems, using socio-demographics, attitudes towards sustainability-related themes that are expected to influence the way they evaluate pig production systems, and consumption frequency of various pork products as clusters' background information....... Three clusters were identified as ‘indifferent’, ‘environmental conscious’ and ‘sustainability-oriented’ citizens. Although attitudes towards environment and nature had indeed an influence on citizens' specific attitudes towards pig farming at the cluster level, the relationship between ‘citizenship......’ and consumption behaviour was found to be weak. This finding is similar to previous research conducted with European consumers: what people (in their role of citizens) think about pig production systems does not appear to significantly influence their pork consumption choices. Improvements in the integrated...

  20. Students' qualification in environmental and sustainability education—epistemic gaps or composites of critical thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasslöf, Helen; Lundegård, Iann; Malmberg, Claes

    2016-01-01

    In an 'age of measurement' where students' qualification is a hot topic on the political agenda, it is of interest to ask what the function of qualification might implicate in relation to a complex issue as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and what function environmental and sustainability issues serve in science education. This paper deals with how secondary and upper secondary teachers in discussions with colleagues articulate qualification in relation to educational aims of ESD. With inspiration from discourse theory, the teachers' articulations of qualification are analysed and put in relation to other functions of education (qualification, socialisation and subjectification). The results of this study show three discourses of qualification: scientific reasoning, awareness of complexity and to be critical. The discourse of 'qualification as to be critical' is articulated as a composite of differing epistemological views. In this discourse, the teachers undulate between rationalistic epistemological views and postmodern views, in a pragmatic way, to articulate a discourse of critical thinking which serves as a reflecting tool to bring about different ways of valuing issues of sustainability, which reformulates 'matter of facts' towards 'matter of concerns'

  1. Performance assessment, social accountability and sustainability governance in Hangzhou: Leveraging the implementation gap?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delman, Jørgen

    This is an explorative case study that examines how ideas and concepts relating to sustainable development are factored into new approaches to urban governance in Hangzhou. The proposition is that traditional performance assessment procedures combined with innovative surveys of the city government......’s social accountability and with various forms of social participation have created a new framework for urban governance, both conceptually and as a series of practical measures. More specifically, the study examines a dramatic redesign of the performance assessment system in Hangzhou aimed at developing...

  2. Mechanism of electrical breakdown of gases for pressures from 10-9 to 1 bar and inter-electrode gaps from 0.1 to 0.5 mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmokrovic, P; Vujisic, M; Stankovic, K; Vasic, A; Loncar, B

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the mechanisms of gas breakdown at low values of pressure and inter-electrode gap, i.e. in the vicinity of the Paschen minimum. In this area of pressure and inter-electrode gap values, breakdown occurs either through gas or vacuum mechanisms, and also the so called anomalous Paschen effect appears. Electrical breakdown of electropositive, electronegative and noble gases has been investigated theoretically, experimentally and numerically. Based on the results obtained, regions in which particular breakdown mechanisms appear have been demarcated. Special attention has been devoted to the anomalous Paschen effect as well as to the avalanche vacuum breakdown mechanism

  3. Small Mushrooms for Big Business? Gaps in the Sustainable Management of Non-Timber Forest Products in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of managing forests for the production of commercial non-timber forest products (NTFPs lies in promoting economic development by maintaining and even increasing production while simultaneously maintaining or improving ecological conditions. The discussion of forest management therefore encompasses a wide range of social, economic, political, and ecological questions. Empirically, it is clear that both market and government failure can lead to unsustainable management in commercial NTFP use. How can we manage the market and at the same time formulate good policies? Taking cases from Southwest China, this paper critically examines the current development of NTFP commercialization in the mountainous region of Southwest China. It focuses particularly on three pieces of research on mushroom collection and marketing. By examining empirical data, the paper analyzes current gaps in the policy and the market in mountainous areas in the context of promoting sustainable use of NTFP. It examines the market structure from the perspective of market failure and explores the government’s failure to promote commercial NTFPs. We recommend economic and political decentralization, capacity building, and government investment as means to improve sustainable management.

  4. Bridging the logistics gap for sustainable ethanol production: the CentroSul ethanol pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megiolaro, Moacir; Daud, Rodrigo; Pittelli, Fernanda [CentroSul Transportadora Dutoviaria, SP (Brazil); Singer, Eugenio [EMS Consultant, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous increase of ethanol production and growth in consumption in Brazil is a reality that poses significant logistics challenges both for producers and consumers. The Brazilian local market absorbs a great portion of the country's production of ethanol, but the export market is also experiencing significant expansion so that both local and external market consumption will require more adequate transportation solutions. The alternative routes for Brazilian ethanol exports within the South and Southeast regions of Brazil range from the port of Paranagua, in the state of Parana, to the port of Vitoria, in the state of Espirito Santo. Each of these routes is about 1,000 km distance from the main production areas in the Central South states of Brazil. Brazilian highways and railways systems are overly congested and do not present efficient logistics alternatives for the transportation of large ethanol flows over long distances (cross-country) from the central Midwest regions of the country to the consumer and export markets in the Southeast. In response to the challenge to overcome such logistic gaps, CentroSul Transportadora Dutoviaria 'CentroSul', a company recently founded by a Brazilian ethanol producer group, the Brenco Group, is developing a project for the first fully-dedicated ethanol pipeline to be constructed in Brazil. The ethanol pipeline will transport 3,3 million m{sup 3} of Brenco - Brazilian Renewable Energy Company's ethanol production and an additional 4,7 million cubic meters from other Brazilian producers. The pipeline, as currently projected, will, at its full capacity, displace a daily vehicle fleet equivalent to 500 trucks which would be required to transport the 8,0 million cubic meters from their production origins to the delivery regions. In addition, the project will reduce GHG (trucking) emissions minimizing the project's overall ecological footprint. Key steps including conceptual engineering, environmental

  5. Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due-Hansen, J; Poppe, E; Summanwar, A; Jensen, G U; Breivik, L; Wang, D T; Schjølberg-Henriksen, K; Midtbø, K

    2012-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) can be used to realize miniature ultrasound probes. Through-silicon vias (TSVs) allow for close integration of the CMUT and read-out electronics. A fabrication process enabling the realization of a CMUT array with TSVs is being developed. The integrated process requires the formation of highly doped polysilicon electrodes with low surface roughness. A process for polysilicon film deposition, doping, CMP, RIE and thermal annealing that resulted in a film with sheet resistance of 4.0 Ω/□ and a surface roughness of 1 nm rms has been developed. The surface roughness of the polysilicon film was found to increase with higher phosphorus concentrations. The surface roughness also increased when oxygen was present in the thermal annealing ambient. The RIE process for etching CMUT cavities in the doped polysilicon gave a mean etch depth of 59.2 ± 3.9 nm and a uniformity across the wafer ranging from 1.0 to 4.7%. The two presented processes are key processes that enable the fabrication of CMUT arrays suitable for applications in for instance intravascular cardiology and gastrointestinal imaging. (paper)

  6. Changes in Blow-Off Velocity Observed in Two Explosives at the Threshold for Sustained Ignition Using the Modified Gap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. J.; Forbes, J. W.; Tasker, D. G.; Orme, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Modified Gap Test was used to quantify different levels of partial reaction for various input stresses. This test configuration has been historically useful in highlighting thresholds for first reaction, sustained ignition, and detonation. Two different HMX based compositions were studied; a cast-cured composition with 87% HMX and a pressed composition with 92% HMX. Each explosive was prepared from large industrially produced batches consisting of different unreactive polymeric binder systems. Short samples (50.8 mm in diameter and 12.7 mm thick) were shock loaded using the standard large-scale gap test donor system. Product-cloud blow-off velocities at the opposite end of the sample were measured using a high-speed digital-camera. Velocity versus input pres sure plots provided changes in reactivity that had developed by the 12.7 mm run distance. Results appear consistent for the lower input stresses. In contrast, the results varied widely in a range of input stresses around the transition to detonation in both explosives. These results indicate that both explosives are subject to large variation in blow-off velocity in a range of input stresses near the threshold for prompt detonation. This is explained by localized variations of HMX particle size and density in industrially prepared samples. Approved for public release, Distribution unlimited, IHDIV Log No. 09-108.

  7. Using overseas registered nurses to fill employment gaps in rural health services: quick fix or sustainable strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne; Doolan, Glenn; Sellick, Ken; Barnett, Tony

    2008-06-01

    This study sought to identify and evaluate approaches used to attract internationally trained nurses from traditional and non-traditional countries and incentives employed to retain them in small rural hospitals in Gippsland, Victoria. An exploratory descriptive design. Small rural hospitals in Gippsland, Victoria. Hospital staff responsible for recruitment of nurses and overseas trained nurses from traditional and non-traditional sources (e.g. England, Scotland, India, Zimbabwe, Holland, Singapore, Malaysia). Recruitment of married overseas trained nurses is more sustainable than that of single registered nurses, however, the process of recruitment for the hospital and potential employees is costly. Rural hospitality diffuses some of these expenses by the employing hospitals providing emergency accommodation and necessary furnishings. Cultural differences and dissonance regarding practice create barriers for some of the overseas trained nurses to move towards a more sanguine position. On the positive side, single overseas registered nurses use the opportunity to work in rural Australian hospitals as an effective working holiday that promotes employment in larger, more specialized hospitals. Overall both the registered nurses and the employees believe the experience to be beneficial rather than detrimental.

  8. Dynamics of the spatial structure of pulsed discharges in dense gases in point cathode−plane anode gaps and their erosion effect on the plane electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Blinova, O. M.; Erofeev, M. V.; Karelin, V. I.; Ripenko, V. S.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Trenkin, A. A.; Shibitov, Yu. M.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the spatial structure of the plasma of pulsed discharges in air and nitrogen in a nonuniform electric field and their erosion effect on the plane anode surface were studied experimentally. It is established that, at a nanosecond front of the voltage pulse, a diffuse discharge forms in the point cathode–plane anode gap due to the ionization wave propagating from the cathode. As the gap length decreases, the diffuse discharge transforms into a spark. A bright spot on the anode appears during the diffuse discharge, while the spark channel forms in the later discharge stage. The microstructure of autographs of anode spots and spark channels in discharges with durations of several nanoseconds is revealed. The autographs consist of up to 100 and more microcraters 5–100 μm in diameter. It is shown that, due to the short duration of the voltage pulse, a diffuse discharge can be implemented, several pulses of which do not produce appreciable erosion on the plane anode or the soot coating deposited on it.

  9. Combined effect of electrode gap and radio frequency on power deposition and film growth kinetics in SiH4/H2 discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.; Rapakoulias, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    The combined effect of the variation of the interelectrode gap (1.3-2.5 cm) and radio frequency (13.56-50 MHz) on the properties of highly diluted silane in hydrogen discharges used for the deposition of microcrystalline silicon thin films is presented. The investigation included electrical and optical discharge measurements as well as the in situ determination of the film growth rate. In the lower frequencies regime, the increase of the interelectrode gap for the same applied voltage results in higher current flows and higher total power dissipation. On the other hand, at 50 MHz the variation of the interelectrode space has only a slight effect on the total power dissipation, due to the low excitation voltage. However, at all frequencies, the increase of the interelectrode space results in a drop of the power dissipation per discharge volume. This is related to the less effective energy transfer to the electrons that is due to the enhancement of the bulk relative to the sheath ohmic heating. The variation of the relative importance of the electron heating modes is reflected in the discharge radical production efficiency and the film growth rate

  10. GAP Analysis Program (GAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification...

  11. Dependence of beam emittance on plasma electrode temperature and rf-power, and filter-field tuning with center-gapped rod-filter magnets in J-PARC rf-driven H− ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, A.; Koizumi, I.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Yamazaki, S.; Oguri, H.

    2014-01-01

    The prototype rf-driven H − ion-source with a nickel plated oxygen-free-copper (OFC) plasma chamber, which satisfies the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) 2nd stage requirements of a H − ion beam current of 60 mA within normalized emittances of 1.5 π mm mrad both horizontally and vertically, a flat top beam duty factor of 1.25% (500 μs × 25 Hz) and a life-time of more than 50 days, was reported at the 3rd international symposium on negative ions, beams, and sources (NIBS2012). The experimental results of the J-PARC ion source with a plasma chamber made of stainless-steel, instead of nickel plated OFC used in the prototype source, are presented in this paper. By comparing these two sources, the following two important results were acquired. One was that the about 20% lower emittance was produced by the rather low plasma electrode (PE) temperature (T PE ) of about 120 °C compared with the typically used T PE of about 200 °C to maximize the beam current for the plasma with the abundant cesium (Cs). The other was that by using the rod-filter magnets with a gap at each center and tuning the gap-lengths, the filter-field was optimized and the rf-power necessary to produce the J-PARC required H − ion beam current was reduced typically 18%. The lower rf-power also decreases the emittances

  12. Pierce electrodes for a multigap accelerating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydenko, V.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Kotelnikov, I.A.; Tiunov, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A well-known Pierce's solution that allows to focus a beam of charged particles using properly shaped electrodes outside the beam is generalized to the case of multigap accelerating system. Simple parametric formulae for Pierce electrodes are derived for an accelerating system with current density, limited either by space charge or by emitting property of the cathode. As an example of general approach, Pierce electrodes shape is analyzed for a system with two accelerating gaps. It is shown that precise Pierce's solution exists if acceleration rate within second gap is lower than within first gap. In the opposite case quasi-Pierce solution can be implemented using non-equipotential electrode between the gaps, and guidelines, based on numerical simulations, for the design of equipotential focusing electrodes are given

  13. Iron-Based Electrodes Meet Water-Based Preparation, Fluorine-Free Electrolyte and Binder: A Chance for More Sustainable Lithium-Ion Batteries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvo, Mario; Liivat, Anti; Eriksson, Henrik; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Edström, Kristina

    2017-06-09

    Environmentally friendly and cost-effective Li-ion cells are fabricated with abundant, non-toxic LiFePO 4 cathodes and iron oxide anodes. A water-soluble alginate binder is used to coat both electrodes to reduce the environmental footprint. The critical reactivity of LiPF 6 -based electrolytes toward possible traces of H 2 O in water-processed electrodes is overcome by using a lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) salt. The absence of fluorine in the electrolyte and binder is a cornerstone for improved cell chemistry and results in stable battery operation. A dedicated approach to exploit conversion-type anodes more effectively is also disclosed. The issue of large voltage hysteresis upon conversion/de-conversion is circumvented by operating iron oxide in a deeply lithiated Fe/Li 2 O form. Li-ion cells with energy efficiencies of up to 92 % are demonstrated if LiFePO 4 is cycled versus such anodes prepared through a pre-lithiation procedure. These cells show an average energy efficiency of approximately 90.66 % and a mean Coulombic efficiency of approximately 99.65 % over 320 cycles at current densities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mA cm -2 . They retain nearly 100 % of their initial discharge capacity and provide an unmatched operation potential of approximately 2.85 V for this combination of active materials. No occurrence of Li plating was detected in three-electrode cells at charging rates of approximately 5C. Excellent rate capabilities of up to approximately 30C are achieved thanks to the exploitation of size effects from the small Fe nanoparticles and their reactive boundaries. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Liquid electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  15. Sustainable Development for Whom and How? Exploring the Gaps between Popular Discourses and Ground Reality Using the Mexican Jatropha Biodiesel Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Eastmond-Spencer, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam R.

    2017-06-01

    In the last decade, jatropha-based bioenergy projects have gotten significant attention as a solution to various social, economic, and environmental problems. Jatropha's popularity stemmed out from different discourses, some real and some perceived, in scientific and non-scientific literature. These discourses positioned jatropha as a crop helpful in producing biodiesel and protecting sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels and increasing local, rural development by creating jobs. Consequently, many countries established national policies that incentivized the establishment of jatropha as a bioenergy feedstock crop. In this paper, we explore the case of jatropha bioenergy development in Yucatan, Mexico and argue that the popular discourse around jatropha as a sustainability and rural development tool is flawed. Analyzing our results from 70 semi-structured interviews with community members belonging to a region where plantation-scale jatropha projects were introduced, we found that these projects did not have many significant social sustainability benefits. We conclude from our case that by just adding bioenergy projects cannot help achieve social sustainability in rural areas alone. In ensuring social sustainability of bioenergy projects, future policymaking processes should have a more comprehensive understanding of the rural socioeconomic problems where such projects are promoted and use bioenergy projects as one of the many solutions to local problems rather than creating such policies based just on popular discourses.

  16. Sustainable Development for Whom and How? Exploring the Gaps between Popular Discourses and Ground Reality Using the Mexican Jatropha Biodiesel Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Eastmond-Spencer, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam R

    2017-06-01

    In the last decade, jatropha-based bioenergy projects have gotten significant attention as a solution to various social, economic, and environmental problems. Jatropha's popularity stemmed out from different discourses, some real and some perceived, in scientific and non-scientific literature. These discourses positioned jatropha as a crop helpful in producing biodiesel and protecting sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels and increasing local, rural development by creating jobs. Consequently, many countries established national policies that incentivized the establishment of jatropha as a bioenergy feedstock crop. In this paper, we explore the case of jatropha bioenergy development in Yucatan, Mexico and argue that the popular discourse around jatropha as a sustainability and rural development tool is flawed. Analyzing our results from 70 semi-structured interviews with community members belonging to a region where plantation-scale jatropha projects were introduced, we found that these projects did not have many significant social sustainability benefits. We conclude from our case that by just adding bioenergy projects cannot help achieve social sustainability in rural areas alone. In ensuring social sustainability of bioenergy projects, future policymaking processes should have a more comprehensive understanding of the rural socioeconomic problems where such projects are promoted and use bioenergy projects as one of the many solutions to local problems rather than creating such policies based just on popular discourses.

  17. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  18. Investigations of Pulsed Vacuum Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-10

    Violet Spectra of Hot Sparks in Hh’Iacua, ’ ?hys. Rev., Vol. 12, p. 167, (1913). 31A Maitland , "Spark CondiiIoning Equation for Olane ElectrodesI-in...Appl. Phys., Vol. 1, 1291 G. Thecohilus, K. Srivastava, and R. ’ ian Heeswi.k, ’tn-situ Observation of !Microparticles in a Vacuum-Tnsulated Gap Using

  19. MV controlled spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimovich, V.M.; Evlampiev, S.B.; Korshunov, G.S.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Sviridov, Yu.F.; Khmyrov, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    A megavolt gas-filled trigatron gap with a sectional gas-discharge chamber having a more than three-fold range of operating voltages is described. The discharge chamber consists of ten sections, each 70 mm thick, made of organic glass. The sections are separated one from another by aluminium gradient rings to which ohmic voltage divider is connected. Insulational sections and gradient rings are braced between themselves by means of metal flanges through gaskets made of oil-resistant rubber with the help of fiberglass-laminate pins. The gap has two electrodes 110 mm in diameter. The trigatron ignition assembly uses a dielectric bushing projecting over the main electrode plane. Use has been made of a gas mixture containing 10% of SF 6 and 90% of air making possible to ensure stable gap operation without readjusting in the voltage range from 0.4 to 1.35 MV. The operation time lag in this range is equal to 10 μs at a spread of [ru

  20. Cermet electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention is the provision of a material capable of withstanding a high-temperature, corrosive and erosive environment for use as a ceramic-metal composite electrode current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic generator. (U.K.)

  2. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  3. Electrode Processes in Porous Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-26

    F104470 2.0 MASS SPECTROMETRY One part of activity for this year is an investigation of the behavior of silver electrodes through the distribution of...al. (2)). These, in some cases, involve tedious and time comsuming procedures and discrepencies of as much as 15% have been observed in the results. As

  4. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  5. 2016 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries: Gaps, Growth, and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollura, Daniel J; Soroosh, Garshasb; Culp, Melissa P

    2017-06-01

    The 2016 RAD-AID Conference analyzed the accelerated global activity in the radiology community that is transforming medical imaging into an effective spearhead of health care capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. Global health efforts historically emphasized disaster response, crisis zones, and infectious disease outbreaks. However, the projected doubling of cancer and cardiovascular deaths in developing countries in the next 15 years and the need for higher technology screening and diagnostic technologies in low-resource regions, as articulated by the United Nations' new Sustainable Development Goals of 2016, is heightening the role of radiology in global health. Academic US-based radiology programs with RAD-AID chapters achieved a threefold increase in global health project offerings for trainees in the past 5 years. RAD-AID's nonprofit radiology volunteer corps continue to grow by more than 40% yearly, with a volunteer base of 5,750 radiology professionals, serving in 23 countries, donating close to 20,000 pro bono hours globally in 2016. As a high-technology specialty interfacing with nearly all medical and surgical disciplines, radiology underpins vital health technology infrastructure, such as digital imaging archives, electronic medical records, and advanced diagnosis and treatment, essential for long-term future health care capacity in underserved areas of the world. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Mythic gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of omissions sometimes occur, or are perceived to occur, in traditional narratives and in tradition-inspired literature. A familiar instance is when a narrator realizes that he or she does not fully remember the story that he or she has begun to tell, and so leaves out part of it, which for listeners may possibly result in an unintelligible narrative. But many instances of narrative gap are not so obvious. From straightforward, objective gaps one can distinguish less-obvious subjective gaps: in many cases narrators do not leave out anything crucial or truly relevant from their exposition, and yet readers perceive gaps and take steps to fill them. The present paper considers four examples of subjective gaps drawn from ancient Greek literature (the Pandora myth, ancient Roman literature (the Pygmalion legend, ancient Hebrew literature (the Joseph legend, and early Christian literature (the Jesus legend. I consider the quite varied ways in which interpreters expand the inherited texts of these stories, such as by devising names, manufacturing motives, creating backstories, and in general filling in biographical ellipses. Finally, I suggest an explanation for the phenomenon of subjective gaps, arguing that, despite their variety, they have a single cause.

  7. Computational study of plasma sustainability in radio frequency micro-discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Jiang, W.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Bogaerts, A.

    2014-01-01

    We apply an implicit particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo (PIC-MC) method to study a radio-frequency argon microdischarge at steady state in the glow discharge limit, in which the microdischarge is sustained by secondary electron emission from the electrodes. The plasma density, electron energy distribution function (EEDF), and electron temperature are calculated in a wide range of operating conditions, including driving voltage, microdischarge gap, and pressure. Also, the effect of gap size scaling (in the range of 50-1000 μm) on the plasma sustaining voltage and peak electron density at atmospheric pressure is examined, which has not been explored before. In our simulations, three different EEDFs, i.e., a so-called three temperature hybrid mode, a two temperature α mode, and a two temperature γ mode distribution, are identified at different gaps and voltages. The maximum sustaining voltage to avoid a transition from the glow mode to an arc is predicted, as well as the minimum sustaining voltage for a steady glow discharge. Our calculations elucidate that secondary electrons play an essential role in sustaining the discharge, and as a result the relationship between breakdown voltage and gap spacing is far away from the Paschen law at atmospheric pressure

  8. Supercapacitors based on two dimensional VO2 nanosheet electrodes in organic gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Nagaraju, Doddahalli H.; Beaujuge, Pierre; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    VO2 is a low band-gap semiconductor with relatively high conductivity among transition metal oxides, which makes it an interesting material for supercapacitor electrode applications. The performance of VO2 as supercapacitor electrode in organic

  9. Linear particle accelerator with seal structure between electrodes and insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, John H.

    1989-01-01

    An electrostatic linear accelerator includes an electrode stack comprised of primary electrodes formed or Kovar and supported by annular glass insulators having the same thermal expansion rate as the electrodes. Each glass insulator is provided with a pair of fused-in Kovar ring inserts which are bonded to the electrodes. Each electrode is designed to define a concavo-convex particle trap so that secondary charged particles generated within the accelerated beam area cannot reach the inner surface of an insulator. Each insulator has a generated inner surface profile which is so configured that the electrical field at this surface contains no significant tangential component. A spark gap trigger assembly is provided, which energizes spark gaps protecting the electrodes affected by over voltage to prevent excessive energy dissipation in the electrode stack.

  10. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  11. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  12. The influence of electrode angle on the minimization of the aberration coefficients of the two electrodes electrostatic immersion lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khashab, M. A.; Ahmad, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with electron optical properties of a set asymmetrical electrostatic immersion lenses with two electrodes which have been designed using different angles (θ) of the outer lens electrodes as well as air gaps (S) between the electrodes of each lens. It was found that the angle of the outer electrode and the air gap have a clear effect on the electron optical performance of such lenses. In addition to that, it was noticed that the better electron optical properties occurred when the angle of the outer electrode equals (θ = O d egree) and the air gap equals (S = 11 mm). the results of the perferable design of the prsent work were compared with those in published papers in terms of the optical properties. It was found that results are in good agreement with each other. (authors).

  13. The Emissions Gap Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Following the historic signing of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, this sixth edition of the UNEP Emissions Gap Report comes as world leaders start gathering in Paris to establish a new agreement on climate change. The report offers an independent assessment of the mitigation...

  14. Mechanisms of Furfural Reduction on Metal Electrodes: Distinguishing Pathways for Selective Hydrogenation of Bioderived Oxygenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadderdon, Xiaotong H.; Chadderdon, David J.; Matthiesen, John E.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of biomass-derived platform molecules is an emerging route for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. Understanding gaps between reaction conditions, underlying mechanisms, and product selectivity have limited the rational design of active, stable, and selective catalyst systems. Here, the mechanisms of electrochemical reduction of furfural, an important biobased platform molecule and model for aldehyde reduction, are explored through a combination of voltammetry, preparative electrolysis, thiol-electrode modifications, and kinetic isotope studies. It is demonstrated that two distinct mechanisms are operable on metallic Cu electrodes in acidic electrolytes: (i) electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) and (ii) direct electroreduction. The contributions of each mechanism to the observed product distribution are clarified by evaluating the requirement for direct chemical interactions with the electrode surface and the role of adsorbed hydrogen. Further analysis reveals that hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis products are generated by parallel ECH pathways. By understanding the underlying mechanisms it enables the manipulation of furfural reduction by rationally tuning the electrode potential, electrolyte pH, and furfural concentration to promote selective formation of important biobased polymer precursors and fuels.

  15. Mechanisms of Furfural Reduction on Metal Electrodes: Distinguishing Pathways for Selective Hydrogenation of Bioderived Oxygenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Xiaotong H; Chadderdon, David J; Matthiesen, John E; Qiu, Yang; Carraher, Jack M; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe; Li, Wenzhen

    2017-10-11

    Electrochemical reduction of biomass-derived platform molecules is an emerging route for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. However, understanding gaps between reaction conditions, underlying mechanisms, and product selectivity have limited the rational design of active, stable, and selective catalyst systems. In this work, the mechanisms of electrochemical reduction of furfural, an important biobased platform molecule and model for aldehyde reduction, are explored through a combination of voltammetry, preparative electrolysis, thiol-electrode modifications, and kinetic isotope studies. It is demonstrated that two distinct mechanisms are operable on metallic Cu electrodes in acidic electrolytes: (i) electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) and (ii) direct electroreduction. The contributions of each mechanism to the observed product distribution are clarified by evaluating the requirement for direct chemical interactions with the electrode surface and the role of adsorbed hydrogen. Further analysis reveals that hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis products are generated by parallel ECH pathways. Understanding the underlying mechanisms enables the manipulation of furfural reduction by rationally tuning the electrode potential, electrolyte pH, and furfural concentration to promote selective formation of important biobased polymer precursors and fuels.

  16. A device for automatic photoelectric control of the analytical gap for emission spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, John A.; Cooley, Elmo F.; Curry, Kenneth J.

    1977-01-01

    A photoelectric device has been built that automatically controls the analytical gap between electrodes during excitation period. The control device allows for precise control of the analytical gap during the arcing process of samples, resulting in better precision of analysis.

  17. Determination of 5-nitroindazole using silver solid amalgam electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Kateřina; Hrdlička, V.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Vyskočil, V.; Barek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 5 (2015), s. 761-769 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : 5-nitroindazole * hanging mercury drop electrode * silver sold amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.131, year: 2015

  18. Gas sensing performance at room temperature of nanogap interdigitated electrodes for detection of acetone at low concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, Q. Nguyen; Tong, H.D.; Kuijk, A.; van de Bent, F.; Beekman, Pepijn; Van Rijn, C. J.M.

    2017-01-01

    A facile approach for the fabrication of large-scale interdigitated nanogap electrodes (nanogap IDEs) with a controllable gap was demonstrated with conventional micro-fabrication technology to develop chemocapacitors for gas sensing applications. In this work, interdigitated nanogap electrodes

  19. Review of yield gap explaining factors and opportunities for alternative data collection approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beza, E.A.; Vasco Silva, João; Kooistra, Lammert; Reidsma, Pytrik

    2017-01-01

    Yield gap analysis is gaining increased scientific attention, as estimating and explaining yield gaps shows the potential for sustainable intensification of agricultural systems. Explaining yield gaps requires detailed information about the biophysical environment, crop management as well as

  20. Carbonization of SU-8 Based Electrode for MEMS Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Supercapacitors are more sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources than traditional ones. To achieve the supercapacitors with both energy density and power density that mainly depend on the effective surface area of theelectrodes, SU-8 can be used for electrode material to fabricate 3D microstructures as the electrodes that increase the effective surface area significantly. The objective of this project is to fabricate the reliable electrodes of large surface area for supercapac...

  1. Silver Solid Amalgam Electrode as a Tool for Monitoring the Electrochemical Reduction of Hydroxocobalamin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bandžuchová, L.; Šelešovská, R.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Chýlková, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2013), s. 213-222 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/1638; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : cobalamin * hanging mercury drop electrode * silver solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.502, year: 2013

  2. Al nanogrid electrode for ultraviolet detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, G; Deng, J; Zhou, L; Gan, Q; Hwang, J C M; Dierolf, V; Bartoli, F J; Mazuir, C; Schoenfeld, W V

    2011-09-15

    Optical properties of Al nanogrids of different pitches and gaps were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation predicted that surface plasmons at the air/Al interface would enhance ultraviolet transmission through the subwavelength gaps of the nanogrid, making it an effective electrode on GaN-based photodetectors to compensate for the lack of transparent electrode and high p-type doping. The predicted transmission enhancement was verified by confocal scanning optical microscopy performed at 365 nm. The quality of the nanogrids fabricated by electron-beam lithography was verified by near-field scanning optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Based on the results, the pitch and gap of the nanogrids can be optimized for the best trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmission at different wavelengths. Based on different cutoff wavelengths, the nanogrids can also double as a filter to render photodetectors solar-blind.

  3. The effect of different electrodes on the electronic transmission of benzene junctions: Analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohebbi, Razie; Seyed-Yazdi, Jamileh, E-mail: j.seyedyazdi@vru.ac.ir

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we have investigated the electronic transmission of systems electrode–benzene–electrode using the Landauer approach. The effect of different electrodes made of metal (Au) and semiconductors (Si, TiO{sub 2}) is investigated. These three electrodes are compared between them and the results show that the electronic transmission of benzene junctions, when using semiconductor electrodes, is associated to a gap in transmission which is due to the electrodes band gap. As a consequence, a threshold voltage is necessary to obtain conducting channels.

  4. Preliminary test of 5-gap glass multi-gap resistive plate chamber for photon detection for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganai, R.; Mondal, M.; Mehta, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) is a type of gas detector which uses constant and uniform electric field in between several high resistive electrodes and works on the principle of gas ionisation. In MRPC a particular gas gap is divided into several parts with the help of thin high resistive electrodes. Division of the gas gap helps to improve the time resolution of the detector significantly. MRPCs with time resolution of ∼15 ps have been reported

  5. Impulse breakdown of small air gap in electric field Part I: Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of barrier position on breakdown voltage in air dielectric has been investigated. Needle and Cone positive point electrodes were used and the effects of electrode curvature on barrier position for maximum breakdown voltage were compared, with air gap for the point to plane electrode fixed at 10 cm for all the ...

  6. Impulse breakdown of small air gap in electric field Part II: Statistical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patterns of shot distribution and maximum coverage at impulse breakdown voltage for positive point electr-odes (needle and cone electrodes) in small air gaps in non-uniform electric fields were investigated. During the breakdown test, a sheet of paper was placed on the plate electrode (-ve), and each breakdown shot ...

  7. High performance cermet electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  8. Mobilizing consumer demand for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    A lot of innovation effort is aimed at increased sustainable consumption, while at the same time actual sustainable consumption is not meeting the expectations raised by the positive public attitudes towards sustainability. This is indicative of a gap between attitudes and behaviors in sustainable

  9. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  10. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  11. Near-Electrode Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Woelk, Klaus; Gerald, Rex E.,II

    1999-05-01

    An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager use the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

  12. Sustainable hydrogen - A challenge for materials science and equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duta, Anca; Enesca, Alexandru Ioan; Perniu, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Hydrogen is the ideal fuel, considering its fully non-polluting by-products. Still, in discussions on 'sustainable hydrogen', there must be considered all the steps implied in hydrogen production, storage and use and the overall energy balance represents the real starting point of evaluating the sustainability. So far, hydrogen production is related to rather energy-consuming processes; extended research is devoted to develop high efficiency processes, but the industrial hydrogen production makes use of either large electrical or thermal energy amounts. Hydrogen production via water photolysis represents, consequently a viable alternative although many steps have to be elaborated to reached the industrial scale of these processes. Hydrogen storing represents another problem that affects its application; a safe storage way, in metal hydrides, is still under intensive research all over the world. The group of the Centre of Product Design for Sustainable Development is engaged in research for developing a laboratory photolyser, able to produce hydrogen and to offer an efficient storage alternative. The photolyser is a photo-electrochemical cell, and the efficiency of the photolysis process depends on several factors: - the photo-electrodes: thin films of wide band gap semiconductors with tailored properties; - the aqueous environment, with effect on the electrode materials properties and stability; - the external bias; - the cell design. The paper focuses mainly on the photo-electrode materials that were tested. The influence of the composition, crystalline and defect structure, of the morphology and of the interfaces on the photolysis process are reviewed. The effect of the pH in the aqueous media is discussed along with the stability of the materials and the reversibility of the adsorption/desorption processes. The design criteria that must be fulfilled in developing the photolyser are also discussed. (authors)

  13. Parallel combinations of pre-ionized low jitter spark gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzsimmons, W.A.; Rosocha, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The properties of 10 to 30 kV four electrode field emission pre-ionized triggered spark gaps have been studied. A mid-plane off-axis trigger electrode is biased at +V 0 /2, and a field emission point is located adjacent to and biased at the grounded cathode potential. Simultaneous application of a -V 0 trigger rapid pulse to both the electrodes results in the rapid sequential closing of the anode-trigger and trigger-cathode gaps. The observed jitter is about 1.5 ns. Parallel operation of these gaps (up to 10 so far) connected to a common capacitive load has been studied. A simple theory that predicts the number of gaps that may be expected to operate in parallel is discussed

  14. Analytical studies of plasma extraction electrodes and ion beam formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.; Elsaftawy, A.; Zakhary, S. G.

    2007-01-01

    In this work a theoretical and computational study on the space charge dominated beams extracted from a plasma ion source through a spherical and planer electrode is simulated and optimized. The influence of some electrode parameters: axial position, electrode diameter, material and shape; on ion current extracted from a plasma source; were investigated and compared. The optimum values and conditions of the curvature of the plasma boundary, angular divergence, perveance, and the extraction gap were optimized to extract a high quality beams. It has shown that for a planar electrode system there is usually a minimum for optimum perveance versus angular divergence at about ? 0.6 for corresponding aspect ratios. This was assured by experimental data. The appropriate spherical electrode system focus the beam to a minimum value located at a distance equal to the focal length of the spherical extraction electrode.

  15. Electrode design for soil decontamination with Radio-Frequency heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, U.; Holzer, F.; Kraus, M.; Trommler, U.; Kopinke, F.D. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Environmental Engineering, Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Radio-frequency heating to enhance soil decontamination requires adjusted solutions for the electrode design depending on scale and remediation technique. Parallel plate electrodes provide widely homogeneous field and temperature distributions and are, therefore, most suitable for supporting biodegradation processes. For thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, certain temperature gradients can be accepted and, therefore, the less-demanding geometry of rod-shaped electrodes is usually applied. For electrode lengths of some meters, a design with an air gap has to be used in order to focus heating to the desired depth. Perforated rod electrodes may be simultaneously employed as extraction wells. Placing an oxidation catalyst in situ within the electrodes is an option for handling of highly loaded air flows. Coaxial antenna may be utilized to selectively heat soil compartments far from the surface of the soil. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Dependence of hydrogen arcjet operation on electrode geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Sankovic, John M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Hamley, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The dependence of 2kW hydrogen arcjet performance on cathode to anode electrode spacing was evaluated at specific impulses of 900 and 1000 s. Less than 2 absolute percent change in efficiency was measured for the spacings tested which did not repeat the 14 absolute percent variation reported in earlier work with similar electrode designs. A different nozzle configuration was used to quantify the variation in hydrogen arcjet performance over an extended range of electrode spacing. Electrode gap variation resulted in less than 3 absolute percent change in efficiency. These null results suggested that electrode spacing is decoupled from hydrogen arcjet ignition. The dependence of breakdown voltage on mass flow rate and electrode agreed with Paschen curves for hydrogen. Preliminary characterization of the dependence of hydrogen arcjet ignition on rates of pulse repetition and pulse voltage rise were also included for comparison with previous results obtained using simulated hydrazine.

  17. Civic Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmeier, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Education for sustainable development (ESD) often fails to consider the political dimension. To address this gap, this paper focuses on a specific political approach to ESD. The model presented is derived from the four sustainable growth targets of German Development Policy. Instead of relying on a neo-classical or neo-liberal economic paradigm,…

  18. Pulse-voltammetric glucose detection at gold junction electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaei, Liza; Marken, Frank

    2010-09-01

    A novel glucose sensing concept based on the localized change or "modulation" in pH within a symmetric gold-gold junction electrode is proposed. A paired gold-gold junction electrode (average gap size ca. 500 nm) is prepared by simultaneous bipotentiostatic electrodeposition of gold onto two closely spaced platinum disk electrodes. For glucose detection in neutral aqueous solution, the potential of the "pH-modulator" electrode is set to -1.5 V vs saturated calomel reference electrode (SCE) to locally increase the pH, and simultaneously, either cyclic voltammetry or square wave voltammetry experiments are conducted at the sensor electrode. A considerable improvement in the sensor electrode response is observed when a normal pulse voltammetry sequence is applied to the modulator electrode (to generate "hydroxide pulses") and the glucose sensor electrode is operated with fixed bias at +0.5 V vs SCE (to eliminate capacitive charging currents). Preliminary data suggest good linearity for the glucose response in the medically relevant 1-10 mM concentration range (corresponding to 0.18-1.8 g L(-1)). Future electroanalytical applications of multidimensional pulse voltammetry in junction electrodes are discussed.

  19. Diagnostics for the Biased Electrode Experiment on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; Zweben, S.J.; Bush, C.E.; Kaita, R.; Marsalsa, R.J.; Maqueda, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    A linear array of four small biased electrodes was installed in NSTX in an attempt to control the width of the scrape-off layer (SOL) by creating a strong local poloidal electric field. The set of electrodes were separated poloidally by a 1 cm gap between electrodes and were located slightly below the midplane of NSTX, 1 cm behind the RF antenna and oriented so that each electrode is facing approximately normal to the magnetic field. Each electrode can be independently biased to ± 100 volts. Present power supplies limit the current on two electrodes to 30 amps the other two to 10 amps each. The effect of local biasing was measured with a set of Langmuir probes placed between the electrodes and another set extending radially outward from the electrodes, and also by the gas puff imaging diagnostic (GPI) located 1 m away along the magnetic field lines intersecting the electrodes. Two fast cameras were also aimed directly at the electrode array. The hardware and controls of the biasing experiment will be presented and the initial effects on local plasma parameters will be discussed

  20. Cleaved-edge-overgrowth nanogap electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luber, Sebastian M; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Tornow, Marc, E-mail: m.tornow@tu-bs.de [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    We present a method to fabricate multiple metal nanogap electrodes of tailored width and distance in parallel, on the cleaved plane of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The three-dimensional patterned structures are obtained by a combination of molecular-beam-epitaxial regrowth on a crystal facet, using the cleaved-edge-overgrowth (CEO) method, and subsequent wet selective etching and metallization steps. SEM and AFM studies reveal smooth and co-planar electrodes of width and distance of the order of 10 nm. Preliminary electrical characterization indicates electrical gap insulation in the 100 M{Omega} range with k{Omega} lead resistance. We propose our methodology to realize multiple electrode geometries that would allow investigation of the electrical conductivity of complex nanoscale objects such as branched organic molecules.

  1. Cleaved-edge-overgrowth nanogap electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Sebastian M; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Tornow, Marc

    2011-02-11

    We present a method to fabricate multiple metal nanogap electrodes of tailored width and distance in parallel, on the cleaved plane of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The three-dimensional patterned structures are obtained by a combination of molecular-beam-epitaxial regrowth on a crystal facet, using the cleaved-edge-overgrowth (CEO) method, and subsequent wet selective etching and metallization steps. SEM and AFM studies reveal smooth and co-planar electrodes of width and distance of the order of 10 nm. Preliminary electrical characterization indicates electrical gap insulation in the 100 MΩ range with kΩ lead resistance. We propose our methodology to realize multiple electrode geometries that would allow investigation of the electrical conductivity of complex nanoscale objects such as branched organic molecules.

  2. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  3. Feasibility of Parylene Coating for Planar Electroporation Copper Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalij NOVICKIJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the feasibility study of parylene as a biocompatible coating for planar electroporation microelectrodes. The planar parallel and the circular interdigitated electrodes are applied in the analysis. The electrodes feature 100 μm width with a 300 μm gap between anode and cathode. The parylene coating thickness was varied in the 250 nm – 2 μm range. The resultant electric field distribution evaluation has been performed using the finite element method. The electrodes have been applied in electroporation experiments with Saprolegnia parasitica. For reference the additional experiments using conventional electroporation cuvette (1 mm gap have been performed. It has been determined that the parylene coating with hydrophobic properties has limited applicability for the passivation of the planar electroporation electrodes.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.14953

  4. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  5. Controlled electroplating and electromigration in nickel electrodes for nanogap formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Los Santos Valladares, Luis; Mitrelias, Thanos; Sfigakis, Francois; Barnes, Crispin H W [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Leon Felix, Lizbet; Bustamante Dominguez, Angel [Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Khondaker, Saiful I [NanoScience Technology Center and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Majima, Yutaka, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: luisitodv@yahoo.es [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2010-11-05

    We report the fabrication of nickel nanospaced electrodes by electroplating and electromigration for nanoelectronic devices. Using a conventional electrochemical cell, nanogaps can be obtained by controlling the plating time alone and after a careful optimization of electrodeposition parameters such as electrolyte bath, applied potential, cleaning, etc. During the process, the gap width decreases exponentially with time until the electrode gaps are completely bridged. Once the bridge is formed, the ex situ electromigration technique can reopen the nanogap. When the gap is {approx} 1 nm, tunneling current-voltage characterization shows asymmetry which can be corrected by an external magnetic field. This suggests that charge transfer in the nickel electrodes depends on the orientation of magnetic moments.

  6. Controlled electroplating and electromigration in nickel electrodes for nanogap formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Santos Valladares, Luis; Mitrelias, Thanos; Sfigakis, Francois; Barnes, Crispin H W; Leon Felix, Lizbet; Bustamante Dominguez, Angel; Khondaker, Saiful I; Majima, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    We report the fabrication of nickel nanospaced electrodes by electroplating and electromigration for nanoelectronic devices. Using a conventional electrochemical cell, nanogaps can be obtained by controlling the plating time alone and after a careful optimization of electrodeposition parameters such as electrolyte bath, applied potential, cleaning, etc. During the process, the gap width decreases exponentially with time until the electrode gaps are completely bridged. Once the bridge is formed, the ex situ electromigration technique can reopen the nanogap. When the gap is ∼ 1 nm, tunneling current-voltage characterization shows asymmetry which can be corrected by an external magnetic field. This suggests that charge transfer in the nickel electrodes depends on the orientation of magnetic moments.

  7. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  8. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  9. Minding the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Carlberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plan for the Round table session was to focus on organizational and social/cultural differences between librarians and faculty with the aim to increase our awareness of the differences when we try to find ways to cooperate within the academy or school. This may help us to sort things out, experience acceptance and take adequate actions, saving energy and perhaps be less frustrated.  The questions that the workshop addressed were: What is in the gap between librarians and faculty when dealing with information literacy? How can we fill the gap? Participants discussed this in detail with the aim of together finding ways to understand it better and make it possible to find ways to fill this gap. By defining it and thereby making it easier to work out a strategy for future action to improve the teaching of information literacy, including listing possible, impossible or nearly impossible ways. The springboard to the discussion was extracted from some projects that the workshop leader has been engaged in since 2009. The first example is a research circle where Uppsala University Library used action research to observe and understand the process when we had the opportunity to implement information literacy classes with progression in an undergraduate program. What worked well? What did not? Why? This work was described together with other examples from Uppsala University to an international panel working with quality issues. What did they think of our work? May this change the ways we are working? How? Another example is an ongoing joint project where librarians and faculty members are trying to define ways to increase the cooperation between the library and faculty and make this cooperation sustainable. Recent experience from this was brought to the discussion.   There are an overwhelming number of papers written in this field. A few papers have inspired these ideas. One article in particular: Christiansen, L., Stombler, M. & Thaxton, L. (2004. A

  10. Nanoscale biomemory composed of recombinant azurin on a nanogap electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Taek; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Park, Hyung Ju; Yun, Wan Soo; Min, Junhong

    2013-01-01

    We fabricate a nanoscale biomemory device composed of recombinant azurin on nanogap electrodes. For this, size-controllable nanogap electrodes are fabricated by photolithography, electron beam lithography, and surface catalyzed chemical deposition. Moreover, we investigate the effect of gap distance to optimize the size of electrodes for a biomemory device and explore the mechanism of electron transfer from immobilized protein to a nanogap counter-electrode. As the distance of the nanogap electrode is decreased in the nanoscale, the absolute current intensity decreases according to the distance decrement between the electrodes due to direct electron transfer, in contrast with the diffusion phenomenon of a micro-electrode. The biomemory function is achieved on the optimized nanogap electrode. These results demonstrate that the fabricated nanodevice composed of a nanogap electrode and biomaterials provides various advantages such as quantitative control of signals and exclusion of environmental effects such as noise. The proposed bioelectronics device, which could be mass-produced easily, could be applied to construct a nanoscale bioelectronics system composed of a single biomolecule. (paper)

  11. Dependence of hydrogen arcjet operation on electrode geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Sankovic, John M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Hamley, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The dependence of 2 kW hydrogen arcjet performance on cathode to anode electrode spacing was evaluated at specific impulses of 900 and 1000 s. Less than 2 absolute percent change in efficiency was measured for the spacings tested which did not repeat the 14 absolute percent variation reported in earlier work with similar electrode designs. A different nozzle configuration was used to quantify the variation in hydrogen arcjet performance over an extended range of electrode spacing. Electrode gap variation resulted in less than 3 absolute percent change in efficiency. These null results suggested that electrode spacing is decoupled from hydrogen arcjet performance considerations over the ranges tested. Initial studies were conducted on hydrogen arcjet ignition. The dependence of breakdown voltage on mass flow rate and hydrogen arcjet ignition on rates of pulse repetition and pulse voltage rise were also included for comparison with previous results obtained using simulated hydrazine.

  12. Electrode stabilizing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Odom, Susan A.

    2015-11-03

    An electrolyte includes a polar aprotic solvent; an alkali metal salt; and an electrode stabilizing compound that is a monomer, which when polymerized forms an electrically conductive polymer. The electrode stabilizing compound is a thiophene, a imidazole, a anilines, a benzene, a azulene, a carbazole, or a thiol. Electrochemical devices may incorporate such electrolytes.

  13. Durable fuel electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    the composite. The invention also relates to the use of the composite as a fuel electrode, solid oxide fuel cell, and/or solid oxide electrolyser. The invention discloses a composite for an electrode, comprising a three-dimensional network of dispersed metal particles, stabilised zirconia particles and pores...

  14. High-Efficiency Graphene Photo Sensor Using a Transparent Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; HUANG Zheng

    2011-01-01

    We report the first implementation of transparent electrodes in bottom-gate graphene transistors used for photo detection.Compared to conventional nontransparent electrodes,the transparent electrodes allow photons to transmit through to the graphene beneath,providing an enlarged absorption area and thereby giving rise to an enhancement of photocurrent generation.The devices are fabricated with an asymmetric metallization scheme and the experimental results show that the maximum photocurrent density using the transparent electrodes (ITO and Pd/ITO) is over two times higher than that using the nontransparent electrodes (Ti and Pd),indicating a significant enhancement in the performance of graphene photo sensors.Graphene,a single-atomic-layer of carbon atoms with a zero-gap band structure has received great attention recently.[1-4] One promising application of graphene is in high-speed photodetection,owing to its high Fermi velocity (~1/300 of the speed of light),high electrical mobility (200000 cm2/Vs for both electrons and holes) and zero-gap induced wide absorption spectrum (in the visible-to-infrared range).[5,6]%We report the first implementation of transparent electrodes in bottom-gate graphene transistors used for photo detection. Compared to conventional nontransparent electrodes, the transparent electrodes allow photons to transmit through to the graphene beneath, providing an enlarged absorption area and thereby giving rise to an enhancement of photocurrent generation. The devices are fabricated with an asymmetric metallization scheme and the experimental results show that the maximum photocurrent density using the transparent electrodes (ITO and Pd/ITO) is over two times higher than that using the nontransparent electrodes (Ti and Pd), indicating a significant enhancement in the performance of graphene photo sensors.

  15. Polymer-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography on hairy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Miyako; Kudo, Yuta; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the optimization of the shape of dry microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography (EEG) on hairy locations and compare the electrodes we developed with conventional wet electrodes. We propose the use of SU-8-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes (CMEs), which have pillars of 1.0 mm height and 0.4 mm diameter with a gap of 0.43 mm between pillars. Microneedles are formed on the top of the pillars. The shape was determined by how well the pillars can avoid hairs and support the microneedles to penetrate through the stratum corneum. The skin-electrode contact impedances of the fabricated CMEs were found to be higher and less stable than those of conventional wet electrodes. However, the CMEs successfully acquired signals with qualities as good as those of conventional wet electrodes. Given the usability of the CMEs, which do not require skin preparation or gel, they are promising alternatives to conventional wet electrodes.

  16. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mognet, S.A.I., E-mail: mognet@astro.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aramaki, T. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bando, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fuke, H. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Mori, K.; Okazaki, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ong, R.A. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Yoshida, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Zweerink, J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded.

  17. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mognet, S.A.I.; Aramaki, T.; Bando, N.; Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von; Fuke, H.; Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N.; Mori, K.; Okazaki, S.; Ong, R.A.; Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zweerink, J.

    2014-01-01

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded

  18. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable / validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  19. Spark gap produced plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    A Spark Gap (Applied voltage : 2-8KV, Capacitor : 4 Micro F. Dia of the tube : 1 inch, Electrode distance : .3 ∼.5 inch) was made to generate a small size dynamic plasma. To measure the plasma density and temperature as a function of time and position, we installed and have been installing four detection systems - Mach-Zehnder type Interferometer for the plasma refractivity, Expansion speed detector using two He-Ne laser beams, Image Processing using Lens and A Optical-Fiber Array for Pointwise Radiation Sensing, Faraday Rotation of a Optical Fiber to measure the azimuthal component of B-field generated by the plasma drift. These systems was used for the wire explosion diagnostics, and can be used for the Laser driven plasma also

  20. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  1. AIR GAP CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HYDROGENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zaitsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report of the solving the actual problem of control the air gap in the hydrogenerators. The aim of the study was development of a computerized information-measuring system for measuring the air gap in the hydrogenator, which used two capacitive sensors with parallel coplanar electrodes, and the method of determining the shape of the envelope parameters hydrogenerator rotor poles relative to the center axis of rotation, using the measurement results of the air gap.In practical studies of the sensor circuit it has been shown that its use allows for the informative value of the sensor capacitance conversion function to obtain a high accuracy and resolution measurement with digital linearization of converting function of the sensor with use program utility. To determine the form deviations of the envelope line of the rotor pole from the ideal cylinder, which is one of the main structural defects of the technological errors as results the distortion of the shape of the air gap in the hydrogenator, when the machine was manufacture and assembly. It is proposed to describe the shape of the envelope to use a Fourier transform. Calculation of the coefficients of the Fourier series is performed using the method of least squares as the regression coefficients.Application of this method in processing the measuring data in a computerized information-measuring system the developed with the primary converter with coplanar parallel electrodes allowed attaining the high measurement accuracy and resolution informative in magnitude of the capacity.

  2. Consumerism and sustainable tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2000-01-01

    This article recognises the immense and growing interest for the development of a sustainable tourism. However, it demonstrates a gap between general awareness and preferences on the one hand, and the practices and behaviour of tourists and tourist industries on the other hand. The constraints...... for the development of a consumerism in the fields of tourism are addressed in the article. A particular emphasis is put on a lack of appropriate institutional frameworks that provide individual tourists with reliable information and co-ordinate their purchasing power in order to enhance the issues of environmental...... sustainability....

  3. The Earnings Gap between Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The size of the earnings gap between men and women has not changed substantially in recent years. The sustained earnings differential contrasts significantly with recent gains women have made in the job market. Several factors contribute to the wage differences: (1) The majority of women are in lower-paying occupations and lower-status jobs even…

  4. The Racial School-Climate Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Education inequity is a persistent reality of American culture. As early as kindergarten, there are marked differences in academic performance between racial minority students and their peers. These differences are sustained as students progress through school. One aspect of students' social experience that may help to explain the gap is school…

  5. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies

  6. Electrode-electrolyte interface model of tripolar concentric ring electrode and electrode paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollaholhosseini, Seyed Hadi; Steele, Preston; Besio, Walter G

    2016-08-01

    Electrodes are used to transform ionic currents to electrical currents in biological systems. Modeling the electrode-electrolyte interface could help to optimize the performance of the electrode interface to achieve higher signal to noise ratios. There are previous reports of accurate models for single-element biomedical electrodes. In this paper we develop a model for the electrode-electrolyte interface for tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) that are used to record brain signals.

  7. Plasma Characterization of Hall Thruster with Active and Passive Segmented Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Staack, D.; Fisch, N.J.

    2002-01-01

    Non-emissive electrodes and ceramic spacers placed along the Hall thruster channel are shown to affect the plasma potential distribution and the thruster operation. These effects are associated with physical properties of the electrode material and depend on the electrode configuration, geometry and the magnetic field distribution. An emissive segmented electrode was able to maintain thruster operation by supplying an additional electron flux to sustain the plasma discharge between the anode and cathode neutralizer. These results indicate the possibility of new configurations for segmented electrode Hall thruster

  8. A Dynamic Model of Sustainment Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Sustainment System Dynamics Model 11 Figure 7: Core Structure of Sustainment Work 12 Figure 8: Bandwagon Effect Loop 13 Figure 9: Limits to Growth Loop 14...Dynamics Model sustainment capacity sustainment performance gap Bandwagon Effect R1 Limits to Growth B1 S Work Smarter B3 Work Bigger B2 desired...which is of concern primarily when using the model as a vehicle for research. Figure 8 depicts a reinforcing loop called the “ Bandwagon Effect

  9. Behind the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  10. Erosion on spark plug electrodes; Funkenerosion an Zuendkerzenelektroden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rager, J.

    2006-07-01

    Durability of spark plugs is mainly determined by spark gap widening, caused by electrode wear. Knowledge about the erosion mechanisms of spark plug materials is of fundamental interest for the development of materials with a high resistance against electrode erosion. It is therefore crucial to identify those parameters which significantly influence the erosion behaviour of a material. In this work, a reliable and reproducible testing method is presented which produces and characterizes electrode wear under well-defined conditions and which is capable of altering parameters specifically. Endurance tests were carried out to study the dependence of the wear behaviour of pure nickel and platinum on the electrode temperature, gas, electrode gap, electrode diameter, atmospheric pressure, and partial pressure of oxygen. It was shown that erosion under nitrogen is negligible, irrespective of the material. This disproves all common mechanism discussed in the literature explaining material loss of spark plug electrodes. Based on this observation and the variation of the mentioned parameters a new erosion model was deduced. This relies on an oxidation of the electrode material and describes the erosion of nickel and platinum separately. For nickel, electrode wear is caused by the removal of an oxide layer by the spark. In the case of platinum, material loss occurs due to the plasma-assisted formation and subsequent evaporation of volatile oxides in the cathode spot. On the basis of this mechanism a new composite material was developed whose erosion resistance is superior to pure platinum. Oxidation resistant metal oxide particles were added to a platinum matrix, thus leading to a higher erosion resistance of the composite. However, this can be decreased by a side reaction, the separation of oxygen from the metal oxides, which effectively assists the oxidation of the matrix. This reaction can be suppressed by using highly stable oxides, characterized by a large negative Gibbs

  11. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  12. Voltammetric determination of leucovorin using silver solid amalgam electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šelešovská, R.; Bandžuchová, L.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Chýlková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 60, JAN 2012 (2012), s. 375-383 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806; GA ČR GAP206/11/1638 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : leucovorin * voltammetry * amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.777, year: 2012

  13. TiO 2 counter electrode for electrochromic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 2 ... The band gap energy decreases (g) from 3.45 eV for pristine CeO2 to 2.98–3.09 eV ... as counter electrode in electrochromic smart windows in which they are able to retain ...

  14. Cold-electrode voltage fall for impulse arcs in argon between copper electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, O; Cooray, V, E-mail: oscar.diaz@angstrom.uu.se [Lightning Research Group, Division for Electricity, Uppsala University Angstroemlaboratoriet Box 5234, 751 20, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-06-23

    The full electric arc discharge in gases for short gaps in homogeneous electric field and pressure{center_dot}distance (pd) below 150 Torr{center_dot}cm, can be described as a transition between different discharge mechanisms such as: Townsend, glow, and arc. Once the arc is achieved the measured voltage drops to some volts and the current density increases several orders of magnitude. Depending upon the type of gas used, the electrode surface characteristics and type of electrical excitation, the cathode and anode voltage fall might change. The present work is directed to study the electrode fall (sum of anode and cathode falls) during a current impulse arc discharge between copper electrodes in ceramic tubes filled with argon between 0.01 and 6.5 Torr{center_dot}cm. The copper electrodes were cleaned, degassed and hydrogen reduced. The arc voltages were measured with fast/slow rise times and short/long duration current impulses produced by a RLC circuit. An increasing variation of the electrode fall was found at the pressure{center_dot}distance range analyzed.

  15. Yield gap analysis of feed-crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Aart; Oosting, Simon J.; Ven, van de Gerrie W.J.; Veysset, Patrick; Boer, de Imke J.M.; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable intensification is a strategy contributing to global food security. The scope for sustainable intensification in crop sciences can be assessed through yield gap analysis, using crop growth models based on concepts of production ecology. Recently, an analogous cattle production model

  16. Fabrication of high aspect ratio micro electrode by using EDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsiti, Nagwa Mejid; Noordin, M.Y.; Alkali, Adam Umar

    2016-01-01

    The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process inherits characteristics that make it a promising micro-machining technique. Micro electrical discharge machining (micro- EDM) is a derived form of EDM, which is commonly used to manufacture micro and miniature parts and components by using the conventional electrical discharge machining fundamentals. Moving block electro discharge grinding (Moving BEDG) is one of the processes that can be used to fabricate micro-electrode. In this study, a conventional die sinker EDM machine was used to fabricate the micro-electrode. Modifications are made to the moving BEDG, which include changing the direction of movements and control gap in one electrode. Consequently current was controlled due to the use of roughing, semi-finishing and finishing parameters. Finally, a high aspect ratio micro-electrode with a diameter of 110.49μm and length of 6000μm was fabricated. (paper)

  17. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  18. A Roadmap for Achieving Sustainable Energy Conversion and Storage: Graphene-Based Composites Used Both as an Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reactions and an Electrode Material for a Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Huo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on its unique features including 2D planar geometry, high specific surface area and electron conductivity, graphene has been intensively studied as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR electrocatalyst and supercapacitor material. On the one hand, graphene possesses standalone electrocatalytic activity. It can also provide a good support for combining with other materials to generate graphene-based electrocatalysts, where the catalyst-support structure improves the stability and performance of electrocatalysts for ORR. On the other hand, graphene itself and its derivatives demonstrate a promising electrochemical capability as supercapacitors including electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs and pseudosupercapacitors. A hybrid supercapacitor (HS is underlined and the advantages are elaborated. Graphene endows many materials that are capable of faradaic redox reactions with an outstanding pseudocapacitance behavior. In addition, the characteristics of graphene-based composite are also utilized in many respects to provide a porous 3D structure, formulate a novel supercapacitor with innovative design, and construct a flexible and tailorable device. In this review, we will present an overview of the use of graphene-based composites for sustainable energy conversion and storage.

  19. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  20. Porous electrode preparation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  1. The heating of plasma focus electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, E; Frignani, M; Mannucci, S; Rocchi, F; Sumini, M; Tartari, A

    2006-01-01

    Plasma focus (PF) technology development today is strictly related to the possibility of a high frequency repetitive working regime. One of the more relevant obstacles to this goal is the heating of structural components due to direct interaction with plasma. In this paper, temperature decay measurements of the inner electrode of a 7 kJ Mather type PF are presented. Data from several series of shots at different bank energies are analysed and compared with theoretical and numerical models. Two possible scale laws are derived from the experimental data to correlate thermal deposition with bank energy. It is found that a fraction of about 10% of total energy is released to the inner electrode. Finally, after some considerations about the cooling and heating mechanisms, an analysis on maximum temperature sustained by materials is presented

  2. Voltammetric monitoring of electrochemical reduction of riboflavin using silver solid amalgam electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bandžuchová, L.; Šelešovská, R.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Chýlková, J.; Novotný, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 75, July 2012 (2012), s. 316-324 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806; GA ČR GAP208/12/1645; GA ČR GAP206/11/1638 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : riboflavin * determination * amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.777, year: 2012

  3. Application of Copper Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Fungicide Tebuconazole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Kateřina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Chýlková, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-16 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/1638; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tebuconazole * fungicide * copper solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  4. Gap and density theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, N

    1940-01-01

    A typical gap theorem of the type discussed in the book deals with a set of exponential functions { \\{e^{{{i\\lambda}_n} x}\\} } on an interval of the real line and explores the conditions under which this set generates the entire L_2 space on this interval. A typical gap theorem deals with functions f on the real line such that many Fourier coefficients of f vanish. The main goal of this book is to investigate relations between density and gap theorems and to study various cases where these theorems hold. The author also shows that density- and gap-type theorems are related to various propertie

  5. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  6. Sandwich-type electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.; Garcia, Earl R.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is an improvement on a method of making an electrode wherein a suspension in a liquid is prepared of a powdered catalyst containing a noble metal, carbon powder and a binder, and the suspension is poured over a carbon substrate dried, compressed and sintered to form a solid catalyst layer bonded to the carbon substrate. The improvement is placing a carbon paper on the catalyst layer prior to compressing. The improved electrode can be used as either a cathode or an anode in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer in a process for producing hydrogen from water.

  7. Ion-selective electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Ion-Selective Electrode Laboratory

    2013-06-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing ISEs are outlined, and the transfer of methods into routine analysis is considered.

  8. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  9. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  10. The detailed characteristics of positive corona current pulses in the line-to-plane electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuebao, LI; Dayong, LI; Qian, ZHANG; Yinfei, LI; Xiang, CUI; Tiebing, LU

    2018-05-01

    The corona current pulses generated by corona discharge are the sources of the radio interference from transmission lines and the detailed characteristics of the corona current pulses from conductor should be investigated in order to reveal their generation mechanism. In this paper, the line-to-plane electrodes are designed to measure and analyze the characteristics of corona current pulses from positive corona discharges. The influences of inter-electrode gap and line diameters on the detail characteristics of corona current pulses, such as pulse amplitude, rise time, duration time and repetition frequency, are carefully analyzed. The obtained results show that the pulse amplitude and the repetition frequency increase with the diameter of line electrode when the electric fields on the surface of line electrodes are same. With the increase of inter-electrode gap, the pulse amplitude and the repetition frequency first decrease and then turn to be stable, while the rise time first increases and finally turns to be stable. The distributions of electric field and space charges under the line electrodes are calculated, and the influences of inter-electrode gap and line electrode diameter on the experimental results are qualitatively explained.

  11. Fabrication of a printed capacitive air-gap touch sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Hwiwon; Lee, Sangyoon

    2018-05-01

    Unlike lithography-based processes, printed electronics does not require etching, which makes it difficult to fabricate electronic devices with an air gap. In this study, we propose a method to fabricate capacitive air-gap touch sensors via printing and coating. First, the bottom electrode was fabricated on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate using roll-to-roll gravure printing with silver ink. Then poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was spin coated to form a sacrificial layer. The top electrode was fabricated on the sacrificial layer by spin coating with a stretchable silver ink. The sensor samples were then put in a tetrabutylammonium (TBAF) bath to generate the air gap by removing the sacrificial layer. The capacitance of the samples was measured for verification, and the results show that the capacitance increases in proportion to the applied force from 0 to 2.5 N.

  12. Virtual electrodes for high-density electrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2015-10-13

    The present embodiments are directed to implantable electrode arrays having virtual electrodes. The virtual electrodes may improve the resolution of the implantable electrode array without the burden of corresponding complexity of electronic circuitry and wiring. In a particular embodiment, a virtual electrode may include one or more passive elements to help steer current to a specific location between the active electrodes. For example, a passive element may be a metalized layer on a substrate that is adjacent to, but not directly connected to an active electrode. In certain embodiments, an active electrode may be directly coupled to a power source via a conductive connection. Beneficially, the passive elements may help to increase the overall resolution of the implantable array by providing additional stimulation points without requiring additional wiring or driver circuitry for the passive elements.

  13. Flexible electrode belt for EIT using nanofiber web dry electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Tae Eui; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Kap Jin; Woo, Eung Je; Sadleir, Rosalind J

    2012-10-01

    Efficient connection of multiple electrodes to the body for impedance measurement and voltage monitoring applications is of critical importance to measurement quality and practicality. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) experiments have generally required a cumbersome procedure to attach the multiple electrodes needed in EIT. Once placed, these electrodes must then maintain good contact with the skin during measurements that may last several hours. There is usually also the need to manage the wires that run between the electrodes and the EIT system. These problems become more severe as the number of electrodes increases, and may limit the practicality and portability of this imaging method. There have been several trials describing human-electrode interfaces using configurations such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this paper, we describe an electrode belt we developed for long-term EIT monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt included 16 embossed electrodes that were designed to make good contact with the skin. The electrodes were fabricated using an Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web and metallic threads. A large contact area and padding were used behind each electrode to improve subject comfort and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes were incorporated, equally spaced, into an elasticated fabric belt. We tested the electrode belt in conjunction with the KHU Mark1 multi-frequency EIT system, and demonstrate time-difference images of phantoms and human subjects during normal breathing and running. We found that the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were suitable for long-term measurement because of their flexibility and durability. Moreover, the contact impedance and stability of the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were found to be comparable to similarly tested Ag/AgCl electrodes.

  14. Interventions to encourage sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is hampered by a discrepancy between consumers’ attitudes and their actual behaviour in the market place. Psychological construal level theory provides an explanation for the attitude to behaviour gap as a motivational conflict between high and low level of mental construal.

  15. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  16. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  17. Understanding the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Claudia

    1985-01-01

    Despite the great influx of women into the labor market, the gap between men's and women's wages has remained stable at 40 percent since 1950. Analysis of labor data suggests that this has occurred because women's educational attainment compared to men has declined. Recently, however, the wage gap has begun to narrow, and this will probably become…

  18. Bridging the Transition Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    period and provide recommendations to guide future research and policy development. 4 DEFINING THE TRANSITIONAL SECURITY GAP There have been...BRIDGING THE TRANSITION GAP A Monograph by MAJ J.D. Hansen United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704

  19. Protected electrodes for plasma panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    A metal oxide coating is applied between the conductive base and the magnesium oxide dielectric of the input and/or erase electrode(s) in a plasma display device to prevent break-down of the dielectric

  20. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  1. Sustainability Reporting at Schools: Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbach, Eva; Fischer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances made there is still an implementation gap with regard to Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in formal educational systems at the school level. The present paper focuses on sustainability reporting as a recently emerging practice in the school sector. It presents the approach and findings of an exploratory interview study…

  2. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  3. Water limits to closing yield gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Garrassino, Francesco; Chiarelli, Davide; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is often seen as a suitable approach to meet the growing demand for agricultural products and improve food security. It typically entails the use of fertilizers, new cultivars, irrigation, and other modern technology. In regions of the world affected by seasonal or chronic water scarcity, yield gap closure is strongly dependent on irrigation (blue water). Global yield gap assessments have often ignored whether the water required to close the yield gap is locally available. Here we perform a gridded global analysis (10 km resolution) of the blue water consumption that is needed annually to close the yield gap worldwide and evaluate the associated pressure on renewable freshwater resources. We find that, to close the yield gap, human appropriation of freshwater resources for irrigation would have to increase at least by 146%. Most study countries would experience at least a doubling in blue water requirement, with 71% of the additional blue water being required by only four crops - maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat. Further, in some countries (e.g., Algeria, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen) the total volume of blue water required for yield gap closure would exceed sustainable levels of freshwater consumption (i.e., 40% of total renewable surface and groundwater resources).

  4. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  5. Evaluation of niobium as candidate electrode material for dc high voltage photoelectron guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BastaniNejad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The field emission characteristics of niobium electrodes were compared to those of stainless steel electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of eight electrodes were evaluated: two 304 stainless steel electrodes polished to mirrorlike finish with diamond grit and six niobium electrodes (two single-crystal, two large-grain, and two fine-grain that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Upon the first application of high voltage, the best large-grain and single-crystal niobium electrodes performed better than the best stainless steel electrodes, exhibiting less field emission at comparable voltage and field strength. In all cases, field emission from electrodes (stainless steel and/or niobium could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode was biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (<10  pA at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of 18.7  MV/m.

  6. Evaluation of Niobium as Candidate Electrode Material for DC High Voltage Photoelectron Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    BastaniNejad, M.; Mohamed, Abdullah; Elmustafa, A. A.; Adderley, P.; Clark, J.; Covert, S.; Hansknecht, J.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M.; Mammei, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The field emission characteristics of niobium electrodes were compared to those of stainless steel electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of eight electrodes were evaluated: two 304 stainless steel electrodes polished to mirror-like finish with diamond grit and six niobium electrodes (two single-crystal, two large-grain, and two fine-grain) that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Upon the first application of high voltage, the best large-grain and single-crystal niobium electrodes performed better than the best stainless steel electrodes, exhibiting less field emission at comparable voltage and field strength. In all cases, field emission from electrodes (stainless steel and/or niobium) could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode was biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (< 10 pA) at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of 18:7 MV/m.

  7. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  8. Floating electrode microelectromechanical system capacitive switches: A different actuation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, G.; Giacomozzi, F.; Papandreou, E.; Margesin, B.

    2011-08-01

    The paper investigates the actuation mechanism in floating electrode microelectromechanical system capacitive switches. It is demonstrated that in the pull-in state, the device operation turns from voltage to current controlled actuation. The current arises from Poole-Frenkel mechanism in the dielectric film and Fowler-Nordheim in the bridge-floating electrode air gap. The pull-out voltage seems to arise from the abrupt decrease of Fowler-Nordheim electric field intensity. This mechanism seems to be responsible for the very small difference with respect to the pull-in voltage.

  9. 'Mind the Gap!'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar

    This paper challenges the widely held view that sharply falling real transport costs closed the transatlantic gap in grain prices in the second half of the 19th century. Several new results emerge from an analysis of a new data set of weekly wheat prices and freight costs from New York to UK...... markets. Firstly, there was a decline in the transatlantic price gap but it was not sharp and the gap remained substantial. Secondly, the fall in the transatlantic price differential had more to do with improved market and marketing efficiency than with falling transport costs. Thirdly, spurious price...

  10. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  11. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  12. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  13. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  14. Afterschool Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Joyce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation in quality extended learning opportunities (ELOs results in positive academic, physical, mental health, and social/emotional outcomes. Funding is essential to implementing and sustaining quality ELOs; however multiple funding barriers and challenges exist. Understanding the types of funds available for ELOs and the factors that influence sustainability is critical. Through surveys and telephone interviews of ELO providers, this descriptive study identified and examined ELO funding streams, the ways ELO providers use these funding streams, and the barriers and challenges to sustainability. ELO programs often relied on one major funding stream coupled with nutrition supports as well as in-kind resources. Barriers to sustainability included year-to-year funding, transportation costs, reducing community partnerships, and difficulty in diversifying funds. Recommendations to enhance ELO sustainability are offered, particularly in relation to overcoming the challenges to diversification of funding resources and establishing mutually supportive partnerships and collaboration.

  15. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Eberle, Ulrike; Lorek, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary food production and consumption cannot be regarded as sustainable and raises problems with its wide scope involving diverse actors. Moreover, in the face of demographic change and a growing global population, sus-tainability problems arising from food systems will likely become more...... and globalization of agriculture and food processing, the shift of consumption patterns toward more dietary animal protein, the emergence of modern food styles that entail heavily processed products, the growing gap on a global scale between rich and poor, and the paradoxical lack of food security amid an abundance...... of food. These factors are attributable to national and international policies and regulations, as well as to prevalent business prac-tices and, in particular, consumers' values and habits. The most effective ways for affluent societies to reduce the environmental impact of their diets are to reduce...

  16. A new electrode design for ambipolar injection in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasekaran, Thangavel; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Ryota; Hitosugi, Taro; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2017-10-17

    Organic semiconductors have attracted much attention for low-cost, flexible and human-friendly optoelectronics. However, achieving high electron-injection efficiency is difficult from air-stable electrodes and cannot be equivalent to that of holes. Here, we present a novel concept of electrode composed of a bilayer of tetratetracontane (TTC) and polycrystalline organic semiconductors (pc-OSC) covered by a metal layer. Field-effect transistors of single-crystal organic semiconductors with the new electrodes of M/pc-OSC/TTC (M: Ca or Au) show both highly efficient electron and hole injection. Contact resistance for electron injection from Au/pc-OSC/TTC and hole injection from Ca/pc-OSC/TTC are comparable to those for electron injection from Ca and hole injection from Au, respectively. Furthermore, the highest field-effect mobilities of holes (22 cm 2  V -1  s -1 ) and electrons (5.0 cm 2  V -1  s -1 ) are observed in rubrene among field-effect transistors with electrodes so far proposed by employing Ca/pc-OSC/TTC and Au/pc-OSC/TTC electrodes for electron and hole injection, respectively.One of technological challenges building organic electronics is efficient injection of electrons at metal-semiconductor interfaces compared to that of holes. The authors show an air-stable electrode design with induced gap states, which support Fermi level pinning and thus ambipolar carrier injection.

  17. CIEEM Skills Gap Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the research conducted for the Chartered Institute for Ecology and Environmental Management to identify skills gaps within the profession. It involved surveys of professionals, conference workshops and an investigation into the views of employers regarding graduate recruitment.

  18. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  19. Electrostatic Levitator Electrode Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Schematic of Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) electrodes and controls system. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  20. Gender-Pay-Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Eicker, Jannis

    2017-01-01

    Der Gender-Pay-Gap ist eine statistische Kennzahl zur Messung der Ungleichheit zwischen Männern* und Frauen* beim Verdienst. Es gibt zwei Versionen: einen "unbereinigten" und einen "bereinigten". Der "unbereinigte" Gender-Pay-Gap berechnet den geschlechtsspezifischen Verdienstunterschied auf Basis der Bruttostundenlöhne aller Männer* und Frauen* der Grundgesamtheit. Beim "bereinigten" Wert hingegen werden je nach Studie verschiedene Faktoren wie Branche, Position und Berufserfahrung herausger...

  1. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  2. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  3. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached −225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ∼22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes

  4. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  5. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Sustained spheromak technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, A.R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Linford, R.K.; Hoida, H.W.; Henins, I.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to devise a technique for driving a spheromak using dc-powered electrodes. The reduction or elimination of pulsed power components in the spheromak source would result in more attractive reactors, and simpler, cheaper experiments. This is important as experiments get larger and approach reactor size. According to some concepts, the dc spheromak would operate with plasma injection so that it would clean up any impurities produced during its formation. These features make the investigation of dc-powered spheromaks interesting. The questions that need to be answered in this investigation are: (1) can a spheromak be sustained by a dc source; and (2) can a practical source be designed to produce a hot clean plasma. After summarizing the evidence which suggests an answer to question one, the approach being taken to answer question two is discussed.

  7. Sustained spheromak technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, A.R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Linford, R.K.; Hoida, H.W.; Henins, I.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to devise a technique for driving a spheromak using dc-powered electrodes. The reduction or elimination of pulsed power components in the spheromak source would result in more attractive reactors, and simpler, cheaper experiments. This is important as experiments get larger and approach reactor size. According to some concepts, the dc spheromak would operate with plasma injection so that it would clean up any impurities produced during its formation. These features make the investigation of dc-powered spheromaks interesting. The questions that need to be answered in this investigation are: (1) can a spheromak be sustained by a dc source; and (2) can a practical source be designed to produce a hot clean plasma. After summarizing the evidence which suggests an answer to question one, the approach being taken to answer question two is discussed

  8. Branchlike nano-electrodes for enhanced terahertz emission in photomixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qing Yang Steve; Tanoto, Hendrix; Ding, Lu; Choy Chum, Chan; Bian Chew, Ah; Teng, Jinghua; Wang, Bing; Banas, Agnieszka; Banas, Krzysztof; Jin Chua, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Branchlike nano-electrode structures were found to improve the THz emission intensity of a photomixer by approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of a photomixer with one row of nano-electrodes separated by the same 100 nm gap. The enhancement is attributed to a more efficient collection of generated carriers, which is in turn due to a more intense electric field under the branchlike nano-electrodes’ structures. This is coupled with an increased number of effective areas where strong tip-to-tip THz field enhancements were observed. The optical-to-THz conversion efficiency of the photomixers with the new branchlike nano-electrodes was found to be 10 times higher. The more efficient THz photomixer will greatly benefit the development of continuous-wave THz imaging and spectroscopy systems. (paper)

  9. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  10. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  11. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  12. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  13. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  14. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  15. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  16. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  17. The Social Agenda of Education for Sustainable Development within Design & Technology: The Case of the Sustainable Design Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, James; Lubben, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the adoption of the social dimensions of sustainability in technological design tasks. It uses a lens which contrasts education for sustainability as "a frame of mind" with an attempt to bridge a "value-action gap". This lens is used to analyse the effectiveness of the Sustainable Design Award, an intervention in post-16…

  18. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  19. SRTC - Gap Analysis Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.L. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing SRTC design against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards and supplemental requirements can not fully meet these safety requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Site Rail Transfer Cart (SRTC) Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 14]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements are provided in the SRTC and associated rails gap analysis table in Appendix A. Because SRTCs are credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the SRTC and rail design perform required safety Functions and meet performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis table supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed

  20. Application of Life Cycle Assessment for Corporate Sustainability : Integrating environmental sustainability in business for value creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manda, B.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to make a contribution to bridge the gap between sustainability science and business management by improving the integration of sustainability in core business of corporations. The core business of corporations is to provide products and services to meet

  1. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  2. VOLTAMMETRY OF AQUEOUS CHLOROAURIC ACID WITH HANGING MERCURY DROP ELECTRODE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korshunov, A.; Josypčuk, Bohdan; Heyrovský, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 7 (2011), s. 929-936 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/1638; GA AV ČR IAA400400806; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : aqueous chloauric acid * voltammetry * hanging mercury drop electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  3. Renewing functionalized graphene as electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yan [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao No.11, Beijing, 100190 (China); Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Li, Xianglong; Wang, Bin; Song, Qi [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao No.11, Beijing, 100190 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Zhi, Linjie [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao No.11, Beijing, 100190 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Jungong Road 516, 200093, Shanghai (China)

    2012-12-11

    An acid-assisted ultrarapid thermal strategy is developed for constructing specifically functionalized graphene. The electrochemical performance of functionalized graphene can be boosted via elaborate coupling between the pseudocapacitance and the electronic double layer capacitance through rationally tailoring the structure of graphene sheets. This presents an opportunity for developing further high-performance graphene-based electrodes to bridge the performance gap between traditional capacitors and batteries. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Renewing functionalized graphene as electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yan; Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Li, Xianglong; Wang, Bin; Song, Qi; Kang, Feiyu; Zhi, Linjie

    2012-12-11

    An acid-assisted ultrarapid thermal strategy is developed for constructing specifically functionalized graphene. The electrochemical performance of functionalized graphene can be boosted via elaborate coupling between the pseudocapacitance and the electronic double layer capacitance through rationally tailoring the structure of graphene sheets. This presents an opportunity for developing further high-performance graphene-based electrodes to bridge the performance gap between traditional capacitors and batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Microstructure Characterization and Modeling for Improved Electrode Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Usseglio Viretta, Francois L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yao, Koffi (Pierre) [Argonne National Laboratory; ; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Jansen, Andy [Argonne National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha [Texas A& M University; Mistry, Aashutosh [Texas A& M University; Verma, Ankit [Texas A& M University

    2017-08-03

    This presentation describes research work led by NREL with team members from Argonne National Laboratory and Texas A&M University in microstructure analysis, modeling and validation under DOE's Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) program. The goal of the project is to close the gaps between CAEBAT models and materials research by creating predictive models that can be used for electrode design.

  6. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  7. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica

    2017-03-30

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  8. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica; De Wolf, Stefaan; Woods-Robinson, Rachel; Ager, Joel W.; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  9. Electrode for disintegrating metallic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persang, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A graphite electrode is provided for disintegrating and removing metallic material from a workpiece, e.g., such as portions of a nuclear reactor to be repaired while in an underwater and/or radioactive environment. The electrode is provided with a plurality of openings extending outwardly, and a manifold for supplying a mixture of water and compressed gas to be discharged through the openings for sweeping away the disintegrated metallic material during use of the electrode

  10. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  11. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1982-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 3, provides a review of articles on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). The volume begins with an article on methods based on titration procedures for surfactant analysis, which have been developed for discrete batch operation and for continuous AutoAnalyser use. Separate chapters deal with detection limits of ion-selective electrodes; the possibility of using inorganic ion-exchange materials as ion-sensors; and the effect of solvent on potentials of cells with ion-selective electrodes. Also included is a chapter on advances in calibration procedures, the d

  12. Field testing of sulphide electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.R.; Gaonkar, K.B.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    Sulphide ion selective electrodes have been developed at BARC, for determination of Ag + and S - ions directly and Cl - and CN - ions indirectly. The electrodes were tested for their use in sulphide environments in the EAD (Effluent After Dilution) stream at the Heavy Water Plant, Kota. The electrodes are suitable in the concentration range of 16000 ppm to 0.002 ppm, with a slope of 29-31 mV per decade change in the sulphide ion concentration. The response time is less than 10 seconds. These electrodes are reliable for continuous on-line use for a long period. (author). 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  13. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  14. Microbial electrode sensor for alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikuma, M [Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kawasaki, Japan; Kubo, T; Yasuda, T; Karube, I; Suzuki, S

    1979-10-01

    A microbial electrode consisting of immobilized microorganisms, a gas permeable Teflon membrane, and an oxygen electrode was prepared for the continuous determination of methyl and ethyl alcohols. Immobilized Trichosporon brassicae was employed for a microbial electrode sensor for ethyl alcohol. When a sample solution containing ethyl alcohol was injected into a microbial electrode system, the current of the electrode decreased markedly with time until a steady state was reached. The response time was within 10 min by the steady state method and within 6 min by the pulse method. A linear relationship was observed between the current decrease and the concentration of ethyl alcohol below 22.5 mg/liter. The current was reproducible within +- 6% of the relative error when a sample solution containing 16.5 mg/liter ethyl alcohol. The standard deviation was 0.5 mg/liter in 40 experiments. The selectivity of the microbial electrode sensor for ethyl alcohol was satisfactory. The microbial electrode sensor was applied to a fermentation broth of yeasts and satisfactory comparative results were obtained (correlation coefficient 0.98). The current output of the microbial electrode sensor was almost constant for more than three weeks and 2100 assays. A microbial electrode sensor using immobilized bacteria for methyl alcohol was also described.

  15. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  16. Sensitive voltammetric method for determination of herbicide triasulfuron using silver solid amalgam electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bandžuchová, L.; Šelešovská, R.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Chýlková, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 113, DEC 2013 (2013), s. 1-8 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0021 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Triasulfuron * Hanging mercury drop electrode * Mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.086, year: 2013

  17. A study on cross-talk nerve stimulation: electrode placement and current leakage lid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Julémont

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-talk phenomena should be avoided when stimulating nerves. One option to limit the current spread is to use tripolar electrodes, but at the cost of increasing the number of wires connection. This should be avoided since cables must be thin and compliant. We investigated the impact of the central electrode position and of current spread due to a gap between book and lid on cross-talk, in a set of tripolar or quasi-tripolar configurations.

  18. A miniaturized electrode system for voltammetric determination of electrochemically reducible environmental pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, A.; Vyskočil, V.; Josypčuk, Bohdan; Barek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 227, MAY 2016 (2016), s. 263-270 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP206/12/G151; GA ČR GAP206/11/1638 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Miniaturized electrode system * Silver solid amalgam electrode * 2-Aminofluoren-9-one Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.401, year: 2016

  19. Forest filled with gaps : effects of gap size on water and nutrient cycling in tropical rain forest : a study in Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, O. van

    2001-01-01

    Guyana's forests are selectively logged and a forest management is desired that is economically sustainable and ecologically responsible. Canopy gaps, created by selective logging, induce changes to microclimatic and edaphic conditions. These changes influence the regeneration of the

  20. Electrochemically synthesized stretchable polypyrrole/fabric electrodes for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Binbin; Wang, Caiyun; Ding, Xin; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. Being an indispensable part of these electronics, lightweight, stretchable and wearable power sources are strongly demanded. Here we describe a daily-used cotton fabric coated with polypyrrole as electrode for stretchable supercapacitors. Polypyrrole was synthesized on the Au coated fabric via an electrochemical polymerization process with p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TS) as dopant from acetonitrile solution. This material was characterized with FESEM, tensile stress, and studied as a supercapacitor electrode in 1.0 M NaCl. This conductive textile electrode can sustain up to 140% strain without electric failure. It delivers a high specific capacitance of 254.9 F g −1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s −1 , and keeps almost unchanged at an applied strain (i.e. 30% and 50%) but with an improved cycling stability

  1. Effect of multipactor conditioning on technical electrode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, T. P.; Spektor, R.; Stout, P.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, multipactor conditioning has been utilized to remove surface contaminants from rf electrodes by electron-stimulated gas desorption, and such conditioning has been shown to reduce multipactor susceptibility. Multipactor threshold improvements are due to increasing E 1 , the minimum energy for the secondary electron coefficient, δ>1, such that resonant electrons are incapable of producing discharge-sustaining secondary emission. Using an rf amplitude sweep technique, the evolution of the multipactor threshold is measured as a function of multipactor conditioning time for a series of technical electrode surfaces. Results show over +3 dB of threshold improvement in copper and gold electrodes, while the aluminum threshold actually decreases with conditioning exposure. Additionally, these conditioning results indicate the possible voltage region for transient-mode multipaction (TMM), which can cause significant risk to rf systems such as space satellite components for which in-situ conditioning is generally not possible. Experimental results and supporting Monte Carlo particle tracking simulation results are presented.

  2. Gas sensor with multiple internal reference electrodes and sensing electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a potentiometric gas sensor, or potentiometric gas detection element, with multiple internal reference electrodes and multiple sensing electrodes for determining the concentrations of gas components in a gaseous mixture. The sensor for gas detection comprises: a solid...

  3. Sustained spheromak experiments in CTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Barnes, C.W.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Linford, R.K.; Sherwood, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    So far, spheromaks can be sustained as long as the source is injecting helicity. When the injection stops the configuration decays. Spheromks have been sustained for more than 1 ms with total lifetimes of more than 2 ms. The physical properties of the sustained spheromak are under investigation in this paper. Preliminary data indicate that (B) approx. = 2 kG, n approx. = 2 x 10 14 -cm -3 and T /sub e/ approx. = 20-30 eV. An helicity decay rate is determined from the ratio of an estimate of the helicity content of the spheromak and the rate of helicity flow from the source. In the coaxial source geometry a constant value of poloidal flux /PHI/ /sub p/ is placed inside the center electrode. By applying a voltage V between the two electrodes toroidal flux is injected (/PHI/ /sub t/ =V) which links the poloidal flux. The rate of helicity injection is then 2V/PHI/ /sub p/ . The helicity content of the spheromak is estimated by measuring the fields at one point and using the model described above to calculate the profiles. The result is that /TAU/ /sub Hel/ approx. = 200 us. This value is about the same as the /TAU/ /sub B/ 2 of a decaying spheromak with similar parameters. These results indicate that helicity injection is possible and that a large fraction (30-100%) of the injected helicity is absorbed

  4. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  5. Mind the Gap : Designing Sustainable Healthcare for Humanitarian Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues Santos, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian emergencies like the natural disasters in Nepal, Haiti or Pakistan or the thousands of refugees and internally displaced people fleeing from long-term conflict in Syria or South Sudan are likely to increase. To provide healthcare assistance, international humanitarian organizations

  6. Filling the sustainability gap in the EU after the crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Gradus, R.; Chopin, T.; Foucher, M.

    2011-01-01

    Most countries in the European Union are facing a structural deterioration of their public budget as a result of the financial and economic crisis. The European Commission (2009) projects an average structural deficit for 2010 of 4.7% for the euro area and a corresponding figure of 5.5% for the

  7. Design Tool for Liquid-Nitrogen Gaps in Superconducting Apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Marshall O.; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Tuncer, Enis; Polyzos, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    For designers of high temperature superconducting equipment with liquid nitrogen as a dielectric, an expedient universal curve is sought that provides breakdown strength for a specified class of electrode shapes, with any practical sizes of electrodes and gap; thus the universal curve fills in missing experimental data. Universal breakdown strength curves at pressures of or slightly above 100 kPa, are being developed for AC, DC or impulse stress for the class with sphere-sphere, plane-plane and sphere-plane gaps, with three independent parameters: the size of each electrode and gap. A user can normalize his parameters and find the corresponding breakdown strength, even though no data were available for his exact dimensions. For AC and DC stresses the geometrical effects of stressed area/volume are incorporated from most published AC and DC experimental data of the last 50 years, by plotting breakdown field versus new geometrical quantities, such that all data fall approximately on or near one normalized universal curve. This avoids the usual difficult task of calculating stressed area and volume effects on the breakdown values for the graph ordinate. For impulse stress a more traditional plot suffices to produce a universal curve. This suggests that area/volume effects might not be so important with impulse stress. If the method proves reliable, it may be possible to determine design parameters for a broad range of geometries, help unify seemingly disparate breakdown data in the literature, and provide easily used, practical guidance for designers.

  8. Catoptric electrodes: transparent metal electrodes using shaped surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Pieter G

    2014-09-01

    An optical electrode design is presented that theoretically allows 100% optical transmission through an interdigitated metallic electrode at 50% metal areal coverage. This is achieved by redirection of light incident on embedded metal electrode lines to an angle beyond that required for total internal reflection. Full-field electromagnetic simulations using realistic material parameters demonstrate 84% frequency-averaged transmission for unpolarized illumination across the entire visible spectral range using a silver interdigitated electrode at 50% areal coverage. The redirection is achieved through specular reflection, making it nonresonant and arbitrarily broadband, provided the electrode width exceeds the optical wavelength. These findings could significantly improve the performance of photovoltaic devices and optical detectors that require high-conductivity top contacts.

  9. Impact of electrode geometry on an atmospheric pressure surface barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. I.; Morabit, Y.; Dickenson, A.; Walsh, J. L.

    2017-06-01

    Several of the key characteristics of an atmospheric pressure surface barrier discharge (SBD) are heavily dependent on the geometrical configuration of the plasma generating electrodes. This paper reveals that increasing the surface area of an SBD device by reducing the gaps within the electrodes can have major and unforeseen consequence on the discharge properties. It is experimentally demonstrated that a critical limit exists when reducing the diameter of a circular electrode gap below 5 mm, beyond which the required breakdown voltage increases exponentially and the power deposited in the discharge is impeded. Using a numerical model, it is shown that a reduced electrode gap diameter yields a decrease in the voltage difference between the electrode and dielectric surface, thus lowering the maximum electric field. This study indicates a link between the electrode geometry and the nature of the reactive chemistry produced in the plasma, findings which have wide-reaching implications for many applications where multiple closely packed surface barrier discharges are employed to achieve uniform and large area plasma processing.

  10. Damped button electrode for B-Factory BPM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintake, T; Akasaka, N; Obina, T; Chin, Y H [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A new concept of damping of resonances in a button electrode has been proposed and tested in the BPM system for the B-Factory project at KEK (KEKB). Since a very high current beam has to be stored in the machine, even a small resonance in the ring will result in losing a beam due to multi-bunch instabilities. In a conventional button electrode used in BPMs, a TE110 mode resonance can be trapped in the gap between the electrode and the vacuum chamber. In order to damp this mode, the diameter of the electrode has been chosen to be small to increase the resonance frequency and to radiate the power into the beam pipe. In addition, an asymmetric structure is applied to extract the EM energy of the TE110 mode into the coaxial cable as the propagating TEM mode which has no cut-off frequency. Results of the computer simulations and tests with cold models are reported. The quality factor of the TE110 mode was small enough due to the radiation into the beam pipe even in the conventional electrode and the mode coupling effect due to the asymmetric shape was significant on a cavity-like TE111 mode. (author)

  11. Improving the technology of deposition using strip electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Володимирович Гулаков

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the arc at the strip electrode tip is studied. It is shown that the arc is moving along the electrode tip due to periodic short-circuits of the arc gap. Thus, a new arc is excited at the point where short circuit occurred after a conductive bridge formed by molten metal is vanished due to a high welding current. This leads to an increase in the probability of defect formation in the deposited layer of workpiece under treatment. To improve deposited layer quality, it is suggested to identify the moments of short-circuits of the electrode to the base metal and to discharge the pre-charged capacitorat these instants, connecting it between the electrode and the product. High discharge current pulse speeds up the destruction of the molten metal bridge between electrode tip and workpiece, thus lowering the time needed for arc re-ignition and improving depostion process stability. A special automated equipment has been developed to implement this process. Capacitor discharge is done using power thyristor with series-connected inductance for limiting discharging current rate of rise and for limiting discharge current peak value such that it is not impairing thyristor reliability. The pre-charging of the capacitor is done by an auxiliary power supply. Several thyristor-capacitor networks can be used in parallel to allow for multiple current pulses mode and to reduce RMS currents in capacitors

  12. Determining the ’Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Army training doctrine, and by adjusting the curriculum of the officer core in order to close the knowledge gap . The author closes by concluding...fight. The research to find these gaps begins with a process trace of doctrine from 1976 to the present, starting with the advent of Active Defense...discovering the one gap , three were found. Upon further examination below, even these initially perceived gaps dissipate under close scrutiny. Gap

  13. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... and procedures to meet ‘good practice’ in standard setting and management. This is opening space for competing initiatives that are less democratic, quicker, and more aligned with industry interests to establish substantial presence in the market for sustainability certifications. These tend to more easily...

  14. Light addressable gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Waqas

    2011-07-01

    The main objective carried out in this dissertation was to fabricate Light Amplified Potentiometric sensors (LAPS) based upon the semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) instead of its bulk form. Quantum dots (QDs) were opted for this device fabrication because of their superior fluorescent, electric and catalytic properties. Also in comparison to their bulk counterparts they will make device small, light weighted and power consumption is much lower. QDs were immobilized on a Au substrate via 1,4 benzene dithiol (BDT) molecule. Initially a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of BDT was established on Au substrate. Because of SAM, the conductivity of Au substrate decreased dramatically. Furthermore QDs were anchored with the help of BDT molecule on Au substrate. When QDs immobilized on Au substrate (QD/Au) via BDT molecule were irradiated with UV-visible light, electron-hole pairs were generated in QDs. The surface defect states in QDs trapped the excited electrons and long lived electron-hole pairs were formed. By the application of an appropriate bias potential on Au substrate the electrons could be supplied or extracted from the QDs via tunneling through BDT. Thus a cathodic or anodic current could be observed depending upon bias potential under illumination. However without light illumination the QD/Au electrode remained an insulator. To improve the device different modifications were made, including different substrates (Au evaporated on glass, Au evaporated on mica sheets and Au sputtered on SiO{sub 2}/Si) and different dithiol molecules (capped and uncapped biphenyl 4,4' dithiol and capped and uncapped 4,4' dimercaptostilbenes) were tried. Also different QD immobilization techniques (normal incubation, spin coating, layer by layer assembly (LbL) of polyelectrolytes and heat immobilization) were employed. This device was able to detect electrochemically different analytes depending upon the QDs incorporated. For example CdS QDs were able to detect 4

  15. Human resource management in the construction industry – Sustainability competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Renard Yung Jhien Siew

    2014-01-01

    While environmental sustainability has been the subject of much debate in the last decade, it was not until recently that attention started to shift towards human resource management as an enabler for sustainability.  Yet, this is still a relatively under researched area.  Much is still unknown about the role of an individual worker in contributing towards sustainable development.  This paper addresses the gap by proposing a framework to measure sustainability competencies of employees within...

  16. Electrical characteristics and influence of the air-gap size in a trielectrode plasma curtain at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa, R; Artana, G; Grondona, D; Marquez, A; Kelly, H

    2009-01-01

    A study of the electrical characteristics of the trielectrode plasma curtain (TPC) discharge is presented. The influence of the air-gap size (for a fixed value of the inter-electrode distance) on the discharge behaviour has been exhaustively studied. The TPC discharge is based on the combination of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) with a corona discharge (CD) in a three electrode system, and basically it consists of the 'stretching' of a pure DBD by the action of a negative CD generated between the active electrode of the dielectric barrier and a remote third electrode. It was found that the general trend of the electrical characteristic curves (the average discharge current and the streamer frequency as functions of the AC and DC biasing voltages) was very similar for all the air-gap values considered. Our results indicate that the development of the TPC discharge requires two conditions: (a) the presence of a positive cycle of a well-developed DBD together with a CD where the remote electrode acts as the cathode and (b) a voltage drop between the DBD electrode and the remote electrode high enough to obtain an average electric field in the gap that must exceed a minimum average electric field value in the streamer channel necessary for its propagation across the gap (∼6.3 kV cm -1 in our experimental conditions).

  17. EDM Electrode for Internal Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, V.; Werner, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electroerosive process inexpensive alternative to broaching. Hollow brass electrodes, soldered at one end to stainless-steel holding ring, held in grooves in mandrel. These electrodes used to machine grooves electrically in stainless-steel tube three-eights inch (9.5 millimeters) in diameter. Tool used on tubes already in place in equipment.

  18. Making EDM Electrodes By Stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Philip A.

    1988-01-01

    Stereolithography is computer-aided manufacturing technique. Used to make models and molds of electrodes for electrical-discharge machining (EDM). Eliminates intermediate steps in fabrication of plastic model of object used in making EDM electrode to manufacture object or mold for object.

  19. Surface-modified electrodes (SME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, J.P.G.M.; Barendrecht, E.

    1984-01-01

    This review deals with the literature (covered up to August 1983), the characterization and the applications of Surface-Modified Electrodes (SME). As a special class of SME's, the Enzyme-Modified Electrode (EME) is introduced. Three types of modification procedures are distinguished; i.e. covalent

  20. Storage-battery electrodes. [preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-12-29

    Two incompatible thermoplastic resins are mixed with a powdered electrochemical active substance. The substance may be, for example, an oxide of cadmium, iron, lead, or zinc or nickel hydroxide. After the mixture is shaped into elements which are inserted into conducting sheaths for an electrode, the one resin is washed out to form a porous electrode. (RWR)

  1. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1984-01-01

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  2. Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1983-06-29

    Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  3. Multi electrode semiconductors detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Bertolucci, Ennio; Bosisio, L; Bradaschia, C; Budinich, M; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Focardi, E; Giazotto, A; Giorgi, M A; Marrocchesi, P S; Menzione, A; Ristori, L; Rolandi, Luigi; Scribano, A; Stefanini, A; Vincelli, M L

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in this laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (3 refs).

  4. Multi electrode semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Budinich, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in the laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (Auth.)

  5. Adsorption at electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, A.T.; Ping Gao

    1991-01-01

    Surface electrochemical studies are described and summarized in which atomic, ionic or molecular layers were allowed to form from aqueous solutions at well-defined Pt(111) surfaces. The resulting adsorbed layers were chemisorbed in most cases and stable in vacuum, permitting identification and quantitation by Auger spectroscopy, EELS, LEED and electrochemistry. Adsorbed atomic, ionic, or molecular layers formed at metal-solution interfaces frequently display long-range order. Molecular properties of the adsorbed layers correlate with their electrochemical properties. The molecular orientation of organic adsorbates was deduced from packing density measurements, supplemented with vibrational spectra. Interfacial variables such as electrode potential have a strong influence on interfacial structure along with the nature and mode of surface attachment of adsorbates. The angular distribution of Auger electron emission from metal single crystals and atomic adsorbed layers has proved to be useful for direct imaging of surface crystal and interfacial structure. (author). 14 refs, 11 figs

  6. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Viner, Veronika G.

    2017-09-05

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.

  7. Electrode for a lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M [Naperville, IL; Vaughey, John T [Elmhurst, IL; Dees, Dennis W [Downers Grove, IL

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  8. The Adaptation Gap Report. Towards Global Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015, established the global goal on adaptation of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring an adequate adaptation response in the context...... Change (UNFCCC) to prepare for the implementation of the Paris Agreement. In contrast to previous Adaptation Gap Reports, the 2017 report focuses on issues relating to frameworks, comprising concepts, methodologies and data, rather than on assessing a particular dimension of the adaptation gap. Future...... extensive external review. The Paris Agreement’s global goal on adaptation provides a new starting point and impetus for assessing progress on adaptation at the global level, but additional information is required for assessing such progress. The global goal on adaptation provides a collective vision...

  9. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  10. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  11. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  12. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  13. Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai

    2018-01-01

    . We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...

  14. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  15. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  16. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  17. Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2004-01-01

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  18. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in economic growth ... Interrogating the Economy-First Paradigm in 'Sustainable Development' … 65 .... agreement, since such effective global cooperation on climate change ultimately ..... and foster innovation; reduce inequality within and among countries; make cities.

  19. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  20. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  1. Mind the Gap!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld; Simone, Carla

    2000-01-01

    CSCW at large seems to be pursuing two diverging strategies: on one hand a strategy aiming at coordination technologies that reduce the complexity of coordinating cooperative activities by regulating the coordinative interactions, and on the other hand a strategy that aims at radically flexible m...... and blended in the course of real world cooperative activities. On the basis of this discussion the paper outlines an approach which may help CSCW research to bridge this gap....... means of interaction which do not regulate interaction but rather leave it to the users to cope with the complexity of coordinating their activities. As both strategies reflect genuine requirements, we need to address the issue of how the gap can be bridged, that is, how the two strategies can...

  2. Closing the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fish going through turbines at hydroelectric power plants and the growing concern over the survival rate of salmon at the US Army Corps operated Bonneville lock and dam on the Columbia river in the Pacific Northwest is discussed. The protection of the fish, the assessment of the hazards facing fish passing through turbines, the development of a new turbine, and improved turbine efficiency that reduces cavitation, turbulence and shear flow are examined. The closing of the gap between the turbine blades, hub and discharge ring to increase efficiency and reduce the risk to fish, and the development of the minimum gap runner (MGR) are described, and the lower maximum permitted power output of MGR is noted. (UK)

  3. Minding the Gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Millicent Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Neutron & X-ray scattering provides nano- to meso-scale details of complex fluid structure; 1D electronic density maps dervied from SAXS yield molecular level insights; Neutron reflectivity provides substructure details of substrate supported complex fluids; Complex fluids composition can be optimized to support a wide variety of both soluble and membrane proteins; The water gap dimensions can be finely tuned through polymer component.

  4. Gender gap in entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Startienė, Gražina; Remeikienė, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The article considers a significant global issue - gender gap starting and developing own business. The field of business was for a long time reserved to men, thus, despite of an increasing number of female entrepreneurs during last decade, the number of female entrepreneurs in Europe, including Lithuania, remains lower than the one of male entrepreneurs. According to the data of various statistical sources, an average ratio of enterprises newly established by men and women in EU countries is...

  5. Mind the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Terry; Savage, Erica; Adams, Katie; Wittie, Michael; Boone, Edna; Hayden, Andrew; Barnes, Janey; Hettinger, Zach; Gettinger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Decisions made during electronic health record (EHR) implementations profoundly affect usability and safety. This study aims to identify gaps between the current literature and key stakeholders’ perceptions of usability and safety practices and the challenges encountered during the implementation of EHRs. Materials and Methods Two approaches were used: a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify usability and safety challenges and best practices during implementation. A total of 55 articles were reviewed through searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. We used a qualitative approach to identify key stakeholders’ perceptions; semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse set of health IT stakeholders to understand their current practices and challenges related to usability during implementation. We used a grounded theory approach: data were coded, sorted, and emerging themes were identified. Conclusions from both sources of data were compared to identify areas of misalignment. Results We identified six emerging themes from the literature and stakeholder interviews: cost and resources, risk assessment, governance and consensus building, customization, clinical work-flow and usability testing, and training. Across these themes, there were misalignments between the literature and stakeholder perspectives, indicating major gaps. Discussion Major gaps identified from each of six emerging themes are discussed as critical areas for future research, opportunities for new stakeholder initiatives, and opportunities to better disseminate resources to improve the implementation of EHRs. Conclusion Our analysis identified practices and challenges across six different emerging themes, illustrated important gaps, and results suggest critical areas for future research and dissemination to improve EHR implementation. PMID:27847961

  6. Flexible and stretchable electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert R.

    2013-02-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are flexible lightweight actuators that can generate strains of over 100 %. They are used in applications ranging from haptic feedback (mm-sized devices), to cm-scale soft robots, to meter-long blimps. DEAs consist of an electrode-elastomer-electrode stack, placed on a frame. Applying a voltage between the electrodes electrostatically compresses the elastomer, which deforms in-plane or out-of plane depending on design. Since the electrodes are bonded to the elastomer, they must reliably sustain repeated very large deformations while remaining conductive, and without significantly adding to the stiffness of the soft elastomer. The electrodes are required for electrostatic actuation, but also enable resistive and capacitive sensing of the strain, leading to self-sensing actuators. This review compares the different technologies used to make compliant electrodes for DEAs in terms of: impact on DEA device performance (speed, efficiency, maximum strain), manufacturability, miniaturization, the integration of self-sensing and self-switching, and compatibility with low-voltage operation. While graphite and carbon black have been the most widely used technique in research environments, alternative methods are emerging which combine compliance, conduction at over 100 % strain with better conductivity and/or ease of patternability, including microfabrication-based approaches for compliant metal thin-films, metal-polymer nano-composites, nanoparticle implantation, and reel-to-reel production of μm-scale patterned thin films on elastomers. Such electrodes are key to miniaturization, low-voltage operation, and widespread commercialization of DEAs.

  7. Silver-coated ion exchange membrane electrode applied to electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Y.; Ito, H.; Okano, K.; Nagasu, K.; Sato, S.

    2003-01-01

    Silver-coated ion exchange membrane electrodes (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE) were prepared by electroless deposition of silver onto ion exchange membranes. The SPE electrodes were used for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reduction with 0.2 M K 2 SO 4 as the electrolyte with a platinum plate (Pt) for the counterelectrode. In an SPE electrode system prepared from a cation exchange membrane (CEM), the surface of the SPE was partly ruptured during CO 2 reduction, and the reaction was rapidly suppressed. SPE electrodes made of an anion exchange membrane (SPE/AEM) sustained reduction of CO 2 to CO for more than 2 h, whereas, the electrode potential shifted negatively during the electrolysis. The reaction is controlled by the diffusion of CO 2 through the metal layer of the SPE electrode at high current density. Ultrasonic radiation, applied to the preparation of SPE/AEM, was effective to improve the electrode properties, enhancing the electrolysis current of CO 2 reduction. Observation by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the electrode metal layer became more porous by the ultrasonic radiation treatment. The partial current density of CO 2 reduction by SPE/AEM amounted to 60 mA cm -2 , i.e. three times the upper limit of the conventional electrolysis by a plate electrode. Application of SPE device may contribute to an advancement of CO 2 fixation at ambient temperature and pressure

  8. Single-strand DNA molecule translocation through nanoelectrode gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiongce; Payne, Christina M; Cummings, Peter T; Lee, James W

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the translocation of single-strand DNA through nanoscale electrode gaps under the action of a constant driving force. The application behind this theoretical study is a proposal to use nanoelectrodes as a screening gap as part of a rapid genomic sequencing device. Preliminary results from a series of simulations using various gap widths and driving forces suggest that the narrowest electrode gap that a single-strand DNA can pass is ∼1.5 nm. The minimum force required to initiate the translocation within nanoseconds is ∼0.3 nN. Simulations using DNA segments of various lengths indicate that the minimum initiation force is insensitive to the length of DNA. However, the average threading velocity of DNA varies appreciably from short to long DNA segments. We attribute such variation to the different nature of drag force experienced by the short and long DNA segments in the environment. It is found that DNA molecules deform significantly to fit in the shape of the nanogap during the translocation

  9. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo H C G de Sá

    Full Text Available The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer.

  10. Carbon and Redox Tolerant Infiltrated Oxide Fuel-Electrodes for Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Theis Løye; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Blennow, P.

    2016-01-01

    To solve issues of coking and redox instability related to the presence of nickel in typical fuel electrodes in solid oxide cells,Gd-doped CeO2 (CGO) electrodes were studied using symmetriccells. These electrodes showed high electro-catalytic activity, butlow electronic conductivity. When...... infiltrated with Sr0.99Fe0.75Mo0.25O3-δ (SFM), the electronic conductivity wasenhanced. However, polarization resistance of the cells increased,suggesting that the infiltrated material is less electro-catalyticallyactive and was partly blocking the CGO surface reaction sites. Theactivity could be regained...... by infiltrating nano-sized CGO orNiCGO on top of SFM, while still sustaining the high electronicconductivity. Ohmic resistance of the electrodes was thuspractically eliminated and performance comparable to, or betterthan, state-of-the-art fuel electrodes was achieved. The Nicontaining cells were damaged by carbon...

  11. ELECTROD FLUOR-SELECTIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DÎRU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A fost preparat un senzor anionic specific, bazat pe pivalatul trinuclear al cromului(III ca material electro­activ încorporat în membrana PVC plastifiată. Senzorul prezintă răspuns Nernstian (55,78 mV/decadă în intervalul de concentrație 10-1-10-4 mol/L cu limita de detecție 2,0∙10-5 mol/L pentru anionul fluorură. Domeniul optim de pH de funcţionare a electrodului asamblat este ˃5. Senzorul dat are un timp de răspuns de 30-60 s și reproductibilitatea rezultatelor se menține timp de 3 luni. Coeficienții potențiometrici ai selectivității au fost determinați prin metoda soluțiilor separate. A fost realizată aplicarea acestor electrozi la analiza pastei de dinți ce conține fluorură și rezultatele experimentale au fost comparate cu datele de pe prospect.FLUORIDE-SELECTIVE ELECTRODEA specific anionic sensor has been prepared, based on trinuclearchromium(III pivalate as sensing material incorpo­rated into the plasticized PVC-membrane. The sensor exhibited Nernstian response (55,78 mV/decade in the region between 10-1-10-4 mol/L with a detection limit of 2,0∙10-5 mol/L for fluoride. The working pH of the electrode was in the 5-6 range. The sensor has a response time 30-60 s and can be used for least 3 month. The potentiometric selectivity coefficients were determined by separate solution method. Application of these electrodes to the analysis of toothpaste containing fluoride has been realized and experimental results have been compared with the data on the prospectus.

  12. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties

  13. The Challenge of Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    (local authorities, government agencies, private sector, and civil .... financing and service delivery gaps to achieve the goals. The private .... agenda needs not only to pay attention to ... Leach M (ed) (2015) Gender equality and sustainable.

  14. Studies of pyrrole black electrodes as possible battery positive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengoli, G.; Musiani, M.M.; Fleischmann, M.; Pletcher, D.

    1984-05-01

    It is shown that a polypyrrole, pyrrole black, may be formed anodically in several aqueous acids. The polypyrrole film shows a redox couple at less positive potentials than that required to form the film and the charge associated with these reduction and oxidation processes together with their stabilty to cycling varies with the anion in solution and the potential where the polypyrrole is formed; over-oxidation of the film caused by taking its potential too positive has a particularly disadvantageous affect. In the acids HBr and HI, the polypyrrole films can act as a storage medium for Br/sub 2/ or I/sub 2/ so that they may be used as a substrate for a X/sub 2//X/sup -/ electrode. Such electrodes may be charge/discharge cycled and the pyrrole/Br/sub 2/ electrode shows promise as a battery positive electrode.

  15. Technology acceptance perception for promotion of sustainable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aindrila; Roy, Mousumi

    2018-03-01

    Economic growth in the past decades has resulted in change in consumption pattern and emergence of tech-savvy generation with unprecedented increase in the usage of social network technology. In this paper, the technology acceptance value gap adapted from the technology acceptance model has been applied as a tool supporting social network technology usage and subsequent promotion of sustainable consumption. The data generated through the use of structured questionnaires have been analyzed using structural equation modeling. The validity of the model and path estimates signifies the robustness of Technology Acceptance value gap in adjudicating the efficiency of social network technology usage in augmentation of sustainable consumption and awareness. The results indicate that subjective norm gap, ease-of-operation gap, and quality of green information gap have the most adversarial impact on social network technology usage. Eventually social networking technology usage has been identified as a significant antecedent of sustainable consumption.

  16. Scoping study for a one-health response to knowledge gaps in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scoping study for a one-health response to knowledge gaps in antimicrobial ... A recent World Bank report finds that drug-resistant infections have the ... Going to Scale : Sustainable Land Management in the Highlands of Eastern Africa.

  17. Long-Term Performance of Primary and Secondary Electroactive Biofilms Using Layered Corrugated Carbon Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudler, André; Riedl, Sebastian; Schröder, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    The performance of primary and secondary electroactive biofilms grown on layered corrugated carbon (LCC) electrodes was studied over a period of several months. With an average projected current density of 6.7 mA cm −2 , the studied secondary electroactive biofilms outperformed the primary biofilms (3.0 mA cm −2 ) over the entire experimental period. At the same time, both, primary and secondary biofilms, exhibited a constant Coulomb efficiency of about 89%. The study further illustrates that three-dimensional electrodes such as LCC allow a sustained long-term performance without significant decrease in electrode performance.

  18. Long-Term Performance of Primary and Secondary Electroactive Biofilms Using Layered Corrugated Carbon Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudler, André; Riedl, Sebastian; Schröder, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.schroeder@tu-bs.de [Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-07-30

    The performance of primary and secondary electroactive biofilms grown on layered corrugated carbon (LCC) electrodes was studied over a period of several months. With an average projected current density of 6.7 mA cm{sup −2}, the studied secondary electroactive biofilms outperformed the primary biofilms (3.0 mA cm{sup −2}) over the entire experimental period. At the same time, both, primary and secondary biofilms, exhibited a constant Coulomb efficiency of about 89%. The study further illustrates that three-dimensional electrodes such as LCC allow a sustained long-term performance without significant decrease in electrode performance.

  19. H-terminated polycrystalline boron doped diamond electrode for geochemical sensing into underground components of nuclear repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussadi, A.; Betelu, S.; Ignatiadis, I.; Silva, F.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Nuclear waste repositories are being installed in deep excavated rock formations in some places in Europe to isolate and store radioactive waste. In France, Callovo-Oxfordian formation (COx) is potential candidate for nuclear waste repository. It is thus necessary to measure in situ the state of a structure's health during its entire life. The monitoring of the near-field rock and the knowledge of the geochemical transformations can be carried out by a set of sensors for a sustainable management of long-term safety, reversibility and retrievability. Among the chemical parameters, the most significant are pH, conductivity and redox potential. Wide band gap semiconductors are favored materials for chemical sensing because of their high stability to many chemical agents. Among the wide band gap materials, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) boron doped diamond (BDD) benefits from a large band gap, which gives rise to a wide electrochemical potential window. It is moreover described as a radiation, corrosion and bio-corrosion resistant. These remarkable properties, in addition to a low double layer capacity and a low residual current, make BDD a promising material for geochemical sensor elaboration. This work aimed to investigate BDD- based electrodes coated with p-type polycrystalline BDD-hydrogen- terminated surfaces (1 cm 2 ) for pH and/or redox measurements into the underground components of nuclear repositories. The boron-doped p-type channel was grown in a microwave plasma reactor (BJS 150). The boron-doped channel was hydrogen terminated by a hydrogen plasma treatment in the CVD reactor, resulting in full saturation of the surface carbon bonds with hydrogen atoms. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the polycrystalline BDD coating with a Bore/Carbon ratio of 500 ppm shows the typical columnar growth of the polycrystalline CVD diamond. A homogeneous surface was observed concerning the crystallite size which average

  20. Sustainability performance evaluation: Literature review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüközkan, Gülçin; Karabulut, Yağmur

    2018-07-01

    Current global economic activities are increasingly being perceived as unsustainable. Despite the high number of publications, sustainability science remains highly dispersed over diverse approaches and topics. This article aims to provide a structured overview of sustainability performance evaluation related publications and to document the current state of literature, categorize publications, analyze and link trends, as well as highlight gaps and provide research recommendations. 128 articles between 2007 and 2018 are identified. The results suggest that sustainability performance evaluation models shall be more balanced, suitable criteria and their interrelations shall be well defined and subjectivity of qualitative criteria inherent to sustainability indicators shall be considered. To address this subjectivity, group decision-making techniques and other analytical methods that can deal with uncertainty, conflicting indicators, and linguistic evaluations can be used in future works. By presenting research gaps, this review stimulates researchers to establish practically applicable sustainability performance evaluation frameworks to help assess and compare the degree of sustainability, leading to more sustainable business practices. The review is unique in defining corporate sustainability performance evaluation for the first time, exploring the gap between sustainability accounting and sustainability assessment, and coming up with a structured overview of innovative research recommendations about integrating analytical assessment methods into conceptual sustainability frameworks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    we would like to web developer; gather comments from GAP researchers and data users. We are * facilitate collaboration among GAP projects by...N.Y. Research Grant #012/01 A. 42 Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13, December 2005 Ga pAnalysis Smith, S. D., W. A. Brown, C. R. Smith, and M. E. Richmond... GAP will be focusing activities have greatly reduced the habitat available to support on the enduring features of the Great Lakes basin. Influences

  2. The homeownership gap

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew F. Haughwout; Richard Peach; Joseph Tracy

    2009-01-01

    After rising for a decade, the U.S. homeownership rate peaked at 69 percent in the third quarter of 2006. Over the next two and a half years, as home prices fell in many parts of the country and the unemployment rate rose sharply, the homeownership rate declined by 1.7 percentage points. An important question is, how much more will this rate decline over the current economic downturn? To address this question, we propose the concept of the 'homeownership gap' as a gauge of downward pressure o...

  3. Sequential flow membraneless microfluidic fuel cell with porous electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salloum, Kamil S.; Posner, Jonathan D. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States); Hayes, Joel R.; Friesen, Cody A. [School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-8706 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    A novel convective flow membraneless microfluidic fuel cell with porous disk electrodes is described. In this fuel cell design, the fuel flows radially outward through a thin disk shaped anode and across a gap to a ring shaped cathode. An oxidant is introduced into the gap between anode and cathode and advects radially outward to the cathode. This fuel cell differs from previous membraneless designs in that the fuel and the oxidant flow in series, rather than in parallel, enabling independent control over the fuel and oxidant flow rate and the electrode areas. The cell uses formic acid as a fuel and potassium permanganate as the oxidant, both contained in a sulfuric acid electrolyte. The flow velocity field is examined using microscale particle image velocimetry and shown to be nearly axisymmetric and steady. The results show that increasing the electrolyte concentration reduces the cell Ohmic resistance, resulting in larger maximum currents and peak power densities. Increasing the flow rate delays the onset of mass transport and reduces Ohmic losses resulting in larger maximum currents and peak power densities. An average open circuit potential of 1.2 V is obtained with maximum current and power densities of 5.35 mA cm{sup -2} and 2.8 mW cm{sup -2}, respectively (cell electrode area of 4.3 cm{sup 2}). At a flow rate of 100 {mu}L min{sup -1} a fuel utilization of 58% is obtained. (author)

  4. Gaps in nonsymmetric numerical semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel, Leonid G.; Aicardi, Francesca

    2006-12-01

    There exist two different types of gaps in the nonsymmetric numerical semigroups S(d 1 , . . . , d m ) finitely generated by a minimal set of positive integers {d 1 , . . . , d m }. We give the generating functions for the corresponding sets of gaps. Detailed description of both gap types is given for the 1st nontrivial case m = 3. (author)

  5. The Politics of Achievement Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valant, J.; Newark, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap...

  6. Fractals in several electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunyong, E-mail: zhangchy@njau.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou Academy of Southeast University, Dushuhu lake higher education town, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wu, Jingyu [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Fu, Degang [Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou Academy of Southeast University, Dushuhu lake higher education town, Suzhou 215123 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Fractal geometry was employed to characterize three important electrode materials. • The surfaces of all studied electrodes were proved to be very rough. • The fractal dimensions of BDD and ACF were scale dependent. • MMO film was more uniform than BDD and ACF in terms of fractal structures. - Abstract: In the present paper, the fractal properties of boron-doped diamond (BDD), mixed metal oxide (MMO) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrode have been studied by SEM imaging at different scales. Three materials are self-similar with mean fractal dimension in the range of 2.6–2.8, confirming that they all exhibit very rough surfaces. Specifically, it is found that MMO film is more uniform in terms of fractal structure than BDD and ACF. As a result, the intriguing characteristics make these electrodes as ideal candidates for high-performance decontamination processes.

  7. Electrode materials for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Selenium or selenium-containing compounds may be used as electroactive materials in electrodes or electrochemical devices. The selenium or selenium-containing compound is mixed with a carbon material.

  8. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun; Yang, QuanMin; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4–6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with to...

  9. GAP-REACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Raggio, Greer A.; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Duan, Naihua; Marcus, Sue; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Humensky, Jennifer; Becker, Anne E.; Alarcón, Renato D.; Oquendo, María A.; Hansen, Helena; Like, Robert C.; Weiss, Mitchell; Desai, Prakash N.; Jacobsen, Frederick M.; Foulks, Edward F.; Primm, Annelle; Lu, Francis; Kopelowicz, Alex; Hinton, Ladson; Hinton, Devon E.

    2015-01-01

    Growing awareness of health and health care disparities highlights the importance of including information about race, ethnicity, and culture (REC) in health research. Reporting of REC factors in research publications, however, is notoriously imprecise and unsystematic. This article describes the development of a checklist to assess the comprehensiveness and the applicability of REC factor reporting in psychiatric research publications. The 16-itemGAP-REACH© checklist was developed through a rigorous process of expert consensus, empirical content analysis in a sample of publications (N = 1205), and interrater reliability (IRR) assessment (N = 30). The items assess each section in the conventional structure of a health research article. Data from the assessment may be considered on an item-by-item basis or as a total score ranging from 0% to 100%. The final checklist has excellent IRR (κ = 0.91). The GAP-REACH may be used by multiple research stakeholders to assess the scope of REC reporting in a research article. PMID:24080673

  10. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  11. Closing the value gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    It's a predicament. For the most part, investor-owned electric utilities trade at a deep discount to the actual (that is, replacement-cost) value to their assets. That's because most utilities fail to earn real returns large enough to justify raising and investing capital. The result is a value gap, where overall market value is significantly lower than the replacement costs of the assets. This gap is wider for utilities than for virtually any other industry in our economy. In addition to providing education and awareness, senior management must determine which businesses and activities create value and which diminish it. Then, management must allocate capital and human resources appropriately, holding down investments in value-diminishing areas until they can improve their profitability, and aggressively investing in value-enhancing businesses while preserving their profitability. But value management must not stop with resource-allocation decisions. To create a lasting transition to a value management philosophy, the utility's compensation system must also change: executives will have motivation to create value when compensation stems from this goal, not from such misleading accounting measures as earnings-per-share growth or ROE. That requires clear value-creation goals, and the organization must continuously evaluate top management's performance in light of the progress made toward those goals

  12. Board affiliation and pay gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of board affiliation on the corporate pay gap. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2005 to 2011, we find that boards with a greater presence of directors appointed by block shareholders have lower pay gaps. Furthermore, the governance effects of board affiliation with and without pay are distinguished. The empirical results show that board affiliation without pay is negatively related to the pay gap, while board affiliation with pay is positively related to the pay gap. Overall, the results shed light on how block shareholders affect their companies’ pay gaps through board affiliation.

  13. Amodiaquine polymeric membrane electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malongo, T Kimbeni; Blankert, B; Kambu, O; Amighi, K; Nsangu, J; Kauffmann, J-M

    2006-04-11

    The construction and electrochemical response characteristics of two types of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane sensors for the determination of amodiaquine hydrochloride (ADQ.2HCl) are described. The sensing membrane comprised an ion-pair formed between the cationic drug and sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) or potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTCPB) in a plasticized PVC matrix. Eight PVC membrane ion-selective electrodes were fabricated and studied. Several plasticizers were studied namely, dioctyl phthalate (DOP), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (EHA). The sensors display a fast, stable and near-Nernstian response over a relative wide ADQ concentration range (3.2 x 10(-6) to 2.0 x 10(-2) M), with slopes comprised between 28.5 and 31.4 mV dec(-1) in a pH range comprised between pH 3.7 and 5.5. The assay of amodiaquine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms using one of the proposed sensors gave average recoveries of 104.3 and 99.9 with R.S.D. of 0.3 and 0.6% for tablets (Malaritab) and a reconstituted powder containing ADQ.2HCl, respectively. The sensor was also used for dissolution profile studies of two drug formulations. The sensor proved to have a good selectivity for ADQ.2HCl over some inorganic and organic compounds, however, berberine chloride interfered significantly. The results were validated by comparison with a spectrophotometric assay according to the USP pharmacopoeia.

  14. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  15. Application of silver solid amalgam electrode for determination of formamidine amitraz

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Kateřina; Hrdlička, V.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Harvila, M.; Zima, J.; Barek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 1 (2016), s. 181-189 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : amitraz * pesticide * silver solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  16. Two-dimensional condensation of 5-fluorocytosine at the mercury electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojt, Lukáš; Doneux, T.; Vetterl, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 73, SI (2012), s. 141-144 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/2378; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : 2D condensation * Hanging mercury drop electrode * 5-Fluorocytosine Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.777, year: 2012

  17. Electrochemical Activity of Wedelolactone and Probing its Interaction with DNA Using Voltammetry at a Carbon Electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červen, J.; Havran, Luděk; Pečinka, Petr; Fojta, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2015), s. 2268-2271 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/1638 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Wedelolactone * Electrochemistry * Graphite electrode Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.471, year: 2015

  18. Peculiarities of glow modes of argon atmospheric pressure radio-frequency capacitive discharge with isolated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhenov, V.Yu.; Tsiolko, V.V.; Piun, V.M.; Chaplinskiy, R.Yu.; Kuzmichev, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Glow characteristics of capacitive radio frequency discharge with isolated electrodes in low-current α and highcurrent gamma modes are determined experimentally. It is shown that transition from α mode to gamma mode occurs through a phase of coexistence of both modes in different parts of the discharge gap.

  19. Finite element modeling of the neuron-electrode interface: stimulus transfer and geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenweg, Jan R.; Rutten, Wim; Marani, Enrico

    1999-01-01

    The relation between stimulus transfer and the geometry of the neuron-electrode interface can not be determined properly using electrical equivalent circuits, since current that flows from the sealing gap through the neuronal membrane is difficult to model in these circuits. Therefore, finite

  20. The Use of the Silver Solid Amalgam Electrode for Voltammetric Determination of 9-Nitroanthracene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Nováková, Kateřina; Barek, J.; Vyskočil, V.; Chýlková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2016), s. 37-48 ISSN 0003-2719 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : 9-Nitroanthracene * Silver solid amalgam electrode * Voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.150, year: 2016

  1. Voltammetric determination of butylated hydroxyanisol in biodiesel, mineral and synthetic oils using gold electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomášková, M.; Chýlková, J.; Jehlička, V.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šelešovská, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2013 (2013), s. 155-172 ISSN 1211-5541 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP13-21409P Program:GP Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : voltammetry * butylated hydroxyanisol * gold electrode Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Ultralow-Power Electronic Trapping of Nanoparticles with Sub-10 nm Gold Nanogap Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Avijit; Chen, Xiaoshu; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2016-10-12

    We demonstrate nanogap electrodes for rapid, parallel, and ultralow-power trapping of nanoparticles. Our device pushes the limit of dielectrophoresis by shrinking the separation between gold electrodes to sub-10 nm, thereby creating strong trapping forces at biases as low as the 100 mV ranges. Using high-throughput atomic layer lithography, we manufacture sub-10 nm gaps between 0.8 mm long gold electrodes and pattern them into individually addressable parallel electronic traps. Unlike pointlike junctions made by electron-beam lithography or larger micron-gap electrodes that are used for conventional dielectrophoresis, our sub-10 nm gold nanogap electrodes provide strong trapping forces over a mm-scale trapping zone. Importantly, our technology solves the key challenges associated with traditional dielectrophoresis experiments, such as high voltages that cause heat generation, bubble formation, and unwanted electrochemical reactions. The strongly enhanced fields around the nanogap induce particle-transport speed exceeding 10 μm/s and enable the trapping of 30 nm polystyrene nanoparticles using an ultralow bias of 200 mV. We also demonstrate rapid electronic trapping of quantum dots and nanodiamond particles on arrays of parallel traps. Our sub-10 nm gold nanogap electrodes can be combined with plasmonic sensors or nanophotonic circuitry, and their low-power electronic operation can potentially enable high-density integration on a chip as well as portable biosensing.

  3. Simulation and optimization of a polymer directional coupler electro-optic switch with push pull electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuan-Tao; Ma, Chun-Sheng; Yan, Xin; Wang, Xian-Yin; Zhang, Da-Ming

    2008-07-01

    Structural model and design technique are proposed for a polymer directional coupler electro-optic switch with rib waveguides and push-pull electrodes, of which the electric field distribution is analyzed by the conformal transforming method and image method. In order to get the minimum mode loss and the minimum switching voltage, the parameters of the waveguide and electrode are optimized, such as the core with, core thickness, buffer layer between the core and the electrode, coupling gap between the waveguides, electrode thickness, electrode width and electrode gap. Switching Characteristics are analyzed, which include the output power, insertion loss, and crosstalk. To realize normal switching function, the fabrication error, spectrum shift, and coupling loss between a single mode fiber (SMF) and the waveguide are discussed. Simulation results show that the coupling length is 3082 μm, push-pull switching voltage is 2.14 V, insertion loss is less than 1.17 dB, and crosstalk is less than -30 dB for the designed device.

  4. Effects of electrode settings on chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzing seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Hsia, Chih-Wei; Hsu, Shun-Yao

    2015-12-01

    Electrolyzed water has significant disinfection effects, can comply with food safety regulations, and is environmental friendly. We investigated the effects of immersion depth of electrodes, stirring, electrode size, and electrode gap on the properties and chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzing seawater and its storage stability. Results indicated that temperature and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the seawater increased gradually, whereas electrical conductivity decreased steadily in electrolysis. During the electrolysis process, pH values and electric currents also decreased slightly within small ranges. Additional stirring or immersing the electrodes deep under the seawater significantly increased current density without affecting its electric efficiency and current efficiency. Decreasing electrode size or increasing electrode gap decreased chlorine production and electric current of the process without affecting its electric efficiency and current efficiency. Less than 35% of chlorine in the electrolyzed seawater was lost in a 3-week storage period. The decrement trend leveled off after the 1 st week of storage. The electrolyzing system is a convenient and economical method for producing high-chlorine seawater, which will have high potential applications in agriculture, aquaculture, or food processing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effects of electrode settings on chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzing seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoo-Shyng Wang Hsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyzed water has significant disinfection effects, can comply with food safety regulations, and is environmental friendly. We investigated the effects of immersion depth of electrodes, stirring, electrode size, and electrode gap on the properties and chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzing seawater and its storage stability. Results indicated that temperature and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP of the seawater increased gradually, whereas electrical conductivity decreased steadily in electrolysis. During the electrolysis process, pH values and electric currents also decreased slightly within small ranges. Additional stirring or immersing the electrodes deep under the seawater significantly increased current density without affecting its electric efficiency and current efficiency. Decreasing electrode size or increasing electrode gap decreased chlorine production and electric current of the process without affecting its electric efficiency and current efficiency. Less than 35% of chlorine in the electrolyzed seawater was lost in a 3-week storage period. The decrement trend leveled off after the 1st week of storage. The electrolyzing system is a convenient and economical method for producing high-chlorine seawater, which will have high potential applications in agriculture, aquaculture, or food processing.

  6. Voltammetry at micro-mesh electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhawan Jay D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The voltammetry at three micro-mesh electrodes is explored. It is found that at sufficiently short experimental durations, the micro-mesh working electrode first behaves as an ensemble of microband electrodes, then follows the behaviour anticipated for an array of diffusion-independent micro-ring electrodes of the same perimeter as individual grid-squares within the mesh. During prolonged electrolysis, the micro-mesh electrode follows that behaviour anticipated theoretically for a cubically-packed partially-blocked electrode. Application of the micro-mesh electrode for the electrochemical determination of carbon dioxide in DMSO electrolyte solutions is further illustrated.

  7. The kinetics of porous insertion electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlung, S; West, K [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)

    1989-05-01

    The principles of porous electrodes are discussed as well as the discharge of the insertion compound, the working potential, transport in the electrolyte, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration, and modeling of the porous electrode. The simulation of a TiS2 porous electrode and the composite insertion electrode are considered as well. The influence of electrode thickness and porosity in a typical porous TiS2 electrode is revealed. It is shown that the use of insertion compounds as battery electrodes is limited by the requirement that the inserted ion must be distributed in the interior of the insertion compound particle. 15 refs.

  8. Stimulation and recording electrodes for neural prostheses

    CERN Document Server

    Pour Aryan, Naser; Rothermel, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with basic principles of the electrochemistry of the electrodes used in modern, implantable neural prostheses. The authors discuss the boundaries and conditions in which the electrodes continue to function properly for long time spans, which are required when designing neural stimulator devices for long-term in vivo applications. Two kinds of electrode materials, titanium nitride and iridium are discussed extensively, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The influence of the counter electrode on the safety margins and electrode lifetime in a two electrode system is explained. Electrode modeling is handled in a final chapter.

  9. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  10. National Report on Sustainable Forests - 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a fresh analysis of the available data on the condition of forests in the United States. It uses the criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management endorsed by the Montreal Process, of which the United States is a member country. The report also identifies data gaps and makes recommendations for next steps to move forward the state of the...

  11. The Effect of Gender on Students' Sustainability Consciousness: A Nationwide Swedish Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Daniel; Gericke, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This study extends previous environmental education research on gender differences by investigating the gender gap between boys' and girls' sustainability consciousness. The issue of whether the gender gap in environmental education can be identified also in sustainability education is addressed. It has been suggested that Education for…

  12. Extraction electrode geometry for a calutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veach, A.M.; Bell, W.A. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved geometry for the extraction electrode and the ground electrode utilized in the operation of a calutron. The improved electrodes are constructed in a partial-picture-frame fashion with the slits of both electrodes formed by two tungsten elongated rods. Additional parallel spaced-apart rods in each electrode are used to establish equipotential surfaces over the rest of the front of the ion source

  13. Bridging the Evaluation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wouters

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Wouters’ essay is concerned with bridging the gap between what we value in our academic work and how we are assessed in formal evaluation exercises. He reflects on the recent evaluation of his own center, and reminds us that it is productive to see evaluations not as the (obviously impossible attempt to produce a true representation of past work, but rather as the exploration and performance of “who one wants to be.” Reflecting on why STS should do more than just play along to survive in the indicator game, he suggests that our field should contribute to changing its very rules. In this endeavor, the attitude and sensibilities developed in our field may be more important than any specific theoretical concepts or methodologies.

  14. The GAP-TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, B.; Anastasio, A.; Boiano, A.; Cocco, A.G.; Meo, P. Di; Vanzanella, A.; Catalanotti, S.; Covone, G.; Longo, G.; Walker, S.; Fiorillo, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency

  15. Finding the gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, A. M.

    Much of the pioneering work on radiation damage was based on very simple potentials. Potentials are now much more sophisticated and accurate. Self-consistent molecular dynamics is routine for adiabatic energy surfaces, at least for modest numbers of atoms and modest timescales. This means that non-equilibrium nuclear processes can be followed dynamically. It might also give the illusion that any damage process can be modelled with success. Sadly, this is not yet so. This paper discusses where the gaps lie, and specifically three groups of challenges. The first challenge concerns electronic excited states. The second challenge concerns timescales, from femtoseconds to tens of years. The third challenge concerns length scales, and the link between microscopic (atomistic) and mesoscopic (microstructural) scales. The context of these challenges is materials modification by excitation: the removal of material, the modification of bulk or surface material, the altering of rates of processes or changing of branching ratios, and damage, good or bad.

  16. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  17. Interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.

  18. Technique for estimating relocated gap width for gap conductance calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klink, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Thermally induced fuel fragmentation and relocation has been demonstrated to influence the thermal behavior of a fuel rod in two ways. The effective fuel pellet conductivity is decreased and pellet-to-cladding heat transfer is improved. This paper presents a correlation between as-built and relocated gap width which, used with the Ross and Stoute Gap Conductance Correlation and an appropriate fuel thermal expansion model, closely predicts the measured gap conductances

  19. Altered electrode degradation with temperature in LiFePO4/mesocarbon microbead graphite cells diagnosed with impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, Matilda; Zavalis, Tommy Georgios; Kjell, Maria H.; Lindström, Rakel Wreland; Behm, Mårten; Lindbergh, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aging of LiFePO 4 /mesocarbon microbead graphite cells from hybrid electric vehicle cycling. • Electrode degradation evaluated post-mortem by impedance spectroscopy and physics-based modeling. • Increased temperature promotes different degradation processes on the electrode level. • Conductive carbon degradation at 55 °C in the LiFePO 4 electrode. • Mesocarbon microbead graphite electrode degraded by cycling rather than temperature. - Abstract: Electrode degradation in LiFePO 4 /mesocarbon microbead graphite (MCMB) pouch cells aged at 55 °C by a synthetic hybrid drive cycle or storage is diagnosed and put into context with previous results of aging at 22 °C. The electrode degradation is evaluated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), measured separately on electrodes harvested from the cells, and by using a physics-based impedance model for aging evaluation. Additional capacity measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) are used in the evaluation. At 55 °C the LiFePO 4 electrode shows increased particle/electronic conductor resistance, for both stored and cycled electrodes. This differs from results obtained at 22 °C, where the electrode suffered lowered porosity, particle fracture, and loss of active material. For graphite, only cycling gave a sustained effect on electrode performance at 55 °C due to lowered porosity and changes of surface properties, and to greater extent than at low temperature. Furthermore, increased current collector resistance also contributes to a large part of the pouch cell impedance when aged at increased temperatures. The result shows that increased temperature promotes different degradation on the electrode level, and is an important implication for high temperature accelerated aging. In light of the electrode observations, the correlation between full-cell and electrode impedances is discussed

  20. Literacy Skills Gaps: A Cross-Level Analysis on International and Intergenerational Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suehye

    2018-01-01

    The global agenda for sustainable development has centred lifelong learning on UNESCO's Education 2030 Framework for Action. The study described in this article aimed to examine international and intergenerational variations in literacy skills gaps within the context of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For this purpose, the…

  1. Customizing Laboratory Information Systems: Closing the Functionality Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershkovich, Peter; Sinard, John H

    2015-09-01

    Highly customizable laboratory information systems help to address great variations in laboratory workflows, typical in Pathology. Often, however, built-in customization tools are not sufficient to add all of the desired functionality and improve systems interoperability. Emerging technologies and advances in medicine often create a void in functionality that we call a functionality gap. These gaps have distinct characteristics—a persuasive need to change the way a pathology group operates, the general availability of technology to address the missing functionality, the absence of this technology from your laboratory information system, and inability of built-in customization tools to address it. We emphasize the pervasive nature of these gaps, the role of pathology informatics in closing them, and suggest methods on how to achieve that. We found that a large number of the papers in the Journal of Pathology Informatics are concerned with these functionality gaps, and an even larger proportion of electronic posters and abstracts presented at the Pathology Informatics Summit conference each year deal directly with these unmet needs in pathology practice. A rapid, continuous, and sustainable approach to closing these gaps is critical for Pathology to provide the highest quality of care, adopt new technologies, and meet regulatory and financial challenges. The key element of successfully addressing functionality gaps is gap ownership—the ability to control the entire pathology information infrastructure with access to complementary systems and components. In addition, software developers with detailed domain expertise, equipped with right tools and methodology can effectively address these needs as they emerge.

  2. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  3. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  4. The Sustainability Cone - A holistic framework to integrate sustainability thinking into manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rödger, Jan-Markus; Bey, Niki; Alting, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Integrating sustainability into manufacturing is a multifaceted endeavour. Global sustainability aspects and specific manufacturing success factors have to be combined with life cycle thinking in order to get the holistic view on manufacturing which is needed to make truly sustainability-oriented......Integrating sustainability into manufacturing is a multifaceted endeavour. Global sustainability aspects and specific manufacturing success factors have to be combined with life cycle thinking in order to get the holistic view on manufacturing which is needed to make truly sustainability...... - as the missing link which closes these gaps by providing necessary holistic and consistent overview while being aligned with established stage-gate project execution models, thus ensuring practical applicability as shown for a highly automated production cell. The paper shows how to apply life cycle target...

  5. Performance capabilities of EDM of high carbon high chromium steel with copper and brass electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, B.; Swain, Sudiptha; Suleman, Abu Jafar; Choudhury, Suvan Dev

    2017-07-01

    The paper address the statistical modeling of input-output relationships of electric discharge machining. In the present work, peak current (I) pulse on time (T) and gap voltage of electric discharge machining (EDM) process are chosen as control parameters to analyze the performance of the process. The output characteristics, namely radial overcut, electrode wear rate (EWR) and metal removal rate (MRR) are treated as the responses. A full factorial design (FFD) of experiments has been used to conduct the experiments and linear regression models are developed for different process characteristics. While conducting the experiments, high carbon and high chromium steel is considered as work piece material and brass and copper are used as electrode material. It is important to note that the experimental conditions are kept similar while machining with the help of different electrode materials. The data obtained from the experiments has been used to develop the regression models for three process parameters for two electrode materials.

  6. Theoretical Simulation on the Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes Between Electrodes by AC Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs using the AC dielectrophoresis technique is studied theoretically. It is found that the comb electrode bears better position control of SWCNTs compared to the parallel electrode. In the assembly, when some SWCNTs bridge the electrode first, they can greatly alter the local electrical field so as to “screen off” later coming SWCNTs, which contributes to the formation of dispersed SWCNT array. The screening distance scales with the gap width of electrodes and the length of SWCNTs, which provides a way to estimate the assembled density of SWCNTs. The influence of thermal noise on SWCNTs alignment is also analyzed in the simulation. It is shown that the status of the array distribution for SWCNTs is decided by the competition between the thermal noise and the AC electric-field strength. This influence of the thermal noise can be suppressed by using higher AC voltage to assemble the SWCNTs.

  7. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  8. The Adaptation Finance Gap Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report series focuses on Finance, Technology and Knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It compliments the Emissions Gap Report series, and explores the implications of failing to close the emissions gap. The report builds on a 2014 assessment by the United Nations...... Environment Programme (UNEP), which laid out the concept of ‘adaptation gaps’ and outlined three such gaps: technology, finance and knowledge. The 2016 Adaptation Gap Report assesses the difference between the financial costs of adapting to climate change in developing countries and the amount of money...... actually available to meet these costs – a difference known as the “adaptation finance gap”. Like the 2014 report, the 2016 report focuses on developing countries, where adaptation capacity is often the lowest and needs the highest, and concentrates on the period up to 2050. The report identifies trends...

  9. Development of performance model of CDI electrode for desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byong Guk

    2010-02-15

    Demand for clean water is increasing rapidly due to population growth, desertification, and pollution. Capacitive deionization, CDI, is a newly interested technology with its economic merits over existing ones like evaporation and reverse osmosis. The one of main issues on this technology lies on the electrode development. From the first success on a stable electrode development like carbon aerogel, various types of electrodes have been emerged. However, key mechanism and parameters of this technology are not yet provided. This research focuses on revealing how the CDI works and what parameter affects the performance most. For the current experimental techniques have limits in producing well-defined pore arrangement, a simulation tool based on the most sophisticated governing equations has been developed. The governing equations involve Nernst-Planck equation with a convection term to follow ion movement and Poisson equation to follow potential development. The above tool is verified by comparing with analytical solutions and other researcher's results. The first simulation tool for CDI uses the decoupled implicit scheme: however, the scheme faces the numerical constraint of poor convergence. The maximum time step size is highly limited to 1.E-8s. Then an under-relaxation scheme is introduced with the limited success: we can increase its time step size by about 1,000 times higher than that of the decoupled scheme. Finally, the coupled implicit scheme, which solves the equations on concentration and potential simultaneously, is adopted. The newly developed scheme does not suffer from the convergence problem and is found to be optimal for CDI simulation. As the simulation domain, we select a region containing one pore and one electrode gap, to efficiently appreciate key parameters. Key performance indicator, KPI, and system parameters are determined. KPI is defined by the salt removal rate: salt removal amount per electrode volume divided by salt removal time

  10. Development of performance model of CDI electrode for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Byong Guk

    2010-02-01

    Demand for clean water is increasing rapidly due to population growth, desertification, and pollution. Capacitive deionization, CDI, is a newly interested technology with its economic merits over existing ones like evaporation and reverse osmosis. The one of main issues on this technology lies on the electrode development. From the first success on a stable electrode development like carbon aerogel, various types of electrodes have been emerged. However, key mechanism and parameters of this technology are not yet provided. This research focuses on revealing how the CDI works and what parameter affects the performance most. For the current experimental techniques have limits in producing well-defined pore arrangement, a simulation tool based on the most sophisticated governing equations has been developed. The governing equations involve Nernst-Planck equation with a convection term to follow ion movement and Poisson equation to follow potential development. The above tool is verified by comparing with analytical solutions and other researcher's results. The first simulation tool for CDI uses the decoupled implicit scheme: however, the scheme faces the numerical constraint of poor convergence. The maximum time step size is highly limited to 1.E-8s. Then an under-relaxation scheme is introduced with the limited success: we can increase its time step size by about 1,000 times higher than that of the decoupled scheme. Finally, the coupled implicit scheme, which solves the equations on concentration and potential simultaneously, is adopted. The newly developed scheme does not suffer from the convergence problem and is found to be optimal for CDI simulation. As the simulation domain, we select a region containing one pore and one electrode gap, to efficiently appreciate key parameters. Key performance indicator, KPI, and system parameters are determined. KPI is defined by the salt removal rate: salt removal amount per electrode volume divided by salt removal time taken

  11. Gender Pay Gap in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Oczki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...

  12. SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND RESEARCH AGENDA

    OpenAIRE

    Tascioglu, Mertcan

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability has become a subject of increasing concern to academics and practitioners in recent years. Increasing demand for environmentally and socially responsible products and services encouraged supply chains to put increasing emphasis on sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to review research in Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) and to identify gaps in the current body of knowledge. Future research directions are also provided which may help to stimulate more intensiv...

  13. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders

    Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...... materials as candidates for robust oxygen sensor electrodes. The present work focuses on characterising the electrochemical properties of a few electrode materials to understand which oxygen electrode processes are limiting for the response time of the sensor electrode. Three types of porous platinum......-Dansensor. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the structures were characterised by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. At an oxygen partial pressures of 0.2 bar, the response time of the sensor electrode was determined by oxygen...

  14. Face-centered-cubic lithium crystals formed in mesopores of carbon nanofiber electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Seo, Jong-Hyun; Son, Seoung-Bum; Kim, Seul Cham; Choi, In-Suk; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Lee, Se-Hee; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2013-07-23

    In the foreseeable future, there will be a sharp increase in the demand for flexible Li-ion batteries. One of the most important components of such batteries will be a freestanding electrode, because the traditional electrodes are easily damaged by repeated deformations. The mechanical sustainability of carbon-based freestanding electrodes subjected to repeated electrochemical reactions with Li ions is investigated via nanotensile tests of individual hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs). Surprisingly, the mechanical properties of such electrodes are improved by repeated electrochemical reactions with Li ions, which is contrary to the conventional wisdom that the mechanical sustainability of carbon-based electrodes should be degraded by repeated electrochemical reactions. Microscopic studies reveal a reinforcing mechanism behind this improvement, namely, that inserted Li ions form irreversible face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals within HCNF cavities, which can reinforce the carbonaceous matrix as strong second-phase particles. These FCC Li crystals formed within the carbon matrix create tremendous potential for HCNFs as freestanding electrodes for flexible batteries, but they also contribute to the irreversible (and thus low) capacity of HCNFs.

  15. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... in coordinating and generating motor outputs in embryonic and early postnatal life. Considering the recent demonstration of a prevalent expression of gap-junction proteins and gap-junction structures in the adult mammalian spinal cord, we suggest that neuronal gap-junction coupling might also contribute...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  16. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  17. Energetic high-voltage breakdowns in vacuum over a large gap for ITER neutral beam accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villecroze, F., E-mail: Frederic.villecroze@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Christin, L.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Simonin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Schunke, B.; Svensson, L.; Hemsworth, R.; Boilson, D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We performed energetic high voltage breakdowns up to 370 kV with a stored energy of 1 kJ. ► No breakdowns at 200 kV could be produced over a gap of 85 mm using 100 cm{sup 2} copper electrodes. ► Electrodes damage was visible after the experiment. ► The number of arcs impacts is orders of magnitude above the number of breakdowns. -- Abstract: CEA has undertaken tests to study the resilience of copper electrodes in vacuum against energetic high-voltage breakdowns using external capacitors to provide the energy. Earlier tests succeeded in dissipating a maximum of 150 J in a 30 mm gap, limited by the equivalent series resistance (ESR) in the external capacitors. Using new ones with an ESR that is a factor of 10 lower it was unsuccessfully tried to produce breakdowns at 200 kV over the 85 mm gap, despite the use of a UV flash lamp and a “field enhancement ring” (FER) that locally increased the electric field on the cathode by 50%. Consequently, the breakdowns had to be produced by raising the voltage to 300–350 kV while maintaining the gap at 85 mm. During these tests, single breakdowns dissipated up to 1140 J in the 85 mm vacuum gap. Inspection of the electrodes revealed that substantial amounts of copper appear have been evaporated from the anode and deposited on to the cathode. Also electrode deconditioning occurred.

  18. RETGEM with polyvinylchloride (PVC) electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Razin, V I; Reshetin, A I; Filippov, S N

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of the RETGEM (Resistive Electrode Thick GEM) based on electrodes made of a polyvinylchloride material (PVC). Our device can operate with gains of 10E5 as a conventional TGEM at low counting rates and as RPC in the case of high counting rates without of the transit to the violent sparks. The distinct feature of present RETGEM is the absent of the metal coating and lithographic technology for manufacturing of the protective dielectric rms. The electrodes from PVC permit to do the holes by a simple drilling machine. Detectors on a RETGEM basis could be useful in many fields of an application requiring a more cheap manufacturing and safe operation, for example, in a large neutrino experiments, in TPC, RICH systems.

  19. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang QuanMin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4–6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with total mass loading of 7–15 mg cm−2, showed a capacitive behavior in 0.5-M Na2SO4 solutions. The decrease in stirring time during precipitation of the nanofibers resulted in reduced agglomeration and higher specific capacitance (SC. The highest SC of 185 F g−1 was obtained at a scan rate of 2 mV s−1 for mass loading of 7 mg cm−2. The SC decreased with increasing scan rate and increasing electrode mass.

  20. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Quan Min; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2010-03-01

    Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4-6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with total mass loading of 7-15 mg cm-2, showed a capacitive behavior in 0.5-M Na2SO4 solutions. The decrease in stirring time during precipitation of the nanofibers resulted in reduced agglomeration and higher specific capacitance (SC). The highest SC of 185 F g-1 was obtained at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 for mass loading of 7 mg cm-2. The SC decreased with increasing scan rate and increasing electrode mass.

  1. Automated qualification and analysis of protective spark gaps for DC accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Rajan, Rehim N.; Dewangan, S.; Sharma, D.K.; Patel, Rupesh; Bakhtsingh, R.I.; Gond, Seema; Waghmare, Abhay; Thakur, Nitin; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Protective spark gaps are used in the high voltage multiplier column of a 3 MeV DC Accelerator to prevent excessive voltage build-ups. Precise gap of 5 mm is maintained between the electrodes in these spark gaps for obtaining 120 kV± 5 kV in 6 kg/cm{sup 2} SF{sub 6} environment which is the dielectric medium. There are 74 such spark gaps used in the multiplier. Each spark gap has to be qualified for electrical performance before fitting in the accelerator to ensure reliable operation. As the breakdown voltage stabilizes after a large number of sparks between the electrodes, the qualification process becomes time consuming and cumbersome. For qualifying large number of spark gaps an automatic breakdown analysis setup has been developed. This setup operates in air, a dielectric medium. The setup consists of a flyback topology based high voltage power supply with maximum rating of 25 kV. This setup works in conjunction with spark detection and automated shutdown circuit. The breakdown voltage is sensed using a peak detector circuit. The voltage breakdown data is recorded and statistical distribution of the breakdown voltage has been analyzed. This paper describes details of the diagnostics and the spark gap qualification process based on the experimental data. (author)

  2. Winning the sustainable development debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritch, John; Cornish, Emma

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This year - in Johannesburg from 26 August to 4 September - the world will witness what is expected to be the largest environmental gathering yet: the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Some 60,000 participants, including Heads of State, government officials, intergovernmental organizations, and environmental, business and scientific lobbies, will debate the world's progress in implementing 'Agenda 2 V - the sustainable development principles agreed in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Some kind of deal, perhaps in the form of a declaration, will emerge from Johannesburg, reasserting international commitment to sustainable development. At this stage the content cannot be predicted. Experience warns us to expect a strong and virulent anti-nuclear lobby, not only as part of the 'environmental community', but within some of the governments themselves. Their role will be to achieve a text declaring nuclear an unsustainable energy source. The nuclear industry has six months to make its case, in the preparatory fora and elsewhere, that nuclear energy must be recognized - and at a minimum, not excluded - as a sustainable development technology. Twin goals of sustainable development: meeting human need and achieving environmental security. The principle of sustainable development aims at the long-term environmental protection of the planet - sparing our children and their children from living on a planet irredeemably spoilt through human action. An equally pressing issue is that of bridging the wealth gap between the North and South. In this vein, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan recently published his priorities for attention at the World Summit. These include: - Poverty eradication and achieving sustainable livelihoods; - Promoting health through sustainable development; - Access to energy and energy efficiency; - Managing the world's freshwater resources; - Sustainable development initiatives for Africa. The central element of sustainable development: clean energy

  3. High stored-energy breakdown tests on electrodes made of stainless steel, copper, titanium and molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, H. P. L. de, E-mail: hubert.de-esch@cea.fr; Simonin, A.; Grand, C. [CEA-Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-04-08

    IRFM have conducted resilience tests on electrodes made of Cu, stainless steel 304L, Ti and Mo against breakdowns up to 170 kV and 300 J. The tests of the 10×10 cm{sup 2} electrodes have been performed at an electrode distance d=11 mm under vacuum (P∼5×10{sup −6} mbar). No great difference in voltage holding between the materials could be identified; all materials could reach a voltage holding between 140 and 170 kV over the 11 mm gap, i.e. results scatter within a ±10% band. After exposure to ∼10000 seconds of high-voltage (HV) on-time, having accumulated ∼1000 breakdowns, the electrodes were inspected. The anodes were covered with large and small craters. The rugosity of the anodes had increased substantially, that of the cathodes to a lesser extent. The molybdenum electrodes are least affected, but this does not show in their voltage holding capability. It is hypothesized that penetrating high-energy electrons from the breakdown project heat below the surface of the anode and cause a micro-explosion of material when melting point is exceeded. Polished electrodes have also been tested. The polishing results in a substantially reduced breakdown rate in the beginning, but after having suffered a relatively small number (∼100) of breakdowns, the polished electrodes behaved the same as the unpolished ones.

  4. The fabrication of front electrodes of Si solar cell by dispensing printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Ryu, Sung-Soo; Shin, Dongwook; Shin, Jung-Han; Jeong, Jwa-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Jun; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose the process for the front silver electrode by employing dispensing method. ► The dispensing method is a non-contact printing process. ► The electrode by dispensing method has more uniform and narrower shape. ► The dispensing method helped to enhance the efficiency of solar cell by 0.8% absolute. - Abstract: The dispensing printing was applied to fabricate the front electrodes of silicon solar cell. In this method, a micro channel nozzle and normal Ag paste were employed. The aspect ratio and line width of electrodes could be controlled by the process variables such as the inner diameter of nozzle, dispensing speed, discharge pressure, and the gap between wafer and nozzle. For the nozzle with the inner diameter of 50 μm, the line width and aspect ratio of electrode were under 90 μm and more than ∼0.2, respectively. When comparing the efficiency of solar cell prepared by conventional screen printing and the dispensing printing, the latter exhibited 19.1%, which is 0.8% absolute higher than the former even with the same Ag paste. This is because the electrode by dispensing printing has uniform aspect ratio and narrow line width over the length of electrode.

  5. Silver nanowire/polyaniline composite transparent electrode with improved surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.B.V. Kiran; Jiang, Jianwei; Bae, Chang Wan; Seo, Dong Min; Piao, Longhai; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • AgNWs/PANI transparent electrode was prepared by layer-by-layer coating method. • The surface roughness of the electrode reached to 6.5 nm (root mean square). • The electrode had reasonable sheet resistance (25 Ω/□) and transmittance (83.5%). - Abstract: Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are as potential candidates to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in transparent electrodes because of their preferred conducting and optical properties. However, their rough surface properties are not favorable for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices, such as displays and thin-film solar cells. In the present investigation, AgNWs/polyaniline composite transparent electrodes with better surface properties were successfully prepared. AgNWs were incorporated into polyaniline:polystyrene sulfonate (PANI:PSS) by layer-by-layer coating and mechanical pressing. PANI:PSS decreased the surface roughness of the AgNWs electrode by filling the gap of the random AgNWs network. The transparent composite electrode had decreased surface roughness (root mean square 6.5 nm) with reasonable sheet resistance (25 Ω/□) and transmittance (83.5%)

  6. Experimental performance assessment of electrodes and numerical analysis of flow channel for CDI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Byung Hyun

    2011-02-15

    One possible solution suggested providing drinkable water with an expense of small amount of energy and investment is desalinating water with the capacitive deionization (CDI) technique. The idea of CDI is to successfully remove any ions dissolved in water by applying electrical field between electrodes and flowing water between the electrodes. The most commonly used electrode materials are carbon aerogel and activated-carbon because of their corrosion resistance and large specific area, which can provide major advantages for electrochemical adsorption processes in an aqueous solution. Through experiments using three electrode materials, we compared the ion adsorption performance of the electrodes from three different viewpoints: per unit mass, total used area and volume of electrode. Specific area is an important figure, but pore size distribution and pore structure should also be considered in comparing electrodes. Carbon aerogel outperforms carbon felt and activated carbon in ion removal per unit surface area and volume. But in of ion removal per unit mass, carbon felt outperforms carbon aerogel and activated carbon. Also, comparing the ion removing performance of electrodes in different initial concentrations, as the initial concentration increases, activated carbon increases in performance but aerogel's performance decreases. This means even if carbon aerogel had a better ion removing performance, activated carbon could perform higher in a higher concentration. Therefore, all these parameters should be considered when designing a desalination plant using CDI technology. Most previous studies related to CDI concentrated on developing novel materials for electrodes suitable for CDI application while little attention was given to how the CDI system is to be designed for maximizing the performance. Since we believe that other design parameters such as gap distance between the capacitor should be considered seriously also, a numerical study was conducted to

  7. Experimental performance assessment of electrodes and numerical analysis of flow channel for CDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Byung Hyun

    2011-02-01

    One possible solution suggested providing drinkable water with an expense of small amount of energy and investment is desalinating water with the capacitive deionization (CDI) technique. The idea of CDI is to successfully remove any ions dissolved in water by applying electrical field between electrodes and flowing water between the electrodes. The most commonly used electrode materials are carbon aerogel and activated-carbon because of their corrosion resistance and large specific area, which can provide major advantages for electrochemical adsorption processes in an aqueous solution. Through experiments using three electrode materials, we compared the ion adsorption performance of the electrodes from three different viewpoints: per unit mass, total used area and volume of electrode. Specific area is an important figure, but pore size distribution and pore structure should also be considered in comparing electrodes. Carbon aerogel outperforms carbon felt and activated carbon in ion removal per unit surface area and volume. But in of ion removal per unit mass, carbon felt outperforms carbon aerogel and activated carbon. Also, comparing the ion removing performance of electrodes in different initial concentrations, as the initial concentration increases, activated carbon increases in performance but aerogel's performance decreases. This means even if carbon aerogel had a better ion removing performance, activated carbon could perform higher in a higher concentration. Therefore, all these parameters should be considered when designing a desalination plant using CDI technology. Most previous studies related to CDI concentrated on developing novel materials for electrodes suitable for CDI application while little attention was given to how the CDI system is to be designed for maximizing the performance. Since we believe that other design parameters such as gap distance between the capacitor should be considered seriously also, a numerical study was conducted to observe

  8. Radiating gap filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In May, corrosion on the outside wall of the over 50 year old Canadian Chalk River reactor vessel caused a heavy water leak and the reactor was shut down triggering worldwide a nuclear medicine shortage. The reactor is also a major supplier of the isotope molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), a precursor of the medically widely used technetium-99 m . To fill the gap in demand, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has now arranged with US company Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc., a world leader in medical imaging, to supply Mo-99. Subject to pending Australian regulatory processes, the deal is expected to assist in alleviating the world's current nuclear medicine shortage. As ANSTO is currently also the only global commercial supplier that produces Mo-99 from low enriched uranium (LEU) targets, Lantheus will be the first company bringing LEU derived Tc-99 m to the US market. To date, over 95% of Mo-99 is derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, there are concerns regarding proliferation risks associated with HEU targets and for commercial uses production from LEU targets would be desirable. ANSTO says that global Mo-99 supply chain is fragile and limited and it is working closely with nuclear safety and healthy regulators, both domestically and overseas, to expedite all necessary approvals to allow long-term production and export of medical isotopes.

  9. Experimental investigations of argon spark gap recovery times by developing a high voltage double pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C S; Patel, A S; Naresh, P; Sharma, Archana; Mittal, K C

    2014-06-01

    The voltage recovery in a spark gap for repetitive switching has been a long research interest. A two-pulse technique is used to determine the voltage recovery times of gas spark gap switch with argon gas. First pulse is applied to the spark gap to over-volt the gap and initiate the breakdown and second pulse is used to determine the recovery voltage of the gap. A pulse transformer based double pulse generator capable of generating 40 kV peak pulses with rise time of 300 ns and 1.5 μs FWHM and with a delay of 10 μs-1 s was developed. A matrix transformer topology is used to get fast rise times by reducing L(l)C(d) product in the circuit. Recovery Experiments have been conducted for 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm gap length with 0-2 bars pressure for argon gas. Electrodes of a sparkgap chamber are of rogowsky profile type, made up of stainless steel material, and thickness of 15 mm are used in the recovery study. The variation in the distance and pressure effects the recovery rate of the spark gap. An intermediate plateu is observed in the spark gap recovery curves. Recovery time decreases with increase in pressure and shorter gaps in length are recovering faster than longer gaps.

  10. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-01-01

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode–semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode–semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect. PMID:28346349

  11. Nanofiber membrane-electrode-assembly and method of fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintauro, Peter N.; Ballengee, Jason; Brodt, Matthew

    2018-01-23

    In one aspect of the present invention, a method of fabricating a fuel cell membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) having an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a membrane disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode, includes fabricating each of the anode electrode, the cathode electrode, and the membrane separately by electrospinning; and placing the membrane between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode, and pressing then together to form the fuel cell MEA.

  12. Nanotechnology for environmentally sustainable electromobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Linda Ager-Wick; Hung, Christine Roxanne; Majeau-Bettez, Guillaume; Singh, Bhawna; Chen, Zhongwei; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-12-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) powered by lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) or proton exchange membrane hydrogen fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer important potential climate change mitigation effects when combined with clean energy sources. The development of novel nanomaterials may bring about the next wave of technical improvements for LIBs and PEMFCs. If the next generation of EVs is to lead to not only reduced emissions during use but also environmentally sustainable production chains, the research on nanomaterials for LIBs and PEMFCs should be guided by a life-cycle perspective. In this Analysis, we describe an environmental life-cycle screening framework tailored to assess nanomaterials for electromobility. By applying this framework, we offer an early evaluation of the most promising nanomaterials for LIBs and PEMFCs and their potential contributions to the environmental sustainability of EV life cycles. Potential environmental trade-offs and gaps in nanomaterials research are identified to provide guidance for future nanomaterial developments for electromobility.

  13. Modeling pedestrian gap crossing index under mixed traffic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mohamed M; Zulkiple, Adnan; Al Bargi, Walid A; Khalifa, Nasradeen A; Daniel, Basil David

    2017-12-01

    There are a variety of challenges faced by pedestrians when they walk along and attempt to cross a road, as the most recorded accidents occur during this time. Pedestrians of all types, including both sexes with numerous aging groups, are always subjected to risk and are characterized as the most exposed road users. The increased demand for better traffic management strategies to reduce the risks at intersections, improve quality traffic management, traffic volume, and longer cycle time has further increased concerns over the past decade. This paper aims to develop a sustainable pedestrian gap crossing index model based on traffic flow density. It focusses on the gaps accepted by pedestrians and their decision for street crossing, where (Log-Gap) logarithm of accepted gaps was used to optimize the result of a model for gap crossing behavior. Through a review of extant literature, 15 influential variables were extracted for further empirical analysis. Subsequently, data from the observation at an uncontrolled mid-block in Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was gathered and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Binary Logit Model (BLM) techniques were employed to analyze the results. From the results, different pedestrian behavioral characteristics were considered for a minimum gap size model, out of which only a few (four) variables could explain the pedestrian road crossing behavior while the remaining variables have an insignificant effect. Among the different variables, age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and crossing were the most influential variables. The study concludes that pedestrians' decision to cross the street depends on the pedestrian age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and size of traffic gap before crossing. The inferences from these models will be useful to increase pedestrian safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock road crossings in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Micropatterned Carbon-on-Quartz Electrode Chips for Photocurrent Generation from Thylakoid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, Ada-Ioana; Heiskanen, Arto R.; Pankratova, Galina

    2018-01-01

    Harvesting the energy generated by photosynthetic organisms through light-dependent reactions is a significant step towards a sustainable future energy supply. Thylakoid membranes are the site of photosynthesis, and thus particularly suited for developing photo-bioelectrochemical cells. Novel ele......]+/2+) are used for evaluating photocurrent generation from thylakoid membranes with different electrode geometries. Current densities up to 71 µA cm-2 are measured upon illumination through the transparent electrode chip with solar simulated irradiance (1000 W m-2)....... electrode materials and geometries could potentially improve the efficiency of energy harvesting using thylakoid membranes. For commercial applications, electrodes with large surface areas are needed. Photolithographic patterning of a photoresist, followed by pyrolysis, is a flexible and fast approach...

  15. Mind the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Astronomers have been able to study planet-forming discs around young Sun-like stars in unsurpassed detail, clearly revealing the motion and distribution of the gas in the inner parts of the disc. This result, which possibly implies the presence of giant planets, was made possible by the combination of a very clever method enabled by ESO's Very Large Telescope. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 27a/08 Planet-forming Disc Planets could be home to other forms of life, so the study of exoplanets ranks very high in contemporary astronomy. More than 300 planets are already known to orbit stars other than the Sun, and these new worlds show an amazing diversity in their characteristics. But astronomers don't just look at systems where planets have already formed - they can also get great insights by studying the discs around young stars where planets may currently be forming. "This is like going 4.6 billion years back in time to watch how the planets of our own Solar System formed," says Klaus Pontoppidan from Caltech, who led the research. Pontoppidan and colleagues have analysed three young analogues of our Sun that are each surrounded by a disc of gas and dust from which planets could form. These three discs are just a few million years old and were known to have gaps or holes in them, indicating regions where the dust has been cleared and the possible presence of young planets. The new results not only confirm that gas is present in the gaps in the dust, but also enable astronomers to measure how the gas is distributed in the disc and how the disc is oriented. In regions where the dust appears to have been cleared out, molecular gas is still highly abundant. This can either mean that the dust has clumped together to form planetary embryos, or that a planet has already formed and is in the process of clearing the gas in the disc. For one of the stars, SR 21, a likely explanation is the presence of a massive giant planet orbiting at less than 3.5 times the distance

  16. Characterisation of nano-interdigitated electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjolding, L H D; Ribayrol, A; Montelius, L [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Spegel, C [Department of Analytical Chemistry Lund University, Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Emneus, J [MIC - Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, DTU - Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)], E-mail: lars_henrik.daehli_skjolding@ftf.lth.se

    2008-03-15

    Interdigitated electrodes made up of two individually addressable interdigitated comb-like electrode structures have frequently been suggested as ultra sensitive electrochemical biosensors. Since the signal enhancement effects due to cycling of the reduced and oxidized species are strongly dependent on the inter electrode distances, since the nature of the enhancement is due to overlying diffusion layers, interdigitated electrodes with an electrode separation of less then one micrometer are desired for maximum signal amplification. Fabrication of submicron structures can only be made by advanced lithography techniques. By use of electron beam lithography we have fabricated arrays of interdigitated electrodes with an electrode separation distance of 200 nm and an electrode finger width of likewise 200 nm. The entire electrode structure is 100 micrometre times 100 micrometre, and the active electrode area is dictated by the opening in the passivation layer, that is defined by UV lithography. Here we report measurements of redox cycling of ferrocyanide by coupled cyclic voltammograms, where the potential at one of the working electrodes are varied and either an oxidising or reducing potential is applied to the complimentary interdigitated electrode. The measurements show fast conversion and high collection efficiency round 87% as expected for nano-interdigitated electrodes.

  17. PhoneGap for enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Shotts, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who wish to use PhoneGap to develop useful, rich, secure mobile applications for their enterprise environment. The book assumes you have working knowledge of PhoneGap, HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript, and a reasonable understanding of networking and n-tier architectures.

  18. 100 kV reliable accurately-synchronized spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosamykin, V.S.; Gerasimov, A.I.; Zenkov, D.I.

    1987-01-01

    100 kV three-electrode spark gap filled with 40% SF 6 +60% N 2 mixture under the pressure of ∼ 1 MPa, which has spread Δt ≤ ± 5 ns of operating time delay in the range of 10 4 triggerings and commutation energy of 2.5 kJ, providing electric strength is 100%, is described; at 10 kJ Δt is less than ± 10 ns for 10 3 triggerings. Parallel connection of 16 groups, each consisting of 5 spark gaps with series connection, electric strength being 100%, in the pulse charging unit of Arkadiev-Marx generator being in operation for several years manifested their high efficiency; mutual group spread is ≤ ± 15 ns

  19. Investigation of pulsed barrier discharge in water-air gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taran, V.S.; Krasnyj, V.V.; Lozina, A.S.; Shvets, O.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of the use of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge with water electrode and diaphragm. The spectroscopic and electrical investigations of such discharge were conducted. The ozone concentration in an aqueous solution comprised 0.7 mg/l with high-voltage pulsed power at 120 W. The discharge reviewed emission spectrum lines of molecular nitrogen and hydroxyl radicals in the range of 200...800 nm in the water-air gap. The intensity changing of luminescence lines of OH and N 2 singles depending on the applied voltage and discharge gap has been determined. Aqueous solution of indigo was used in order to determine the impact level on the organic material. Experiments on inactivation of test E. coli cultures have been carried out.

  20. Progress in understanding SOFC electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jørgensen, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The literature of SOFC electrode kinetics and mechanisms is full of contradicting details in case of both the SOFC anode and cathode processes. Only weak patterns may be identified. One interpretation is that each of the reported data sets reflects a laboratory specific nature of each of the elec...

  1. Anodized Steel Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagu, Jagdeep S; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Bohm, Mallika; Bohm, Siva; Kumar Rout, Tapan

    2016-03-09

    Steel was anodized in 10 M NaOH to enhance its surface texture and internal surface area for application as an electrode in supercapacitors. A mechanism was proposed for the anodization process. Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) studies of anodized steel revealed that it contains a highly porous sponge like structure ideal for supercapacitor electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that the surface of the anodized steel was Fe2O3, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that the bulk remained as metallic Fe. The supercapacitor performance of the anodized steel was tested in 1 M NaOH and a capacitance of 18 mF cm(-2) was obtained. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that there was a large psueudocapacitive contribution which was due to oxidation of Fe to Fe(OH)2 and then further oxidation to FeOOH, and the respective reduction of these species back to metallic Fe. These redox processes were found to be remarkably reversible as the electrode showed no loss in capacitance after 10000 cycles. The results demonstrate that anodization of steel is a suitable method to produce high-surface-area electrodes for supercapacitors with excellent cycling lifetime.

  2. Advanced screening of electrode couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J. D.; Cahill, K.

    1980-01-01

    The chromium (Cr(3+)/Cr(2+)) redox couple (electrolyte and electrode) was investigated to determine its suitability as negative electrode for the iron (Fe(3+)/Fe(2+))-chromium (Cr(3+)/Cr(2+)) redox flow battery. Literature search and laboratory investigation established that the solubility and stability of aqueous acidic solutions of chromium(3) chloride and chromium(2) chloride are sufficient for redox battery application. Four categories of electrode materials were tested; namely, metals and metalloid materials (elements and compounds), alloys, plated materials, and Teflon-bonded materials. In all, the relative performance of 26 candidate electrode materials was evaluated on the basis of slow scan rate linear sweep voltammetry in stirred solution. No single material tested gave both acceptable anodic an acceptable cathodic performance. However, the identification of lead as a good cathodic electrocatalyst and gold as a good anodic electrocatalyst led to the invention of the lead/gold combination electrocatalyst. This type of catalyst can be fabricated in several ways and appears to offer the advantages of each metal without the disadvantages associated with their use as single materials. This lead/gold electrocatalyst was tested by NASA-Lewis Research Center in complete, flowing, redox batteries comprising a stack of several cells. A large improvement in the battery's coulombic and energy efficiency was observed.

  3. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  4. Power-sharing: concepts, debates and gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Sousa Carvalho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Academic literature tends to reflect the two main objectives of power-sharing: promoting the construction of sustainable peace and serving to structure the foundations for growth and development of democracy in divided societies. reflecting this, two dimensions and discourses of analysis and evaluation stand out: a classical dimension centred on power-sharing as theory and a normative proposal for democracy in divided societies, and another focused mainly on power-sharing as a meachanism of conflict management. This article aims to introduce the reader to discussions about power-sharing, reviewing and critically analysing power-sharing literature to show its gaps and tensions, as well as suggesting some points where one can continue the debate.

  5. The fluctuating gap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-15

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T{sub c} in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the

  6. The fluctuating gap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T c in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the quasi

  7. Bridging the terahertz gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Giles; Linfield, Edmund

    2004-01-01

    Over the last century or so, physicists and engineers have progressively explored and conquered the electromagnetic spectrum. Starting with visible light, we have encroached outwards, developing techniques for generating and detecting radiation at both higher and lower frequencies. And as each successive region of the spectrum has been colonized, we have developed technology to exploit the radiation found there. X-rays, for example, are routinely used to image hidden objects. Near-infrared radiation is used in fibre-optic communications and in compact-disc players, while microwaves are used to transmit signals from your mobile phone. But there is one part of the electromagnetic spectrum that has steadfastly resisted our advances. This is the terahertz region, which ranges from frequencies of about 300 GHz to 10 THz (10 x 10 sup 1 sup 2 Hz). This corresponds to wavelengths of between about 1 and 0.03 mm, and lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. However, the difficulties involved in making suitably compact terahertz sources and detectors has meant that this region of the spectrum has only begun to be explored thoroughly over the last decade. A particularly intriguing feature of terahertz radiation is that the semiconductor devices that generate radiation at frequencies above and below this range operate in completely different ways. At lower frequencies, microwaves and millimetre- waves can be generated by 'electronic' devices such as those found in mobile phones. At higher frequencies, near-infrared and visible light are generated by 'optical' devices such as semiconductor laser diodes, in which electrons emit light when they jump across the semiconductor band gap. Unfortunately, neither electronic nor optical devices can conveniently be made to work in the terahertz region because the terahertz frequency range sits between the electronic and optical regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Developing a terahertz source is therefore a

  8. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  9. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  10. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  11. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  12. Depositing bulk or micro-scale electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Tolosa, Vanessa; Tooker, Angela C.; Sheth, Heeral J.; Felix, Sarah H.; Delima, Terri L.

    2016-11-01

    Thicker electrodes are provided on microelectronic device using thermo-compression bonding. A thin-film electrical conducting layer forms electrical conduits and bulk depositing provides an electrode layer on the thin-film electrical conducting layer. An insulating polymer layer encapsulates the electrically thin-film electrical conducting layer and the electrode layer. Some of the insulating layer is removed to expose the electrode layer.

  13. Detection of EEG electrodes in brain volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Juan P; Gómez, M Eugenia; Bustos, José J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method to detect 128 EEG electrodes in image study and to merge with the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance volume for better diagnosis. First we propose three hypotheses to define a specific acquisition protocol in order to recognize the electrodes and to avoid distortions in the image. In the second instance we describe a method for segmenting the electrodes. Finally, registration is performed between volume of the electrodes and NMR.

  14. Recovery of fluoride ion selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, R.P.G.

    1988-01-01

    A recovery procedure of fluoride ion selective electrode based upon the body radiography of inactive electrode and introduction of suitable internal regeneration solution, is developed. The recovered electrode was tested in standard solutions of fluoride ions (10 sup5) to 10 -1M showing as good performance as the new one. The fluor determination by potentiometric measurements with selective electrode is used in nuclear fuel cycle for quality control of thorium and uranium mixed oxide pellets and pellets of uranium dioxides. (author) [pt

  15. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  16. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surface treatment by a pulsed volume discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A V; Pedos, M S; Scherbinin, S V; Mamontov, Y I; Ponomarev, S V

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the region of the low-voltage electrode was assessed using a system for measuring the distribution of discharge current density. The system's low-voltage electrode - collector - was a disc of 100 mm in diameter, the conducting surface of which was divided into 64 radially located segments of equal surface area. The current at each segment was registered by a high-speed measuring system controlled by an ARM™-based 32-bit microcontroller. To facilitate the interpretation of results obtained, a computer program was developed to visualise the results. The program provides a 3D image of the current density distribution on the surface of the low-voltage electrode. Based on the results obtained an optimum shape for a high-voltage electrode was determined. Uniformity of the distribution of discharge current density in relation to distance between electrodes was studied. It was proven that the level of non-uniformity of current density distribution depends on the size of the gap between electrodes. Experiments indicated that it is advantageous to use graphite felt VGN-6 (Russian abbreviation) as the material of the high-voltage electrode's emitting surface. (paper)

  17. Engineering biological systems toward a sustainable bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez

    2015-06-01

    The nature of our major global risks calls for sustainable innovations to decouple economic growth from greenhouse gases emission. The development of sustainable technologies has been negatively impacted by several factors including sugar production costs, production scale, economic crises, hydraulic fracking development and the market inability to capture externality costs. However, advances in engineering of biological systems allow bridging the gap between exponential growth of knowledge about biology and the creation of sustainable value chains for a broad range of economic sectors. Additionally, industrial symbiosis of different biobased technologies can increase competitiveness and sustainability, leading to the development of eco-industrial parks. Reliable policies for carbon pricing and revenue reinvestments in disruptive technologies and in the deployment of eco-industrial parks could boost the welfare while addressing our major global risks toward the transition from a fossil to a biobased economy.

  18. Fiscal sustainability and fiscal policy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    Analyses of fiscal sustainability have become integral parts of fiscal policy planning due to high debt levels and projected demographic changes. A popular metric by which to evaluate sustainability gaps is the so-called S2 metric given as the permanent change in the primary budget balance...... indicator can be given a normative interpretation, and this issue is extensively discussed. The paper ends by discussing the formulation of fiscal policy targets to ensure fiscal sustainability....... (relative to GDP) needed to meet the intertemporal budget constraint. While a very useful metric it also suffers from some problems, and the paper discusses some of the problems with this metric as a way to assess fiscal sustainability problems. A particular important issue is the extent to which the S2...

  19. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  20. An ionization chamber with magnetic levitated electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, T

    1999-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber which has magnetically levitated electrodes has been developed. The electrodes are supplied voltages for the repelling of ions by a battery which is also levitated with the electrodes. The characteristics of this ionization chamber are investigated in this paper.

  1. Charge transport properties of graphene: Effects of Cu-based gate electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Qide [School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Zhang, C. X., E-mail: zhangchunxiao@xtu.edu.cn; Tang, Chao, E-mail: tang-chao@xtu.edu.cn; Zhong, Jianxin [School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); He, Chaoyu [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2016-07-21

    Using the first-principles nonequilibrium Green's function method, we study effects of Cu and Ni@Cu used as the Cu-based gate electrode on the charge transport of graphene in the field effect transistors (FET). We find that the transmission of graphene decreases with both Cu and Ni@Cu absorbed in the scatter region. Especially, noticeable transmission gaps are present around the Femi level. The transmission gaps are still effective, and considerable cut-off regions are found under the non-equilibrium environment. The Ni@Cu depresses the transmission of graphene more seriously than the Cu and enlarges the transmission gap in armchair direction. The effects on the charge transport are attributed to the redistribution of electronic states of graphene. Both Cu and Ni@Cu induce the localization of states, so as to block the electronic transport. The Ni@Cu transforms the interaction between graphene and gate electrode from the physisorption to the chemisorption, and then induces more localized states, so that the transmission decreases further. Our results suggest that besides being used to impose gate voltage, the Cu-based gate electrode itself will have a considerable effect on the charge transport of graphene and induces noticeable transmission gap in the FET.

  2. The generaltion gap in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G.P. van Niekerk

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Generation gap is one of those catch phrases that we so often use, and misuse, to excuse ourselves or to cover up for our shortcomings. It is like the shortage of nurses behind which we hide from all our nursing problems. Although it is such a commonly used phrase, do we really know what it means? When you consult the Oxford Dictionary, you will find that it defines generation gap as: differences of opinion between those of different generations. It will surprise most people that the generation gap becomes a problem only when there are differences of opinion.

  3. Wide gap semiconductor microwave devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V V; Aroutiounian, V M

    2007-01-01

    A review of properties of wide gap semiconductor materials such as diamond, diamond-like carbon films, SiC, GaP, GaN and AlGaN/GaN that are relevant to electronic, optoelectronic and microwave applications is presented. We discuss the latest situation and perspectives based on experimental and theoretical results obtained for wide gap semiconductor devices. Parameters are taken from the literature and from some of our theoretical works. The correspondence between theoretical results and parameters of devices is critically analysed. (review article)

  4. NUCLEATION STUDIES OF GOLD ON CARBON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SOBRI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest has grown in developing non-toxic electrolytes for gold electrodeposition to replace the conventional cyanide-based bath for long term sustainability of gold electroplating. A solution containing thiosulphate and sulphite has been developed specially for microelectronics applications. However, at the end of the electrodeposition process, the spent electrolyte can contain a significant amount of gold in solution. This study has been initiated to investigate the feasibility of gold recovery from a spent thiosulphate-sulphite electrolyte. We have used flat-plate glassy carbon and graphite electrodes to study the mechanism of nucleation and crystal growth of gold deposition from the spent electrolyte. It was found that at the early stages of reduction process, the deposition of gold on glassy carbon exhibits an instantaneous nucleation of non-overlapping particles. At longer times, the particles begin to overlap and the deposition follows a classic progressive nucleation phenomenon. On the other hand, deposition of gold on graphite does not follow the classical nucleation phenomena.

  5. Signal enhancement due to high-Z nanofilm electrodes in parallel plate ionization chambers with variable microgaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, Davide; Sajo, Erno; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    We developed a method for measuring signal enhancement produced by high-Z nanofilm electrodes in parallel plate ionization chambers with variable thickness microgaps. We used a laboratory-made variable gap parallel plate ionization chamber with nanofilm electrodes made of aluminum-aluminum (Al-Al) and aluminum-tantalum (Al-Ta). The electrodes were evaporated on 1 mm thick glass substrates. The interelectrode air gap was varied from 3 μm to 1 cm. The gap size was measured using a digital micrometer and it was confirmed by capacitance measurements. The electric field in the chamber was kept between 0.1 kV/cm and 1 kV/cm for all the gap sizes by applying appropriate compensating voltages. The chamber was exposed to 120 kVp X-rays. The current was measured using a commercial data acquisition system with temporal resolution of 600 Hz. In addition, radiation transport simulations were carried out to characterize the dose, D(x), high-energy electron current, J(x), and deposited charge, Q(x), as a function of distance, x, from the electrodes. A deterministic method was selected over Monte Carlo due to its ability to produce results with 10 nm spatial resolution without stochastic uncertainties. Experimental signal enhancement ratio, SER(G) which we defined as the ratio of signal for Al-air-Ta to signal for Al-air-Al for each gap size, was compared to computations. The individual contributions of dose, electron current, and charge deposition to the signal enhancement were determined. Experimental signals matched computed data for all gap sizes after accounting for several contributions to the signal: (a) charge carrier generated via ionization due to the energy deposited in the air gap, D(x); (b) high-energy electron current, J(x), leaking from high-Z electrode (Ta) toward low-Z electrode (Al); (c) deposited charge in the air gap, Q(x); and (d) the decreased collection efficiency for large gaps (>~500 μm). Q(x) accounts for the electrons below 100 eV, which are

  6. Study of spatiotemporal dynamics of a nanosecond atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge in millimeter-long air gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malashin, M. V.; Moshkunkov, S. I.; Khomich, V. Yu.; Shershunova, E. A., E-mail: eshershunova@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of a nanosecond atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge in 1- to 3-mm-long air gaps was studied experimentally. By using a segmented electrode, data on the time evolution of the discharge in different regions of the discharge gap were obtained. The uniformity of the discharge over the cross section is estimated by analyzing the spatial distribution of its glow.

  7. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL; Vissers, Donald R [Naperville, IL; Lu, Wenquan [Darien, IL

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  8. Mass-transfer studies in an electrochemical reactor with a small interelectrode gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colli, A.N.; Toelzer, R.; Bergmann, M.E.H.; Bisang, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Turbulence promoters increase from two to eight times the mass-transfer coefficients. • Turbulence promoters become more uniform the mass-transfer distribution. • Expanded plastics with an open structure are appropriate as turbulence promoters. -- Abstract: This paper reports the distribution of the local mass-transfer coefficient along the electrode length for an electrochemical reactor with parallel-plate electrodes and narrow interelectrode gaps of 1 and 2.2 mm, using the reduction of ferricyanide as a test reaction. The studies were performed at different flow rates, Reynolds numbers ranging from 370 to 3700, with the empty reactor and also the interelectrode gap was filled with two types of expanded plastics and a woven plastic mesh as turbulence promoters. The effect of both the interelectrode gap and the partial placing of the turbulence promoter along the electrode length on the mass-transfer behaviour was also analyzed. In all cases the pressure drop across the reactor was measured. A more uniform distribution of the local mass-transfer coefficient, ±15% related to its mean value, and an important increase of the mean mass-transfer coefficient, enhancement factor ranging from 2 to 8, were observed, depending on the type of turbulence promoter, the volumetric flow rate, and the interelectrode gap

  9. Closing the Cybersecurity Skills Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vogel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current consensus is that there is a worldwide gap in skills needed for a competent cybersecurity workforce. This skills gap has implications for the national security sector, both public and private. Although the view is that this will take a concerted effort to rectify, it presents an opportunity for IT professionals, university students, and aspirants to take-up jobs in national security national intelligence as well military and law enforcement intelligence. This paper examines context of the issue, the nature of the cybersecurity skills gap, and some key responses by governments to address the problem. The paper also examines the emerging employment trends, some of the employment challenges, and what these might mean for practice. The paper argues that the imperative is to close the cyber skills gap by taking advantage of the window of opportunity, allowing individuals interested in moving into the cybersecurity field to do so via education and training.

  10. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  11. Arc plasma assisted rotating electrode process for preparation of metal pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, T.; Tripathi, B.M.; Mahata, T.; Sinha, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Spherical beryllium pebbles of size ranging from 0.2-2 mm are required as neutron multiplying material in solid Test Blanket Module (TBM) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Rotating electrode process (REP) has been identified as a suitable technique for preparation of beryllium pebbles. In REP, arc plasma generated between non-consumable electrode (cathode) and rotating metal electrode (anode) plays a major role for continuous consumption of metal electrode and preparation of spherical metal pebbles. This paper focuses on description of the process, selection of sub-systems for development of REP experimental set up and optimization of arc parameters, such as, cathode geometry, arc current, arc voltage, arc gap and carrier gas flow rate for preparation of required size spherical metal pebbles. Other parameters which affect the pebbles sizes are rotational speed, metal electrode diameter and physical properties of the metal. As beryllium is toxic in nature its surrogate metals such as stainless steel (SS) and Titanium (Ti) were selected to evaluate the performance of the REP equipment. Several experiments were carried out using SS and Ti electrode and process parameters have been optimized for preparation of pebbles of different sizes. (author)

  12. Understanding the carbon dioxide gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Thomas W L; Wicke, Jannis N; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2018-06-01

    The current review attempts to demonstrate the value of several forms of carbon dioxide (CO2) gaps in resuscitation of the critically ill patient as monitor for the adequacy of the circulation, as target for fluid resuscitation and also as predictor for outcome. Fluid resuscitation is one of the key treatments in many intensive care patients. It remains a challenge in daily practice as both a shortage and an overload in intravascular volume are potentially harmful. Many different approaches have been developed for use as target of fluid resuscitation. CO2 gaps can be used as surrogate for the adequacy of cardiac output (CO) and as marker for tissue perfusion and are therefore a potential target for resuscitation. CO2 gaps are easily measured via point-of-care analysers. We shed light on its potential use as nowadays it is not widely used in clinical practice despite its potential. Many studies were conducted on partial CO2 pressure differences or CO2 content (cCO2) differences either alone, or in combination with other markers for outcome or resuscitation adequacy. Furthermore, some studies deal with CO2 gap to O2 gap ratios as target for goal-directed fluid therapy or as marker for outcome. CO2 gap is a sensitive marker of tissue hypoperfusion, with added value over traditional markers of tissue hypoxia in situations in which an oxygen diffusion barrier exists such as in tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation. Venous-to-arterial cCO2 or partial pressure gaps can be used to evaluate whether attempts to increase CO should be made. Considering the potential of the several forms of CO2 measurements and its ease of use via point-of-care analysers, it is recommendable to implement CO2 gaps in standard clinical practice.

  13. Colour reconnections and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif

    1996-01-01

    I argue that the success of recently proposed models describing events with large rapidity gaps in DIS at HERA in terms of non-perturbative colour exchange is heavily reliant on suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the proton direction. There is little or no physical motivation for such suppression and I show that a model without this suppression cannot describe the rapidity gap events at HERA. (author)

  14. Bridging the Gap (BRIEFING CHARTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-05

    1 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency “Bridging the Gap ” Dr. Robert F. Leheny Deputy Director Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bridging the Gap 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  15. INEQUALITY IN CHINA IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Чжан Чжань

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research object is the sociopolitical foundations of sustainable development in China. Research subject is the problem of inequality as one of the obstacles to sustainable development in China. In the article, different aspects of the issue are reviewed in the context of sustainable development, especially through the requirements of the UN Agenda 2030. These aspects include income inequality, inequality in education and health care, gender inequality. It is shown that despite the improvement trend in some specific aspects, the inequality gap in China is still large, further reduction of the inequality level remains one of the main tasks for achieving sustainable development goals in China.

  16. Corporate Sustainability and Organizational Change. Case of OMV Petrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Soriana Sitnikov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many corporations have recognized the importance of being perceived as socially responsible to the environment, employees or local community. They have worked hard to be labeled as sustainable organizations. Corporate behavior, however, implies a gap between theory and practice. Therefore, we consider it necessary to study how to transform corporations into sustainable organizations based on organizational change models. The paper brings an original contribution to the study of organizational sustainability by introducing a framework for sustainable organizational change using organizational culture components and Deming's Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA cycle of continuous quality improvement.

  17. Piercing by composite electrode tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukarimov, Eh.T.; Krakov, B.G.; Saidinov, S.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of the electrode consisting of a dielectric shell, where a working liquid enters, and a metal rod is designed for precision super-deep piercing by the electroerosion treatment method. Technological parameters of piercing with small diameter (0.5-1.9 mm) for 12Kh18N10T steel, copper and tungsten are presented. A possibility to use a new tool for treating components of any form and sizes is marked

  18. Redox electrode materials for supercapatteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Linpo; Chen, George Z.

    2016-01-01

    Redox electrode materials, including transition metal oxides and electronically conducting polymers, are capable of faradaic charge transfer reactions, and play important roles in most electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitor, battery and supercapattery. Batteries are often based on redox materials with low power capability and safety concerns in some cases. Supercapacitors, particularly those based on redox inactive materials, e.g. activated carbon, can offer high power...

  19. Analytic Potentials for Realistic Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Taylor, Aimee E.; Swanson, Kenneth R.

    2002-01-01

    Finite difference algorithms are widely used to numerically solve Laplace's equation for electrode structures that are not amendable to analytic treatment. This includes essentially all real situations. However, in many cases, it is desirable to have the solution in an analytic form. A common practice is to 'fit' the numerical solution either by least squares or cubic spline approach. Neither of these approaches is really accurate, nor do they produce unique results. These limitations are avoided by our approach.

  20. Potentiometric titration with polarized electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikryzova, E.G.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the works carried out during 1911-75 consideration is given to the present state of the method of potentiometric titration with polarized electrodes. The material is generalized in the tabular form indicating the elments of interest, titration conditions and the objects to be analyzed. The list and classification of the potentiometric titration methods intended for determining organic and inorganic substances are presented

  1. Surface modification of recording electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iaci Miranda Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne Polyurethanes (PUs are a family of polymers that contains urethane linkages synthesized in an aqueous environment and are thus free of organic solvents. Recently, waterborne PUs have been extensively studied for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility. The present work investigates the following: (1 the impact on electrical performance of electrode materials (platinum and silicon modified chemically by a layer of waterborne PU, and (2 the behavior of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat cardiomyocytes when in contact with an electrode surface. Diisocyanate and poly(caprolactone diol were the main reagents for producing PUs. The electrochemical impedance of the electrode/electrolyte interface was accessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The cellular viability, proliferation, and morphology changes were investigated using an MTT assay. Cardiomyocyte adherence was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained surface was uniform, flat, and transparent. The film showed good adhesion, and no peeling was detected. The electrochemical impedance decreased over time and was influenced by the ionic permeability of the PU layer. The five samples did not show cytotoxicity when in contact with neonatal rat cells.

  2. Modeling of Changing Electrode Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Geoffrey Allen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials and Molecular Research Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1980-12-01

    A model for simulating the transient behavior of solid electrodes undergoing deposition or dissolution has been developed. The model accounts for ohmic drop, charge transfer overpotential, and mass transport limitations. The finite difference method, coupled with successive overrelaxation, was used as the basis of the solution technique. An algorithm was devised to overcome the computational instabilities associated with the calculations of the secondary and tertiary current distributions. Simulations were performed on several model electrode profiles: the sinusoid, the rounded corner, and the notch. Quantitative copper deposition data were obtained in a contoured rotating cylinder system, Sinusoidal cross-sections, machined on stainless steel cylinders, were used as model geometries, Kinetic parameters for use in the simulation were determined from polarization curves obtained on copper rotating cylinders, These parameters, along with other physical property and geometric data, were incorporated in simulations of growing sinusoidal profiles. The copper distributions on the sinusoidal cross-sections were measured and found to compare favorably with the simulated results. At low Wagner numbers the formation of a slight depression at the profile peak was predicted by the simulation and observed on the profile. At higher Wagner numbers, the simulated and experimental results showed that the formation of a depression was suppressed. This phenomenon was shown to result from the competition between ohmic drop and electrode curvature.

  3. Band-gap engineering of functional perovskites through quantum confinement and tunneling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Pandey, Mohnish; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    An optimal band gap that allows for a high solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency is one of the key factors to achieve sustainability. We investigate computationally the band gaps and optical spectra of functional perovskites composed of layers of the two cubic perovskite semiconductors BaSnO3...... and BaTaO2N. Starting from an indirect gap of around 3.3 eV for BaSnO3 and a direct gap of 1.8 eV for BaTaO2N, different layerings can be used to design a direct gap of the functional perovskite between 2.3 and 1.2 eV. The variations of the band gap can be understood in terms of quantum confinement...

  4. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Orbital Principles of Oxygen-Redox Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Masashi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2017-10-25

    Lithium-ion batteries are key energy-storage devices for a sustainable society. The most widely used positive electrode materials are LiMO 2 (M: transition metal), in which a redox reaction of M occurs in association with Li + (de)intercalation. Recent developments of Li-excess transition-metal oxides, which deliver a large capacity of more than 200 mAh/g using an extra redox reaction of oxygen, introduce new possibilities for designing higher energy density lithium-ion batteries. For better engineering using this fascinating new chemistry, it is necessary to achieve a full understanding of the reaction mechanism by gaining knowledge on the chemical state of oxygen. In this review, a summary of the recent advances in oxygen-redox battery electrodes is provided, followed by a systematic demonstration of the overall electronic structures based on molecular orbitals with a focus on the local coordination environment around oxygen. We show that a π-type molecular orbital plays an important role in stabilizing the oxidized oxygen that emerges upon the charging process. Molecular orbital principles are convenient for an atomic-level understanding of how reversible oxygen-redox reactions occur in bulk, providing a solid foundation toward improved oxygen-redox positive electrode materials for high energy-density batteries.

  6. Technology and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.

    2011-01-01

    In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an

  7. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  8. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  9. Lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Robert Mason

    Batteries based oil intercalation eletrodes are currently being considered for a variety of applications including automobiles. This thesis is concerned with the simulation and experimental investigation of one such system: spinel LiyMn2O4. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of an electrochemical cell containing all intercalation electrode is developed and applied to Li yMn2O4 based systems. The influence of the exchange current density oil the propagation of the reaction through the depth of the electrode is examined theoretically. Galvanostatic cycling and relaxation phenomena on open circuit are simulated for different particle-size distributions. The electrode with uniformly sized particles shows the best performance when the current is on, and relaxes towards equilibrium most quickly. The impedance of a porous electrode containing a particle-size distribution at low frequencies is investigated with all analytic solution and a simplified version of the mathematical model. The presence of the particle-size distribution leads to an apparent diffusion coefficient which has all incorrect concentration dependence. A Li/1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC)/ LiyMn 2O4 cell is used to investigate the influence of side reactions oil the current-potential behavior of intercalation electrodes. Slow cyclic voltammograms and self-discharge data are combined to estimate the reversible potential of the host material and the kinetic parameters for the side reaction. This information is then used, together with estimates of the solid-state diffusion coefficient and main-reaction exchange current density, in a mathematical model of the system. Predictions from the model compare favorably with continuous cycling results and galvanostatic experiments with periodic current interruptions. The variation with respect to composition of' the diffusion coefficient of lithium in LiyMn2O4 is estimated from incomplete galvanostatic discharges following open-circult periods. The

  10. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 energy storage systems because of their unique physicochemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability, and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a systematic summary of the synthesis, modification, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  11. Is there a gap in the gap? Regional differences in the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Boris; König, Marion; Möller, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate regional differences in the gender pay gap both theoretically and empirically. Within a spatial oligopsony model, we show that more densely populated labour markets are more competitive and constrain employers' ability to discriminate against women. Utilising a large administrative data set for western Germany and a flexible semi-parametric propensity score matching approach, we find that the unexplained gender pay gap for young workers is substantially lower in ...

  12. Engineered porous silicon counter electrodes for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, William R; Oakes, Landon; Chatterjee, Shahana; Zarick, Holly F; Pint, Cary L; Bardhan, Rizia

    2014-06-25

    In this work, we demonstrate for the first time, the use of porous silicon (P-Si) as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with efficiencies (5.38%) comparable to that achieved with platinum counter electrodes (5.80%). To activate the P-Si for triiodide reduction, few layer carbon passivation is utilized to enable electrochemical stability of the silicon surface. Our results suggest porous silicon as a promising sustainable and manufacturable alternative to rare metals for electrochemical solar cells, following appropriate surface modification.

  13. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. (topical review)

  14. Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriate...

  15. Construction and Application of Flow Enzymatic Biosensor Based of Silver Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Sarcosine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josypčuk, Oksana; Barek, J.; Josypčuk, Bohdan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 11 (2015), s. 2559-2566 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP206/12/G151; GA ČR GAP206/11/1638 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : biosensors * sarcosine * silver solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.471, year: 2015

  16. Schiff Base modified on CPE electrode and PCB gold electrode for selective determination of silver ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leepheng, Piyawan; Suramitr, Songwut; Phromyothin, Darinee

    2017-09-01

    The schiff base was synthesized by 2,5-thiophenedicarboxaldehyde and 1,2,4-thiadiazole-3,5-diamine with condensation method. There was modified on carbon paste electrode (CPE) and Printed circuit board (PCB) gold electrode for determination silver ion. The schiff base modified electrodes was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The electrochemical study was reported by cyclic voltammetry method and impedance spectroscopy using modified electrode as working electrode, platinum wire and Ag/AgCl as counter electrode and reference electrode, respectively. The modified electrodes have suitable detection for Ag+. The determination of silver ions using the modified electrodes depended linearly on Ag+ concentration in the range 1×10-10 M to 1×10-7 M, with cyclic voltammetry sensitivity were 2.51×108 μAM-1 and 1.88×108 μAM-1 for PCB gold electrode and CPE electrode, respectively, limits of detection were 5.33×10-9 M and 1.99×10-8 M for PCB gold electrode and CPE electrode, respectively. The modified electrodes have high accuracy, inexpensive and can applied to detection Ag+ in real samples.

  17. Electrode phenomena, tensor conductivity and electrode heating in seeded argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Z.; de Montardy, A.

    1963-04-15

    Contact potential drops along the electrodes often prevent measurements of ionized gas conductivity. In order to avoid such potential drops, a measurement cell using double probe technique was realized. By adding a third probe, it is also possible to measure the conductivity tensor components. Formulas commonly used are shown to be incorrect. In order to evaluate non- equilibrium conductivity, the excitation temperature of the seed is to be considered, rather than electron temperature, especially in small scale experiments, where charged particle losses by ambipolar diffusion are to be expected. (auth)

  18. Buying green and social from abroad: Are biomassfocused voluntary sustainability standards useful for European public procurement?

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchelt, Tina

    2017-01-01

    European public procurement is becoming more sustainable. However, for goods with global supply chains, sustainable procurement faces several challenges. This paper highlights the sustainability challenges for biomass-based products, discusses the suitability of biomass-focused voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) to address them, and identifies experiences and knowledge gaps in the use of VSS in European public procurement. The paper is based on a comprehensive literature review and a ca...

  19. Impacts of sustainable consumption choices on quality of life: the Slow Food example

    OpenAIRE

    Nevison, James Holm

    2008-01-01

    Though increasingly understood that sustainable consumption is a key component for sustainable development, establishing its viability remains a crucial task. Moving towards sustainable consumption will realistically require significant changes in consumptio n patterns, as well as rethinking the connection between increased consumption and well-being. However, an identified knowledge gap exists in understanding how sustainable consumption choices impact lifestyle and quality of life. As a sta...

  20. Bifunctional electrodes for unitised regenerative fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, Sebastian; Kaz, Till; Friedrich, Kaspar Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Different oxygen electrode configurations for the operation in a unitised reversible fuel cell were tested. → Polarisation curves and EIS measurements were recorded. → The mixture of catalysts performs best for the present stage of electrode development. → Potential improvements for the different compositions are discussed. - Abstract: The effects of different configurations and compositions of platinum and iridium oxide electrodes for the oxygen reaction of unitised regenerative fuel cells (URFC) are reported. Bifunctional oxygen electrodes are important for URFC development because favourable properties for the fuel cell and the electrolysis modes must be combined into a single electrode. The bifunctional electrodes were studied under different combinations of catalyst mixtures, multilayer arrangements and segmented configurations with single catalyst areas. Distinct electrochemical behaviour was observed for both modes and can be explained on the basis of impedance spectroscopy. The mixture of both catalysts performs best for the present stage of electrode development. Also, the multilayer electrodes yielded good results with the potential for optimisation. The influence of ionic and electronic resistances on the relative performance is demonstrated. However, penalties due to cross currents in the heterogeneous electrodes were identified and explained by comparing the performance curves with electrodes composed of a single catalyst. Potential improvements for the different compositions are discussed.

  1. 3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachunov, Sammy; Casson, Alexander J

    2016-10-02

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a procedure that records brain activity in a non-invasive manner. The cost and size of EEG devices has decreased in recent years, facilitating a growing interest in wearable EEG that can be used out-of-the-lab for a wide range of applications, from epilepsy diagnosis, to stroke rehabilitation, to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). A major obstacle for these emerging applications is the wet electrodes, which are used as part of the EEG setup. These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability. A solution to this problem is to use dry electrodes, which do not require conductive gel, but tend to have a higher noise floor. This paper presents a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of such dry electrodes. We manufacture the electrodes using low cost desktop 3D printers and off-the-shelf components for the first time. This allows quick and inexpensive electrode manufacturing and opens the possibility of creating electrodes that are customized for each individual user. Our 3D printed electrodes are compared against standard wet electrodes, and the performance of the proposed electrodes is suitable for BCI applications, despite the presence of additional noise.

  2. 3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Krachunov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG is a procedure that records brain activity in a non-invasive manner. The cost and size of EEG devices has decreased in recent years, facilitating a growing interest in wearable EEG that can be used out-of-the-lab for a wide range of applications, from epilepsy diagnosis, to stroke rehabilitation, to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI. A major obstacle for these emerging applications is the wet electrodes, which are used as part of the EEG setup. These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability. A solution to this problem is to use dry electrodes, which do not require conductive gel, but tend to have a higher noise floor. This paper presents a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of such dry electrodes. We manufacture the electrodes using low cost desktop 3D printers and off-the-shelf components for the first time. This allows quick and inexpensive electrode manufacturing and opens the possibility of creating electrodes that are customized for each individual user. Our 3D printed electrodes are compared against standard wet electrodes, and the performance of the proposed electrodes is suitable for BCI applications, despite the presence of additional noise.

  3. Characteristics and applications of diffuse discharge of water electrode in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzheng, LIU; Tahan, WANG; Xiaozhong, CHEN; Chuanlong, MA

    2018-01-01

    Plasma water treatment technology, which aims to produce strong oxidizing reactive particles that act on the gas-liquid interface by way of discharging, is used to treat the organic pollutants that do not degrade easily in water. This paper presents a diffuse-discharge plasma water treatment method, which is realized by constructing a conical air gap through an uneven medium layer. The proposed method uses water as one electrode, and a dielectric barrier discharge electrode is constructed by using an uneven dielectric. The electric field distribution in the discharge space will be uneven, wherein the long gap electric field will have a smaller intensity, while the short one will have a larger intensity. A diffuse glow discharge is formed in the cavity. With this type of plasma water treatment equipment, a methyl orange solution with a concentration of 10 mg l-1 was treated, and the removal rate was found to reach 88.96%.

  4. HVDC Ground Electrodes and Tectonic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ground electrodes in HVDC transmission are huge grounding systems for the DC part of the converter substation, about 1 km wide, sized to inject in the ground DC currents up to 3.5 kA. This work presents an analysis of how the tectonic setting at converter substation location is determinant for the search of the best electrode location (Site Selection) and on its design and performance. It will briefly present the author experience on HVDC electrode design, summarized as follows: Itaipu - Foz do Iguaçu electrodes (transmitter side) located in the middle of Paraná Sedimentary Basin, and Ibiúna electrodes (receiving side) on the border of the basin, 6 km from the geological strike, where the crystalline basement outcrops in São Paulo state; Madeira River - North electrodes (transmitting side) located on the Northwest border of South Amazon Craton, where the crystalline basement is below a shallow sediments layer, and South electrodes (receiving side) located within Paraná Sedimentary Basin; Chile - electrodes located on the Andean forearc, where the Nazca Plate plunges under the South American Plate; Kenya - Ethiopia - electrodes located in the African Rift; Belo Monte - North electrodes (transmitter side) located within the Amazonian Sedimentary Basin, about 35 km of its South border, and South electrodes (receiving side) within Paraná Sedimentary Basin (bipole 1) and on crystalline metamorphic terrain "Brasília Belt" (bipole 2). This diversity of geological conditions results on ground electrodes of different topologies and dimensions, with quite different electrical and thermal performances. A brief study of the geology of the converter stations regions, the so-called Desktop Study, allows for the preview of several important parameters for the site selection and design of the electrodes, such as localization, type, size and estimate of the interference area, which are important predictors of the investment to be made and indications of the design to be

  5. The fabrication and single electron transport of Au nano-particles placed between Nb nanogap electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, T; Negishi, R; Ishibashi, K; Kawao, M; Nagata, T; Ozawa, H

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated Nb nanogap electrodes using a combination of molecular lithography and electron beam lithography. Au nano-particles with anchor molecules were placed in the gap, the width of which could be controlled on a molecular scale (∼2 nm). Three different anchor molecules which connect the Au nano-particles and the electrodes were tested to investigate their contact resistance, and a local gate was fabricated underneath the Au nano-particles. The electrical transport measurements at liquid helium temperatures indicated single electron transistor (SET) characteristics with a charging energy of about ∼ 5 meV, and a clear indication of the effect of superconducting electrodes was not observed, possibly due to the large tunnel resistance.

  6. Theoretical Verification of Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation Using Nanocrystalline TiO2 Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Yanagida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscopic anatase nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2 electrodes play effective and efficient catalytic roles in photoelectrochemical (PEC H2O oxidation under short circuit energy gap excitation conditions. Interfacial molecular orbital structures of (H2O3 &OH(TiO29H as a stationary model under neutral conditions and the radical-cation model of [(H2O3&OH(TiO29H]+ as a working nc-TiO2 model are simulated employing a cluster model OH(TiO29H (Yamashita/Jono’s model and a H2O cluster model of (H2O3 to examine excellent H2O oxidation on nc-TiO2 electrodes in PEC cells. The stationary model, (H2O3&OH(TiO29H reveals that the model surface provides catalytic H2O binding sites through hydrogen bonding, van der Waals and Coulombic interactions. The working model, [(H2O3&OH(TiO29H]+ discloses to have a very narrow energy gap (0.3 eV between HOMO and LUMO potentials, proving that PEC nc-TiO2 electrodes become conductive at photo-irradiated working conditions. DFT-simulation of stepwise oxidation of a hydroxide ion cluster model of OH−(H2O3, proves that successive two-electron oxidation leads to hydroxyl radical clusters, which should give hydrogen peroxide as a precursor of oxygen molecules. Under working bias conditions of PEC cells, nc-TiO2 electrodes are now verified to become conductive by energy gap photo-excitation and the electrode surface provides powerful oxidizing sites for successive H2O oxidation to oxygen via hydrogen peroxide.

  7. Astroglial Metabolic Networks Sustain Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  8. Astroglial metabolic networks sustain hippocampal synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-05

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  9. Explaining the Gender Wealth Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess and explain the United States’ gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family’s best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. A gender wealth gap remains between married men and women after controlling for the full model that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects. PMID:23264038

  10. Sustainability in Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level of market...... managers' mindsets, a framework addressing sustainability from four organisational learning schools was designed and followed......How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level...... of marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...

  11. Simple protein structure-sensitive chronopotentiometric analysis with dithiothreitol-modified Hg electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostatná, Veronika; Černocká, Hana; Paleček, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 87, SI (2012), s. 84-88 ISSN 1567-5394 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB100040901; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : protein electroanalysis * DTT-modified electrodes * electrocatalysis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.947, year: 2012

  12. Native and denatured forms of proteins can be discriminated at edge plane carbon electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostatná, Veronika; Černocká, Hana; Kurzatkowska, K.; Paleček, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 735, JUL (2012), s. 31-36 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB100040901; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA MŠk(CZ) ME09038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : protein denaturation * carbon electrodes * edge plane pyrolytic graphite Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.387, year: 2012

  13. Cobalt phthalocyanine modified electrodes utilised in electroanalysis: nano-structured modified electrodes vs. bulk modified screen-printed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Christopher W; Pillay, Jeseelan; Metters, Jonathan P; Banks, Craig E

    2014-11-19

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC) onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no "electrocatalysis" is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where "electrocatalysis" has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate.

  14. Cobalt Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes Utilised in Electroanalysis: Nano-Structured Modified Electrodes vs. Bulk Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Foster

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no “electrocatalysis” is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where “electrocatalysis” has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate.

  15. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  16. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  17. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  18. Exploring the Gap between Ecosystem Service Research and Management in Development Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Sitas; Heidi E. Prozesky; Karen J. Esler; Belinda Reyers

    2014-01-01

    The gap between science and practice has been highlighted in a number of scientific disciplines, including the newly developing domain of ecosystem service science, posing a challenge for the sustainable management of ecosystem services for human wellbeing. While methods to explore science-practice gaps are developing, testing and revisions of these methods are still needed so as to identify opportunities for mainstreaming ecosystem service science into development policies and practice. We d...

  19. Extended width in discontinuously connected polymer-free carbon nanotubes grown between electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wen-Teng; Yang, Fu-Siang

    2015-01-01

    Polymer-free carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown between single-gap (SG) and interdigital-gap (IG) electrodes were used to develop miniature strain gauges. The strain and stress of the gauges were approximated according to the distance lift of a screw on a cantilever silicon substrate. In our preliminary study, electrical characterization indicated the gauge factors (GFs) of SG and IG devices to be approximately 36 and 1500, respectively. This result suggests that an extended width in IG electrodes, generating a larger amount of CNTs, provides a smaller minimum tunneling distance than does the width in SG electrodes. The distance shift under a small distance is expected to generate a high ratio of tunneling resistance change. The sparser and denser distributions of CNTs in SG and IG electrodes probably caused the gauges to exhibit capacitive and inductive features, respectively. Despite having substantial GFs, the gauge may require improvement in packaging to resist environmental effects and the growth of homogeneous CNTs and, thus, be reproducible

  20. Analysis of low-pressure dc breakdown in nitrogen between two spherical iron electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejovic, Momcilo M.; Nesic, Nikola T.; Pejovic, Milic M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of afterglow period τ, voltage increase rate k, and electrode gap d on breakdown voltage U b for a nitrogen-filled tube with spherical electrodes of diameter D>>d and p=6.5 mbar has been investigated. The data for the breakdown voltage were obtained for the case when there is a presence of N( 4 S) atoms, which release secondary electrons via recombination on the cathode. By fitting the experimental data of breakdown voltage mean values as a function of the voltage increase rate, the static breakdown voltages for afterglow periods of 15 and 100 s were estimated. The electrical field as a function of the electrode gap using breakdown voltage mean values was also determined. It is shown that experimental results of the breakdown voltage mean value as a function of pd in the interval of d from 0.82 to 1.62 mm can be very well described with Paschen's law, valid for the case of parallel-plate electrodes

  1. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  2. Sustainable Table | Welcome to Sustainable Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Seafood Industrial Agriculture Industrial Livestock Production Antibiotics Hormones rBGH Animal , safeguarding animal welfare and supporting local communities. Questions to Ask Asking questions is the best way Livestock Husbandry Sustainable Crop Production Innovative Agriculture New Farmers Organic Agriculture Local

  3. Electrochemical cell and negative electrode therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with the positive and negative electrodes separated by a molten salt electrolyte with the negative electrode comprising a particulate mixture of lithium-aluminum alloy and electrolyte and an additive selected from graphitized carbon, Raney iron or mixtures thereof. The lithium-aluminum alloy is present in the range of from about 45 to about 80 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is present in an amount not less than about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode. The additive of graphitized carbon is present in the range of from about 1 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the Raney iron additive is present in the range of from about 3 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode.

  4. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  5. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  6. Graphene electrodes for stimulation of neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerbitzer, Berit; Nick, Christoph; Thielemann, Christiane; Krauss, Peter; Yadav, Sandeep; Schneider, Joerg J

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has the ability to improve the electrical interface between neuronal cells and electrodes used for recording and stimulation purposes. It provides a biocompatible coating for common electrode materials such as gold and improves the electrode properties. Graphene electrodes are also prepared on SiO 2 substrate to benefit from its optical properties like transparency. We perform electrochemical and Raman characterization of gold electrodes with graphene coating and compare them with graphene on SiO 2 substrate. It was found that the substrate plays an important role in the performance of graphene and show that graphene on SiO 2 substrate is a very promising material combination for stimulation electrodes. (paper)

  7. Education for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2009-01-01

     An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related ...... to the use of natural resources and other matters, and how that kind of issues can be dealt with in education as ESD....... An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related...

  8. The Emissions Gap Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    This fifth Emissions Gap report has a different focus from previous years. While it updates the 2020 emissions gap analysis, it gives particular attention to the implications of the global carbon dioxide emissions budget for staying within the 2 °C limit beyond 2020. It does so because countries...... are giving increasing attention to where they need to be in 2025, 2030 and beyond. Furthermore, this year’s update of the report benefits from the findings on the emissions budget from the latest series of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports...

  9. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  10. Production of atmospheric pressure diffuse nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge using the array needles-plate electrode in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dezheng; Wang Wenchun; Jia Li; Nie Dongxia; Shi Hengchao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a bidirectional high pulse voltage with 20 ns rising time is employed to generate an atmospheric pressure diffuse dielectric barrier discharge using the array needles-plate electrode configuration. Both double needle and multiple needle electrode configurations nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharges are investigated. It is found that a diffuse discharge plasma with low gas temperature can be obtained, and the plasma volume increases with the increase of the pulse peak voltage, but remains almost constant with the increase of the pulse repetition rate. In addition to showing the potential application on a topographically nonuniform surface treatment of the discharge, the multiple needle-plate electrode configuration with different needle-plate electrode gaps are also employed to generate diffuse discharge plasma.

  11. Investigation of Imbalanced Activated Carbon Electrode Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tieshi He; Xue Ren; Junping Nie; Jun Ying; Kedi Cai

    2015-01-01

    Imbalanced supercapacitor was constructed by using various ratio of activated carbon (AC) of positive to negative electrode. The electrochemical behavior of imbalanced supercapacitor was investigated using 1.0 M spiro-(1,1′)-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte in propylene carbonate. The results showed that there are some factors that influenced the imbalanced supercapacitor with different AC ratio of positive to negative electrode, the utilization of AC, electrode potential distrib...

  12. Electrocatalytic activity of bismuth doped silver electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Amjad, M

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of redox reactions on silver, and bismuth doped silver electrodes in aqueous KOH solutions, by using potentiostatic steady-state polarization technique, has been carried out. The redox wave potential and current displacements along with multiplicity of the latter have been examined. These electrodes were employed for the oxidation of organic molecules such as ethylamine in alkaline media. Subsequently, these electrodes were ranked with respect to their activity for the redox reactions. (author)

  13. Graphene field effect transistor without an energy gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Hyungjun; Son, Young-Woo; Atwater, Harry A; Goddard, William A

    2013-05-28

    Graphene is a room temperature ballistic electron conductor and also a very good thermal conductor. Thus, it has been regarded as an ideal material for postsilicon electronic applications. A major complication is that the relativistic massless electrons in pristine graphene exhibit unimpeded Klein tunneling penetration through gate potential barriers. Thus, previous efforts to realize a field effect transistor for logic applications have assumed that introduction of a band gap in graphene is a prerequisite. Unfortunately, extrinsic treatments designed to open a band gap seriously degrade device quality, yielding very low mobility and uncontrolled on/off current ratios. To solve this dilemma, we propose a gating mechanism that leads to a hundredfold enhancement in on/off transmittance ratio for normally incident electrons without any band gap engineering. Thus, our saw-shaped geometry gate potential (in place of the conventional bar-shaped geometry) leads to switching to an off state while retaining the ultrahigh electron mobility in the on state. In particular, we report that an on/off transmittance ratio of 130 is achievable for a sawtooth gate with a gate length of 80 nm. Our switching mechanism demonstrates that intrinsic graphene can be used in designing logic devices without serious alteration of the conventional field effect transistor architecture. This suggests a new variable for the optimization of the graphene-based device--geometry of the gate electrode.

  14. Time structure measurement of the ATLAS RPC gap current

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The current absorbed by an RPC represents the sum of the charge delivered in the gas by the ionizing events interesting the gap, integrated by the electrodes time constant. This is typically of the order of tens of ms thus dominating the gas discharge time scale and characterizing the granular structure observed in the current signal. In most cases this structure is considered as noise to be further integrated to observe the average gap current, used often as a detector monitoring parameter or to precisely measure the uncorrelated background rate effects. A remarkable case is given if a large number of particles is passing trough the detector within an integration time constant producing a current peak clearly detectable above the average noise. The ATLAS RPC system is equipped with a dedicated current monitoring based on an ADC capable of reading out the average value as well as the transient peaks of the currents above a given threshold. A study on such data was used to spot the gap HV noise, to monitor the...

  15. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jenny; Annandale, David; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  16. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  17. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  18. A micro-gap, air-filled ionisation chamber as a detector for criticality accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murawski, I.; Zielczynski, M.; Gryzinski, M.A.; Golnik, N.

    2014-01-01

    A micro-gap air-filled ionisation chamber was designed for criticality dosimetry. The special feature of the chamber is its very small gap between electrodes of only 0.3 mm. This prevents ion recombination at high dose rates and minimises the influence of gas on secondary particles spectrum. The electrodes are made of polypropylene because of higher content of hydrogen in this material, when compared with soft tissue. The difference between neutron and gamma sensitivity in such chamber becomes practically negligible. The chamber's envelope contains two specially connected capacitors, one for polarising the electrodes and the other for collecting the ionisation charge. Air-filled ionisation chamber with very small gap is a simple dosemeter, which fulfills the most desired properties of criticality accident dosemeters. Short ion collection time is achieved by combination of small gap and relatively high polarising voltage. For the same reason, parasitic recombination of ions in the chamber is negligibly small even at high dose rates. The difference between neutron and gamma sensitivity is small for tissue-equivalent chamber and is expected to become practically negligible when the chamber electrodes are made of polypropylene. Additional capacitor provides a broad measuring range from ∼0.1 Gy up to ∼25 Gy; however, leakage of electrical charge from polarising capacitor has to be observed and taken into account. Periodical re-charging of the device is necessary. Obviously, final test of the device in conditions simulating criticality accident is needed and will be performed as soon as available. (authors)

  19. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  20. Study of electrochemical behavior of desatinib using hanging mercury drop electrode and gold disc electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Kateřina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2015), s. 116-116 ISSN 1336-7242 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : electrochemistry * hanging mercury drop electrode * gold electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  1. Sustainable supply chain design: a configurational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research.

  2. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  3. Computer code determination of tolerable accel current and voltage limits during startup of an 80 kV MFTF sustaining neutral beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Eckard, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    We have used a Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) version of the WOLF ion source extractor design computer code to determine tolerable accel current and voltage limits during startup of a prototype 80 kV Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) sustaining neutral beam source. Arc current limits are also estimated. The source extractor has gaps of 0.236, 0.721, and 0.155 cm. The effective ion mass is 2.77 AMU. The measured optimum accel current density is 0.266 A/cm 2 . The gradient grid electrode runs at 5/6 V/sub a/ (accel voltage). The suppressor electrode voltage is zero for V/sub a/ < 3 kV and -3 kV for V/sub a/ greater than or equal to 3 kV. The accel current density for optimum beam divergence is obtained for 1 less than or equal to V/sub a/ less than or equal to 80 kV, as are the beam divergence and emittance

  4. Asymmetric Supercapacitor Electrodes and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Nitin; Li, Chao; Moore, Julian; Nagaiah, Narasimha; Zhai, Lei; Jung, Yeonwoong; Thomas, Jayan

    2017-06-01

    The world is recently witnessing an explosive development of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices that demand more-reliable power sources that combine higher energy density and longer-term durability. Supercapacitors have become one of the most promising energy-storage systems, as they present multifold advantages of high power density, fast charging-discharging, and long cyclic stability. However, the intrinsically low energy density inherent to traditional supercapacitors severely limits their widespread applications, triggering researchers to explore new types of supercapacitors with improved performance. Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) assembled using two dissimilar electrode materials offer a distinct advantage of wide operational voltage window, and thereby significantly enhance the energy density. Recent progress made in the field of ASCs is critically reviewed, with the main focus on an extensive survey of the materials developed for ASC electrodes, as well as covering the progress made in the fabrication of ASC devices over the last few decades. Current challenges and a future outlook of the field of ASCs are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Polystyrene Based Silver Selective Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Agarwal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver(I selective sensors have been fabricated from polystyrene matrix membranes containing macrocycle, Me6(14 diene.2HClO4 as ionophore. Best performance was exhibited by the membrane having a composition macrocycle : Polystyrene in the ratio 15:1. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range 5.0×10-6–1.0×10-1M of Ag+ with a near-Nernstian slope of 53.0 ± 1.0 mV per decade of Ag+ activity. The response time of the sensor is <15 s and the membrane can be used over a period of four months with good reproducibility. The proposed electrode works well in a wide pH range 2.5-9.0 and demonstrates good discriminating power over a number of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The sensor has also been used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of silver(II ions against NaCl solution. The sensor can also be used in non-aqueous medium with no significant change in the value of slope or working concentration range for the estimation of Ag+ in solution having up to 25% (v/v nonaqueous fraction.

  6. Making biofuels sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Full text: As the twentieth century drew to a close, there was considerable support for the use of biofuels as a source of renewable energy. To many people, they offered significant savings in greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels, an opportunity for reduced dependency on oil for transport, and potential as a counter weight to increasing oil prices. They also promised an opportunity for rural economies to benefit from a new market for their products and a chance of narrowing the gap between rich and poor nations. Biofuel development was encouraged by government subsidies, and rapid growth occurred in many parts of the world. Forty per cent of Brazilian sugar cane is used for biofuel production, for example, as is almost a quarter of maize grown in the United States. Although only around 1 per cent of arable land is cultivated to grow feedstock for biofuels, there has been increasing concern over the way a largely unchecked market has developed, and about its social and environmental consequences. Recent research has confirmed that food prices have been driven significantly higher by competition for prime agricultural land and that savings in greenhouse gas emissions are much smaller - and in some cases entirely eliminated - when environmentally important land, such as rainforest, is destroyed to grow biofuels. As a result, many now believe that the economic benefits of biofuels have been obtained at too high a social and environmental price, and they question whether they can be a truly sustainable source of energy. The United Kingdom has always had sustainability at the heart of its biofuel policies and set up the Renewable Fuels Agency to ensure that this goal was met. The direct effects of biofuel production are already being assessed through five measures of environmental performance and two measures of social performance, as well as measures of the energy efficiency of the production processes used and of the greenhouse gas savings achieved

  7. Sustainability Partnerships for the Governance of Coastal Resources in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katikiro, Robert; Kweka, Opportuna; Namkesa, Faraja

    The paper examines the experience of sustainability partnerships for the management of coastal resources in Tanzania. It identifies key actors and governance dynamics, with focus on decentralization processes, legitimacy-building and participation of local communities. The paper first provides a ...... of ongoing research under the New Partnerships for Sustainability project (NEPSUS), it provides guidance on research gaps in specific relation to the Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP) and selected BMUs in Mtwara region, Southern Tanzania....

  8. Quiet sustainability: Fertile lessons from Europe's productive gardeners

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, J.; Jehlička, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2013), s. 148-157 ISSN 0743-0167 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Quiet sustainability * Sustainable development * Sharing Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 2.036, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0743016713000454

  9. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  10. Handbook of sustainable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kun-Mo

    2013-01-01

    "The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key asse...

  11. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  12. Sustainable development. First part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.; Lanzavecchia, G.; Berrini, M; Zambrini, M.; Bologna, G.; Carraro, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Mastino, G.; Federico, A.; Gaudioso, D.; Luise, A.; Mauro, F.; Padovani, L.; Federico, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes a collective effort and represents the second edition of: Environment, energy, economy: a sustainable future. In this work are reported various interventions on sustainable development problem [it

  13. Sustainable Public Bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil César Costa de Paula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the issue of sustainability in public procurement, given that the government in Brazil is constituted as a great promoter of economic development and needs to adapt its acquisitions worldwide sustainability agenda.

  14. Neighbourhood facilities for sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper these are referred to as ‘Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability’. Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability (NFS) are initiatives undertaken by individuals and communities to build local sustainable systems which not only improve...

  15. FORUM: Is Ecotourism Sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall

    1997-07-01

    / It is legitimate to ask whether and in what form tourism might contribute to sustainable development. This is not the same as sustainable tourism which, as a single-sector approach to development, may overlook important linkages with other sectors. If tourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then it must be economically viable, ecologically sensitive and culturally appropriate. Ecotourism is often advocated as being a sustainable form of tourism but imprecision in terminology clouds basic issues and there are strong economic, ecological, and cultural reasons for believing that, even in its purest forms, ecotourism is likely to present substantial challenges to destination areas, particularly if it competes for scarce resources and displaces existing uses and users. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are not synonyms, many forms of ecotourism may not be sustainable, and if ecotourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then careful planning and management will be required.KEY WORDS: Ecotourism; Sustainable development; Development; Tourism

  16. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  17. Closing the Gaps. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Achievement gaps between groups of students (minority and white, rich and poor, English speakers and English language learners) are complex and intractable. Increasingly, they are being seen as a result of disparities between opportunities for learning available to different groups. By changing the opportunity structures of schools and…

  18. Project LOCAL - Bridging The Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    Project LOCAL, a not-for-profit regional consortium, offers a broad spectrum of in-service training courses tailored to meet the needs of educators in various disciplines and levels of experience. The purpose of these offerings is to bridge the communication gap between innovative centers in computer-oriented education and staff members in Boston…

  19. Gender Wealth Gap in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Trommlerová (Sofia Karina)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractNo data on wealth has been available in Slovakia prior to Household Finance and Consumption Survey. Therefore, only studies on labor market participation and wage gender gaps are available to date. These studies indicate that Slovak women earn on average 25% less than men.

  20. Featured Image: Simulating Planetary Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    The authors model of howthe above disk would look as we observe it in a scattered-light image. The morphology of the gap can be used to estimate the mass of the planet that caused it. [Dong Fung 2017]The above image from a computer simulation reveals the dust structure of a protoplanetary disk (with the star obscured in the center) as a newly formed planet orbits within it. A recent study by Ruobing Dong (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona) and Jeffrey Fung (University of California, Berkeley) examines how we can determine mass of such a planet based on our observations of the gap that the planet opens in the disk as it orbits. The authors models help us to better understand how our observations of gaps might change if the disk is inclined relative to our line of sight, and how we can still constrain the mass of the gap-opening planet and the viscosity of the disk from the scattered-light images we have recently begun to obtain of distant protoplanetary disks. For more information, check out the paper below!CitationRuobing Dong () and Jeffrey Fung () 2017 ApJ 835 146. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/146