WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustain conscious wakefulness

  1. VIRTUAL REALITY IN WAKING AND DREAMING CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan eHobson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity –becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM sleep dreaming, may provide the theatre for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness. In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the sensorium to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  2. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eDresler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem to be most pronounced in awake humans. Here we assess the experience of volition across different states of consciousness: 10 frequent lucid dreamers rated different aspects of volition according to the Volitional Components Questionnaire for phases of normal dreaming, lucid dreaming and wakefulness. Overall, experienced volition was comparable for lucid dreaming and wakefulness, and rated significantly higher for both states compared to non-lucid dreaming. However, three subscales showed specific differences across states of consciousness: planning ability was most pronounced during wakefulness, intention enactment most pronounced during lucid dreaming, and self-determination most pronounced during both wakefulness and lucid dreaming. Our data confirm the multifaceted nature of consciousness: different higher-order aspects of consciousness are differentially expressed across different conscious states.

  3. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Eibl, Leandra; Fischer, Christian F J; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Steiger, Axel; Czisch, Michael; Pawlowski, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states, or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem to be most pronounced in awake humans. Here we assess the experience of volition across different states of consciousness: 10 frequent lucid dreamers rated different aspects of volition according to the Volitional Components Questionnaire for phases of normal dreaming, lucid dreaming, and wakefulness. Overall, experienced volition was comparable for lucid dreaming and wakefulness, and rated significantly higher for both states compared to non-lucid dreaming. However, three subscales showed specific differences across states of consciousness: planning ability was most pronounced during wakefulness, intention enactment most pronounced during lucid dreaming, and self-determination most pronounced during both wakefulness and lucid dreaming. Our data confirm the multifaceted nature of consciousness: different higher-order aspects of consciousness are differentially expressed across different conscious states.

  4. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Eibl, Leandra; Fischer, Christian F. J.; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I.; Steiger, Axel; Czisch, Michael; Pawlowski, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states, or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem to be most pronounced in awake humans. Here we assess the experience of volition across different states of consciousness: 10 frequent lucid dreamers rated different aspects of volition according to the Volitional Components Questionnaire for phases of normal dreaming, lucid dreaming, and wakefulness. Overall, experienced volition was comparable for lucid dreaming and wakefulness, and rated significantly higher for both states compared to non-lucid dreaming. However, three subscales showed specific differences across states of consciousness: planning ability was most pronounced during wakefulness, intention enactment most pronounced during lucid dreaming, and self-determination most pronounced during both wakefulness and lucid dreaming. Our data confirm the multifaceted nature of consciousness: different higher-order aspects of consciousness are differentially expressed across different conscious states. PMID:24427149

  5. States of consciousness experimental insights into meditation, waking, sleep and dreams

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetkovic, Dean

    2011-01-01

    In this accessible overview of current knowledge, an expert team of editors and authors describe experimental approaches to consciousness. These approaches are shedding light on some of the hitherto unknown aspects of the distinct states of human consciousness, including the waking state, different states of sleep and dreaming, meditation and more. The book presents the latest research studies by the contributing authors, whose specialities span neuroscience, neurology, biomedical engineering, clinical psychology and psychophysiology, psychosocial medicine and anthropology. Overall this anthology provides the reader with a clear picture of how different states of consciousness can be defined, experimentally measured and analysed. A future byproduct of this knowledge may be anticipated in the development of systematic corrective treatments for many disorders and pathological problems of consciousness.

  6. Automated EEG entropy measurements in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimally conscious state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosseries, Olivia; Schnakers, Caroline; Ledoux, Didier; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Demertzi, Athéna; Noirhomme, Quentin; Lehembre, Rémy; Damas, Pierre; Goldman, Serge; Peeters, Erika; Moonen, Gustave; Laureys, Steven

    Summary Monitoring the level of consciousness in brain-injured patients with disorders of consciousness is crucial as it provides diagnostic and prognostic information. Behavioral assessment remains the gold standard for assessing consciousness but previous studies have shown a high rate of misdiagnosis. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of electroencephalography (EEG) entropy measurements in differentiating unconscious (coma or vegetative) from minimally conscious patients. Left fronto-temporal EEG recordings (10-minute resting state epochs) were prospectively obtained in 56 patients and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers. Patients were assessed in the acute (≤1 month post-injury; n=29) or chronic (>1 month post-injury; n=27) stage. The etiology was traumatic in 23 patients. Automated online EEG entropy calculations (providing an arbitrary value ranging from 0 to 91) were compared with behavioral assessments (Coma Recovery Scale-Revised) and outcome. EEG entropy correlated with Coma Recovery Scale total scores (r=0.49). Mean EEG entropy values were higher in minimally conscious (73±19; mean and standard deviation) than in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients (45±28). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed an entropy cut-off value of 52 differentiating acute unconscious from minimally conscious patients (sensitivity 89% and specificity 90%). In chronic patients, entropy measurements offered no reliable diagnostic information. EEG entropy measurements did not allow prediction of outcome. User-independent time-frequency balanced spectral EEG entropy measurements seem to constitute an interesting diagnostic – albeit not prognostic – tool for assessing neural network complexity in disorders of consciousness in the acute setting. Future studies are needed before using this tool in routine clinical practice, and these should seek to improve automated EEG quantification paradigms in order to reduce the remaining false

  7. The Adolescent Dip in Students' Sustainability Consciousness--Implications for Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Daniel; Gericke, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that interest in and concern about environmental issues tends to decrease in adolescence, but less is known about adolescents' broader consciousness of sustainable development, also including economic and social issues. This study investigates students' sustainability consciousness in the transition to adolescence. This…

  8. A theory of working memory without consciousness or sustained activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübutschek, Darinka; Marti, Sébastien; Ojeda, Andrés; King, Jean-Rémi; Mi, Yuanyuan; Tsodyks, Misha; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-01-01

    Working memory and conscious perception are thought to share similar brain mechanisms, yet recent reports of non-conscious working memory challenge this view. Combining visual masking with magnetoencephalography, we investigate the reality of non-conscious working memory and dissect its neural mechanisms. In a spatial delayed-response task, participants reported the location of a subjectively unseen target above chance-level after several seconds. Conscious perception and conscious working memory were characterized by similar signatures: a sustained desynchronization in the alpha/beta band over frontal cortex, and a decodable representation of target location in posterior sensors. During non-conscious working memory, such activity vanished. Our findings contradict models that identify working memory with sustained neural firing, but are compatible with recent proposals of ‘activity-silent’ working memory. We present a theoretical framework and simulations showing how slowly decaying synaptic changes allow cell assemblies to go dormant during the delay, yet be retrieved above chance-level after several seconds. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23871.001 PMID:28718763

  9. A theory of working memory without consciousness or sustained activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübutschek, Darinka; Marti, Sébastien; Ojeda, Andrés; King, Jean-Rémi; Mi, Yuanyuan; Tsodyks, Misha; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-07-18

    Working memory and conscious perception are thought to share similar brain mechanisms, yet recent reports of non-conscious working memory challenge this view. Combining visual masking with magnetoencephalography, we investigate the reality of non-conscious working memory and dissect its neural mechanisms. In a spatial delayed-response task, participants reported the location of a subjectively unseen target above chance-level after several seconds. Conscious perception and conscious working memory were characterized by similar signatures: a sustained desynchronization in the alpha/beta band over frontal cortex, and a decodable representation of target location in posterior sensors. During non-conscious working memory, such activity vanished. Our findings contradict models that identify working memory with sustained neural firing, but are compatible with recent proposals of 'activity-silent' working memory. We present a theoretical framework and simulations showing how slowly decaying synaptic changes allow cell assemblies to go dormant during the delay, yet be retrieved above chance-level after several seconds.

  10. Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Tuin, Inka; Hobson, J Allan

    2009-09-01

    The goal of the study was to seek physiological correlates of lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming is a dissociated state with aspects of waking and dreaming combined in a way so as to suggest a specific alteration in brain physiology for which we now present preliminary but intriguing evidence. We show that the unusual combination of hallucinatory dream activity and wake-like reflective awareness and agentive control experienced in lucid dreams is paralleled by significant changes in electrophysiology. 19-channel EEG was recorded on up to 5 nights for each participant. Lucid episodes occurred as a result of pre-sleep autosuggestion. Sleep laboratory of the Neurological Clinic, Frankfurt University. Six student volunteers who had been trained to become lucid and to signal lucidity through a pattern of horizontal eye movements. Results show lucid dreaming to have REM-like power in frequency bands delta and theta, and higher-than-REM activity in the gamma band, the between-states-difference peaking around 40 Hz. Power in the 40 Hz band is strongest in the frontal and frontolateral region. Overall coherence levels are similar in waking and lucid dreaming and significantly higher than in REM sleep, throughout the entire frequency spectrum analyzed. Regarding specific frequency bands, waking is characterized by high coherence in alpha, and lucid dreaming by increased delta and theta band coherence. In lucid dreaming, coherence is largest in frontolateral and frontal areas. Our data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas.

  11. Historical Consciousness and Sustainable Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development studies have become very strategic in charting the way forward for most Third World countries including Nigeria. A historical approach, which is the main thrust of this paper, intends to provide the building blocks, not only for economic advancement but for sustainable development in Nigeria that is ...

  12. GABAergic Inhibition of Histaminergic Neurons Regulates Active Waking But Not the sleep–wake Switch or Propofol-Induced Loss of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecharia, Anna Y.; Yu, Xiao; Götz, Thomas; Ye, Zhiwen; Carr, David R.; Wulff, Peer; Bettler, Bernhard; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Brickley, Stephen G.; Franks, Nicholas P.; Wisden, William

    2012-01-01

    The activity of histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus correlates with an animal’s behavioral state and maintains arousal. We examined how GABAergic inputs onto histaminergic neurons regulate this behavior. A prominent hypothesis, the “flip-flop” model, predicts that increased and sustained GABAergic drive onto these cells promotes sleep. Similarly, because of the histaminergic neurons’ key hub-like place in the arousal circuitry, it has also been suggested that anesthetics such as propofol induce loss of consciousness by acting primarily at histaminergic neurons. We tested both these hypotheses in mice by genetically removing ionotropic GABAA or metabotropic GABAB receptors from histidine decarboxylase-expressing neurons. At the cellular level, histaminergic neurons deficient in synaptic GABAA receptors were significantly more excitable and were insensitive to the anesthetic propofol. At the behavioral level, EEG profiles were recorded in nontethered mice over 24 h. Surprisingly, GABAergic transmission onto histaminergic neurons had no effect in regulating the natural sleep–wake cycle and, in the case of GABAA receptors, for propofol-induced loss of righting reflex. The latter finding makes it unlikely that the histaminergic TMN has a central role in anesthesia. GABAB receptors on histaminergic neurons were dispensable for all behaviors examined. Synaptic inhibition of histaminergic cells by GABAA receptors, however, was essential for habituation to a novel environment. PMID:22993424

  13. Consciousness across Sleep and Wake: Discontinuity and Continuity of Memory Experiences As a Reflection of Consolidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L. Horton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The continuity hypothesis (1 posits that there is continuity, of some form, between waking and dreaming mentation. A recent body of work has provided convincing evidence for different aspects of continuity, for instance that some salient experiences from waking life seem to feature in dreams over others, with a particular role for emotional arousal as accompanying these experiences, both during waking and while asleep. However, discontinuities have been somewhat dismissed as being either a product of activation-synthesis, an error within the consciousness binding process during sleep, a methodological anomaly, or simply as yet unexplained. This paper presents an overview of discontinuity within dreaming and waking cognition, arguing that disruptions of consciousness are as common a feature of waking cognition as of dreaming cognition, and that processes of sleep-dependent memory consolidation of autobiographical experiences can in part account for some of the discontinuities of sleeping cognition in a functional way. By drawing upon evidence of the incorporation, fragmentation, and reorganization of memories within dreams, this paper proposes a model of discontinuity whereby the fragmentation of autobiographical and episodic memories during sleep, as part of the consolidation process, render salient aspects of those memories subsequently available for retrieval in isolation from their contextual features. As such discontinuity of consciousness in sleep is functional and normal.

  14. Dreaming as an Extension of Waking Conscious Experience and a Tractable Problem for Cognitive Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J. Wamsley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even when we are ostensibly doing nothing – as during states of rest, sleep, and reverie – the brain continues to process information. In resting wakefulness, the mind generates thoughts, plans for the future, and imagines fictitious scenarios. In sleep, when the demands of sensory input are reduced, our experience turns to the thoughts and images we call dreaming. Far from being a meaningless distraction, the content of these subjective experiences provides an important and unique source of information about the activities of the resting mind and brain. In both wakefulness and sleep, spontaneous experience combines recent and remote memory fragments into novel scenarios. These conscious experiences may reflect the consolidation of recent memory into long-term storage, an adaptive process that functions to extract general knowledge about the world and adaptively respond to future events. Recent examples from psychology and neuroscience demonstrate that the use of subjective report can provide clues to the function(s of rest and sleep.

  15. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming

    OpenAIRE

    Martin eDresler; Leandra eEibl; Christian FJ Fischer; Renate eWehrle; Spoormaker, Victor I.; Axel eSteiger; Michael eCzisch; Marcel ePawlowski

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states, or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem to be most pronounced in awake humans. Here we assess the experience of volition across different states of consciousness: 10 frequent lucid dreamers rated different aspects of volition according t...

  16. Consciousness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeman, A

    2001-01-01

    Consciousness is topical, for reasons including its renewed respectability among psychologists, rapid progress in the neuroscience of perception, memory and action, advances in artificial intelligence...

  17. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresler, M.; Eibl, L.; Fischer, C.F.; Wehrle, R.; Spoormaker, V.I.; Steiger, A.; Czisch, M.; Pawlowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states, or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem

  18. Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-01-01

    No one did more to draw neuroscientists' attention to the problem of consciousness in the twentieth century than Francis Crick, who may be better known as the co-discoverer (with James Watson) of the structure of DNA. Crick focused his research on visual awareness and based his analysis on the progress made over the last fifty years in uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying visual perception. Because much of what happens in our brains occurs below the level of consciousness and many of our intuitions about unconscious processing are misleading, consciousness remains an elusive problem. In the end, when all of the brain mechanisms that underlie consciousness have been identified, will we still be asking: "What is consciousness?" Or will the question shift, just as the question "What is life?" is no longer the same as it was before Francis Crick?

  19. Environmental Consciousness, Sustainability, and the Character of Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that education itself, properly understood, is intimately concerned with an individual's being in the world, and therefore is ineluctably environmental. This is guaranteed by the ecstatic nature of consciousness. Furthermore, it is argued that a central dimension of this environment with which ecstatic human consciousness is…

  20. The Effect of Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development in Swedish Compulsory Schools--Assessing Pupils' Sustainability Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, D.; Gericke, N.; Chang Rundgren, S.-N.

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, numerous schools in Sweden have implemented education for sustainable development (ESD) as an explicit guiding approach in teaching. In this paper, we investigate the effect of this approach in comparison with that of pupils taught in ordinary schools. Accordingly, we introduce the concept of sustainability consciousness to…

  1. The Effect of Gender on Students' Sustainability Consciousness: A Nationwide Swedish Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Daniel; Gericke, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This study extends previous environmental education research on gender differences by investigating the gender gap between boys' and girls' sustainability consciousness. The issue of whether the gender gap in environmental education can be identified also in sustainability education is addressed. It has been suggested that Education for…

  2. Self-organized dynamical complexity in human wakefulness and sleep: Different critical brain-activity feedback for conscious and unconscious states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Laurino, Marco; Piarulli, Andrea; Gemignani, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    Criticality reportedly describes brain dynamics. The main critical feature is the presence of scale-free neural avalanches, whose auto-organization is determined by a critical branching ratio of neural-excitation spreading. Other features, directly associated to second-order phase transitions, are: (i) scale-free-network topology of functional connectivity, stemming from suprathreshold pairwise correlations, superimposable, in waking brain activity, with that of ferromagnets at Curie temperature; (ii) temporal long-range memory associated to renewal intermittency driven by abrupt fluctuations in the order parameters, detectable in human brain via spatially distributed phase or amplitude changes in EEG activity. Herein we study intermittent events, extracted from 29 night EEG recordings, including presleep wakefulness and all phases of sleep, where different levels of mentation and consciousness are present. We show that while critical avalanching is unchanged, at least qualitatively, intermittency and functional connectivity, present during conscious phases (wakefulness and REM sleep), break down during both shallow and deep non-REM sleep. We provide a theory for fragmentation-induced intermittency breakdown and suggest that the main difference between conscious and unconscious states resides in the backwards causation, namely on the constraints that the emerging properties at large scale induce to the lower scales. In particular, while in conscious states this backwards causation induces a critical slowing down, preserving spatiotemporal correlations, in dreamless sleep we see a self-organized maintenance of moduli working in parallel. Critical avalanches are still present, and establish transient auto-organization, whose enhanced fluctuations are able to trigger sleep-protecting mechanisms that reinstate parallel activity. The plausible role of critical avalanches in dreamless sleep is to provide a rapid recovery of consciousness, if stimuli are highly arousing.

  3. Sleep/Wakefulness Management in Continuous/Sustained Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    1-1 Individual Differences in Vigilance and Performance during Continuous/Sustained Operations Maria Casagrande Dipartimento di Psicologia Università...This page has been deliberately left blank 6-1 ABSTRACT Food, Exercise and Ergonomic Measures Maria Casagrande Dipartimento di Psicologia

  4. Cortical networks for working memory and executive functions sustain the conscious resting state in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoyer, B; Zago, L; Mellet, E; Bricogne, S; Etard, O; Houdé, O; Crivello, F; Joliot, M; Petit, L; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N

    2001-02-01

    The cortical anatomy of the conscious resting state (REST) was investigated using a meta-analysis of nine positron emission tomography (PET) activation protocols that dealt with different cognitive tasks but shared REST as a common control state. During REST, subjects were in darkness and silence, and were instructed to relax, refrain from moving, and avoid systematic thoughts. Each protocol contrasted REST to a different cognitive task consisting either of language, mental imagery, mental calculation, reasoning, finger movement, or spatial working memory, using either auditory, visual or no stimulus delivery, and requiring either vocal, motor or no output. A total of 63 subjects and 370 spatially normalized PET scans were entered in the meta-analysis. Conjunction analysis revealed a network of brain areas jointly activated during conscious REST as compared to the nine cognitive tasks, including the bilateral angular gyrus, the left anterior precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, the left medial frontal and anterior cingulate cortex, the left superior and medial frontal sulcus, and the left inferior frontal cortex. These results suggest that brain activity during conscious REST is sustained by a large scale network of heteromodal associative parietal and frontal cortical areas, that can be further hierarchically organized in an episodic working memory parieto-frontal network, driven in part by emotions, working under the supervision of an executive left prefrontal network.

  5. Effects of one night of induced night-wakings versus sleep restriction on sustained attention and mood: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michal; Fridenson, Shimrit; Lerer, Reut; Bar-Haim, Yair; Sadeh, Avi

    2014-07-01

    Despite their high prevalence in daily life, repeated night-wakings and their cognitive and emotional consequences have received less research attention compared to other types of sleep disturbances. Our aim was to experimentally compare the effects of one night of induced infrequent night-wakings (of ∼15 min, each requiring a purposeful response) and sleep restriction on sustained attention and mood in young adults. In a within-between subjects counterbalanced design, 61 healthy adults (40 females; aged 20-29 years) underwent home assessments of sustained attention and self-reported mood at two times: after a normal (control) sleep night, and after a night of either sleep restriction (4h in bed) or induced night-wakings (four prolonged awakenings across 8h in bed). Sleep was monitored using actigraphy and sleep diaries. Sustained attention was assessed using an online continuous performance test (OCPT), and mood was reported online using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Actigraphic data revealed good compliance with experimental sleep requirements. Induced night-wakings and sleep restriction both resulted in more OCPT omission and commission errors, and in increased depression, fatigue and confusion levels and reduced vigor compared to the normal sleep night. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the consequences of induced awakenings and sleep restriction. Our pilot study indicates that, similar to sleep restriction, one night of life-like repeated night-wakings negatively affects mood and sustained attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M.

    2017-05-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  7. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Material demand reduction’. PMID:28461435

  8. Short-Term Memory Performances during Sustained Wakefulness in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greneche, Jerome; Krieger, Jean; Bertrand, Frederic; Erhardt, Christine; Maumy, Myriam; Tassi, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Both working and immediate memories were assessed every 4 h by specific short-term memory tasks over sustained wakefulness in 12 patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and 10 healthy controls. Results indicated that OSAHS patients exhibited lower working memory performances than controls on both backward digit span and…

  9. The implementation of education for sustainable development in Sweden: investigating the sustainability consciousness among upper secondary students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Teresa; Gericke, Niklas; Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang

    2014-09-01

    Background: Sustainable development (SD) is a complex idea, based on environmental, economic and social dimensions. In line with SD, education for sustainable development (ESD) is an approach to teaching that combines cognitive and affective domains and aims to build empowerment abilities. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate effects of the implementation of ESD in Sweden, in terms of developing students' sustainability consciousness (SC). Two groups of students were included: one was from schools with a profile of ESD and the other one was from comparable schools without explicit ESD-profile. Sample: A total of 638 students from upper secondary schools (grade 12) in science-related or social science-related programs participated in the study. Design and methods: A procedure was created for the selection of schools considered to be the most active in using an ESD approach as well as comparable schools with no explicit ESD approach. During spring 2013, the students responded to a questionnaire based on sustainability knowingness, attitudes and behaviors within the environmental, economic and social dimensions of SD that together constitute the concept of SC. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The results indicate that there are significant differences in SC between students from schools that teach with an ESD approach compared to students from regular schools. Furthermore, a significant difference between the two groups of students was found in the underlying economic dimension of SC. No significant differences were found in the environmental and social dimensions of SC. Conclusions: Although the results show that ESD-profiled schools have effect on students' SC, the effects are relatively small. Therefore, the effects and nature of the implementation of ESD are discussed.

  10. Global Consciousness and Pillars of Sustainable Development: A Study on Self-Perceptions of the First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, Tamara; Douglas, William

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide data on the self-perceived state of sustainability consciousness of first-year Hong Kong students. Design/methodology/approach: Within a mixed-method research design framework, the authors conducted 787 questionnaires and collected 989 reflective narratives of first-year students of a university in Hong Kong,…

  11. The Essence of Conscious Conflict: Subjective Effects of Sustaining Incompatible Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Gray, Jeremy R.; Krieger, Stephen C.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Conflict constitutes one of the fundamental ‘tuggings and pullings’ of the human experience. Yet, the link between the various kinds of conflict in the nervous system and subjective experience remains unexplained. We tested a hypothesis that predicts why both the ‘hot’ conflicts involving self-control and motivation, and the ‘cooler’ response conflicts of the laboratory, lead to changes in subjective experience. From this standpoint, these changes arise automatically from the activation of incompatible skeletomotor intentions, because the primary function of consciousness is to integrate such intentions for adaptive skeletal muscle output. Accordingly, we demonstrated for the first time that merely sustaining incompatible intentions (to move right and left) in a motionless state produces stronger subjective effects than sustaining compatible intentions. The results held equally strongly for two different effector systems involving skeletal muscle: arm movements and finger movements. In contrast, no such effects were found with conflict in a smooth muscle effector system. Together, these findings illuminate aspects of the nature of subjective experience and the role of incompatible intentions in affect and failures of self-control. PMID:19803593

  12. Spectral Parameters Modulation and Source Localization of Blink-Related Alpha and Low-Beta Oscillations Differentiate Minimally Conscious State from Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Luca; Piarulli, Andrea; Olcese, Umberto; Andre, Paolo; Arrighi, Pieranna; Frisoli, Antonio; Rossi, Bruno; Bergamasco, Massimo; Carboncini, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the cortical source of blink-related delta oscillations (delta BROs) in resting healthy subjects has been localized in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), one of the main core-hubs of the default-mode network. This has been interpreted as the electrophysiological signature of the automatic monitoring of the surrounding environment while subjects are immersed in self-reflecting mental activities. Although delta BROs were directly correlated to the degree of consciousness impairment in patients with disorders of consciousness, they failed to differentiate vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) from minimally conscious state (MCS). In the present study, we have extended the analysis of BROs to frequency bands other than delta in the attempt to find a biological marker that could support the differential diagnosis between VS/UWS and MCS. Four patients with VS/UWS, 5 patients with MCS, and 12 healthy matched controls (CTRL) underwent standard 19-channels EEG recordings during resting conditions. Three-second-lasting EEG epochs centred on each blink instance were submitted to time-frequency analyses in order to extract the normalized Blink-Related Synchronization/Desynchronization (nBRS/BRD) of three bands of interest (low-alpha, high-alpha and low-beta) in the time-window of 50–550 ms after the blink-peak and to estimate the corresponding cortical sources of electrical activity. VS/UWS nBRS/BRD levels of all three bands were lower than those related to both CTRL and MCS, thus enabling the differential diagnosis between MCS and VS/UWS. Furthermore, MCS showed an intermediate signal intensity on PCC/PCu between CTRL and VS/UWS and a higher signal intensity on the left temporo-parieto-occipital junction and inferior occipito-temporal regions when compared to VS/UWS. This peculiar pattern of activation leads us to hypothesize that resting MCS patients have a bottom-up driven activation of the task positive network and thus

  13. Neural plasticity lessons from disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena eDemertzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Communication and intentional behavior are supported by the brain’s integrity at a structural and a functional level. When widespread loss of cerebral connectivity is brought about as a result of a severe brain injury, in many cases patients are not capable of conscious interactive behavior and are said to suffer from disorders of consciousness (e.g., coma, vegetative state /unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious states. This lesion paradigm has offered not only clinical insights, as how to improve diagnosis, prognosis and treatment, but also put forward scientific opportunities to study the brain’s plastic abilities. We here review interventional and observational studies performed in severely brain-injured patients with regards to recovery of consciousness. The study of the recovered conscious brain (spontaneous and/or after surgical or pharmacologic interventions, suggests a link between some specific brain areas and the capacity of the brain to sustain conscious experience, challenging at the same time the notion of fixed temporal boundaries in rehabilitative processes. Altered functional connectivity, cerebral structural reorganization as well as behavioral amelioration after invasive treatments will be discussed as the main indices for plasticity in these challenging patients. The study of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness may, thus, provide further insights not only at a clinical level (i.e., medical management and rehabilitation but also from a scientific-theoretical perspective (i.e., the brain’s plastic abilities and the pursuit of the neural correlate of consciousness.

  14. Mestiza Consciousness in Relation to Sustained Political Solidarity: A Chicana Feminist Interpretation of the Farmworker Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvosa, Edwina

    2011-01-01

    Two of the most significant themes in Chicana feminist thought are the character of mestiza consciousness and the view that political solidarity--that is, the uniting of diverse people in common cause--should build upon diversity among peoples rather than on a single shared identity. Numerous Chicana and Latina feminists have connected these two…

  15. A new dimension in evolution: Impacts of human consciousness on sustainability - and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles M. Jr. McKenna

    2006-01-01

    Starting with the concepts of the “noosphere” -- the sphere of thought -- and the evolution of consciousness developed by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin in the first half of the last century, we will introduce a hypothesis declaring the interdependence of the noosphere with global systems, and extrapolate to new perceptions that these concepts, and others which seem to...

  16. The development of evidence based Music Therapy for Disorders of Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Kelly, Julian; Magee, W.; James, L.

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of consciousness (DOC) comprise a continuum of predominantly acquired conditions. Distinguishing between DOC categories of vegetative state (VS), where there are no indications of consciousness despite evidence of wakefulness, and minimally conscious state (MCS) where consciousness...

  17. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Marcel Askenasy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain?The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent.We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention e.g. by cognitive training.

  18. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain? The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent. We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention, e.g., by cognitive training. PMID:23847580

  19. Sustainable living in a Chinese city. Analysis and support for market-conscious urban planning

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, H.

    2014-01-01

    In the transition from a state-led industrial to a market-driven post-industrial urban economy, China’s planners are facing challenges in building sustainable living environment for the rapidly increasing and wealthier urban population.Citizens are the end-users of the sustainable city. Their preferences generate the market demands for real estate and transport, which are the basis to promote sustainable planning in the market. To achieve sustainability goals in China, planners need to adopt ...

  20. Why Does REM Sleep Occur? A Wake-up Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. W. R. eKlemm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1 when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV, a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, 2 conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, 3 the last awakening during a night’s sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, 4 both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system 5 N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and 6 corticofugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  1. Sustainable living in a Chinese city. Analysis and support for market-conscious urban planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34295623X

    2014-01-01

    In the transition from a state-led industrial to a market-driven post-industrial urban economy, China’s planners are facing challenges in building sustainable living environment for the rapidly increasing and wealthier urban population.Citizens are the end-users of the sustainable city. Their

  2. Creating Consciousness About the Opportunities to Integrate Sustainable Energy on Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Nielsen, Steffen; Sperling, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Many islands face problems in regard to sustainable development, both environmentally and economically. Due to geographical isolation, resources like food, goods and energy are imported from the outside. Focusing on local energy use may help islands to identify sustainable strategies and solutions...

  3. Sustainable development appreciated? The development of a monitor on sustainability consciousness and behaviour; Maatschappelijke waardering van duurzame ontwikkeling. Achtergrondrapport bij de Duurzaamheidsverkenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, T.A.M.; Harkink, E.W.F.P.M.; Van Ingen, E.J. [Telos, Universiteit van Tilburg, Tilburg (Netherlands); Lampert MA; Van der Lelij, B.; Van Ossenbruggen, R. [Motivaction, Motivaction (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    From several studies it follows that Dutch consumers are not really interested in buying sustainable products or services. But these studies also conclude that some consumers are more sustainable in their purchasing behaviour than others. In order to explain this difference the Dutch population was divided into three sustainability segments, on the basis of the values people hold. Low sustainable: The people in this segment are fixed upon here and now, appreciate comfort, centre on self-interest, are hedonistic and materialistic, do not worry about the environment. Medium sustainable: Worry about the environment, are trying to live eco-conscious, believe in the social responsibility of trade and industry, are involved in their neighbourhood, feel responsible for society. High sustainable: Hold the same mentality as the medium sustainable segment, but want to consciously consume eco-friendly, want to pay more for eco-friendly products and are involved in world affairs. The sustainability segments were compared to the so-called 'social environment', developed by Motivaction. Two groups stood out. Traditional citizens on the one hand and cosmopolitans and post materialists on the other appeared to be most sustainable. This implies that individuals with totally different value patterns can be more or less equally sustainable. Traditional citizens are in particular concerned with the care and preservation of their own surroundings, whereas cosmopolitans and post materialists are more involved with global issues. Generations appeared to be remarkably different in their level of sustainability. Younger generations consider sustainable development to be far less important than older ones. Likely, this can be attributed to the phase of life, although some indications point to the fact that sustainability does not match the value pattern of younger generations well. [Dutch] Uit verschillende recente onderzoeken blijkt dat de Nederlandse consument niet warm loopt

  4. ECOLOGICAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF FARMERS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OR RURAL AREAS IN THE MAZOVIAREGION

    OpenAIRE

    HALINA KAŁUŻA; JANINA SKRZYCZYŃSKA

    2009-01-01

    The agriculture is a branch of economy, where the environmental conditions are used for ford production. It also realizes many Essentials functions: social and environmental. One of the most important matters is protection of environment in range of sustainable agriculture.Sustainable development of agriculture is a complex idea which refers to different requirements and functions.Ecological awareness is a part of social awareness which shapes human attitude towards the natural environment. E...

  5. SUSTAINED LIVEABILITY: A FRAMEWORK BEYOND ENERGY CONSCIOUS BUILDING CONSERVATION OF MARKET HALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen Hamza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Market halls are commonly found in  contexts of cultural and heritage value. Positioned in urban centres and transport networks, these unique buildings were originally constructed in the 19th century to ensure better food distribution in growing European cities, then copied to other territories such as Egypt.  We argue that leaving market halls, with their large spanning structures and indoor open space, for dilapidation is a lost opportunity for sustaining community engagement, and educating the public on the original sustainability, neighbourhood regeneration and cultural thinking that underpinned these buildings. The proposed framework extends current sustainable ‘heritage conservation frameworks’ beyond concepts of adding renewable energy technologies, recycling and sustainable goods movement,  to ‘sustaining liveability and social inclusion’. We argue that market halls offer the opportunities to merge the daily activities of buying and selling food with creating local creative economies such as culinary art exhibitions, and culinary schools. The paper consists of two parts: the first discusses the historical urban context of market halls in Cairo; the second proposes a sustainable heritage conservation model for market halls.

  6. Comparing Treatment Effect Measurements in Narcolepsy: The Sustained Attention to Response Task, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Astrid; van Schie, Mojca K M; Lammers, Gert Jan; Dauvilliers, Yves; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mayer, Geert; Bassetti, Claudio L; Ding, Claire-Li; Lehert, Philippe; van Dijk, J Gert

    2015-07-01

    To validate the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) as a treatment effect measure in narcolepsy, and to compare the SART with the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Validation of treatment effect measurements within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Ninety-five patients with narcolepsy with or without cataplexy. The RCT comprised a double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter trial comparing the effects of 8-w treatments with pitolisant (BF2.649), modafinil, or placebo (NCT01067222). MWT, ESS, and SART were administered at baseline and after an 8-w treatment period. The severity of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy was also assessed using the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI-C). The SART, MWT, and ESS all had good reliability, obtained for the SART and MWT using two to three sessions in 1 day. The ability to distinguish responders from nonresponders, classified using the CGI-C score, was high for all measures, with a high performance for the SART (r = 0.61) and the ESS (r = 0.54). The Sustained Attention to Response Task is a valid and easy-to-administer measure to assess treatment effects in narcolepsy, enhanced by combining it with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Consciousness in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, David; Gover, Tzivia

    2010-01-01

    This chapter argues that dreaming is an important state of consciousness and that it has many features that complement consciousness in the wake state. The chapter discusses consciousness in dreams and how it comes about. It discusses the changes that occur in the neuromodulatory environment and in the neuronal connectivity of the brain as we fall asleep and begin our night journeys. Dreams evolve from internal sources though the dream may look different than any one of these since something entirely new may emerge through self-organizing processes. The chapter also explores characteristics of dreaming consciousness such as acceptance of implausibility and how that might lead to creative insight. Examples of studies, which have shown creativity in dream sleep, are provided to illustrate important characteristics of dreaming consciousness. The chapter also discusses the dream body and how it relates to our consciousness while dreaming. Differences and similarities between wake, lucid, non-lucid and day dreaming are explored and the chapter concludes with a discussion on what we can learn from each of these expressions of consciousness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Values-Based Education for Sustainability Marketers: Two Approaches for Enhancing Student Social Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley Rountree, Melissa; Koernig, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development has been a hot button issue for decades, and yet business schools continue to struggle with accessible, meaningful and effective strategies to incorporate the topic into their curricula. To extend the teaching toolbox of educators, we describe two complementary marketing courses that use values-based learning to incorporate…

  9. Creating consciousness about the opportunities to integrate sustainable energy on islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Sperling, Karl; Nielsen, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    towards using more renewable energy sources are part of the project “Cradle to Cradle Islands”, funded by the EU Interreg IVb North Sea Region Programme. Energy systems on islands are diverse and linked to each specific location. Opportunities for the development of sustainable energy solutions are often...... in the North Sea Region. The application of the model has facilitated the identification of possibilities for each island to improve the regional development in these areas. Furthermore, a learning process can be identified, which helps to develop renewable energy systems on these islands, while addressing...

  10. Consciousness minus retrospective mental time travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Alvaro Machado; Britto, Luiz R G

    2010-09-01

    Abstract In this paper we apply the concept of mental time travel to introduce the basic features of full-blown conscious experiences (encapsulation in mental models and recollection). We discuss the perspective that Lamme's 'Level 3' experiences can be considered as part of the scope of phenomenological consciousness, in relation to which we emphasize the necessity to consider the different degrees of consciousness and how a particular situation compares to the conscious experiences present in resting states of wakefulness.

  11. Customer quality analysis of outdoor clothing : Identifying customer needs of outdoor products directly through customer interviews and their consciousness about environmental and social sustainability.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossaini, Fazle Al

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to identify customer needs of outdoor products (jackets, pants, shoes etc.) directly through customer interviews and their consciousness about environmental and social sustainability. And my report can be used as a base for „product design‟ of Outdoor clothing. Also from my report both the suppliers and customers can get a good idea of „Environmental and social aspect of clothing technology‟.

  12. Why Does Rem Sleep Occur? A Wake-Up Hypothesis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV), a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, (2) conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, (3) the last awakening during a night's sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, (4) both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system (5) N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and (6) cortico-fugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness. PMID:21922003

  13. Music in disorders of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Dieter Rollnik; Eckart eAltenmüller

    2014-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the use of music therapy in neurological early rehabilitation of patients with coma and other disorders of consciousness (DOC) such as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or minimally conscious state (MCS). There is evidence that patients suffering from UWS show emotional processing of auditory information, such as listening to speech. Thus, it seems reasonable to believe that music listening – as part of an enriched environment setting – may be of ther...

  14. Promoting healthy eating, active play and sustainability consciousness in early childhood curricula, addressing the Ben10™ problem: a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie; Cutter-MacKenzie, Amy; Huang, Terry; O'Connor, Amanda

    2014-06-03

    This paper details the research protocol for a study funded by the Australian Research Council. An integrated approach towards helping young children respond to the significant pressures of '360 degree marketing' on their food choices, levels of active play, and sustainability consciousness via the early childhood curriculum is lacking. The overall goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of curriculum interventions that educators design when using a pedagogical communication strategy on children's knowledge about healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their toy food and toy selections. This cluster-randomised trial will be conducted with 300, 4 to 5 year-old children attending pre-school. Early childhood educators will develop a curriculum intervention using a pedagogical communication strategy that integrates content knowledge about healthy eating, active play and sustainability consciousness and deliver this to their pre-school class. Children will be interviewed about their knowledge of healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their food and toy selections. Parents will complete an Eating and Physical Activity Questionnaire rating their children's food preferences, digital media viewing and physical activity habits. All measures will be administered at baseline, the end of the intervention and 6 months post intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents and the pre-school classes will be allocated randomly to the intervention or wait-list control group. This study is the first to utilise an integrated pedagogical communication strategy developed specifically for early childhood educators focusing on children's healthy eating, active play, and sustainability consciousness. The significance of the early childhood period, for young children's learning about healthy eating, active play and sustainability, is now unquestioned. The specific teaching and learning practices used by early

  15. Differential impact in young and older individuals of blue-enriched white light on circadian physiology and alertness during sustained wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Virginie; Reichert, Carolin F; Maire, Micheline; Schmidt, Christina; Schlangen, Luc J M; Kolodyazhniy, Vitaliy; Garbazza, Corrado; Cajochen, Christian; Viola, Antoine U

    2017-08-08

    We tested the effect of different lights as a countermeasure against sleep-loss decrements in alertness, melatonin and cortisol profile, skin temperature and wrist motor activity in healthy young and older volunteers under extendend wakefulness. 26 young [mean (SE): 25.0 (0.6) y)] and 12 older participants [(mean (SE): 63.6 (1.3) y)] underwent 40-h of sustained wakefulness during 3 balanced crossover segments, once under dim light (DL: 8 lx), and once under either white light (WL: 250 lx, 2,800 K) or blue-enriched white light (BL: 250 lx, 9,000 K) exposure. Subjective sleepiness, melatonin and cortisol were assessed hourly. Skin temperature and wrist motor activity were continuously recorded. WL and BL induced an alerting response in both the older (p = 0.005) and the young participants (p = 0.021). The evening rise in melatonin was attentuated under both WL and BL only in the young. Cortisol levels were increased and activity levels decreased in the older compared to the young only under BL (p = 0.0003). Compared to the young, both proximal and distal skin temperatures were lower in older participants under all lighting conditions. Thus the color temperature of normal intensity lighting may have differential effects on circadian physiology in young and older individuals.

  16. Organ donation after medical assistance in dying or cessation of life-sustaining treatment requested by conscious patients: the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Julie; Fortin, Marie-Chantal

    2017-09-01

    In June 2016, following the decision of the Supreme Court of Canada to decriminalise assistance in dying, the Canadian government enacted Bill C-14, legalising medical assistance in dying (MAID). In 2014, the province of Quebec had passed end-of-life care legislation making MAID available as of December 2015. The availability of MAID has many implications, including the possibility of combining this practice with organ donation through the controlled donation after cardiac death (cDCD) protocol. cDCD most often occurs in cases where the patient has a severe neurological injury but does not meet all the criteria for brain death. The donation is subsequent to the decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatment (LST). Cases where patients are conscious prior to the withdrawal of LST are unusual, and have raised doubts as to the acceptability of removing organs from individuals who are not neurologically impaired and who have voluntarily chosen to die. These cases can be compared with likely scenarios in which patients will request both MAID and organ donation. In both instances, patients will be conscious and competent. Organ donation in such contexts raises ethical issues regarding respect for autonomy, societal pressure, conscientious objections and the dead-donor rule. In this article, we look at relevant policies in other countries and examine the ethical issues associated with cDCD in conscious patients who choose to die. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Agrifood systems and the microbial safety of fresh produce: Trade-offs in the wake of increased sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-the, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.nguyen-the@avignon.inra.fr [UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d' Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, 84000 Avignon (France); Bardin, Marc, E-mail: marc.bardin@avignon.inra.fr [INRA, UR0407 Plant Pathology, F-84143 Montfavet (France); Berard, Annette, E-mail: annette.berard@avignon.inra.fr [EMMAH, INRA, Avignon Université, 84000 Avignon (France); Berge, Odile, E-mail: odile.berge@avignon.inra.fr [INRA, UR0407 Plant Pathology, F-84143 Montfavet (France); Brillard, Julien, E-mail: julien.brillard@univ-montp2.fr [UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d' Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, 84000 Avignon (France); Broussolle, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.broussolle@avignon.inra.fr [UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d' Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, 84000 Avignon (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Fresh produce has been a growing cause of food borne outbreaks world-wide prompting the need for safer production practices. Yet fresh produce agrifood systems are diverse and under constraints for more sustainability. We analyze how measures taken to guarantee safety interact with other objectives for sustainability, in light of the diversity of fresh produce agrifood systems. The review is based on the publications at the interface between fresh produce safety and sustainability, with sustainability defined by low environmental impacts, food and nutrition security and healthy life. The paths for more sustainable fresh produce are diverse. They include an increased use of ecosystem services to e.g. favor predators of pests, or to reduce impact of floods, to reduce soil erosion, or to purify run-off waters. In contrast, they also include production systems isolated from the environment. From a socio-economical view, sustainability may imply maintaining small tenures with a higher risk of pathogen contamination. We analyzed the consequences for produce safety by focusing on risks of contamination by water, soil, environment and live stocks. Climate change may increase the constraints and recent knowledge on interactions between produce and human pathogens may bring new solutions. Existing technologies may suffice to resolve some conflicts between ensuring safety of fresh produce and moving towards more sustainability. However, socio-economic constraints of some agri-food systems may prevent their implementation. In addition, current strategies to preserve produce safety are not adapted to systems relying on ecological principles and knowledge is lacking to develop the new risk management approaches that would be needed. - Highlights: • Measures taken to improve safety were assessed for their impact on sustainability. • Fresh produce safety improvements may come at the expense of sustainability. • Environment, food security and human health constituted the

  18. Wake Studies of Ornithopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harlow, Jacob; Allen, James; Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo

    2006-11-01

    This paper details experiments using a mechanical ornithopter flying in a low speed wind tunnel. Experiments were conducted for a Strouhal number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 2300, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization was used to develop quantitative and qualitative information about the nature of the wake. The data shows that the wake is made of a series of discrete vortex rings. The impulse of these rings has been estimated with PIV data and the results correlate well with the lift required to sustain the ornithopter in flight.

  19. [Functional pathophysiology of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2009-01-01

    Consciousness (Latin conscientia "moral conscience"), according to the English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) [103], is the awareness of all that occurs in the mind of a person, whereas the American philosopher John Searle (2000) defined it as "inner qualitative, subjective states and processes of awareness". In modern science it is defined as a continuous state of full awareness of the Self and one's relationship to the external and internal environment, describing the degree of wakefulness in which an organism recognizes stimuli. This widely discussed biological term for complex neuronal processes that allow an individuum to recognize itself and its environment and to act accordingly, has been and still is the subject of much research in philosophy and natural/neuroscience. Its definition is often used for awareness and recognition, too. While the Egyptians in the papyrus Edwin Smith already recognized the brain as the seat of consciousness, René Descartes (1644 [36]) believed its special structure should be "a small gland in the middle", but the anatomical structures and physiological processes involved in consciousness were elucidated only in the middle of the 20th century. Neuronal substrates include several functional networks that are hierarchically organized and cooperate functionally. The lowest level is the mesencephalic formatio reticularis and its projections to the thalamus that were identified als ascending reticular system (ARAS) by the classical experiments of Moruzzi and Magoun, whereas later analyses of patients with impaired consciousness provided further insights. The mesencephalic ARAS as motor of the function of higher structures projects 1. via the reticular thalamus diffusely to the cortex, 2. via hypothalamus to the basal forebrain and limbic system, and 3. to the medial raphe of the brainstem and locus coeruleus and their diffuse cortical projections. The reticular system is stimulated directly and indirectly via numerous collaterals

  20. Agrifood systems and the microbial safety of fresh produce: Trade-offs in the wake of increased sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-The, Christophe; Bardin, Marc; Berard, Annette; Berge, Odile; Brillard, Julien; Broussolle, Véronique; Carlin, Frédéric; Renault, Pierre; Tchamitchian, Marc; Morris, Cindy E

    2016-08-15

    Fresh produce has been a growing cause of food borne outbreaks world-wide prompting the need for safer production practices. Yet fresh produce agrifood systems are diverse and under constraints for more sustainability. We analyze how measures taken to guarantee safety interact with other objectives for sustainability, in light of the diversity of fresh produce agrifood systems. The review is based on the publications at the interface between fresh produce safety and sustainability, with sustainability defined by low environmental impacts, food and nutrition security and healthy life. The paths for more sustainable fresh produce are diverse. They include an increased use of ecosystem services to e.g. favor predators of pests, or to reduce impact of floods, to reduce soil erosion, or to purify run-off waters. In contrast, they also include production systems isolated from the environment. From a socio-economical view, sustainability may imply maintaining small tenures with a higher risk of pathogen contamination. We analyzed the consequences for produce safety by focusing on risks of contamination by water, soil, environment and live stocks. Climate change may increase the constraints and recent knowledge on interactions between produce and human pathogens may bring new solutions. Existing technologies may suffice to resolve some conflicts between ensuring safety of fresh produce and moving towards more sustainability. However, socio-economic constraints of some agri-food systems may prevent their implementation. In addition, current strategies to preserve produce safety are not adapted to systems relying on ecological principles and knowledge is lacking to develop the new risk management approaches that would be needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Conscious Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  2. Wake Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-06

    THIS IS A SAFETY NOTICE. The guidance contained herein supersedes : the guidance provided in the current edition of Order 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, relating to selected wake turbulence separations and aircraft weight classifications. This Notice ...

  3. Machine consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksander, Igor

    2005-01-01

    The work from several laboratories on the modeling of consciousness is reviewed. This ranges, on one hand, from purely functional models where behavior is important and leads to an attribution of consciousness to, on the other hand, material work closely derived from the information about the anatomy of the brain. At the functional end of the spectrum, applications are described specifically directed at a job-finding problem, where the person being served should not discern between being served by a conscious human or a machine. This employs an implementation of global workspace theories. At the material end, attempts at modeling attentional brain mechanisms, and basic biochemical processes in children are discussed. There are also general prescriptions for functional schemas that facilitate discussions for the presence of consciousness in computational systems and axiomatic structures that define necessary architectural features without which it would be difficult to represent sensations. Another distinction between these two approaches is whether one attempts to model phenomenology (material end) or not (functional end). The former is sometimes called "synthetic phenomenology." The upshot of this chapter is that studying consciousness through the design of machines is likely to have two major outcomes. The first is to provide a wide-ranging computational language to express the concept of consciousness. The second is to suggest a wide-ranging set of computational methods for building competent machinery that benefits from the flexibility of conscious representations.

  4. Intrathecal baclofen: effects on spasticity, pain, and consciousness in disorders of consciousness and locked-in syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistoia, Francesca; Sacco, Simona; Sarà, Marco; Franceschini, Marco; Carolei, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of consciousness (DOCs) include coma, vegetative state (VS), and minimally conscious state (MCS). Coma is characterized by impaired wakefulness and consciousness, while VS and MCS are defined by lacking or discontinuous consciousness despite recovered wakefulness. Conversely, locked-in syndrome (LIS) is characterized by quadriplegia and lower cranial nerve paralysis with preserved consciousness. Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is a useful treatment to improve spasticity both in patients with DOCs and LIS. Moreover, it supports the recovery of consciousness in some patients with VS or MCS. The precise mechanism underlying this recovery has not yet been elucidated. It has been hypothesized that ITB may act by reducing the overload of dysfunctional sensory stimuli reaching the injured brain or by stabilizing the imbalanced circadian rhythms. Although the current indication of ITB is the management of severe spasticity, its potential use in speeding the recovery of consciousness merits further investigation.

  5. Conscious Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Suzanne F; Haase, Beth

    2016-11-01

    Health care leaders need to use leadership methodologies that support safe patient care, satisfy employees, and improve the bottom line. Conscious leaders help create desirable personal and professional life experiences for themselves using specific tools that include mindfulness, context, and the observer-self, and they strive to help their employees learn to use these tools as well. In perioperative nursing, conscious leaders create an environment in which nurses are supported in their aim to provide the highest level of patient care and in which transformations are encouraged to take place; this environment ultimately promotes safety, contributes to fulfilling and meaningful work, and enhances a facility's financial viability. This article discusses some of the key concepts behind conscious leadership, how perioperative leaders can reach and maintain expanded consciousness, and how they can best assist their staff members in their own evolution to a more mindful state. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Individual consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaĭlakhian, L M

    2009-01-01

    The main modern concepts on the consciousness nature are considered. Together with the dualistic concepts, there exist concepts the adherents of which find it possible to get to know the origin of consciousness on the basis of natural science. A critical analysis of those concepts brings the author to the conclusion that they do not solve the main problem of individual consciousness: how subjective elements of consciousness arise in the brain as a result of objectively registered processes. The main reason of failures to solve said problem is considered by the author in the fact that the subjective categories of consciousness are not really subject to science. Nevertheless, it does not mean the dualism is to be inevitably accepted. In fact, the subjective categories arise in the limits of a life the area of which is substantially wider than that of science. An original information and physical hypothesis is being set up that provides for necessary premises and conditions enabling the origination of subjective categories of consciousness during the progressive natural evolution of living systems.

  7. Altered states of consciousness in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Impaired states of consciousness can be relatively easily identified, although it can occasionally be difficult to assess whether there is a pure disorder of wakefulness or awareness. Regardless, such impairments represent dysfunction of the brainstem and or cerebrum. Acute and severe impairments of consciousness can require immediate assessment, in part currently performed using the modified Glasgow coma scoring system, and emergency stabilization. The prognosis is always guarded and highly sensitive to the underlying etiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Consciousness extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    of neural thresholds distinguishes the unfolding of the informational broadcast from the emergence of subjective awareness. In such sense, I conceptualize consciousness as a phenomenon unfolding along a continuum, ranging from complete inaccessibility to full awareness. The proposal presented......There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...

  9. Creative Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is creative. That creativity expresses in myriad ways – as moments in time in which decades of progress can be achieved overnight, as organizational innovations of immense power for social accomplishment; as creative social values that further influence the evolution of organizations and society; as the creativity of individuality in the leader, genius, artist and inventor; as social creativity that converts raw human experience into civilization; as cultural creativity that transforms human relationships into sources of rich emotional capacity; and as value-based educational creativity that can awaken and nurture young minds to develop and discover their own inherent capacity for knowledge in freedom. Through such moments do society and humanity evolve. Education is society’s most advanced institution for conscious social evolution. Values are the essence of society’s knowledge for highest accomplishment. Education that imparts values is an evolutionary social organization that can hasten the emergence of that creative consciousness.

  10. Mindsight: Diagnostics in Disorders of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldenmund, P.; Stender, J.; Heine, L.; Laureys, S.

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of patients with disorders of consciousness (comprising coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and minimally conscious state) has long been dependent on unstandardized behavioral tests. The arrival of standardized behavioral tools, and especially the Coma Recovery Scale revised, uncovered a high rate of misdiagnosis. Ancillary techniques, such as brain imaging and electrophysiological examinations, are ever more often being deployed to aid in the search for remaining consciousness. They are used to look for brain activity patterns similar to those found in healthy controls. The development of portable and cheaper devices will make these techniques more widely available. PMID:23213492

  11. An information integration theory of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tononi Giulio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consciousness poses two main problems. The first is understanding the conditions that determine to what extent a system has conscious experience. For instance, why is our consciousness generated by certain parts of our brain, such as the thalamocortical system, and not by other parts, such as the cerebellum? And why are we conscious during wakefulness and much less so during dreamless sleep? The second problem is understanding the conditions that determine what kind of consciousness a system has. For example, why do specific parts of the brain contribute specific qualities to our conscious experience, such as vision and audition? Presentation of the hypothesis This paper presents a theory about what consciousness is and how it can be measured. According to the theory, consciousness corresponds to the capacity of a system to integrate information. This claim is motivated by two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: differentiation – the availability of a very large number of conscious experiences; and integration – the unity of each such experience. The theory states that the quantity of consciousness available to a system can be measured as the Φ value of a complex of elements. Φ is the amount of causally effective information that can be integrated across the informational weakest link of a subset of elements. A complex is a subset of elements with Φ>0 that is not part of a subset of higher Φ. The theory also claims that the quality of consciousness is determined by the informational relationships among the elements of a complex, which are specified by the values of effective information among them. Finally, each particular conscious experience is specified by the value, at any given time, of the variables mediating informational interactions among the elements of a complex. Testing the hypothesis The information integration theory accounts, in a principled manner, for several neurobiological observations

  12. Consciousness, Mind, and Spirit: Three Levels of Human Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Ule

    2015-01-01

    The article elucidates three important concepts and realities that refer to cognitive phenomena and are often (mistakenly) used as synonyms: consciousness (slo. zavest), mind (slo. um), and spirit (slo. duh). They present three levels of human cognition: individual-experiential, individual-mental, and trans-individual-mental. Simply put: the concept of consciousness pertains to the waking mental life of a human being, while the concept of mind pertains to the ability and activity to conscious...

  13. [Impaired consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Tatsuya

    2013-06-01

    Consciousness disorder is one of the common signs that clinicians treat every day. It is further more frequently found in elderly patients, but it is often difficult to make an exact diagnosis and to give a suitable treatment for each case. There are many kinds of diseases or systemic disorders which impair consciousness, and moreover, various backgrounds (e.g. their lifestyle, mental problems, etc.) characteristic for aged people often make the diagnosis unclear. Therefore, it is very important for every physician assigned to emergency room to have broad viewpoint and to make careful examinations approaching such patients. Needless to say, if the patient is facing crisis, more priority should be given to emergency treatment than to precise diagnosis.

  14. Avian Models of Sustained Wakefulness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benca, Ruth M

    2004-01-01

    We collected migratory white-crowned sparrows and demonstrated for the first time in the laboratory setting that during migration, birds maintain a high level of performance as demonstrated by normal...

  15. Coma and disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Laureys, Steven; Demertzi, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Patients in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and in minimally conscious states pose medical, scientific, and ethical challenges. As patients with disorders of consciousness are by definition unable to communicate, the assessment of pain, quality of life, and end-of-life preferences in these conditions can only be approached by adopting a third-person perspective. Surveys of healthcare workers' attitudes towards pain and end of life in disorders of consciousness shed light on the background of clinical reality, where no standard medical-legal framework is widely accepted. On the other hand, patients with locked-in syndrome, who are severely paralyzed but fully conscious, can inform about subjective quality of life in serious disability and help us to understand better the underlying factors influencing happiness in disease. In the medico-legal arena, such ethical issues may be resolved by previously drafted advance directives and, when absent, by surrogate representation. Lately, functional medical imaging and electrophysiology provide alternative means to communicate with these challenging patients and will potentially mediate to extract responses of medical-ethical content. Eventually, the clinical translation of these advanced technologies in the medical routine is of paramount importance for the promotion of medical management of these challenging patients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Consciência planetária, sustentabilidade e religião. Consensos e tarefas (Planetary consciousness, sustainability and religion: consensus and tasks - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n30p443

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Tadeu Murad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo faz uma síntese das discussões a respeito da relação entre consciência planetária, sustentabilidade e religião, a partir dos últimos congressos e publicações da SOTER, de eventos recentes de Teologia e Ciências da Religião e da Cúpula dos Povos (2012. Realiza um nivelamento conceitual dos termos envolvidos na questão. Caracteriza “consciência planetária”, a partir da Carta da Terra. Apresenta um panorama acerca do tema “sustentabilidade”, mostrando as principais diferenças e os pontos comuns das principais correntes. Responde a dúvidas, questionamentos e objeções, tais como: se é apropriado designar o ser humano como Filho da Terra; em que sentido a Terra pode ser designada como mãe; liames entre globalização e planetarização; como se relacionam “ecologia” e “consciência planetária”. Delineia quais as tarefas da educação no atual contexto. Por fim, condensa os desafios e perspectivas das religiões em relação à evolução da consciência planetária, na Carta das religiões sobre o cuidado da Terra, da Cúpula dos Povos. Palavras-chave: Consciência planetária. Ecoteologia. Sustentabilidade. Religião e cidadania. Abstract This article summarizes the discussions on the relationship between planetary consciousness, sustainability and religion, taking into accounts the recent conferences and publications of SOTER, recent events of Theology, Sciences of Religion and the People's Summit (2012. The text also performs a flatness of conceptual terms involved in the issue. For this purpose, the article characterizes planetary consciousness from the Earth Charter, an overview of the topic sustainability and showing the main differences and commonalities of the major currents. It also answers to some questions and objections such as: a is it appropriate to designate the human being as the Son of Earth? b In what way should the earth be designated as a mother? c What are the bonds between

  17. Skin-to-Skin Contact (Kangaroo Care) Promotes Self-Regulation in Premature Infants: Sleep-Wake Cyclicity, Arousal Modulation, and Sustained Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Weller, Aron; Sirota, Lea; Eidelman, Arthur I.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on self-regulatory processes of premature infants. Found that infants treated with prolonged skin-to-skin contact showed improvements in state distribution, sleep-wake cyclicity, emotionality thresholds, arousal modulation, mother-infant shared attention, and infant sustained…

  18. "Conscious Consumption": Ecocapitalism as Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise a set of questions about “conscious consumption.” It is an essay of a bibliographic nature whose central thesis consists in affirming that in a capitalist society conscious consumption cannot be instituted as an affirmation of the principle of socioenvironmental sustainability. The paper presents the ideological nature of this formulation, which associates consumerism and the possibility of overcoming it only to the need for behavioral changes, without explaining its socioeconomic dimensions and its functionality as a mechanism for the reproduction of the destructive logic of capital.

  19. Parallel recovery of consciousness and sleep in acute traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Catherine; Dumont, Marie; Arbour, Caroline; Paquet, Jean; Blais, Hélène; Menon, David K; De Beaumont, Louis; Bernard, Francis; Gosselin, Nadia

    2017-01-17

    To investigate whether the progressive recuperation of consciousness was associated with the reconsolidation of sleep and wake states in hospitalized patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study comprised 30 hospitalized patients (age 29.1 ± 13.5 years) in the acute phase of moderate or severe TBI. Testing started 21.0 ± 13.7 days postinjury. Consciousness level and cognitive functioning were assessed daily with the Rancho Los Amigos scale of cognitive functioning (RLA). Sleep and wake cycle characteristics were estimated with continuous wrist actigraphy. Mixed model analyses were performed on 233 days with the RLA (fixed effect) and sleep-wake variables (random effects). Linear contrast analyses were performed in order to verify if consolidation of the sleep and wake states improved linearly with increasing RLA score. Associations were found between scores on the consciousness/cognitive functioning scale and measures of sleep-wake cycle consolidation (p sleep duration (p = 0.018), and nighttime fragmentation index (p sleep-wake quality. Consolidated 24-hour sleep-wake cycle occurred when patients were able to give context-appropriate, goal-directed responses. Our results showed that when the brain has not sufficiently recovered a certain level of consciousness, it is also unable to generate a 24-hour sleep-wake cycle and consolidated nighttime sleep. This study contributes to elucidating the pathophysiology of severe sleep-wake cycle alterations in the acute phase of moderate to severe TBI. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Bernard J.; Edelman, David B.

    2012-09-01

    Natural phenomena are reducible to quantum events in principle, but quantum mechanics does not always provide the best level of analysis. The many-body problem, chaotic avalanches, materials properties, biological organisms, and weather systems are better addressed at higher levels. Animals are highly organized, goal-directed, adaptive, selectionist, information-preserving, functionally redundant, multicellular, quasi-autonomous, highly mobile, reproducing, dissipative systems that conserve many fundamental features over remarkably long periods of time at the species level. Animal brains consist of massive, layered networks of specialized signaling cells with 10,000 communication points per cell, and interacting up to 1000 Hz. Neurons begin to divide and differentiate very early in gestation, and continue to develop until middle age. Waking brains operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium under delicate homeostatic control, making them extremely sensitive to a range of physical and chemical stimuli, highly adaptive, and able to produce a remarkable range of goal-relevant actions. Consciousness is “a difference that makes a difference” at the level of massive neuronal interactions in the most parallel-interactive anatomical structure of the mammalian brain, the cortico-thalamic (C-T) system. Other brain structures are not established to result in direct conscious experiences, at least in humans. However, indirect extra-cortical influences on the C-T system are pervasive. Learning, brain plasticity and major life adaptations may require conscious cognition. While brains evolved over hundreds of millions of years, and individual brains grow over months, years and decades, conscious events appear to have a duty cycle of ∼100 ms, fading after a few seconds. They can of course be refreshed by inner rehearsal, re-visualization, or attending to recurrent stimulus sources. These very distinctive brain events are needed when animals seek out and cope with new

  1. Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Bernard J; Edelman, David B

    2012-09-01

    Natural phenomena are reducible to quantum events in principle, but quantum mechanics does not always provide the best level of analysis. The many-body problem, chaotic avalanches, materials properties, biological organisms, and weather systems are better addressed at higher levels. Animals are highly organized, goal-directed, adaptive, selectionist, information-preserving, functionally redundant, multicellular, quasi-autonomous, highly mobile, reproducing, dissipative systems that conserve many fundamental features over remarkably long periods of time at the species level. Animal brains consist of massive, layered networks of specialized signaling cells with 10,000 communication points per cell, and interacting up to 1000 Hz. Neurons begin to divide and differentiate very early in gestation, and continue to develop until middle age. Waking brains operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium under delicate homeostatic control, making them extremely sensitive to a range of physical and chemical stimuli, highly adaptive, and able to produce a remarkable range of goal-relevant actions. Consciousness is "a difference that makes a difference" at the level of massive neuronal interactions in the most parallel-interactive anatomical structure of the mammalian brain, the cortico-thalamic (C-T) system. Other brain structures are not established to result in direct conscious experiences, at least in humans. However, indirect extra-cortical influences on the C-T system are pervasive. Learning, brain plasticity and major life adaptations may require conscious cognition. While brains evolved over hundreds of millions of years, and individual brains grow over months, years and decades, conscious events appear to have a duty cycle of ∼100 ms, fading after a few seconds. They can of course be refreshed by inner rehearsal, re-visualization, or attending to recurrent stimulus sources. These very distinctive brain events are needed when animals seek out and cope with new

  2. State dissociation, human behavior, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, Mark W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Schenck, Carlos H

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is clearly not only a whole-brain or global phenomenon, but can also be a local phenomenon. This accounts for the fact that the primary states of being (wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep) are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and components of these states may appear in various combinations, with fascinating clinical consequences. Examples include: sleep inertia, narcolepsy, sleep paralysis, lucid dreaming, REM sleep behavior disorder, sleepwalking, sleep terrors, out-of-body experiences, and reports of alien abduction. The incomplete declaration of state likewise has implications for consciousness - which also has fluid boundaries. Fluctuations in the degree of consciousness are likely explained by abnormalities of a "spatial and temporal binding rhythm" which normally results in a unified conscious experience. Dysfunctional binding may play a role in anesthetic states, autism, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders. Further study of the broad spectrum of dissociated states of sleep and wakefulness that are closely linked with states of consciousness and unconsciousness by basic neuroscientists, clinicians, and members of the legal profession will provide scientific, clinical and therapeutic insights, with forensic implications.

  3. Wake up and Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia......Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia...

  4. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions...

  5. Spasticity Management in Disorders of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Géraldine; Laureys, Steven; Thibaut, Aurore

    2017-12-09

    Background: Spasticity is a motor disorder frequently encountered after a lesion involving the central nervous system. It is hypothesized to arise from an anarchic reorganization of the pyramidal and parapyramidal fibers and leads to hypertonia and hyperreflexia of the affected muscular groups. While this symptom and its management is well-known in patients suffering from stroke, multiple sclerosis or spinal cord lesion, little is known regarding its appropriate management in patients presenting disorders of consciousness after brain damage. Objectives: Our aim was to review the occurrence of spasticity in patients with disorders of consciousness and the therapeutic interventions used to treat it. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using the PubMed online database. It returned 157 articles. After applying our inclusion criteria (i.e., studies about patients in coma, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or minimally conscious state, with spasticity objectively reported as a primary or secondary outcome), 18 studies were fully reviewed. Results: The prevalence of spasticity in patients with disorders of consciousness ranged from 59% to 89%. Current treatment options include intrathecal baclofen and soft splints. Several treatment options still need further investigation; including acupuncture, botulin toxin or cortical activation by thalamic stimulation. Conclusion: The small number of articles available in the current literature highlights that spasticity is poorly studied in patients with disorders of consciousness although it is one of the most common motor disorders. While treatments such as intrathecal baclofen and soft splints seem effective, large randomized controlled trials have to be done and new therapeutic options should be explored.

  6. Consciousness without conflation.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Anthony P.; Davies, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Although information-processing theories cannot provide a full explanatory account of P-consciousness, there is less conflation and confusion in cognitive psychology than Block suspects. Some of the reasoning that Block criticises can be interpreted plausibly in the light of a folk psychological view of the relation between P-consciousness and A-consciousness.

  7. Nonneurocognitive Extended Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Kevin; Chemero, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    One of the attributes necessary for Watson to be considered human is that it must be conscious. From Rachlin's (2012) point of view, that of teleological behaviorism, consciousness refers to the organization of behavioral complexity in which overt behavior is distributed widely over time. Consciousness is something that humans do, or achieve, in…

  8. Music in disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnik, Jens D; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the use of music therapy in neurological early rehabilitation of patients with coma and other disorders of consciousness (DOC) such as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or minimally conscious state (MCS). There is evidence that patients suffering from UWS show emotional processing of auditory information, such as listening to speech. Thus, it seems reasonable to believe that music listening-as part of an enriched environment setting-may be of therapeutic value in these patients. There is, however, a considerable lack of evidence. The authors strongly encourage further studies to evaluate the efficacy of music listening in patients with DOC in neurological early rehabilitation. These studies should consider a precise clinical definition and homogeneity of the patient cohort with respect to the quality (coma vs. UWS vs. MCS), duration (rather weeks to months than days) and cause (traumatic vs. non-traumatic) of DOC, a standardized intervention protocol, valid clinical outcome parameters over a longer observation period (weeks to months), monitoring of neurophysiological and vegetative parameters and, if available, neuroimaging to confirm diagnosis and to demonstrate responses and functional changes in the patients' brains.

  9. Music in disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Dieter Rollnik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an overview of the use of music therapy in neurological early rehabilitation of patients with coma and other disorders of consciousness (DOC such as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS or minimally conscious state (MCS. There is evidence that patients suffering from UWS show emotional processing of auditory information, such as listening to speech. Thus, it seems reasonable to believe that music listening – as part of an enriched environment setting – may be of therapeutic value in these patients. There is, however, a considerable lack of evidence. The authors strongly encourage further studies to evaluate the efficacy of music listening in patients with DOC in neurological early rehabilitation. These studies should consider a precise clinical definition and homogeneity of the patient cohort with respect to the quality (coma vs. UWS vs. MCS, duration (rather weeks to months than days and cause (traumatic vs. non-traumatic of DOC, a standardised intervention protocol, valid clinical outcome parameters over a longer observation period (weeks to months, monitoring of neurophysiological and vegetative parameters and, if available, neuroimaging to confirm diagnosis and to demonstrate responses and functional changes in the patients` brains.

  10. Impaired Consciousness in Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Consciousness is essential to normal human life. In epileptic seizures consciousness is often transiently lost making it impossible for the individual to experience or respond. This has huge consequences for safety, productivity, emotional health and quality of life. To prevent impaired consciousness in epilepsy it is necessary to understand the mechanisms leading to brain dysfunction during seizures. Normally the “consciousness system”—a specialized set of cortical-subcortical structures—maintains alertness, attention and awareness. Recent advances in neuroimaging, electrophysiology and prospective behavioral testing have shed new light on how epileptic seizures disrupt the consciousness system. Diverse seizure types including absence, generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures converge on the same set of anatomical structures through different mechanisms to disrupt consciousness. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to improved treatment strategies to prevent impaired consciousness and improve quality of life in people with epilepsy. PMID:22898735

  11. Multiple Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Mann, Jakob

    lateral velocities, and thus inspired by the basic assumption behind the Dynamic Wake Meandering model.Secondly, the impact of the atmospheric stability on wind turbine wake deficit is studied experimentally and numerically. The measurements collected from the previous pulsed lidar campaign was reused...... wind are adapted to the thermal stratification using a newly developed spectral tensor, which includes buoyancy effects. Discrepancies are discussed as basis for future model development and improvement. Moreover, the impact of atmospheric stability and terrain on large/small scale wake flow...... and wake advection velocity, is derived and linked to the characteristics of a spherical vortex structure. Additionally, a new empirical model for single wake expansion is proposed based on an initial wake expansion in the pressure driven flow regime and a spatial gradient computed from the large scale...

  12. Wake modeling and simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.

    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, howev...... methodology has been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and example simulations of wake situations, from the small Tjæreborg wind farm, have been performed showing satisfactory agreement between predictions and measurements...

  13. Wake Expansion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Different models of wake expansion are presented in this chapter: the 1D momentum theory model, the cylinder analog model and Theodorsen’s model. Far wake models such as the ones from Frandsen or Rathmann or only briefly mentioned. The different models are compared to each other. Results from thi...... this chapter are used in Chap. 16 to link near-wake and far-wake parameters and in Chap. 20 to study the influence of expansion on tip-losses....

  14. Converging intracranial markers of conscious access.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Gaillard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared conscious and nonconscious processing of briefly flashed words using a visual masking procedure while recording intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG in ten patients. Nonconscious processing of masked words was observed in multiple cortical areas, mostly within an early time window (<300 ms, accompanied by induced gamma-band activity, but without coherent long-distance neural activity, suggesting a quickly dissipating feedforward wave. In contrast, conscious processing of unmasked words was characterized by the convergence of four distinct neurophysiological markers: sustained voltage changes, particularly in prefrontal cortex, large increases in spectral power in the gamma band, increases in long-distance phase synchrony in the beta range, and increases in long-range Granger causality. We argue that all of those measures provide distinct windows into the same distributed state of conscious processing. These results have a direct impact on current theoretical discussions concerning the neural correlates of conscious access.

  15. Suppression of wake's instabilities by optimal streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Guercio, Gerardo; Cossu, Carlo; Pujals, Gregory

    2014-11-01

    Wakes can sustain large transient energy growth. Optimal perturbations are computed for the cases of parallel, weakly non-parallel and the circular cylinder wakes. Streaks are found to be the optimal amplified structures produced by the non normal energy amplification. The level of energy increases with the spanwise wavelength of the perturbations except in the circular cylinder wake where the optimal is reached for λz ~ 6 D . In parallel wakes these streaks are shown to suppress the absolute instability. Furthermore the global instability of the weakly non-parallel and the circular cylinder wakes can be completely annihilate with moderate streaks amplitudes. The comparison of these spanwise periodic (3D) optimal perturbations with the spanwise uniform (2D) control showed that the energy required to stabilize the wake is always smaller for the 3D control. Moreover the sensitivity of the global mode growth rate is discovered to be quadratic for 3D perturbations while being linear for 2D ones meaning that usual first order sensitivity analysis is unable to predict their larger efficiency.

  16. The Science of Consciousness

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We not only act in the world but we consciously perceive it. The interactions of myriad of neuronal and sub-neuronal processes that are responsible for visual behaviors also give rise to the daily movie screened for our benefit in the privacy of our own skull. I will discuss the empirical progress that has been achieved over the past several decades in characterizing the behavioral and the neuronal correlates of consciousness in human and non-human animals and in dissociating selective visual attention from visual consciousness. I will introduce Tononi’s integrated Information Theory (IIT) that explains in a principled manner which physical systems are capable of conscious, subjective experience. The theory explains many empirical facts about consciousness and its pathologies in humans. It can also be extrapolated to more difficult cases, such as fetuses, mice, or bees. The theory predicts that many, seemingly complex, systems are not conscious, in particular digital computers running software, even if thes...

  17. Consciousness: A Neurological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E. Cavanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is a state so essentially entwined with human experience, yet so difficult to conceptually define and measure. In this article, we explore how a bidimensional model of consciousness involving both level of arousal and subjective awareness of the contents of consciousness can be used to differentiate a range of healthy and altered conscious states. These include the different sleep stages of healthy individuals and the altered states of consciousness associated with neurological conditions such as epilepsy, vegetative state and coma. In particular, we discuss how arousal and awareness are positively correlated in normal physiological states with the exception of REM sleep, while a disturbance in this relationship is characteristic of vegetative state, minimally conscious state, complex partial seizures and sleepwalking.

  18. The evolution of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Peter

    2000-01-01

    How might consciousness have evolved? Unfortunately for the prospects of providing a convincing answer to this question, there is no agreed account of what consciousness is. So any attempt at an answer will have to fragment along a number of different lines of enquiry. More fortunately, perhaps, there is general agreement that a number of distinct notions of consciousness need to be distinguished from one another; and there is also broad agreement as to which of these is particularly problema...

  19. Dynamic wake meandering modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gunner C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bingoel, F. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture a stochastic model of the downstream wake meandering is formulated. In addition to the kinematic formulation of the dynamics of the 'meandering frame of reference', models characterizing the mean wake deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference, are an integrated part the model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. Two computationally low cost models are developed for this purpose. The character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has been approached by analytical as well as by numerical studies. The dynamic wake meandering philosophy has been verified by comparing model predictions with extensive full-scale measurements. These comparisons have demonstrated good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, concerning both flow characteristics and turbine load characteristics. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the dynamic wake meandering approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as

  20. Measuring consciousness in dreams: the lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Windt, Jennifer; Frenzel, Clemens; Hobson, Allan

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present results from an interdisciplinary research project aimed at assessing consciousness in dreams. For this purpose, we compared lucid dreams with normal non-lucid dreams from REM sleep. Both lucid and non-lucid dreams are an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness, giving valuable insights into the structure of conscious experience and its neural correlates during sleep. However, the precise differences between lucid and non-lucid dreams remain poorly understood. The construction of the Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams scale (LuCiD) was based on theoretical considerations and empirical observations. Exploratory factor analysis of the data from the first survey identified eight factors that were validated in a second survey using confirmatory factor analysis: INSIGHT, CONTROL, THOUGHT, REALISM, MEMORY, DISSOCIATION, NEGATIVE EMOTION, and POSITIVE EMOTION. While all factors are involved in dream consciousness, realism and negative emotion do not differentiate between lucid and non-lucid dreams, suggesting that lucid insight is separable from both bizarreness in dreams and a change in the subjectively experienced realism of the dream. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving Spelling Performance and Spelling Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of spelling ability and word characteristic were also…

  2. Improving spelling performance and spelling consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of

  3. Environmentalism and typological characteristics of globalistion consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman M. Kolisnichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed anthropo-saving and environmental-depth approaches to understanding the essence environmentalism. The definition of environmentalism as global environmental trends that recognizes the intrinsic value of the natural world, all its elements and aims to rescue mankind from global environmental threats by achieving a sustainable balance of planetary ecosystems, the proper state of the environment and harmonious development of man and nature. Developed the typology of globalization consciousness attitude to solving global problems in the relationship between man and nature. The main types globalistion consciousness, as the growth of thrift in relation to nature, located in the following sequence: ecodestructive, anthropocentric, ecoconsumerist, ecotraditional, environmental, sacred-ethical, naturecentric and antropofobiastic. Developing a typology of globalistion consciousness above criteria also highlighted its neutral type. Proved that environmental globalistion consciousness is environmentally oriented system of ideas that reflect solutions to global environmental problems in accordance with the principles environmentalism. This type of consciousness globalistion a high degree of awareness of global environmental problems, persistent desire to implement effective methods of humane solution, the optimal it is due, the need to maximize the spread of population. It is concluded that the formation environmental globalistion consciousness as a prerequisite for saving humanity from self created global environmental threats can be greatly accelerated by the terms of the assistance of governments, the media, educational institutions, political parties, public organizations and other institutions of political socialization.

  4. Neural Darwinism and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil K; Baars, Bernard J

    2005-03-01

    Neural Darwinism (ND) is a large scale selectionist theory of brain development and function that has been hypothesized to relate to consciousness. According to ND, consciousness is entailed by reentrant interactions among neuronal populations in the thalamocortical system (the 'dynamic core'). These interactions, which permit high-order discriminations among possible core states, confer selective advantages on organisms possessing them by linking current perceptual events to a past history of value-dependent learning. Here, we assess the consistency of ND with 16 widely recognized properties of consciousness, both physiological (for example, consciousness is associated with widespread, relatively fast, low amplitude interactions in the thalamocortical system), and phenomenal (for example, consciousness involves the existence of a private flow of events available only to the experiencing subject). While no theory accounts fully for all of these properties at present, we find that ND and its recent extensions fare well.

  5. The evolution of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-08-16

    It is argued that the principles of classical physics are inimical to the development of an adequate science of consciousness. The problem is that insofar as the classical principles are valid consciousness can have no effect on the behavior, and hence on the survival prospects, of the organisms in which it inheres. Thus within the classical framework it is not possible to explain in natural terms the development of consciousness to the high-level form found in human beings. In quantum theory, on the other hand, consciousness can be dynamically efficacious: quantum theory does allow consciousness to influence behavior, and thence to evolve in accordance with the principles of natural selection. However, this evolutionary requirement places important constraints upon the details of the formulation of the quantum dynamical principles.

  6. Inner Consciousness Tindakan Nabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Helmi Umam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is written to examine deeds and actions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him within inner consciousness analysis of Husserl’s phenomenology. The article is formulated to explore the significance of phenomenology of religious study, Prophet’s deeds as well as his inner consciousness, and inner consciousness analysis of Prophet’s deeds. This article is written using phenomenological method, i.e. a comprehensive interpretation about the source of information or object’s phenomenon as long as it can be traced. Inner consciousness of Prophet’s actions sees that his deeds in deciding important religious pronouncements were results of long-term memory based on divine and social argumentations, which have came into Prophet’s consciousness as a human.

  7. HARP PRIA- Wake

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This HARP was first deployed off of Wake Atoll in 2010. It has been recovered and redeployed multiple times (see time frames for information).

  8. Consciousness during dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicogna, P C; Bosinelli, M

    2001-03-01

    Two aspects of consciousness are first considered: consciousness as awareness (phenomenological meaning) and consciousness as strategic control (functional meaning). As to awareness, three types can be distinguished: first, awareness as the phenomenal experiences of objects and events; second, awareness as meta-awareness, i.e., the awareness of mental life itself; third, awareness as self-awareness, i.e., the awareness of being oneself. While phenomenal experience and self-awareness are usually present during dreaming (even if many modifications are possible), meta-awareness is usually absent (apart from some particular experiences of self-reflectiveness) with the major exception of lucid dreaming. Consciousness as strategic control may also be present in dreams. The functioning of consciousness is then analyzed, following a cognitive model of dream production. In such a model, the dream is supposed to be the product of the interaction of three components: (a) the bottom-up activation of mnemonic elements coming from LTM systems, (b) interpretative and elaborative top-down processes, and (c) monitoring of phenomenal experience. A feedback circulation is activated among the components, where the top-down interpretative organization and the conscious monitoring of the oneiric scene elicitates other mnemonic contents, according to the requirements of the dream plot. This dream productive activity is submitted to unconscious and conscious processes. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Science, conscience, consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Descartes' metaphysics lays the foundation for the special sciences, and the notion of consciousness ("conscientia") belongs to metaphysics rather than to psychology. I argue that as a metaphysical notion, "consciousness" refers to an epistemic version of moral conscience. As a consequence, the activity on which science is based turns out to be conscientious thought. The consciousness that makes science possible is a double awareness: the awareness of what one is thinking, of what one should be doing, and of the possibility of a gap between the two.

  10. The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Leech, Robert; Hellyer, Peter J; Shanahan, Murray; Feilding, Amanda; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Chialvo, Dante R; Nutt, David

    2014-01-01

    Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder. Entropy is applied here in the context of states of consciousness and their associated neurodynamics, with a particular focus on the psychedelic state. The psychedelic state is considered an exemplar of a primitive or primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of modern, adult, human, normal waking consciousness. Based on neuroimaging data with psilocybin, a classic psychedelic drug, it is argued that the defining feature of "primary states" is elevated entropy in certain aspects of brain function, such as the repertoire of functional connectivity motifs that form and fragment across time. Indeed, since there is a greater repertoire of connectivity motifs in the psychedelic state than in normal waking consciousness, this implies that primary states may exhibit "criticality," i.e., the property of being poised at a "critical" point in a transition zone between order and disorder where certain phenomena such as power-law scaling appear. Moreover, if primary states are critical, then this suggests that entropy is suppressed in normal waking consciousness, meaning that the brain operates just below criticality. It is argued that this entropy suppression furnishes normal waking consciousness with a constrained quality and associated metacognitive functions, including reality-testing and self-awareness. It is also proposed that entry into primary states depends on a collapse of the normally highly organized activity within the default-mode network (DMN) and a decoupling between the DMN and the medial temporal lobes (which are normally significantly coupled). These hypotheses can be tested by examining brain activity and associated cognition in other candidate primary states such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and early psychosis and comparing these with

  11. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The 44 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2015 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland in Sweden. It is the fourth time this conference has been held. The Wake Conference series started in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 it took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it is back where it started in Visby, where it takes place at Uppsala University Campus Gotland, June 9th-11th. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown tremendously in the past decade and it now comprises more than 3% of the global electrical power consumption. Today the wind power industry has a global annual turnover of more than 50 billion USD and an annual average growth rate of more than 20%. State-of-the-art wind turbines have rotor diameters of up to 150 m and 8 MW installed capacity. These turbines are often placed in large wind farms that have a total production capacity corresponding to that of a nuclear power plant. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global warming, the industry's growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. Modern wind turbines are today clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction results in decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of the vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of a wind farm. This conference is aimed

  12. How are different neural networks related to consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Pengmin; Wu, Xuehai; Huang, Zirui; Duncan, Niall W; Tang, Weijun; Wolff, Annemarie; Hu, Jin; Gao, Liang; Jin, Yi; Wu, Xing; Zhang, Jianfeng; Lu, Lu; Wu, Chunping; Qu, Xiaoying; Mao, Ying; Weng, Xuchu; Zhang, Jun; Northoff, Georg

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the roles of different resting-state networks in predicting both the actual level of consciousness and its recovery in brain injury patients. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity within different networks in patients with varying levels of consciousness: unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS; n = 56), minimally conscious state (MCS; n = 29), and patients with brain lesions but full consciousness (BL; n = 48). Considering the actual level of consciousness, we compared the strength of network connectivity among the patient groups. We then checked the presence of connections between specific regions in individual patients and calculated the frequency of this in the different patient groups. Considering the recovery of consciousness, we split the UWS group into 2 subgroups according to recovery: those who emerged from UWS (UWS-E) and those who remained in UWS (UWS-R). The above analyses were repeated on these 2 subgroups. Functional connectivity strength in salience network (SN), especially connectivity between the supragenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC) and left anterior insula (LAI), was reduced in the unconscious state (UWS) compared to the conscious state (MCS and BL). Moreover, at the individual level, SACC-LAI connectivity was more present in MCS than in UWS. Default-mode network (DMN) connectivity strength, especially between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and left lateral parietal cortex (LLPC), was reduced in UWS-R compared with UWS-E. Furthermore, PCC-LLPC connectivity was more present in UWS-E than in UWS-R. Our findings show that SN (SACC-LAI) connectivity correlates with behavioral signs of consciousness, whereas DMN (PCC-LLPC) connectivity instead predicts recovery of consciousness. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  13. Assessing sleep consciousness within subjects using a serial awakening paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eSiclari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dreaming - a particular form of consciousness that occurs during sleep - undergoes major changes in the course of the night. We aimed to outline state-dependent features of consciousness using a paradigm with multiple serial awakenings/questionings that allowed for within as well as between subject comparisons. Seven healthy participants who spent 44 experimental study nights in the laboratory were awakened by a computerized sound at 15-30 minute intervals, regardless of sleep stage, and questioned for the presence or absence of sleep consciousness. Recall without content (‘I was experiencing something but do not remember what’ was considered separately. Subjects had to indicate the content of the most recent conscious experience prior to the alarm sound and to estimate its duration and richness. We also assessed the degree of thinking and perceiving, self- and environment-relatedness and reflective consciousness of the experiences. Of the 778 questionings, 5% were performed during wakefulness, 2% in stage N1, 42% in N2, 33% in N3 and 17% in rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Recall with content was reported in 34% of non-REM and in 77% of REM sleep awakenings. Sleep fragmentation inherent to the study design appeared to only minimally affect the recall of conscious experiences. Each stage displayed a unique combination of characteristic features of sleep consciousness. In conclusion, our serial awakening paradigm allowed us to collect a large and representative sample of conscious experiences across states of being. It represents a time-efficient method for the study of sleep consciousness that may prove particularly advantageous when combined with techniques such as functional MRI and high-density EEG.

  14. The Methodology of Psychological Research of Ecological Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Shmeleva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the methodological principles of the psychological study of ecological consciousness as one of the urgent interdisciplinary problems of XX–XXI century, caused by the aggravation of global ecological problems and the need for the realization of the “sustainable development”ideas. Ecological consciousness is considered as multilayered, dynamic, reflexive element of human consciousness, incorporating multivariate, holistic aspects of interaction of the human being as the H.S. and the Humanity representative with the environment and the Planet. The possibility of the more active introduction of Russian psychology in the process is argued for in connection with the existing conceptual approaches, which compose the methodological basis for ecological consciousness research. Among these approaches are considered: the principles of holistic study of the human being by B. Ananyev, the methodology of system psychological description by V. Gansen and G. Sukhodolsky, the idea of reflexivity of consciousness by S. Rubinstein, the humanitarian- ecological imperative of the development of consciousness by V. Zinchenko, the theory of relations by V. Myasishev, consideration of ecological consciousness as relation to nature by S. Deryabo and V. Yasvin, theories of consciousness by V. Petrenko, V. Allakhverdov and other Russian psychologists. The value component of ecological consciousness is distinguished as the most significant. The possibility of applying the Values’ theory of the by S. Schwartz for studying the ecological values is discussed along with the prognostic potential of the universalism value.

  15. Near-death experience: arising from the borderlands of consciousness in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kevin R

    2014-11-01

    Brain activity explains the essential features of near-death experience, including the perceptions of envelopment by light, out-of-body, and meeting deceased loved ones or spiritual beings. To achieve their fullest expression, such near-death experiences require a confluence of events and draw upon more than a single physiological or biochemical system, or one anatomical structure. During impaired cerebral blood flow from syncope or cardiac arrest that commonly precedes near-death, the boundary between consciousness and unconsciousness is often indistinct and a person may enter a borderland and be far more aware than is appreciated by others. Consciousness can also come and go if blood flow rises and falls across a crucial threshold. During crisis the brain's prime biologic purpose to keep itself alive lies at the heart of many spiritual experiences and inextricably binds them to the primal brain. Brain ischemia can disrupt the physiological balance between conscious states by leading the brainstem to blend rapid eye movement (REM) and waking into another borderland of consciousness during near-death. Evidence converges from many points to support this notion, including the observation that the majority of people with a near-death experience possess brains predisposed to fusing REM and waking consciousness into an unfamiliar reality, and are as likely to have out-of-body experience while blending REM and waking consciousness as they are to have out-of-body experience during near-death. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Dynamic wake meandering modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Bingöl, Ferhat

    , concerning both flow characteristics and turbine load characteristics. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the dynamic wake meandering approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power– and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct...... and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as well as of control strategies for the individual turbine. Implementation of the methodology with aeroelastic codes is straight forward...

  17. Sleep Tendency and Ability to Sustain Wakefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Pratica di Mare, 00040 Pomezia (Roma) Italy 2 Dipartimento di Psicologia - Universitd di Roma "La Sapienza" Via del policlinico 155 00161 Roma Italy...several sleep, medical , or psychiatric disorders psychophysiological and paper and pencil tasks participated as volunteers in the study. All of the

  18. Consciousness, Mind, and Spirit: Three Levels of Human Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Ule

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article elucidates three important concepts and realities that refer to cognitive phenomena and are often (mistakenly used as synonyms: consciousness (slo. zavest, mind (slo. um, and spirit (slo. duh. They present three levels of human cognition: individual-experiential, individual-mental, and trans-individual-mental. Simply put: the concept of consciousness pertains to the waking mental life of a human being, while the concept of mind pertains to the ability and activity to consciously comprehend and understand contents and objects of human activity. I delineate three “types” of spirit: personal spirit, objective spirit, and the objectification of spirit in productions of human culture; I have doubts, however, about the existence of cosmic or super-cosmic dimensions of spirit, although some interpretations of quantum physics and modern cosmology suggest that such dimensions are possible.

  19. Sustainable Practices Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Better sustainability means more environmentally conscious and efficient businesses and communities. EPA helps modify the way we consume energy, deal with waste, and grow our economy through programs such as Energy Star, E3, Smart Growth, and WaterSense.

  20. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry; UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Sobell Dept. of Motor, Neuroscience and Movement Disorders; Nani, Andrea [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Research Group BSMHFT; Blumenfeld, Hal [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Depts. of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery; Laureys, Steven (ed.) [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  1. Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Similarities and differences between dreaming and waking cognition: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, T L; LaBerge, S; Levitan, L; Zimbardo, P

    1997-03-01

    Thirty-eight "practiced" dreamers (Study 1) and 50 "novice" dreamers (Study 2) completed questionnaires assessing the cognitive, metacognitive, and emotional qualities of recent waking and dreaming experiences. The present findings suggest that dreaming cognition is more similar to waking cognition than previously assumed and that the differences between dreaming and waking cognition are more quantitative than qualitative. Results from the two studies were generally consistent, indicating that high-order cognition during dreaming is not restricted to individuals practiced in dream recall or self-observation. None of the measured features was absent or infrequent in reports of either dreaming or waking experiences. Recollections of dreaming and waking experiences were similar for some cognitive features (e.g., attentional processes, internal commentary, and public self-consciousness) and different for other features (e.g., choice, event-related self-reflection, and affect).

  3. Wake modelling combining mesoscale and microscale models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Jake; Volker, Patrick; Prospathospoulos, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the basis for introducing thrust information from microscale wake models into mesocale model wake parameterizations will be described. A classification system for the different types of mesoscale wake parameterizations is suggested and outlined. Four different mesoscale wake...

  4. Wind Farm Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...

  5. Cajal and consciousness. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijuán, P C

    2001-04-01

    One hundred years after Santiago Ramón Cajal established the bases of modern neuroscience in his masterpiece Textura del sistema nervioso del hombre y de los vertebrados, the question is stated again: What is the status of consciousness today? The responses in this book, by contemporary leading figures of neuroscience, evolution, molecular biology, computer science, and quantum physics, collectively compose a fascinating conceptual landscape. Both the evolutionary emergence of consciousness and its development towards the highest level may be analyzed by a wealth of new theories and hypotheses, including Cajal's prescient ones. Some noticeable gaps remain, however. Celebrating the centennial of Textura is a timely occasion to reassess how close--and how far--our system of the sciences is to explaining consciousness.

  6. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... a dynamic entity, which physical structure changes according to its use and environment. This change may take the form of growth of new neurons, the creation of new networks and structures, and change within network structures, that is, changes in synaptic strengths. Plasticity raises questions about...

  7. Objects of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald David Hoffman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexist-ing physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have defi-nite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are com-pendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a conscious agent. We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  8. Objects of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a "conscious agent." We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  9. Objects of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D.; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a “conscious agent.” We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale. PMID:24987382

  10. Mathematical model of network dynamics governing mouse sleep-wake behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, Cecilia G Diniz; Brown, Emery N; Scammell, Thomas E; Kopell, Nancy J

    2007-06-01

    Recent work in experimental neurophysiology has identified distinct neuronal populations in the rodent brain stem and hypothalamus that selectively promote wake and sleep. Mutual inhibition between these cell groups has suggested the conceptual model of a sleep-wake switch that controls transitions between wake and sleep while minimizing time spent in intermediate states. By combining wake- and sleep-active populations with populations governing transitions between different stages of sleep, a "sleep-wake network" of neuronal populations may be defined. To better understand the dynamics inherent in this network, we created a model sleep-wake network composed of coupled relaxation oscillation equations. Mathematical analysis of the deterministic model provides insight into the dynamics underlying state transitions and predicts mechanisms for each transition type. With the addition of noise, the simulated sleep-wake behavior generated by the model reproduces many qualitative and quantitative features of mouse sleep-wake behavior. In particular, the existence of simulated brief awakenings is a unique feature of the model. In addition to capturing the experimentally observed qualitative difference between brief and sustained wake bouts, the model suggests distinct network mechanisms for the two types of wakefulness. Because circadian and other factors alter the fine architecture of sleep-wake behavior, this model provides a novel framework to explore dynamical principles that may underlie normal and pathologic sleep-wake physiology.

  11. A framework for consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Francis; Koch, Christof

    2003-02-01

    Here we summarize our present approach to the problem of consciousness. After an introduction outlining our general strategy, we describe what is meant by the term 'framework' and set it out under ten headings. This framework offers a coherent scheme for explaining the neural correlates of (visual) consciousness in terms of competing cellular assemblies. Most of the ideas we favor have been suggested before, but their combination is original. We also outline some general experimental approaches to the problem and, finally, acknowledge some relevant aspects of the brain that have been left out of the proposed framework.

  12. Consciousness in the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Chamcham

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available So far we can identify at least three concepts within modern cosmology that bring into debate the question of consciousness in the universe: 1 Fine Tuning; 2 The Anthropic Principle and 3 The Multiverse. This does not exclude the question of the role of observer (i.e. consciousness in cosmology as developed within Quantum Physics: we observe the universe through quanta and any breakthrough in understanding the origin and nature of the universe will come only through a quantum theory of gravity […

  13. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  14. Preserved consciousness in vegetative and minimal conscious states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Nielsen, Christian Thomas Friberg; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2016-01-01

    Active, passive and resting state paradigms using functional MRI (fMRI) or EEG may reveal consciousness in the vegetative (VS) and the minimal conscious state (MCS). A meta-analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of preserved consciousness in VS and MCS as revealed by fMRI and EEG...

  15. Phenomenology of Consciousness in Ādi Śamkara and Edmund ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-01

    May 1, 2009 ... exploration of truth by a method called Asparśa Yoga using homologies based on the syllable 'OM' (AUM), manifested through four pādas (quarters) as basic states of the Self (Ātman). The four states are: Viśva, the waking state – where consciousness goes outward and is intentional; Taijasa, the dream ...

  16. The mystery of consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, John R

    1997-01-01

    It has long been one of the most fundamental problems of philosophy, and it is now, John Searle writes, "the most important problem in the biological sciences": What is consciousness? Is my inner awareness of myself something separate from my body? In what began as a series of essays in The New York Review of Books, John Searle evaluates the positions on consciousness of such well-known scientists and philosophers as Francis Crick, Gerald Edelman, Roger Penrose, Daniel Dennett, David Chalmers, and Israel Rosenfield. He challenges claims that the mind works like a computer, and that brain functions can be reproduced by computer programs. With a sharp eye for confusion and contradiction, he points out which avenues of current research are most likely to come up with a biological examination of how conscious states are caused by the brain. Only when we understand how the brain works will we solve the mystery of consciousness, and only then will we begin to understand issues ranging from artificial intelligence...

  17. The Problem of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Francis; Koch, Christof

    1992-01-01

    Discusses approaches to the problem presented in understanding consciousness as a yet undiscovered process of interacting neuron activity. Presents the historical context of research in the area of human awareness and identifies research necessary to scientifically explain how the brain relates to the mind. (MCO)

  18. Consciousness and biological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, B I

    1997-08-21

    It has been suggested that if the preservation and development of consciousness in the biological evolution is a result of natural selection, it is plausible that consciousness not only has been influenced by neural processes, but has had a survival value itself; and it could only have had this, if it had also been efficacious. This argument for mind-brain interaction is examined, both as the argument has been developed by William James and Karl Popper and as it has been discussed by C.D. Broad. The problem of identifying mental phenomena with certain neural phenomena is also addressed. The main conclusion of the analysis is that an explanation of the evolution of consciousness in Darwinian terms of natural selection does not rule out that consciousness may have evolved as a mere causally inert effect of the evolution of the nervous system, or that mental phenomena are identical with certain neural phenomena. However, the interactionistic theory still seems, more plausible and more fruitful for other reasons brought up in the discussion.

  19. Consciousness: Emergent and Real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Maleeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose three lines of argumentation against Nannini’s eliminativist approach towards consciousness and the Self. First, we argue that the premises he uses to argue for eliminativism can equally well be used to draw a completely different conclusion in favor of naturalistic dualism according to which phenomenal consciousness irreducibly emerges from a physical substrate by virtue of certain psychophysical laws of nature. Nannini proposes that in contrast to dualistic theses which represent the manifest image of the world, eliminativism represents the world’s scientific image just as classical physics and theories of relativity respectively represent the world’s manifest image and scientific image. And if developments in a scientific field reveal a conflict between these two images we should always vote for the scientific image. In our second line of argument, we challenge this claim by comparing two rival interpretations of quantum mechanics, i.e. the Copenhagen and Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics. Finally, we argue that Nannini’s identification of consciousness and the Self as illusions does not shed any light on the hard problem of consciousness since illusions themselves are instances of phenomenal experiences and need to be explained.

  20. Neural correlates of consciousness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thalamus for arousal; that basic cognition is supported by recurrent electrical activity between the cortex and the thalamus at ... problem of cognitive binding and the role of attention are briefly addressed and it is shown that consciousness depends on a multitude of .... experience emotions, the way we join perceptions into a.

  1. Armodafinil-induced wakefulness in animals with ventrolateral preoptic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrivelan R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Clifford B Saper, Patrick M Fuller Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Armodafinil is the pharmacologically active R-enantiomer of modafinil, a widely prescribed wake-promoting agent used to treat several sleep-related disorders including excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Remarkably, however, the neuronal circuitry through which modafinil exerts its wake-promoting effects remains unresolved. In the present study, we sought to determine if the wake-promoting effects of armodafinil are mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO nucleus. To do so, we measured changes in waking following intraperitoneal administration of armodafinil (200 mg/kg or the psychostimulant methamphetamine (1 mg/kg in rats with cell-body specific lesion of the VLPO. Rats with histologically confirmed lesions of the VLPO demonstrated a sustained increase in wakefulness at baseline, but the increase in wakefulness following administration of both armodafinil and methamphetamine was similar to that of intact animals. These data suggest that armodafinil increases wakefulness by mechanisms that extend beyond inhibition of VLPO neurons. Keywords: EEG, sleep, orexin-saporin, methamphetamine

  2. Pain and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Bastuji, Hélène

    2017-10-11

    The aversive experience we call "pain" results from the coordinated activation of multiple brain areas, commonly described as a "pain matrix". This is not a fixed arrangement of structures but rather a fluid system composed of several interacting networks: A 'nociceptive matrix' includes regions receiving input from ascending nociceptive systems, and ensures the bodily characteristics of physical pain. A further set of structures receiving secondary input supports the 'salience' attributes of noxious stimuli, triggers top-down cognitive controls, and -most importantly- ensures the passage from pre-conscious nociception to conscious pain. Expectations and beliefs can still modulate the conscious experience via activity in supramodal areas and regions with widespread cortical projections such as the ventral tegmental area. Intracortical EEG responses in humans show that nociceptive cortical processing is initiated in parallel in sensory, motor and limbic areas; it progresses rapidly to the recruitment of anterior insular and fronto-parietal networks, and finally to the activation of perigenual, posterior cingulate and hippocampal structures. Functional connectivity between sensory and high-level networks increases during the first second post-stimulus, which may be determinant for access to consciousness. A model is described, progressing from unconscious sensori-motor and limbic processing of spinothalamic and spino-parabrachial input, to an immediate sense of awareness supported by coordinated activity in sensorimotor and fronto-parieto-insular networks, and leading to full declarative consciousness through integration with autobiographical memories and self-awareness, involving posterior cingulate and medial temporal areas. This complete sequence is only present during full vigilance states. We contend, however, that even in unconscious subjects, repeated limbic and vegetative activation by painful stimuli via spino-amygdalar pathways can generate implicit memory

  3. Consciousness: The flipside of anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    ing, is synonymous with awareness, or mindfulness. Consciousness is not restricted to the human species, and investigation of both primates, other mammals and non-mam- malian species have uncovered evidence of behaviours con- sistent with consciousness.4. Explaining consciousness. Descartes' famous separation ...

  4. To what extent do neurobiological sleep-waking processes support psychoanalysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesmann, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Sigmund Freud's thesis was that there is a censorship during waking that prevents memory of events, drives, wishes, and feelings from entering the consciousness because they would induce anxiety due to their emotional or ethical unacceptability. During dreaming, because the efficiency of censorship is decreased, latent thought contents can, after dream-work involving condensation and displacement, enter the dreamer's consciousness under the figurative form of manifest content. The quasi-closed dogma of psychoanalytic theory as related to unconscious processes is beginning to find neurobiological confirmation during waking. Indeed, there are active processes that suppress (repress) unwanted memories from entering consciousness. In contrast, it is more difficult to find neurobiological evidence supporting an organized dream-work that would induce meaningful symbolic content, since dream mentation most often only shows psychotic-like activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Advances in the neurorehabilitation of severe disorder of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Dolce

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper describes the evolution of knowledge concerning severe brain injury which determines the Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome. Background. The term Vegetative State was proposed by Jennet and Plum in 1972. Later on, the Intensive Care Units progresses increased the survival of these patients and, contemporary, decreased their characteristic conditions of cachexia and severe dystonia. In 1994, the disease was conceived as a disconnection syndrome of the hemispheres from the brainstem, mainly due to a temporary or permanent deficit of the functions of the white matter. From 2005 on, the psychophysiological parameters relative to an emotional consciousness, albeit submerged, were described. Since then, it has been recognized that the brain of these patients was not only to be considered living but also working. Conclusion. The latest studies that have greatly improved the knowledge of the physiopathology of this particular state of consciousness. These new insights have led to the formation of a European Union Task Force, which has proposed in 2009 to change the name from a Vegetative State to Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, outlining the character of syndrome and not that of state, as forms of even late recovery in consciousness levels have been observed and described.

  6. Natural evolution and human consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A visual conscious experience is my empirical basis. All that we know comes to us through conscious experiences. Thanks to natural evolution, we have nearly direct perception, and can largely trust the information we attain. There is full integration, with no gaps, of organisms in the continuous world. Human conscious experiences, on the other hand, are discrete. Consciousness has certain limits for its resolution. This is illustrated by the so-called light-cone, with consequences for foundations in physics. Traditional universals are replaced by feels and distributions. Conscious experiences can be ordered within a framework of conceptual spaces. Triple Aspect Monism (TAM) can represent the dynamics of conscious systems. However, to fully represent the creative power of human consciousness, an all-inclusive view is suggested: Multi Aspect Monism (MAM).

  7. Subjective and objective characteristics of altered consciousness during epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campora, Nuria; Kochen, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Conscious states are inner states and processes of awareness. These states are by definition subjective. We analyzed subjective and objective characteristics of alteration of consciousness (AOC) during epileptic seizures, including its involvement in both the level of awareness and subjective content of consciousness. We evaluated AOC using the Consciousness Seizure Scale, the Ictal Consciousness Inventory, and a new structured survey developed by our group: the Seizure Perception Survey, which incorporates patients' subjective experiences before and after they watch a video-electroencephalographic recording of their own seizure. We included 35 patients (105 seizures) with drug-resistant epilepsy. Most seizures caused profound AOC. The content of consciousness was lower during temporal seizures with profound AOC. We uncovered a correlation between the subjective perception and objective duration of a seizure using the Seizure Perception Survey regarding memory; the patients had a better recall of ictal onset during wakefulness regardless of the epileptogenic zone, laterality, or magnitude of AOC. Nonetheless, the recovery of memory at the end of a seizure took more time in patients who showed greater AOC, less vivid content of consciousness, or a longer seizure. For 85% of the patients, this was the first time they were able to view their own seizures. The majority of the patients requested to view them again because this procedure allowed them to compare the recordings with their own memories and emotions during a seizure and to verify the real duration of the seizure. Alteration of consciousness is one of the most dramatic clinical manifestations of epilepsy. Usually, practitioners or relatives assume that the patients with AOC may not have any knowledge on their seizures. In this study, however, we found that most patients with AOC had a fairly accurate perception of the duration of a seizure and retained their memory of ictal onset. In contrast, for the

  8. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women with BPD with or without co-occurring PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Frewen, Paul; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Lanius, Ruth; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background: A “4-D model” was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion) that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC) or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC).Methods: The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder...

  9. [Self-consciousness, consciousness of the other and dementias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Roger

    2007-06-01

    Studies of self-consciousness in dementia concern essentially anosognosia or the loss of insight. However, Self-consciousness is multifaceted: it includes awareness of the body, perceptions, one's own history, identity, and one's own projects. Self-consciousness is linked to consciousness of others i.e. to social cognition supported by identification of others, but also by comprehension of facial expression of emotions, comprehension and expression of emotional prosody, pragmatic abilities, ability to infer other's people's mental states, thoughts, and feelings (theory of mind and empathy), knowledge of social norms and rules, social reasoning. The subtypes of dementias (and namely Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia) affect heterogeneously the different aspects of the self-and other-consciousness. Further studies are needed for a better knowledge of the complex relationship between Self-consciousness, social cognition, decision making and neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral disturbances occurring in demented patients.

  10. Are we explaining consciousness yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, D

    2001-04-01

    Theorists are converging from quite different quarters on a version of the global neuronal workspace model of consciousness, but there are residual confusions to be dissolved. In particular, theorists must resist the temptation to see global accessibility as the cause of consciousness (as if consciousness were some other, further condition); rather, it is consciousness. A useful metaphor for keeping this elusive idea in focus is that consciousness is rather like fame in the brain. It is not a privileged medium of representation, or an added property some states have; it is the very mutual accessibility that gives some informational states the powers that come with a subject's consciousness of that information. Like fame, consciousness is not a momentary condition, or a purely dispositional state, but rather a matter of actual influence over time. Theorists who take on the task of accounting for the aftermath that is critical for consciousness often appear to be leaving out the Subject of consciousness, when in fact they are providing an analysis of the Subject, a necessary component in any serious theory of consciousness.

  11. The biological function of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eEarl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is an investigation of whether consciousness—one’s ongoing experience—influences one’s behavior and, if so, how. Analysis of the components, structure, properties, and temporal sequences of consciousness has established that, (1 contrary to one’s intuitive understanding, consciousness does not have an active, executive role in determining behavior; (2 consciousness does have a biological function; and (3 consciousness is solely information in various forms. Consciousness is associated with a flexible response mechanism (FRM for decision-making, planning, and generally responding in nonautomatic ways. The FRM generates responses by manipulating information and, to function effectively, its data input must be restricted to task-relevant information. The properties of consciousness correspond to the various input requirements of the FRM; and when important information is missing from consciousness, functions of the FRM are adversely affected; both of which indicate that consciousness is the input data to the FRM. Qualitative and quantitative information (shape, size, location, etc., is incorporated into the input data by a qualia array of colors, sounds, and so on, which makes the input conscious. This view of the biological function of consciousness provides an explanation why we have experiences; why we have emotional and other feelings, and why their loss is associated with poor decision-making; why blindsight patients do not spontaneously initiate responses to events in their blind field; why counter-habitual actions are only possible when the intended action is in mind; and the reason for inattentional blindness.

  12. The Neurogenetic Correlates of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, John K.

    2013-09-01

    The neurogenetic correlates of consciousness (NgCC) is a new field of consciousness studies that focuses on genes that have an effect on or are involved in the continuum of neuron-based consciousness. A framework of consciousness based on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has already been established by Francis Crick and Christof Kock. In this work I propose that there are NgCC underlying the NCC which are both active during the conscious experience. So how are genes involved? There are two significant connections between DNA and neurons that are involved in the conscious experience. First, any brain system can be adversely affected by underlying genetic abnormalities which can be expressed in an individual at birth, in adulthood, or later in life. Second, the DNA molecule does not lay dormant while the neuron runs on autopilot. DNA is active in translating and transcribing RNA and protein products that are utilized during neuron functioning. Without these products being continuously produced by the DNA during a conscious experience the neurons would cease to function correctly and be rendered unable to provide a continuum of human consciousness. Consequently, in addition to NCC, NgCC must be factored in when appreciating a conscious event. In this work I will discuss and explain some NgCC citing several examples.

  13. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  14. The biological function of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This research is an investigation of whether consciousness—one's ongoing experience—influences one's behavior and, if so, how. Analysis of the components, structure, properties, and temporal sequences of consciousness has established that, (1) contrary to one's intuitive understanding, consciousness does not have an active, executive role in determining behavior; (2) consciousness does have a biological function; and (3) consciousness is solely information in various forms. Consciousness is associated with a flexible response mechanism (FRM) for decision-making, planning, and generally responding in nonautomatic ways. The FRM generates responses by manipulating information and, to function effectively, its data input must be restricted to task-relevant information. The properties of consciousness correspond to the various input requirements of the FRM; and when important information is missing from consciousness, functions of the FRM are adversely affected; both of which indicate that consciousness is the input data to the FRM. Qualitative and quantitative information (shape, size, location, etc.) are incorporated into the input data by a qualia array of colors, sounds, and so on, which makes the input conscious. This view of the biological function of consciousness provides an explanation why we have experiences; why we have emotional and other feelings, and why their loss is associated with poor decision-making; why blindsight patients do not spontaneously initiate responses to events in their blind field; why counter-habitual actions are only possible when the intended action is in mind; and the reason for inattentional blindness. PMID:25140159

  15. Impact of emotion on consciousness: positive stimuli enhance conscious reportability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Lou, Hans C; Joensson, Morten; Hyam, Jonathan A; Holland, Peter; Parsons, Christine E; Young, Katherine S; Møller, Arne; Stein, Alan; Green, Alex L; Kringelbach, Morten L; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2011-04-11

    Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative) and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms) we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold) processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously) seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms) in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human ACC.

  16. Impact of emotion on consciousness: positive stimuli enhance conscious reportability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Rømer Thomsen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human

  17. Improvements in ECN Wake Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versteeg, M.C. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Ozdemir, H.; Brand, A.J. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wind turbines extract energy from the flow field so that the flow in the wake of a wind turbine contains less energy and more turbulence than the undisturbed flow, leading to less energy extraction for the downstream turbines. In large wind farms, most turbines are located in the wake of one or more turbines causing the flow characteristics felt by these turbines differ considerably from the free stream flow conditions. The most important wake effect is generally considered to be the lower wind speed behind the turbine(s) since this decreases the energy production and as such the economical performance of a wind farm. The overall loss of a wind farm is very much dependent on the conditions and the lay-out of the farm but it can be in the order of 5-10%. Apart from the loss in energy production an additional wake effect is formed by the increase in turbulence intensity, which leads to higher fatigue loads. In this sense it becomes important to understand the details of wake behavior to improve and/or optimize a wind farm layout. Within this study improvements are presented for the existing ECN wake model which constructs the fundamental basis of ECN's FarmFlow wind farm wake simulation tool. The outline of this paper is as follows: first, the governing equations of the ECN wake farm model are presented. Then the near wake modeling is discussed and the results compared with the original near wake modeling and EWTW (ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer) data as well as the results obtained for various near wake implementation cases are shown. The details of the atmospheric stability model are given and the comparison with the solution obtained for the original surface layer model and with the available data obtained by EWTW measurements are presented. Finally the conclusions are summarized.

  18. Rotating Wheel Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Xu, Hui; Moxey, Dave; Sherwin, Spencer

    2016-11-01

    For open wheel race-cars, such as Formula One, or IndyCar, the wheels are responsible for 40 % of the total drag. For road cars, drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 20 - 60 % of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two, three or more pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative strength of which still remains an open question. The near wake of an unsteady rotating wheel. The numerical investigation by means of direct numerical simulation at ReD =400-1000 is presented here to further the understanding of bifurcations the flow undergoes as the Reynolds number is increased. Direct numerical simulation is performed using Nektar++, the results of which are compared to those of Pirozzoli et al. (2012). Both proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition, as well as spectral analysis are leveraged to gain unprecedented insight into the bifurcations and subsequent topological differences of the wake as the Reynolds number is increased.

  19. Impact of Emotion on Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Jønsson, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion...... and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced......-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative) and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms) we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold) processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results...

  20. Study of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a powerful organ that controls most of the body. Researchers around the world have long tried to uncover how the brain operates, how memories are formed and stored. Our understanding of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease has been rapidly improving, yet much remains to be done. In this work, we attempt to study changes in intracranial pressure (ICP for a 12-hour period and discuss whether the resulting estimates could be used as a measure of consciousness.

  1. Training Physicians to Provide High-Value, Cost-Conscious Care A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stammen, L.A.; Stalmeijer, R.E.; Paternotte, E.; Pool, A.O.; Driessen, E.W.; Scheele, F.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Increasing health care expenditures are taxing the sustainability of the health care system. Physicians should be prepared to deliver high-value, cost-conscious care. Objective To understand the circumstances in which the delivery of high-value, cost-conscious care is learned, with a goal

  2. Does Modafinil improve the level of consciousness for people with a prolonged disorder of consciousness? a retrospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamapurkar, Samira Kashinath; Wilson, Barbara A; Rose, Anita; Watson, Peter; Shiel, Agnes

    2017-12-01

    Modafinil is best known as a sleep regulator among healthy individuals, but studies suggest that it reduces excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with brain injury. This retrospective pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of Modafinil for people with a prolonged disorder of consciousness and whether those with a traumatic brain injury did better than those with a non-traumatic brain injury. Twenty four prolonged disorder of consciousness patients who were prescribed Modafinil, were assessed at least four times both before and during treatment. The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised was used to determine if patients had a disorder of consciousness and the Wessex Head Injury Matrix was used to monitor behavior during baseline and treatment periods. Patients with a traumatic brain injury (N = 12) were compared with those with non-traumatic brain injury (N = 12). A chi-square test with significance at 0.05 was used and when frequencies were below 5 a Fisher's Exact Test was used. Cognitive improvements were noted in domains of wakefulness, awareness, concentration, tracking and following commands. Significant differences were found for the whole group between baseline and Modafinil (x2 = 9.80; p = 0.002). Eleven of the 12 traumatic brain injury patients had higher Wessex Head Injury Matrix scores when on Modafinil (x2 = 8.33, p Modafinil, two had lower scores and four showed no change. There was no significant difference in the number of patients showing an increase compared to those showing a decrease (Fisher's exact test p = 0.29). Modafinil appears to be beneficial for enhancing cognition in prolonged disorder of consciousness patients. Traumatic brain injury patients benefited more than non-traumatic brain injury patients. Implications for Rehabilitation People with prolonged disorders of consciousness are those in coma, a vegetative state or a minimally conscious state. Sensorimotor and neuromodulations (pharmacological and brain

  3. Wind farm array wake losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  4. Highly relevant stimuli may passively elicit processes associated with consciousness during the sleep onset period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Paniz; Varma, Sonia; Campbell, Kenneth

    2017-10-31

    Sleep onset marks the transition from waking to sleep, during which conscious awareness of the external environmental is gradually lost. The present study examines the extent of processing of acoustic change during sleep onset. An auditory optimal paradigm was used to record event-related potentials to six deviant stimuli during wakefulness, stage N1, and stage N2 sleep. During waking and early-stage N1, two of the deviants, environmental sounds and white noise, elicited a P3a reflecting processes that may lead to conscious awareness of acoustic change. Surprisingly, the P3a was also observed following both deviants during late-stage N1, a period thought to represent decreased awareness of the environment. Only the environmental sounds continued to elicit a P3a during stage N2 sleep, associated with the loss of consciousness of the external environment. Certain auditory stimuli may thus continue to activate processes that may lead to conscious awareness during the sleep onset period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The signatures of conscious access and its phenomenology are consistent with large-scale brain communication at criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo

    2017-10-01

    Conscious awareness refers to information processing in the brain that is accompanied by subjective, reportable experiences. Current models of conscious access propose that sufficiently strong sensory stimuli ignite a global network of regions allowing further processing. The immense number of possible experiences indicates that activity associated with conscious awareness must be highly differentiated. However, information must also be integrated to account for the unitary nature of consciousness. We present a computational model that identifies conscious access with self-sustained percolation in an anatomical network. We show that the amount of integrated information (Φ) is maximal at the critical threshold. To the extent that self-sustained percolation relates to conscious access, the model supports a link between information integration and conscious access. We also identify a posterior "hotspot" of regions presenting high levels of information sharing. Finally, competitive activity spreading qualitatively describes the results of paradigms such as backward masking and binocular rivalry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. What Is Lost During Dreamless Sleep: The Relationship Between Neural Connectivity Patterns and Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Klimova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep is characterised by reduced consciousness; thus, studying its neural characteristics acts as a useful indication of what is needed for conscious experience. The integrated information theory (Tononi, 2008 states that the ability of different thalamocortical regions to interact is crucial for consciousness, thereby motivating research concerning connectivity changes in the thalamocortical system that accompany changing consciousness levels. This review aims to discuss investigations of functional connectivity of resting-state and large-scale brain networks, applying correlational approaches to neuroimaging data as well as studies that used brain stimulation to investigate effective connectivity. Most findings suggest a reorganisation of functional brain networks where inter-region connectivity is reduced and intra-region connectivity is stronger in deep sleep than wakefulness.

  7. Inner Alienation: Diasporic Consciousness in Kamila Shamsie's "Salt and Saffron"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Humaira; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the "diasporic consciousness" of the fictional characters, incorporated in selected work of Pakistani expatriate writer Kamila Shamsie through the portrayal of cross-cultural differences. This study attempts to unravel the inner-alienation that sustains through specific discourses and events…

  8. Oscillatory Correlates of Visual Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gallotto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conscious experiences are linked to activity in our brain: the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC. Empirical research on these NCCs covers a wide range of brain activity signals, measures, and methodologies. In this paper, we focus on spontaneous brain oscillations; rhythmic fluctuations of neuronal (population activity which can be characterized by a range of parameters, such as frequency, amplitude (power, and phase. We provide an overview of oscillatory measures that appear to correlate with conscious perception. We also discuss how increasingly sophisticated techniques allow us to study the causal role of oscillatory activity in conscious perception (i.e., ‘entrainment’. This review of oscillatory correlates of consciousness suggests that, for example, activity in the alpha-band (7–13 Hz may index, or even causally support, conscious perception. But such results also showcase an increasingly acknowledged difficulty in NCC research; the challenge of separating neural activity necessary for conscious experience to arise (prerequisites from neural activity underlying the conscious experience itself (substrates or its results (consequences.

  9. The entropic brain:A theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Lester Carhart-Harris

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder. Entropy is applied here in the context of states of consciousness and their associated neural dynamics, with a particular focus on the psychedelic state. The psychedelic state is considered an exemplar of a primitive or primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of modern, adult, human, normal waking consciousness. Based on neuroimaging data with psilocybin, a classic psychedelic drug, it is argued that the defining feature of ‘primary states’ is elevated entropy in certain aspects of brain function, such as the repertoire of functional connectivity motifs that form and fragment across time. It is noted that elevated entropy in this sense, is a characteristic of systems exhibiting ‘self-organised criticality’, i.e., a property of systems that gravitate towards a ‘critical’ point in a transition zone between order and disorder in which certain phenomena such as power-law scaling appear. This implies that entropy is suppressed in normal waking consciousness, meaning that the brain operates just below criticality. It is argued that this entropy suppression furnishes consciousness with a constrained quality and associated metacognitive functions, including reality-testing and self-awareness. It is also proposed that entry into primary states depends on a collapse of the normally highly organised activity within the default-mode network (DMN and a decoupling between the DMN and the medial temporal lobes (which are normally significantly coupled. These hypotheses can be tested by examining brain activity and associated cognition in other candidate primary states such as REM sleep and early psychosis and comparing these with non-primary states such as normal waking consciousness and the anaesthetised state.

  10. The Emerging Physics of Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Tuszynski, Jack A

    2006-01-01

    Consciousness remains one of the major unsolved problems in science. How do the feelings and sensations making up conscious experience arise from the concerted actions of nerve cells and their associated synaptic and molecular processes? Can such feelings be explained by modern science, or is there an entirely different kind of explanation needed? And how can this seemingly intractable problem be approached experimentally? How do the operations of the conscious mind emerge out of the specific interactions involving billions of neurons? This book seeks answers to these questions on the underlying assumption that consciousness can be understood using the intellectual potential of modern physics and other sciences. There are a number of theories of consciousness, some based on classical physics while others require the use of quantum concepts. The latter ones have drawn criticism from the parts of the scientific establishment while simultaneously claiming that classical approaches are doomed to failure. The cont...

  11. Conscience and consciousness: a definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithoulkas, G; Muresanu, D F

    2014-03-15

    While consciousness has been examined extensively in its different aspects, like in philosophy, psychiatry, neurophysiology, neuroplasticity, etc., conscience though it is an equal important aspect of the human existence, which remains an unknown to a great degree as an almost transcendental aspect of the human mind. It has not been examined as thoroughly as consciousness and largely remains a "terra incognita" for its neurophysiology, brain topography, etc. Conscience and consciousness are part of a system of information that governs our experience and decision making process. The intent of this paper is to define these terms, to discuss about consciousness from both neurological and quantum physics point of view, the relationship between the dynamics of consciousness and neuroplasticity and to highlight the relationship between conscience, stress and health.

  12. [Brain and consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Molina, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The philosophical and biological concepts of consciousness are briefly reviewed, from Aristoteles to Descartes to the modern neurobiologist of the last 15 years. The CRICK's corticothalamic integration view, the Edelman's primary and higher order consciousness concept as well as the Edelman and Tononi's dynamic core concept were discussed. Then the corticothalamic resonance theory by Llinás was reported. Central to Llinás's theory is the existence of electrical intrinsic properties of neurones in the central nervous system that allows them to oscillate at different frequencies and if the membrane properties are suitable also to resonate at specific frequencies. From this oscillation and the neuronal connectivity result the corticothalamic dynamic loops specific and non specific. The dynamic corticothalamic loop of the specific thalamic nuclei connect directly as well as through the inhibitory interneurones in layer 4, with the pyramids in layer 5 and 6. The pyramids's rhythmic discharge excite the thalamic specific neurones and indirectly through the reticular neurones a rebound burst is also generated in the specific relay neurones. The oscillatory properties of cortical inhibitory interneurones initiates the action of the recurrent circuit whose function is to inform the cerebral cortex of the content of the sensory pathways. On the other side, the thalamocortical resonant loops of the non especific nuclei, particularly the intralaminar, connect with theapical dendrites of layer 1 pyramids whose discharge go to the thalamic relay neurones directly and through the reticular nucleus. The clinical and MEG data are consistent with the suggestion that the intralaminar nucleus works as providing the binding signal to the sensory specif le information conveyed by the specific pathways. In this way the non specific corticothalamic loop would act as the conjunction mechanism along the dendritic apical shaft with the specific sensory information. The specific loop will

  13. What explains consciousness? Or…What consciousness explains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2014-01-01

    In this invited commentary I focus on the topic addressed in three papers: De Sousa's (2013[1617]) Toward an Integrative Theory of Consciousness, a monograph with Parts 1 & 2, as well as commentaries by Pereira (2013a[59]) and Hirstein (2013[42]). All three are impressively scholarly and can stand-and shout-on their own. But theory of consciousness? My aim is to slice that topic into the two fundamentally different kinds of theories of consciousness, say what appears to be an ideology, out of behaviourism into cognitivism, now also influencing the quest for an "explanation of consciousness" in cognitive neuroscience. I will then say what can be expected given what we know of the complexity of brain structure, the richness of a conscious "vocabulary", and current technological limits of brain imaging. This will then turn to the strategy for examining "what consciousness explains"-metatheory, theories, mappings, and a methodology of competitive support, a methodology especially important where there are competing commitments. There are also increasingly common identifications of methodological bias in, along with failures to replicate, studies reporting unconscious controls in decision, social priming-as there have been in perception, learning, problem solving, etc. The literature critique has provided evidence taken as reducing, and in some cases eliminating, a role for conscious controls-a position consistent with that ideology out of behaviourism into cognitivism. It is an ideological position that fails to recognize the fundamental distinction between theoretical and metaphysical assertions.

  14. Self-related processing and deactivation of cortical midline regions in disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sophia eCrone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-related stimuli activate anterior parts of cortical midline regions, which normally show task-induced deactivation. Deactivation in medial posterior and frontal regions is associated with the ability to focus attention on the demands of the task, and therefore, with consciousness. Studies investigating patients with impaired consciousness, that is, patients in minimally conscious state and patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (formerly vegetative state, demonstrate that these patients show responses to self-related content in the anterior cingulate cortex. However, it remains unclear if these responses are an indication for conscious processing of stimuli or are due to automatic processing. To shed further light on this issue, we investigated responses of cortical midline regions to the own and another name in 27 patients with a disorder of consciousness and compared them to task-induced deactivation. While almost all of the control subjects responding to the own name demonstrated higher activation due to the self-related content in anterior midline regions and additional deactivation, none of the responding patients did so. Differences between groups showed a similar pattern of findings. Despite the relation between behavioral responsiveness in patients and activation in response to the own name, the findings of this study do not provide evidence for a direct association of activation in anterior midline regions and conscious processing. The deficits in processing of self-referential content in anterior midline regions may rather be due to general impairments in cognitive processing and not particularly linked to impaired consciousness.

  15. Fashion design solutions for environmentally conscious consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Chen, Y.; Curteza, A.; Thomassey, S.; Perwuelz, A.; Zeng, X.

    2017-10-01

    This paper intends to give an overview of the design solutions in fashion for environmentally conscious consumers, presenting green and ethical practices in contemporary clothing design. The results introduce the concept of slow fashion and discuss available fashion design solutions, giving most prominent examples of sustainable products and brands, these contain one or more design features. By this, the discussion extracts the main contemporary ideas. The presented examples of current offers are all envisioning less impact on the environment and society. Sustainable design solutions use more environmentally friendly materials such as organic cotton, incorporate circular design or design for recycling, e.g., replacing button closures with alternative closing possibilities or leather labels with printed versions, or ensure long product life through durability, among other methods. There are differing designs due to creators’ individuality. This overview can be beneficial for the future development of new solutions for more environmentally friendly fashion.

  16. Wake flow characteristics at high wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2016-01-01

    Wake flow characteristic at high wind speeds is the main subject of this paper. Although the wake losses decrease at high wind speeds it has been found in a recent study that for multiple wake inflow the increase in loading due to wake effects are substantial even at wind speeds well above rated ...

  17. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    and recreational purposes include groupers (Cephalapholis argus), porgy (Monotaxis grandoculis), and jacks (Carangidae). Sharks are abundant...Possibly Extinct on Wake Island Swiftlet, Guam; Yayaguak (Collecalia bartschi) Endangered Crow, Mariana; Aga (Corvus kubaryi) Endangered

  18. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total sleep time is normal, but the body clock loses its normal circadian cycle. People with changing ... least 3 abnormal sleep-wake episodes during a 24-hour period to be diagnosed with this problem. The ...

  19. Mast Wake Reduction by Shaping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beauchamp, Charles H

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to various mast shapes, in which the mast shapes minimize the production of visible, electro-optic, infrared and radar cross section wake signatures produced by water surface piercing masts...

  20. Analysis of Hypersonic Vehicle Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    research . The data is being included for the sake of completion. Figure 93 and Figure 94 depict the concentration of Diatomic Oxygen on the surface...reactions occurring in the wake region will enable an advancement of tracking hypersonic bodies. This research examined the wake region behind a...Acknowledgments I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my research advisor, Dr. Robert Greendyke, for his guidance and support throughout

  1. Delirium: a disorder of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeles, E M; Pandy, S; Ray, J L

    2013-04-01

    Delirium is recognised as a disorder of consciousness, however, no evidence has been previously generated to specifically address this premise. In order to evaluate this established notion, we have attempted to review consciousness, the components of consciousness and the emerging evidence for neuroanatomical correlates and then relate this to the recognized features of delirium. We have established that the level of awareness is modulated by alertness and arousal, focused by attention and has the ability to switch between the personal resonances of the experience to the precision of cognition. We have discussed consciousness's relationship with delirium and how the degree of integration of CNS function is mandatory for realisation of higher order function and this has implications for the conceptualisation and management of delirium. We have explored the understanding of downstream, components of consciousness as not giving rise to the full condition of delirium but as a subsyndromal state. We have argued that there is a need for future diagnostic criteria, such as DSM-V, to operationalize disturbance of consciousness together with non-cognitive manifestations of delirium. Intervention studies in delirium have focussed on drugs that improve memory (cholinesterase inhibitors). If memory is only one element of consciousness then we reason instead on evaluating the determinants of consciousness that may be modifiable, such as awareness. Reinforcement of environmental awareness by managing a patient within a low stimulus or familiar surrounding may therefore offer a therapeutic intervention. Overall there seemed support for, or no evidence against, the belief that delirium is a disorder of consciousness. From Descartes 'I think therefore I am' we can say 'I am aware not therefore delirious I am'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Connecting Conscious and Unconscious Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-01-01

    ...). Here, I consider how the connectionist perspective on information processing may help us progress toward the goal of understanding the computational principles through which conscious and unconscious processing differ...

  3. Neurorehabilitation in disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacino, Joseph T; Katz, Douglas I; Whyte, John

    2013-04-01

    Survivors of severe acquired brain injury often experience prolonged disturbance in consciousness following emergence from coma. Most individuals pass through the vegetative or minimally conscious states en route to eventual recovery of consciousness, although either condition may be permanent. Rehabilitation clinicians charged with the care of these patients face numerous challenges as there are many open questions concerning diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, the natural history of recovery, and the most effective approaches to prevent medical complications and facilitate functional recovery. The last 5 years have been witness to a marked increase in well-designed empirical investigations concerning the rehabilitation of patients with disorders of consciousness. In this article, the authors review recent evidence concerning key factors that influence the course of recovery, present a model of care designed to mitigate medical complications, describe a systematic approach to assessment, and review the effectiveness of treatment interventions utilized in the rehabilitation setting. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Intermittent Short Sleep Results in Lasting Sleep Wake Disturbances and Degeneration of Locus Coeruleus and Orexinergic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Fenik, Polina; Zhan, Guanxia; Somach, Rebecca; Xin, Ryan; Veasey, Sigrid

    2016-08-01

    Intermittent short sleep (ISS) is pervasive among students and workers in modern societies, yet the lasting consequences of repeated short sleep on behavior and brain health are largely unexplored. Wake-activated neurons may be at increased risk of metabolic injury across sustained wakefulness. To examine the effects of ISS on wake-activated neurons and wake behavior, wild-type mice were randomized to ISS (a repeated pattern of short sleep on 3 consecutive days followed by 4 days of recovery sleep for 4 weeks) or rested control conditions. Subsets of both groups were allowed a recovery period consisting of 4-week unperturbed activity in home cages with littermates. Mice were examined for immediate and delayed (following recovery) effects of ISS on wake neuron cell metabolics, cell counts, and sleep/wake patterns. ISS resulted in sustained disruption of sleep/wake activity, with increased wakefulness during the lights-on period and reduced wake bout duration and wake time during the lights-off period. Noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) and orexinergic neurons showed persistent alterations in morphology, and reductions in both neuronal stereological cell counts and fronto-cortical projections. Surviving wake-activated neurons evidenced persistent reductions in sirtuins 1 and 3 and increased lipofuscin. In contrast, ISS resulted in no lasting injury to the sleep-activated melanin concentrating hormone neurons. Collectively these findings demonstrate for the first time that ISS imparts significant lasting disturbances in sleep/wake activity, degeneration of wake-activated LC and orexinergic neurons, and lasting metabolic changes in remaining neurons most consistent with premature senescence. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Ascribing Consciousness to Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Shanahan, Murray

    2015-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the anti-functionalist stance on consciousness adopted by certain advocates of integrated information theory (IIT), a corollary of which is that human-level artificial intelligence implemented on conventional computing hardware is necessarily not conscious. The critique draws on variations of a well-known gradual neuronal replacement thought experiment, as well as bringing out tensions in IIT's treatment of self-knowledge. The aim, though, is neither to reject I...

  6. The conscious life - the dream we live in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocan Tudor Cosmin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is most likely for anyone to ask himself at least once if it would be possible to live in a dream? Questioning the fabric of “reality” we live in consciously was one of the main doubts man ever had. It is so likely for us to answer positive to it due to so many factors; starting from the many and various facets of reality each individual envision the world, from the enormous differences we all have while perceiving and defining the reality, etc. That is why, at the conscious level, life seems almost like a dream in a dream, always hoping to wake up from the negative, unwanted version of it. That is why my assertion here, based on latest theories on consciousness and AI (artificial intelligence, aim to say that we live in between reality and dream, being “conscious” of ourselves, but not really wanting to be “aware” of what is really going on with us.

  7. Social Consciousness, Education and Transformative Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Periklis

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines two aspects of social consciousness: consciousness in the sense of knowledge of the objective reality and consciousness in the sense of awareness of oneself as a subject in his/her social ties with other persons-subjects. In the light of such an approach to consciousness in this essay we discuss the importance of education and…

  8. Review: Neural correlates of consciousness | Negrao | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problem of cognitive binding and the role of attention are briefly addressed and it is shown that consciousness depends on a multitude of subconscious processes. Although these processes do not represent consciousness, consciousness cannot exist without them. Keywords: Consciousness; Brainstem; Thalamocortical ...

  9. A Physiologically Based Model of Orexinergic Stabilization of Sleep and Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Ben D.; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    The orexinergic neurons of the lateral hypothalamus (Orx) are essential for regulating sleep-wake dynamics, and their loss causes narcolepsy, a disorder characterized by severe instability of sleep and wake states. However, the mechanisms through which Orx stabilize sleep and wake are not well understood. In this work, an explanation of the stabilizing effects of Orx is presented using a quantitative model of important physiological connections between Orx and the sleep-wake switch. In addition to Orx and the sleep-wake switch, which is composed of mutually inhibitory wake-active monoaminergic neurons in brainstem and hypothalamus (MA) and the sleep-active ventrolateral preoptic neurons of the hypothalamus (VLPO), the model also includes the circadian and homeostatic sleep drives. It is shown that Orx stabilizes prolonged waking episodes via its excitatory input to MA and by relaying a circadian input to MA, thus sustaining MA firing activity during the circadian day. During sleep, both Orx and MA are inhibited by the VLPO, and the subsequent reduction in Orx input to the MA indirectly stabilizes sustained sleep episodes. Simulating a loss of Orx, the model produces dynamics resembling narcolepsy, including frequent transitions between states, reduced waking arousal levels, and a normal daily amount of total sleep. The model predicts a change in sleep timing with differences in orexin levels, with higher orexin levels delaying the normal sleep episode, suggesting that individual differences in Orx signaling may contribute to chronotype. Dynamics resembling sleep inertia also emerge from the model as a gradual sleep-to-wake transition on a timescale that varies with that of Orx dynamics. The quantitative, physiologically based model developed in this work thus provides a new explanation of how Orx stabilizes prolonged episodes of sleep and wake, and makes a range of experimentally testable predictions, including a role for Orx in chronotype and sleep inertia. PMID

  10. A physiologically based model of orexinergic stabilization of sleep and wake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben D Fulcher

    Full Text Available The orexinergic neurons of the lateral hypothalamus (Orx are essential for regulating sleep-wake dynamics, and their loss causes narcolepsy, a disorder characterized by severe instability of sleep and wake states. However, the mechanisms through which Orx stabilize sleep and wake are not well understood. In this work, an explanation of the stabilizing effects of Orx is presented using a quantitative model of important physiological connections between Orx and the sleep-wake switch. In addition to Orx and the sleep-wake switch, which is composed of mutually inhibitory wake-active monoaminergic neurons in brainstem and hypothalamus (MA and the sleep-active ventrolateral preoptic neurons of the hypothalamus (VLPO, the model also includes the circadian and homeostatic sleep drives. It is shown that Orx stabilizes prolonged waking episodes via its excitatory input to MA and by relaying a circadian input to MA, thus sustaining MA firing activity during the circadian day. During sleep, both Orx and MA are inhibited by the VLPO, and the subsequent reduction in Orx input to the MA indirectly stabilizes sustained sleep episodes. Simulating a loss of Orx, the model produces dynamics resembling narcolepsy, including frequent transitions between states, reduced waking arousal levels, and a normal daily amount of total sleep. The model predicts a change in sleep timing with differences in orexin levels, with higher orexin levels delaying the normal sleep episode, suggesting that individual differences in Orx signaling may contribute to chronotype. Dynamics resembling sleep inertia also emerge from the model as a gradual sleep-to-wake transition on a timescale that varies with that of Orx dynamics. The quantitative, physiologically based model developed in this work thus provides a new explanation of how Orx stabilizes prolonged episodes of sleep and wake, and makes a range of experimentally testable predictions, including a role for Orx in chronotype and

  11. A physiologically based model of orexinergic stabilization of sleep and wake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Ben D; Phillips, Andrew J K; Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    The orexinergic neurons of the lateral hypothalamus (Orx) are essential for regulating sleep-wake dynamics, and their loss causes narcolepsy, a disorder characterized by severe instability of sleep and wake states. However, the mechanisms through which Orx stabilize sleep and wake are not well understood. In this work, an explanation of the stabilizing effects of Orx is presented using a quantitative model of important physiological connections between Orx and the sleep-wake switch. In addition to Orx and the sleep-wake switch, which is composed of mutually inhibitory wake-active monoaminergic neurons in brainstem and hypothalamus (MA) and the sleep-active ventrolateral preoptic neurons of the hypothalamus (VLPO), the model also includes the circadian and homeostatic sleep drives. It is shown that Orx stabilizes prolonged waking episodes via its excitatory input to MA and by relaying a circadian input to MA, thus sustaining MA firing activity during the circadian day. During sleep, both Orx and MA are inhibited by the VLPO, and the subsequent reduction in Orx input to the MA indirectly stabilizes sustained sleep episodes. Simulating a loss of Orx, the model produces dynamics resembling narcolepsy, including frequent transitions between states, reduced waking arousal levels, and a normal daily amount of total sleep. The model predicts a change in sleep timing with differences in orexin levels, with higher orexin levels delaying the normal sleep episode, suggesting that individual differences in Orx signaling may contribute to chronotype. Dynamics resembling sleep inertia also emerge from the model as a gradual sleep-to-wake transition on a timescale that varies with that of Orx dynamics. The quantitative, physiologically based model developed in this work thus provides a new explanation of how Orx stabilizes prolonged episodes of sleep and wake, and makes a range of experimentally testable predictions, including a role for Orx in chronotype and sleep inertia.

  12. The Consciousness and the role of valorization. How and why the Self-awareness subjectively administers consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocan Tudor Cosmin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is most likely for anyone to ask himself at least once if it would be possible to live in a dream? Questioning the fabric of “reality” we live in consciously was one of the main doubts man ever had. It is so likely for us to answer positively to it due to so many factors; starting from the many and various facets of reality each individual envision the world, from the enormous differences we all have while perceiving and defining the reality, etc. That is why, at the conscious level, life seems almost like a dream in a dream, always hoping to wake up from the negative, unwanted version of it. That is why my assertion here, based on latest theories on consciousness and AI (artificial intelligence, aim to say that we live in between reality and dream, being “conscious” of ourselves, but not really wanting to be “aware” of what is really going on with us. Living as a human is not a path towards improvement in the way of getting rid of subjectiveness and valorization because these so-called errors make the most of human living.

  13. EEG entropy measures indicate decrease of cortical information processing in Disorders of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thul, Alexander; Lechinger, Julia; Donis, Johann; Michitsch, Gabriele; Pichler, Gerald; Kochs, Eberhard F; Jordan, Denis; Ilg, Rüdiger; Schabus, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Clinical assessments that rely on behavioral responses to differentiate Disorders of Consciousness are at times inapt because of some patients' motor disabilities. To objectify patients' conditions of reduced consciousness the present study evaluated the use of electroencephalography to measure residual brain activity. We analyzed entropy values of 18 scalp EEG channels of 15 severely brain-damaged patients with clinically diagnosed Minimally-Conscious-State (MCS) or Unresponsive-Wakefulness-Syndrome (UWS) and compared the results to a sample of 24 control subjects. Permutation entropy (PeEn) and symbolic transfer entropy (STEn), reflecting information processes in the EEG, were calculated for all subjects. Participants were tested on a modified active own-name paradigm to identify correlates of active instruction following. PeEn showed reduced local information content in the EEG in patients, that was most pronounced in UWS. STEn analysis revealed altered directed information flow in the EEG of patients, indicating impaired feed-backward connectivity. Responses to auditory stimulation yielded differences in entropy measures, indicating reduced information processing in MCS and UWS. Local EEG information content and information flow are affected in Disorders of Consciousness. This suggests local cortical information capacity and feedback information transfer as neural correlates of consciousness. The utilized EEG entropy analyses were able to relate to patient groups with different Disorders of Consciousness. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Conformal FDTD modeling wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgens, T.; Harfoush, F.

    1991-05-01

    Many computer codes have been written to model wake fields. Here we describe the use of the Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain (CFDTD) method to model the wake fields generated by a rigid beam traveling through various accelerating structures. The non- cylindrical symmetry of some of the problems considered here requires the use of a three dimensional code. In traditional FDTD codes, curved surfaces are approximated by rectangular steps. The errors introduced in wake field calculations by such an approximation can be reduced by increasing the mesh size, therefore increasing the cost of computing. Another approach, validated here, deforms Ampere and Faraday contours near a media interface so as to conform to the interface. These improvements of the FDTD method result in better accuracy of the fields at asymptotically no computational cost. This method is also capable of modeling thin wires as found in beam profile monitors, and slots and cracks as found in resistive wall motions. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Artificial consciousness and the consciousness-attention dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladjian, Harry Haroutioun; Montemayor, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Artificial Intelligence is at a turning point, with a substantial increase in projects aiming to implement sophisticated forms of human intelligence in machines. This research attempts to model specific forms of intelligence through brute-force search heuristics and also reproduce features of human perception and cognition, including emotions. Such goals have implications for artificial consciousness, with some arguing that it will be achievable once we overcome short-term engineering challenges. We believe, however, that phenomenal consciousness cannot be implemented in machines. This becomes clear when considering emotions and examining the dissociation between consciousness and attention in humans. While we may be able to program ethical behavior based on rules and machine learning, we will never be able to reproduce emotions or empathy by programming such control systems-these will be merely simulations. Arguments in favor of this claim include considerations about evolution, the neuropsychological aspects of emotions, and the dissociation between attention and consciousness found in humans. Ultimately, we are far from achieving artificial consciousness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainability needs the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Nancy; van der Pluijm, Ben

    2012-10-01

    Science, Innovation, and Partnerships for Sustainable Solutions: A National Academies Symposium; Washington, D. C., 16-18 May 2012 It is no longer disputed that humanity has drastically changed the face of the planet and its life-support systems. The sustainability challenge is to meet people's needs today and in the future while sustaining life-support systems. This grand challenge demands a new scientific approach: use-inspired, solution-driven research that consciously links scientific research to societal decision-making and action. Sustainability science may help fulfill that need if it can engage communities of expertise across a wide range of disciplines and sectors, including the geosciences.

  17. Linearised CFD models for wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, S.; Berg, J.; Nielsen, Morten

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the development of a fast and reasonably accurate model for the prediction of energy production in offshore wind farms taking wake effects into account. The model has been implemented as a windows application called Fuga which can run in batch mode or as a graphical user interface. Fuga is briefly described. The model is based on a linearization technique which is described in some detail, and linearized, governing equations are derived and written in a standard form based on a mixed-spectral formulation. A new solution method is used to solve the equations which involves intensive use of look-up tables for storage of intermediate results. Due to the linearity of the model, multiple wakes from many turbines can be constructed from the wake of a single, solitary turbine. These are in turn constructed from Fourier components by a fast Fourier integral transform of results derived from generic look-up tables. Three different models, based on three different closures, are examined: 1) the 'simple closure' using an unperturbed eddy viscosity kucentre dotz. 2) the mixing length closure. 3) the E-epsilon closure. Model results are evaluated against offshore wind farm production data from Horns Rev I and the Nysted wind farm, and a comparison with direct wake measurements in an onshore turbine (Nibe B) is also made. A very satisfactory agreement with data is found for the simple closure. The exception is the near wake, just behind the rotor, where all three linearized models fail. The mixing length closure underestimates wake effects in all cases. The E-epsilon closure overestimates wake losses in the offshore farms while it predicts a too shallow and too wide the wake in the onshore case. The simple closure performs distinctly better than the other two. Wind speed data from the the Horns rev met masts are used to further validate Fuga results with the 'simple' closure. Finally, Roedsand 1 and 2 are used as an example to illustrate

  18. Human Capital and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.

  19. Anesthesia Awareness (Waking Up) During Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Risks Anesthesia Awareness (Waking Up) During Surgery Explore this page: ... do you reduce the risk of anesthesia awareness? Anesthesia Awareness (Waking Up) During Surgery If you’re ...

  20. Proposal for an Approach to Artificial Consciousness Based on Self-Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Menant, Mr C.

    2007-01-01

    Current research on artificial consciousness is focused on phenomenal consciousness and on functional consciousness. We propose to shift the focus to self-consciousness in order to open new areas of investigation. We use an existing scenario where self-consciousness is considered as the result of an evolution of representations. Application of the scenario to the possible build up of a conscious robot also introduces questions relative to emotions in robots. Areas of investigation...

  1. Control of sleep and wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ritchie E; Basheer, Radhika; McKenna, James T; Strecker, Robert E; McCarley, Robert W

    2012-07-01

    This review summarizes the brain mechanisms controlling sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness promoting systems cause low-voltage, fast activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Multiple interacting neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain converge onto common effector systems in the thalamus and cortex. Sleep results from the inhibition of wake-promoting systems by homeostatic sleep factors such as adenosine and nitric oxide and GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, resulting in large-amplitude, slow EEG oscillations. Local, activity-dependent factors modulate the amplitude and frequency of cortical slow oscillations. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep results in conservation of brain energy and facilitates memory consolidation through the modulation of synaptic weights. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep results from the interaction of brain stem cholinergic, aminergic, and GABAergic neurons which control the activity of glutamatergic reticular formation neurons leading to REM sleep phenomena such as muscle atonia, REMs, dreaming, and cortical activation. Strong activation of limbic regions during REM sleep suggests a role in regulation of emotion. Genetic studies suggest that brain mechanisms controlling waking and NREM sleep are strongly conserved throughout evolution, underscoring their enormous importance for brain function. Sleep disruption interferes with the normal restorative functions of NREM and REM sleep, resulting in disruptions of breathing and cardiovascular function, changes in emotional reactivity, and cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and decision making.

  2. Linearised CFD Models for Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Berg, Jacob; Nielsen, Morten

    This report describes the development of a fast and reasonably accurate model for the prediction of energy production in oshore wind farms taking wake eects into account. The model has been implemented as a windows application called Fuga which can run in batch mode or as a graphical user interfa...

  3. Electron holes observed in the Moon Plasma Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Malaspina, D.; Zhou, C.

    2017-10-01

    Electrostatic instabilities are predicted in the magnetized wake of plasma flowing past a non-magnetic absorbing object such as a probe or the moon. Analysis of the data from the Artemis satellites, now orbiting the moon at distances ten moon radii and less, shows very clear evidence of fast-moving isolated solitary potential structures causing bipolar electric field excursions as they pass the satellite's probes. These structures have all the hallmarks of electron holes: BGK solitons typically a few Debye-lengths in size, self-sustaining by a deficit of phase-space density on trapped orbits. Electron holes are now observed to be widespread in space plasmas. They have been observed in PIC simulations of the moon wake to be the non-linear consequence of the predicted electron instabilities. Simulations document hole prevalence, speed, length, and depth; and theory can explain many of these features from kinetic analysis. The solar wind wake is certainly the cause of the overwhelming majority of the holes observed by Artemis, because we observe almost all holes to be in or very near to the wake. We compare theory and simulation of the hole generation, lifetime, and transport mechanisms with observations. Work partially supported by NASA Grant NNX16AG82G.

  4. Computation of Rotorcraft Wake Geometry using NURBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoydonck, W.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains the results of research in the area of rotorcraft aerodynamics with a focus on method development related to the vortical wake generated by rotor blades. It is applied to a vortex tube representation of the wake (using a single NURBS surface) and a simplified filament wake model

  5. Consciousness: here, there and everywhere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tononi, Giulio; Koch, Christof

    2015-01-01

    The science of consciousness has made great strides by focusing on the behavioural and neuronal correlates of experience. However, while such correlates are important for progress to occur, they are not enough if we are to understand even basic facts, for example, why the cerebral cortex gives rise to consciousness but the cerebellum does not, though it has even more neurons and appears to be just as complicated. Moreover, correlates are of little help in many instances where we would like to know if consciousness is present: patients with a few remaining islands of functioning cortex, preterm infants, non-mammalian species and machines that are rapidly outperforming people at driving, recognizing faces and objects, and answering difficult questions. To address these issues, we need not only more data but also a theory of consciousness—one that says what experience is and what type of physical systems can have it. Integrated information theory (IIT) does so by starting from experience itself via five phenomenological axioms: intrinsic existence, composition, information, integration and exclusion. From these it derives five postulates about the properties required of physical mechanisms to support consciousness. The theory provides a principled account of both the quantity and the quality of an individual experience (a quale), and a calculus to evaluate whether or not a particular physical system is conscious and of what. Moreover, IIT can explain a range of clinical and laboratory findings, makes a number of testable predictions and extrapolates to a number of problematic conditions. The theory holds that consciousness is a fundamental property possessed by physical systems having specific causal properties. It predicts that consciousness is graded, is common among biological organisms and can occur in some very simple systems. Conversely, it predicts that feed-forward networks, even complex ones, are not conscious, nor are aggregates such as groups of

  6. Reading embodied consciousness in "Emma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbus, Antonina

    2011-01-01

    The language of Emma (1815) reflects Jane Austen's developing view of embodied consciousness and her particular interest in this novel in the physical manifestations of emotions, such as blushes and nervous responses. The discursive exploration of the inner life in Emma is the product of a cultural context that features emerging brain science and Austen's own conceptualization of the psychophysical nature of emotions. This article analyzes the language of mind and emotion in Emma, to contend that Austen grapples with the implications of the idea of embodied consciousness in a narrative that contrasts mind reading with interpreting the body.

  7. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl

    2010-01-01

    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  8. Sleep in disorders of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cologan, Victor; Schabus, Manvel; Ledoux, Didier; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY From a behavioral as well as neurobiological point of view, sleep and consciousness are intimately connected. A better understanding of sleep cycles and sleep architecture of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness (DOC) might therefore improve the clinical care for these patients as well as our understanding of the neural correlations of consciousness. Defining sleep in severely brain-injured patients is however problematic as both their electrophysiological and sleep patterns differ in many ways from healthy individuals. This paper discusses the concepts involved in the study of sleep of patients suffering from DOC and critically assesses the applicability of standard sleep criteria in these patients. The available literature on comatose and vegetative states as well as that on locked-in and related states following traumatic or non-traumatic severe brain injury will be reviewed. A wide spectrum of sleep disturbances ranging from almost normal patterns to severe loss and architecture disorganization are reported in cases of DOC and some patterns correlate with diagnosis and prognosis. At the present time the interactions of sleep and consciousness in brain-injured patients are a little studied subject but, the authors suggest, a potentially very interesting field of research. PMID:19524464

  9. Behavioral Methods in Consciousness Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that the research literature has expanded greatly, particularly in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science. Interestingly, this scientific work has made use of a wide variety of different methods without much consensus on how one might in fact measure subjective consciousness. This situation makes...

  10. A stochastic wind turbine wake model based on new metrics for wake characterization: A stochastic wind turbine wake model based on new metrics for wake characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa, Paula [Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Upson Hall Ithaca 14850 New York USA; Barthelmie, Rebecca J. [Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Upson Hall Ithaca 14850 New York USA; Wang, Hui [Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Upson Hall Ithaca 14850 New York USA; Churchfield, Matthew J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden 80401 Colorado USA

    2016-08-04

    Understanding the detailed dynamics of wind turbine wakes is critical to predicting the performance and maximizing the efficiency of wind farms. This knowledge requires atmospheric data at a high spatial and temporal resolution, which are not easily obtained from direct measurements. Therefore, research is often based on numerical models, which vary in fidelity and computational cost. The simplest models produce axisymmetric wakes and are only valid beyond the near wake. Higher-fidelity results can be obtained by solving the filtered Navier-Stokes equations at a resolution that is sufficient to resolve the relevant turbulence scales. This work addresses the gap between these two extremes by proposing a stochastic model that produces an unsteady asymmetric wake. The model is developed based on a large-eddy simulation (LES) of an offshore wind farm. Because there are several ways of characterizing wakes, the first part of this work explores different approaches to defining global wake characteristics. From these, a model is developed that captures essential features of a LES-generated wake at a small fraction of the cost. The synthetic wake successfully reproduces the mean characteristics of the original LES wake, including its area and stretching patterns, and statistics of the mean azimuthal radius. The mean and standard deviation of the wake width and height are also reproduced. This preliminary study focuses on reproducing the wake shape, while future work will incorporate velocity deficit and meandering, as well as different stability scenarios.

  11. Brain death and disorders of consciousness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schiff, Nicholas D; Fins, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    While often confused by non-medical specialists, brain death and disorders of consciousness such as coma, vegetative state, and minimally conscious state are clearly distinct and unambiguously distinguishable...

  12. On the evolution of phenomenal consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Dessalles, Jean-Louis; Zalla, Tiziana

    1998-01-01

    jld-98072405; A number of concepts are included in the term 'consciousness'. We choose to concentrate here on phenomenal consciousness, the process through which we are able to experience aspects of our environment or of our physical state. We probably share this aspect of consciousness with many animals which, like us, feel pain or pleasure and experience colours, sounds, flavours, etc. Since phenomenal consciousness is a feature of some living species, we should be able to account for it in...

  13. Sleep inertia: performance changes after sleep, rest and active waking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer-Tinguely, Gilberte; Achermann, Peter; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Regel, Sabine J; Rétey, Julia V; Dürr, Roland; Borbély, Alexander A; Gottselig, Julie M

    2005-03-01

    Napping benefits and sustains subsequent performance. Prophylactic naps have been recommended as a means to maintain performance during extended wakefulness, as required during shiftwork. However, napping may cause short-term performance impairments, because awakening from sleep is followed by sleep inertia, a period of hypovigilance and impaired cognitive and behavioral performance. We investigated sleep inertia after an afternoon nap. Healthy 18-28 year-olds (n=50, not sleep deprived) were assigned to sleep, active wake or rest groups for a 2-h experimental phase with polysomnography starting either at 14:00 or 16:00 for half of each group. Before (baseline, 12:30 or 14:30) and in five sessions during the hour after the experimental phase (16:00-17:00 or 18:00-19:00), subjects completed an addition task, an auditory reaction time task, and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale. In session one, addition speed in the sleep group was reduced compared with baseline and with active wake controls, whereas calculation accuracy did not change. Addition speed in the sleep and rest groups increased substantially from session one to session two and reached a level similar to that of the active wake group by the fifth session. In the first session, auditory reaction speed of the sleep group was reduced compared with baseline and with rest controls but did not differ from the active wake group. The slowest reaction times showed significant recovery after 20 min. The groups reported similar increases in subjective sleepiness after the experimental period. These findings provide evidence for performance slowing and recovery during the hour following a 2-h nap opportunity. They highlight the importance of employing multiple control groups and various objective and subjective measures to assess sleep inertia.

  14. Decreased Electrophysiological Activity Represents the Conscious State of Emptiness in Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo eHinterberger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many neuroscientific theories explain consciousness with higher order information processing corresponding to an activation of specific brain areas and processes. In contrast, most forms of meditation ask for a down-regulation of certain mental processing activities while remaining fully conscious. To identify the physiological properties of conscious states with decreased mental and cognitive processing, the electrical brain activity (64 channels of EEG of 50 participants of various meditation proficiencies was measured during distinct and idiosyncratic meditative tasks. The tasks comprised a wakeful ‘thoughtless emptiness (TE’, a ‘focused attention’, and an ‘open monitoring’ task asking for mindful presence in the moment and in the environment without attachment to distracting thoughts. Our analysis mainly focused on 30 highly experienced meditators with at least 5 years and 1000 hours of meditation experience.Spectral EEG power comparisons of the TE state with the resting state or other forms of meditation showed decreased activities in specific frequency bands. In contrast to a focused attention task the TE task showed significant central and parietal gamma decreases (pOur findings indicate that a conscious state of thoughtless emptiness reached by experienced meditators is characterized by reduced high-frequency brain processing with simultaneous reduction of the low frequencies. This suggests that such a state of meditative conscious awareness might be different from higher cognitive and mentally focused states but also from states of sleep and drowsiness.

  15. Formation of vortex wakes at flow separation from plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D. N.; Govorova, A. I.

    2017-05-01

    The plane nonlinear initial boundary value problem about the separated flow past a plate set in motion at a constant velocity from the state of rest has been considered. Results of a numerical experiment which have allowed us to trace in detail the vortex-wake formation process behind a vertical plate are reported. It is shown that, after the beginning of the plate motion, several stable vortical structures, including a Karman street, form in succession behind the plate. It is found that, on the emergence of the Karman street, there occurs a sharp and substantial growth of vortex-wake intensity and hydrodynamic drag force with a pulsating time behavior. A conclusion about the origination, in this regime, of self-sustained oscillations of the liquid in the vicinity of the plate is drawn.

  16. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  17. A mathematical model of embodied consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudrauf, D.; Bennequin, D.; Granic, I.; Landini, G.; Friston, K.; Williford, K.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a mathematical model of embodied consciousness, the Projective Consciousness Model (PCM), which is based on the hypothesis that the spatial field of consciousness (FoC) is structured by a projective geometry and under the control of a process of active inference. The FoC in the PCM

  18. Review: Neural correlates of consciousness | Negrao | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A basic understanding of consciousness and its neural correlates is of major importance for all clinicians, especially those involved with patients with altered states of consciousness. In this paper it is shown that consciousness is dependent on the brainstem and thalamus for arousal; that basic cognition is supported by ...

  19. Local properties of vigilance states: EMD analysis of EEG signals during sleep-waking states of freely moving rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Kumar

    Full Text Available Understanding the inherent dynamics of the EEG associated to sleep-waking can provide insights into its basic neural regulation. By characterizing the local properties of the EEG using power spectrum, empirical mode decomposition (EMD and Hilbert-spectral analysis, we can examine the dynamics over a range of time-scales. We analyzed rat EEG during wake, NREMS and REMS using these methods. The average instantaneous phase, power spectral density (PSD of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs and the energy content in various frequency bands show characteristic changes in each of the vigilance states. The 2nd and 7th IMFs show changes in PSD for wake and REMS, suggesting that those modes may carry wake- and REMS-associated cognitive, conscious and behavior-specific information of an individual even though the EEG may appear similar. The energy content in θ2 (6 Hz-9 Hz band of the 1st IMF for REMS is larger than that of wake. The decrease in the phase function of IMFs from wake to REMS to NREMS indicates decrease of the mean frequency in these states, respectively. The rate of information processing in waking state is more in the time scale described by the first three IMFs than in REMS state. However, for IMF5-IMF7, the rate is more for REMS than that for wake. We obtained Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy, which is a suitable measure of information processing in each of these state-specific EEG. It is possible to evaluate the complex dynamics of the EEG in each of the vigilance states by applying measures based on EMD and Hilbert-transform. Our results suggest that the EMD based nonlinear measures of the EEG can provide useful estimates of the information possessed by various oscillations associated with the vigilance states. Further, the EMD-based spectral measures may have implications in understanding anatamo-physiological correlates of sleep-waking behavior and clinical diagnosis of sleep-pathology.

  20. Local properties of vigilance states: EMD analysis of EEG signals during sleep-waking states of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rupesh; Ramaswamy, Ram; Nath Mallick, Birendra

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the inherent dynamics of the EEG associated to sleep-waking can provide insights into its basic neural regulation. By characterizing the local properties of the EEG using power spectrum, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert-spectral analysis, we can examine the dynamics over a range of time-scales. We analyzed rat EEG during wake, NREMS and REMS using these methods. The average instantaneous phase, power spectral density (PSD) of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and the energy content in various frequency bands show characteristic changes in each of the vigilance states. The 2nd and 7th IMFs show changes in PSD for wake and REMS, suggesting that those modes may carry wake- and REMS-associated cognitive, conscious and behavior-specific information of an individual even though the EEG may appear similar. The energy content in θ2 (6 Hz-9 Hz) band of the 1st IMF for REMS is larger than that of wake. The decrease in the phase function of IMFs from wake to REMS to NREMS indicates decrease of the mean frequency in these states, respectively. The rate of information processing in waking state is more in the time scale described by the first three IMFs than in REMS state. However, for IMF5-IMF7, the rate is more for REMS than that for wake. We obtained Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy, which is a suitable measure of information processing in each of these state-specific EEG. It is possible to evaluate the complex dynamics of the EEG in each of the vigilance states by applying measures based on EMD and Hilbert-transform. Our results suggest that the EMD based nonlinear measures of the EEG can provide useful estimates of the information possessed by various oscillations associated with the vigilance states. Further, the EMD-based spectral measures may have implications in understanding anatamo-physiological correlates of sleep-waking behavior and clinical diagnosis of sleep-pathology.

  1. Awakenings and awareness recovery in disorders of consciousness: is there a role for drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistoia, Francesca; Mura, Elisa; Govoni, Stefano; Fini, Massimo; Sarà, Marco

    2010-08-01

    Disorders of consciousness (DOC) include coma, vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS). Coma is a condition of unarousability with a complete absence of wakefulness and awareness, whereas VS is characterized by a lack of awareness despite a preserved wakefulness. Patients in coma are unconscious because they lack both wakefulness and awareness. Patients in a VS are unconscious because, although they are wakeful, they lack awareness. Patients in a MCS show minimal but definite behavioural evidence of self and environmental awareness. Coma results from diffuse bilateral hemispheric lesions or selective damage to the ascending reticular system (which is functionally connected to the cerebral cortex by intralaminar thalamic nuclei). VS is a syndrome that is considered to be the result of a disconnection of different cortical networks rather than a dysfunction of a single area or a global reduction in cortical metabolism. As revealed by functional imaging studies, clinical recovery is often associated with a functional restoration of cortico-thalamo-cortical connections. Depending on the amount of network restored, patients may regain full consciousness or remain in a MCS. Molecular and neural mediators may indirectly contribute to the above restoration processes owing to their role in the phenomenon of neural synaptic plasticity. Therefore, there is growing interest in the possible effects of drugs that act at the level of the CNS in promoting emergence from DOC. Sporadic cases of dramatic recovery from DOC after the administration of various pharmacological agents, such as baclofen, zolpidem and amantadine, have been recently supported by intriguing scientific observations. Analysis of the reported cases of recovery, with particular attention paid to the condition of the patients and to the association of their improvement with the start of drug administration, suggests that these treatments might have promoted the clinical improvement of some

  2. The Measurement of Consciousness: A Framework for the Scientific Study of Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Gamez, David

    2014-01-01

    Scientists studying consciousness are attempting to identify correlations between measurements of consciousness and the physical world. Consciousness can only be measured through first-person reports, which raises problems about the accuracy of first-person reports, the possibility of non-reportable consciousness and the causal closure of the physical world. Many of these issues could be resolved by assuming that consciousness is entirely physical or functional. However, this would sacrifice...

  3. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  4. Brain networks predict metabolism, diagnosis and prognosis at the bedside in disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennu, Srivas; Annen, Jitka; Wannez, Sarah; Thibaut, Aurore; Chatelle, Camille; Cassol, Helena; Martens, Géraldine; Schnakers, Caroline; Gosseries, Olivia; Menon, David; Laureys, Steven

    2017-08-01

    Recent advances in functional neuroimaging have demonstrated novel potential for informing diagnosis and prognosis in the unresponsive wakeful syndrome and minimally conscious states. However, these technologies come with considerable expense and difficulty, limiting the possibility of wider clinical application in patients. Here, we show that high density electroencephalography, collected from 104 patients measured at rest, can provide valuable information about brain connectivity that correlates with behaviour and functional neuroimaging. Using graph theory, we visualize and quantify spectral connectivity estimated from electroencephalography as a dense brain network. Our findings demonstrate that key quantitative metrics of these networks correlate with the continuum of behavioural recovery in patients, ranging from those diagnosed as unresponsive, through those who have emerged from minimally conscious, to the fully conscious locked-in syndrome. In particular, a network metric indexing the presence of densely interconnected central hubs of connectivity discriminated behavioural consciousness with accuracy comparable to that achieved by expert assessment with positron emission tomography. We also show that this metric correlates strongly with brain metabolism. Further, with classification analysis, we predict the behavioural diagnosis, brain metabolism and 1-year clinical outcome of individual patients. Finally, we demonstrate that assessments of brain networks show robust connectivity in patients diagnosed as unresponsive by clinical consensus, but later rediagnosed as minimally conscious with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Classification analysis of their brain network identified each of these misdiagnosed patients as minimally conscious, corroborating their behavioural diagnoses. If deployed at the bedside in the clinical context, such network measurements could complement systematic behavioural assessment and help reduce the high misdiagnosis rate reported

  5. Conscious awareness and time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines Zhou, Pöppel, and Bao's 2014 proposal ("In the Jungle of Time: The Concept of Identity as a Way Out," https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00844) to unify the psychology of time through a biological principle concerning identity and homeostasis. Although the present analysis largely agrees with their proposal, it argues that a Dual Model of time (see Montemayor's 2013 monograph, Minding Time: A Philosophical and Theoretical Approach to the Psychology of Time) is needed to account for two important roles in time cognition, one related to navigation and the other to conscious awareness. In a Dual Model, the homeostatic principle plays a critical role with respect to conscious awareness, but a different principle is needed for integrating the metric constraints on navigation. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Evidence for a communal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrow, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Recently described social network phenomena show that emotionally connected people come to share certain traits, including obesity, happiness, and loneliness. These do not appear to be mediated by face-to-face contact. Other examples of groups with a common connection that act in unison are mass hysteria, menstrual synchrony, and the ability of a group to guess the number of jelly beans in a jar. The animal kingdom abounds with examples of groups functioning as a single whole: fish school, birds flock, hoofed animals herd, ant and bee colonies work as a single organism. Try as they might, neuroscientists have been unable to find an anatomical seat of consciousness within the brain. C.G. Jung's realization of a collective unconscious began with an observation of a patient whose thoughts matched previous writings that the patient had never seen. The "emotional telepathy" of social network phenomena suggests a collective/communal consciousness as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Defining and measuring environmental consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Sánchez, Manuel; Lafuente, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Based on a review of the main analytical approaches found in the literature, in this paper we establish a multidimensional and behaviour-oriented definition of environmental consciousness. We propose a method to operationalize this definition with the final aim of obtaining summary measures (or indexes) of this phenomenon which can be applied to different social contexts and time periods. The data obtained from a survey on environmental attitudes and behaviour conducted in 2004 among Andalusi...

  8. What difference does consciousness make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil

    2009-06-01

    The question whether and when it is morally appropriate to withdraw life-support from patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state is one of the most controversial in bioethics. Recent work on the neuroscience of consciousness seems to promise fundamentally to alter the debate, by demonstrating that some entirely unresponsive patients are in fact conscious. In this paper, I argue that though this work is extremely important scientifically, it ought to alter the debate over the moral status of the patients very little. First, the data presented is complex and difficult to interpret; we should be wary of taking the claimed discovery entirely at face value (though the remaining questions will probably be settled by future research). Second, though the demonstration that some of the patients are in fact conscious would show that they are moral patients, and therefore beings whose welfare must be taken into account, it would not, by itself at any rate, show that they have an interest in continued life.

  9. Evolution of Rotor Wake in Swirling Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haldidi, Basman; Atassi, Hafiz; Envia, Edmane; Podboy, Gary

    2000-01-01

    A theory is presented for modeling the evolution of rotor wakes as a function of axial distance in swirling mean flows. The theory, which extends an earlier work to include arbitrary radial distributions of mean swirl, indicates that swirl can significantly alter the wake structure of the rotor especially at large downstream distances (i.e., for moderate to large rotor-stator spacings). Using measured wakes of a representative scale model fan stage to define the mean swirl and initial wake perturbations, the theory is used to predict the subsequent evolution of the wakes. The results indicate the sensitivity of the wake evolution to the initial profile and the need to have complete and consistent initial definition of both velocity and pressure perturbations.

  10. Intuitive Intelligence, Self-regulation, and Lifting Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraty, Rollin; Zayas, Maria

    2014-03-01

    This article explores the role of the heart in emotional experience, as well as how learning to shift the rhythms of the heart into a more coherent state makes it possible to establish a new inner baseline reference that allows access to our heart's intuitive capacities and deeper wisdom. The nature and types of intuition and the connection between intuition and compassionate action are discussed. It is suggested that increased effectiveness in self-regulatory capacity and the resultant reorganization of memories sustained in the neural architecture facilitates a stable and integrated experience of self in relationship to others and to the environment, otherwise known as consciousness. The implications of meeting the increasingly complex demands of life with greater love, compassion, and kindness, thereby lifting consciousness, are considered.

  11. Wake characteristics of a model ornithopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harlow, Jacob; Allen, James; Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo

    2006-03-01

    This paper details unsteady wake measurements from a model Ornithopther flying in a wind tunnel at representative flight conditions. Testing over a range of Strouhal number, 0.1-0.3, shows that the unsteady wake is composed of coherent vortical structures that resemble vortex rings. A single ring is formed in the wake of each wing during one wing beat. Momentum balance from velocity field measurements are reconciled with unsteady lift and drag measurements from a drag balance.

  12. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  13. Sleep Pharmacogenetics: Personalized Sleep-Wake Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Sebastian C; Valomon, Amandine; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Research spanning (genetically engineered) animal models, healthy volunteers, and sleep-disordered patients has identified the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, hypocretin, melatonin, glutamate, acetylcholine, γ-amino-butyric acid, and adenosine as important players in the regulation and maintenance of sleep-wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and the sleep-wake continuum. Dysregulation of these neurochemical systems leads to sleep-wake disorders. Most currently available pharmacological treatments are symptomatic rather than causal, and their beneficial and adverse effects are often variable and in part genetically determined. To evaluate opportunities for evidence-based personalized medicine with present and future sleep-wake therapeutics, we review here the impact of known genetic variants affecting exposure of and sensitivity to drugs targeting the neurochemistry of sleep-wake regulation and the pathophysiology of sleep-wake disturbances. Many functional polymorphisms modify drug response phenotypes relevant for sleep. To corroborate the importance of these and newly identified variants for personalized sleep-wake therapy, human sleep pharmacogenetics should be complemented with pharmacogenomic investigations, research about sleep-wake-dependent pharmacological actions, and studies in mice lacking specific genes. These strategies, together with future knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms affecting sleep-wake physiology and treatment outcomes, may lead to potent and safe novel therapies for the increasing number of sleep-disordered patients (e.g., in aged populations).

  14. Revolutionary Wake Hazard Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Continuum Dynamics, Inc. (CDI) has developed a Multiple Aircraft Simulation Tool (MAST) that revolutionizes the ability to predict and assess wake interactions...

  15. Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The `Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.

  16. Anisotropy in turbulence profiles of stratified wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedding, G. R.

    2001-08-01

    At sufficiently high values of the Reynolds number (Re⩾4.5×103) and internal Froude number (F⩾4), initially turbulent bluff body wakes evolve in the presence of a stable background density gradient with wake-averaged mean and turbulence length and velocity scales that are independent of Re and F for at least two orders of magnitude extension in both parameters. The way in which the initially three-dimensional motions transition to the characteristic (and Re- and F-independent) late wakes (where vertical velocities, w≪u,v) is both of great practical interest, and complex, hence somewhat unclear. Here, digital particle imaging velocimetry type measurements on towed-sphere wakes are described, so that the development of anisotropy can be measured by the time development of turbulence profiles in horizontal and vertical centerplanes. The observed anisotropies can be associated with energy transfer to internal wave modes, and suppression of other vertical displacements, that contrasts with sphere wakes at similar Re in a homogeneous fluid. Maximum Reynolds stresses occur at the boundary of a sinuous undulation of the wake, which increases in amplitude up to Nt≈60 (N is the buoyancy frequency that characterizes the strength of the stratification). Although an intrinsic wake profile instability cannot be excluded, the observed wake element spacings can be accounted for by known spiral and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the near wake.

  17. Wind turbine wake measurement in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Menke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    SCADA data from a wind farm and high frequency time series measurements obtained with remote scanning systems have been analysed with focus on identification of wind turbine wake properties in complex terrain. The analysis indicates that within the flow regime characterized by medium to large...... downstream distances (more than 5 diameters) from the wake generating turbine, the wake changes according to local atmospheric conditions e.g. vertical wind speed. In very complex terrain the wake effects are often “overruled” by distortion effects due to the terrain complexity or topology....

  18. Wake measurements for code validations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2009-01-01

    As part of the EU-TOPFARM project a large number of datasets have been identified for verification of wind farm climate models, aeroelastic load and production models of turbines subjected to three dimensional dynamic wake wind field and the aeroelastic production modeling of a whole wind farm de...... developed in the project. This report identifies a number of measurement datasets which is available for model validations in the EU-TOPFARM project. The datasets are presented with a very short summary of the test setup and a principle site layout illustration....

  19. The Transition to Minimal Consciousness through the Evolution of Associative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, Zohar Z; Ginsburg, Simona; Jablonka, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The minimal state of consciousness is sentience. This includes any phenomenal sensory experience - exteroceptive, such as vision and olfaction; interoceptive, such as pain and hunger; or proprioceptive, such as the sense of bodily position and movement. We propose unlimited associative learning (UAL) as the marker of the evolutionary transition to minimal consciousness (or sentience) , its phylogenetically earliest sustainable manifestation and the driver of its evolution. We define and describe UAL at the behavioral and functional level and argue that the structural-anatomical implementations of this mode of learning in different taxa entail subjective feelings (sentience). We end with a discussion of the implications of our proposal for the distribution of consciousness in the animal kingdom, suggesting testable predictions, and revisiting the ongoing debate about the function of minimal consciousness in light of our approach.

  20. István Mészáros, the unconscious, and false consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Hungarian philosopher István Mészáros' more recent work expands our understanding of consciousness in a way that is particularly relevant to psychoanalysis. He underscores the tragedy of consciousness, increasingly alienated from the totality of our social and individual being, and replaced by its false analog. To make sustainable an anachronistic type of vertical social structure, ideologists of false consciousness join arms with those who control society's historically developed means to reproduce itself and its members. This results in the social phenomenon of alienation, whereby actively produced false consciousness creates a correlate individual unconscious. Mészáros' theory seems compatible with the psychoanalytic paradigms developed by Karen Horney and the Neo-Freudians.

  1. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  2. Wake structure of axial-flow hydrokinetic turbines in tri-frame arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawdhary, Saurabh; Yang, Xiaolei; Hill, Craig; Khosronejad, Ali; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-11-01

    Marine and hydro-kinetic (MHK) energy hold promise for future of sustainable energy generation. Tri-frame of turbines, three turbines mounted on vertices of a triangle, are an effective way to build a power producing array of hydrokinetic turbines in marine environment. Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate the flow past a tri-frame and characterize its wake. Full geometry of all three turbines in the tri-frame is resolved using the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method of Kang et al. (2011). High fidelity solution of flow field is obtained owing to the inclusion of detailed geometry of the turbines. Excellent agreement is obtained with the experiments conducted in a flume at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL). The wake evolution of the three turbines is compared to that of an isolated single turbine. The differences in wake dynamics are highlighted to elucidate the importance of turbine wake interaction in an array. The simulations indicate lower levels of TKE and lower levels of momentum deficit in the wake of the upstream turbine of tri-frame compared to the other turbines. Analysis of the far wake recovery is useful for the optimal MHK array design. This work was supported by NSF grant IIP-1318201. The simulations were carried out at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  3. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Lanius

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015. This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1 those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2 those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC along four dimensions: (1 time; (2 thought; (3 body; and (4 emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  4. Contributions of the Ventral Striatum to Conscious Perception: An Intracranial EEG Study of the Attentional Blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagter, Heleen A; Mazaheri, Ali; Reteig, Leon C; Smolders, Ruud; Figee, Martijn; Mantione, Mariska; Schuurman, P Richard; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-02-01

    The brain is limited in its capacity to consciously process information, necessitating gating of information. While conscious perception is robustly associated with sustained, recurrent interactions between widespread cortical regions, subcortical regions, including the striatum, influence cortical activity. Here, we examined whether the ventral striatum, given its ability to modulate cortical information flow, contributes to conscious perception. Using intracranial EEG, we recorded ventral striatum activity while 7 patients performed an attentional blink task in which they had to detect two targets (T1 and T2) in a stream of distractors. Typically, when T2 follows T1 within 100-500 ms, it is often not perceived (i.e., the attentional blink). We found that conscious T2 perception was influenced and signaled by ventral striatal activity. Specifically, the failure to perceive T2 was foreshadowed by a T1-induced increase in α and low β oscillatory activity as early as 80 ms after T1, indicating that the attentional blink to T2 may be due to very early T1-driven attentional capture. Moreover, only consciously perceived targets were associated with an increase in θ activity between 200 and 400 ms. These unique findings shed new light on the mechanisms that give rise to the attentional blink by revealing that conscious target perception may be determined by T1 processing at a much earlier processing stage than traditionally believed. More generally, they indicate that ventral striatum activity may contribute to conscious perception, presumably by gating cortical information flow. What determines whether we become aware of a piece of information or not? Conscious access has been robustly associated with activity within a distributed network of cortical regions. Using intracranial electrophysiological recordings during an attentional blink task, we tested the idea that the ventral striatum, because of its ability to modulate cortical information flow, may contribute to

  5. Consciousness and the invention of Morel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perogamvros, Lampros

    2013-01-01

    A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel's invention (Casares, 1940), a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating, and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an "endogenous" Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states.

  6. On the evolution of conscious attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladjian, Harry Haroutioun; Montemayor, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between consciousness and attention through theoretical considerations about evolution. Specifically, we will argue that the empirical findings on attention and the basic considerations concerning the evolution of the different forms of attention demonstrate that consciousness and attention must be dissociated regardless of which definition of these terms one uses. To the best of our knowledge, no extant view on the relationship between consciousness and attention has this advantage. Because of this characteristic, this paper presents a principled and neutral way to settle debates concerning the relationship between consciousness and attention, without falling into disputes about the meaning of these terms. A decisive conclusion of this approach is that extreme views on the relationship between consciousness and attention must be rejected, including identity and full dissociation views. There is an overlap between the two within conscious attention, but developing a full understanding of this mechanism requires further empirical investigations.

  7. Consciousness and the Invention of Morel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros ePerogamvros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel’s invention (Casares, 1940, a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an 'endogenous' Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states.

  8. Evolving Complexity, Cognition, and Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljenström, H.

    2012-12-01

    All through the history of the universe there is an apparent tendency for increasing complexity, with the organization of matter in evermore elaborate and interactive systems. The living world in general, and the human brain in particular, provides the highest complexity known. It seems obvious that all of this complexity must be the result of physical, chemical and biological evolution, but it was only with Darwin that we began to get a scientific understanding of biological evolution. Darwinian principles are guiding in our understanding of such complex systems as the nervous system, but also for the evolution of human society and technology. Living organisms have to survive in a complex and changing environment. This implies response and adaption to environmental events and changes at several time scales. The interaction with the environment depends on the present state of the organism, as well as on previous experiences stored in its molecular and cellular structures. At a longer time scale, organisms can adapt to slow environmental changes, by storing information in the genetic material carried over from generation to generation. This phylogenetic learning is complemented by ontogenetic learning, which is adaptation at a shorter time scale, occuring in non-genetic structures. The evolution of a nervous system is a major transition in biological evolution and allows for an increasing capacity for information storage and processing, increasing chances of survival. Such neural knowledge processing, cognition, shows the same principal features as nonneural adaptive processes. Similarly, consciousness might appear, to different degrees, at different stages in evolution. Both cognition and consciousness depends critically on the organization and complexity of the organism. In this presentation, I will briefly discuss general principles for evolution of complexity, focussing on the evolution of the nervous system, which provides organisms with ever increasing

  9. Dietary modulation of Drosophila sleep-wake behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Catterson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A complex relationship exists between diet and sleep but despite its impact on human health, this relationship remains uncharacterized and poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster is an important model for the study of metabolism and behaviour, however the effect of diet upon Drosophila sleep remains largely unaddressed.Using automated behavioural monitoring, a capillary feeding assay and pharmacological treatments, we examined the effect of dietary yeast and sucrose upon Drosophila sleep-wake behaviour for three consecutive days. We found that dietary yeast deconsolidated the sleep-wake behaviour of flies by promoting arousal from sleep in males and shortening periods of locomotor activity in females. We also demonstrate that arousal from nocturnal sleep exhibits a significant ultradian rhythmicity with a periodicity of 85 minutes. Increasing the dietary sucrose concentration from 5% to 35% had no effect on total sucrose ingestion per day nor any affect on arousal, however it did lengthen the time that males and females remained active. Higher dietary sucrose led to reduced total sleep by male but not female flies. Locomotor activity was reduced by feeding flies Metformin, a drug that inhibits oxidative phosphorylation, however Metformin did not affect any aspects of sleep.We conclude that arousal from sleep is under ultradian control and regulated in a sex-dependent manner by dietary yeast and that dietary sucrose regulates the length of time that flies sustain periods of wakefulness. These findings highlight Drosophila as an important model with which to understand how diet impacts upon sleep and wakefulness in mammals and humans.

  10. Diagnostic precision of PET imaging and functional MRI in disorders of consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Johan; Gosseries, Olivia; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bedside clinical examinations can have high rates of misdiagnosis of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (vegetative state) or minimally conscious state. The diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of neuroimaging-based approaches has not been established in a clinical setting. We did a va...... Funds for Scientific Research (FNRS), Fonds Léon Fredericq, the European Commission, the James McDonnell Foundation, the Mind Science Foundation, the French Speaking Community Concerted Research Action, the University of Copenhagen, and the University of Liège....

  11. Dreamlike effects of LSD on waking imagery in humans depend on serotonin 2A receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Pokorny, Dan; Vollenweider, Leonie; Preller, Katrin H; Pokorny, Thomas; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2017-07-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the mixed serotonin and dopamine receptor agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces an altered state of consciousness that resembles dreaming. This study aimed to test the hypotheses that LSD produces dreamlike waking imagery and that this imagery depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation and is related to subjective drug effects. Twenty-five healthy subjects performed an audiorecorded guided mental imagery task 7 h after drug administration during three drug conditions: placebo, LSD (100 mcg orally) and LSD together with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg orally). Cognitive bizarreness of guided mental imagery reports was quantified as a standardised formal measure of dream mentation. State of consciousness was evaluated using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC) questionnaire. LSD, compared with placebo, significantly increased cognitive bizarreness (p LSD-induced increase in cognitive bizarreness was positively correlated with the LSD-induced loss of self-boundaries and cognitive control (p LSD-induced increases in cognitive bizarreness and changes in state of consciousness were fully blocked by ketanserin. LSD produced mental imagery similar to dreaming, primarily via activation of the 5-HT2A receptor and in relation to loss of self-boundaries and cognitive control. Future psychopharmacological studies should assess the differential contribution of the D2/D1 and 5-HT1A receptors to cognitive bizarreness.

  12. Strongly Stratified Turbulence Wakes and Mixing Produced by Fractal Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrieva, Natalia; Redondo, Jose Manuel; Chashechkin, Yuli; Fraunie, Philippe; Velascos, David

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes Shliering and Shadowgraph experiments of the wake induced mixing produced by tranversing a vertical or horizontal fractal grid through the interfase between two miscible fluids at low Atwood and Reynolds numbers. This is a configuration design to models the mixing across isopycnals in stably-stratified flows in many environmental relevant situations (either in the atmosphere or in the ocean. The initial unstable stratification is characterized by a reduced gravity: g' = gΔρ ρ where g is gravity, Δρ being the initial density step and ρ the reference density. Here the Atwood number is A = g' _ 2 g . The topology of the fractal wake within the strong stratification, and the internal wave field produces both a turbulent cascade and a wave cascade, with frecuen parametric resonances, the envelope of the mixing front is found to follow a complex non steady 3rd order polinomial function with a maximum at about 4-5 Brunt-Vaisalla non-dimensional time scales: t/N δ = c1(t/N) + c2g Δρ ρ (t/N)2 -c3(t/N)3. Conductivity probes and Shliering and Shadowgraph visual techniques, including CIV with (Laser induced fluorescence and digitization of the light attenuation across the tank) are used in order to investigate the density gradients and the three-dimensionality of the expanding and contracting wake. Fractal analysis is also used in order to estimate the fastest and slowest growing wavelengths. The large scale structures are observed to increase in wave-length as the mixing progresses, and the processes involved in this increase in scale are also examined.Measurements of the pointwise and horizontally averaged concentrations confirm the picture obtained from past flow visualization studies. They show that the fluid passes through the mixing region with relatively small amounts of molecular mixing,and the molecular effects only dominate on longer time scales when the small scales have penetrated through the large scale structures. The Non

  13. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performan...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  14. Representing Chronic Disorders of Consciousness:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This article explores problems of voicelessness in Isabel Allende’s Paula (1995) through a focus on the story of Paula’s illness and subsequent death from porphyria in 1992. I argue that the language, categories and stories through which disorders of consciousness are constructed are central to ethical decision-making and shifting cultural understandings of these conditions. In Paula, Allende uses an experimental, hybrid narrative form that draws on illness narrative, magical realist novel, national history, letters, and memoir to challenge traditional depictions of “coma” and to create a new public space through which these issues of voicelessness can be addressed. PMID:25055709

  15. Wake Vortex Avoidance System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Knight, Howard K. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A wake vortex avoidance system includes a microphone array configured to detect low frequency sounds. A signal processor determines a geometric mean coherence based on the detected low frequency sounds. A display displays wake vortices based on the determined geometric mean coherence.

  16. Wake-vortex decay in external turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Armenio, V.; Fröhlich, J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2010-01-01

    Wake vortices that form behind a moving aircraft represent 11 safety COil cern for other aircraft.s that follow. These tornado-like wake structures may persist for several minutes, extending for many kilometers across the sky. This safety issue is particularly important close to major airports where

  17. The ubiquity of consciousness: The ubiquity of consciousness, cognition and intelligence in life

    OpenAIRE

    Trewavas, Anthony J; Baluška, František

    2011-01-01

    Our definitions of consciousness and intelligence are largely anthropocentric, potentially skewing research. In fact, consciousness in its many forms could well be ubiquitous, even down to the simplest of organisms.

  18. Does pain relief influence recovery of consciousness? A case report of a patient treated with ziconotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillo, Bernardo; Loreto, Vincenzo; Calabrese, Claudio; Estraneo, Anna; Moretta, Pasquale; Trojano, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    For people with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), access to computers can be difficult, thus several devices have been developed to facilitate their Disorders of consciousness (DOC) are difficult to classify. The degree of consciousness varies from coma to vegetative state or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and minimally conscious state. Correct diagnosis has important ethical and legal implications, and pain may be cause of misdiagnosis. We describe here a patient with traumatic brain injury, classified as UWS. His clinical picture was dominated by spasticity, and pain. He underwent intrathecal treatment of spasticity with baclofen. Improvement was not that expected. However, there was a dramatic improvement when ziconotide was added to relieve pain; the patient began to eat by mouth, talk, and his tracheal tube could be removed and he is currently classified as having severe disability. The suspension of ziconotide caused a clear re-worsening of clinical condition, reverted by his reintroduction. Pain is an important factor in patients with DOC. Anecdotal reports of improved consciousness with intrathecal baclofen therapy may be due to pain relief. Reduction of pain in DOC is important and drugs should not interfere with cognition, and must be effective and manageable. Ziconotide may be one of the possible candidate due to its synergistic antispastic action in combination with baclofen when an intratecal pump has been implanted.

  19. Science of consciousness and the hard problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-05-22

    Quantum theory is essentially a rationally coherent theory of the interaction of mind and matter, and it allows our conscious thoughts to play a causally efficacious and necessary role in brain dynamics. It therefore provides a natural basis, created by scientists, for the science of consciousness. As an illustration it is explained how the interaction of brain and consciousness can speed up brain processing, and thereby enhance the survival prospects of conscious organisms, as compared to similar organisms that lack consciousness. As a second illustration it is explained how, within the quantum framework, the consciously experienced {open_quotes}I{close_quotes} directs the actions of a human being. It is concluded that contemporary science already has an adequate framework for incorporating causally efficacious experimential events into the physical universe in a manner that: (1) puts the neural correlates of consciousness into the theory in a well defined way, (2) explains in principle how the effects of consciousness, per se, can enhance the survival prospects of organisms that possess it, (3) allows this survival effect to feed into phylogenetic development, and (4) explains how the consciously experienced {open_quotes}I{close_quotes} can direct human behaviour.

  20. Consciousness Is a Thing, Not a Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Pockett

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma of cognitive psychology is ‘consciousness is a process, not a thing’. Hence, the main task of cognitive neuroscientists is generally seen as working out what kinds of neural processing are conscious and what kinds are not. I argue here that the central dogma is simply wrong. All neural processing is unconscious. The illusion that some of it is conscious results largely from a failure to separate consciousness per se from a number of unconscious processes that normally accompany it—most particularly focal attention. Conscious sensory experiences are not processes at all. They are things: specifically, spatial electromagnetic (EM patterns, which are presently generated only by ongoing unconscious processing at certain times and places in the mammalian brain, but which in principle could be generated by hardware rather than wetware. The neurophysiological mechanisms by which putatively conscious EM patterns are generated, the features that may distinguish conscious from unconscious patterns, the general principles that distinguish the conscious patterns of different sensory modalities and the general features that distinguish the conscious patterns of different experiences within any given sensory modality are all described. Suggestions for further development of this paradigm are provided.

  1. Closing in on the constitution of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Miller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The science of consciousness is a nascent and thriving field of research that is founded on identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness. However, I have argued that it is the neural constitution of consciousness that science seeks to understand and that there are no evident strategies for distinguishing the correlates and constitution of (phenomenal consciousness. Here I review this correlation/constitution distinction problem and challenge the existing foundations of consciousness science. I present the main analyses from a longer paper in press on this issue, focusing on recording, inhibition, stimulation and combined inhibition/stimulation strategies, including proposal of the Jenga analogy to illustrate why identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness should not be considered the ultimate target of consciousness science. Thereafter I suggest that while combined inhibition and stimulation strategies might identify some constitutive neural activities — indeed minimally sufficient constitutive neural activities — such strategies fail to identify the whole neural constitution of consciousness and thus the correlation/constitution distinction problem is not fully solved. Various clarifications, potential objections and related scientific and philosophical issues are also discussed and I conclude by proposing new foundational claims for consciousness science.

  2. Consciousness and Attention: On sufficiency and necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the gist of the scene in the near absence of top-down attention; we critically re-examine the possibility of ‘complete’ absence of top-down attention. We also cover the recent flurry of studies that utilized independent manipulation of attention and consciousness. These studies have shown paradoxical effects of attention, including examples where top-down attention and consciousness have opposing effects, leading us to strengthen and revise our previous views. Neuroimaging studies with EEG, MEG and fMRI are uncovering the distinct neuronal correlates of selective attention and consciousness in dissociative paradigms. These findings point to a functional dissociation: attention as analyzer and consciousness as synthesizer. Separating the effects of selective visual attention from those of visual consciousness is of paramount importance to untangle the neural substrates of consciousness from those for attention.

  3. Detecting wind turbine wakes with nacelle lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, D. P.; Larvol, A.; Mann, J.

    2017-05-01

    Because the horizontal homogeneity assumption is violated in wakes flows, lidars face difficulties when reconstructing wind fields. Further, small-scale turbulence which is prevalent in wake flows causes Doppler spectrum widths to be broader than in the free stream. In this study the Doppler peak variance is used as a detection parameter for wakes. A one month long measurement campaign, where a continuous-wave lidar on a turbine has been exposed to multiple wake situations, is used to test the detection capabilities. The results show that it is possible to identify situation where a downstream turbine is in wake by comparing the peak widths. The used lidar is inexpensive and brings instalments on every turbine within economical reach. Thus, the information gathered by the lidars can be used for improved control at wind farm level.

  4. Simulation and Analysis of Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2017-01-01

    Modern wind turbines are often clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream located turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed...... flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction leads to a decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. The turbulence created from wind turbine wakes is mainly due to the presence of the distinct tip and root vortices......, which eventually break down and forms small-scale turbulent structures. If a wind turbine is located in a wake consisting of tip and root vortices, the fatigue loading is more severe than in the case where the tip vortices have already broken down by instability mechanisms. Therefore, understanding...

  5. Neural Approaches to Machine Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksander, Igor; Eng., F. R.

    2008-10-01

    `Machine Consciousness', which some years ago might have been suppressed as an inappropriate pursuit, has come out of the closet and is now a legitimate area of research concern. This paper briefly surveys the last few years of worldwide research in this area which divides into rule-based and neural approaches and then reviews the work of the author's laboratory during the last ten years. The paper develops a fresh perspective on this work: it is argued that neural approaches, in this case, digital neural systems, can address phenomenological consciousness. Important clarifications of phenomenology and virtuality which enter this modelling are explained in the early parts of the paper. In neural models, phenomenology is a form of depictive inner representation that has five specific axiomatic features: a sense of self-presence in an external world; a sense of imagination of past experience and fiction; a sense of attention; a capacity for planning; a sense of emotion-based volition that influences planning. It is shown that these five features have separate but integrated support in dynamic neural systems.

  6. Defining and measuring environmental consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Sánchez, Manuel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the main analytical approaches found in the literature, in this paper we establish a multidimensional and behaviour-oriented definition of environmental consciousness. We propose a method to operationalize this definition with the final aim of obtaining summary measures (or indexes of this phenomenon which can be applied to different social contexts and time periods. The data obtained from a survey on environmental attitudes and behaviour conducted in 2004 among Andalusians (Ecobarómetro de Andalucía 2004 is used as an empirical basis for the proposed operationalization. The resulting measures are then employed to identify social groups according to the diverse forms of their environmental consciousness and to explore their basic socio-demographic profiles

    A partir de las principales aproximaciones analíticas presentes en la literatura, en este trabajo establecemos una definición de conciencia ambiental multidimensional y orientada a la conducta; proponemos un método para su operacionalización con el objetivo de elaborar medidas sintéticas de este fenómeno en distintos contextos sociales. La operacionalización propuesta utiliza como base empírica los resultados del Ecobarómetro de Andalucía (EBA 2004. Los indicadores resultantes son utilizados seguidamente para identificar distintos grupos sociales según la naturaleza de su conciencia ambiental.

  7. Embodied mind and phenomenal consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VENIERI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a central debate in the philosophy of mind and cognitive science concerns the role of the body in perception and cognition. For many contemporary philosophers, not only cognition but also perception is connected mainly with the brain, where the processing of input from the senses takes place; whereas for the proponents of ‘embodied cognition’ other aspects of the body beyond the brain, including the environment, play a constitutive role in cognitive processes. In terms of perception, a new theory has emerged which stresses percep‑ tion’s active character and claims that the embodied subject and the environment, with which it interacts, form a dynamic system. Supporters of ‘enactive perception’ such as Susan Hurley and Alva Noë maintain that the physical substrate or the supervenience basis of perceptual experience and phenomenal consciousness may include besides the brain and the nervous system other bodily and environmental features. Yet, it will be argued in this paper that the interaction between the subject and the environment forms a system of causal relations, so we can theoretically interfere in the causal chains and create hallucinations, which cannot be distinguished from veridical perception, or a virtual reality as in the film Matrix (1999. This kind of argument and its related thought experiments aim to stress the primacy of the brain in determining phenomenal states, and show that the body and certain interactions with the environment have a causal, but not a constitutive or essential role, in forming phenomenal consciousness.

  8. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  9. Generations and Group Consciousness: A Quantification of Mannheim's Analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Wilbur J.; Grasmick, Harold G.

    1979-01-01

    Uses identical procedures to measure generational consciousness, class consciousness, and racial consciousness, and compares the extent of these forms of group consciousness in the United States. Concludes that, although generational consciousness may not be the most salient cleavage in American society, it is sufficiently important to warrant…

  10. Consciousness induced restoration of time symmetry (CIRTS): a psychophysical theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierman, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical framework is proposed that starts from the assumption that information processing by a brain, while it is sustaining consciousness, is restoring the break in time symmetry in physics. No specifics are given with regard to which physical formalism, either quantum or classical, is the

  11. Public consciousness and willingness to embrace ethical consumption of textile products in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deschamps, Thalía Campos; Carnie, Bruce; Mao, Ningtao

    ... in this region, the public consciousness and willingness to embrace ethical consumption of textile products in Mexico were thus determined. It is hoped that this knowledge provides the basis for the initiation of a framework of activities and measures to develop sustainable consumption habits and to educate consumers on the subject of ethical consumption.

  12. Pervasive interventions to increase pro-environmental awareness, consciousness, and learning at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., Ternier, S., & Specht, M. (2013). Pervasive interventions to increase pro-environmental awareness, consciousness, and learning at the workplace. In D. Hernández-Leo et al. (Eds.), Scaling up Learning for Sustained Impact. Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Technology

  13. Interference Control Modulations Over Conscious Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsaso Colás

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between attention and consciousness has been a controversial topic over the last decade. Although there seems to be an agreement on their distinction at the functional level, no consensus has been reached about attentional processes being or not necessary for conscious perception. Previous studies have explored the relation of alerting and orienting systems of attention and conscious perception, but the impact of the anterior executive attention system on conscious access remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral interaction between executive attention and conscious perception, testing control mechanisms both at stimulus-level representation and after error commission. We presented a classical Stroop task, manipulating the proportion of congruent and incongruent trials, and analyzed the effect of reactive and proactive control on the conscious perception of near-threshold stimuli. Reactive control elicited under high proportion congruent conditions influenced participants’ decision criterion, whereas proactive control elicited under low proportion congruent conditions was ineffective in modulating conscious perception. In addition, error commission affected both perceptual sensitivity to detect near-threshold information and response criterion. These results suggest that reactivation of task goals through reactive control strategies in conflict situations impacts decision stages of conscious processing, whereas interference control elicited by error commission impacts both perceptual sensitivity and decision stages of conscious processing. We discuss the implications of our results for the gateway hypothesis about attention and consciousness, as they showed that interference control (both at stimulus-level representation and after error commission can modulate the conscious access of near-threshold stimuli.

  14. Conscious, Pre-Conscious and Unconscious Mechanisms in Emotional Behaviour. Some Applications to the Mindfulness Approach with Wearable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balconi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Conscious, pre-conscious, and unconscious mechanisms are implicated in modulating affective processing in daily activities. Specifically, mental practice fostering awareness and control of affective reactions to external stimuli and stressful events (such as mindfulness and neurofeedback protocols can be used to improve our ability to manage unconscious negative emotions. Indeed, it is possible to empower self-monitoring and regulation skills, as well as our ability to manage stress and negative emotions coming from everyday events and activities. This can be accomplished, on the one hand, by regularly practicing self-observation and by promoting bodily awareness and an awareness of automatic responses (e.g., uncontrolled affective reactions; on the other hand, by undergoing implicit training protocols that take advantage of brain responses. The present paper elucidates the contribution of both conscious and unconscious levels in emotion regulation and stress management, with a focus on their neural correlates and their role in mindfulness practice and on the potential of body-sensing devices for supporting meditation sessions, for fostering motivation to practice, and for making meditation more appealing and sustainable. We will finally present preliminary evidence on the effect of an intensive technology-mediated meditation protocol based on mindfulness practices and supported by a brain-sensing wearable device. The experimental procedure included three levels of outcome indices: psychometric measures related to perceived stress; neuropsychological and behavioural measures related to cognitive performance; and instrumental measures (resting-state and task-related electroencephalographic markers—EEG-ERPs.

  15. The Role of Place-based Education in Developing Sustainability as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conscious education and how these fairly new educational notions might assist in developing sustainability as a frame of mind. We also discuss the educational implications of practising a pedagogy of place with specific reference to sustainability.

  16. Status of wake and array loss research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    In recent years, many projects have evaluated wind turbine wake effects and resultant array losses in both Europe and the United States. This paper examines the status of current knowledge about wake effects and array losses and suggests future research. Single-turbine wake characteristics have been studied extensively and are generally described well by existing theoretical models. Field measurements of wake effects in wind turbine arrays are largely limited to small arrays, with 2 to 4 rows of turbines. Few data have been published on wake effects within large arrays. Measurements of wake deficits downwind of large arrays that deficits are substantially larger and extend farther downwind than expected. Although array design models have been developed, these models have been tested and verified using only limited data from a few rows of wind turbines in complex terrain, whereas some of the largest arrays have more than 40 rows of wind turbines. Planned cooperative efforts with the wind industry will obtain existing data relevant to analyzing energy deficits within large arrays and identifying data sets for potential use in array model verification efforts. Future research being considered include a cooperative research experiment to obtain more definitive data on wake deficits and turbulence within and downwind of large arrays. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Equation for Consciousness in terms of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodukula, Siva Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Based on the concepts 'Double Relativity Effectí. 'Film theory of the Universe ','Heart of the God model of the universeí and'Space time equivalenceí, it is concluded that consciousness is defined in terms of physics as Çthe electromagnetic field containing electromagnetic waves of velocity greater than that of light velocity.? Also it is concluded that because of this high velocity the cell or any living organism will get the perception of events before their happenings. This phenomenon is one of the properties of feeling which is a constituent of consciousness. The degree or strength of consciousness can be measured and defined as the distance of point of generation of conscious wave from the center of space time fluid related to consciousness (d). It can be measured by the equation VCW3.d2= Constant. Where 'VCWí is the velocity of consciousness wave observed. The unit of measurement for degree or strength of consciousness is 'conscious meterí.

  18. Conscious Intending as Self-Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slors, M.V.P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that there is considerable evidence against the causal efficacy of proximal (short-term) conscious intentions, many studies confirm our commonsensical belief in the efficacy of more distal (longer-term) conscious intentions. In this paper, I address two questions: (i) What, if any,

  19. A conscious route to unconscious vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, J; Goodale, M A

    2000-01-27

    Damage to the primary visual cortex can leave subjects with unconscious residual vision, or 'blindsight'. New research suggests that 'top-down' modulation by intact conscious visual processes can improve performance in the impaired visual domain, even though that domain still remains quite inaccessible to consciousness.

  20. The schizophrenias as disorders of self consciousness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-12-29

    Dec 29, 2004 ... The schizophrenias as disorders of self consciousness. Sean Exner Baumann. Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, ..... Darwins' dangerous idea. Evolution and the meaning of life. Penguin, 1995. 13. Libet B. How does conscious experience arise? The neural time fac- tor.

  1. Self-Consciousness, Caring, Relationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Sanchez, Alba

    In the studies of emotion, shame is classified under several labels: a self-conscious emotion, an emotion of self-assessment, a social emotion, and a moral emotion. All of them are supposed to pick out a defining characteristic of shame. Though all of these labels will be under scrutiny at some...... point in this dissertation, my primary focus is the last label. My guiding question is: is shame a moral emotion? Does it have a fundamental relationship to ethics or the ethical? Does it have a crucial role or significance in this respect? If so, what exactly? Or is ethics rather a contingent aspect...... of some prominent episodes of shame? This is the broad question that I intend to explore and clarify throughout this study. In my view, shame is not a unitary phenomenon, but comes in a range of varieties that are linked by what Wittgenstein (1953) called family resemblance. Not all of them have moral...

  2. Neurodynamics of Cognition and Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses dynamical aspects of brain functions and cognition. Experimental evidence in humans and other mammalians indicates that complex neurodynamics is crucial for the emergence of higher-level cognition and consciousness. Dynamical neural systems with encoding in limit cycle and non-convergent attractors have gained increasing popularity in the past decade. The role of synchronization, desynchronization, and intermittent synchronization on cognition has been studied extensively by various authors, in particular by authors contributing to the present volume. This volume gives an overview of recent advances in this interdisciplinary field of cognitive and computer science related to dynamics of cognition, including experimental studies, dynamical modelling and interpretation of cognitive experiments, and theoretical approaches. The following topics are covered in this book: spatio-temporal dynamics of neural correlates of higher-level cognition; dynamical neural memories, including continuous and ...

  3. Expertise and the evolution of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Matt J

    2003-10-01

    This paper argues that expertise can be used as an indicator of consciousness in humans and other animals. The argument is based on the following observations: (1) expertise and skill acquisition require deliberate practice; and (2) the characteristics of deliberate practice such as performance evaluation against a more proficient model, retention of voluntary control over actions, self-monitoring, goal-setting, error-detection and correction, and the construction of hierarchically organized retrieval structures are outside of the currently understood bounds of unconscious processing. Thus, to the extent that evidence of expertise exists in an organism, evidence of conscious experience is also present. Two important implications arise from this conclusion: (1) evidence of expertise can be used as the basis for cross-species comparisons of consciousness; and (2) the evolution of human consciousness can be assessed using fossil evidence of skilled behavior as a measure of consciousness.

  4. Volition and the Function of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hakwan C.

    What are the psychological functions that could only be performed consciously? People have intuitively assumed that many acts of volition are not influenced by unconscious information. These acts range from simple examples such as making a spontaneous motor movement, to higher cognitive control. How ever, the available evidence suggests that under suitable conditions, unconscious information can influence these behaviors and the underlying neural mechanisms. One possibility is that stimuli that are consciously perceived tend to yield strong signals in the brain, which makes us think that consciousness has the function of such strong signals. However, if we could create conditions where the stimuli could yield strong signals but not the conscious experience of perception, perhaps we would find that such stimuli are just as effective in influencing volitional be havior. Future studies that focus on clarifying this issue may tell us what the defining functions of consciousness are.

  5. Environmentally conscious supply chain design

    OpenAIRE

    ALTMANN, MICHAEL

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability has become a critical topic in all areas of supply chain management. As discussed earlier, drivers for this development can be identified as both internal and external phenomena. Since customers are one of the key stakeholders in supply chain management, special attention is paid to the impact of costumers´ behavior on sustainable supply chain design decisions. In this context, two main research questions were analyzed: 1.What is the appropriate way to design a supply chain...

  6. Wake fields and instabilities in linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M; Palumbo, L

    2006-01-01

    A charged particle beam travelling across perfectly conducting structures whose boundaries do not have constant cross section, such as an RF cavity or bellows, generates longitudinal and transverse wake fields. We discuss in this lecture the general features of wake fields, and show a few simple examples in cylindrical geometry: perfectly conducting pipe and the resonant modes of an RF cavity. We then study the effect of wake fields on the dynamics of a beam in a linac, such as beam break-up instabilities and how to cure them.

  7. Aircraft control in wake vortex wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Gregory R.

    1995-01-01

    In the past, there have been a number of fatal incidents attributable to wake vortex encounters, involving both general aviation and commercial aircraft. In fact, the wake vortex hazard is considered to be the single dominant safety issue determining the aircraft spacing requirements at airports. As the amount of air traffic increases, the number of dangerous encounters is likely only to increase. It is therefore imperative that a means be found to reduce the danger. That is the purpose of this research: to use nonlinear inverse dynamic (NID) control methods in the design of an aircraft control system which can improve the safety margin in a wake vortex encounter.

  8. Detecting wind turbine wakes with nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, D. P.; Larvol, A.; Mann, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Because the horizontal homogeneity assumption is violated in wakes flows, lidars face difficulties when reconstructing wind fields. Further, small-scale turbulence which is prevalent in wake flows causes Doppler spectrum widths to be broader than in the free stream. In this study the Doppler peak...... turbine is in wake by comparing the peak widths. The used lidar is inexpensive and brings instalments on every turbine within economical reach. Thus, the information gathered by the lidars can be used for improved control at wind farm level....

  9. The compatibility between sociological and cognitive neuroscientific ideas on consciousness: is a neurosociology of consciousness possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurko, Yulia S

    2013-03-01

    This article considers the possibility of integrating sociological and cognitive neuroscience ideas on consciousness and developing a new research area: neurosociology of consciousnesses. Research was conducted taking into account the limited knowledge on consciousness produced in these disciplines and the necessity of finding ways to study the social roles concerning the neural correlates of consciousness. Applying several ideas on consciousness from these disciplines (intersubjectivity, close connection with collective forms representations, deriving awareness from the brain's processes, and so on), I show that it is difficult to reconcile the differences in the treatment of consciousness through the simple combination of the different ideas. The integration should be pursued in light of the neuroscientific findings concerning consciousness in different social contexts (role behavior, social interactions, and so on). In integrating the concepts, I predicted the role of time delay in conscious awareness in decision making, synchronization of neural oscillations under conscious perception, and the activations of certain brain zones in correspondence to different conscious cognitive processes for understanding in face-to-face situations. The study reveals that the optimal path for neurosociological research on consciousness is in its primary development without a rigid binding to either sociology or neuroscience.

  10. Gender Consciousness among Urban Adolescents in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sex of respondents and manifestation of gender consciousness revealed that female adolescents show stronger association than the male adolescents between their sex- type and manifestation of gender consciousness. Keywords- Gender Consciousness, Adolescents, gender Schema, masculinity and Femininity ...

  11. George Herbert Mead on consciousness: antidote to Cartesian absurdities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren

    experience; it is shared by humans and subhuman animals alike; (2) consciousness of environmental experience; Mead names this consciousness aspect awareness; it is exclusively human; (3) the peculiar sensed qualities attaching to consciousness, equalling what is today named qualia. Descartes...

  12. Consciousness and stereoscopic environmental imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Steve

    2014-02-01

    The question of human consciousness has intrigued philosophers and scientists for centuries: its nature, how we perceive our environment, how we think, our very awareness of thought and self. It has been suggested that stereoscopic vision is "a paradigm of how the mind works" 1 In depth perception, laws of perspective are known, reasoned, committed to memory from an early age; stereopsis, on the other hand, is a 3D experience governed by strict laws but actively joined within the brain―one sees it without explanation. How do we, in fact, process two different images into one 3D module within the mind and does an awareness of this process give us insight into the workings of our own consciousness? To translate this idea to imaging I employed ChromaDepth™ 3D glasses that rely on light being refracted in a different direction for each eye―colors of differing wavelengths appearing at varying distances from the viewer resulting in a 3D space. This involves neither calculation nor manufacture of two images or views. Environmental spatial imaging was developed―a 3D image was generated that literally surrounds the viewer. The image was printed and adhered to a semi-circular mount; the viewer then entered the interior to experience colored shapes suspended in a 3D space with an apparent loss of surface, or picture plane, upon which the image is rendered. By focusing our awareness through perception-based imaging we are able to gain a deeper understanding of how the brain works, how we see.

  13. Incidence of G-Induced Loss of Consciousness and Almost Loss of Consciousness in the Royal Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slungaard, Ellen; McLeod, Judith; Green, Nicholas D C; Kiran, Amit; Newham, Di J; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to sustained +Gz acceleration with inadequate G protection can result in G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) or almost loss of consciousness (A-LOC). The UK Royal Air Force (RAF) last conducted a survey of G-LOC within their military aircrew in 2005 with interventions subsequently introduced. The aim of this study was to repeat the 2005 survey in order to evaluate the impact of those interventions. An anonymous questionnaire requesting details of G-LOC and A-LOC events was mailed to all RAF pilots (N = 1878) and weapons systems operators (WSOs) (N = 473), irrespective of aircraft currently flown. The questionnaire was returned by 809 aircrew (34.4% response rate). There were 120 (14.8%) aircrew who reported at least one episode of G-LOC and 260 (32.2%) reported at least one episode of A-LOC. The reported prevalence of G-LOC in the previous 2005 survey was 20.1% (N = 454). There was an increased reporting of G-LOC in the Hawk, Tucano, and Grob Tutor aircraft, with 5 G-LOC and 19 A-LOC events reported in the Grob Tutor compared to none in 2005. The prevalence of reported G-LOC has decreased in the surveyed populations, which may be due to the introduction of centrifuge training, but also may be influenced by patterns of G exposure and other factors. Scope for further reduction remains through correct execution of the anti-G straining maneuver (AGSM) with centrifuge training early in flying training and use of a structured conditioning program to increase the general strength of muscles involved in the AGSM.Slungaard E, McLeod J, Green NDC, Kiran A, Newham DJ, Harridge SDR. Incidence of G-induced loss of consciousness and almost loss of consciousness in the Royal Air Force. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):550-555.

  14. Testing Proposed Neuronal Models of Effective Connectivity Within the Cortico-basal Ganglia-thalamo-cortical Loop During Loss of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Julia Sophia; Lutkenhoff, Evan Scott; Bio, Branden Joseph; Laureys, Steven; Monti, Martin Max

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, a number of brain regions and connectivity patterns have been proposed to be crucial for loss and recovery of consciousness but have not been compared in detail. In a 3 T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm, we test the plausibility of these different neuronal models derived from theoretical and empirical knowledge. Specifically, we assess the fit of each model to the dynamic change in effective connectivity between specific cortical and subcortical regions at different consecutive levels of propofol-induced sedation by employing spectral dynamic causal modeling. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that proposed models of impaired consciousness do not fit the observed patterns of effective connectivity. Rather, the data show that loss of consciousness, at least in the context of propofol-induced sedation, is marked by a breakdown of corticopetal projections from the globus pallidus. Effective connectivity between the globus pallidus and the ventral posterior cingulate cortex, present during wakefulness, fades in the transition from lightly sedated to full loss of consciousness and returns gradually as consciousness recovers, thereby, demonstrating the dynamic shift in brain architecture of the posterior cingulate "hub" during changing states of consciousness. These findings highlight the functional role of a previously underappreciated direct pallido-cortical connectivity in supporting consciousness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Auditory Verbal Experience and Agency in Waking, Sleep Onset, REM, and Non-REM Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Harley, Trevor A; Speth, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    We present one of the first quantitative studies on auditory verbal experiences ("hearing voices") and auditory verbal agency (inner speech, and specifically "talking to (imaginary) voices or characters") in healthy participants across states of consciousness. Tools of quantitative linguistic analysis were used to measure participants' implicit knowledge of auditory verbal experiences (VE) and auditory verbal agencies (VA), displayed in mentation reports from four different states. Analysis was conducted on a total of 569 mentation reports from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM sleep, sleep onset, and waking. Physiology was controlled with the nightcap sleep-wake mentation monitoring system. Sleep-onset hallucinations, traditionally at the focus of scientific attention on auditory verbal hallucinations, showed the lowest degree of VE and VA, whereas REM sleep showed the highest degrees. Degrees of different linguistic-pragmatic aspects of VE and VA likewise depend on the physiological states. The quantity and pragmatics of VE and VA are a function of the physiologically distinct state of consciousness in which they are conceived. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Comparison of a Coupled Near and Far Wake Model With a Free Wake Vortex Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrung, Georg; Riziotis, Vasilis; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2016-01-01

    model can be improved by adding near wake trailed vorticity computation. For all prescribed vibration cases with high aerodynamic damping, results similar to those obtained by 15 the free wake model can be achieved in a small fraction of computation time with the proposed model. In the cases with low...... computations performed using a free wake panel code. The focus of the description of the aerodynamics model is on the numerical stability, the computation speed and the accuracy of 5 unsteady simulations. To stabilize the near wake model, it has to be iterated to convergence, using a relaxation factor that has...... induction modeling at slow time scales. Finally, the unsteady airfoil aerodynamics model is extended to provide the unsteady bound circulation for the near wake model and to improve 10 the modeling of the unsteady behavior of cambered airfoils. The model comparison with results from a free wake panel code...

  17. Simulation and Prediction of Wakes and Wake Interaction in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Juhl

    coupled with the flow solver. The numerical simulations include the study of the far wake behind a single turbine, three idealised cases of infinitely long rows of turbines and finally three infinite wind farm scenarios with different spacings. The flow characteristics between the turbines, turbine...... the basis for two proposed dynamic wake models of the turbulent wake deep inside large wind farms. The first model is based on a direct reconstruction using POD, while the other model (REDOMO) is based on an additional reduction by only including the most dominant frequencies. The flow fields derived from......The highly turbulent wake and the wake interaction of merging wakes between multiple wind turbines are modelled using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in a general Navier-Stokes solver. The Actuator Line (AL) technique is employed to model the wind turbines, and the aeroelastic computations are fully...

  18. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  19. Three-Phased Wake Vortex Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Switzer, George S.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed parametric study is conducted that examines vortex decay within turbulent and stratified atmospheres. The study uses a large eddy simulation model to simulate the out-of-ground effect behavior of wake vortices due to their interaction with atmospheric turbulence and thermal stratification. This paper presents results from a parametric investigation and suggests improvements for existing fast-time wake prediction models. This paper also describes a three-phased decay for wake vortices. The third phase is characterized by a relatively slow rate of circulation decay, and is associated with the ringvortex stage that occurs following vortex linking. The three-phased decay is most prevalent for wakes imbedded within environments having low-turbulence and near-neutral stratification.

  20. Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan; Brøns, Morten; Stremler, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal......-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for "exotic" wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson & Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices...... in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Kármán concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued...

  1. Wind Turbine Wake in Atmospheric Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rethore, Pierre-Elouan

    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order...... to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-ε turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply......) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-ε model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake...

  2. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  3. Efficient Turbulence Modeling for CFD Wake Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul

    Wind turbine wakes can cause 10-20% annual energy losses in wind farms, and wake turbulence can decrease the lifetime of wind turbine blades. One way of estimating these effects is the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate wind turbines wakes in the atmospheric boundary layer. Since...... wind farm, the simulated results cannot be compared directly with wind farm measurements that have a high uncertainty in the measured reference wind direction. When this uncertainty is used to post-process the CFD results, a fairer comparison with measurements is achieved....... this flow is in the high Reynolds number regime, it is mainly dictated by turbulence. As a result, the turbulence modeling in CFD dominates the wake characteristics, especially in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS). The present work is dedicated to study and develop RANS-based turbulence models...

  4. Wake dynamics in offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mare, Martin Tobias

    Wind turbines within offshore wind farms spend considerable time operating in the wake of neighboring wind turbines. An important contribution to the loads on a wake-affected wind turbine is the slow movement of the wake from the upstream wind turbine across the rotor of the wake-affected wind...... to be uniquely determined by the friction velocity, the shear and the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy, all of them physical properties of the flow. If local equilibrium between the turbulent kinetic energy produced by shear and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipated as heat is assumed, then, for neutral...... components of the cross-spectra at known shear, is proposed. Future work could also include investigating if a Rapid Distortion formulation that also includes a term for buoyancy effects is needed in order to make accurate predictions for non-neutral atmospheric stratification....

  5. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Wake Atoll in April...

  6. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Wake Atoll in October...

  7. Secure Wake-Up Scheme for WBANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Wei; Ameen, Moshaddique Al; Kwak, Kyung-Sup

    Network life time and hence device life time is one of the fundamental metrics in wireless body area networks (WBAN). To prolong it, especially those of implanted sensors, each node must conserve its energy as much as possible. While a variety of wake-up/sleep mechanisms have been proposed, the wake-up radio potentially serves as a vehicle to introduce vulnerabilities and attacks to WBAN, eventually resulting in its malfunctions. In this paper, we propose a novel secure wake-up scheme, in which a wake-up authentication code (WAC) is employed to ensure that a BAN Node (BN) is woken up by the correct BAN Network Controller (BNC) rather than unintended users or malicious attackers. The scheme is thus particularly implemented by a two-radio architecture. We show that our scheme provides higher security while consuming less energy than the existing schemes.

  8. Cockpit-based Wake Vortex Visualization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To prevent aircraft accidents due to wake vortex hazards, FAA procedures specify the minimum separation required between different categories of aircraft. However, a...

  9. On the wake of a Darrieus turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Base, T. E.; Phillips, P.; Robertson, G.; Nowak, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and experimental measurements on the aerodynamic decay of a wake from high performance vertical axis wind turbine are discussed. In the initial experimental study, the wake downstream of a model Darrieus rotor, 28 cm diameter and a height of 45.5 cm, was measured in a Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel. The wind turbine was run at the design tip speed ratio of 5.5. It was found that the wake decayed at a slower rate with distance downstream of the turbine, than a wake from a screen with similar troposkein shape and drag force characteristics as the Darrieus rotor. The initial wind tunnel results indicated that the vertical axis wind turbines should be spaced at least forty diameters apart to avoid mutual power depreciation greater than ten per cent.

  10. Free wake models for vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, K. [Technical Univ. Berlin, Aerospace Inst. (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The blade element method works fast and good. For some problems (rotor shapes or flow conditions) it could be better to use vortex methods. Different methods for calculating a wake geometry will be presented. (au)

  11. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  12. Disorders of Consciousness: Painless or Painful Conditions?—Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pistoia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The experience of pain in disorders of consciousness is still debated. Neuroimaging studies, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, multichannel electroencephalography (EEG and laser-evoked potentials, suggest that the perception of pain increases with the level of consciousness. Brain activation in response to noxious stimuli has been observed in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, which is also referred to as a vegetative state (VS, as well as those in a minimally conscious state (MCS. However, all of these techniques suggest that pain-related brain activation patterns of patients in MCS more closely resemble those of healthy subjects. This is further supported by fMRI findings showing a much greater functional connectivity within the structures of the so-called pain matrix in MCS as compared to UWS/VS patients. Nonetheless, when interpreting the results, a distinction is necessary between autonomic responses to potentially harmful stimuli and conscious experience of the unpleasantness of pain. Even more so if we consider that the degree of residual functioning and cortical connectivity necessary for the somatosensory, affective and cognitive-evaluative components of pain processing are not yet clear. Although procedurally challenging, the particular value of the aforementioned techniques in the assessment of pain in disorders of consciousness has been clearly demonstrated. The study of pain-related brain activation and functioning can contribute to a better understanding of the networks underlying pain perception while addressing clinical and ethical questions concerning patient care. Further development of technology and methods should aim to increase the availability of neuroimaging, objective assessment of functional connectivity and analysis at the level of individual cases as well as group comparisons. This will enable neuroimaging to truly become a clinical tool to

  13. 'Nobody cares about the environment’: Kyrgyz' perspectives on enhancing environmental sustainable consumption practices when facing limited sustainability awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shadymanova, J.; Wahlen, S.; Horst, van der H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Within Western societies, the detrimental consequences of mass consumption on the environment have long been identified. Consumers have developed sustainability consciousness in accordance with research and policies. In non-Western societies, however, experiences with mass consumption have not been

  14. Optimal perturbations of non-parallel wakes and their stabilizing effect on the global instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Guercio, Gerardo; Cossu, Carlo; Pujals, Gregory

    2014-02-01

    We compute the spatial optimal energy amplification of steady inflow perturbations in a non-parallel wake and analyse their stabilizing action on the global mode instability. The optimal inflow perturbations, which are assumed spanwise periodic and varicose, consist in streamwise vortices that induce the downstream spatial transient growth of streamwise streaks. The maximum energy amplification of the streaks increases with the spanwise wavelength of the perturbations, in accordance with previous results obtained for the temporal energy growth supported by parallel wakes. A family of increasingly streaky wakes is obtained by forcing optimal inflow perturbations of increasing amplitude and then solving the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the linear global instability of the wake can be completely suppressed by forcing optimal perturbations of sufficiently large amplitude. The attenuation and suppression of self-sustained oscillations in the wake by optimal 3D perturbations is confirmed by fully nonlinear numerical simulations. We also show that the amplitude of optimal spanwise periodic (3D) perturbations of the basic flow required to stabilize the global instability is much smaller than the one required by spanwise uniform (2D) perturbations despite the fact that the first order sensitivity of the global eigenvalue to basic flow modifications is zero for 3D spanwise periodic modifications and non-zero for 2D modifications. We therefore conclude that first-order sensitivity analyses can be misleading if used far from the instability threshold, where higher order terms are the most relevant.

  15. Probes, Moons, and Kinetic Plasma Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Malaspina, D.; Zhou, C.

    2017-10-01

    Nonmagnetic objects as varied as probes in tokamaks or moons in space give rise to flowing plasma wakes in which strong distortions of the ion and electron velocity distributions cause electrostatic instabilities. Non-linear phenomena such as electron holes are then produced. Historic probe theory largely ignores the resulting unstable character of the wake, but since we can now simulate computationally the non-linear wake phenomena, a timely challenge is to reassess the influence of these instabilities both on probe measurements and on the wakes themselves. Because the electron instability wavelengths are very short (typically a few Debye-lengths), controlled laboratory experiments face serious challenges in diagnosing them. That is one reason why they have long been neglected as an influence in probe interpretation. Space-craft plasma observations, by contrast, easily obtain sub-Debye-length resolution, but have difficulty with larger-scale reconstruction of the plasma spatial variation. In addition to surveying our developing understanding of wakes in magnetized plasmas, ongoing analysis of Artemis data concerning electron holes observed in the solar-wind lunar wake will be featured. Work partially supported by NASA Grant NNX16AG82G.

  16. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Julian; Annoni, Jennifer; King, Ryan; Dykes, Katherine; Fleming, Paul; Ning, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Wind turbines in a wind power plant experience significant power losses because of aerodynamic interactions between turbines. One control strategy to reduce these losses is known as “wake steering,” in which upstream turbines are yawed to direct wakes away from downstream turbines. Previous wake steering research has assumed perfect information, however, there can be significant uncertainty in many aspects of the problem, including wind inflow and various turbine measurements. Uncertainty has significant implications for performance of wake steering strategies. Consequently, the authors formulate and solve an optimization under uncertainty (OUU) problem for finding optimal wake steering strategies in the presence of yaw angle uncertainty. The OUU wake steering strategy is demonstrated on a two-turbine test case and on the utility-scale, offshore Princess Amalia Wind Farm. When we accounted for yaw angle uncertainty in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm case, inflow-direction-specific OUU solutions produced between 0% and 1.4% more power than the deterministically optimized steering strategies, resulting in an overall annual average improvement of 0.2%. More importantly, the deterministic optimization is expected to perform worse and with more downside risk than the OUU result when realistic uncertainty is taken into account. Additionally, the OUU solution produces fewer extreme yaw situations than the deterministic solution.

  17. A narrative method for consciousness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José-Luis

    2013-01-01

    Some types of first-person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological accounts and texts, such as internal monolog statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monolog in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1) the relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2) some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3) a preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monolog excerpted from James Joyce’s Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, (4) an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno) is presented using some mathematical tools

  18. A conserved behavioral state barrier impedes transitions between anesthetic-induced unconsciousness and wakefulness: evidence for neural inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eliot B; Sun, Yi; Moore, Jason T; Hung, Hsiao-Tung; Meng, Qing Cheng; Perera, Priyan; Joiner, William J; Thomas, Steven A; Eckenhoff, Roderic G; Sehgal, Amita; Kelz, Max B

    2010-07-30

    One major unanswered question in neuroscience is how the brain transitions between conscious and unconscious states. General anesthetics offer a controllable means to study these transitions. Induction of anesthesia is commonly attributed to drug-induced global modulation of neuronal function, while emergence from anesthesia has been thought to occur passively, paralleling elimination of the anesthetic from its sites in the central nervous system (CNS). If this were true, then CNS anesthetic concentrations on induction and emergence would be indistinguishable. By generating anesthetic dose-response data in both insects and mammals, we demonstrate that the forward and reverse paths through which anesthetic-induced unconsciousness arises and dissipates are not identical. Instead they exhibit hysteresis that is not fully explained by pharmacokinetics as previously thought. Single gene mutations that affect sleep-wake states are shown to collapse or widen anesthetic hysteresis without obvious confounding effects on volatile anesthetic uptake, distribution, or metabolism. We propose a fundamental and biologically conserved concept of neural inertia, a tendency of the CNS to resist behavioral state transitions between conscious and unconscious states. We demonstrate that such a barrier separates wakeful and anesthetized states for multiple anesthetics in both flies and mice, and argue that it contributes to the hysteresis observed when the brain transitions between conscious and unconscious states.

  19. A conserved behavioral state barrier impedes transitions between anesthetic-induced unconsciousness and wakefulness: evidence for neural inertia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot B Friedman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available One major unanswered question in neuroscience is how the brain transitions between conscious and unconscious states. General anesthetics offer a controllable means to study these transitions. Induction of anesthesia is commonly attributed to drug-induced global modulation of neuronal function, while emergence from anesthesia has been thought to occur passively, paralleling elimination of the anesthetic from its sites in the central nervous system (CNS. If this were true, then CNS anesthetic concentrations on induction and emergence would be indistinguishable. By generating anesthetic dose-response data in both insects and mammals, we demonstrate that the forward and reverse paths through which anesthetic-induced unconsciousness arises and dissipates are not identical. Instead they exhibit hysteresis that is not fully explained by pharmacokinetics as previously thought. Single gene mutations that affect sleep-wake states are shown to collapse or widen anesthetic hysteresis without obvious confounding effects on volatile anesthetic uptake, distribution, or metabolism. We propose a fundamental and biologically conserved concept of neural inertia, a tendency of the CNS to resist behavioral state transitions between conscious and unconscious states. We demonstrate that such a barrier separates wakeful and anesthetized states for multiple anesthetics in both flies and mice, and argue that it contributes to the hysteresis observed when the brain transitions between conscious and unconscious states.

  20. The cognitive approach to conscious machines

    CERN Document Server

    Haikonen, Pentti O

    2003-01-01

    Could a machine have an immaterial mind? The author argues that true conscious machines can be built, but rejects artificial intelligence and classical neural networks in favour of the emulation of the cognitive processes of the brain-the flow of inner speech, inner imagery and emotions. This results in a non-numeric meaning-processing machine with distributed information representation and system reactions. It is argued that this machine would be conscious; it would be aware of its own existence and its mental content and perceive this as immaterial. Novel views on consciousness and the mind-

  1. Nabokov's impressionistic expression of free consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The most interesting thing about Nabokov's narrative technique is the way in which he always manages to impress the presence of the implied author on the reader's consciousness without making direct intrusion intonation. Narration through the confined consciousness of an individual is really, it seems, only a springboard for Nabokov. He takes an impressionistic device (consciously or unconsciously, it makes no difference and pushes it to its limits without technically violating the point of view to which he has committed himself.

  2. Novel activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy: the general waking trance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a highly edited version of a videotape made in 1980 by Marion Moore, M.D., showing Milton H. Erickson and Moore demonstrating novel, activity-dependent approaches to hand-levitation and therapeutic hypnosis on their subject, Ernest Rossi. Erickson's naturalistic and utilization approach is described in his very direct and surprising induction in a trance challenged patient. These novel, and surprising inductions are examples of how Erickson was prescient in developing activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy several generations before modern neuroscience documented the activity-dependent molecular-genomic mechanisms of memory, learning, and behavior change. Erickson describes a case where he utilized what he called, "The General Waking Trance" when he "dared" not use an obvious hypnotic induction. It is proposed that the states of intense mental absorption and response attentiveness that are facilitated by the general waking trance are functionally related to the three conditions neuroscientists have identified as novelty, enrichment, and exercise (both mental and physical), which can turn on activity-dependent gene expression and activity-dependent brain plasticity, that are the molecular-genomic and neural basis ofmemory, learning, consciousness, and behavior change. We recommend that the next step in investigating the efficacy of therapeutic hypnosis will be in partnering with neuroscientists to explore the possibilities and limitations of utilizing the activity-dependent approaches to hypnotic induction and the general waking trance in facilitating activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity.

  3. [Nursing education: integrating gender equity consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Shih, Hsin-Hsin; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Gender sensitivity influences the way a nurse handles the nursing process and can influence both patient care and public perception of the nursing profession. Nurses unaware of the influences of gender are unable to perform holistic nursing, the practice of which centers on patient-centered care. Education is essential to promote gender consciousness. Providing scenario-based education to apply gender consciousness can help nursing students integrate gender and nursing care concepts and improve nursing care quality. In addition to raising attention to this important issue, this article makes comprehensive suggestions on how to apply gender concepts in nursing education. These suggestions include requiring instructors to consider and assess their own gender consciousness in order to enhance positive gender consciousness; reviewing teaching materials to identify and remove content tainted by sexual discrimination, and emphasizing gender education in the nursing education curriculum.

  4. Neurobiology of Consciousness: Current Research and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płonka Beata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific, objective approach to consciousness has allowed to obtain some experimental data concerning brain activity, ignoring, however, the longstanding philosophical tradition. Spectacular development of neuroscience which has been observed recently made this dissonance particularly noticeable. The paper addresses the main problems of discrepancy between neurobiological research and philosophical perspective. Current opinions concerning neural correlates and models of consciousness are discussed, as well as the problems of working memory, attention, self, and disorders of consciousness. A new neurobiological approach to describe brain function in terms of brain connectivity (so-called connectome is also presented. Finally, the need to introduce at least some aspects of philosophical approach directly into neurobiological research of consciousness is postulated.

  5. The Merit of Synesthesia for Consciousness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Singer, Wolf; Nikolić, Danko

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  6. Industrial Application Of Environmentally Conscious Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    This book is an adaptation of the author’s PhD thesis, in which he explored environmentally conscious design in the electrical/electronics industry sector. In this new and rapidly evolving field, existing research has not yet sought to understand the causes of success and the problems experienced...... when companies have integrated environmental considerations into the design process.In the context of advanced practitioners of environmentally conscious design in the Western European and North American electrical/electronics industry sector, it is shown that:- the timing of environmental decisions...... in the design process is key to environmentally conscious design;- the environmental profile of a product is affected the most in the very early stages of the design process, particularly in the pre-specification stage, where tools for environmentally conscious design decision-making are lacking...

  7. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Marije Van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  8. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Singer, W.; Nikolic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant

  9. Neuronal integration in visual cortex elevates face category tuning to conscious face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Snijders, Tineke M; Heinen, Klaartje; van Gaal, Simon; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2012-12-26

    The human brain has the extraordinary capability to transform cluttered sensory input into distinct object representations. For example, it is able to rapidly and seemingly without effort detect object categories in complex natural scenes. Surprisingly, category tuning is not sufficient to achieve conscious recognition of objects. What neural process beyond category extraction might elevate neural representations to the level where objects are consciously perceived? Here we show that visible and invisible faces produce similar category-selective responses in the ventral visual cortex. The pattern of neural activity evoked by visible faces could be used to decode the presence of invisible faces and vice versa. However, only visible faces caused extensive response enhancements and changes in neural oscillatory synchronization, as well as increased functional connectivity between higher and lower visual areas. We conclude that conscious face perception is more tightly linked to neural processes of sustained information integration and binding than to processes accommodating face category tuning.

  10. Experiments in the wind turbine far wake for the evaluation of an analytical wake model

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Luis; Vatn, Mari; Mühle, Franz; Sætran, Lars

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, not only the size of single wind turbines but also the size of wind farms is increasing. Understanding the interaction between the turbines and especially the wakes formed behind them are getting more important to further improve such wind turbine arrays. Consequently, new issues in wind energy research arise. An experimental wind tunnel study was conducted, in order to analyze and understand the far wake of a wind turbine. The experimental results were used to test if an analytical wake model derived by H. Schilichting for blunt bodies can be used to describe the velocity and width development in the far wake of wind turbines. The results of the evaluation show that the wake of a wind turbine agrees fairly well with the model according to Schlichting. The velocity deficit as well as the width in the wake behind the turbine, are found to deviate with around only 2% from the results obtained applying the analytical model. Thus, it can be concluded that the analytical wake model by Schlichting is well suited to estimate the velocity deficit and the width in the far wake of a wind turbine.

  11. Brain, conscious experience and the observing self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baars, Bernard J.; Ramsøy, Thomas; Laureys, Steven

    2003-01-01

    stimulus identification as such. What is the role of those regions? Parietal cortex support the 'first person perspective' on the visual world, unconsciously framing the visual object stream. Some prefrontal areas select and interpret conscious events for executive control. Such functions can be viewed...... as properties of the subject, rather than the object, of experience - the 'observing self' that appears to be needed to maintain the conscious state...

  12. The Merit of Synesthesia for Consciousness Research

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M.; Singer, Wolf; Nikolić, Danko

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We ...

  13. Coherence in consciousness: paralimbic gamma synchrony of self-reference links conscious experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans C; Gross, Joachim; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2010-01-01

    . In minimal self-reference subjective experiences are self-aware in the weak sense that there is something it feels like for the subject to experience something. In autonoetic consciousness, consciousness emerges, by definition, by retrieval of memories of personally experienced events (episodic memory...... that interaction in the circuitry may bind conscious experiences with widely different degrees of self-reference through synchrony of high frequency oscillations as a common neural event. This hypothesis was confirmed with magneto-encephalography (MEG). The observed coupling between the neural events in conscious...

  14. Amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem in the treatment of disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosseries, Olivia; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Thonnard, Marie; Bodart, Olivier; Laureys, Steven; Demertzi, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Survivors of severe brain injuries may end up in a state of 'wakeful unresponsiveness' or in a minimally conscious state. Pharmacological treatments of patients with disorders of consciousness aim to improve arousal levels and recovery of consciousness. We here provide a systematic overview of the therapeutic effects of amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem in patients recovering from coma. Evidence from clinical trials using these commonly prescribed pharmacological agents suggests positive changes of the patients' neurological status, leading sometimes to dramatic improvements. These findings are discussed in the context of current hypotheses of these agents' therapeutic mechanisms on cerebral function. In order to improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of these drugs, we suggest combining sensitive and specific behavioral tools with neuroimaging and electrophysiological measures in large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental designs. We conclude that the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem need further exploration to determine which treatment would provide a better neurological outcome regarding the patient's etiology, diagnosis, time since injury and overall condition.

  15. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo eTagliazucchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced or absent sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses towards spontaneous (or ``resting state'' activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  16. Why does consciousness fade in early sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tononi, Giulio; Massimini, Marcello

    2008-01-01

    Consciousness fades during deep nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep early in the night, yet cortical neurons remain active, keep receiving sensory inputs, and can display patterns of synchronous activity. Why then does consciousness fade? According to the integrated information theory of consciousness, what is critical for consciousness is not firing rates, sensory input, or synchronization per se, but rather the ability of a system to integrate information. If consciousness is the capacity to integrate information, then the brain should be able to generate consciousness to the extent that it has a large repertoire of available states (information), yet it cannot be decomposed into a collection of causally independent subsystems (integration). A key prediction stemming from this hypothesis is that such ability should be greatly reduced in deep NREM sleep; the dreamless brain either breaks down into causally independent modules, shrinks its repertoire of possible responses, or both. In this article, we report the results of a series of experiments in which we employed a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and high-density electroencephalography (TMS/hd-EEG) to directly test this prediction in humans. Altogether, TMS/hdEEG measurements suggest that the sleeping brain, despite being active and reactive, loses its ability of entering states that are both integrated and differentiated; it either breaks down in causally independent modules, responding to TMS with a short and local activation, or it bursts into an explosive and aspecific response, producing a full-fledged slow wave.

  17. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Behrens, Marion; Laufs, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli, and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses toward spontaneous (or "resting state") activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory, and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  18. Postprandial hemodynamics in the conscious rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzueto Hernandez, L.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-07-01

    The postprandial intestinal hyperemia was studied in conscious and anesthetized rats using the radioactive microsphere technique. Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and mixed meals, and the vehicle (Tyrode's solution), were placed in the stomach via a gastrostomy tube. In conscious rats, blood flow increased by 40-80% in the duodenum and jejunum 1 h after either a carbohydrate, lipid, protein, or mixed meal. Tyrode's solution produced a comparable hyperemia. Blood flow in the distal bowel segments (ileum, cecum, and colon) was significantly increased only by Tyrode's solution and the carbohydrate meal. The proximal intestinal hyperemia produced by the mixed meal in conscious animals was significantly attenuated by vagotomy yet unaltered by atropine pretreatment. In contrast to the results obtained from conscious rats, the mixed meal did not significantly alter intestinal blood flow in anesthetized animals. The results of this study indicate that the postprandial intestinal hyperemia is much greater in conscious than anesthetized animals. This difference may result from the higher resting blood flows in the latter group. The hyperemic response in conscious animals may be mediated by the vagus nerve.

  19. Is Your Gut Conscious? Is an Extraterrestrial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos Post, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    This paper speculates on questions intending to be taken scientifically rather than metaphysically: "Can the human gut (enteric nervous system) be conscious?"; "Can your immune system think?"; "Could consciousness be coded in DNA?"; "What do we mean when asserting that an Extraterrestrial is Thinking, or is Conscious? We explore through reference to theory, experiment, and computational models by Christof Koch (Caltech), Barbara Wold (Caltech), and Stuart Kauffman (University of Calgary, Tampere University of Technology, Santa Fe Institute). We use a tentative new definition of thinking, designed to be applicable for humans, cetecea, corvids, artificial intelligences, and extraterrestrial intelligences of any substrate (i.e. Life as We Do Not Know It): "Thinking is the occurrence, transformation, and storage in a mind or brain (or simulation thereof) of information-bearing structures (representations) of one kind or another, such as thoughts, concept, percepts, ideas, impressions, notions, rules, schemas, images, phantasms, or subpersonal representations." We use the framework for Consciousness developed by Francis Crick and Christof Koch. We try to describe scientific goals, but discuss Philosophy sufficient to avoid naïve philosophical category errors (thus are careful not to conflate thought, consciousness, and language) Penrose, Hameroff, and Kauffman speculate (differently) that CNS consciousness is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon. Might intestinal, immune system, or genetic regulatory network dynamics exhibit emergent cooperative quantum effects? The speculations are in the context of Evolution by Natural Selection, presumed to operate throughout the Cosmos, and recent work in the foundations of Computational Biology and Quantum Mechanics.

  20. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens N.; Mikkelsen, Robert F.; Henningson, Dan S.; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Søren J.

    2015-01-01

    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake. PMID:25583862

  1. Numerical computations of wind turbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanell, Stefan S.A.

    2009-01-15

    Numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations are performed to achieve a better understanding of the behaviour of wakes generated by wind turbines. The simulations are performed by combining the in-house developed computer code EllipSys3D with the actuator line and disc methodologies. In the actuator line and disc methods the blades are represented by a line or a disc on which body forces representing the loading are introduced. The body forces are determined by computing local angles of attack and using tabulated aerofoil coefficients. The advantage of using the actuator disc technique is that it is not necessary to resolve blade boundary layers. Instead the computational resources are devoted to simulating the dynamics of the flow structures. In the present study both the actuator line and disc methods are used. Between approximately six to fourteen million mesh points are used to resolve the wake structure in a range from a single turbine wake to wake interaction in a farm containing 80 turbines. These 80 turbines are however represented by 20 actuator discs due to periodicity because of numerical limitations. In step one of this project the objective was to find a numerical method suitable to study both the flow structures in the wake behind a single wind turbine and to simulate complicated interaction between a number of turbines. The study resulted in an increased comprehension of basic flow features in the wake, but more importantly in the use of a numerical method very suitable for the upcoming purpose. The second objective of the project was to study the basic mechanisms controlling the length of the wake to obtain better understanding of the stability properties of wakes generated by wind turbine rotors. The numerical model was based on large eddy simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations using the actuator line method to generate the wake and the tip vortices. To determine critical frequencies the flow is disturbed by inserting a harmonic

  2. Artificial consciousness: a discipline between technological and theoretical obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzotti, Riccardo; Tagliasco, Vincenzo

    2008-10-01

    Artificial consciousness is still far from being an established discipline. We will try to outline some theoretical assumption that could help in dealing with phenomenal consciousness. What are the technological and theoretical obstacles that face the enthusiast scholars of artificial consciousness? After presenting an outline of the state of artificial consciousness, we will focus on the relevance of phenomenal consciousness. Artificial consciousness needs to tackle the issue of phenomenal consciousness in a physical world. Up to now, the only models that give some hope of succeeding are the various kinds of externalism.

  3. Topography of the sleep/wake states related EEG microstructure and transitions structure differentiates the functionally distinct cholinergic innervation disorders in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Jelena; Lazic, Katarina; Ciric, Jelena; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Saponjic, Jasna

    2013-11-01

    In order to identify the differences for the onset and progression of functionally distinct cholinergic innervation disorders, we investigated the effect of bilateral nucleus basalis (NB) and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) lesions on sleep/wake states and electroencephalographic (EEG) microstructure in rats, chronically implanted for sleep recording. Bilateral NB lesion transiently altered Wake/NREM duration within the sensorimotor cortex, and Wake/REM duration within the motor cortex, while there was no change in the sleep/wake states distributions following the bilateral PPT lesion. Bilateral PPT lesion sustainably increased the Wake/REM and REM/Wake transitions followed by inconsistent dysregulation of the NREM/REM and REM/NREM transitions in sensorimotor cortex, but oppositely by their increment throughout four weeks in motor cortex. Bilateral NB lesion sustainably decreased the NREM/REM and REM/NREM transitions during four weeks in the sensorimotor cortex, but oppositely increased them in the motor cortex. We have shown that the sustained beta and gamma augmentation within the sensorimotor and motor cortex, and across all sleep/wake states, simultaneously with Wake delta amplitude attenuation only within the sensorimotor cortex, were the underlying EEG microstructure for the sleep/wake states transitions structure disturbance following bilateral PPT lesion. In contrast, the bilateral NB lesion only augmented REM theta in sensorimotor cortex during three weeks. We have shown that the NB and PPT lesions induced differing, structure-related EEG microstructure and transition structure disturbances particularly expressed in motor cortex during NREM and REM sleep. We evidenced for the first time the different topographical expression of the functionally distinct cholinergic neuronal innervation impairment in rat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD RESONATOR ACCELERATOR MODULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-06

    Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.

  5. Experiences of wake and light therapy in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mette; Møller, Dorthe Norden; Schultz Wihlborg, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    with the treatment was positive. Some experienced a remarkable and rapid antidepressant effect, whereas others described more long-term benefits (e.g. improved sleep and diurnal rhythm). Yet recovery was fragile, and patients were only cautiously optimistic. Social support was important for maintaining......Wake therapy can reduce depressive symptoms within days, and response rates are high. To sustain the effect, it is often combined with light therapy. Few studies have focussed on factors related to patients' adherence to the regime, and none has used qualitative methods to examine their experience...... week, 30 min of daily light treatment for the entire 9 weeks, and ongoing psychoeducation regarding good sleep hygiene. Patients kept a diary, and individual semistructured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The participants' overall experience...

  6. The Impact of Perceptual Load on the Non-Conscious Processing of Fearful Faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    Full Text Available Emotional stimuli can be processed without consciousness. In the current study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs to assess whether perceptual load influences non-conscious processing of fearful facial expressions. Perceptual load was manipulated using a letter search task with the target letter presented at the fixation point, while facial expressions were presented peripherally and masked to prevent conscious awareness. The letter string comprised six letters (X or N that were identical (low load or different (high load. Participants were instructed to discriminate the letters at fixation or the facial expression (fearful or neutral in the periphery. Participants were faster and more accurate at detecting letters in the low load condition than in the high load condition. Fearful faces elicited a sustained positivity from 250 ms to 700 ms post-stimulus over fronto-central areas during the face discrimination and low-load letter discrimination conditions, but this effect was completely eliminated during high-load letter discrimination. Our findings imply that non-conscious processing of fearful faces depends on perceptual load, and attentional resources are necessary for non-conscious processing.

  7. Quantum, consciousness and panpsychism: a solution to the hard problem

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Mr Shan

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the results and implications of the combination of quantum and consciousness in terms of the recent QSC analysis. The quantum effect of consciousness is first explored. We show that the consciousness of the observer can help to distinguish the nonorthogonal states under some condition, while the usual physical measuring device without consciousness can’t. The result indicates that the causal efficacies of consciousness do exist when considering the basic quantum process. Based on t...

  8. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental...

  9. Joyce the Deconstructionist: Finnegans Wake in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangouei J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Had Finnegans Wake not been written, some seminal post-1950s innovations in the field of modern literary theory and criticism would have been impossible. James Joyce, who seems to have inspiringly influenced the entire sphere of modern literary theory and criticism greatly, is a pioneer of deconstruction too. His last novel, which reflects his deconstructive tendencies, has played a seminal role in the formation of 20th century deconstruction, and comprises an inchoate mass of implicit ideas on the subject. It was perhaps not until Jacques Derrida and his deconstruction techniques that the theory implied by Finnegans Wake really came into focus. This article seeks to delineate Derrida’s theory of deconstruction as well as Joyce's deconstructive aesthetics; and taking a diachronic approach to literary theory and criticism it glances at Finnegans Wake in the light of deconstruction.

  10. Fast particle tracking with wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Floettmann, K.; Henning, C.

    2012-01-15

    Tracking calculations of charged particles in electromagnetic fields require in principle the simultaneous solution of the equation of motion and of Maxwell's equations. In many tracking codes a simpler and more efficient approach is used: external fields like that of the accelerating structures are provided as field maps, generated in separate computations and for the calculation of self fields the model of a particle bunch in uniform motion is used. We describe how an externally computed wake function can be approximated by a table of Taylor coefficients and how the wake field kick can be calculated for the particle distribution in a tracking calculation. The integrated kick, representing the effect of a distributed structure, is applied at a discrete time. As an example, we use our approach to calculate the emittance growth of a bunch in an undulator beam pipe due to resistive wall wake field effects. (orig.)

  11. Vortex structure in the Venus plasma wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-de-Tejada, H.; Lundin, R. N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements conducted with the ASPERA-4 instrument of the Venus Express spacecraft in orbit around Venus show velocity distributions of the H+ ions that describe a large scale vortex flow structure in the Venus wake (Lundin et al., GRL, 40, 1273, 2013). Such structure is in agreement with that reported from the early Pioneer Venus Orbiter plasma data (Pérez-de-Tejada et al., INTECH, ISBN 978-953-51-0880-1, p. 317, 2012) and suggests that the solar wind around the Venus ionosphere is forced back into the planet from the wake. Measurements also show that a vortex circulation flow rather than local magnetic forces is responsible for the deviated direction of motion of the solar wind in the Venus wake.

  12. Meteorological Controls on Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Pryor, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    is high, wake losses are proportionally larger and decrease to be virtually undetectable at wind speeds above rated wind speeds. Wind direction is also critical. Not only does it determine the effective spacing between turbines but also the wind speed distribution is primarily determined by synoptic......The primary control on the magnitude of the power losses induced by wind turbine wakes in large wind farms is the hub-height wind speed via its link to the turbine thrust coefficient. Hence, at low to moderate wind speeds (between cut-in and rated turbine wind speeds) when the thrust coefficient...... forcing and typically has a predominant direction from which wind speeds tend to be higher (from southwest for much of the central United States and northern Europe). Two other interlinked variables, turbulence intensity (TI), and atmospheric stability also dictate wake losses. Quantifying, understanding...

  13. Actuator Line Modeling of Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains a comprehensive 3D Navier-Stokes computational study of the characteristics of wakes of wind turbines operating in various flow conditions including interacting wakes between a row of turbines. The computations were carried out using the actuator line technique combined...... and it is shown that the turbines are subject to rather severe yaw moments, even in situations where the mean wind is oriented along the row. This observation is indicative of large scale dynamics of the wakes....... with the 3D Navier Stokes solver EllipSys3D and a LES turbulence model. Simple models, based on applying body forces in the computational domain, are developed for imposing sheared and turbulent infow and their validity is discussed. A few computations on stand alone turbines are compared to measurements...

  14. Wakes in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelmie, Rebecca J.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 and 20% of total power output in large wind farms. The focus of this research carried out within the EC funded UPWIND project is wind speed and turbulence modelling for large wind farms/wind turbines in complex terrain and offshore...... is for five turbines in flat terrain. Finally a complex terrain wind farm will be modelled and compared with observations. For offshore wind farms, the focus is on cases at the Horns Rev wind farm which indicate wind farm models require modification to reduce under-prediction of wake losses while CFD models...... in order to optimise wind farm layouts to reduce wake losses and loads. For complex terrain, a set of three evaluations is underway. The first is a model comparison for a Gaussian Hill where CFD models and wind farm models are being compared for the case of one hilltop wind turbine. The next case...

  15. Arvicanthis ansorgei, a Novel Model for the Study of Sleep and Waking in Diurnal Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jeffrey; Ruppert, Elisabeth; Calvel, Laurent; Robin-Choteau, Ludivine; Gropp, Claire-Marie; Allemann, Caroline; Reibel, Sophie; Sage-Ciocca, Dominique; Bourgin, Patrice

    2015-06-01

    Sleep neurobiology studies use nocturnal species, mainly rats and mice. However, because their daily sleep/wake organization is inverted as compared to humans, a diurnal model for sleep studies is needed. To fill this gap, we phenotyped sleep and waking in Arvicanthis ansorgei, a diurnal rodent widely used for the study of circadian rhythms. Video-electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOG) recordings. Rodent sleep laboratory. Fourteen male Arvicanthis ansorgei, aged 3 mo. 12 h light (L):12 h dark (D) baseline condition, 24-h constant darkness, 6-h sleep deprivation. Wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed similar electrophysiological characteristics as nocturnal rodents. On average, animals spent 12.9 h ± 0.4 awake per 24-h cycle, of which 6.88 h ± 0.3 was during the light period. NREM sleep accounted for 9.63 h ± 0.4, which of 5.13 h ± 0.2 during dark period, and REM sleep for 89.9 min ± 6.7, which of 52.8 min ± 4.4 during dark period. The time-course of sleep and waking across the 12 h light:12 h dark was overall inverted to that observed in rats or mice, though with larger amounts of crepuscular activity at light and dark transitions. A dominant crepuscular regulation of sleep and waking persisted under constant darkness, showing the lack of a strong circadian drive in the absence of clock reinforcement by external cues, such as a running wheel. Conservation of the homeostatic regulation was confirmed with the observation of higher delta power following sustained waking periods and a 6-h sleep deprivation, with subsequent decrease during recovery sleep. Arvicanthis ansorgei is a valid diurnal rodent model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of sleep and so represents a valuable tool for further understanding the nocturnality/diurnality switch. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Region-Specific Dissociation between Cortical Noradrenaline Levels and the Sleep/Wake Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesi, Michele; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The activity of the noradrenergic system of the locus coeruleus (LC) is high in wake and low in sleep. LC promotes arousal and EEG activation, as well as attention, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. These functions rely on prefrontal cortex and are impaired by sleep deprivation, but the extent to which LC activity changes during wake remains unclear. Moreover, it is unknown whether noradrenergic neurons can sustain elevated firing during extended wake. Recent studies show that relative to LC neurons targeting primary motor cortex (M1), those projecting to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have higher spontaneous firing rates and are more excitable. These results suggest that noradrenaline (NA) levels should be higher in mPFC than M1, and that during prolonged wake LC cells targeting mPFC may fatigue more, but direct evidence is lacking. We performed in vivo microdialysis experiments in adult (9-10 weeks old) C57BL/6 mice implanted for chronic electroencephalographic recordings. Cortical NA levels were measured during spontaneous sleep and wake (n = 8 mice), and in the course of sleep deprivation (n = 6). We found that absolute NA levels are higher in mPFC than in M1. Moreover, in both areas they decline during sleep and increase during wake, but these changes are faster in M1 than mPFC. Finally, by the end of sleep deprivation NA levels decline only in mPFC. Locus coeruleus (LC) neurons targeting prefrontal cortex may fatigue more markedly, or earlier, than other LC cells, suggesting one of the mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairment and the increased sleep presure associated with sleep deprivation. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 11. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Parameters of measuring of european political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pikula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the parameters of European political consciousness, i.e. European research field of political consciousness in qualitative and quantitative terms, which may be based on different indicators. The issue of emergence and development of European political consciousness becomes topical because firstly, its formation as the subjective dimension of European integration policy is not a spontaneous process and, secondly, European integration is carried out not only from the top but from the bottom, requiring deliberate interference of the public with the process; the public possesses the formed European political consciousness. Since the latter is a specific mental construct, the author offers to apply the triad «criteria ­ parameters – indicators». The characteristic that makes it possible to evaluate certain processes or phenomena in the system of Europeanness / Europeanism and specifies the quality system of views and opinions, which are realized in European behavior, is considered to be the criterion of European political consciousness. The European political consciousness parameters are seen to include the relevant historical memory, trends of public opinion and awareness regarding the European Union and position of its members in the European integration process, including the assessment of the existence and development of the EU; knowledge and views on the main EU institutions, assessing the importance of the main institutions of the EU and trust in them; a positive vision for the future of the European Union etc. The author considers the performance and objective characteristics and dimensions, including positive correlation of national and European levels of identity (European identity and European behavior to be the indicatiors of European political awareness. On the basis of these indicators the control of the condition and trends of European political consciousness development will be carried out.

  18. Ethnic consciousness: theoretical construct and mental phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Erokhina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of concepts of ethnicity as they were developed in Russian science in the 20th and 21st centuries, in their interconnection with foreign doctrines of nationalism. Studies on this issue are important for understanding the role of mental phenomena in the processes of ethnic mobilization, the importance of ethnic consciousness and ethnic identity for building positive inter-ethnic relations. At the moment, the conceptions of ethnic mentality, ethnic consciousness and ethnic identity are often used terminologically inaccurately, most often as synonyms of human awareness of the process of reproduction of the ethnicity. Soviet scholars first mentioned the importance of consciousness as ethnic determinant back in 1940s (P. Kushner and then in 1960s (S. Tokarev, Yu. Bromley. But the main body of studies in ethnicity theory usually relied on the formational principle which categorized ethnic communities by stages of their development (tribes, nationalities, nations. Until 1970s, self-consciousness was not put on the list of ethno-forming features. However, there was a confrontation between supporters of a creative and a conservative interpretation of Marxism. In the 1970s, Yu. Bromley recognized ethnicity (without classification into stages as an object of ethnographic research, independent from ideological doctrines. Soviet theory of ethnos was close to Western concepts of ethnicity (F. Bart. In the 1990s, Russian ethnology saw the rise of the theory of ethnic processuality (V.A. Tishkov. In this article, the author treats ethnic and national self-consciousness as a phenomenon of collective (supra-individual consciousness, and ethnic identity, as a personality-based phenomenon. The author concludes that ethnic self-consciousness is an element within ethnic mentality, which also includes other categories, such as ‘the Other’, Space, Time, Material World, Social Organization and other significant universals of culture.

  19. Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.

    2009-10-15

    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-epsilon turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply discrete body forces into the finite-volume flow solver with collocated variable treatment (EllipSys), which avoids the pressure-velocity decoupling issue. The second step is to distribute the body forces in the computational domain accordingly to rotor loading. This thesis presents a generic flexible method that associates any kind of shapes with the computational domain discretization. The special case of the actuator disc performs remarkably well in comparison with Conway's heavily loaded actuator disc analytical solution and a CFD full rotor computation, even with a coarse discretization. The third step is to model the atmospheric turbulence. The standard k-epsilon model is found to be unable to model at the same time the atmospheric turbulence and the actuator disc wake and performs badly in comparison with single wind turbine wake measurements. A comparison with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-epsilon model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake in the atmosphere is a deeply non-local phenomenon that is not handled correctly by an eddy-viscosity model such as k-epsilon. (author)

  20. Aircraft wake vortices in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerz, Thomas; Holzäpfel, Frank; Hofbauer, Thomas; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Frech, Michael

    The studies summarized here were motivated by the need to gain information (i) about the impact of aircraft emissions upon the atmosphere and the climate and (ii) about optimized separation distances between aircraft landing at an airport for possibly increasing its capacity. To this end, large-eddy simulations have been performed to learn about the behaviour of vortex wakes shed by cruising aircraft in the free atmosphere and in the atmospheric boundary layer close to the ground. Some results are best illustrated in animated form and may be found under http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/wirbelschleppe/WakeVortex.html.

  1. Anisotropy of turbulence in wind turbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Elvira, Rafael [Comision Nacional de Energia (Spain); Crespo, Antonio; Migoya, Emilio; Manuel, Fernando [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, Julio [Departamento de Mecanica, ETSII, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    This work is mainly dedicated to the study of non-isotropic characteristics of turbulence in wind turbine wakes, specifically the shear layer of the near wake. A calculation method based on an explicit algebraic model for the components of the turbulent stress tensor is proposed, and the results are found to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results. Analytical expressions for the estimation of an upper limit of the global turbulence kinetic energy, k, and the individual contributions of each diagonal term in the turbulent stress tensor are proposed. Their predictions are compared with experimental results.

  2. Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobieff, P; Ecke, R E

    1999-09-01

    We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag.

  3. Local experience-dependent changes in the wake EEG after prolonged wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Sui; Sarasso, Simone; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Riedner, Brady; Ghilardi, M Felice; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness leads to a progressive increase in sleep pressure, reflected in a global increase in slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). A global increase in wake theta activity (5-9 Hz) also occurs. Recently, it was shown that prolonged wakefulness in rodents leads to signs of "local sleep" in an otherwise awake brain, accompanied by a slow/theta wave (2-6 Hz) in the local EEG that occurs at different times in different cortical areas. Compelling evidence in animals and humans also indicates that sleep is locally regulated by the amount of experience-dependent plasticity. Here, we asked whether the extended practice of tasks that involve specific brain circuits results in increased occurrence of local intermittent theta waves in the human EEG, above and beyond the global EEG changes previously described. Participants recorded with high-density EEG completed 2 experiments during which they stayed awake ≥ 24 h practicing a language task (audiobook listening [AB]) or a visuomotor task (driving simulator [DS]). Sleep laboratory. 16 healthy participants (7 females). Two extended wake periods. Both conditions resulted in global increases in resting wake EEG theta power at the end of 24 h of wake, accompanied by increased sleepiness. Moreover, wake theta power as well as the occurrence and amplitude of theta waves showed regional, task-dependent changes, increasing more over left frontal derivations in AB, and over posterior parietal regions in DS. These local changes in wake theta power correlated with similar local changes in sleep low frequencies including SWA. Extended experience-dependent plasticity of specific circuits results in a local increase of the wake theta EEG power in those regions, followed by more intense sleep, as reflected by SWA, over the same areas.

  4. On the application of the Jensen wake model using a turbulence-dependent wake decay coefficient: the Sexbierum case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; van der Laan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    and partly accounts for the uncertainty in the wind direction assuming that the same follows a Gaussian distribution. Simulations of the single and double wake measurements at the Sexbierum onshore wind farm are performed using a fast engineering wind farm wake model based on the Jensen wake model...... with the suggested post-processing. We show that the wake decay coefficient of the Jensen wake model must be decreased from the commonly used onshore value of 0.075 to 0.038, when applied to the Sexbierum cases, as wake decay is related to the height, roughness and atmospheric stability and, thus, to turbulence...

  5. Prediction of multi-wake problems using an improved Jensen wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Linlin; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    model uses a cosine shape instead of the top-hat shape for the velocity deficit in the wake, and the wake decay rate as a variable that is related to the ambient turbulence as well as the rotor generated turbulence. Coupled with four different multi-wake combination models, the 2D_k Jensen model...... Simulations (LES) as well as results from other commercial codes, it is found that the predictions obtained with the 2D_k Jensen model exhibit good to excellent agreements with experimental and LES data....

  6. Vestibular nucleus neurons respond to hindlimb movement in the conscious cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Derek M.; DeMayo, William M.; Bourdages, George H.

    2016-01-01

    The limbs constitute the sole interface with the ground during most waking activities in mammalian species; it is therefore expected that somatosensory inputs from the limbs provide important information to the central nervous system for balance control. In the decerebrate cat model, the activity of a subset of neurons in the vestibular nuclei (VN) has been previously shown to be modulated by hindlimb movement. However, decerebration can profoundly alter the effects of sensory inputs on the activity of brain stem neurons, resulting in epiphenomenal responses. Thus, before this study, it was unclear whether and how somatosensory inputs from the limb affected the activity of VN neurons in conscious animals. We recorded brain stem neuronal activity in the conscious cat and characterized the responses of VN neurons to flexion and extension hindlimb movements and to whole body vertical tilts (vestibular stimulation). Among 96 VN neurons whose activity was modulated by vestibular stimulation, the firing rate of 65 neurons (67.7%) was also affected by passive hindlimb movement. VN neurons in conscious cats most commonly encoded hindlimb movement irrespective of the direction of movement (n = 33, 50.8%), in that they responded to all flexion and extension movements of the limb. Other VN neurons overtly encoded information about the direction of hindlimb movement (n = 27, 41.5%), and the remainder had more complex responses. These data confirm that hindlimb somatosensory and vestibular inputs converge onto VN neurons of the conscious cat, suggesting that VN neurons integrate somatosensory inputs from the limbs in computations that affect motor outflow to maintain balance. PMID:27440244

  7. Quantum effects in the understanding of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameroff, Stuart R; Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective on the development and application of quantum physics methodology beyond physics, especially in biology and in the area of consciousness studies. Quantum physics provides a conceptual framework for the structural aspects of biological systems and processes via quantum chemistry. In recent years individual biological phenomena such as photosynthesis and bird navigation have been experimentally and theoretically analyzed using quantum methods building conceptual foundations for quantum biology. Since consciousness is attributed to human (and possibly animal) mind, quantum underpinnings of cognitive processes are a logical extension. Several proposals, especially the Orch OR hypothesis, have been put forth in an effort to introduce a scientific basis to the theory of consciousness. At the center of these approaches are microtubules as the substrate on which conscious processes in terms of quantum coherence and entanglement can be built. Additionally, Quantum Metabolism, quantum processes in ion channels and quantum effects in sensory stimulation are discussed in this connection. We discuss the challenges and merits related to quantum consciousness approaches as well as their potential extensions.

  8. The emergence of consciousness: Science and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagercrantz, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    The newborn human infant is conscious at a minimal level. It is aware of its body, itself and to some extent of the outside world. It recognizes faces and vowels to which it has been exposed. It expresses emotions like joy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the newborn brain shows highest activity in the somatosensory, auditory, and visual cortex but less activity in association area and the prefrontal cortex as compared with adults. There is an incomplete default mode network which is assumed to be related to consciousness. Although the fetus reacts to pain, maternal speaking, etc., it is probably not aware of this due to the low oxygen level and sedation. Assuming that consciousness is mainly localized in the cortex, consciousness cannot emerge before 24 gestational weeks when the thalamocortical connections from the sense organs are established. Thus the limit of legal abortion at 22-24 weeks in many countries makes sense. It should also be possible to withdraw or withhold life-saving therapy of extremely preterm infants, especially if they are severely brain-damaged. This may also apply to full-term infants with grade III hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, who show no signs of consciousness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    The term "sleep experiences," coined by Watson (2001), denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions ("general sleep experiences"). The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor-measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001)-with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., "transliminality"), or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation), which paradoxically results in a "rebound effect." The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency) to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness-including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries-may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality.

  10. Engineering models for merging wakes in wind farm optimization applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Murcia Leon, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with validation of 4 different engineering wake superposition approaches against detailed CFD simulations and covering different turbine interspacing, ambient turbulence intensities and mean wind speeds. The first engineering model is a simple linear superposition of wake ...

  11. Qualitative analysis of wind-turbine wakes over hilly terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, A.; Segalini, A.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, wind-turbine wakes are studied over flat and hilly terrains. Measurements made by using stereoscopic PIV are compared to data obtained from numerical simulations using RANS equations and an actuator-disc method. The numerical and experimental data show similar qualitative trends, indicating that the wind-turbine wake is perturbed by the presence of the hills. Additionally, a faster flow recovery at hub height is seen with the hilly terrain, indicating that the hills presence is beneficial for downstream turbines exposed to wake-interaction effects. The Jensen wake model is implemented over the hilly terrain and it is shown that this model cannot accurately capture the wake modulations induced by the hills. However, by superimposing a wind-turbine wake simulated over flat terrain on the hilly-terrain flow field, it is illustrated that the commonly-used wake-superposition technique can yield reasonable results if the used wake model has sufficient accuracy.

  12. SIMULATION OF AIRCRAFT CONDENSATION TRAILS AND WAKE VORTICES INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Aubakirov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique of calculation of aircraft condensation trails (contrails and wake vortices interaction is described. The technique is based on a suitable for real-time applications mathematical model of far wake utilizes the method of discrete vortices. The technique is supplemented by account of the influence of axial velocities in the vortex nucleus on contrail and wake vortex location. Results of calculations of contrails and wake vortices interaction for Il-76 and B-747 aircraft are presented.

  13. Evolutionary radiation and the spectrum of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert G; Wallace, Rodrick

    2009-03-01

    Evolution is littered with polyphyletic parallelism: many roads lead to functional Romes. We propose consciousness embodies one such example, and represent it here with an equivalence class structure that factors the broad realm of necessary conditions information theoretic realizations of Baars' global workspace model. The construction suggests many different physiological systems can support rapidly shifting, highly tunable, and even simultaneous temporary assemblages of interacting unconscious cognitive modules. The discovery implies various animal taxa exhibiting behaviors we broadly recognize as conscious are, in fact, expressing different forms of the same underlying phenomenon. The variety of possibilities suggests minds today may be only a small surviving fraction of ancient evolutionary radiations--bush phylogenies of consciousness pruned by selection and chance extinction. Although few traces of the radiations may be found in the fossil record, exaptations and vestiges are scattered across the living mind.

  14. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street...

  15. Outcome Prediction of Consciousness Disorders in the Acute Stage Based on a Complementary Motor Behavioural Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Pignat

    Full Text Available Attaining an accurate diagnosis in the acute phase for severely brain-damaged patients presenting Disorders of Consciousness (DOC is crucial for prognostic validity; such a diagnosis determines further medical management, in terms of therapeutic choices and end-of-life decisions. However, DOC evaluation based on validated scales, such as the Revised Coma Recovery Scale (CRS-R, can lead to an underestimation of consciousness and to frequent misdiagnoses particularly in cases of cognitive motor dissociation due to other aetiologies. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical signs that lead to a more accurate consciousness assessment allowing more reliable outcome prediction.From the Unit of Acute Neurorehabilitation (University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland between 2011 and 2014, we enrolled 33 DOC patients with a DOC diagnosis according to the CRS-R that had been established within 28 days of brain damage. The first CRS-R assessment established the initial diagnosis of Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS in 20 patients and a Minimally Consciousness State (MCS in the remaining13 patients. We clinically evaluated the patients over time using the CRS-R scale and concurrently from the beginning with complementary clinical items of a new observational Motor Behaviour Tool (MBT. Primary endpoint was outcome at unit discharge distinguishing two main classes of patients (DOC patients having emerged from DOC and those remaining in DOC and 6 subclasses detailing the outcome of UWS and MCS patients, respectively. Based on CRS-R and MBT scores assessed separately and jointly, statistical testing was performed in the acute phase using a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test; longitudinal CRS-R data were modelled with a Generalized Linear Model.Fifty-five per cent of the UWS patients and 77% of the MCS patients had emerged from DOC. First, statistical prediction of the first CRS-R scores did not permit outcome differentiation between classes

  16. Performance and wake conditions of a rotor located in the wake of an obstacle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naumov, I. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles like forests, ridges and hills can strongly affect the velocity profile in front of a wind turbine rotor. The present work aims at quantifying the influence of nearby located obstacles on the performance and wake characteristics of a downstream located wind turbine. Here the influence......, PIV measurements were carried out to study the development of the mean velocity deficit profiles of the wake behind the wind turbine model under the influence of the wake generated by the obstacle. By use of regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to determine velocity...... of an obstacle in the form of a cylindrical disk was investigated experimentally in a water flume. A model of a three-bladed rotor, designed using Glauert's optimum theory at a tip speed ratio λ = 5, was placed in the wake of a disk with a diameter close to the one of the rotor. The distance from the disk...

  17. Local Experience-Dependent Changes in the Wake EEG after Prolonged Wakefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Sui; Sarasso, Simone; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Riedner, Brady; Ghilardi, M. Felice; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prolonged wakefulness leads to a progressive increase in sleep pressure, reflected in a global increase in slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). A global increase in wake theta activity (5-9 Hz) also occurs. Recently, it was shown that prolonged wakefulness in rodents leads to signs of “local sleep” in an otherwise awake brain, accompanied by a slow/theta wave (2-6 Hz) in the local EEG that occurs at different times in different cortical areas. Compelling evidence in animals and humans also indicates that sleep is locally regulated by the amount of experience-dependent plasticity. Here, we asked whether the extended practice of tasks that involve specific brain circuits results in increased occurrence of local intermittent theta waves in the human EEG, above and beyond the global EEG changes previously described. Design: Participants recorded with high-density EEG completed 2 experiments during which they stayed awake ≥ 24 h practicing a language task (audiobook listening [AB]) or a visuomotor task (driving simulator [DS]). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: 16 healthy participants (7 females). Interventions: Two extended wake periods. Measurements and Results: Both conditions resulted in global increases in resting wake EEG theta power at the end of 24 h of wake, accompanied by increased sleepiness. Moreover, wake theta power as well as the occurrence and amplitude of theta waves showed regional, task-dependent changes, increasing more over left frontal derivations in AB, and over posterior parietal regions in DS. These local changes in wake theta power correlated with similar local changes in sleep low frequencies including SWA. Conclusions: Extended experience-dependent plasticity of specific circuits results in a local increase of the wake theta EEG power in those regions, followed by more intense sleep, as reflected by SWA, over the same areas. Citation: Hung CS; Sarasso S

  18. Benchmarking of Wind Turbine Wake Models in Large Offshore Windfarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaumond, M.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Bechmann, Andreas

    Quantifying accurately wind turbine wakes is a key aspect of wind farm economics in large wind farms. This research compares three engineering wake models with power production data from the Horns Rev and Lillgrund offshore wind farms. Single and multiple wake cases are investigated to verify...

  19. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Henningson, Dan S.

    2015-01-01

    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance...

  20. Coupled wake boundary layer model of wind-farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We present and test a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a wind-farm. This model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake model approach with a “top-down” model for the overall wind-farm boundary layer structure. The wake model

  1. Comparing satellite SAR and wind farm wake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Vincent, P.; Husson, R.

    2015-01-01

    . These extend several tens of kilometres downwind e.g. 70 km. Other SAR wind maps show near-field fine scale details of wake behind rows of turbines. The satellite SAR wind farm wake cases are modelled by different wind farm wake models including the PARK microscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting...

  2. Wake structure and similar behavior of wake profiles downstream of a plunging airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R. DAVARI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Very limited attention has already been paid to the velocity behavior in the wake region in unsteady aerodynamic problems. A series of tests has been performed on a flapping airfoil in a subsonic wind tunnel to study the wake structure for different sets of mean angle of attack, plunging amplitude and reduced frequency. In this study, the velocity profiles in the wake for various oscillation parameters have been measured using a wide shoulder rake, especially designed for the present experiments. The airfoil under consideration was a critical section of a 660 kW wind turbine. The results show that for a flapping airfoil the wake structure can be of drag producing type, thrust producing or neutral, depending on the mean angle of attack, oscillation amplitude and reduced frequency. In a thrust producing wake, a high-momentum high-velocity jet flow is formed in the core region of the wake instead of the conventional low-momentum flow. As a result, the drag force normally experienced by the body due to the momentum deficit would be replaced by a thrust force. According to the results, the momentum loss in the wake decreases as the reduced frequency increases. The thrust producing wake pattern for the flapping airfoil has been observed for sufficiently low angles of attack in the absence of the viscous effects. This phenomenon has also been observed for either high oscillation amplitudes or high reduced frequencies. According to the results, for different reduced frequencies and plunging amplitudes, such that the product of them be a constant, the velocity profiles exhibit similar behavior and coalesce on each other. This similarity parameter works excellently at small angles of attack. However, at near stall boundaries, the similarity is not as evident as before.

  3. Wake simulation for wind turbines with a free, prescribed- and hybrid-wake method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareiss, R.; Guidati, G.; Wagner, S. [Univ. Stuttgart, Inst. fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Calculations of the radial distribution and the time history of the induction factors have been performed with a number of different wake models implemented in a vortex-lattice method for tip-speed ratios in the range 1-13. The new models lead to a significant reduction of the computational effort down to 3-27% compared to a free-wake model with errors less than 5%. (au)

  4. [An existential-phenomenological approach to consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langle, A

    2014-01-01

    The human beings are characterized as subjects. Their essence is understood as Person. A treatment which does not consider the subjective and the Person would not correspond their essence. For a feeling and autonomous being, consciousness plays a role but cannot fully correspond the being a person. This has a therapeutic impact on the treatment of unconscious patients and gives the treatment a specific access. Some instructions for the therapeutic application of the phenomenological-existential concept and the phenomenological attitude towards unconscious or brain traumatized patients are given. The role of consciousness for being human is briefly reflected from an existential perspective.

  5. A better Metaphor for Understanding Consciousness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uban Kordes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt at – yet once again – finding a source of more fitting metaphor for the study of consciousness inside the framework of quantum mechanics. It starts by doubting into the possibility of the naturalization of research of experience. Proceeding from that it searches for a more adequate way to implement Varela’s idea about a balanced bridging the explanatory gap. By comparing certain positions of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena with the properties of introspection, it tries to point out that there might exist better epistemic positions for understanding consciousness than the ones most frequently used today.

  6. Increasing length of wakefulness and modulation of hypocretin-1 in the wake-consolidated squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitzer, Jamie M; Buckmaster, Christine L; Lyons, David M; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2007-10-01

    The neuropeptides hypocretins (orexins), the loss of which results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy, are hypothesized to be involved in the consolidation of wakefulness and have been proposed to be part of the circadian-driven alertness signal. To elucidate the role of hypocretins in the consolidation of human wakefulness we examined the effect of wake extension on hypocretin-1 in squirrel monkeys, primates that consolidate wakefulness during the daytime as do humans. Wake was extended up to 7 h with hypocretin-1, cortisol, ghrelin, leptin, locomotion, and feeding, all being assayed. Hypocretin-1 (P sleep deprivation, while ghrelin (P = 0.79) and leptin (P = 1.00) did not change with sleep deprivation. Using cross-correlation and multivariate modeling of these potential covariates along with homeostatic pressure (a measure of time awake/asleep), we found that time of day and homeostatic pressure together explained 44% of the variance in the hypocretin-1 data (P sleep pressure. Concomitants of wakefulness that affect hypocretin-1 in polyphasic species, such as locomotion, food intake, and food deprivation, likely have a more minor role in monophasic species, such as humans.

  7. The Right to Die in Chronic Disorders of Consciousness: Can We Avoid the Slippery Slope Argument?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naro, Antonino; De Luca, Rosaria; Russo, Margherita; Caccamo, Lory; Manuli, Alfredo; Bramanti, Alessia; Bramanti, Placido

    2016-01-01

    Managing individuals with chronic disorders of consciousness raises ethical questions about the appropriateness of maintaining life-sustaining treatments and end-of-life decisions for those who are unable to make decisions for themselves. For many years, the positions fostering the “sanctity” of human life (i.e., life is inviolable in any case) have led to maintaining life-sustaining treatments (including artificial nutrition and hydration) in patients with disorders of consciousness, allowing them to live for as long as possible. Seldom have positions that foster “dignity” of human life (i.e., everyone has the right to a worthy death) allowed for the interruption of life-sustaining treatments in some patients with disorders of consciousness. Indeed, most ethical analyses conclude that the decision to interrupt life-sustaining therapies, including artificial nutrition and hydration, should be guided by reliable information about how the patient wants or wanted to be treated and/or whether the patient wants or wanted to live in such a condition. This would be in keeping with the principles of patient-centered medicine, and would conciliate the duty of respecting both the dignity and sanctity of life and the right to a worthy death. This “right to die” has been recognized in some countries, which have legalized euthanasia and/or physician-assisted suicide, but some groups fear that legalizing end-of-life decisions for some patients may result in the inappropriate use of euthanasia, both voluntary and nonvoluntary forms (slippery slope argument) in other patients. This review describes the current opinions and ethical issues concerning end-of-life decisions in patients with disorders of consciousness, with a focus on the impact misdiagnoses of disorders of consciousness may have on end-of-life decisions, the concept of “dignity” and “sanctity” of human life in view of end-of-life decisions, and the risk of the slippery slope argument when dealing

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex in waking resting state induces motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens; Harley, Trevor A

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates if anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of areas above the motor cortex (C3) influences spontaneous motor imagery experienced in the waking resting state. A randomized triple-blinded design was used, combining neurophysiological techniques with tools of quantitative mentation report analysis from cognitive linguistics. The results indicate that while spontaneous motor imagery rarely occurs under sham stimulation, general and athletic motor imagery (classified as athletic disciplines), is induced by anodal tDCS. This insight may have implications beyond basic consciousness research. Motor imagery and corresponding motor cortical activation have been shown to benefit later motor performance. Electrophysiological manipulations of motor imagery could in the long run be used for rehabilitative tDCS protocols benefitting temporarily immobile clinical patients who cannot perform specific motor imagery tasks - such as dementia patients, infants with developmental and motor disorders, and coma patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Do unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients feel pain? Role of laser-evoked potential-induced gamma-band oscillations in detecting cortical pain processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naro, A; Leo, A; Cannavò, A; Buda, A; Bramanti, P; Calabrò, R S

    2016-03-11

    It has been proposed that a neural signature of aware pain perception could be represented by the modulation of gamma-band oscillation (GBO) power induced by nociceptive repetitive laser stimulation (RLS). The aim of our study was to correlate the RLS-induced GBO modulation with the Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R) scores (a validated scale assessing possible aware pain perception in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness), in an attempt to differentiate unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) patients from minimally conscious state (MCS) ones (both of them are awake but exhibit no or limited and fluctuant behavioral signs of awareness and mentation, and low and high NCS-R scores, respectively). In addition, we attempted to identify those among UWS patients who probably experienced pain at covert level (i.e. being aware but unable to show pain-related purposeful behaviors, which are those sustained, reproducible, and voluntary behavioral responses to nociceptive stimuli). Notably, the possibility of clearly differentiating UWS from MCS patients has outmost consequences concerning prognosis (worse in UWS) and adequate pain treatment. RLS consisted in 80 trains of three laser stimuli (delivered at 1Hz), at four different energies, able to evoke Aδ-fiber related laser evoked potentials. After each train, we assessed the NCS-R score. EEG was divided into epochs according to the laser trains, and the obtained epochs were classified in four categories according to the NCS-R score magnitude. We quantified the GBO absolute power for each category. RLS protocol induced a strongly correlated increase in GBO power and NCS-R score (the higher the laser stimulation intensity, the higher the NCS-R, independently of stimulus repetition) in all the MCS patients, thus confirming the presence of aware pain processing. Nonetheless, such findings were present even in five UWS individuals. This could suggest the presence of covert pain processing in such subjects

  10. A New Perspective On Architectural Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders; Klint, Lars; Schipull Kauschen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this paper intends to establish a new perspective on architectural sustainability as an effect of good architectural quality. The intention is to show the importance of an actual architectural mindset in the design phase, and whether the conscious architectural material...... selection based on a balanced cost and aesthetics decision making will prove more sustainable and ensure better maintenance, as a result of architectural appeal, than cheaper standard houses....

  11. The nightmares of Puerto Ricans: an embodied 'altered states of consciousness' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, C Jeffrey

    2009-06-01

    This article examines nightmare narratives collected as part of a person-centered ethnographic study of altered states of consciousness (ASCs) and supernaturalism in a mainland Puerto Rican community in the late 1990s. Utilizing a descriptive backdrop informed by cross-cultural studies of ASCs and highlighting the relevance of recent insights from the cognitive sciences of religion and from the anthropology of embodiment or cultural phenomenology, I examine the lived experience and psychocultural elaboration of diverse Puerto Rican nightmare events. Taking the nightmare to be a trauma in its waking-nightmare sense (i.e., through the extreme fright caused by sleep paralysis) as well as an intrusive, traumatic memory in its posttraumatic sense (i.e., a reliving of trauma themes in dreams), I show how the perceptual and interpretive processes evoked by intensely affective ASCs both inform and are informed by Puerto Rican religious and spiritualistic orientations and values.

  12. A quantitative comparison of bird and bat wakes

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, L. Christoffer; Wolf, Marta; Hedenström, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative comparison of bird and bat wakes has demonstrated significant differences in the structure of the far wake. Birds have been found to have a unified vortex wake of the two wings, while bats have a more complex wake with gradients in the circulation along the wingspan, and with each wing generating its own vortex structure. Here, we compare quantitative measures of the circulation in the far wake of three bird and one bat species. We find that bats have a significantly stronger norm...

  13. Language and embodied consciousness: A Peircean ontological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting the Peircean triadic semiotic model of the affective and “organic” relationship between the sign and the referent (in a pragmatic sense), the paper argues that the relationship between words and concepts is not as arbitrary as Saussurean and post-structuralist language theorists posit. Consciousness, Concepts and ...

  14. Social Interactions Receive Priority to Conscious Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junzhu; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Lu, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Humans are social animals, constantly engaged with other people. The importance of social thought and action is hard to overstate. However, is social information so important that it actually determines which stimuli are promoted to conscious experience and which stimuli are suppressed as invisible? To address this question, we used a binocular rivalry paradigm, in which the two eyes receive different action stimuli. In two experiments we measured the conscious percept of rival actions and found that actions engaged in social interactions are granted preferential access to visual awareness over non-interactive actions. Lastly, an attentional task that presumably engaged the mentalizing system enhanced the priority assigned to social interactions in reaching conscious perception. We also found a positive correlation between human identification of interactive activity and the promotion of socially-relevant information to visual awareness. The present findings suggest that the visual system amplifies socially-relevant sensory information and actively promotes it to consciousness, thereby facilitating inferences about social interactions.

  15. Reflective self-awareness and conscious states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Nowak, Markus; Lou, Hans C

    2002-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis has shown precuneus, angular gyri, anterior cingulate gyri, and adjacent structures to be highly metabolically active in support of resting consciousness. We hypothesize that these regions constitute a functional network of reflective self-awareness thought to be a core fun...

  16. Self-conscious emotions and social functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooge, de I.E.; Zeelenberg, M.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Have you ever felt guilty about hurting a loved one, or been proud after achieving something that you always dreamed of? These emotions, but also embarrassment, shame, and hubris, are called self-conscious emotions. They are a special kind of emotions that cannot be described solely by

  17. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  18. Lessons from altered states of consciousness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    temporal association areas, occipitoparietal association cortices and occipital cortex.3 ... Abstract. Key research related to consciousness is that which investigates the neural systems that are deactivated or attenuated during altered states of ... integration of neural networks with the final common mechanism for anaesthesia ...

  19. Conscious and unconscious detection of semantic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    When asked What superhero is associated with bats, Robin, the Penguin, Metropolis, Catwoman, the Riddler, the Joker, and Mr. Freeze? people frequently fail to notice the anomalous word Metropolis. The goals of this study were to determine whether detection of semantic anomalies, like Metropolis, is conscious or unconscious and whether this detection is immediate or delayed. To achieve these goals, participants answered anomalous and nonanomalous questions as their reading times for words were recorded. Comparisons between detected versus undetected anomalies revealed slower reading times for detected anomalies-a finding that suggests that people immediately and consciously detected anomalies. Further, comparisons between first and second words following undetected anomalies versus nonanomalous controls revealed some slower reading times for first and second words-a finding that suggests that people may have unconsciously detected anomalies but this detection was delayed. Taken together, these findings support the idea that when we are immediately aware of a semantic anomaly (i.e., immediate conscious detection) our language processes make immediate adjustments in order to reconcile contradictory information of anomalies with surrounding text; however, even when we are not consciously aware of semantic anomalies, our language processes still make these adjustments, although these adjustments are delayed (i.e., delayed unconscious detection).

  20. Christian Action and Black Consciousness Community Programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many scholars have examined the relationship between Black Theology and Black Consciousness in South Africa in the late 1960s and 1970s. This article analyses another Christian link. It argues that ecumenical organisations (such as the Christian Institute and the South African Council of Churches), foreign churches, ...

  1. Feminist consciousness and assertiveness in Ifeoma Okoye's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, African women writers, among them Ifeoma Okoye, have focused on representing the lives and experiences of women in the African society in their literary works. Okoye is an African feminist who advocates feminist consciousness as a concept through which women can be enlightened for ...

  2. Lessons from altered states of consciousness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cognitive binding, gamma oscillations and consciousness have been discussed in an earlier paper “Reflections ... parietal-frontal cortical activity which interrupts cognition.8. Anaesthesia and the unified narcosis theory of .... emotion, attention, adequate behaviour and recollection of the episode.20 Although the underlying ...

  3. Developing Critical Consciousness through Teacher Leader Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Levine, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study describing how a cohort of teachers pursuing their master's degree in teacher leadership developed critical consciousness through coursework and the cohort structure. The findings--collected via observations, interviews, and document review--indicate the struggles and conflicts that teachers…

  4. Ethnic Consciousness in the Community College Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durodoye, Beth A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses white American ethnic consciousness in the community college classroom. Describes the Racial/Cultural Identity Development model's five stages of white identity development, through which individuals proceed from stages of cultural unawareness to enlightenment: conformity, dissonance, resistance, introspection, and integrative awareness.…

  5. The Function of Consciousness in Multisensory Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Terry D.; Ramsey, Ashley K.

    2012-01-01

    The function of consciousness was explored in two contexts of audio-visual speech, cross-modal visual attention guidance and McGurk cross-modal integration. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 utilized a novel cueing paradigm in which two different flash suppressed lip-streams cooccured with speech sounds matching one of these streams. A visual target was…

  6. Group Consciousness and the Helping Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William

    1977-01-01

    If the counseling profession has changed in recent years, it is largely due to the effect of Third World and minority group movements and to the new questions that counselors were compelled to face. The relationship between group consciousness and the helping professions is presented. (Author)

  7. Brain Endogenous Feedback and Degrees of Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia; Pereira Jr., Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    positive and negative feedback loops. Variable levels of consciousness are proposed to depend on the degree of resonance between these networks. The resonance can occur in the absence of salient external stimulation and, even when such stimulation occurs, the response of the coupled networks is always...

  8. Critical Consciousness: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Roderick J.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Voight, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within…

  9. The Formation of an Ecological Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biriukova, N. A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how realization of the ideas of humanistic pedagogy and psychology serves as the foundation for the development of value attitudes toward nature and the surrounding world, for the formation of a new type of ecological consciousness. It is obvious that the interaction between human civilization and the earth's…

  10. Postmodern consumers' consciousness of climate change

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    POSTMODERN CONSUMERS' CONSCIOUSNESS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND. ACTIONS THAT COULD MITIGATE UNSUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION. Dominique Ferreira, Nadéne JMM Marx-Pienaar & Nadine C Sonnenberg*. ABSTRACT. Addressing the fast-paced lifestyles that postmodern consumers lead, and the ...

  11. Conscious visual memory with minimal attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R; Otten, Marte; Sligte, Ilja G; Seth, Anil K; Lamme, Victor A F

    2017-02-01

    Is conscious visual perception limited to the locations that a person attends? The remarkable phenomenon of change blindness, which shows that people miss nearly all unattended changes in a visual scene, suggests the answer is yes. However, change blindness is found after visual interference (a mask or a new scene), so that subjects have to rely on working memory (WM), which has limited capacity, to detect the change. Before such interference, however, a much larger capacity store, called fragile memory (FM), which is easily overwritten by newly presented visual information, is present. Whether these different stores depend equally on spatial attention is central to the debate on the role of attention in conscious vision. In 2 experiments, we found that minimizing spatial attention almost entirely erases visual WM, as expected. Critically, FM remains largely intact. Moreover, minimally attended FM responses yield accurate metacognition, suggesting that conscious memory persists with limited spatial attention. Together, our findings help resolve the fundamental issue of how attention affects perception: Both visual consciousness and memory can be supported by only minimal attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. On the coevolution of cognition and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhem, P; Liljenström, H

    1997-08-21

    In this article it is argued that an evolutionary perspective leads to the view that adaptation and learning is a widespread and old property of living organisms, even as old as life itself. Cognition, defined as knowledge processing mediated by a centralised nervous system, is suggested mainly to be based on the same principles as non-neural adaptive processes. The emergence of conscious cognition, however, is seen as a major transition in the evolution of life, although it appears in different degrees and at various stages in evolution. Both cognition and consciousness depend on the organisation and complexity of the organism, primarily with regard to the nervous system. Computational and neurophysiological approaches are discussed, in particular some experimental attempts to determine anatomical, physiological and physical correlates to consciousness. It is argued that an evolutionary perspective suggests an interactionistic solution to the mind-brain problem, i.e. the question of subjective experience. In an interactionistic perspective consciousness can be understandable as a biological phenomenon. It can be regarded as a driving force in evolution, amplifying and improving the adaptive and cognitive processes of an organism.

  13. The Ecotheological Consciousness in Environmental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Oprea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ecotheological consciousness involves respect and care for the community of life in the three well-living dimensions as theological spirituality, understanding and appreciated the horizontal sacred and environmental protection actions. We conducted this research to highlight the impacts related to environmental studies from social and ecotheological points of view. Concerning the analytical approaches and human awareness, it is argued that concerning the relationships between human beings and nature leading to impacts affecting the precarious environmental balance by their own decisions, actions, and notions, a multivariate and behavior-oriented definition of environmental responsibility and consciousness was established. An ecotheological method to obtain summary measures of environmental consciousness have to be applied to different contexts of our nowadays society. The environmental databases obtained from previous surveys on environmental ecosystems conducted during the last 20 years by one of the authors were used as target objects for the defined analytical proposal. Multivariate comparisons and classifications of the various variables of environmental consciousness were performed and the statistical factors and factor scores were used to predict the main features concerning the evolution of different ecological profiles in the done approach. The resulting ecotheological measures are then used to identify and characterize the environmental changes and health threats from a global perspective that integrates the overall condition of our planet, or how healthy it is.

  14. Critical Consciousness Development and Political Participation among Marginalized Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Li, Cheng-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Given associations between critical consciousness and positive developmental outcomes, and given racial, socioeconomic, and generational disparities in political participation, this article examined contextual antecedents of critical consciousness (composed of sociopolitical control and social action) and its consequences for 665 marginalized…

  15. A simple stationary semi-analytical wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    -uniform mean wind field, although the modelling of the individual stationary wake flow fields includes non-linear terms. The simulation of the individual wake contributions are based on an analytical solution of the thin shear layer approximation of the NS equations. The wake flow fields are assumed...... rotationally symmetric, and the rotor inflow fields are consistently assumed uniform. Expansion of stationary wake fields is believed to be significantly affected by meandering of wake deficits as e.g. described by the Dynamic Wake Meandering model. In the present context, this effect is approximately...... approximately linearly with the downstream distance. The link from a non-uniform wind farm wind field, consisting of linear perturbations on the ambient non-uniform mean wind field, to a fictitious uniform wake generating inflow field is established using two different averaging approaches – a linear and a non-linear...

  16. The near wake of a freely flying European starling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhefer, Adam J.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Gurka, Roi

    2013-05-01

    The wake of a freely flying European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) has been measured using high speed, time-resolved, particle image velocimetry, simultaneously with high speed cameras which imaged the bird. These have been used to generate vector maps that can be associated with the bird's location and wing configuration in the wind tunnel. Time series of measurements have been expressed as composite wake plots which depict segments of the wing beat cycle for various spanwise locations in the wake. Measurements indicate that downwash is not produced during the upstroke, suggesting that the upstroke does not generate lift. As well, the wake velocities imply the presence of streamwise vortical structures, in addition to tip vortices. These two characteristics indicate similarities between the wake of a bird and the wake of a bat, which may be general features of the wakes of flapping wings.

  17. Disorders of consciousness and communication. Ethical motivations and communication-enabling attributes of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, Guglielmo; Mattia, Donatella

    2011-01-01

    Envisaged extensions of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique allowing communication with patients affected by disorders of consciousness are here examined in connection with subjective symptom reporting, informed consent, and continued medical care decision-making. The principles of medical beneficence, personal autonomy protection, and the right to participate in social life are isolated as appropriate sources of ethical motivations for the use of fMRI-enabled communication. Consciousness requirements for each communication context are identified on the basis of qualitative distinctions between the access, phenomenal, and narrative varieties of consciousness. Ethically motivated uses of fMRI-enabled communication are hierarchically organized in terms of progressively more demanding consciousness requirements for successful communication. The outcomes of this analysis can be used to curb unrealistic expectations of these new scientific developments, and to promote mutual trust between medical doctors, patient surrogates and families.

  18. Philosophy Iceberg of the Universe Consciousness Energy (The Theory of the Universe Consciousness Energy Expression)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Georgii Chuzhyk

    2017-01-01

    .... The theory involves the formation of the Universe by means of all the sequences of energies and energy of consciousness with gradual structural wrapping by energy shells recording and accumulating...

  19. Evolution of brains, cognition, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ann B

    2008-03-18

    Most current hypotheses about the neural basis for consciousness, including higher-level consciousness, are based on mammalian neural features, particularly focusing on thalamocortical circuitry. It is postulated here that since higher-level consciousness is correlated with higher-level cognitive abilities in humans and other mammals, this correlation also holds for nonmammalian taxa; that the level of cognitive ability may be proportional to the level of consciousness; and that the neural basis for both is either the same or highly overlapping. Recent studies, ingeniously designed to be species-sensitive, have revealed a host of highly cognitive abilities in birds, including manifestations of working memory (delayed match-to-sample, episodic memory, transitive inference, and multistability) and category formation, language and numerical comprehension, tool manufacture and cultural transmission of tool design, theory of mind, and Piagetian object permanence to a high level. Comparisons of the neural circuitry reveal extensive similarity in thalamic nuclei and ascending systems to the pallium. However, the avian pallium lacks the laminar architecture and therefore cortical columns of mammals, and avian pallial projection neurons are multipolar rather than specifically pyramidal as in mammals. Neural features common to both mammals and birds, which thus may be crucially involved in the generation of both higher-level cognitive abilities and higher-level consciousness, include large, multipolar, glutamatergic neurons with extensive and densely spiny dendrites, with extensive interconnectedness as well as inter-regional connections, GABAergic inputs from local interneurons, and connections with thalamic nuclei that are regulated by the thalamic reticular nucleus as well as basal ganglia loops.

  20. CAS course on Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Plasma Wake Acceleration, held at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, from 23 to 29 November 2014.    Following a number of introductory lectures on laser and plasma physics, as well as an overview of conventional accelerators and their limitations, the course covered a large number of aspects of plasma wake acceleration schemes: the creation of plasma by high power lasers or particle beams, a description of the plasma creation process through simulations and the characteristics of the accelerated particle beams, including results of the latest achievements. Lectures on beam diagnostics, the applications of plasma accelerated beams, and topical seminars completed the programme.  The course was very successful, with 109 students of 26 nationalities attending; most participants coming from European counties, but also from the US, Israel, India, South Korea, Russia and Ukraine. Feedback from the participants was...

  1. Optical Injection into Laser Wake Field Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cary, John R; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron G R; Giacone, Rodolfo; Leemans, Wim; Nieter, Chet

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating gradient of laser-generated wake fields in plasmas can be orders of magnitude greater than the gradients obtainable in traditional, rf structures. One of the hurdles to overcome on the road to practical utilization of said plasma wake fields for production of high energy particles is the creation of quality beams having significant charge, low emittance, and narrow energy spread. To generate appropriate beams, various injection methods have been proposed. Injection by conventional means of beam prepartion using conventional technology is very difficult, as the accelerating buckets are only tens of microns long. Therefore, the field has turned to all-optical injection schemes, which include injection by colliding pulses, plasma ramps, wave breaking, and self-trapping through pulse evolution. This talk will review the various concepts proposed for injection, including plasma ramps, colliding pulses, and self trapping. The results of simulations and experiments will be discussed along with propo...

  2. Inviscid double wake model for stalled airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marion, Lucas; Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2014-01-01

    An inviscid double wake model based on a steady two-dimensional panel method has been developed to predict aerodynamic loads of wind turbine airfoils in the deep stall region. The separated flow is modelled using two constant vorticity sheets which are released at the trailing edge and at the sep......An inviscid double wake model based on a steady two-dimensional panel method has been developed to predict aerodynamic loads of wind turbine airfoils in the deep stall region. The separated flow is modelled using two constant vorticity sheets which are released at the trailing edge...... and at the separation point. A calibration of the code through comparison with experiments has been performed using one set of airfoils. A second set of airfoils has been used for the validation of the calibrated model. Predicted aerodynamic forces for a wide range of angles of attack (0 to 90 deg) are in overall good...

  3. How is working memory content consciously experienced? The 'conscious copy' model of WM introspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christianne; Silvanto, Juha

    2015-08-01

    We address the issue of how visual information stored in working memory (WM) is introspected. In other words, how do we become aware of WM content in order to consciously examine or manipulate it? Influential models of WM have suggested that WM representations are either conscious by definition, or directly accessible for conscious inspection. We propose that WM introspection does not operate on the actual memory trace but rather requires a new representation to be created for the conscious domain. This conscious representation exists in addition and in parallel to the actual memory representation. The existence of such a separate representation is revealed by and reflected in the qualitatively different functional characteristics between the actual memory trace and its conscious experience, and their distinct interactions within external visual input. Our model differs from state-based models in that WM introspection does not involve a change in the state of WM content, but rather involves the creation of a new, second representation existing in parallel to the original memory trace. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Walter Ong, Technology, and the Transformation of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Agrees with Walter Ong that technology can serve as a transformer of consciousness and, hence, of writing. Shows how technology can work dialectically with consciousness or thought. Discusses two of the potential implications of this dialectical view of the technology/consciousness/writing relationship. (TB)

  5. Ethnocentrism, Religiosity, Environmental and Health Consciousness: Motivators for Anti-Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan KAYNAK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers highlighting the importance of anti-consumer groups in today’s markets and several outstanding factors shaping their reaction against consumption, which are ethnocentrism, religiosity, environmental and health consciousness. A conceptual model is presented which examines the explaining power of ethnocentrism, religiosity, environmental and health consciousness upon voluntary simplifiers and global impact consumers. Data were collected through an e-questionnaire by sending posts to the anti-consumer websites. A total of 503 useable responses were retained for analysis. The analysis reveals that ethnocentrism, environmental and health consciousness have significant impacts upon anti-consumers. In addition, religiosity has a negative impact upon global impact consumers’ anti-consumption behavior. Raising sensitiveness to environmental and health consciousness and ethnocentrism with regards to dealing with anti-consumers enables companies to have sustainable competitive power. These consumers’ growing satisfaction contributes to consumer loyalty in addition to an increase in market share. Researches related to anti-consumers have traditionally emphasized their impacts upon companies’ profits and reputation. On the contrary, this study reveals the main motivations behind voluntary simplifiers and global impact consumers and puts forth a new perspective by presenting the findings related to anti-consumers in Turkey.

  6. ECOLOGICAL CONSCIOUSNESS AS ONE OF THE MAIN PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana O. Dushkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the concept of ecological consciousness and analyzes main features of its development and implementation in the environmental policy in European practice on the example of Germany. The study of German experience is conditioned by the fact that among the other developed countries of the world Germany is the leading country in its active work carried out at all levels of the environmental policy. It is shown that actions aimed at the development of ecological culture and environmental education of the civil society in Germany are of the same priority as the use of renewable energy, development of green technologies, etc. The article provides an overview of the most important publications devoted to the phenomenon of ecological consciousness and highlights different approaches to this definition. Based on the German experience, it defines the prerequisites, main roots and sources of ecological consciousness creation and the ways in which it can be involved in the regional programs on sustainable development and ecological policy. It analyzes the main practical approaches to the implementation of the principles of ecological consciousness in Germany as well as the role of environmental organizations in the realization of environmentally oriented activities. Therefore, it presents the main results of socio-ecological surveys conducted in Germany and Russia and gives their comparative analysis. It indicates possible ways to transfer the German experience in the Russian context to improve the ecological awareness of the Russian society and to arise its ecological activity in addressing environmental issues.

  7. Wake up to fatigue risk management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available of Occupational Hygiene II Wake up 0 t tgue rl k man P.C. SCHUTTE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & ERGONOMICS RESEARCH GROUP, CSIR NRE (MINING). PAPER PRESENTED AT SAFECONEX 2009, 12 -13 MARCH 2009, INDABA HOTEL & CONFERENCE CENTRE Abstract There have been several high... on pregnont women. Negative effects include an increased risk of Southern African Institute of Occupational Hygiene Ii miscarriage, low birth weight and a higher occurrence of premature births. 5. Fatigue management The management of fatigue...

  8. A three states sleep-waking model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comte, J.C. [Laboratoire de Physiopathologie des Reseaux Neuronaux du Cycle Veille-Sommeil, UMR 5167, CNRS/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec 7, Rue Guillaume Paradin 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France)]. E-mail: comtejc@gmail.com; Schatzman, M. [MAPLY, Laboratoire de Mathematiques appliquees de Lyon, UMR5585, CNRS/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, 21, Avenue Claude Bernard, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ravassard, P. [Laboratoire de Physiopathologie des Reseaux Neuronaux du Cycle Veille-Sommeil, UMR 5167, CNRS/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec 7, Rue Guillaume Paradin 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Luppi, P.H. [Laboratoire de Physiopathologie des Reseaux Neuronaux du Cycle Veille-Sommeil, UMR 5167, CNRS/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec 7, Rue Guillaume Paradin 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Salin, P.A. [Laboratoire de Physiopathologie des Reseaux Neuronaux du Cycle Veille-Sommeil, UMR 5167, CNRS/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec 7, Rue Guillaume Paradin 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France)

    2006-08-15

    The mechanisms underlying the sleep-states periodicity in animals are a mystery of biology. Recent studies identified a new neuronal population activated during the slow wave sleep (SWS) in the ventral lateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus. Interactions between this neuronal population and the others populations implicated in the vigilance states (paradoxical sleep (PS) and wake (W)) dynamics are not determined. Thus, we propose here a sleep-waking theoretical model that depicts the potential interactions between the neuronal populations responsible for the three vigilance states. First, we pooled data from previous papers regarding the neuronal populations firing rate time course and characterized statistically the experimental hypnograms. Then, we constructed a nonlinear differential equations system describing the neuronal populations activity time course. A simple rule playing the firing threshold role applied to the model allows to construct a theoretical hypnogram. A random modulation of the neuronal activity, shows that theoretical hypnograms present a dynamics close to the experimental observations. Furthermore, we show that the wake promoting neurons activity can predict the next SWS episode duration.

  9. The borderlands of waking: Quantifying the transition from reflective thought to hallucination in sleep onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Clemens; Speth, Jana

    2016-04-01

    We lose waking consciousness spontaneously and regularly over the circadian cycle. It seems that every time we fall asleep, reflective thinking gradually gives way to our interactions with an imaginary, hallucinatory world that brings multimodal experiences in the absence of adequate external stimuli. The present study investigates this transition, proposing a new measure of hallucinatory states. Reflective thinking and motor imagery were quantified in 150 mentation reports provided by 16 participants after forced awakenings from different physiology-monitored time intervals after sleep onset. Cognitive agency analysis and motor agency analysis--which are objective (grammatical-semantic) tools derived from linguistic theories--show (i) a decrease in reflective thinking which sleepers would need to acknowledge the hallucinatory quality of their state, and (ii) an increase in motor imagery, indicating interactions with a hallucinatory world. By mapping these spontaneous changes in human consciousness onto physiology, we can in the long run explore the conditions of its decline, and possibilities for treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of wind-turbine-wake centerline for the analysis of the wake-meandering phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudou, Nicolas; Chatelain, Philippe; van Beeck, Jeroen; Bricteux, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    The oscillatory motion of wind turbine wakes, also known as wake meandering, is crucial in wind farms as it increases unsteady loading, in particular yawing moments, on downstream turbines. The study of this phenomenon requires, as a first step, the determination of the position of the wake. Therefore, the aim of this work is to compare different techniques to detect the wake centerline based on the velocity/momentum deficit inside the wake or on the estimation of azimuthal vorticity centroids. These techniques are applied to the data obtained from Large-Eddy simulations of the NREL 5-MW wind turbine. The computations were performed with a vortex-particle mesh code with the wind turbine rotor modeled by means of immersed lifting lines. This study constitutes a first step towards the understanding of meandering mechanisms and its accurate operational modeling. Nicolas Coudou is funded by the ``Fonds pour la Formation - la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture'' (FRIA), Belgium.

  11. Decoupled temporal variability and signal synchronization of spontaneous brain activity in loss of consciousness: An fMRI study in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zirui; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Jinsong; Qin, Pengmin; Wu, Xuehai; Wang, Zhiyao; Dai, Rui; Li, Yuan; Liang, Weimin; Mao, Ying; Yang, Zhong; Zhang, Jianfeng; Wolff, Annemarie; Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Two aspects of the low frequency fluctuations of spontaneous brain activity have been proposed which reflect the complex and dynamic features of resting-state activity, namely temporal variability and signal synchronization. The relationship between them, especially its role in consciousness, nevertheless remains unclear. Our study examined the temporal variability and signal synchronization of spontaneous brain activity, as well as their relationship during loss of consciousness. We applied an intra-subject design of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in two conditions: during wakefulness, and under anesthesia with clinical unconsciousness. In addition, an independent group of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) was included in order to test the reliability of our findings. We observed a global reduction in the temporal variability, local and distant brain signal synchronization for subjects during anesthesia. Importantly, we found a link between temporal variability and both local and distant signal synchronizations during wakefulness: the higher the degree of temporal variability, the higher its intra-regional homogeneity and inter-regional functional connectivity. In contrast, this link was broken down under anesthesia, implying a decoupling between temporal variability and signal synchronization; this decoupling was reproduced in patients with DOC. Our results suggest that there exist some as yet unclear physiological mechanisms of consciousness which "couple" the two mathematically independent measures, temporal variability and signal synchronization of spontaneous brain activity. Our findings not only extend our current knowledge of the neural correlates of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness, but have implications for both computational neural modeling and clinical practice, such as in the diagnosis of loss of consciousness in patients with DOC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Arvicanthis ansorgei, a Novel Model for the Study of Sleep and Waking in Diurnal Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jeffrey; Ruppert, Elisabeth; Calvel, Laurent; Robin-Choteau, Ludivine; Gropp, Claire-Marie; Allemann, Caroline; Reibel, Sophie; Sage-Ciocca, Dominique; Bourgin, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep neurobiology studies use nocturnal species, mainly rats and mice. However, because their daily sleep/wake organization is inverted as compared to humans, a diurnal model for sleep studies is needed. To fill this gap, we phenotyped sleep and waking in Arvicanthis ansorgei, a diurnal rodent widely used for the study of circadian rhythms. Design: Video-electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOG) recordings. Setting: Rodent sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen male Arvicanthis ansorgei, aged 3 mo. Interventions: 12 h light (L):12 h dark (D) baseline condition, 24-h constant darkness, 6-h sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed similar electrophysiological characteristics as nocturnal rodents. On average, animals spent 12.9 h ± 0.4 awake per 24-h cycle, of which 6.88 h ± 0.3 was during the light period. NREM sleep accounted for 9.63 h ± 0.4, which of 5.13 h ± 0.2 during dark period, and REM sleep for 89.9 min ± 6.7, which of 52.8 min ± 4.4 during dark period. The time-course of sleep and waking across the 12 h light:12 h dark was overall inverted to that observed in rats or mice, though with larger amounts of crepuscular activity at light and dark transitions. A dominant crepuscular regulation of sleep and waking persisted under constant darkness, showing the lack of a strong circadian drive in the absence of clock reinforcement by external cues, such as a running wheel. Conservation of the homeostatic regulation was confirmed with the observation of higher delta power following sustained waking periods and a 6-h sleep deprivation, with subsequent decrease during recovery sleep. Conclusions: Arvicanthis ansorgei is a valid diurnal rodent model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of sleep and so represents a valuable tool for further understanding the nocturnality/diurnality switch. Citation: Hubbard J, Ruppert E, Calvel L, Robin-Choteau L, Gropp CM

  13. Outcome Prediction of Consciousness Disorders in the Acute Stage Based on a Complementary Motor Behavioural Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignat, Jean-Michel; Mauron, Etienne; Jöhr, Jane; Gilart de Keranflec'h, Charlotte; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Preti, Maria Giulia; Meskaldji, Djalel E; Hömberg, Volker; Laureys, Steven; Draganski, Bogdan; Frackowiak, Richard; Diserens, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Attaining an accurate diagnosis in the acute phase for severely brain-damaged patients presenting Disorders of Consciousness (DOC) is crucial for prognostic validity; such a diagnosis determines further medical management, in terms of therapeutic choices and end-of-life decisions. However, DOC evaluation based on validated scales, such as the Revised Coma Recovery Scale (CRS-R), can lead to an underestimation of consciousness and to frequent misdiagnoses particularly in cases of cognitive motor dissociation due to other aetiologies. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical signs that lead to a more accurate consciousness assessment allowing more reliable outcome prediction. From the Unit of Acute Neurorehabilitation (University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland) between 2011 and 2014, we enrolled 33 DOC patients with a DOC diagnosis according to the CRS-R that had been established within 28 days of brain damage. The first CRS-R assessment established the initial diagnosis of Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) in 20 patients and a Minimally Consciousness State (MCS) in the remaining13 patients. We clinically evaluated the patients over time using the CRS-R scale and concurrently from the beginning with complementary clinical items of a new observational Motor Behaviour Tool (MBT). Primary endpoint was outcome at unit discharge distinguishing two main classes of patients (DOC patients having emerged from DOC and those remaining in DOC) and 6 subclasses detailing the outcome of UWS and MCS patients, respectively. Based on CRS-R and MBT scores assessed separately and jointly, statistical testing was performed in the acute phase using a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test; longitudinal CRS-R data were modelled with a Generalized Linear Model. Fifty-five per cent of the UWS patients and 77% of the MCS patients had emerged from DOC. First, statistical prediction of the first CRS-R scores did not permit outcome differentiation between classes; longitudinal

  14. Dreams, reality and memory: confabulations in lucid dreamers implicate reality-monitoring dysfunction in dream consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, P R; Canavan, S V; Nahum, L; Appah, F; Morgan, P T

    2014-01-01

    Dreams might represent a window on altered states of consciousness with relevance to psychotic experiences, where reality monitoring is impaired. We examined reality monitoring in healthy, non-psychotic individuals with varying degrees of dream awareness using a task designed to assess confabulatory memory errors - a confusion regarding reality whereby information from the past feels falsely familiar and does not constrain current perception appropriately. Confabulatory errors are common following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Ventromedial function has previously been implicated in dreaming and dream awareness. In a hospital research setting, physically and mentally healthy individuals with high (n = 18) and low (n = 13) self-reported dream awareness completed a computerised cognitive task that involved reality monitoring based on familiarity across a series of task runs. Signal detection theory analysis revealed a more liberal acceptance bias in those with high dream awareness, consistent with the notion of overlap in the perception of dreams, imagination and reality. We discuss the implications of these results for models of reality monitoring and psychosis with a particular focus on the role of vmPFC in default-mode brain function, model-based reinforcement learning and the phenomenology of dreaming and waking consciousness.

  15. Care and neurorehabilitation in the disorder of consciousness: a model in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, Giuliano; Arcuri, Francesco; Carozzo, Simone; Cortese, Maria Daniela; Greco, Pierpaolo; Lucca, Lucia Francesca; Pignolo, Loris; Pugliese, Maria Elena; Riganello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The operational model and strategies developed at the Institute S. Anna-RAN to be applied in the care and neurorehabilitation of subjects with disorders of consciousness (DOC) are described. The institute units are sequentially organized to guarantee appropriate care and provide rehabilitation programs adapted to the patients' clinical condition and individual's needs at each phase of evolution during treatment in a fast turnover rate. Patients eligible of home care are monitored remotely. Transferring advanced technology to a stage of regular operation is the main mission. Responsiveness and the time windows characterized by better residual responsiveness are identified and the spontaneous/induced changes in the autonomic system functional state and biological parameters are monitored both in dedicated sessions and by means of an ambient intelligence platform acquiring large databases from traditional and innovative sensors and interfaced with knowledge management and knowledge discovery systems. Diagnosis of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or minimal conscious state and early prognosis are in accordance with the current criteria. Over one thousand patients with DOC have been admitted and treated in the years 1998-2013. The model application has progressively shortened the time of hospitalization and reduced costs at unchanged quality of services.

  16. Dreams, reality and memory: confabulations in lucid dreamers implicate reality-monitoring dysfunction in dream consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, P.R.; Canavan, S.V.; Nahum, L.; Appah, F.; Morgan, P.T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Dreams might represent a window on altered states of consciousness with relevance to psychotic experiences, where reality monitoring is impaired. We examined reality monitoring in healthy, non-psychotic individuals with varying degrees of dream awareness using a task designed to assess confabulatory memory errors – a confusion regarding reality whereby information from the past feels falsely familiar and does not constrain current perception appropriately. Confabulatory errors are common following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Ventromedial function has previously been implicated in dreaming and dream awareness. Methods. In a hospital research setting, physically and mentally healthy individuals with high (n = 18) and low (n = 13) self-reported dream awareness completed a computerised cognitive task that involved reality monitoring based on familiarity across a series of task runs. Results. Signal detection theory analysis revealed a more liberal acceptance bias in those with high dream awareness, consistent with the notion of overlap in the perception of dreams, imagination and reality. Conclusions. We discuss the implications of these results for models of reality monitoring and psychosis with a particular focus on the role of vmPFC in default-mode brain function, model-based reinforcement learning and the phenomenology of dreaming and waking consciousness. PMID:25028078

  17. Experimental learning projects address contemporary issues related to energy, environment, and sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “Bio-Fuel, sustainability, and geospatial information technologies to enhance experiential learning paradigm for precision agriculture project”, recently funded by USDA extends the environmental stewardship archetype of the preceding project titled “Environmentally conscious precision agricultur...

  18. Phasic REM Transiently Approaches Wakefulness in the Human Cortex-A Single-Pulse Electrical Stimulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Kiyohide; Matsumoto, Riki; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Hitomi, Takefumi; Matsuhashi, Masao; Shimotake, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the changes in cortical neural responses induced by external inputs during phasic rapid eye movement (p-REM) sleep. Single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) was directly applied to the human cortex during REM sleep through subdural electrodes, in seven patients who underwent invasive presurgical evaluation for intractable partial epilepsy. SPES was applied to parts of the cortex through the subdural electrodes, and induced cortical responses were recorded from adjacent and remote cortical areas. Phase-locked corticocortical-evoked potentials (CCEPs) and nonphase-locked or induced CCEP-related high gamma activity (CCEP-HGA, 100-200 Hz), which are considered proxies for cortical connectivity and cortical excitability, respectively, were compared among wakefulness, p-REM (within ±2 seconds of significant bursts of REM), and tonic REM (t-REM) (periphasic REM) periods. During REM sleep, SPES elicited a transient increase in CCEP-HGA, followed by a subsequent decrease or suppression. The HGA suppression during both p-REM and t-REM was stronger than during wakefulness. However, its suppression during p-REM was weaker than during t-REM. On the other hand, the CCEP waveform did not show any significant difference between the two REM periods. Cortical excitability to exogenous input was different between p-REM and t-REM. The change of the cortical excitability in p-REM was directed toward wakefulness, which may produce incomplete short bursts of consciousness, leading to dreams.

  19. Sustainability in School Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ece ŞAHİN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is important for the continuation of life in a healthy world for futuregenerations; many issues affecting the quality of life such as effective use of resources, take advantage ofrenewable energy, the choice of recyclable materials that do not harm the environment and waterconservation are considered in the context of sustainable design. Implementations carried out in thisframework are regarded as valuable due to providing the consciousness of sustainability to the society.Creating the awareness of sustainability is given a great importance by educators; thus, “education forsustainability” are included from the preschool program so that children can learn the gainings of suchperspective in their early ages. In support of this concept, it is believed that education structures should bea laboratory where children can practice theoretical knowledge learned at school. In that respect, studiesneed to be considered in the context of sustainable construction are studied in this research. In the study,after a description of the importance of sustainable design as a learning mean, significant subjects such asusing natural light, heating, cooling and air-conditioning methods, wind energy, water protection andmaterial selection are analyzed in terms of designing sustainable schools. It is criticized worldwide thatstructures ground on sustainable design principles are relatively few in numbers. Despite, there is anincreasing interest to the subject in Turkey later years; a lot more steps are required in terms ofimplementation and research of the issue. Thus, the purpose of the study is to provide a supplementaryreference for school designs.

  20. Performance and wake conditions of a rotor located in the wake of an obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, I. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Mikkelsen, R. F.; Okulov, V. L.; Sørensen, J. N.

    2016-09-01

    Obstacles like forests, ridges and hills can strongly affect the velocity profile in front of a wind turbine rotor. The present work aims at quantifying the influence of nearby located obstacles on the performance and wake characteristics of a downstream located wind turbine. Here the influence of an obstacle in the form of a cylindrical disk was investigated experimentally in a water flume. A model of a three-bladed rotor, designed using Glauert's optimum theory at a tip speed ratio λ = 5, was placed in the wake of a disk with a diameter close to the one of the rotor. The distance from the disk to the rotor was changed from 4 to 8 rotor diameters, with the vertical distance from the rotor axis varied 0.5 and 1 rotor diameters. The associated turbulent intensity of the incoming flow to the rotor changed 3 to '6% due to the influence of the disk wake. In the experiment, thrust characteristics and associated pulsations as a function of the incoming flow structures were measured by strain gauges. The flow condition in front of the rotor was measured with high temporal accuracy using LDA and power coefficients were determine as function of tip speed ratio for different obstacle positions. Furthermore, PIV measurements were carried out to study the development of the mean velocity deficit profiles of the wake behind the wind turbine model under the influence of the wake generated by the obstacle. By use of regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to determine velocity deficits and estimate length scales of the wake attenuation.

  1. A decision support tool for sustainable supplier selection in manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ifeyinwa Orji; Sun Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Most original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are strategically involved in supplier base rationalization and increased consciousness of sustainable development thus, reinforcing need for accurately considering sustainability in supplier selection to improve organizational performance. In real industrial case, imprecise data, ambiguity of human judgment, uncertainty among sustainability factors and the need to capture all subjective and objective criteria are unavoidable and pose huge...

  2. Akratic Feelings, Empathy and Self-Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mendonça

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is an analysis of the role of akratic feelings on empathy and self-consciousness. It argues that akratic feelings create a meta-emotional platform that allows the installation of a type of empathic process, which simultaneously contributes for self-consciousness. The article shows in what way akratic feelings are crucial to further understand both ourselves and others.The article begins by describing the nature of akratic feelings and the way in which we can find them at various emotional levels. The second part points out how akratic feelings contribute to empathetic processes and their role in the formation of a meta-emotional platform in which people recognize their opacity. Finally, the article points out how this also contributes for self-awareness, and ultimately for a better understanding of emotional processes.

  3. Theoretical Controversies—Terminological Biases: Consciousness Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondor Zsuzsanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although scientific practice sometimes encounters philosophical difficulties, it cannot shoulder the burden of resolving them. This can lead to controversies. An unavoidable difficulty is rooted in the linguistic attitude, i.e., in the fact that to a considerable extent we express our thoughts in words. I will attempt to illuminate some important characteristics of linguistic expression which lead to paradoxical situations, identifiable thanks to philosophy. In my argument, I will investigate how the notion of consciousness has altered over the course of philosophical investigation and how it relates to recent scientific practice. In conclusion, I will focus on a few recent so-called radical positions in philosophy with regard to a framework within which consciousness and more generally mental phenomena can be regarded in a new light, as well as on the barriers we face when trying to unify scientific results.

  4. Evolution of consciousness: phylogeny, ontogeny, and emergence from general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashour, George A; Alkire, Michael T

    2013-06-18

    Are animals conscious? If so, when did consciousness evolve? We address these long-standing and essential questions using a modern neuroscientific approach that draws on diverse fields such as consciousness studies, evolutionary neurobiology, animal psychology, and anesthesiology. We propose that the stepwise emergence from general anesthesia can serve as a reproducible model to study the evolution of consciousness across various species and use current data from anesthesiology to shed light on the phylogeny of consciousness. Ultimately, we conclude that the neurobiological structure of the vertebrate central nervous system is evolutionarily ancient and highly conserved across species and that the basic neurophysiologic mechanisms supporting consciousness in humans are found at the earliest points of vertebrate brain evolution. Thus, in agreement with Darwin's insight and the recent "Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness in Non-Human Animals," a review of modern scientific data suggests that the differences between species in terms of the ability to experience the world is one of degree and not kind.

  5. Stigma consciousness: the psychological legacy of social stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, E C

    1999-01-01

    Whereas past researchers have treated targets of stereotypes as though they have uniform reactions to their stereotyped status (e.g., J. Crocker & B. Major, 1989; C. M. Steele & J. Aronson, 1995), it is proposed here that targets differ in the extent to which they expect to be stereotyped by others (i.e., stigma consciousness). Six studies, 5 of which validate the stigma-consciousness questionnaire (SCQ), are presented. The results suggest that the SCQ is a reliable and valid instrument for detecting differences in stigma consciousness. In addition, scores on the SCQ predict perceptions of discrimination and the ability to generate convincing examples of such discrimination. The final study highlights a behavioral consequence of stigma consciousness: the tendency for people high in stigma consciousness to forgo opportunities to invalidate stereotypes about their group. The relation of stigma consciousness to past research on targets of stereotypes is considered as is the issue of how stigma consciousness may encourage continued stereotyping.

  6. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirit Soffer-Dudek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “sleep experiences,” coined by Watson (2001, denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions (“general sleep experiences”. The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor—measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001—with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., “transliminality”, or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation, which paradoxically results in a “rebound effect.” The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness—including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries—may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality.

  7. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    The term “sleep experiences,” coined by Watson (2001), denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions (“general sleep experiences”). The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor—measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001)—with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., “transliminality”), or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation), which paradoxically results in a “rebound effect.” The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency) to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness—including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries—may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality. PMID:28539902

  8. Catnip and the alteration of human consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoudt, K C; Lee, S K; Callahan, J M; Henretig, F M

    1997-12-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the ability of catnip (Nepeta cataria) to affect human consciousness. We report a case of a toddler exhibiting central nervous system depression after consuming a large quantity of catnip. His obtundation was not attributable to another cause. We review the published literature describing the alleged psychoactive capabilities of catnip and present our case as further information for use in this ongoing controversy.

  9. Self-consciousness and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, R; Arroyo-Anllo, E M; Ingrand, P; Gil, M; Neau, J P; Ornon, C; Bonnaud, V

    2001-11-01

    To propose a neuropsychological study of the various aspects of self-consciousness (SC) in Alzheimer's disease. Forty-five patients with probable mild or moderate AD were included in the study. Severity of their dementia was assessed by the Mini Mental State (MMS). Fourteen questions were prepared to evaluate SC. No significant correlations were found between SC score and educational level, age, and duration of disease. A significant correlation was found between SC score and the severity of dementia, whereas frontal disturbances were just short of the significance threshold. The various aspects of SC were not impaired to the same degree. The most disturbed ones were awareness of cognitive deficiencies, moral judgements and prospective memory. The least disturbed aspects were awareness of identity and of mental representation of the body. Items relating to anosognosia and moral judgements were significantly correlated with the MMS score, whereas affective state, body representation disorders, prospective memory, and capacities for introspection were not related to the severity of the dementia. Consciousness of identity was sound, regardless of MMS score. AD clearly induces an heterogeneous impairment of SC. SC requires a convergence of many neural networks. In AD, neuronal alterations involve many cortical areas and information sent to the associative frontal cortex from memory, language and visuospatial areas is lacking or disturbed. Thus, the sequential order of successive stimuli cannot be maintained by the heteromodal associative cortex (dorsal convexity of the prefrontal cortex), and the supramodal associative cortex (located rostrally in the frontal lobes) is unable to provide reliable monitoring and assessment of simultaneous neural cognitive networks carrying insufficient and inadequate input. The core deficiency in AD patients might be impaired SC equated with the disability to maintain sequential and simultaneous "attention to life". The Self-Consciousness

  10. Pediatric oral conscious sedation: changes to come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F; Reggiardo, P

    1999-11-01

    Recent media attention has focused the public's attention on issues surrounding pediatric oral conscious sedation. Under a law passed in 1998 and taking affect on Jan. 1, 2000, California dentists will be subject to certification and procedural provisions designed to ensure the educational qualification of the provider and the standards under which the procedure is performed. This article discusses the history of concern and regulation regarding sedation of children in the dental office.

  11. Recognition of an Independent Self-Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2009-01-01

    Hegel's concept in the Phenomenology of the Spirit of the "recognition of an independent self-consciousness" is investigated as a point of separation for contemporary philosophy of recognition. I claim that multiculturalism and the theories of recognition (such as Axel Honneth's) based on empirical...... psychology neglect or deny crucial metaphysical aspects of the Hegelian legacy. Instead, I seek to point at an additional, "spiritual", level of recognition, based on the concept of the subject in Lacanian psychoanalysis....

  12. Mass culture and manipulation with consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Simukanova Guldariga Serikovna

    2015-01-01

    The article gives the definition of such concepts as mass society, mass culture and mass consciousness. Specific examples indicate positive and negative effects of globalization on national culture. Particular attention is paid to the interest of independent states for the conservation, protection and development of national values in the context of globalization. The conclusion about the relevance of stability provision and protection of the state raised by globalization has been drawn.

  13. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara

    2017-05-01

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Philosophy Iceberg of the Universe Consciousness Energy (The Theory of the Universe Consciousness Energy Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgii Chuzhyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We offer an evolutionary and alternative solution to the problem of the Universe. The theory involves the formation of the Universe by means of all the sequences of energies and energy of consciousness with gradual structural wrapping by energy shells recording and accumulating them; formation of the core dispatch centers performing energetic and informational communication with a single rhythm among all space objects that form civilizations. We outline a way of human consciousness formation. The theory explains how the first objectively appeared sparks of human consciousness energy were evolving, accumulating and being recorded, formed the Earth’s noosphere in its core dispatch center. The consciousness energy structure has not yet been discovered and that inhibits the science, which is wary of those who define it as a stream of multi-super large reflection objectively reflecting the highest degree of manifestation of civilization collective creativity, named by John Wheeler as a substance of the information — “It from Bit.” Core dispatching centers of all cosmic objects consciousness energies such as the Earth are combined into the Universe core dispatcher center of which called the Cosmic Consciousness. Many hundreds of billions of years the Cosmic Consciousness absorbed and only recorded the sequences, experience of which ended strictly following the laws of nature, formed a unique quality — for each new sequence by its energetic and informational signal it can highlight, express from its archive the evolution of similar Roadmap, which had been already passed by a similar sequence. The Cosmic Consciousness indirectly provides the most important thing in the Universe — not interfering, it retains all its evolutionary integrity and harmony. All of them constantly and continuously follow and check it through bioinformational communication, without deviation move toward their goal. Life of the Earth civilization is also moving

  15. Full-Scale Field Test of Wake Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul; Annoni, Jennifer; Scholbrock, Andrew; Quon, Eliot; Dana, Scott; Schreck, Scott; Raach, Steffen; Haizmann, Florian; Schlipf, David

    2017-05-01

    Wind farm control, in which turbine controllers are coordinated to improve farmwide performance, is an active field of research. One form of wind farm control is wake steering, in which a turbine is yawed to the inflow to redirect its wake away from downstream turbines. Wake steering has been studied in depth in simulations as well as in wind tunnels and scaled test facilities. This work performs a field test of wake steering on a full-scale turbine. In the campaign, the yaw controller of the turbine has been set to track different yaw misalignment set points while a nacelle-mounted lidar scans the wake at several ranges downwind. The lidar measurements are combined with turbine data, as well as measurements of the inflow made by a highly instrumented meteorological mast. These measurements are then compared to the predictions of a wind farm control-oriented model of wakes.

  16. Distorted temporal consciousness and preserved knowing consciousness in confabulation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Corte, Valentina; George, Nathalie; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Barba, Gianfranco Dalla

    2011-01-01

    In this study we describe a patient, TA, who developed a chronic amnesic-confabulatory syndrome, following rupture of a right internal carotid siphon aneurysm. Our aim was to elucidate as fully as possible the nature of TA's impairment and to test the hypothesis of confabulation as reflecting a dysfunction of Temporal Consciousness, i.e., to become aware of something as part of a personal past, present or future. TA's confabulations were present in answers to questions tapping Temporal Consciousness, i.e., autobiographical episodic memory, orientation in time and place, and foresight of personal future. In contrast, confabulations were not observed in answers to questions tapping Knowing Consciousness, i.e., to become aware of something as a meaning or as an element of impersonal knowledge. In fact, he had normal access to semantic knowledge, including foresight of impersonal future. TA's brain MRI showed lesions involving the right hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, fornix, mammillary bodies, and thalamus. Moreover TA showed sub-cortical lesions involving the caudate and putamen nuclei bilaterally, a lesion site not commonly described in amnesic-confabulatory syndrome. We suggest that this pattern of results is better accounted for within the framework of the Memory, Consciousness and Temporality Theory and reflects a specific distortion of Temporal Consciousness.

  17. 'Unfallable encyclicing': Finnegans Wake and the Encyclopedia Britannica

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Len

    2009-01-01

    This essay aims to develop our knowledge about why the 'Encyclopedia Britannica' ('EB') is of such importance to 'Finnegans Wake' and to establish the general nature of what is an extraordinary example of literary intertextuality. While it incorporates 'EB' articles in various ways, the 'Wake' also sets up a specific riposte to the encyclopedic idea. Engaging at a fundamental level with the principles that underline the 'EB', the 'Wake' swallows or 'digests' vast amounts of conventional reaso...

  18. Detection and Behavior of Pan Wakes in Saturn's A Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, L. J.; Showalter, M. R.; Russell, C. T.

    1996-01-01

    Six previously unseen Pan wakes are found interior and exterior to the Encke gap in Saturn's A ring, one in the Voyager 2 photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultation data and five in the Voyager 1 radio science (RSS) Earth occultation data. Pan orbits at the center of the Encke gap and maintains it...The detection of Pan wakes at longitudes greater than 360(deg) demonstrates that wakes persist for much longer than originally hypothesized and may interact with one another.

  19. Large-Eddy Simulation of turbine wake in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J.; Troldborg, N.; Sørensen, N. N.; Patton, E. G.; Sullivan, P. P.

    2017-05-01

    We present Large-Eddy Simulation results of a turbine wake in realistic complex terrain with slopes above 0.5. By comparing simulations including and without the wind turbine we can estimate the induction factor, a, and we show how the presence of a strong recirculation zone in the terrain dictates the positioning of the wake. This last finding is in contrast to what would happen in gentle terrain with no substantial increase of turbulent kinetic energy in the terrain induced wakes.

  20. Time to wake up: reactive countermeasures to sleep inertia

    OpenAIRE

    HILDITCH, Cassie J.; DORRIAN, Jillian; BANKS, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Sleep inertia is the period of impaired performance and grogginess experienced after waking. This period of impairment is of concern to workers who are on-call, or nap during work hours, and need to perform safety-critical tasks soon after waking. While several studies have investigated the best sleep timing and length to minimise sleep inertia effects, few have focused on countermeasures -especially those that can be implemented after waking (i.e. reactive countermeasures). This structured r...

  1. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  2. Wind Farm Wake: The 2016 Horns Rev Photo Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Nygaard, Nicolai Gayle; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Offshore wind farm wakes were observed and photographed in foggy conditions at Horns Rev 2 on 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC. These new images show highly contrasting conditions regarding the wind speed, turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, weather conditions and wind farm wake development...... rated power. The wind direction was southwesterly and long, narrow wakes persisted several rotor diameters downwind of the wind turbines. Eventually mixing of warm air from aloft dispersed the fog in the far wake region of the wind farm....

  3. Comparison of Engineering Wake Models with CFD Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Juhl; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Ivanell, S.

    2014-01-01

    The engineering wake models by Jensen [1] and Frandsen et al. [2] are assessed for different scenarios simulated using Large Eddy Simulation and the Actuator Line method implemented in the Navier-Stokes equations. The scenarios include the far wake behind a single wind turbine, a long row...... of turbines in an atmospheric boundary layer, idealised cases of an infinitely long row of wind turbines and infinite wind farms with three different spacings. Both models include a wake expansion factor, which is calibrated to fit the simulated wake velocities. The analysis highlights physical deficiencies...

  4. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens N; Mikkelsen, Robert F; Henningson, Dan S; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Søren J

    2015-02-28

    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of Passive Flow Control for Ship Air Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    electronically scanned pressure NAVAIR……………Naval Air Systems Command USNA………………. United States Naval Academy WISP ………………..wake interactive survey probe...Figure 8. YP coordinate system 2.3.2 Instrumentation This experiment used the Wake Interactive Survey Probe ( WISP ) system to survey the ship...air wake. The WISP system allows a flow probe to be moved through the air wake according to a pre-determined grid pattern. For this investigation

  6. Near wake features of a flying European Starling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhefer, Adam; Kopp, Gregory; Gurka, Roi

    2013-11-01

    A great deal of research focusing on flapping wings has been motivated by their high performance capabilities, especially in low Reynolds number configurations where static wing performance typically suffers. The approaches to studying flapping wings have taken different forms. One form has been the systematic investigation of the parameters that influence the relationship between flapping wings and their wake. The other form, and the approach used in the present work, is the investigation of flapping wings in nature. While the earliest work on the flapping wings of animals consists of observations of bird flight by Leonardo DaVinci, advances in technology have allowed for quantitative measurements of the wake. The near wake of a freely flying European starling has been measured using high speed, time-resolved, particle image velocimetry, simultaneously with high speed cameras which imaged the bird. These have been used to measure the near wake two-dimensional velocity field that can be associated with the bird's location and wing configuration in an avian wind tunnel. Time series of the velocities have been expressed as composite wake plots, which depict segments of the wing beat cycle for various spanwise locations in the wake. Measurements indicate that downwash is not produced during the upstroke, suggesting that the upstroke does not generate lift. As well, the wake velocities imply the presence of streamwise vortical structures, in addition to tip vortices. These two characteristics indicate similarities between the wake of a bird and the wake of a bat.

  7. Interaction of a swept shock wave and a supersonic wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, G.; Zhao, Y. X.; Zhou, J.

    2017-09-01

    The interaction of a swept shock wave and a supersonic wake has been studied. The swept shock wave is generated by a swept compression sidewall, and the supersonic wake is generated by a wake generator. The flow field is visualized with the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering method, and a supplementary numerical simulation is conducted by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results show that the pressure rise induced by the swept shock wave can propagate upstream in the wake, which makes the location where vortices are generated move upstream, thickens the laminar section of the wake, and enlarges the generated vortices. The wake is swept away from the swept compression sidewall by the pressure gradient of the swept shock wave. This pressure gradient is not aligned with the density gradient of the supersonic wake, so the baroclinic torque generates streamwise vorticity and changes the distribution of the spanwise vorticity. The wake shock is curved, so the flow downstream of it is non-uniform, leaving the swept shock wave being distorted. A three-dimensional Mach disk structure is generated when the wake shock interacts with the swept shock wave.

  8. The Structure of Cosmic String Wakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sornborger, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Fryxell, B.; Olson, K.

    1996-01-01

    The clustering of baryons and cold dark matter induced by a single moving string is analyzed numerically making use of a new three-dimensional Eulerian cosmological hydro code$^{1)}$ which is based on the PPM method to track the baryons and the PIC method to evolve the dark matter particles. A long straight string moving with a speed comparable to $c$ induces a planar overdensity (a``wake"). Since the initial perturbation is a velocity kick towards the plane behind the string and there is no ...

  9. Similarity and Decay Laws of Momentumless Wakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-26

    Naval Sea Systems Command , Code NSEA—03133. -‘ F 9 —2— 26 May 1977 SN : j ep SIMILARITY AND DECAY LAWS OF MOMENTUI’ILESS WAKE S by Samuel Ilassid...and this neg lect will have to be justified a posteriori. Now, one seeks self-similar solutions of the type: k = Xh(ri) c = Ee(n) Ud = UDf (n) ~ = where...0 9x r 3r L6 c Again, seeking self-similar solutions of the type: k = Kh(ti) c = Ee(ri) Ud = UDf (n) r~ = (6.4) and letting 2 2 = 1 (6.5)E L one

  10. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil in a flowing soap film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We present an experimental study of an oscillating, symmetric foil in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we explore and visualize a variety of wake structures, including von K´arm´an wake, reverse von K´arm´an wake, 2P wake, and 2P+2S wake. We...

  11. Systems Thinking : Ancient Maya's Evolution of Consciousness and Contemporary Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jere Lazanski, Tadeja

    2010-11-01

    to a limited consciousness, whereas systems thinking opens the possibilities of conscious co-creation for the benefits of sustainable society and future of the planet.

  12. A CFD model of the wake of an offshore wind farm: Using a prescribed wake inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réthoré, P.-E.; Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2007-01-01

      An CFD model of the wake of an offshore wind farm, expanding existing measurements is proposed. The method is based on solving the Navier Stokes equation in a large domain downstream an offshore wind farm. The inflow of the domain is estimated using existing met mast measurements from both free...

  13. Wake Sensor Evaluation Program and Results of JFK-1 Wake Vortex Sensor Intercomparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Ben C., Jr.; Burnham, David C.; Rudis, Robert P.

    1997-01-01

    The overall approach should be to: (1) Seek simplest, sufficiently robust, integrated ground based sensor systems (wakes and weather) for AVOSS; (2) Expand all sensor performance cross-comparisons and data mergings in on-going field deployments; and (3) Achieve maximal cost effectiveness through hardware/info sharing. An effective team is in place to accomplish the above tasks.

  14. Managing a massacre: savagery, civility, and gender in Moro Province in the wake of Bud Dajo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the delicate ideological maneuverings that shaped American colonial constructions of savagery, civility, and gender in the wake of the Bud Dajo massacre in the Philippines's Muslim south in 1906. It looks particularly at shifting notions of femininity and masculinity as these related to episodes of violence and colonial control. The article concludes that, while the Bud Dajo massacre was a terrible black mark on the American military's record in Mindanao and Sulu, colonial officials ultimately used the event to positively affirm existing discourses of power and justification, which helped to sustain and guide military rule in the Muslim south for another seven years.

  15. PIV study of the wake of a model wind turbine transitioning between operating set points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Dan; Cowen, Edwin (Todd)

    2016-11-01

    Wind turbines are ideally operated at their most efficient tip speed ratio for a given wind speed. There is increasing interest, however, in operating turbines at other set points to increase the overall power production of a wind farm. Specifically, Goit and Meyers (2015) used LES to examine a wind farm optimized by unsteady operation of its turbines. In this study, the wake of a model wind turbine is measured in a water channel using PIV. We measure the wake response to a change in operational set point of the model turbine, e.g., from low to high tip speed ratio or vice versa, to examine how it might influence a downwind turbine. A modified torque transducer after Kang et al. (2010) is used to calibrate in situ voltage measurements of the model turbine's generator operating across a resistance to the torque on the generator. Changes in operational set point are made by changing the resistance or the flow speed, which change the rotation rate measured by an encoder. Single camera PIV on vertical planes reveals statistics of the wake at various distances downstream as the turbine transitions from one set point to another. From these measurements, we infer how the unsteady operation of a turbine may affect the performance of a downwind turbine as its incoming flow. National Science Foundation and the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future.

  16. Validation of the Eddy Viscosity and Lange Wake Models using Measured Wake Flow Characteristics Behind a Large Wind Turbine Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sang Hyeon; Kim, Bum Suk; Huh, Jong Chul [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Go, Young Jun [Hanjin Ind, Co., Ltd., Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The wake effects behind wind turbines were investigated by using data from a Met Mast tower and the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system for a wind turbine. The results of the wake investigations and predicted values for the velocity deficit based on the eddy viscosity model were compared with the turbulence intensity from the Lange model. As a result, the velocity deficit and turbulence intensity of the wake increased as the free stream wind speed decreased. In addition, the magnitude of the velocity deficit for the center of the wake using the eddy viscosity model was overestimated while the turbulence intensity from the Lange model showed similarities with measured values.

  17. Unsteady wake of a rotating tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Moxey, Dave; Xu, Hui; Sherwin, Spencer; Sherwin Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    For open wheel race-cars, such as IndyCar and Formula One, the wheels are responsible for 40% of the total drag. For road cars drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 60% of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two or three pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative importance of which still remains an open question, that interact to form a complex wake. Traditional RANS based methods are typically not well equipped to deal with such highly unsteady flows which motivates research into more physical, unsteady models. Leveraging a high-fidelity spectral/hp element based method a Large Eddy Simulation is performed to give further insight into unsteady characteristics of the wake. In particular the unsteady nature of both the jetting and top vortex pair is reported as well as the time and length scales associated with the vortex core trajectories. Correlation with experimentally obtained particle image velocimetry is presented. The authors acknowledge support from the United Kingdom Turbulence Consortium (UKTC) as well as from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for access to ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Service.

  18. Wake potentials of the ILC Interaction Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC

    2011-08-16

    The vacuum chamber of the ILC Interaction Region (IR) is optimized for best detector performance. It has special shaping to minimize additional backgrounds due to the metal part of the chamber. Also, for the same reason this thin vacuum chamber does not have water cooling. Therefore, small amounts of power, which may be deposited in the chamber, can be enough to raise the chamber to a high temperature. One of the sources of 'heating' power is the electromagnetic field of the beam. This field diffracts by non-regularities of the beam pipe and excites free-propagating fields, which are then absorbed by the pipe wall. In addition we have a heating power of the image currents due to finite conductivity of the metallic wall. We will discuss these effects as updating the previous results. The conclusions of this report are: (1) The amount of the beam energy loss in IR is almost equal to the energy loss in one ILC (TESLA) accelerating cryo-module; (2) Addition energy spread at IR is very small; (3) Spectrum of the wake fields is limited 300 GHz; (4) Average power of the wake fields excited in IR is 30 W for nominal ILC parameters; and (5) Pulse power in this case is 6 kilowatts.

  19. Measuring bubbles in a bubbly wake flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Kawakami, Ellison; Arndt, Roger E. A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents measurements of the velocity and size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly wake. This was carried out by utilizing particle shadow velocimetry (PSV). This technique is a non-scattering approach that relies on direct in-line volume illumination by a pulsed source such as a light-emitting diode (LED). A narrow depth-of-field (DoF) is required for imaging a 2-dimensional plane within a flow volume. Shadows of the bubbles were collected by a high-speed camera. Once a reference image, taken when no bubbles were present in the flow, was subtracted from the images, the image was segmented using an edge detection technique. The Canny algorithm was determined to be best suited for this application. A curvature profile method was employed to distinguish individual bubbles within a cluster of highly overlapping bubbles. The utilized algorithm was made to detect partly overlapping bubbles and reconstruct the missing parts. The movement of recognized individual bubbles was tracked on a two dimensional plane within a flow volume. In order to obtain quantitative results, the wake of a ventilated hydrofoil was investigated by applying the shadowgraphy technique and the described bubble detection algorithm. These experiments were carried out in the high speed cavitation tunnel at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) of the University of Minnesota. This research is jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Re- search, Dr. Ron Joslin, program manager, and the Department of Energy, Golden Field Office.

  20. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Annoni, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2017-08-03

    Offsetting turbines' yaw orientations from incoming wind is a powerful tool that may be leveraged to reduce undesirable wake effects on downstream turbines. First, we examine a simple two-turbine case to gain intuition as to how inflow direction uncertainty affects the optimal solution. The turbines are modeled with unidirectional inflow such that one turbine directly wakes the other, using ten rotor diameter spacing. We perform optimization under uncertainty (OUU) via a parameter sweep of the front turbine. The OUU solution generally prefers less steering. We then do this optimization for a 60-turbine wind farm with unidirectional inflow, varying the degree of inflow uncertainty and approaching this OUU problem by nesting a polynomial chaos expansion uncertainty quantification routine within an outer optimization. We examined how different levels of uncertainty in the inflow direction effect the ratio of the expected values of deterministic and OUU solutions for steering strategies in the large wind farm, assuming the directional uncertainty used to reach said OUU solution (this ratio is defined as the value of the stochastic solution or VSS).

  1. Studies of Particle Wake Potentials in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ian; Graziani, Frank; Glosli, James; Strozzi, David; Surh, Michael; Richards, David; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren

    2011-10-01

    Fast Ignition studies require a detailed understanding of electron scattering, stopping, and energy deposition in plasmas with variable values for the number of particles within a Debye sphere. Presently there is disagreement in the literature concerning the proper description of these processes. Developing and validating proper descriptions requires studying the processes using first-principle electrostatic simulations and possibly including magnetic fields. We are using the particle-particle particle-mesh (PPPM) code ddcMD and the particle-in-cell (PIC) code BEPS to perform these simulations. As a starting point in our study, we examine the wake of a particle passing through a plasma in 3D electrostatic simulations performed with ddcMD and with BEPS using various cell sizes. In this poster, we compare the wakes we observe in these simulations with each other and predictions from Vlasov theory. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by UCLA under Grant DE-FG52-09NA29552.

  2. Characterizing cylinder and hydrofoil wake dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Morten; Seim, Bjarte G.; Arndt, Roger E. A.

    2009-11-01

    A number of high speed PIV measurements of wakes trailing a NACA 0015, c=0.081m, and a cylinder D= 0.0127m, in the speed range 2 through 9 m/s have been made in the high speed water tunnel at SAFL- UMN. The cylinder vortex shedding follows closely St=0.2, while that off the hydrofoil is more irregular. Although the hydrofoil shows a more irregular nature a measure for both shedding frequencies and vortex strength of is of great interest also for drag analysis. The direct approach mapping individual structures, e.g. vorticity based analysis, can be obscured by the quality of the measurements made, hence other methods to reveal frequency and strength are in demand. A study were the mapping of time variation of the main flow direction impulse flux integrated over the wake at, minimum two, downstream positions has been made. A cross-correlation analysis of the impulse flux can reveal structure transport speeds, the frequency spectrum will reflect the shedding frequency, while the temporal variation represents the strength. For the hydrofoil it's shown that a significant cross- correlation is present. In terms of spectra even the more structured shedding from cylinders are hard to capture, and finally the vortex strength found using the cited algorithm seems somewhat unreliable. A thorough comparison between the suggested measure and traditional measures is given.

  3. Brain mechanisms that control sleep and waking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jerome

    This review paper presents a brief historical survey of the technological and early research that laid the groundwork for recent advances in sleep-waking research. A major advance in this field occurred shortly after the end of World War II with the discovery of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) as the neural source in the brain stem of the waking state. Subsequent research showed that the brain stem activating system produced cortical arousal via two pathways: a dorsal route through the thalamus and a ventral route through the hypothalamus and basal forebrain. The nuclei, pathways, and neurotransmitters that comprise the multiple components of these arousal systems are described. Sleep is now recognized as being composed of two very different states: rapid eye movements (REMs) sleep and non-REM sleep. The major findings on the neural mechanisms that control these two sleep states are presented. This review ends with a discussion of two current views on the function of sleep: to maintain the integrity of the immune system and to enhance memory consolidation.

  4. Rainfall-enhanced blooming in typhoon wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Oey, L. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Strong phytoplankton blooming in tropical-cyclone (TC) wakes over the oligotrophic oceans potentially contributes to long-term changes in global biogeochemical cycles. Yet blooming has traditionally been discussed using anecdotal events and its biophysical mechanics remain poorly understood. Here we identify dominant blooming patterns using 16 years of ocean-color data in the wakes of 141 typhoons in western North Pacific. We observe right-side asymmetric blooming shortly after the storms, attributed previously to sub-mesoscale re-stratification, but thereafter a left-side asymmetry which coincides with the left-side preference in rainfall due to the large-scale wind shear. Biophysical model experiments and observations demonstrate that heavier rainfall freshens the near-surface water, leading to stronger stratification, decreased turbulence and enhanced blooming. Our results suggest that rainfall plays a previously unrecognized, critical role in TC-induced blooming, with potentially important implications for global biogeochemical cycles especially in view of the recent and projected increases in TC-intensity that harbingers stronger mixing and heavier rain under the storm.

  5. Sleep Homeostatic and Waking Behavioral Phenotypes in Egr3-Deficient Mice Associated with Serotonin Receptor 5-HT2 Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønli, Janne; Clegern, William C; Schmidt, Michelle A; Nemri, Rahmi S; Rempe, Michael J; Gallitano, Amelia L; Wisor, Jonathan P

    2016-12-01

    The expression of the immediate early gene early growth response 3 (Egr3) is a functional marker of brain activity including responses to novelty, sustained wakefulness, and sleep. We examined the role of this gene in regulating wakefulness and sleep. Electroencephalogram/electromyogram (EEG/EMG) were recorded in Egr3-/- and wild-type (WT) mice during 24 h baseline, 6 h sleep disruption and 6 h recovery. Serotonergic signaling was assessed with 6 h EEG/EMG recordings after injections of nonselective 5-HT2 antagonist (clozapine), selective 5-HT2 antagonists (5-HT2A; MDL100907 and 5-HT2BC; SB206553) and a cocktail of both selective antagonists, administered in a randomized order to each animal. Egr3-/- mice did not exhibit abnormalities in the timing of wakefulness and slow wave sleep (SWS); however, EEG dynamics in SWS (suppressed 1-3 Hz power) and in quiet wakefulness (elevated 3-8 Hz and 15-35 Hz power) differed in comparison to WT-mice. Egr3-/- mice showed an exaggerated response to sleep disruption as measured by active wakefulness, but with a blunted increase in homeostatic sleep drive (elevated 1-4 Hz power) relative to WT-mice. Egr3-/-mice exhibit greatly reduced sedative effects of clozapine at the electroencephalographic level. In addition, clozapine induced a previously undescribed dissociated state (low amplitude, low frequency EEG and a stable, low muscle tone) lasting up to 2 h in WT-mice. Egr3-/- mice did not exhibit this phenomenon. Selective 5-HT2A antagonist, alone or in combination with selective 5-HT2BC antagonist, caused EEG slowing coincident with behavioral quiescence in WT-mice but not in Egr3-/- mice. Egr3 has an essential role in regulating cortical arousal, wakefulness, and sleep, presumably by its regulation of 5-HT2 receptors.

  6. The ontology of vision. The invisible, consciousness of Living matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia eFiorio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available If I close my eyes, the absence of light activates the peripheral cells devoted to the perception of darkness. The awareness of ‘seeing oneself seeing’ is in its essence a thought, one that is internal to the vision and previous to any object of sight. To this amphibious faculty, the diaphanous color of darkness, Aristotle assigns the principle of knowledge. Vision is a whole perceptual system, not a channel of sense. Functions of vision are interweaved to the texture of human interaction within a terrestrial environment that is in turn contained into the cosmic order. Within the internal resonance of a double reflection, the living being is the transitive host between two orders of scale, both bigger and smaller than the individual and unity. In the perceptual integrative system of human vision, the convergence-divergence of the corporeal presence and the diffraction of its own appearance is the margin. The sensation of being no longer coincides with the breath of life, it does not seems ‘real’ without the trace of some visible evidence and its simultaneous ‘sharing.’ Without a shadow, without an imprint, and destined for multiple invisible witnesses, the numeric copia of the physical presence inhabits the transient memory of our electronic prostheses. A rudimentary ‘visuality’ replaces tangible experience dissipating its meaning and the awareness of being alive. Transversal to the civilizations of the ancient world, through different orders of function and status, the anthropomorphic figuration of archaic sculpture questions the idea of Being. Ancient statues do not appear in order to be visible as artworks, but rather to exist. The awareness of human finiteness seals the compulsion to ‘give body’ to an invisible apparition that shapes the figuration of Being as the corporeal expression of an ontogenetic waking of human consciousness.Subject and object, the term humanum fathoms the relationship between matter and its living

  7. Inheriting the past: Exploring historical consciousness across generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Clark

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant research into the meaning and operation of historical consciousness, there is still much to be understood about its hereditary function. For example, what does historical inheritance look like? How does it influence our individual and collective historical consciousnesses? And, just as critically, what happens to historical consciousness when history is deliberately withheld, when that inheritance is suspended or severed? As a way into some of these questions about passing on the past, this paper draws on a qualitative research project into historical consciousness in Australia to explore how so-called ‘ordinary people’ see themselves as part of a historical narrative. It reveals that historical inheritance is critical to our historical consciousness, and it notes the profound impact of forgetting on participants, raising important questions about the role of ‘silence’ and ‘absence’ in the formation of historical consciousness.

  8. Opposing effects of attention and consciousness on afterimages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2010-05-11

    The brain's ability to handle sensory information is influenced by both selective attention and consciousness. There is no consensus on the exact relationship between these two processes and whether they are distinct. So far, no experiment has simultaneously manipulated both. We carried out a full factorial 2 x 2 study of the simultaneous influences of attention and consciousness (as assayed by visibility) on perception, correcting for possible concurrent changes in attention and consciousness. We investigated the duration of afterimages for all four combinations of high versus low attention and visible versus invisible. We show that selective attention and visual consciousness have opposite effects: paying attention to the grating decreases the duration of its afterimage, whereas consciously seeing the grating increases the afterimage duration. These findings provide clear evidence for distinctive influences of selective attention and consciousness on visual perception.

  9. [Cognitive neuroscience of consciousness: from theory to bedside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Lionel

    2013-05-01

    The exploration of the neural bases of consciousness (both conscious states and conscious mental contents) has progressed significantly over the last 15 years, in particular concerning the investigation of conscious access during perception. These advancements stem both from original neuropsychological studies, and from the rapid development of functional brain-imaging tools and methods. Only since recently these discoveries lead to medical applications aiming at improving the evaluation and follow-up of patients suffering from impairments of functional communication and/or of consciousness (comatose, vegetative, minimally conscious states, or paralyzed patients such as the "locked in" syndrome or similar conditions). By contributing to possible improvements of diagnosis and prognosis evaluations of these complex medical situations, these new tools open new perspectives associated with noteworthy ethical, social and philosophic implications.

  10. Brain damage and the moral significance of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies of brain-damaged patients diagnosed as in the vegetative state suggest that the patients might be conscious. This might seem to raise no new ethical questions given that in related disputes both sides agree that evidence for consciousness gives strong reason to preserve life. We question this assumption. We clarify the widely held but obscure principle that consciousness is morally significant. It is hard to apply this principle to difficult cases given that philosophers of mind distinguish between a range of notions of consciousness and that is unclear which of these is assumed by the principle. We suggest that the morally relevant notion is that of phenomenal consciousness and then use our analysis to interpret cases of brain damage. We argue that enjoyment of consciousness might actually give stronger moral reasons not to preserve a patient's life and, indeed, that these might be stronger when patients retain significant cognitive function.

  11. Body consciousness and somaesthetics in music education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer aspekter af Richard Shusterman (2008) Body Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness and Somaesthetics herunder bogens relevans for musikpædagogik og specielt Shustermans læsning af Merleau-Pontys fænomenologi. Shustermans definitioner af fire former for intentionalitet...... sammenlignes med lignende distinktioner i forbindele med fire grundlæggende former for deltagelse (Holgersen (2002). Mening og deltagelse). Deltagelse kan lige som musikalsk læring anskues i forhold til forskellige niveauer af kropslig bevidsthed, og det diskuteres hvorvidt Merleau-Pontys forståelse af...

  12. Conscious Sedation: Emerging Trends in Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Sharan, Radhe; Makkar, Vega; Gupta, Kewal Krishan; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Kataria, Amar Parkash

    2017-01-01

    Dental fear and anxiety is a common problem in pediatric patients. There is considerable variation in techniques used to manage them. Various sedation techniques using many different anesthetic agents have gained considerable popularity over the past few years. Children are not little adults; they differ physically, psychologically, and emotionally. The purpose of this review is to survey recent trends and concerning issues in the rapidly changing field of pediatric sedation. We will study the topic from the perspective of an anesthesiologist. It will also provide information to practitioners on the practice of conscious sedation in dentistry and will also outline the route of administration, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of various drugs used.

  13. Music therapy with disorders of consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magee, Wendy L.; O'Kelly, Julian

    is to present the latest developments in music therapy intervention and measurement with people with disorders of consciousness stemming from acquired profound brain injury. We will share a standardized clinical protocol and examine recent research findings that illustrate the benefits of music-based methods...... at a cortical level using EEG methods. The workshop aims to stimulate dialogue with the neuromusicology community in order to heighten awareness of the clinical challenges faced in the course of applying evidence in the theory, practice, and measurement of music as a clinical tool....

  14. Firelight: Rebellion and Awakening of Female Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Jiachong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available "Firelight" is a movie directed by William Nicholson in 1997,the movie through the heroine Elizabeth in order to earn money at the expense of his body to go and the British aristocracy Charlie to carry out a surrogate transaction experience,profound analysis and reflection of the rebellion and awakening of women's consciousness in Vitoria,show the heroine Elizabeth unwilling to succumb to the patriarchal society culture into the "other" status.She is constantly seeking love and respect,finally got the spirit of freedom

  15. Making CSB+-Tree Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performan...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  16. Natural Fabrications Science, Emergence and Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, William

    2012-01-01

    The spectacular success of the scientific enterprise over the last four hundred years has led to the promise of an all encompassing vision of the natural world. In this elegant picture, everything we observe is based upon just a few fundamental processes and entities. The almost infinite variety and complexity of the world is thus the product of emergence. But the concept of emergence is fraught with controversy and confusion. This book ponders the question of how emergence should be understood within the scientific picture, and whether a complete vision of the world can be attained that includes consciousness.

  17. Predicting the conscious experience of other people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota

    of consciousness, and to test whether such correlates generalized reliably across individuals. We used a 274 channel MEG system to record signals from 8 healthy participants while they viewed an intermittently presented binocular rivalry stimulus consisting of a face and a grating. Using a leave-one-out cross......-validation procedure, we trained support vector machines on the MEG signals to decode the rivalry percept. Decoding was significantly better than chance in all participants. We then tested whether a support vector machine trained on MEG signals from one participant could successfully decode the rivalry percept...

  18. On the relation between complex brain activity and consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Schartner, Michael Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Why does it feel like something to be awake? I.e. how is consciousness generated by the body, the brain in particular? Seeking to map phenomenological properties of any first person experience to neural activity patterns, theories of consciousness suggest a correlation between a specific type of neural dynamical complexity and the level of consciousness: When awake and aware, all brain regions are to a certain extent connected and there is diversity in the interactions. In support of this, Ca...

  19. Co-evolution of human consciousness and language (revisited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses the view that human consciousness may share aspects of "animal awareness" with other species, but has its unique form because humans possess language. Two ingredients of a theory of the evolution of human consciousness are offered: the view that a précis of intended activity is necessarily formed in the brain of a human that communicates in a human way; and the notion that such a précis underwrites the uniquely human aspect of consciousness.

  20. On the neural mechanisms subserving consciousness and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eTallon-Baudry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness, as described in the experimental literature, is a multi-faceted phenomenon, that impinges on other well-studied concepts such as attention and control. Do consciousness and attention refer to different aspects of the same core phenomenon, or do they correspond to distinct functions? One possibility to address this question is to examine the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness and attention. If consciousness and attention pertain to the same concept, they should rely on shared neural mechanisms. Conversely, if their underlying mechanisms are distinct, then consciousness and attention should be considered as distinct entities. This paper therefore reviews neurophysiological facts arguing in favor or against a tight relationship between consciousness and attention. Three neural mechanisms that have been associated with both attention and consciousness are examined (neural amplification, involvement of the fronto-parietal network, and oscillatory synchrony, to conclude that the commonalities between attention and consciousness at the neural level may have been overestimated. Last but not least, experiments in which both attention and consciousness were probed at the neural level point toward a dissociation between the two concepts. It therefore appears from this review that consciousness and attention rely on distinct neural properties, although they can interact at the behavioral level. It is proposed that a "cumulative influence model", in which attention and consciousness correspond to distinct neural mechanisms feeding a single decisional process leading to behavior, fits best with available neural and behavioral data. In this view, consciousness should not be considered as a top-level executive function but should rather be defined by its experiential properties.