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Sample records for sussex southern england

  1. Trans-Tethyan correlation of the Lower-Middle Cenomanian boundary interval; southern England (Southerham, near Lewes, Sussex) and Douar el Khiana, northeastern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, William J.; Gale, Andrew S.

    2017-03-01

    A 480 m section of marls with widely separated levels of nodular limestone in the Fahdene Formation north of Bou Khadra in Tebessa Province, northeastern Algeria, spans the Lower/Middle Cenomanian boundary. A total of 30 ammonite species are present, of which two: Forbesiceras reversum and Calycoceras (Newboldiceras) algeriense are new. The fauna allows recognition of the Northwest European upper Lower Cenomanian Mantelliceras dixoni Zone, the succeeding lower Middle Cenomanian Cunningtoniceras inerme Zone, the Acanthoceras rhotomagense Zone and its subzones of Turrilites costatus and Turrilites acutus. The sequence of index species occurs in the same order in both north-eastern Tunisia and the Southerham Grey Pit in Sussex (and indeed elsewhere in Northwest Europe), indicating these to be robust assemblage zones and subzones that can be recognised on both the north and south sides of the Tethys. Other occurrences of taxa that are common in both sections and regions are markedly different, and include the co-occurrence of Cunningtoniceras inerme (Pervinquière, 1907) with Acanthoceras rhotomagense (Brongniart, 1822) in the costatus Subzone in north-eastern Algeria and central Tunisia, the extension of Acompsoceras renevieri (Sharpe, 1857) into the lower Middle Cenomanian in north-eastern Tunisia, whilst the acme of Turrilites scheuchzerianus Bosc, 1801, is in the dixoni Zone in Northwest Europe, and in the inerme Zone in northeasten Algeria and adjacent parts of Central Tunisia. These differences are not a result of collection failure or non-preservation, but must rather reflect environmental controls on occurrence and abundance.

  2. Anthropocene Survival of Southern New England's Salt ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern New England, salt marshes are exceptionally vulnerable to the impacts of accelerated sea level rise. Regional rates of sea level rise have been as much as 50 % greater than the global average over past decades, a more than fourfold increase over late Holocene background values. In addition, coastal development blocks many potential marsh migration routes, and compensatory mechanisms relying on positive feedbacks between inundation and sediment deposition are insufficient to counter inundation increases in extreme low-turbidity tidal waters. Accordingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that marsh submergence is occurring in southern New England. A combination of monitoring data, field re-surveys, radiometric dating, and analysis of peat composition have established that, beginning in the early and mid-twentieth century, the dominant low-marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, has encroached upward in tidal marshes, and typical high-marsh plants, including Juncus gerardii and Spartina patens, have declined, providing strong evidence that vegetation changes are being driven, at least in part, by higher water levels. Additionally, aerial and satellite imagery show shoreline retreat, widening and headward extension of channels, and new and expanded interior depressions. Papers in this special section highlight changes in marsh-building processes, patterns of vegetation loss, and shifts in species composition. The final papers turn to strategies for minimiz

  3. Primary wood-product industries of southern New England - 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Bones

    1973-01-01

    The results of a complete canvass of the primary wood manufacturers in southern New England. The report contains data about wood production and receipts for the states of the region. Comparisons are made with a similar 1952 survey and trends in industrial wood output are noted.

  4. West Nile virus vector Culex modestus established in southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golding Nick

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk posed to the United Kingdom by West Nile virus (WNV has previously been considered low, due to the absence or scarcity of the main Culex sp. bridge vectors. The mosquito Culex modestus is widespread in southern Europe, where it acts as the principle bridge vector of WNV. This species was not previously thought to be present in the United Kingdom. Findings Mosquito larval surveys carried out in 2010 identified substantial populations of Cx. modestus at two sites in marshland in southeast England. Host-seeking-adult traps placed at a third site indicate that the relative seasonal abundance of Cx. modestus peaks in early August. DNA barcoding of these specimens from the United Kingdom and material from southern France confirmed the morphological identification. Conclusions Cx. modestus appears to be established in the North Kent Marshes, possibly as the result of a recent introduction. The addition of this species to the United Kingdom's mosquito fauna may increase the risk posed to the United Kingdom by WNV.

  5. Depletions in winter total ozone values over southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, A.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been made of the recently re-evaluated time series of daily total ozone values for the period 1979 to 1992 for southern England. The series consists of measurements made at two stations, Bracknell and Camborne. The series shows a steady decline in ozone values in the spring months over the period, and this is consistent with data from an earlier decade that has been published but not re-evaluated. Of exceptional note is the monthly mean for January 1992 which was very significantly reduced from the normal value, and was the lowest so far measured for this month. This winter was also noteworthy for a prolonged period during which a blocking anticyclone dominated the region, and the possibility existed that this was related to the ozone anomaly. It was possible to determine whether the origin of the low ozone value lay in ascending stratospheric motions. A linear regression analysis of ozone value deviation against 100hPa temperature deviations was used to reduce ozone values to those expected in the absence of high pressure. The assumption was made that the normal regression relation was not affected by atmospheric anomalies during the winter. This showed that vertical motions in the stratosphere only accounted for part of the ozone anomaly and that the main cause of the ozone deficit lay either in a reduced stratospheric circulation to which the anticyclone may be related or in chemical effects in the reduced stratospheric temperatures above the high pressure area. A study of the ozone time series adjusted to remove variations correlated with meteorological quantities, showed that during the period since 1979, one other winter, that of 1982/3, showed a similar although less well defined deficit in total ozone values.

  6. Restoration of a wild grey partridge shoot: a major development in the Sussex study, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific basis of wild grey partridge management has been known for a generation. This includes controlling nest predators, providing nesting cover, having sufficient insect food for chicks and appropriate rates of shooting. More recently, measures such as providing food for adult birds and habitats for protection from birds of prey have also been considered important. Habitat provision can be expensive, but in the UK costs can be partially recovered through governmental agri–environment schemes. The landowner still needs to pay for the essential gamekeeper. Since 2003/04, one part of the Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust’s (GWCT Sussex Study area has put these principles of environmental management into practice with the aim of restoring a wild grey partridge shoot to this part of Southern England. Results have been impressive, with the spring pair density increasing from 0.3 pairs/100 ha in 2003 to nearly 20 pairs/100 ha in 2010 on an area of just over 10 km2. Over the past two years a wild grey partridge shoot has taken place, and the landowner and his team have gained national recognition for their conservation work.

  7. Evidence that soil aluminum enforces site fidelity of southern New England forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. W. Bigelow; C. D. Canham

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition of hardwood forests of the northeastern United States corresponds with soil chemistry, and differential performance along soil calcium (Ca) gradients has been proposed as a mechanism for enforcing this fidelity of species to site. We conducted studies in a southern New England forest to test if surface-soil Ca is more important than other...

  8. Estimating daily recharge to the Chalk aquifer of southern England – a simple methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Limbrick

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, practical model for estimating daily recharge - as hydrologically effective rainfall (HER - to the Chalk outcrop of southern England is presented. Daily meteorological observations are the only data requirements. The model was calibrated for a Chalk river, the Wey, in south Dorset. Six different root constant thresholds were used to estimate daily actual evapotranspiration (AET rates for the river. The model was then used to calculate HER using the six estimates of AET. Daily mean flow was simulated using three different models: CAPTAIN, IHACRES and INCA. The six HER estimates provided independent model inputs. HER calculated using a root constant of 200mm proved suitable not only for the Wey, but also (via a validation exercise for other rivers on the Chalk of southern England for riverflow simulations as well as the timing and magnitude of groundwater recharge. The results suggest that a root constant of 200mm is optimal for the Chalk outcrop of southern England. The model is particularly useful for studies where the application of more complex methods of recharge estimation is impractical. Keywords: Chalk aquifer, root constant, recharge, Hydrologically Effective Rainfall, model, riverflow, CAPTAIN, IHACRES, INCA, River Wey

  9. Exploring Geochemical Markers of the Anthropocene in River Sediments: Southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, J.

    2015-12-01

    The sedimentary record of New England is complex. From glacial till to colonial land use to the industrial revolution, any sediment preserved is intertwined and muddled by humans. Recent studies support the idea that any anthropogenic markers in the sediment record are site specific. Southern New England is marked by a myriad of practices including farming, charcoal kilns, hatting, mill dams, and iron furnaces. While specific markers of the anthropocene have been identified, little work has been done to correlate and quantify these noted markers across multiple basins. Specifically, a combination of x-ray fluorescence (XRF), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and grain size analysis were done on sediment cores taken within Southern New England across various watersheds. We present a combination of geochemical analysis and detrital zircon geochronology in order identify and account for basin differences. This in turn results in a more comprehensive trans-basin understanding of the anthropocene in this region. We observe strong evidence that supports the idea of geochemical markers anthropocene which include an increase in Mercury and Lead content in the sediments. Additionally, in basins where mill dams are present we observe sediment records consistent with flood events and dam degradation. While still fairly novel and understudied, our results provide insight to the much often question topic of the anthropocene in relation to this particular region and the potential pitfalls of doing large scale anthropogenic dating.

  10. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency in a Sussex spaniel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, C J; Platt, S R; Shelton, G D

    2004-03-01

    A two-year-old, intact female Sussex spaniel was presented with signs of exercise intolerance. Pre- and post-exercise serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and urinary organic acid screening supported a diagnosis of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, as previously reported in this breed. Dietary therapy was initiated for six months, during which time there was no reported clinical deterioration. A full neurological examination and repeat evaluation of lactate and pyruvate concentrations before and after exercise was conducted one year after diagnosis, at which time the patient had been without dietary modification for six months and had developed more severe exercise intolerance along with evidence of central nervous system dysfunction.

  11. Fraud report 2009:a survey into fraud and financial risk management Southern England

    OpenAIRE

    Linnell, Kay; Trafford, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Fraud is a major risk to the survival of businesses in any adverse economic climate. As ‘UK plc’ battles against the worst recession for a generation or more, this Fraud and Risk Management survey provides an extremely pertinent and timely report on the readiness and ability of businesses to combat the threat of fraud. It is also an important survey because it is based on ‘honest responses’ from organisations in Southern England that completed a secure online questionnaire. This survey provid...

  12. 'All under one roof?' differences in food availability and shopping patterns in Southern France and Central England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Clare; Holdsworth, Michelle; Gerber, Mariette

    2008-04-01

    This study investigates patterns of food shopping and availability of fruit and vegetables and snack foods in a northern European (Central England) and southern European region (Southern France). Two studies were conducted in England (Nottingham) and France (Montpellier): (i) Cross-sectional population surveys using self-administered postal questionnaires to assess type of outlets used for food shopping in random population samples (England: n = 826; Montpellier: n = 766). (ii) Food availability studies to determine: the number of food outlets in defined comparable geographical areas; the number stocking fruit and vegetables, their quality and energy dense snacks. The English respondents used supermarkets most regularly (P difference was not significant. Crisps (P England. Food shopping was done 'under one roof' more often in England, whereas in France, shopping was done in smaller specialist shops, which was reflected in their presence within the locality. Even though availability of fruit and vegetables was good in both countries, snack foods were more abundant in England. This clearly impacts on the food environment and could explain the higher prevalence of obesity in England, factors which are also influenced by culture, habits and convenience.

  13. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  14. Wetland Loss Patterns and Inundation-Productivity Relationships Prognosticate Widespread Salt Marsh Loss for Southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidal salt marsh is a key defense against, yet is especially vulnerable to, the effects of accelerated sea level rise. To determine whether salt marshes in southern New England will be stable given increasing inundation over the coming decades, we examined current loss patterns, ...

  15. HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDAANCE OF HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS (HARLEQUIN DUCKS)WINTERING IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlequin ducks that winter along the east coast of North America are listed as an endangered population in Canada, and they use several coastal wintering sites in southern New England, USA that are subject to varying degrees of urbanization. We studied patterns of habitat use b...

  16. Impact of Common Kingfisher on a salmon population during the nestling period in southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fish-eating birds on their fish-prey populations has been a matter of concern to conservationists, anglers and fishery interests, especially when both bird and fish species have conservation status and are afforded some protection by law. Understanding the predator-prey interactions will assist in managing these potential conflicts. This situation could arise with the Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis, whose range covers many important Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar rivers. In order to increase our knowledge on predator-prey interactions between these species, we collected data on the diet and feeding rates of a kingfisher population breeding in an Atlantic salmon river in southern England (River Frome. Results showed that, during nestling period, kingfishers provided a mean of 62 fish per day to the nest and that the mean salmon intake was 2.5% of the entire diet, which is equivalent to 86 salmon parr consumed by each kingfishers pair for the entire breeding period (assuming 2.2 broods/pair/year. The total 0-group salmon population in the River Frome was 63 900. The estimated loss of 0-group salmon parr to the kingfishers over one season was 0.8%, thus supporting the view that the kingfisher has a negligible biological impact over this salmon population.

  17. Variability in carbon dioxide fluxes for dense urban, suburban and woodland environments in southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Helen; Kotthaus, Simone; Grimmond, C. Sue; Bjorkegren, Alex; Wilkinson, Matt; Morrison, Will; Evans, Jon; Morison, James; Christen, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The net exchange of carbon dioxide between the surface and atmosphere can be measured using the eddy covariance technique. Fluxes from a dense urban environment (central London), a suburban landscape (Swindon) and a woodland ecosystem (Alice Holt) are compared. All sites are located in southern England and experience similar climatic and meteorological conditions, yet have very different land cover. The signatures of anthropogenic and biogenic processes are explored at various (daily, seasonal and annual) timescales. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying the mixture of controls that determine the flux. In summer, there are clear similarities between the suburban and woodland sites, as the diurnal behaviour is dominated by photosynthetic uptake. In winter, however, vegetation is largely dormant and human activity determines the pattern of fluxes at the urban and suburban sites. Emissions from building heating augment the net release of carbon dioxide in cold months. Road use is a major contributor to the total emissions, and the diurnal cycle in the observed fluxes reflects this: in central London roads are busy throughout the day, whereas in Swindon a double-peaked rush-hour signal is evident. The net exchange of carbon dioxide is estimated for each site and set in context with other studies around the world. Central London has the smallest proportion of vegetation and largest emissions amongst study sites in the literature to date. Although Swindon's appreciable vegetation fraction helps to offset the anthropogenic emissions, even in summertime the 24h total flux is usually positive, indicating carbon release. Comparison of these three sites in a similar region demonstrates the effects of increasing urban density and changing land use on the atmosphere. Findings are relevant in terms of characterising the behaviour of urban surfaces and for quantifying the impact of anthropogenic activities.

  18. Carbon dioxide fluxes over an ancient broadleaved deciduous woodland in southern England

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    M. V. Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study of canopy-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide from 2007 to 2009 above a site in Wytham Woods, an ancient temperate broadleaved deciduous forest in southern England. Gap-filled net ecosystem exchange (NEE data were partitioned into gross primary productivity (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Re and analysed on daily, monthly and annual timescales. Over the continuous 24 month study period annual GPP was estimated to be 21.1 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 and Re to be 19.8 Mg C ha−1 yr−1; net ecosystem productivity (NEP was 1.2 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. These estimates were compared with independent bottom-up estimates derived from net primary productivity (NPP and flux chamber measurements recorded at a plot within the flux footprint in 2008 (GPP = 26.5 ± 6.8 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, Re = 24.8 ± 6.8 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, biomass increment = ~1.7 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Over the two years the difference in seasonal NEP was predominantly caused by changes in ecosystem respiration, whereas GPP remained similar for equivalent months in different years. Although solar radiation was the largest influence on daily values of CO2 fluxes (R2 = 0.53 for the summer months for a linear regression, variation in Re appeared to be driven by temperature. Our findings suggest that this ancient woodland site is currently a substantial sink for carbon, resulting from continued growth that is probably a legacy of past management practices abandoned over 40 years ago. Our GPP and Re values are generally higher than other broadleaved temperate deciduous woodlands and may represent the influence of the UK's maritime climate, or the particular species composition of this site. The carbon sink value of Wytham Woods

  19. Minerals safeguarding areas and mineral consultation areas for West Sussex

    OpenAIRE

    Hannis, S.D.; Steadman, E. J.; Linley, K.A.; Newsham, R.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes work carried out by the British Geological Survey on behalf of West Sussex County Council to delineate its Minerals Safeguarding Areas and Mineral Consultation Areas. This is in accordance with the methodology outlined in “A guide to mineral safeguarding in England” (McEvoy et al., 2007), which is in line with the Communities and Local Government document, Mineral Policy Statement 1: Planning and Minerals. This was released in November 2006 and it introduc...

  20. An investigation into the move towards electronic journals: a case study of NHS libraries in Kent, Surrey and Sussex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Electronic journals are so embedded into practice in academic libraries that it is easy to forget that this is not the case everywhere. In NHS libraries, for example, the staff face a particular set of issues. This article is based on Rebecca England's dissertation on this topic, completed as part of the MSc Econ course in Information and Library studies at Aberystwyth University. Rebecca is E-resources Librarian at the Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust. She investigated the momentum towards electronic journals in NHS libraries in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region and the potential for a regional purchasing consortium. © 2013 The author. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  1. Measurement of Suspended Sediment Transport Processes off the Holderness Coast - Southern North Sea, England

    OpenAIRE

    Blewett, Joanna Catherine

    1998-01-01

    A field campaign was set up as part of the LOIS-RACS coastal program (1994-1996), to identify the near-bed physical processes responsible for suspended sediment movement in shallow water (10-20m depth) off the Holdemess coast, NE England. A new benthic tripod system Boundary Layer Intelligent Sensor System (BLISS) has been developed and deployed along a transect at three sites, normal to the coastline at Tunstall. Measurements of current velocity, suspended sediment concentrati...

  2. Ticks and Borrelia in urban and peri-urban green space habitats in a city in southern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Kayleigh M; Fonville, Manoj; Gillingham, Emma L; Coipan, Elena Claudia; Pietzsch, Maaike E; Krawczyk, Aleksandra I; Vaux, Alexander G C; Cull, Benjamin; Sprong, Hein; Medlock, Jolyon M

    2017-03-01

    Ticks are becoming increasingly recognised as important vectors of pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas, including green space used for recreational activities. In the UK, the risk posed by ticks in such areas is largely unknown. In order to begin to assess the risk of ticks in urban/peri-urban areas in southern England, questing ticks were collected from five different habitat types (grassland, hedge, park, woodland and woodland edge) in a city during the spring, summer and autumn of 2013/2014 and screened for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In addition, seasonal differences in B. burgdorferi s.l. prevalence were also investigated at a single site during 2015. Ixodes ricinus presence and activity were significantly higher in woodland edge habitat and during spring surveys. DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 18.1% of nymphs collected across the 25 sites during 2013 and 2014 and two nymphs also tested positive for the newly emerging tick-borne pathogen B. miyamotoi. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. prevalence at a single site surveyed in 2015 were found to be significantly higher during spring and summer than in autumn, with B. garinii and B. valaisiana most commonly detected. These data indicate that a range of habitats within an urban area in southern England support ticks and that urban Borrelia transmission cycles may exist in some of the urban green spaces included in this study. Sites surveyed were frequently used by humans for recreational activities, providing opportunity for exposure to Borrelia infected ticks in an urban/peri-urban space that might not be typically associated with tick-borne disease transmission. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. How southern New England became magnetic north: the acceptance of animal magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sheila O'Brien

    2007-08-01

    Charles Poyen's lecture tour introducing animal magnetism to America has been described as triumphant (Forrest, 2000), but according to Poyen's own account (1837/1982) the beginning of his tour, devoted to northern New England, was anything but successful. Poyen success did not begin until he partnered with Cynthia Gleason, a talented hypnotic subject, from Pawtucket, Rhode Island. The subsequent lectures and demonstrations by Poyen and Gleason generated the interest that Poyen had been seeking. Rhode Island appears to have developed a much more accepting attitude toward animal magnetism than the rest of New England as indicated by the wide use of magnetism in the Providence area even after Poyen had the left the United States. In this article, I examine the roles played by Cynthia Gleason as well as Thomas H. Webb, M.D., the editor of the Providence Daily Journal and Dr. Francis Wayland, the president of Brown University, and George Capron, M.D., in furthering the acceptance of magnetism in America.

  4. Estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) of forests across southern England at high spatial and temporal resolution using the FLIGHT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankaew, Prasan; Milton, Edward; Dawson, Terry; Dash, Jadu

    2013-04-01

    Forests and woodlands play an important role in CO2 flux and in the storage of carbon, therefore it is important to be able to estimate gross primary productivity (GPP) and its change over time. The MODIS GPP product (MOD17) provides near-global GPP, but at relatively coarse spatial resolution (1km pixel size) and only every eight days. In order to study the dynamics of GPP over shorter time periods and over smaller areas it is necessary to make ground measurements or use a plant canopy model. The most reliable ground-based GPP data are those from the FLUXNET network, which comprises over 500 sites worldwide, each of which measures GPP using the eddy covariance method. Each FLUXNET measurement corresponds to GPP from an area around the sampling tower, the size and shape of which varies with weather conditions, notably wind speed and direction. The FLIGHT forest light simulation model (North, 1996) is a Monte Carlo based model to estimate the GPP from forest canopies, which does not take into account the spatial complexity of the site or the wind conditions at the time. Forests in southern England are small and embedded in a matrix of other land cover types (agriculture, urban etc.), so GPP estimated from FLIGHT needs to be adjusted to match that measured from a FLUXNET tower. The aim of this paper is to develop and test a method to adjust FLIGHT GPP so that it matches FLUXNET GPP. The advantage of this is that GPP can then be estimated over many other forests which do not possess FLUXNET sites. The study was based on data from two mixed broadleaf forests in southern England (Wytham Woods and Alice Holt forest), both of which have FLUXNET sites located within them. The FLUXNET meteorological data were prepared for use in the FLIGHT model by converting broadband irradiance to photosynthetically active radiance (PAR) and estimating diffuse PAR, using methods developed in previous work by the authors. The standard FLIGHT model tended to overestimate GPP in the winter

  5. The relative contribution of sewage and diffuse phosphorus sources in the River Avon catchment, southern England: implications for nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Michael J; Hilton, John; Irons, Gordon P; Hornby, Duncan D

    2005-05-15

    In order to effectively manage nutrient river load reductions and target remediation strategies, it is important to determine the relative contributions of diffuse and point sources across the river catchment. This study used a geographical information system (GIS) to apply phosphorus (P) export coefficients (obtained from the literature) to 58 water quality monitoring sites across a large, urbanised, mixed land use catchment, typical of southern lowland England (the River Avon, Warwickshire, UK). These coefficients were used to estimate the annual P load at each monitoring site, and also the relative contribution of point source (from sewage treatment works (STW)) and diffuse input (from both livestock and agricultural land use). The estimated annual P loads showed very close agreement (r2=0.98) with the measured total phosphorus (TP) loads. Sites with the highest proportion of P derived from STW had the highest TP concentrations and loads, and also had greater variations between seasons, with elevated P concentrations occurring during the summer months. The GIS model was re-run to determine the effect of an 80% reduction in P output from STW serving over 10,000 people, thereby assessing the effect of implementing the European Union's Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (UWWTD). The exported TP load was reduced by 52%, but the sites with the highest TP concentrations were still those with the highest proportion of P derived from STW. The GIS model was re-run to estimate the impact of 80% P reductions at a further 11 STW of varying sizes. This reduced the total TP load by only 29 tonnes year-1, but greatly reduced the P concentrations in many highly nutrient contaminated tributaries. The number of sites with P concentrations greater than 1 mg l-1 was cut from 15 (before UWWTD implementation) to 2. These findings suggest that after UWWTD implementation, resources should focus on introducing tertiary sewage treatment at the remaining large STW, before targeting

  6. The Block composite submarine landslide, southern New England slope, U.S.A.: A morphological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locat, Jacques; ten Brink, Uri S.; Chaytor, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent multibeam surveys along the continental slope and rise off southeast New England has enabled a detailed morphological analysis of the Block composite landslide. This landslide consists of at least three large debris lobes resting on a gradient less than 0.5 °. The slide took place on gradients of between 1 ° and 5 ° in Quaternary sediments likely deposited at the time of low sea level and high sedimentation rates associated with glaciations. The slide debris lobes are very close to each other and cover an area of about 1.125 km2 of the sea floor. With an average thickness of 50 m, the total volume of the deposit is estimated at 36 km3. In some cases, the departure zone appears to be near the crest of the continental slope, at a water depth between 500 and 2,000 m with debris spreading over about 20 km at a depth ranging from 2,500 to 2,600 m. From preliminary analysis, at least one lobe of the Block Composite slide (lobe 2) would require further study to evaluate its tsunamigenic potential.

  7. Meteorological responses in the atmospheric boundary layer over southern England to the deep partial eclipse of 20 March 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Stephen

    2016-09-28

    A wide range of surface and near-surface meteorological observations were made at the University of Reading's Atmospheric Observatory in central southern England (latitude 51.441° N, longitude 0.938° W, altitude 66 m above mean sea level) during the deep partial eclipse on the morning of 20 March 2015. Observations of temperature, humidity, radiation, wind speed and direction, and atmospheric pressure were made by computerized logging equipment at 1 Hz, supplemented by an automated cloud base recorder sampling at 1 min intervals and a high-resolution (approx. 10 m vertical interval) atmospheric sounding by radiosonde launched from the same location during the eclipse. Sources and details of each instrumental measurement are described briefly, followed by a summary of observed and derived measurements by meteorological parameter. Atmospheric boundary layer responses to the solar eclipse were muted owing to the heavily overcast conditions which prevailed at the observing location, but instrumental records of the event documented a large (approx. 80%) reduction in global solar radiation, a fall in air temperature of around 0.6°C, a decrease in cloud base height, and a slight increase in atmospheric stability during the eclipse. Changes in surface atmospheric moisture content and barometric pressure were largely insignificant during the event.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Habitat Fragmentation Intensifies Trade-Offs between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in a Heathland Ecosystem in Southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordingley, Justine E.; Newton, Adrian C.; Rose, Robert J.; Clarke, Ralph T.; Bullock, James M.

    2015-01-01

    While habitat fragmentation represents a major threat to global biodiversity, its impacts on provision of ecosystem services are largely unknown. We analysed biodiversity value and provision of multiple ecosystem services in 110 fragments of lowland heathland ecosystems in southern England, in which vegetation dynamics have been monitored for over 30 years. Decreasing fragment size was found to be associated with a decrease in biodiversity and recreational values, but an increase in relative carbon storage, aesthetic value and timber value. The trade-off between either biodiversity or recreational values with the other ecosystem services therefore became more pronounced as heathland size decreased. This was attributed to a higher rate of woody succession in smaller heathland fragments over the past three decades, and contrasting values of different successional vegetation types for biodiversity and provision of ecosystem services. These results suggest that habitat fragmentation can reduce the potential for developing “win win” solutions that contribute to biodiversity conservation while also supporting socio-economic development. Approaches to multi-purpose management of fragmented landscapes should therefore consider the potential trade-offs in ecosystem services and biodiversity associated with fragmentation, in order to make an effective contribution to sustainable development. PMID:26114753

  9. Habitat Fragmentation Intensifies Trade-Offs between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in a Heathland Ecosystem in Southern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordingley, Justine E; Newton, Adrian C; Rose, Robert J; Clarke, Ralph T; Bullock, James M

    2015-01-01

    While habitat fragmentation represents a major threat to global biodiversity, its impacts on provision of ecosystem services are largely unknown. We analysed biodiversity value and provision of multiple ecosystem services in 110 fragments of lowland heathland ecosystems in southern England, in which vegetation dynamics have been monitored for over 30 years. Decreasing fragment size was found to be associated with a decrease in biodiversity and recreational values, but an increase in relative carbon storage, aesthetic value and timber value. The trade-off between either biodiversity or recreational values with the other ecosystem services therefore became more pronounced as heathland size decreased. This was attributed to a higher rate of woody succession in smaller heathland fragments over the past three decades, and contrasting values of different successional vegetation types for biodiversity and provision of ecosystem services. These results suggest that habitat fragmentation can reduce the potential for developing "win win" solutions that contribute to biodiversity conservation while also supporting socio-economic development. Approaches to multi-purpose management of fragmented landscapes should therefore consider the potential trade-offs in ecosystem services and biodiversity associated with fragmentation, in order to make an effective contribution to sustainable development.

  10. Jurassic onychites (arm hooks) from squid-like cephalopods from the Wessex Basin, southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Hughes, Zoe; Page, Kevin; Price, Gregory; Smart, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    of hook that are often arranged in pairs. Using the abundance of material available to us from the Wessex Basin, we are attempting to identify the host animals wherever this is possible. If this can be established then it may be possible, using micropalaeontological samples, to determine the stratigraphical and palaeoecological ranges of some of the host macro-fossils, many of which are otherwise rarely preserved outside known lagerstätte. A recently described specimen (Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, BRMSG Ce12385) of only the hooks associated with 4 arms can, therefore, be attributed to the Clarkeiteuthis lineage. Coming from the Lower Pliensbachian of the Dorset Coast this occurrence falls in the stratigraphical 'gap' between the known taxa of the Sinemurian (Clarkeiteuthis montefiore) and the Toarcian (Clarkeiteuthis conocauda). This specimen does, however, show paired hooks of different types, similar to another specimen in Manchester University Museum: this is not seen in C. conocauda and places the specimen in C. montefiore or a yet undescribed species of Clarkeiteuthis. Engeser, T.S. & Clarke, M.R. 1988. Cephalopod hooks, both recent and fossil. In: Clarke, M.R. & Trueman, E.R. (eds), Palaeontology and Neontology of Cephalopods, vol. 12,; Wilbur, K.M. (Ed.), The Mollusca, Academic press Inc., London, 133-151. Hart, M.B. & Hutchinson, D. in press. A newly described 'clarkeiteuthid' from the Lias Group of Dorset. Geoscience in South-West England. Hart, M.B., De Jonghe, A., Page, K.N., Price, G.D. & Smart, C.W. 2016. Exceptional accumulations of statoliths in association with the Christian Malford lagerstätte (Callovian, Jurassic) in Wiltshire, United Kingdom. Palaios, 31, 203-220. Kulicki, C. & Szaniawski, H. 1972. Cephalopod arm hooks from the Jurassic of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 17, 379-419. Wilby, P.R., Hudson, J.D., Clements, R.G. & Hollingworth, N.T.J. 2004. Taphonomy and origin of an accumulate of soft-bodied cephalopods in the Oxford Clay

  11. Depth to the Moho in Southern New England and Eastern New York State from Seismic Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipar, J. J.; Ebel, J.

    2016-12-01

    The thickness of the Earth's crust is a fundamental parameter of geophysics and geology. The eastern New York/southern New England area encompasses the suture between the Paleozoic Appalachian orogen and the Proterozoic Laurentian craton. The recent installation of the IRIS Traveling Array (TA) in 2013-2014 coupled with stations operated by Boston College, Lamont-Doherty, and the US National Seismic Network provide an unprecedented source of data for seismic studies of crustal structure. We use the receiver functions complied by the EarthScope Automated Receiver Survey (EARS) to measure crustal thickness. Our procedure is to stack receiver functions (RFs) at each station using the correct moveout for the P-to-S conversion at the Moho (Ps phase). The time difference between the Ps and direct P arrivals (Ps-P time) is dependent on crustal thickness (H) and crustal S-wave velocity (Vs). To get an estimate of H, we assume that the mean P-wave velocity (Vp) in the crust is 6.5 km/s, and determine the range of Vs for a range of Poisson's ratio (0.23-0.27). We then solve for H using the P-Ps times measured from the RF stacks (at Δ=60°) and our estimates for Vp and Vs. The uncertainty in S-wave velocity translates to approximately ±2 km uncertainty in crustal thickness. Our crustal thickness map shows the well-known general progression from shallow crust near the Atlantic coast line ( 30 km) to deeper crust (45+ km) in the Laurentian craton. However, some detailed features become evident on our map. Most notably, thin crust ( 30 km) extends inland from the coast to the Connecticut River valley in eastern-central Massachusetts and southeastern New Hampshire. The Berkshire Hills of western Massachusetts have thick crust (43 km), reaching as deep as 46 km in extreme northwestern Massachusetts. Thus, there is a 13-15 km increase in crustal thickness over a distance of about 60 km. Currently, no stations are located in that zone. We find that the eastern Adirondacks have

  12. International Conference on Energy Storage, Brighton, Sussex, England, April 29-May 1, 1981, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current developmental, experimental, and production prototype energy storage systems are surveyed, with an emphasis on European programs and products. Attention is given to chemical, thermochemical/heat pump combinations, and reversible reaction heat storage methods. Applications of zeolite, hydrogenated cyclohexane, and fluidized media are examined, as are thermal storage options for industry and utilities. Phase change materials in bulk, encapsulated, and sodium acetate forms are reviewed, particularly for solar energy thermal storage. The compatibility of construction materials with latent heat storage is discussed. Battery systems for transport vehicles, load leveling, and storage of solar and wind-derived electricity are described. Aquifer storage is explored, together with underground pumped hydro and compressed air energy storage, a two-basin tidal power scheme, and kinetic energy rings such as flywheels.

  13. Examination of instructional strategies: Secondary science teachers of mainstreamed English language learners in two high schools in southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangambi, Matthieu Wakalewae

    2005-12-01

    Increasingly, English Language Learners (ELLs) are mainstreamed in science classes. As a result, science teachers must assume responsibility for these students' education. Currently, state tests show a wide performance gap between ELLs and non-ELLs in science and other content area courses. For instance, the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) shows a two years average performance of 6% for ELLs and 33% for non-ELLs in English Language Arts (ELA), Mathematics, and Science and Technology, a 27% performance gap (Lachat, 2000). The use of research based effective teaching strategies for ELLs is indispensable in order to meet ELLs' learning needs (Jarret, 1999). The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist between ELLs and non-ELLs regarding instructional strategies that secondary science teachers employ. Four areas were examined: instructional strategies mainstreamed ELLs and non-ELLs report as being most frequently employed by their science teachers, instructional strategies ELLs and non-ELLs consider most effective in their learning, the existing differences between ELLs and non-ELLs in the rating of effectiveness of instructional strategies their teachers currently practice, and factors impacting ELLs and non-ELLs' performance on high-stakes tests. This study was conducted in two urban high schools in Southern New England. The sample (N = 71) was based on the non-probability sampling technique known as convenience sampling from students registered in science classes. The questionnaire was designed based on research-based effective teaching strategies (Burnette, 1999; Ortiz, 1997), using a Likert-type scale. Several findings were of importance. First, ELLs and non-ELLs reported similar frequency of use of effective instructional strategies by teachers. However, ELLs and non-ELLs identified different preferences for strategies. Whereas non-ELLs preferred connecting learning to real life situations, ELLs rated that strategy as least

  14. Mercury bioaccumulation in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters: contamination from a trophic ecology and human health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David L; Kutil, Nicholas J; Malek, Anna J; Collie, Jeremy S

    2014-08-01

    This study examined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters, including smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), and winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata). Total Hg in dogfish and skates were positively related to their respective body size and age, indicating Hg bioaccumulation in muscle tissue. There were also significant inter-species differences in Hg levels (mean ± 1 SD, mg Hg/kg dry weight, ppm): smooth dogfish (3.3 ± 2.1 ppm; n = 54) > spiny dogfish (1.1 ± 0.7 ppm; n = 124) > little skate (0.4 ± 0.3 ppm; n = 173) ∼ winter skate (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm; n = 148). The increased Hg content of smooth dogfish was attributed to its upper trophic level status, determined by stable nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope analysis (mean δ(15)N = 13.2 ± 0.7‰), and the consumption of high Hg prey, most notably cancer crabs (0.10 ppm). Spiny dogfish had depleted δ(15)N signatures (11.6 ± 0.8‰), yet demonstrated a moderate level of contamination by foraging on pelagic prey with a range of Hg concentrations, e.g., in order of dietary importance, butterfish (Hg = 0.06 ppm), longfin squid (0.17 ppm), and scup (0.11 ppm). Skates were low trophic level consumers (δ(15)N = 11.9-12.0‰) and fed mainly on amphipods, small decapods, and polychaetes with low Hg concentrations (0.05-0.09 ppm). Intra-specific Hg concentrations were directly related to δ(15)N and carbon (δ(13)C) isotope signatures, suggesting that Hg biomagnifies across successive trophic levels and foraging in the benthic trophic pathway increases Hg exposure. From a human health perspective, 87% of smooth dogfish, 32% of spiny dogfish, and <2% of skates had Hg concentrations exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency threshold level (0.3 ppm wet weight). These results indicate that frequent consumption of smooth dogfish and spiny dogfish may adversely

  15. Spatial distribution of organic contaminants in three rivers of Southern England bound to suspended particulate material and dissolved in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John L; Hooda, Peter S; Swinden, Julian; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    The spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other emerging contaminants (ECs) such as plasticisers, perflourinated compounds (PFCs) and illicit drug metabolites in water and bound to suspended particulate material (SPM) is not well-understood. Here, we quantify levels of thirteen selected contaminants in water (n=88) and their partition to suspended particulate material (SPM, n=16) in three previously-unstudied rivers of Greater London and Southern England during a key reproduction/spawning period. Analysis was conducted using an in-house validated method for Solid Phase Extraction followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass-Spectrometry. Analytes were extracted from SPM using an optimised method for ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction. Detection frequencies of contaminants dissolved in water ranged from 3% (ethinylestradiol) to 100% (bisphenol-A). Overall mean concentrations in the aqueous-phase ranged from 14.7ng/L (benzoylecgonine) to 159ng/L (bisphenol-A). Sewage treatment works (STW) effluent was the predominant source of pharmaceuticals, while plasticisers/perfluorinated compounds may additionally enter rivers via other sources. In SPM, detection frequencies ranged from 44% (PFOA) to 94% (hydroxyacetophenone). Mean quantifiable levels of analytes bound to SPM ranged from 13.5ng/g dry SPM (0.33ng bound/L water) perfluorononanoic acid to 2830ng/g dry SPM (14.3ng bound/L water) perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. Long chain (>C7) amphipathic and acidic PFCs were found to more preferentially bind to SPM than short chain PFCs and other contaminants (Kd=34.1-75.5 vs work (n=104) enabled ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD post-hoc tests to establish significant trends in PPCP/EC spatial distribution from headwaters through downstream stretches of studied rivers. Novel findings include environmental Kd calculations, the occurrence of contaminants in river headwaters, increases in contaminant metabolite concentrations

  16. Climate change increases the probability of heavy rains in Northern England/Southern Scotland like those of storm Desmond—a real-time event attribution revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; van der Wiel, Karin; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Philip, Sjoukje; Kew, Sarah F.; Uhe, Peter; Cullen, Heidi

    2018-02-01

    On 4–6 December 2015, storm Desmond caused very heavy rainfall in Northern England and Southern Scotland which led to widespread flooding. A week after the event we provided an initial assessment of the influence of anthropogenic climate change on the likelihood of one-day precipitation events averaged over an area encompassing Northern England and Southern Scotland using data and methods available immediately after the event occurred. The analysis was based on three independent methods of extreme event attribution: historical observed trends, coupled climate model simulations and a large ensemble of regional model simulations. All three methods agreed that the effect of climate change was positive, making precipitation events like this about 40% more likely, with a provisional 2.5%–97.5% confidence interval of 5%–80%. Here we revisit the assessment using more station data, an additional monthly event definition, a second global climate model and regional model simulations of winter 2015/16. The overall result of the analysis is similar to the real-time analysis with a best estimate of a 59% increase in event frequency, but a larger confidence interval that does include no change. It is important to highlight that the observational data in the additional monthly analysis does not only represent the rainfall associated with storm Desmond but also that of storms Eve and Frank occurring towards the end of the month.

  17. Unveiling climate change at Pevensey Levels: a photographic documentation of a landscape in the temperate climate of Southern England

    OpenAIRE

    Bream, Sally

    2016-01-01

    My photographic research intends to locate and document signs of climate change within the landscape of Pevensey Levels. This is significant in that within the relatively temperate climate of South East England, the phenomenon of climate change does not initially seem to be noticeable to the human eye.\\ud The project aims to integrate theory and practice in order to generate a reciprocal dialogue between the two endeavours. The photographic fieldwork has informed my choices of theoretical tex...

  18. Mercury contamination in Southern New England coastal fisheries and dietary habits of recreational anglers and their families: Implications to human health and issuance of consumption advisories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David L; Williamson, Patrick R

    2017-01-15

    Total mercury (Hg) was measured in coastal fishes from Southern New England (RI, USA), and Hg exposure was estimated for anglers and family members that consumed these resources. Fish Hg was positively related to total length (n = 2028 across 7 fish species), and interspecies differences were evident among legally harvestable fish. Many recreational anglers and their families experienced excessively high Hg exposure rates, which was attributed to the enriched Hg content of frequently consumed fishes. Specifically, 51.5% of participants in this study had Hg exposures exceeding the US EPA reference dose, including 50.0% of women of childbearing years. These results are noteworthy given that Hg neurotoxicity occurs in adults and children from direct and prenatal low-dose exposure. Moreover, this study underscores the need for geographic-specific research that accounts for small-scale spatial variations in fish Hg and dietary habits of at-risk human populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sediment source tracing in a lowland agricultural catchment in southern England using a modified procedure combining statistical analysis and numerical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A L; Zhang, Y; McChesney, D; Walling, D E; Haley, S M; Smith, P

    2012-01-01

    Catchment erosion, soil losses and resulting sediment pressures continue to represent cause for concern with respect to the ecological vitality and amenity value of riverine systems, including those in the agricultural catchments of southern England. Given that the sources of fine-grained sediment are typically diffuse in nature, it is essential to adopt a catchment-wide perspective to corresponding management strategies and sediment source tracing procedures have proved useful in assisting such planning. There remains, however, scope for further refining sediment sourcing procedures and on that basis, a recent study in the upper River Kennet (~214 km(2)) catchment in southern England, provided an opportunity for designing and testing a refined statistical procedure for sediment source discrimination with composite fingerprints using Genetic Algorithm (GA)-driven Discriminant Function Analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Principal Components Analysis. The revised statistical verification of composite signatures was combined with numerical mass balance modelling using recent refinements including a range of tracer weightings and both local and GA optimisation. Comparison of the local and global optimisation increased confidence in the outputs of local optimisation and the goodness-of-fit for the predicted source contributions using the optimum composite signatures selected from the revised statistical testing ranged from 0.914 to 0.965. Overall relative frequency-weighted average median source type contributions were estimated to be 4% (agricultural topsoils; predicted deviate median inputs 1-19%), 55% (unmetalled farm track surfaces; predicted deviate median inputs 9-91%), 6% (damaged road verges; predicted deviate median inputs 4-42%), 31% (channel banks/subsurface sources; predicted deviate median inputs 5-41%) and 4% (urban street dust; predicted deviate median inputs 0-20%). The study provides further evidence of the importance of eroding farm tacks as a

  20. Molecular approaches for blood meal analysis and species identification of mosquitoes (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae) in rural locations in southern England, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Luis Miguel; Brugman, Victor Albert; Prosser, Sean Williams John; Weland, Chris; Nikolova, Nadya; Thorne, Leigh; Marco, Mar Fernández DE; Fooks, Anthony Richard; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-04-03

    Thirty-four species of Culicidae are present in the UK, of which 15 have been implicated as potential vectors of arthropod-borne viruses such as West Nile virus. Identification of mosquito feeding preferences is paramount to the understanding of vector-host-pathogen interactions which, in turn, would assist in the control of disease outbreaks. Results are presented on the application of DNA barcoding for vertebrate species identification in blood-fed female mosquitoes in rural locations. Blood-fed females (n = 134) were collected in southern England from rural sites and identified based on morphological criteria. Blood meals from 59 specimens (44%) were identified as feeding on eight hosts: European rabbit, cow, human, barn swallow, dog, great tit, magpie and blackbird. Analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mtDNA barcoding region and the internal transcribed spacer 2 rDNA region of the specimens morphologically identified as Anopheles maculipennis s.l. revealed the presence of An. atroparvus and An. messeae. A similar analysis of specimens morphologically identified as Culex pipiens/Cx. torrentium showed all specimens to be Cx. pipiens (typical form). This study demonstrates the importance of using molecular techniques to support species-level identification in blood-fed mosquitoes to maximize the information obtained in studies investigating host feeding patterns.

  1. Excess nitrogen leaching and C/N decline in the Tillingbourne catchment, southern England: INCA process modelling for current and historic time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Whitehead

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of nitrate deposition and streamwater chemistry in the Tillingbourne Catchment, in Southern England, made in 1979-1982 and 1999-2001 show a 216% increase in Nitrogen leaching despite a reduction in N inputs. Both the historical and current data sets have been modelled using the Integrated Nitrogen Model in Catchments (INCA. The process-based model is shown to reproduce the historical patterns of N release from the catchment. However, modelling the increased leaching of N during recent years required an increase of the mineralisation control parameter in the model, suggesting enhanced mineralisation rates. Comparing historic and current soils data for C/N ratios shows that there has been a reduction in C/N from 38 to 26% in the humus layer and a reduction from 33 to 26% in the mineral soil horizon. This significant fall in C/N is consistent with the increase in N saturation in the H and Ah horizons of the major catchment soil. Keywords: acid deposition, recovery, nitrogen, Carbon-Nitrogen ratios, Tillingbourne, Thames, catchment studies, nutrient leaching, modelling

  2. The West Dean Archaeological Project: research and teaching in the Sussex Downs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005/2006 West Dean College and the associated West Dean Estate in West Sussex have provided the home for practical training of Institute of Archaeology students, for both the initiation ritual of the Experimental Archaeology Course (“Prim Tech” and for the field training courses undertaken at the end of the first year. It is also the location of a long-term research project, aimed at understanding human occupation and land use in this part of the South Downs from prehistory to the present day. In this article the authors describe the first two years of activity of the West Dean Archaeological Project.

  3. Pseudo-outbreak of tuberculosis in poultry plant workers, Sussex County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dennis Y; Ridzon, Renee; Giles, Beverly; Mireles, Teresa

    2002-12-01

    Delaware is a leading US poultry-producing state, and foreign-born workers make up a significant percentage of those employed by Delaware's poultry plants. In Sussex County, Delaware, a high percentage of the poultry workers are from two countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), Mexico and Guatemala, and thus are at risk for TB infection and disease. Furthermore, their risk of TB may be increased because many of these workers live in crowded conditions and lack access to medical care.

  4. Preliminary survey for entomopathogenic fungi associated with Ixodes scapularis>/i> (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern New York and New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, Elyes; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Humber, Richard A.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living larval, nymphal, and adult Ixodes scapularis Say were collected from scattered locales in southern New England and New York to determine infection rates with entomopathogenic fungi. Infection rates of larvae, nymphs, males, and females were 0% (571), 0% (272), 0% (57), and 4.3% (47), respectively. Two entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from field-collected I. scapularis females from Fire Island, NY. Isolates were identified as Verticillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Viegas and Verticillium sp. (a member of the Verticillium lecanii species complex).Ixodes scapularis Say is the principal vector of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner (Burgdorfer et al. 1982, Johnson et al. 1984), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease in the northeastern and upper-midwestern United States. Control of I. scapularis is based on chemical treatment (Mather et al. 1987b; Schulze et al. 1987, 1991), environmental management (Wilson et al. 1988, Schulze et al. 1995), and habitat modification (Wilson 1986). These methods have shown variable success, and some potentially have negative environmental effects (Wilson and Deblinger 1993, Ginsberg 1994).Studies concerning natural predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of I. scapularis are rare. The use of ground-dwelling birds as tick predators has had only limited success (Duffy et al. 1992). Nymphal I. scapularis are often infected with the parasitic wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Howard) (Mather et al. 1987a, Hu et al. 1993, Stafford et al. 1996, Hu and Hyland 1997), but this wasp does not effectively control I. scapularis populations (Stafford et al. 1996). The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and S. glaseri (Steiner) are pathogenic only to engorged female I. scapularis, and thus have limited applicability (Zhioua et al. 1995). In contrast, the entomogenous fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin is highly pathogenic to all stages of I. scapularis, unfed as well as engorged

  5. Early Upper Palaeolithic archaeology at Beedings, West Sussex: new contexts for Pleistocene archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Pope

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The site of Beedings in Sussex was first recognized as the source of some exceptional Upper Palaeolithic flintwork in 1900, but subsequently disappeared from the archaeological literature. In the 1980s it was recognized again, but it was not until 2007–8 that in situ Palaeolithic archaeology was found at the site. In this article, the director of the excavations describes the discovery, within a network of geological fissures, of two separate industries, one Middle Palaeolithic and the other Early Upper Palaeolithic. The archaeology at Beedings spans a crucial cultural transition in the European Palaeolithic and therefore provides an important new dataset for the analysis of late Neanderthal groups in northern Europe and their replacement by modern human populations.

  6. Decade to centennial resolution hydrogen isotopic record of climate change from southern New England for the past 16 kyr: proxy validation and multi-proxy comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Gao, L.; Hou, J.; Shuman, B. N.; Oswald, W.; Foster, D.

    2009-12-01

    Open system lakes in New England offer excellent archives of precipitation isotopic ratios that yield quantitative paleoclimate information. We have demonstrated previously from a lake sediment transect that hydrogen isotopic ratios of a middle-chain length fatty acid, behenic acid (BA), faithfully record precipitation isotopic ratios. We hypothesized that mid-chain n-alkyl lipids in these small lakes were primarily derived from aquatic plants that record lake water isotopic ratios. To test this hypothesis, we conducted systematic and extensive sampling of both terrestrial and aquatic plants over the past two years at two typical kettle hole lakes, Blood Pond and Rocky Pond, MA, and used a linear algebra approach to delineate percentage inputs of aquatic and terrestrial plant contributions to mid-chain n-alkyl lipids. Our results demonstrate that >92 % of the mid-chain n-alkyl lipids is derived from submerged and floating aquatic macrophytes. Our new data provide a solid basis for the application of behenic hydrogen isotopic ratios as a paleoclimate proxy from small lakes. We will present a decadal to centennial scale 16 kyr record of BA hydrogen isotopic ratios from Blood Pond, and will discuss the results in light of published pollen and lake level data. Overall, our hydrogen isotopic record is fully consistent with regional climate scenarios, including the distinctive warming at B-A events, abrupt cooling at YD event, and transition from glacial to Holcoene climate conditions. However, our high-solution isotopic data provides important new insights concerning abrupt regional climate variability. We demonstrate that the New England climate is exceptionally senstive to AMOC changes and solar forcing and that many of the abrupt climate fluctuations exert major impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, hydrology and lake levels.

  7. The invertebrate ecology of the Chalk aquifer in England (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, L.; Robertson, A. R.; White, D.; Knight, L.; Johns, T.; Edwards, F.; Arietti, M.; Sorensen, J. P. R.; Weitowitz, D.; Marchant, B. P.; Bloomfield, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    The Chalk is an important water supply aquifer, yet ecosystems within it remain poorly understood. Boreholes (198) in seven areas of England (UK) were sampled to determine the importance of the Chalk aquifer as a habitat, and to improve understanding of how species are distributed. Stygobitic macro-invertebrates were remarkably common, and were recorded in 67 % of boreholes in unconcealed Chalk, although they were not recorded in Chalk that is concealed by low-permeability strata and thus likely to be confined. Most species were found in shallow boreholes (50 m) water tables, indicating that the habitat is vertically extensive. Stygobites were present in more boreholes in southern England than northern England (77 % compared to 38 %). Only two species were found in northern England compared to six in southern England, but overall seven of the eight stygobitic macro-invertebrate species found in England were detected in the Chalk. Two species are common in southern England, but absent from northern England despite the presence of a continuous habitat prior to the Devensian glaciation. This suggests that either they did not survive glaciations in the north where glaciers were more extensive, or dispersal rates are slow and they have never colonised northern England. Subsurface ecosystems comprising aquatic macro-invertebrates and meiofauna, as well as the microbial organisms they interact with, are likely to be widespread in the Chalk aquifer. They represent an important contribution to biodiversity, and may influence biogeochemical cycles and provide other ecosystem services.

  8. Can your public library improve your health and well-being? An investigation of East Sussex Library and Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Anneliese

    2014-06-01

    This article is only the second in the Dissertations into Practice series to highlight the role of public libraries in health information. It is the result of an investigation into the provision of health information in East Sussex Library and Information Service, which formed the basis of Anneliese Ingham's dissertation for her MA in Information Studies at the University of Brighton. At the time Anneliese was doing her research, the service was experimenting with different ways of providing healthcare information at one of its main libraries, and they were interested in the impact of this. The provision of health information to the public is one of my own research interests, and I was Anneliese's dissertation supervisor. I thought she produced a very good piece of work, and the results she highlights in this article are applicable to all public library authorities. Anneliese graduated with an MA in 2012 and worked for East Sussex Library and Information Service, which she joined whilst she was still studying. AM. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  9. Educational Television and Radio in Britain, Present Provisions and Future Possibilities. Papers Prepared for a National Conference Organised Jointly by the BBC and the University of Sussex (Chelwood Gate, Sussex, England, May 13-17, 1966).

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Broadcasting Corp., London (England).

    The potential value of educational mass media must be weighed against their complexity, costs, and organizational demands within the context of society as a whole. Conclusions of a conference with representatives from research, education, and media indicate that the first criterion for evaluating educational media is how they can make a curriculum…

  10. 'What has been your experience of providing short-term orthodontics?'--A pilot survey of GDPs in East Sussex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqmani, S

    2016-03-11

    Short-term orthodontics (STO) aims to enhance a patient's smile by aligning their anterior teeth. It is considered a quicker alternative to conventional orthodontics and less destructive than veneers. As such, it has recently gained much popularity in cosmetic dentistry worldwide. STO is provided almost exclusively by general dental practitioners (GDPs), however, the current literature on this subject focuses largely on the opinions of orthodontists and cosmetic dentists, respectively. The aim of this paper, on the other hand, is to examine the opinions of GDPs and what experience they have had of providing STO. It concludes that GDPs performing STO in East Sussex have expressed a wish to receive more teaching and support from their local orthodontists. It also suggests a need for orthodontic professional bodies to issue guidelines on case selection for STO in order to assist GDPs in recognising which malocclusions are beyond their scope of practice.

  11. Flower Bulb Industry in England

    OpenAIRE

    Niisato, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we survey the flower bulb production area in the Netherland, England and Japan. And we discuss the production and trade of England during the 1990's and the 2000's. We show some features of narcissus production in England and mention some activities in the bulb production place. We conclude that narcissus sector has a strong position and exportable power in the flower bulb industry in England. One of the advantages is quality of narcissi, e.g. relatively large and strong flowers...

  12. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A P; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  13. Un estudio de diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (dish o enfermedad hiperostósica en el cementerio del Hospital Medieval de Chichester, West Sussex, Inglaterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio bioarqueológico fue realizado en una población medieval de Chichester (West Sussex, Inglaterra con el propósito de analizar la presencia de la enfermedad hiperostósica en 219 esqueletos enterrados en el cementerio del hospital de St. James y St. Mary Magdalene. La prevalencia fue considerada de acuerdo al sexo, edad y distribución de los individuos dentro del cementerio durante el período temprano (cuando el hospital cumplió funciones de leprosario y tardío (cuando funcionó como albergue para destituídos. Un número total de 11 individuos masculinos y 1 femenino presentaron cambios osteológicos compatibles con la enfemedad hiperostósica lo que correspondió al 5.5% de la población. La mayor prevalencia de la enfermedad hiperostósica fue encontrada durante el período más temprano del cementerio con 7.1% en comparación con 4.1% que correspondieron al período tardío. Los resultados obtenidos son comparativamente similares a aquellos obtenidos en estudios clínicos y en otras poblaciones arqueológicas.

  14. 75 FR 16096 - New England Power Generators Association Inc., Complainant v. ISO New England Inc., Respondent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New England Power Generators Association Inc., Complainant v. ISO New England Inc., Respondent; ISO New England Inc. and New England Power Pool; Notice of Complaint March 24... Generators Association Inc. (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against ISO New England Inc. (Respondent...

  15. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other volatile organic compounds in lakes in Byram Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, summer 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    1998-01-01

     Water samples were collected from four lakes in Byram Township, Sussex County, N.J., in the summer of 1998 as part of an investigation of the occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in domestic wells of lakeside communities. Cranberry Lake and Lake Lackawanna are surrounded by densely populated communities where the use of gasoline-powered watercraft is prevalent, and water is supplied by lakeside wells. Forest Lake is surrounded by a densely populated community where the use of gasoline-powered watercraft is prohibited. Stag Pond is privately owned, is situated in a sparsely populated area, and is not navigated by gasoline-powered watercraft. Samples were collected from Cranberry Lake in early summer and again in late summer 1998. Concentrations of the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) ranged from 1.6 to 15.0 µg/L (micrograms per liter) on June 24 and decreased with depth. The depth-related concentration gradient is attributed to density stratification caused by the temperature gradient that is present in the lake during the early summer. MTBE concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 29.0 µg/L on September 8 and were uniform with depth, as was water temperature, indicating that the lake was vertically mixed. On the basis of these concentration profiles, the mass of MTBE in Cranberry Lake was estimated to be 15 kilograms on June 24 and 27 kilograms on September 8. These mass estimates are equal to the amount of MTBE in 52 and 95 gallons, respectively, of gasoline that contains 10 percent MTBE by volume. Concentrations of another gasoline oxygenate, tert-amyl-methyl ether (TAME), ranged from 0.07 to 0.43 µg/L on June 24 and from 0.2 to 0.69 µg/L on September 8. The highest concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) were 0.18, 1.2, 0.18, and 0.97 µg/L, respectively, on June 24. All BTEX concentrations in Cranberry Lake on September 8 were less than 0.2 µg/L.

  16. Apprenticeships in England: What Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Terence; Gambin, Lynn; Hasluck, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines recent development in Apprenticeship training in England. Since the introduction of Modern Apprenticeships in the mid-1990s this form of training has been subject to much analysis and reform. This paper summarises the current situation and highlights some of the challenges and opportunities which face Apprenticeship over the…

  17. Landslides at Beachy Head, Sussex

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Beachy Head (Figures 1 and 2) is a famous natural and historic site and tourist attraction on the south coast. The cliff top area is part of the Downland Country Park managed by Eastbourne District Council. The section of cliff surveyed at Beachy Head is situated to the east of the modern lighthouse. The survey spans a 400 m south-facing stretch of beach with a cliff height of between 120 and 160 m. Cliffs and lighthouse at Beachy Head As part of a programme of work monitoring coast...

  18. 78 FR 32384 - New England Power Generators Association v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New England Power Generators Association v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of...) filed a formal complaint against ISO New England Inc. (Respondent) alleging that certain newly imposed...

  19. EPA Region 1 - New England Towns, with Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The New England Town Boundary coverage is a compilation of coverages received from the six New England State GIS Offices. The EPA New England GIS Center appended the...

  20. Geography is not Destiny. Geography, Institutions and Literacy in England, 1837-1863

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Clark; Rowena Gray

    2012-01-01

    Geography made rural society in the south-east of England unequal. Economies of scale in grain growing created a farmer elite and many landless labourers. In the pastoral north-west, in contrast, family farms dominated, with few hired labourers and modest income disparities. Engerman and Sokoloff (2012) argue that such differences in social structure between large plantations in the southern Americas, and family farming in the north, explain the rise of schooling in the north, and its absence...

  1. New England Takes Stock of Midterm Elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.; Morwick, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    The recent midterm elections brought New England two new governors. Rhode Island elected its first woman chief executive in Gina Raimondo (D). Massachusetts elected Charlie Baker (R), a former Harvard Pilgrim CEO and official in the Weld and Cellucci administrations. Otherwise, the New England corner offices cautiously welcomed back incumbents:…

  2. Leading Indicator: New England's Higher Education Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    In few places is higher education so ingrained in a region's economic vitality as in New England. Students from all over the world enroll in New England's institutions of learning and research, bringing resources to finance their education and living expenses that reverberate throughout local and state economies. Human capital-based industries…

  3. Anthropocene Survival of Southern New England’s Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern New England, salt marshes are exceptionally vulnerable to the impacts of accelerated sea level rise. Regional rates of sea level rise have been as much as 50 % greater than the global average over past decades, a more than fourfold increase over late Holocene backgrou...

  4. What factors are important in smoking cessation and relapse in women from deprived communities? A qualitative study in Southeast England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, A; Barber, J; Rumsby, E; Parker, S; Mohebati, L; de Visser, R O; Venables, S; Fairhurst, A; Lawson, K; Sundin, J

    2016-05-01

    Women are relatively more susceptible to smoking-related diseases and find it more difficult to quit; however, little research exists on factors associated with smoking cessation and relapse in women. We examined attitudes towards and perceptions of factors associated with smoking cessation and relapse in women from deprived communities. Qualitative interview study. Participants included eleven women, smokers and ex-smokers, from disadvantaged communities in East Sussex, England, who had used the National Health Service (NHS) stop smoking service. Data were collected through a focus group and semi-structured interviews, and subjected to thematic analysis. Participants opined that it is more difficult for women to quit smoking than men. Women felt that postcessation weight gain was inevitable and acted as a barrier to quitting. Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle and greater levels of stress were perceived as obstacles to quitting and reasons for relapse. Conversely, the women cited effects of smoking on physical appearance, oral hygiene and guilt about exposing children to passive smoke as powerful motivators to quit; and highlighted the impact of public health campaigns that focused on these factors. Views diverged on whether quitting with someone close to you is a help or hindrance. Other themes including alcohol intake, daily routine and being in the presence of smokers emerged as situational triggers of relapse. Interventions that address women's concerns related to postcessation weight gain, hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle and stress may aid with smoking cessation and reduce relapse. Public health campaigns should consider the impact of smoking on physical appearance and the effect of passive smoke on children. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Groundwater flood or groundwater-induced flood?

    OpenAIRE

    Robins, N.S.; Finch, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    A number of ‘groundwater flood’ events have been recorded over the Chalk aquifer in southern England since the 1994 occurrence at Chichester, Sussex. Reporting of this event and subsequent groundwater floods indicates that there are two types of groundwater flood event. Type 1 is the true groundwater flood in which the water table elevation rises above the ground elevation, and Type 2 occurs when intense groundwater discharge via bourne springs and highly permeable shallow horizons discharges...

  6. A multilevel study of the environmental determinants of swine ascariasis in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ângelo Joel; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Severo, Milton; Niza-Ribeiro, João

    2017-12-01

    Ascariasis is considered a common parasitosis of swine worldwide. The disease causes significant economic losses due to its effect on feed conversion ratio and liver condemnations at slaughter (liver milk spots). This study aimed to characterise the between-farm and spatial variance in porcine ascariasis in England and to assess the association between the percentage of infected animals and potential environmental risk factors, including production system, socioeconomic deprivation, soil characteristics (pH, topsoil bulk density, topsoil organic matter, topsoil texture class, soil water regime, topsoil available water capacity, and elevation), and climatic conditions (relative humidity, air temperature, and rainfall) before slaughter. Post-mortem inspection results were provided by the Food Standards Agency and comprised information about the number of rejected livers, the number of animals sent to slaughter and the production system. All farms were georeferenced based on the postcode, which allowed the assessment of the area index of socioeconomic deprivation and the extraction of soil and climatic characteristics available in different online databases. Under a multilevel framework with adjustment for spatial autocorrelation, a standard linear mixed model was fitted to estimate the association between these determinants and the percentage of infected animals. From 2,513,973 English farmed pigs included in the study, 4.3% had their livers rejected due to milk spots. The percentage of infected pigs per batch ranged from 0% to 100%. The highest percentages were found in Surrey, East and West Sussex (8.9%) and lowest in Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire (2.0%). Significant associations were found at multivariable analysis between the proportion of infection and the number of animals sent to slaughter (β=-0.005; 95%CI=-0.005, -0.004), soil texture (peat compared to coarse textured soils; β=-0.516; 95%CI=-1.010, -0.063), relative humidity (β=0.011; 95%CI

  7. Letter from England: Very Rich for Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Aidan

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the third edition of F. J. H. Darton's "Children's Books in England" and discusses in particular one of the books included in that publication, "A Humument: A Treated Victorian Novel" by Tom Phillips. (AEA)

  8. Radon atlas of England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B.M.R.; Miles, J.C.H.; Bradley, E.J.; Rees, D.M

    2002-07-01

    This new report brings together and updates the information in three earlier reports on radon levels in English and Welsh homes. In particular, data from measurements in over 400,000 homes in England and Wales are presented in tabular format. The tables give the data by various administrative divisions, down to electoral wards for Cornwall, Devon and Somerset and council areas elsewhere and to sector level of the postcode system. The radon probability maps are based on the national grid system and show significantly more locational detail than the previous publications, an extra division in the probability banding to coincide with current Government initiatives on radon in England and, in southwest England, more detailed probability mapping than before - by 1 km grid squares in place of the 5 km grid squares used in Wales and the rest of England. (author)

  9. Epidemiology of Toxocariasis in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsby, K; Senyonjo, L; Gupta, S; Ladbury, G; Suvari, M; Chiodini, P; Morgan, D

    2016-11-01

    Toxocara infection occurs through ingestion of parasite eggs excreted by dogs and cats, and can cause severe morbidity. The burden of disease in England and Wales is not well described, and the impact of public health campaigns conducted in the mid-1990s is uncertain. This paper uses data from two extensive databases to explore the trends in this disease in England and Wales from the 1970s to 2009. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Mapping midwifery and obstetric units in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis; Spiby, Helen; Grigg, Celia P; Dodwell, Miranda; McCourt, Christine; Culley, Lorraine; Bishop, Simon; Wilkinson, Jane; Coleby, Dawn; Pacanowski, Lynne; Thornton, Jim; Byers, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    to describe the configuration of midwifery units, both alongside&free-standing, and obstetric units in England. national survey amongst Heads of Midwifery in English Maternity Services SETTING: National Health Service (NHS) in England PARTICIPANTS: English Maternity Services Measurements descriptive statistics of Alongside Midwifery Units and Free-standing Midwifery Units and Obstetric Units and their annual births/year in English Maternity Services FINDINGS: alongside midwifery units have nearly doubled since 2010 (n = 53-97); free-standing midwifery units have increased slightly (n = 58-61). There has been a significant reduction in maternity services without either an alongside or free-standing midwifery unit (75-32). The percentage of all births in midwifery units has trebled, now representing 14% of all births in England. This masks significant differences in percentage of all births in midwifery units between different maternity services with a spread of 4% to 31%. In some areas of England, women have no access to a local midwifery unit, despite the National Institute for Health&Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommending them as an important place of birth option for low risk women. The numbers of midwifery units have increased significantly in England since 2010 but this growth is almost exclusively in alongside midwifery units. The percentage of women giving birth in midwifery units varies significantly between maternity services suggesting that many midwifery units are underutilised. Both the availability and utilisation of midwifery units in England could be improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  12. NASA New England Outreach Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA New England Outreach Center in Nashua, New Hampshire was established to serve as a catalyst for heightening regional business awareness of NASA procurement, technology and commercialization opportunities. Emphasis is placed on small business participation, with the highest priority given to small disadvantaged businesses, women-owned businesses, HUBZone businesses, service disabled veteran owned businesses, and historically black colleges and universities and minority institutions. The Center assists firms and organizations to understand NASA requirements and to develop strategies to capture NASA related procurement and technology opportunities. The establishment of the NASA Outreach Center serves to stimulate business in a historically underserved area. NASA direct business awards have traditionally been highly present in the West, Midwest, South, and Southeast areas of the United States. The Center guides and assists businesses and organizations in the northeast to target opportunities within NASA and its prime contractors and capture business and technology opportunities. The Center employs an array of technology access, one-on-one meetings, seminars, site visits, and targeted conferences to acquaint Northeast firms and organizations with representatives from NASA and its prime contractors to learn about and discuss opportunities to do business and access the inventory of NASA technology. This stimulus of interaction also provides firms and organizations the opportunity to propose the use of their developed technology and ideas for current and future requirements at NASA. The Center provides a complement to the NASA Northeast Regional Technology Transfer Center in developing prospects for commercialization of NASA technology. In addition, the Center responds to local requests for assistance and NASA material and documents, and is available to address immediate concerns and needs in assessing opportunities, timely support to interact with NASA Centers on

  13. Orbital decompression for Graves' orbitopathy in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, P; Chandler, T; Dayan, C M; Dickinson, A J; Foley, P; Hickey, J; MacEwen, C J; Lazarus, J H; McLaren, J; Rose, G E; Uddin, J M; Vaidya, B

    2012-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to obtain data on orbital decompression procedures performed in England, classed by hospital and locality, to evaluate regional variation in care. Methods Data on orbital decompression taking place in England over a 2-year period between 2007 and 2009 were derived from CHKS Ltd and analysed by the hospital and primary care trust. Results and conclusions In all, 44% of these operations took place in hospitals with an annual workload of 10 or fewer procedures. Analysis of the same data by primary care trust suggests an almost 30-fold variance in the rates of decompression performed per unit population. Expertise available to patients with Graves' orbitopathy and rates of referral for specialist care in England appears to vary significantly by geographic location. These data, along with other outcome measures, will provide a baseline by which progress can be judged. PMID:22157920

  14. Cost of schizophrenia in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalore, Roshni; Knapp, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in the UK. To provide up-to-date, prevalence based estimate of all costs associated with schizophrenia for England. A bottom-up approach was adopted. Separate cost estimates were made for people living in private households, institutions, prisons and for those who are homeless. The costs included related to: health and social care, informal care, private expenditures, lost productivity, premature mortality, criminal justice services and other public expenditures such as those by the social security system. Data came from many sources, including the UK-SCAP (Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program) survey, Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, Department of Health and government publications. The estimated total societal cost of schizophrenia was 6.7 billion pounds in 2004/05. The direct cost of treatment and care that falls on the public purse was about 2 billion pounds; the burden of indirect costs to the society was huge, amounting to nearly 4.7 billion pounds. Cost of informal care and private expenditures borne by families was 615 million pounds. The cost of lost productivity due to unemployment, absence from work and premature mortality of patients was 3.4 billion pounds. The cost of lost productivity of carers was 32 million pounds. Estimated cost to the criminal justice system was about 1 million pounds. It is estimated that about 570 million pounds will be paid out in benefit payments and the cost of administration associated with this is about 14 million pounds. It is difficult to compare estimates from previous cost-of-illness studies due to differences in the methods, scope of analyses and the range of costs covered. Costs estimated in this study are detailed, cover a comprehensive list of relevant items and allow for different levels of disaggregation. The main limitation of the study is that data came from a

  15. Engaging farmers to inform future diffuse pollution policy in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrain, Emilie; Lovett, Andrew; Nobel, Lister; Grant, Fiona; Blundell, Paul; Cleasby, Will

    2013-04-01

    Stakeholder knowledge and engagement is increasingly seen as a necessary ingredient for catchment management. Whilst many agricultural management options remain voluntary, the implementation of diffuse pollution mitigation measures will only be effective with the cooperation of stakeholders. Anthony et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2012) state the need for more information on the realistic farmer uptake of methods to enhance analyses of the potential for pollution mitigation. A study engaging farmers to understand current agricultural practices and their attitudes towards mitigation measures has formed part of the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) programme in England. Interviews with over seventy farmers were conducted during 2012 in three contrasting areas of the UK: the grassland dominated Eden catchment in the North West of England; the arable dominated Wensum catchment in East Anglia and the mixed farming of the Hampshire Avon catchment in southern England. Results from the farmer survey provide a baseline regarding current agricultural practices and give insight regarding attitudes to the adoption of other mitigation measures in the future. Opinions were obtained on eighty different measures taken from a recent guide to possible measures prepared for the UK government (Newell-Price et al., 2011). Analyses have been conducted examining how current use and attitudes towards future adoption of measures varies according to different characteristics of farm businesses. These findings will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and farm advisers, particularly aiding decision making with respect to strategies for future implementation of programmes of measures. References. Anthony, S.G. et al., 2009. Quantitative assessment of scenarios for managing trade-off between the economic performance of agriculture and the environment and between different environmental media. Available at: http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default

  16. The New England travel market: changes in generational travel patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the New England domestic travel market trends, from 1979 through 1991 within the context of generations. The existing travel markets, who travel to New England, are changing by age cohorts and specifically within different generations. The New England changes in generational travel patterns do not reflect national...

  17. Annual Directory of New England Colleges and Universities 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England Journal of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "The New England Journal of Higher Education" (formerly "Connection") presents its "Annual Directory of New England Colleges and Universities," providing a wealth of information on New England higher education. For more than a quarter of a century, this college and university directory has been the publication of…

  18. Annual Directory of New England Colleges and Universities 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England Journal of Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "The New England Journal of Higher Education" (formerly "Connection") presents its "Annual Directory of New England Colleges and Universities," providing a wealth of information on New England higher education. For more than a quarter of a century, this college and university directory has been the publication of…

  19. Simulated National Identity and Ascendant Hyperreality in Julian Barnes’s England, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abootalebi H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets out to analyze Julian Barnes’s novel England, England (1998 in the light of Jean Baudrillard’s concepts of simulation and hyperreality. According to Baudrillard, what we experience in today’s world is a simulation of reality superseded by signs and images, and therefore we are living in a hyperreal world. Barnes’s book offers a representative sample of hyperreal world in which Martha, the protagonist, finds herself troubled. Although initially she is impressed by the glamour of the theme park named England, England later on she loses interest in it when she comes to realization that everything about it is fake. This condition, making her think of her own identity and true self, finally leads her to leave the theme park and settle in the village of Anglia where she hopes to discover her true nature and regain her lost happiness.

  20. Simulated National Identity and Ascendant Hyperreality in Julian Barnes’s England, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abootalebi H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets out to analyze Julian Barnes’s novel England, England (1998 in the light of Jean Baudrillard’s concepts of simulation and hyperreality. According to Baudrillard, what we experience in today’s world is a simulation of reality superseded by signs and images, and therefore we are living in a hyperreal world. Barnes’s book offers a representative sample of hyperreal world in which Martha, the protagonist, finds herself troubled. Although initially she is impressed by the glamour of the theme park named England, England later on she loses interest in it when she comes to realization that everything about it is fake. This condition, making her think of her own identity and true self, finally leads her to leave the theme park and settle in the village of Anglia where she hopes to discover her true nature and regain her lost happiness.

  1. 78 FR 1851 - New England States Committee on Electricity v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New England States Committee on Electricity v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice... States Committee on Electricity (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against ISO New England Inc...

  2. 78 FR 67357 - New England Power Generators Association, Inc. v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New England Power Generators Association, Inc. v. ISO New England Inc... Association, Inc. (NEPGA or Complainant) filed a complaint against ISO New England, Inc. (ISO-NE or Respondent). NEPGA alleges that the provisions of the ISO-NE Tariff that set capacity prices during circumstances...

  3. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  4. The Field of Educational Administration in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on over twenty years of empirical and intellectual work about knowledge production in the field of educational administration, I examine the origins and development of the canon, methodologies and knowledge workers in England. I focus on the field as being primarily concerned with professional activity and how and why this was established…

  5. Whales of New England. Secondary Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Instructional materials and suggestions for conducting a whale watching field trip are contained in this curriculum packet for secondary science teachers. It is one unit in a series of curricular programs developed by the New England Aquarium Education Department. Activities and information are organized into three sections: (1) pre-trip…

  6. A View from England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This commentary outlines developments regarding Sex and Relationships Education (SRE, akin to Comprehensive Sex Education) in England and Wales over the past 15 years or so. BZgA has been a WHO/Europe collaborating centre for sexual and reproductive health since 2003. In this capacity, BZgA contributes to the development and dissemination of WHO…

  7. Dynamics of whlte pine in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; J.B. Cullen; Thomas S. Frieswyk

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of growth, regeneration, and quality changes for white pine between the 1970's and 1980's in the six-state New England region. Growth rates seemed comparable among ail states except Rhode Island, where the percentage of growth (1.71%) seemed low. Over all states, the proportion of acreage in seedling/sapling white pine stands averaged too low (8%) to...

  8. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrofani, E. Robert, Ed.

    These teacher-developed materials are designed to help educators integrate economic concepts into the teaching of history. The materials include readings on the Industrial Revolution in England and a series of activities that require students to analyze the impact of industrialization first on English peasant farmers, and then on workers in early…

  9. Comparing Teacher Roles in Denmark and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans; Pratt, Nick; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of teaching in Denmark and England. Its broader aim is to help develop an approach for comparing pedagogy. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of…

  10. The Politics of Education Policy in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    In this appreciative discussion paper I provide an overview of the reforms made to education in England, and engage with the politics of education through examining the simultaneous and inter-related processes of politicisation, depoliticisation and repoliticisation of educational matters. I engage in a discussion of the papers in this special…

  11. The plastic surgery postcode lottery in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, James

    2009-12-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) provides treatment free at the point of delivery to patients. Elective medical procedures in England are funded by 149 independent Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), which are each responsible for patients within a defined geographical area. There is wide variation of availability for many treatments, leading to a "postcode lottery" for healthcare provision in England. The aims were to review funding policies for cosmetic procedures, to evaluate the criteria used to decide eligibility against national guidelines, and to evaluate the extent of any postcode lottery for cosmetic surgery on the National Health Service. This study is the first comprehensive review of funding policies for cosmetic surgery in England. All PCTs in England were asked for their funding policies for cosmetic procedures including breast reduction & augmentation, removal of implants, mastopexy, abdominoplasty, facelift, blepharoplasty, rhinoplasty, pinnaplasty, body lifting, surgery for gynaecomastia and tattoo removal. Details of policies were received from 124/149 PCTs (83%). Guidelines varied widely; some refuse all procedures, whilst others allow a full range. Different and sometimes contradictory rules governing symptoms, body mass indices, breast sizes, weights, heights, and other criteria are used to assess patients for funding. Nationally produced guidelines were only followed by nine PCTs. A "postcode lottery" exists in the UK for plastic surgery procedures, despite national guidelines. Some of the more interesting findings are highlighted.

  12. Determinants of general practitioners' wages in England.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, S.; Goudie, R.; Sutton, M.; Gravelle, H.; Elliott, R.; Hole, A.R.; Ma, A.; Sibbald, B.S.; Skatun, D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of annual net income and wages (net income/hours) of general practitioners (GPs) using data for 2271 GPs in England recorded during Autumn 2008. The average GP had an annual net income of pound97,500 and worked 43 h per week. The mean wage was pound51 per h. Net income

  13. (Echiura) from southern Mrica with the description of a new species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-05-29

    May 29, 1987 ... Afr. J. Zoo!. 1988,23(2). 81. TbaJassema (Echiura) from southern Mrica with the description of a new species. R. Biseswar. Zoology Department, University of Durban-Westville, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4000 Republic of South Africa. Recieved 29 .... of England, Ireland, France and the Mediterranean in.

  14. The rarity of the 1938 New England Hurricane as a case of extratropical transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The 1938 hurricane is well known to not only locals of New England, but also to the (re)insurance industry. Very often, many ask "what would happen if the storm were to occur again?", in light of not only the dramatic coastal and financial growth in the region, but also the dramatic improvement in technology. Further, we still do not know exactly what the structure was of the storm as it made landfall: pure tropical cyclone, transitioning tropical cyclone, post-tropical cyclone, or the most deadly (but rare) warm-seclusion cyclone? The talk begins by analyzing trajectories from 1957-2002 using ERA40 reanalysis to quantify the rarity of a parcel of air originating along the hurricane's track eventually reaching southern New England. This analyzes in a generic way the frequency with which the overall large-scale pattern supports a flow into New England from the source region. The results show that at most 1-2 days a year is such a path permitted. Combination with the rarity of having a tropical cyclone in that location (at the same time), the rarity of the New England landfall and track from the SSE is illustrated. New global reanalysis grids from NOAA/CIRES (20th Century Reanalysis Project) uses surface-only data to produce global 3D atmospheric grids back to the 19th century. This permits for the first time numerical simulations of the 1938 hurricane. Further, the reanalysis project produces 56 ensemble members that permits quantification of the uncertainty of the numerical simulations, in terms of track, intensity, and structure, before and after landfall. The talk concludes with an examination of the variability of this 56 member of track, intensity, and structure ensemble. The structural analysis in particular is intriguing, since it argues for a predominance of the (most dangerous) warm-seclusion lifecycle into and beyond New England, which is more typically seen over the maritime far north Atlantic. However, the structural uncertainty overall of the cyclone is

  15. Mathematics anxiety in secondary students in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Steve

    2009-02-01

    Whatever the changes that are made to the mathematics curriculum in England, there will always remain a problem with mathematics anxiety. Maths anxiety is rarely facilitative. This study examined aspects of mathematics in secondary schools and how students rated them as sources of anxiety. Over 2000 students in independent and mainstream schools in England completed a 20-item questionnaire designed to investigate maths anxiety levels. The same questionnaire was given to over 440 dyslexic males in specialist schools within the same age range. The results showed that examinations and tests create high levels of anxiety in approximately 4% of students. The results suggest that certain aspects and topics in the maths curriculum, such as long division, cause similar levels of anxiety for students in all year groups in secondary schools.

  16. The Listed Building Consent System in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils White

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief summary of why and how buildings are listed in England. It then goes on to describe the framework through which local planning authorities control their alteration and demolition, using examples from Ashburton, a small town in the county of Devon. The decision-making process is then examined, again with examples, and the options for appeal or enforcement action described.

  17. Lawyers and legal services in NW England

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    A consideration of the diversity and fragmentation which characterise contemporary legal practice with particular reference to the situation in the North West of England. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  18. Social Stratification and Sports' Participation in England

    OpenAIRE

    Widdop, Paul; Cutts, David

    2013-01-01

    Using a latent class analysis, we identify distinct typologies of sports' consumers in England and then determine whether the socio-economic makeup of the latent classes resemble recent scholarly work across different cultural and leisure fields. The third part of the analysis provides a nuanced rigorous statistical evaluation of the subtle socio-economic differences between the active sports' clusters. Our analysis is unique with few studies, if any, identifying and then examining types of s...

  19. Puritan iconoclasm in England 1640-1660

    OpenAIRE

    Spraggon, J.

    2000-01-01

    A study of Puritan iconoclasm in England during the period of the civil wars and Interregnum, this thesis looks at the reasons for the resurgence of large-scale iconoclasm a hundred years after the break with Rome. Initially a reaction to the emphasis on ceremony and the 'beauty of holiness' under Archbishop Laud, the attack on recent 'innovations' introduced into the church (such as images, stained glass windows and communion rails) developed into a drive for further reformati...

  20. Protecting Geoheritage - Geodiversity Charter for England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    The Geodiversity Charter for England, launched in 2014, sets out the clear vision that England's 'geodiversity is recognised as an integral and vital part of our environment, economy and heritage that must be safeguarded and managed for current and future generations'. England is privileged to be among the most geodiverse places in the world with 700 million years of geological history revealed by our rocks. The white cliffs of Dover, honey coloured Cotswold limestone, granite Dartmoor Tors, are examples of this geodiversity. To maintain and enhance our geodiversity it is important to recognise its role in: • the understanding of England's geological history and global geosciences • natural heritage, both terrestrial and marine, and landscapes in all their diversity • supporting habitats and species and the many essential benefits they provide for society • adaptation to changes in climate and sea-level through sustainable management of land and water and working with natural processes • sustainable economic development • the history, character and cultural development of our society through intellectual growth and creative expression alongside industrial and technological development • public health, quality of life and national well-being and connecting people with the natural environment including active promotion of geotourism. Geodiversity, however, is an often overlooked environmental asset. The vision of the Charter and the work of the English Geodiversity Forum is to encourage good practice and to act as a focus in order to: • raise awareness of the importance, value and relevance of geodiversity to our economic prosperity and comfort and its wider links with the natural environment, landscape, cultural and historical heritage and sense of place • encourage a sense of pride through education and learning, promotion and interpretation • promote careful management of geodiversity through conservation and enhancement of its special

  1. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  2. The Impact of Commissioning for Rhinosinusitis in England

    OpenAIRE

    Soni-Jaiswal, Archana; Philpott, Carl; Hopkins, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the compliance of clinical commissioning groups (CCG) in England with the ENT-UK Rhinosinusitis commissioning guide produced in collaboration with the Royal College of Surgeons England and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence. We also aimed to assess the ease of accessibility of data from CCG’s. Design:Audit of compliance of English CCG’s with the ENT-UK rhinosinusitis commissioning guide. Setting: CCG’s in England Participants: 58 of the 221 CCG’s in England we...

  3. The potential for measles transmission in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Graham

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the schools vaccination campaign in 1994, measles has been eliminated from England. Maintaining elimination requires low susceptibility levels to keep the effective reproduction number R below 1. Since 1995, however, MMR coverage in two year old children has decreased by more than 10%. Methods Quarterly MMR coverage data for children aged two and five years resident in each district health authority in England were used to estimate susceptibility to measles by age. The effective reproduction numbers for each district and strategic health authority were calculated and possible outbreak sizes estimated. Results In 2004/05, about 1.9 million school children and 300,000 pre-school children were recorded as incompletely vaccinated against measles in England, including more than 800,000 children completely unvaccinated. Based on this, approximately 1.3 million children aged 2–17 years were susceptible to measles. In 14 of the 99 districts, the level of susceptibility is sufficiently high for R to exceed 1, indicating the potential for sustained measles transmission. Eleven of these districts are in London. Our model suggests that the potential exists for an outbreak of up to 100,000 cases. These results are sensitive to the accuracy of reported vaccination coverage data. Conclusion Our analysis identified several districts with the potential for sustaining measles transmission. Many London areas remain at high risk even allowing for considerable under-reporting of coverage. Primary care trusts should ensure that accurate systems are in place to identify unimmunised children and to offer catch-up immunisation for those not up to date for MMR.

  4. Comparing teacher roles in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans; Pratt, Nick

    2014-01-01

    was the ease with which competent English teachers moved between roles. The English teachers observed adopted roles consistent with a wider techno-rationalist discourse. There was a greater subject emphasis by Danish teachers, whose work was set predominantly within a democratic humanist discourse, whilst...... the English teachers placed a greater emphasis on applied skills.......This article reports the findings of a comparative study of teaching in Denmark and England. Its broader aim is to help develop an approach for comparing pedagogy. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions...

  5. Seasonal Changes in Central England Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Hillebrand, Eric

    The aim of this paper is to assess how climate change is reflected in the variation of the seasonal patterns of the monthly Central England Temperature time series between 1772 and 2013. In particular, we model changes in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. Starting from the seminal work...... of the seasonal cycle is also documented. The literature so far has concentrated on the measurement of this phenomenon by various methods, among which complex demodulation and wavelet decompositions are prominent. We offer new insight by considering a model that allows for seasonally varying deterministic...

  6. Bottle wars: England versus Scotland versus France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Robert B; Athanasopoulos, Athanassios A; Allan, Michael S; Atchia, Sarah M

    2002-05-01

    Four batches of four brands of bottled water from England, Scotland and France were tested for their microbiological and physicochemical characteristics during a 2-month study. The lowest priced brand of water had the highest nitrate content (46.9 mg/L), while the most expensive brand did not necessarily have the best values for pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity or plate count. While no sample was positive for E. coli, the range of other measured values varied widely between brands and batches during the study. The bottled water samples from France on average demonstrated better results than the other countries studied.

  7. Floodplain, Sussex County, New Jersey, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. Women Secondary Head Teachers in England: Where Are They Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kay

    2017-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in secondary school headship in England and elsewhere is an early and longstanding theme in the women and gender in educational leadership literature. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a statistical survey of secondary school head teachers across England. Data available in the public domain on…

  9. Ground-level Ozone (Smog) Information | New England | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Ground-level ozone presents a serious air quality problem in New England. In 2008, EPA revised the ozone standard to a level of 0.075 parts per million, 8-hour average. Over the last 5 years (2006 through 2010), there have been an average of 31 days per summer when New England's air exceeded this standard.

  10. Racialised Norms in Apprenticeship Systems in England and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderton, Charlotte; Wischmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the issue of the under-representation of young people from minority ethnic/migrant backgrounds in apprenticeships in England and Germany. Whilst there are many studies on apprenticeships in England and Germany, few focus on under-representation or discrimination, even fewer on ethnic under-representation, and there are…

  11. Who attempts to drive less in New England?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noblet, C. L.; Thøgersen, John; Teisl, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    travel choices in New England (USA). In total, 1340 New England residents responded to a mail survey, which asked them about their use of alternative travel modes, their attempts to drive less, and a range of potential psychological and structural antecedents. Responses were analyzed with structural...

  12. Nothing Changes: Perceptions of Vocational Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Liz; Flint, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores young people's perceptions of vocational education and training (VET) in England. It draws on interview and focus-group data from a funded project. Parallel studies were carried out in The Netherlands, South Africa and England. This study reports on the English project. It found that serendipity, contingent events and influence…

  13. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  14. Translation and Manipulation in Renaissance England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Denton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This supplementary volume to JEMS is part of an ongoing research project which began with a series of articles published by the author in the 1990s on the translation of Classical historical texts in Renaissance England. The methodology followed is that of Descriptive Translation Studies as developed by scholars such as Lefevere and Hermans with the accent on manipulation of the source text in line with the ideological stance of the translator and the need to ensure that readers of the translation received the ‘correct’ moral lessons.  Particular attention is devoted to a case study of the strategies followed in Thomas North’s domesticating English translation of Jacques Amyot’s French translation of Plutarch’s Lives and the consequences for Shakespeare’s perception of Plutarch.Biography John Denton was associate professor of English Language and Translation at the University of Florence until retirement in 2015. He  has published on contrastive analysis, history of translation (with special reference to the Early Modern England, religious discourse, literary and audiovisual translation. 

  15. Determinants of general practitioners' wages in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen; Goudie, Rosalind; Sutton, Matt; Gravelle, Hugh; Elliott, Robert; Hole, Arne Risa; Ma, Ada; Sibbald, Bonnie; Skåtun, Diane

    2011-02-01

    We analyse the determinants of annual net income and wages (net income/hours) of general practitioners (GPs) using data for 2271 GPs in England recorded during Autumn 2008. The average GP had an annual net income of £97,500 and worked 43 h per week. The mean wage was £51 per h. Net income and wages depended on gender, experience, list size, partnership size, whether or not the GP worked in a dispensing practice, whether they were salaried of self-employed, whether they worked in a practice with a nationally or locally negotiated contract, and the characteristics of the local population (proportion from ethnic minorities, rurality, and income deprivation). The findings have implications for pay discrimination by GP gender and ethnicity, GP preferences for partnership size, incentives for competition for patients, and compensating differentials for local population characteristics. They also shed light on the attractiveness to GPs in England of locally negotiated (personal medical services) versus nationally negotiated (general medical services) contracts.

  16. Being Mad in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar eDimitrijevic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become almost a rule that the birth of scientific psychiatry and what we today term clinical psychology took place in the short period between the last decade of the XVIII century and the 1820s. Everything that happened before that period – every description, diagnosis, and therapy – has been considered ‘pre-scientific,’ outdated, in a way worthless.In this paper, however, I am providing the argument that, first, the roots of contemporary psychiatry reach at least to England of the early modern period, and that, second, it may still turn out that in the field of mental health care historical continuities are more numerous and persistent than discontinuities. Thus, I briefly review the most important surviving documents about the treatment of mental disorders in England of Elizabethan and Jacobian period, organizing the argument around the well-known markers: diagnostics and aetiology, therapy, organization of the asylum, the public image of the mentally ill…

  17. Manifestation of the solar activity in price of composite unite of consumable for Medieval England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustil'Nik, L. A.; Yom Din, G.

    We present in this work development of our previous approach to search of the solar activity manifestation in wheat price dynamics, reported in COSPAR 2002 [1]. In this work we investigate dynamics of prices of composite unite of consumable for medieval time in southern England. We show that like to wheat price these price of consumable show burst-type component in its variations. We investigate statistics of time interval between consumable price bursts and show that these intervals have statistical properties similar the same as for time intervals between extremes (minimums) of solar activity (sunspot number) both in estimated mean and standard deviation of the intervals duration and for distribution of intervals. We consider this similarity as caused by high sensitivity of consumables price to price of wheat, main component of consumables in that time. We analyze asymmetry for prices in phase of minimum and maximum of sunspots as additional test of causality between solar activity and price level. We discuss possible physical explanation of discovered connection, in particular solar activity-space weather-cosmic ray-cloudiness-agriculture chain. [1] Lev A. Pustilnik, Gregory Yom Din, 2003, Influence of Solar Activity on State of Wheat Market in Medieval England, astro-ph/, 0312244, Solar Physics (in print)

  18. Seventh survey of staffing in cardiology in the United Kingdom 1991. British Cardiac Society, the Cardiology Committee of the Royal College of Physicians, and the Trafford Centre for Medical Research, University of Sussex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Seventh Survey of Staffing in Cardiology was conducted with an index date of 31 July 1991. At that time the total number of posts for cardiologists in England and Wales, defined as individuals trained in the specialty and spending at least 40% of their professional time working in it, was 340. Ten individuals worked part time only, making 335 whole time equivalent posts. This number increased from 1990 by 15 (4.7%). There were 67 cardiologists in Scotland and Northern Ireland, making a total for the United Kingdom of 407 posts (402 whole time equivalents). Sixteen Districts in England and Wales had no cardiologist at the time of the survey, and 31 other Districts had less than seven visiting sessions each week. The situation had not improved since the 1990 survey. The population of these 47 Districts is nearly nine million. Scotland had almost 800,000 additional people served by Health Boards without resident cardiologists. The number of senior registrars and lecturers is inadequate to provide a full period of training for most who advance to consultant status, and the situation will worsen from 1995 onwards. A major problem has been a top slice of 10 posts for a research allocation, few of which are occupied by individuals seeking a career in the specialty. These posts should be redesignated to increase training opportunities to counter the present shortfall and facilitate an expansion in consultant posts of at least 5% per annum over the next decade.

  19. Comparative epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection: England and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alice; Mullish, Benjamin H; Williams, Horace R T; Aylin, Paul

    2017-10-01

    To examine whether there is an epidemiological difference between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) inpatient populations in England and the United States. A cross-sectional study. National administrative inpatient discharge data from England (Hospital Episode Statistics) and the USA (National Inpatient Sample) in 2012. De-identifiable non-obstetric inpatient discharges from the national datasets were used to estimate national CDI incidence in the United States and England using ICD9-CM(008.45) and ICD10(A04.7) respectively. The rate of CDI was calculated per 100 000 population using national population estimates. Rate per 100 000 inpatient discharges was also calculated separated by primary and secondary diagnosis of CDI. Age, sex and Elixhauser comorbidities profiles were examined. The USA had a higher rate of CDI compared to England: 115.1/100 000 vs. 19.3/100 000 population (P USA (OR 1.20 95% CI [1.18,1.22] P USA compared to England apart from dementia, which was greater in England (9.63% vs. 1.25%, P USA was much higher than in England. Age and comorbidity profiles also differed between CDI patients in both countries. The reasons for this are likely multi-factorial but may reflect national infection control policy.

  20. El Nino-like climate teleconnections in new england during the late pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenour; Brigham-Grette; Mann

    2000-05-12

    A glacial varve chronology from New England spanning the 4000-year period from 17,500 to 13,500 calendar years before the present was analyzed for evidence of climate variability during the late Pleistocene. The chronology shows a distinct interannual (3 to 5 years) band of enhanced variability suggestive of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections into North America during the late Pleistocene, when the Laurentide ice sheet was near its maximum extent and climatic boundary conditions were different than those of today. This interannual variability largely disappears by the young end of the 4000-year chronology, with only the highest frequency components (roughly 3-year period) persisting. This record provides evidence of ENSO-like climate variability during near-peak glacial conditions.

  1. Borrelia miyamotoi in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, K M; Fonville, M; Jahfari, S; Sprong, H; Medlock, J M

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports the first detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in UK Ixodes ricinus ticks. It also reports on the presence and infection rates of I. ricinus for a number of other tick-borne pathogens of public health importance. Ticks from seven regions in southern England were screened for B. miyamotoi, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Neoehrlichia mikurensis using qPCR. A total of 954 I. ricinus ticks were tested, 40 were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l., 22 positive for A. phagocytophilum and three positive for B. miyamotoi, with no N. mikurensis detected. The three positive B. miyamotoi ticks came from three geographically distinct areas, suggesting a widespread distribution, and from two separate years, suggesting some degree of endemicity. Understanding the prevalence of Borrelia and other tick-borne pathogens in ticks is crucial for locating high-risk areas of disease transmission.

  2. Seasonal distribution of psychiatric births in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Disanto

    Full Text Available There is general consensus that season of birth influences the risk of developing psychiatric conditions later in life. We aimed to investigate whether the risk of schizophrenia (SC, bipolar affective disorder (BAD and recurrent depressive disorder (RDD is influenced by month of birth in England to a similar extent as other countries using the largest cohort of English patients collected to date (n = 57,971. When cases were compared to the general English population (n = 29,183,034 all diseases showed a seasonal distribution of births (SC p = 2.48E-05; BAD p = 0.019; RDD p = 0.015. This data has implications for future strategies of disease prevention.

  3. New England Wind Energy Education Project (NEWEEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Robert C.; Craddock, Kathryn A.; von Allmen, Daniel R.

    2012-04-25

    Project objective is to develop and disseminate accurate, objective information on critical wind energy issues impacting market acceptance of hundreds of land-based projects and vast off-shore wind developments proposed in the 6-state New England region, thereby accelerating the pace of wind installation from today's 140 MW towards the region's 20% by 2030 goals of 12,500 MW. Methodology: This objective will be accomplished by accumulating, developing, assembling timely, accurate, objective and detailed information representing the 'state of the knowledge' on critical wind energy issues impacting market acceptance, and widely disseminating such information. The target audience includes state agencies and local governments; utilities and grid operators; wind developers; agricultural and environmental groups and other NGOs; research organizations; host communities and the general public, particularly those in communities with planned or operating wind projects. Information will be disseminated through: (a) a series of topic-specific web conference briefings; (b) a one-day NEWEEP conference, back-to-back with a Utility Wind Interest Group one-day regional conference organized for this project; (c) posting briefing and conference materials on the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) web site and featuring the content on NEWF electronic newsletters distributed to an opt-in list of currently over 5000 individuals; (d) through interaction with and participation in Wind Powering America (WPA) state Wind Working Group meetings and WPA's annual All-States Summit, and (e) through the networks of project collaborators. Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC (lead) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory will staff the project, directed by an independent Steering Committee composed of a collaborative regional and national network of organizations. Major Participants - the Steering Committee: In addition to the applicants, the initial collaborators committing

  4. New England Wind Forum, Volume 1, Issue 1 -- January 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-01-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 1 features an interview with Brother Joseph of Portsmouth Abbey. A commercial-scale Vestas V47 wind turbine will soon be installed on the grounds of the Benedictine monastery and prep school in Rhode Island, with the assistance of a grant from the Rhode Island Renewable Energy Fund. This will be the first large-scale turbine located behind the customer meter in the region.

  5. The rarity of the 1938 New England Hurricane as a case of extratropical transition and comparisons to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    The 1938 hurricane is well known to not only locals of New England, but also to the (re)insurance industry. Very often, many ask "what would happen if the storm were to occur again?", in light of not only the dramatic coastal and financial growth in the region, but also the dramatic improvement in technology. Further, we still do not know exactly what the structure was of the storm as it made landfall: pure tropical cyclone, transitioning tropical cyclone, post-tropical cyclone, or the most deadly (but rare) warm-seclusion cyclone? The talk begins by analyzing trajectories from 1957-2002 using ERA40 reanalysis to quantify the rarity of a parcel of air originating along the hurricane's track eventually reaching southern New England. This analyzes in a generic way the frequency with which the overall large-scale pattern supports a flow into New England from the source region. The results show that at most 1-2 days a year is such a path permitted. Combined with the rarity of having a tropical cyclone in that location (at the same time), the rarity of the New England landfall and track from the SSE is clear. New global reanalysis grids from NOAA/CIRES (20th Century Reanalysis Project) uses surface-only data to produce global 3D atmospheric grids back to the 19th century. This permits for the first time numerical simulations (NCAR WRF) of the 1938 hurricane. Further, the reanalysis project produces 56 ensemble members that permit quantification of the uncertainty of the numerical simulations, in terms of track, intensity, and structure, before and after landfall. The talk concludes with an examination of the variability of this 56 member of track, intensity, and structure ensemble. The structural analysis in particular is intriguing, since it argues for a predominance of the (most dangerous) warm-seclusion lifecycle into and beyond New England, which is more typically seen over the maritime far north Atlantic. However, the structural uncertainty overall of the cyclone

  6. Constraining the vertical surface motions of the Hampshire Basin, south England During the Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip; England, Richard; Zalasiewicz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The potential effect of rising sea level on the UK has received considerable attention in recent years. However, the ongoing long-term changes in surface topography of the UK driven by regional tectonics and the mechanisms responsible are not fully understood. It is thought that glacial loading/unloading is the primary influence. However, this is inconsistent with present-day vertical surface motions recorded from Continuous Global Positioning Stations (CGPS) across the UK. The lateral variations in the present day motions are too complex to be explained by glacial isostatic rebound. We are investigating the hypothesis that the vertical motions of SE England also reflect the long term tectonic history by backstripping the Cenozoic geological record. So far the Paleogene stratigraphic record of the Hampshire basin in southern England has been investigated and using a series of deep boreholes that reach the chalk basement, a 2-D backstripping method has been applied. Subsidence analysis of cliff sections and boreholes reveal the Hampshire Basin was tectonically subsiding at a steady rate from 56.5Ma and any major periods of uplift and denudation to the present day state must have occurred from the mid Oligocene onwards. At this time the northern and western regions of the UK were believed to be uplifting as evidenced by heavy mineral transport directionns and sediment drainage patterns. A rapid increase in tectonic subsidence from 42Ma recorded by the three Isle of Wight sections in close proximity to an existing Variscan fault, thought to reactivate as a thrust during the Cenozoic, suggests a compressional stress regime in this region. The stress pattern observed from the tectonic subsidence data and evidence from drainage patterns supports a model in which the UK was uplifting in the north and west while the south east was subsiding. As this pattern is similar to the present day vertical surface motions and pre-dates glaciation, we propose glacial unloading as a

  7. Variability and trends in England and Wales precipitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Leeuw, Johannes; Methven, John; Blackburn, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The England and Wales precipitation ( EWP ) dataset is a homogeneous time series of daily accumulations from 1931 to 2014, composed from rain gauge observations spanning the region. The daily regional...

  8. 75 FR 70722 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    .... Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492... develop recommendations on proposed penalty schedule. Other business may be discussed. Although non..., 2010. Tracey L. Thompson, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries...

  9. [The reception of Vesalius in Spain and England].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the depiction of engravings taken from Vesalius's, Valverde de Hamusco's and Casserio 's treatises in portraits during the 16th and the 17th centuries to understand better the reception of the Fabrica in Spain and England.

  10. 78 FR 70282 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meetings. SUMMARY: The New England Fishery Management Council's (Council) Groundfish Oversight Committee and Electronic Monitoring Working Group (EMWG) will...

  11. Detection and assessment of secondary sonic booms in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    This report documents the results of a secondary sonic boom detection and assessment program conducted by the U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center in New England during the summer of 1979. Measurements of both acoustic and infr...

  12. Ocean and Coastal Acidification off New England and Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England coastal and adjacent Nova Scotia shelf waters have a reduced buffering capacity because of significant freshwater input, making the region’s waters potentially more vulnerable to coastal acidification. Nutrient loading and heavy precipitation events further acid...

  13. Private Well Owners | Drinking Water in New England | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Recent studies in New England identified contamination of some private wells from methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MtBE), radon and arsenic. But, many homeowners are not aware of this risk to their drinking water.

  14. Mobile phone use by drivers : 2009 - survey results for England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Premise/hypothesis : The Department for Transport has commissioned surveys to monitor the levels of mobile phone use by drivers across England since 2002. Methods : Two or three-person teams conducted observational surveys of mobile phone use on repr...

  15. New England Energy Congress: progress report - a descriptive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Spencer, Bailey; Alford, Zeb D.; Keating, Jr., Stephen J.; Aubin, Elmer B.

    1978-09-01

    New England's dependence on oil (about 80%) is posing a double threat to the region and its economic prosperity, as oil dependency means extreme supply vulnerability and substantially higher prices than the national average. The New England Energy Congress, sponsored by the New England Congressional Caucus and Tufts Univ., represents the concerted effort of a highly diverse group of New Englanders to address these problems. The work of the six committees of the Congress is reviewed in this report. The committees are the Supply Committee, Energy Demand Committee, Energy Conservation Committee, Regulatory and Institutional Processes Committee, Economic Development through Alternative Sources of Energy Committee, and Energy Economics and Financing Committee. (MCW)

  16. Education governance and standardised tests in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Kelly, Peter; McNess, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    In this study we identify and compare the impact of standardised student assessment in England, an established neoliberal context, and in Denmark where a neoliberal education reform agenda is emerging in response to both national concerns and international governance. National reading tests...... for students aged 11–12 years, long established in England, were introduced in Denmark in 2010. The form they take differs considerably, being primarily formative in Denmark and largely summative in England. Culturally sensitive extended semi-structured interviews are conducted with both teachers and students...... they believe to be their students’ best interests. In England, however, teachers try to accommodate a concern for both their students’ and their own interests, and the pedagogy they enact is more often controlling, instrumental and reductionist; their wish to be proactive is compromised by their need...

  17. 78 FR 13868 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Management Council is holding a workshop to advance the development of a comprehensive acceptable biological catch (ABC) risk policy for New England fisheries through structured and participatory discussions. It...

  18. Ambivalent horizons: competing narratives of self in Irish women's memories of pre-marriage years post-war England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazley, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Over the past-20-years research into the experiences of Irish female migrants in twentieth century Britain has been steadily accumulating. Based largely on the use of oral history, this work has been important in shedding light on various aspects of women's experiences, including how young women negotiated unfamiliar urban spaces and asserted an 'ethnic' identity in England. The dynamics shaping the re/construction of such experiences, and what they can tell us about the fashioning of gendered migrant selves, has, by contrast, received relatively little attention. Based on an in-depth analysis of the personal migration narratives of three women who migrated from southern Ireland to England between 1945-69, this article aims to provide insight into how migrants' early experiences of settlement in post-war England were conditioned by the consumption and internalization of a number of competing constructions of femininity circulating within British and Irish culture during the post-1945 period. While these constructions made available a number of different frameworks on which women could draw to order their experiences and fashion an identity, tensions within and between them could also create problems for the process of self-construction. As well as the particular circumstances of each individual's encounter with their new environment, the distinctive character of women's negotiation of these tensions alludes to the different ways women sought to construct a preferred version of their past in post-war England, raising questions about the ways past and present, public and private, interact in the production of migrant histories.

  19. Hepatitis C virus seroprevalence in pregnant women delivering live-born infants in North Thames, England in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina-Borja, M; Williams, D; Peckham, C S; Bailey, H; Thorne, C

    2016-02-01

    To estimate HCV seroprevalence in subpopulations of women delivering live-born infants in the North Thames region in England in 2012, an unlinked anonymous (UA) cross-sectional survey of neonatal dried blood spot samples was conducted. Data were available from 31467 samples from live-born infants received by the North Thames screening laboratory. Thirty neonatal samples had HCV antibodies, corresponding to a maternal seroprevalence of 0·095% (95% confidence interval 0·067-0·136). Estimated HCV seroprevalences in women born in Eastern Europe, Southern Asia and the UK were 0·366%, 0·162% and 0·019%, respectively. For women born in Eastern Europe seroprevalence was highest in those aged around 27 years, while in women born in the UK and Asia-Pacific region, seroprevalence increased significantly with age. HCV seroprevalence in UK-born women whose infant's father was also UK-born was 0·016%. One of the 30 HCV-seropositive women was HIV-1 seropositive. Estimated HCV seroprevalence for women delivering live-born infants in North Thames in 2012 (0·095%) was significantly lower than that reported in an earlier UA survey in 1997-1998 (0·191%). Data indicate that the cohort of UK-born HCV-seropositive women is ageing and that, in this area of England, most perinatally HCV-exposed infants were born to women themselves born in Southern Asia or Eastern Europe.

  20. Privatizing education: free school policy in Sweden and England

    OpenAIRE

    Wiborg, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden has bypassed England by far in outsourcing schools to private providers. The comparative argument promulgated in this article is that the combination ...

  1. Legal services in North West England: the changing landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the legal services revolution in the North West of England. Originally presented as a paper at a conference on Legal services in North West England: the changing landscape" hosted by Lancaster University's Centre for Law and Society on September 27, 2007. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Societ...

  2. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  3. Environment Agency England flood warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Chris; Walters, Mark; Haynes, Elizabeth; Dobson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Context In England around 5 million homes are at risk of flooding. We invest significantly in flood prevention and management schemes but we can never prevent all flooding. Early alerting systems are fundamental to helping us reduce the impacts of flooding. The Environment Agency has had the responsibility for flood warning since 1996. In 2006 we invested in a new dissemination system that would send direct messages to pre-identified recipients via a range of channels. Since then we have continuously improved the system and service we offer. In 2010 we introduced an 'opt-out' service where we pre-registered landline numbers in flood risk areas, significantly increasing the customer base. The service has performed exceptionally well under intense flood conditions. Over a period of 3 days in December 2013, when England was experiencing an east coast storm surge, the system sent nearly 350,000 telephone messages, 85,000 emails and 70,000 text messages, with a peak call rate of around 37,000 per hour and 100% availability. The Floodline Warnings Direct (FWD) System FWD provides warnings in advance of flooding so that people at risk and responders can take action to minimise the impact of the flood. Warnings are sent via telephone, fax, text message, pager or e-mail to over 1.1 million properties located within flood risk areas in England. Triggers for issuing alerts and warnings include attained and forecast river levels and rainfall in some rapidly responding locations. There are three levels of warning: Flood Alert, Flood Warning and Severe Flood Warning, and a stand down message. The warnings can be updated to include relevant information to help inform those at risk. Working with our current provider Fujitsu, the system is under a programme of continuous improvement including expanding the 'opt-out' service to mobile phone numbers registered to at risk addresses, allowing mobile registration to the system for people 'on the move' and providing access to

  4. Online chilling effects in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Townend

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Open and free internet-based platforms are seen as an enabler of global free expression, releasing writers from commercial and space constraints. However, many are working without the assistance of an in-house lawyer, or other legal resources. This may lead to undue suppression of public interest material, with important implications for freedom of expression and the democratic function of media. Two online surveys among digital and online journalists in England and Wales in 2013 indicated that the majority of encounters with defamation and privacy law take place outside the courts, with few formally recorded legal actions. This was particularly evident in a sample of ‘hyperlocal’ and local community publishers. In light of the results, this paper calls for a reappraisal of overly simplistic judicial and media applications of the ‘chilling effect’ doctrine, in order to expose its subjectivities and complexities. Additionally, attention needs to be paid to global and cross-jurisdictional media-legal environments, in order to help develop better internet policy and legal frameworks for protecting legitimate expression.

  5. Intergenerational relations and child development in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Antti O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary studies have shown that in many traditional populations the beneficial effects of grandparental presence for grandchildren may vary according to the sex and lineage of the grandparents, as well as by the sex of the grandchild. However, few studies have investigated the relevance of these factors in modern developed societies. The present investigation uses the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 4,636 children to analyse the association between grandparental investment and child development in contemporary England. Grandparental investment is measured by parent-grandparent contact frequencies at the child’s age of 3 and child development by “early learning goals” over the first year of primary school assessed with the Foundation Stage Profile (FSP. Children whose mothers reported contacts with maternal grandparents receive higher FSP scores compared to those with no contact at all. In addition, children whose fathers reported daily contacts with paternal grandfathers have lower FSP scores than other children. The study provides evidence of the relevance of grandparental investment on grandchild development also in developed societies. The results are discussed with reference to the grandmother hypothesis, sex-specific reproductive strategies and sex chromosome hypothesis.

  6. New England Cod Collapse and the Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle C Meng

    Full Text Available To improve fishery management, there is an increasing need to understand the long-term consequences of natural and anthropogenic climate variability for ecological systems. New England's iconic cod populations have been in decline for several decades and have recently reached unprecedented lows. We find that 17% of the overall decline in Gulf of Maine cod biomass since 1980 can be attributed to positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. This is a consequence of three results: i a 1-unit increase in the NAO winter index is associated with a 17% decrease in the spring biomass of age-1 cod the following year; ii this NAO-driven decrease persists as the affected cohort matures; iii fishing practices appear to exacerbate NAO's direct biological effect such that, since 1913, a 1-unit increase in the NAO index lowers subsequent cod catch for up to 19 years. The Georges Bank cod stock displays similar patterns. Because we statistically detect a delay between the NAO and subsequent declines in adult biomass, our findings imply that observed current NAO conditions can be used in stock forecasts, providing lead time for adaptive policy. More broadly, our approach can inform forecasting efforts for other fish populations strongly affected by natural and anthropogenic climatic variation.

  7. Linking road accident data to other files : an integrated road accident recordkeeping system. Contribution in Proceedings of Seminar P 'Road Safety' held at the 14th PTHC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, from 14-17 July 1986. Volume P 284, p. 55-86.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, S

    1986-01-01

    The road accident data which the police collect is of great value to road safety research and is used extensively. This data increases greatly in value if it can be linked to other files which contain more detailed information on exposure. Linking road accident data to other files results in what we call an Integrated Road Accident Recordkeeping System in -which the combined value of the linked files is greater than that of the sum of their individual values.

  8. Linking road accident data to other files : an integrated road accident recordkeeping system. Contribution in Proceedings of Seminar P 'Road Safety' held at the 14th PTHC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, from 14-17 July 1986. Volume P 284, p. 55-86.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, S.

    1986-01-01

    The road accident data which the police collect is of great value to road safety research and is used extensively. This data increases greatly in value if it can be linked to other files which contain more detailed information on exposure. Linking road accident data to other files results in what we

  9. The Southern Supercluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Shyamal (Texas Univ., Austin (USA))

    1989-10-01

    The Southern Supercluster is described using data compiled from five catalogs, reduced to a homogeneous system following RC2. In terms of mass, luminosity, and mass-to-light ratio, the Southern Supercluster compares well with the Coma and Hercules superclusters, but is less massive than the Local Supercluster. It is shown that, even though the Southern Supercluster is the nearest supercluster to the Local Supercluster, it is well separated from the Local Supercluster. However, there is evidence of a tenuous stream of galaxies connecting the Southern Supercluster with the Perseus Supercluster. 30 refs.

  10. Southern California Particle Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the Southern California Particle Center, center researchers will investigate the underlying mechanisms that produce the health effects associated with exposure to...

  11. Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional wildlife habitat in Southern New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffum, Bill; Modisette, Christopher; McWilliams, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional habitat is a high priority for wildlife conservation agencies in the northeastern USA, where most forest land is privately owned. Many studies have linked regional declines in wildlife populations to the loss of early successional habitat. The government provides financial incentives to create early successional habitat, but the number of family forest owners who actively manage their forests remains low. Several studies have analyzed participation of family forest owners in federal forestry programs, but no study to date has focused specifically on creation of wildlife habitat. The objective of our study was to analyze the experience of a group of wildlife-oriented family forest owners who were trained to create early successional habitat. This type of family forest owners represents a small portion of the total population of family forest owners, but we believe they can play an important role in creating wildlife habitat, so it is important to understand how outreach programs can best reach them. The respondents shared some characteristics but differed in terms of forest holdings, forestry experience and interest in earning forestry income. Despite their strong interest in wildlife, awareness about the importance of early successional habitat was low. Financial support from the federal government appeared to be important in motivating respondents to follow up after the training with activities on their own properties: 84% of respondents who had implemented activities received federal financial support and 47% would not have implemented the activities without financial assistance. In order to mobilize greater numbers of wildlife-oriented family forest owners to create early successional habitat we recommend focusing outreach efforts on increasing awareness about the importance of early successional habitat and the availability of technical and financial assistance.

  12. Forest floor temperature and relative humidity following timber harvesting in southern New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; Thomas D. Kyker-Snowman

    2008-01-01

    Forest amphibians, especially salamanders, prefer forests with shaded, cool, and moist forest floors. Timber harvesting opens the forest canopy and exposes the forest floor to direct sunlight, which can increase forest floor temperatures and reduce soil moisture. These microclimatic changes can potentially degrade the harvested stand for amphibian habitat or affect...

  13. The Environmental Belief Systems of Organic and Conventional Farmers: Evidence from Central-Southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kings, David; Ilbery, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Little comparative work has been conducted on the environmental belief systems and behaviours of conventional and organic farmers, especially in relation to farming culture, the environment and lowland farmland avifauna. Adopting a modified behavioural approach, this paper analyses the ways in which the environmental attitudes and understandings…

  14. Relationships of disability with age among adults aged 50 to 85: evidence from the United States, England and continental europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Wahrendorf

    Full Text Available To extend existing research on the US health disadvantage relative to Europe by studying the relationships of disability with age from midlife to old age in the US and four European regions (England/Northern and Western Europe/Southern Europe/Eastern Europe including their wealth-related differences, using a flexible statistical approach to model the age-functions.We used data from three studies on aging, with nationally representative samples of adults aged 50 to 85 from 15 countries (N = 48225: the US-American Health and Retirement Study (HRS, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE. Outcomes were mobility limitations and limitations in instrumental activities of daily living. We applied fractional polynomials of age to determine best fitting functional forms for age on disability in each region, while controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and important risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity.Findings showed high levels of disability in the US with small age-related changes between 50 and 85. Levels of disability were generally lower in Eastern Europe, followed by England and Southern Europe and lowest in Northern and Western Europe. In these latter countries age-related increases of disability, though, were steeper than in the US, especially in Eastern and Southern Europe. For all countries and at all ages, disability levels were higher among adults with low wealth compared to those with high wealth, with largest wealth-related differences among those in early old age in the USA.This paper illustrates considerable variations of disability and its relationship with age. It supports the hypothesis that less developed social policies and more pronounced socioeconomic inequalities are related to higher levels of disability and an earlier onset of disability.

  15. The impact of commissioning for rhinosinusitis in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni-Jaiswal, A; Philpott, C; Hopkins, C

    2015-12-01

    To assess the compliance of clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) in England with the ENT-UK rhinosinusitis commissioning guide produced in collaboration with the Royal College of Surgeons England and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence. We also aimed to assess the ease of accessibility of data from CCGs. Audit of compliance of English CCGs with the ENT-UK rhinosinusitis commissioning guide. CCGs in England A total of 58 of the 221 CCGs in England were included and chosen because they were the first CCGs authorised by NHS England, or alternately, the CCGs forecasted to have a deficit in their first year of operation. Their websites were reviewed; when information was not easily accessible, a freedom of information request was submitted to the relevant CCG. Compliance with commissioning guidelines for rhinosinusitis. Thirteen percent of CCGs had restrictive referral criteria in place, largely unrelated to published evidence-based guidance. The routine use of multiple courses of oral steroids, prescription of antibiotics, CT scanning within primary care, and delaying referral for a year, prior to referral to a specialist were recommended against published advice. Restricting access to surgery may contribute to poorer outcomes and a decrease in the patient's quality of life. This is against the NHS constitution and is open to legal challenge. We encourage all ENT surgeons to review policies of their local CCG and engage with commissioners to ensure that their patients have evidence-based care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Shakespeare in Southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa is interested in both literary and theatrical approaches to Shakespeare. Its geographical scope is not confined to Southern Africa. Contributions discussing the legacy of Shakespeare elsewhere in Africa, with a specific focus on the Shakespearean experience in particular African countries, ...

  17. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  18. Snapshots of language and literature teaching in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation to lan...... to language and literature teaching focussing on performance in England and a personal formation in Denmark. Descriptions of the episodes are linked to wider debates and potential areas for further consideration are identified.......To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation...

  19. Women Priests in the Church of England: Psychological Type Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Robbins

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study employed psychological type theory and measurement to explore the psychological profile of women priests ordained in the Church of England. A sample of 83 Anglican clergywomen in England completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. The data demonstrated clear preferences for introversion (63% over extraversion (37%, for intuition (60% over sensing (40%, for feeling (76% over thinking (24%, and for judging (55% over perceiving (45%. In terms of dominant types, 37% were dominant feelers, 31% dominant intuitives, 23% dominant sensers, and 8% dominant thinkers. These findings are discussed to illuminate the preferred ministry styles of Anglican clergywomen in England and to highlight the significant differences between the psychological type profile of clergywomen and the UK female population norms.

  20. New England Energy Congress: preliminary report for public review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Spencer, Bailey

    1978-11-01

    The New England Energy Congress represents the concerted effort of a group of New Englanders to address the energy problem of the area. New England is dependent on oil, with fully 80% of its energy requirements derived from this single source. Detailed reports are presented by the Supply Committee (fossil fuels, nuclear, and alternative sources); the Committee on Economic Development Through Alternative Sources of Energy (defining the state of the art and future directions of the technologies applicable to renewable energy resources, specifically, biomass, direct solar, and wind/hydroelectric/tidal/wave energy; identifying, and formulating policies to reduce the institutional impediments and adverse environmental impacts of developing these resources; and evaluationg the relationship between renewable energy systems and regional economic development); Energy Demand Committee; Energy Conservation Committee; Regulatory and Institutional Processes Committee; and Energy Economics and Financing Committee.

  1. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  2. Development of priority based statewide scour monitoring systems in New England (PDF file)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-02

    A project was funded by the New England Transportation Consortium to research the creation of a scour monitoring system : that would assist in the allocation of resources during potentially destructive flood events in New England. Emphasis was placed...

  3. Climate Change Science Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert M.

    2016-03-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has actively pursued research in the effects of climate change on the hydrology of New England. Ongoing focus areas of climate change science activities of the USGS in New England include the following:

  4. Impacts of climate change on abstraction reliability for irrigation during droughts - Policy implications for England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Dolores; Holman, Ian; Rio, Marlene; Prudhomme, Christel

    2017-04-01

    In humid climates around the world, supplemental irrigation is critical to buffer the effects of rainfall variability and to assure crop yield and quality. In England, abstraction for irrigation is limited by: i) a maximum volumetric limit specified in the abstraction licence and ii) restrictions on abstraction imposed by the water regulator during droughts. Given regulatory efforts to secure sufficient environmental river flows and meet rising water demands due to population growth and climate change, increasing water scarcity is likely to compound the drought challenges faced by irrigated agriculture in this region. The aim of this study is to assess the impact that climate change may have on agricultural abstraction reliability in England within the context of the abstraction and drought management regimes currently in place, and how the water abstraction reform being developed by the Government could reduce the pressure on more and more limited water resources. Firstly, explanatory relationships were derived between an annual agroclimatic aridity index and actual irrigation abstraction. Secondly, the probability of annual abstraction being close to the maximum limit was calculated for each licence for the baseline (1961-90) and future (2071-2098) period. Finally, the current water resource availability triggers for mandatory abstractions restrictions on spray irrigation licences were used to assess the probability of being under restrictions during drought in each period. The results indicate a significant increase in the proportion of the licence being used in all catchments, representing the greatest risk for abstractors in the future, mainly in the most productive agricultural areas located in eastern and southern regions. In contrast, the likelihood of mandatory drought restrictions increases significantly in central and western England due to the lower buffering capacity of groundwater. Based on our findings, this paper discusses how the reform of the

  5. Reforming birth registration law in England and Wales?

    OpenAIRE

    Julie McCandless

    2017-01-01

    The Law Commission of England and Wales is considering what its 13th Programme of Law Reform should address. During the consultation process, a project on birth registration law has been mooted. This is a very welcome proposal given that civil birth registration in England and Wales is a compulsory procedure that not only finds its roots in the early Victorian era, but also remains very similar, at least in terms of form and the information that is recorded. I first use two recent legal chall...

  6. Zoonotic diseases in South American camelids in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsby, K; Twomey, D F; Featherstone, C; Foster, A; Walsh, A; Hewitt, K; Morgan, D

    2017-04-01

    The number of South American camelids (SACs) in England and Wales is increasing and with this comes a risk of new and emerging infections. Although classified as livestock, these animals are also treated as pets and may be in regular contact with humans. This paper reviews zoonotic diseases that have been identified in SACs in England and Wales, and which pose a potential risk to human health. We also highlight the importance of surveillance continuing to capture information on infections in SACs for the protection of both public and animal health.

  7. Nocturnal Oviposition Behavior of Forensically Important Diptera in Central England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kate M; Grace, Karon A; Bulling, Mark T

    2015-11-01

    Timing of oviposition on a corpse is a key factor in entomologically based minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) calculations. However, there is considerable variation in nocturnal oviposition behavior of blow flies reported in the research literature. This study investigated nocturnal oviposition in central England for the first time, over 25 trials from 2011 to 2013. Liver-baited traps were placed in an urban location during control (diurnal), and nocturnal periods and environmental conditions were recorded during each 5-h trial. No nocturnal activity or oviposition was observed during the course of the study indicating that nocturnal oviposition is highly unlikely in central England. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. New England Energy Congress: A Blueprint for Energy Action. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Connolly, Patrick F.; Spencer, Bailey

    1979-05-01

    The New England Energy Congress consists of six committees, with members from each of the six New England states. Since May 1978, the Congress has been working to frame and substantiate energy action recommendations. Committee jurisdictions include New England Energy Supply, Economic Development through Alternative Sources of Energy, New England Energy Demand, Energy Conservation, Regulatory and Institutional Processes, and Energy Economics and Financing. The findings and recommendations that have resulted from their work are summarized. (MCW)

  9. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project - Newsletter #6 - September 2010, (NEWF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R.; Gifford, J.; Leeds, T.; Bauer, S.

    2010-09-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region.

  10. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 4 -- May 2008 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2008-05-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 4 features an interview with Brian Fairbank, president and CEO of Jiminy Peak Mountain Resort.

  11. International Differences in the Links between Obesity and Physiological Dysregulation: The United States, England, and Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Kim, Jung Ki; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2013-01-01

    ...% for men aged 50-59. While obesity in England has also increased during this period, from approximately 9% in 1980 to 15% in 2004 for men aged 55-64, the level of obesity remains much lower in England [26]. Additionally, the difference in obesity between the US and England is more pronounced for women. The level of obesity in US women was ...

  12. Tourism in New England towns: a threat to the rural fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. Bristow

    2007-01-01

    A traditional tourist attraction in New England is the classic rural New England town. These small communities have a small-town feel bounded by family farms and wooded lands. These towns are heavily visited during the fall foliage season and during spring maple sugaring operations. The rural character of many New England communities is threatened by a growing...

  13. Grammar Teaching in Secondary School Foreign Language Learning in England: Teachers' Reported Beliefs and Observed Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liviero, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates teachers' beliefs relating to grammar teaching in modern foreign language (MFL) learning in England. Focus on grammatical form has been consistently supported by linguistic research and teacher practice, and has progressively been reinstated in England's National Curriculum. However, MFL learning assessment in England has…

  14. A Comparison of the Guide Dog Movements of England and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, E.; Eames, T.

    1989-01-01

    The article compares the guide dog movements in the United States and England, noting that in England there is one school with 7 centers while in the U.S. there are 10 competing schools. In England, twice as high a proportion of blind people use guide dogs. (Author/DB)

  15. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 3 -- October 2007 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2007-10-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 3 features an interview with Andrew Dzykewicz, Commissioner of the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources.

  16. Travel trends in New England and the Northeast United States: updating post 9-11 trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the travel market trends in New England after September 11, 2001 (9- 11). Comparisons of travel to New England are also made with overall national domestic travel trends and vacation travel trends. The primary purpose is to examine the markets that travel to both the Northeast United States and New England1 regions to determine if and when the...

  17. Influence of Fire and other anthropogenic practices on grassland and shrubland birds in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter D. Vickery; Benjamin Zuckerburg; Andrea L. Jones; W. Gregory Shriver; Andrew P. Weik

    2005-01-01

    Since 1966, many species of grassland and shrubland birds have declined substantially in New England (Askins 2000). The extent of grassland and shrubland habitat in New England has changed dramatically over the past 400 years. Presently, grassland and shrubland habitat in New England are created and maintained primarily as a result of four types of habitat management:...

  18. Retention of Recent College Graduates in New England. Policy Brief 09-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    The population of recent college graduates has been growing more slowly in New England than in the rest of the United States, and New England states are concerned that an inadequate supply of skilled workers may hamper economic growth. In some sense, New England is a victim of its own success. The region's colleges and universities excel at…

  19. 77 FR 11532 - Notice of Attendance at ISO New England and NEPOOL Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Attendance at ISO New England and NEPOOL Meetings The... Commission staff may attend upcoming ISO New England Inc. (ISO-NE) and New England Power Pool (NEPOOL... Commission staff may monitor the various meetings posted on the ISO-NE Web site. NEPOOL Participants...

  20. 78 FR 38027 - ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-72-000] ISO New England... III.A.15 of Appendix A of ISO New England Inc.'s existing tariff. Dominion Energy Marketing, Inc. and ISO New England Inc., 143 FERC ] 61,233 (2013). The refund effective date in Docket No. EL13-72-000...

  1. Southern deepwater swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Conner; Marilyn A. Buford

    1998-01-01

    The authors define, classify, and analyze the economic significance of southern deepwater swamps. They discuss the physical environment, vegetational communities, animal communities, management issues, and research needs for this complex resource.

  2. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  3. Southern pulpwood production, 1961

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon L. Robinson; Agnes C. Nichols

    1962-01-01

    Southern pulpwood production reached 24,230,728 cords in 1961--60 percent of the Nations total. Significant increases were noted in the consumption of hardwood and residues. But pine roundwood remained virtually unchanged for the third consecutive year.

  4. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  5. Southern hemisphere observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  6. Introducing ICT in Schools in England: Rationale and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a critical perspective on the attempts to promote the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning in England. It describes the rationale given for the introduction of ICT in terms of its potential to impact on educational standards to contribute to developing a curriculum which has more…

  7. 77 FR 14351 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Street, Mill 2, Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The....gotomeeting.com/register/45053222 . Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before...

  8. 78 FR 11820 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management... business may be discussed. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this.... 1801 et seq. Dated: February 14, 2013. Tracey L. Thompson, Acting Deputy Director, Office of...

  9. 76 FR 77214 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ..., Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England... auxiliary aids should be directed to Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, at (978) 465- 0492, at least 5 days... other business at this meeting. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come...

  10. 76 FR 61345 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    .... Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492... year. Other business may be discussed. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may... date. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. Dated: September 28, 2011. Tracey L. Thompson, Acting Director...

  11. 75 FR 80798 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ..., Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492. SUPPLEMENTARY... non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this group for discussion, those...: December 17, 2010. Tracey L. Thompson, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine...

  12. 77 FR 29595 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery.... Howard, Executive Director, at (978) 465- 0492, at least 5 days prior to the meeting date. Authority: 16... Research Areas and (2) analysis of the coral measures. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this...

  13. 75 FR 63146 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    .... Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492.... Howard, Executive Director, at (978) 465- 0492, at least 5 days prior to the meeting date. Authority: 16... the development of the control rules. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may...

  14. 77 FR 58983 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Street, Mill 2, Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The... their discretion. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this group...

  15. 75 FR 78680 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ..., Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England..., Executive Director, at (978) 465- 0492, at least 5 days prior to the meeting date. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801... non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this group for discussion, those...

  16. 75 FR 78681 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ..., Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England... fishing year. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this group for... sign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to Paul J. Howard, Executive...

  17. 78 FR 25256 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    .... Nies, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492... other auxiliary aids should be directed to Thomas A. Nies, Executive Director, at (978) 465- 0492, at.... Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this group for discussion, those...

  18. Idiocy and the Law in Colonial New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Parnel

    2001-01-01

    A review of laws and records of the courts of colonial New England indicates early laws of Massachusetts extended certain rights to idiots: they authorized the transfer of property, exonerated idiots who committed capital crimes, and extended relief to impoverished idiots. The relationship between colonial laws and present legislation is examined.…

  19. Institutional Conceptualisations of Teacher Education as Academic Work in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Viv; McNicholl, Jane; Pendry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Through an analysis of job recruitment texts, and interviews with academic leaders, this article shows how the university-based teacher educator is produced as a category of academic worker in England. Focussing on the discursive processes of categorisation provides insights into how English universities conceptualise teacher education. Variations…

  20. Honour and Shame in a Church of England Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    While students of Islamic societies and cultures are aware of the influence of dynamics of honour and shame on behaviour, these factors are not always recognized by those who engage with Muslims in the UK. This paper will discuss the impact of concerns related to honour and shame on the behaviour of Muslim pupils in a Church of England primary…

  1. Educational Expansion, Economic Growth and Antisocial Behaviour: Evidence from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the increase in post-compulsory schooling and economic growth on conviction rates for antisocial behaviour in England. I hypothesise that both educational and employment opportunities should lead to greater reductions in antisocial behaviour when they are combined than when they exist in isolation. I test this…

  2. 78 FR 48860 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meetings. SUMMARY: The New England Fishery Management... Group (ABC WG) and Electronic Monitoring Working Group (EM WG). DATES: The first meeting of the ABC...

  3. Religious Education in England after 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In the ten years following 9/11 there was unprecedented interest in, and commitment to, religious education in the school curriculum in England. Politicians, academics, and professionals all argued that learning about religion could foster "social cohesion" and even prevent terrorism. Accordingly there were a number of national and…

  4. Pupils' Fear in the Classroom: Portraits from Palestine and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Affouneh, Saida

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the concept of fear related to the authoritarian classroom and how children express its influence on their learning. Its investigations draw on the comments of four classes of primary-age pupils, two from a school near London, England, and two from boys' and girls' schools in the West Bank, Palestine. It is written by one…

  5. Exploratory mapping of commuter flows in England and Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The paper uses the origin–destination commute data published from the 1991 and 2001 Census to explore the developments in commuting and interaction patterns within England and Wales. Focus is on the geographical variations and a map of commuter flows is presented. Commuting is stretched out along...

  6. Snapshots of Language and Literature Teaching in Denmark and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation to language and literature teaching focussing on…

  7. No Lack of Principles: Leadership Development in England and Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeath, John

    2011-01-01

    While there are significant differences between England and Scotland in the politics, the policy environment and the management of schools, leadership development both north and south of the border is charged with addressing what has been termed a recruitment and retention "crisis". An emerging phenomenon in both jurisdictions is that of…

  8. Schooling of Immigrant Children in West Germany, Sweden, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, I.

    1975-01-01

    The focus of this article is on children of migrant workers and immigrants in the schools of West Germany, Sweden and England. One central problem, that of language, is considered both as it is dealt with in policy, i. e., in curricula, and as it is actually implemented in some programs, which are typical for the actions in these countries.…

  9. Personalised Leadership Development? Lessons from the Pilot NPQH in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Megan; Earley, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon an evaluation, carried out for the National College, of the piloting of the new National Professional Qualification for Headship (NPQH) in England. The pilot programme focused on the personalisation of headship training to make it more customised to the identified needs of each individual. The reconfigured programme…

  10. Classification of paraglacial barrier systems: coastal New England, USA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FitzGerald, D.M.; van Heteren, S.

    1999-01-01

    The New England coast harbours a wide variety of barrier forms, which we organize into six barrier-coastline types. The barriers develop in response to the relative importance of several spatially and temporally variable parameters, particularly antecedent topography and geology, sediment abundance

  11. Decision Making Process and Declining Enrollments in Northern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Cyr, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This research was conducted as a qualitative comparative case study of two Northern New England school districts that were in the process of responding to declining enrollments. The purpose of the study was to explore decision-making through the lens of declining enrollments. An award winning rural school in an affluent town with high performing…

  12. Exploratory mapping of commuter flows in England and Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lassen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    and Birmingham. These are chosen for their size and differences in regional context. In the general analysis – at the country-wide scale - special emphasis is put on deriving a representation of the scale and the corridors of interaction from the relatively disaggregate data. A map of commuter flows in England...

  13. 75 FR 43928 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ..., Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England... review the status of the red crab fishery and recent developments in processing, marketing, and... other auxiliary aids should be directed to Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, at (978) 465- 0492, at...

  14. Changing Landscapes in Safeguarding Babies and Young Children in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Eunice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of safeguarding children from violence is internationally recognised. However, detecting, intervening and protecting children from abuse both within the family and in institutions is complex. This paper specifically focuses on safeguarding in England and how workforce reform in the early years offers the opportunity to forge new…

  15. Comparing Pedagogy in Mathematics in Denmark and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter; Pratt, Nick; Dorf, Hans; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of pedagogy in lower-secondary school mathematics in Denmark and England. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of Bernstein's pedagogic discourse to…

  16. Research Article (New England Journal of Medicine) Four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-10

    Mar 10, 2016 ... Malawi Medical Journal 28 (3): September 2016. College of .... This article originally appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine ..... clearance,10 gametocytemia (prevalence and density), and changes in the hemoglobin level. Trial oversight. The contributions of the authors are listed in Table S5 in.

  17. Psychological Type Preferences of Female Bible College Students in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, William K.; Francis, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 122 female students attending a Pentecostal Bible College in England completed Form G (Anglicised) of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrated preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The predominant type was ISFJ (16%),…

  18. Locating Mathematics within Post-16 Vocational Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Diane; Noyes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The political importance of mathematics in post-16 education is clear. Far less clear is how mathematics does and should relate to vocational education. Successive mathematics curricula (e.g. core skills, key skills) have been developed in England with vocational learners in mind. Meanwhile, general mathematics qualifications remain largely…

  19. Research Article ( New England Journal of Medicine ) Four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Article ( New England Journal of Medicine ) Four artemisinin-based treatments in African pregnant women with malaria. ... The cure rate in the artemether–lumefantrine group was significantly lower than that in the other three groups, although the absolute difference was within the 5-percentage-point margin for ...

  20. Prices, wages and fertility in pre-industrial England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Marc Patrick Brag

    2012-01-01

    and relative prices to affect fertility. The model is estimated using new data for the pre-industrial period in England, and the analysis reveals a strong, positive effect of agricultural wages as well as a nonnegative effect of real agricultural prices on fertility. Furthermore, it is demonstrated...

  1. Privatizing Education: Free School Policy in Sweden and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…

  2. Race and Vocational Education and Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, James; Orr, Kevin; Warmington, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Black and minority ethnic students (BME) are a significant constituency in vocational education and training (VET) and FE in England. Despite this recent research on race and VET has become a marginal concern. Insofar as current VET research addresses social justice, race appears to be a supplementary concern. Although there is a substantial…

  3. The Effects of Social Service Contact on Teenagers in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Morag; Scourfield, Jonathan; Cheung, Sin Yi; Sharland, Elaine; Sloan, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated outcomes of social service contact during teenage years. Method: Secondary analysis was conducted of the Longitudinal Survey of Young People in England (N = 15,770), using data on reported contact with social services resulting from teenagers' behavior. Outcomes considered were educational achievement and…

  4. Imported Talent: Foreign Immigration and the New England Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Andrew; Trubs'kyy, Mykhaylo; Fogg, Neeta P.

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of foreign immigration on population and labor force growth during the 1990s varied widely across U.S. geographic regions, divisions and states. New England was far more dependent than nearly all other regions on the new wave of foreign immigrants to achieve its population growth and labor force growth during the past decade. In fact,…

  5. 76 FR 38621 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ..., specificity and examples of the issues in the list for the purpose of developing recommended goals and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meeting. SUMMARY: The New England Fishery Management Council (Council) is...

  6. Educational Inclusion in England: Origins, Perspectives and Current Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauchlan, Fraser; Greig, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine different aspects of the inclusion debate, including how it has been shaped by the political context in England over the past 30 years. We then give consideration to the key argument that has dominated the inclusion agenda over the last decade: should effective inclusion be considered only as placement in mainstream school…

  7. The Oversoul of Reform: Horace Greeley and New England Transcendentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, Gary

    Entries in the New York "Tribune" suggest that editor Horace Greeley and his writing were part of New England transcendentalism. This was manifested in Greeley's interest in poetry, newspaper publishing, reform, and an overall practical social idealism. He was long associated with both literary figures and reform movements, and as a…

  8. A Bridge Too Far? Teacher Training in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Terry; Hake, Clare

    1995-01-01

    Examines recent changes, and the motives behind them, in teacher education in England and Wales. Recent years have seen a move toward reducing the role of higher education and creating school-based systems of training reminiscent of apprenticeships. Motives behind this reform trend appear to be primarily political. (SLD)

  9. Cross-cultural comparisons of personality : the Netherlands and England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANDERMAN, R; EYSENCK, SBG; ARRINDELL, W A

    1991-01-01

    401 men and 475 women completed the Dutch version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Factor comparisons all exceeded 0.97 so that the factors of Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Social Desirability are deemed to be identical in the two countries, England and The Netherlands. Sex

  10. Change in Soil and Forest Floor Carbon after Shelterwood Harvests in a New England Oak-Hardwood Forest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayanna L. Warren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been effort worldwide to quantify how much carbon forests contain in order to designate appropriate offset credits to forest carbon climate mitigation. Carbon pools on or immediately below the soil surface are understood to be very active in response to environmental change but are not well understood. Our study focused on the effects of shelterwood regeneration harvests in New England on the carbon stored in litter, woody debris, and surface soil carbon. Results demonstrate significant difference in surface (0–10 cm soil carbon between control (nonharvested and harvested sites, with higher carbon percentage on control sites. Results showed a significant difference in coarse woody debris with higher amounts of carbon per area on harvested sites. No significant difference in litter mass was recorded between harvested and control sites. When coarse woody debris and litter are included with soil carbon, total carbon did not have a significant decline over 20 years following shelterwood treatment to the forest to secure regeneration, but there was considerable variability among sites. When taking all surface soil carbon measurements together, our results suggest that for accounting purposes the measurement of below-ground carbon after shelterwood harvests is not necessary for the southern New England region.

  11. Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918 (Diptera, Culicidae, a new country record for England, contrasted with Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph E. Harbach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918 in the New Forest of southern England, bringing to 36 the number of mosquito species recorded in Britain. Because it seems that this species has been misidentified previously in Britain as the morphologically similar Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838, the two species are contrasted and distinguished based on distinctive differences exhibited in the adult and larval stages. The pupa of Ae. nigrinus is unknown, but the pupa of Ae. sticticus is distinguished from the pupae of other species of Aedes by modification of the most recent key to British mosquitoes. The history of the mosquito fauna recorded in the UK is summarized and bionomical information is provided for the two species.

  12. North–South divide: contrasting impacts of climate change on crop yields in Scotland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Michael H.; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Barnes, Andrew; Moran, Dominic; West, Jonathan S.; Fitt, Bruce D. L.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of climate change on productivity of agricultural crops in relation to diseases that attack them are difficult to predict because they are complex and nonlinear. To investigate these crop–disease–climate interactions, UKCIP02 scenarios predicting UK temperature and rainfall under high- and low-CO2 emission scenarios for the 2020s and 2050s were combined with a crop-simulation model predicting yield of fungicide-treated winter oilseed rape and with a weather-based regression model predicting severity of phoma stem canker epidemics. The combination of climate scenarios and crop model predicted that climate change will increase yield of fungicide-treated oilseed rape crops in Scotland by up to 0.5 t ha−1 (15%). In contrast, in southern England the combination of climate scenarios, crop, disease and yield loss models predicted that climate change will increase yield losses from phoma stem canker epidemics to up to 50 per cent (1.5 t ha−1) and greatly decrease yield of untreated winter oilseed rape. The size of losses is predicted to be greater for winter oilseed rape cultivars that are susceptible than for those that are resistant to the phoma stem canker pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Such predictions illustrate the unexpected, contrasting impacts of aspects of climate change on crop–disease interactions in agricultural systems in different regions. PMID:19447817

  13. Evaluating Key Watershed Components of Low Flow Regimes in New England Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Alisa C; Gold, Arthur J; Pelletier, Marguerite C

    2016-05-01

    Water resource managers seeking to optimize stream ecosystem services and abstractions of water from watersheds need an understanding of the importance of land use, physical and climatic characteristics, and hydrography on different low flow components of stream hydrographs. Within 33 USGS gaged watersheds of southern New England, we assessed relationships between watershed variables and a set of low flow parameters by using an information-theoretical approach. The key variables identified by the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) weighting factors as generating positive relationships with low flow events included percent stratified drift, mean elevation, drainage area, and mean August precipitation. The extent of wetlands in the watershed was negatively related to low flow magnitudes. Of the various land use variables, the percentage of developed land was found to have the highest importance and a negative relationship on low flow magnitudes, but was less important than wetlands and physical and climatic features. Our results suggest that management practices aimed to sustain low flows in fluvial systems can benefit from attention to specific watershed features. We draw attention to the finding that streams located in watersheds with high proportions of wetlands may require more stringent approaches to withdrawals to sustain fluvial ecosystems during drought periods, particularly in watersheds with extensive development and limited deposits of stratified drift. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Surnames and social mobility in England, 1170-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory; Cummins, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Using educational status in England from 1170 to 2012, we show that the rate of social mobility in any society can be estimated from knowledge of just two facts: the distribution over time of surnames in the society and the distribution of surnames among an elite or underclass. Such surname measures reveal that the typical estimate of parent-child correlations in socioeconomic measures in the range of 0.2-0.6 are misleading about rates of overall social mobility. Measuring education status through Oxbridge attendance suggests a generalized intergenerational correlation in status in the range of 0.70-0.90. Social status is more strongly inherited even than height. This correlation is unchanged over centuries. Social mobility in England in 2012 was little greater than in preindustrial times. Thus there are indications of an underlying social physics surprisingly immune to government intervention.

  15. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, England and Wales, 1945-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Christopher R; LeBaigue, Susan; Esan, Oluwaseun B; Awofisyo, Adedoyin A; Adams, Natalie L; Fisher, Ian S T; Grant, Kathie A; Peters, Tansy M; Larkin, Lesley; Davies, Robert H; Adak, Goutam K

    2014-07-01

    In England and Wales, the emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis resulted in the largest and most persistent epidemic of foodborne infection attributable to a single subtype of any pathogen since systematic national microbiological surveillance was established. We reviewed 67 years of surveillance data to examine the features, underlying causes, and overall effects of S. enterica ser. Enteritidis. The epidemic was associated with the consumption of contaminated chicken meat and eggs, and a decline in the number of infections began after the adoption of vaccination and other measures in production and distribution of chicken meat and eggs. We estimate that >525,000 persons became ill during the course of the epidemic, which caused a total of 6,750,000 days of illness, 27,000 hospitalizations, and 2,000 deaths. Measures undertaken to control the epidemic have resulted in a major reduction in foodborne disease in England and Wales.

  16. Home visitors and child health in England: advances and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cowley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the early years as a focus for reducing health inequalities as well as one that is important for the children themselves. This paper describes the introduction in England of Sure Start Local Programmes, which included home visiting within a community development approach, and an intensive home visiting programme, the Nurse-Family partnership, for disadvantaged teenage mothers. It reflects on changes and challenges in service provision to mothers and their pre-school children in England, explaining that a long tradition of home visiting was, paradoxically, reduced as attention focused on the newer initiatives. This is now being addressed, with attention to a range of evidence based programmes and a specific focus on heath visitor provision.

  17. Relating counselor attributes to client engagement in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Dwayne; Rowan-Szal, Grace A; Joe, George W; Best, David; Day, Ed; Campbell, Angela

    2009-04-01

    Client functioning and treatment engagement were examined in relation to staff attributes and organizational climate across a diverse sample of drug treatment and outreach programs in England. Self-rating assessments were obtained from 1,539 clients and 439 counselors representing 44 programs, and results were interpreted using comparable data from studies of treatment programs in the United States. Client scores on treatment participation and counseling rapport in England were directly related to their higher levels of motivation and psychosocial functioning, as well as to staff ratings of professional attributes and program atmosphere. By linking records from English clients with their counselors in each program, findings also indicate these relationships are rooted in the personal interactions between clients and their counselor. Standardized assessments of treatment structure, process, and performance used across therapeutic settings and national boundaries show there is generalizability in the pattern of clinical dynamics, including the relationships between organizational functioning and quality of services.

  18. Wetland conservation and sustainable coastal governance in Japan and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephen; Kawabe, Midori; Rewhorn, Sonja

    2011-05-01

    Coastal wetlands present particular challenges for coastal governance and for the implementation of the Ramsar Convention, not least because coastal areas are focal points of human activity and of governance ambiguity. Through the evaluation of Ramsar delivery at both national and local levels in Japan and England, the relationship between Ramsar implementation and coastal governance was examined. In England, Ramsar status is primarily treated as a nature conservation designation which limits the wider opportunities inherent in the designation. In contrast, in Japan, the Ramsar Convention is used as a policy driver at the national level and as a leverage to encourage citizen engagement, economic benefit, and wetland conservation at the local level. It was concluded that through the implementation of the Ramsar Convention in important coastal wetland areas, significant steps can be taken towards delivering integrated approaches to coastal governance. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Building the New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Kafel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for a curriculum designed for librarians to use for teaching STEM research data management skills to their constituents from diverse STEM disciplines has been widely identified. (Qin and D’Ignazio 2010. From 2012-2014, a collaborative group of New England librarians, led by a project team from the University of Massachusetts Medical School, developed lecture notes, presentation slides, assignments, readings, and case studies for teaching research data management. The New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum (NECDMC is unique in its flexibility; providing subject agnostic instructional materials in a modular format for teaching common data management best practices along with a suite of teaching cases illustrating data management in disciplinary contexts. This article is a follow-up to the “Teaching Research Data Management: An Undergraduate/Graduate Curriculum (Piorun et al. 2012 that was published in the Journal of eScience Librarianship.

  20. Methodological Triangulation at the Bank of England:An Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Downward; Andrew Mearman

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which triangulation takes place within the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) process at the Bank of England. Triangulation is at its most basic, the mixing of two or more methods, investigators, theories, methodologies or data in a single investigation. More specifically, we argue for triangulation as a commitment in research design to the mixing of methods in the act of inference. The paper argues that there are many motivations for triangulation as well a...

  1. Euthanasia: a summary of the law in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simillis, Constantinos

    2008-07-01

    When medical treatment becomes futile, or the patient's suffering is intractable, doctors face the agonising dilemma of whether to proceed with euthanasia. It is important for a doctor to be familiar with the law surrounding euthanasia, in order to avoid prosecution. This paper explores the law in England and Wales regarding the different categories of euthanasia: voluntary euthanasia, nonvoluntary euthanasia, passive euthanasia, and active euthanasia.

  2. The Professional Rugby Experience in England and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Howard; Cavatorti, Francesco; Fino, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    The Premier Rugby League is made up of 12 professional clubs. Its mission is to promote professional rugby in England. In fulfilling this mission, it bases all activities on the League's founding principles: a 'large virtual family' with values such as moral integrity. This strong sense of aggregation is a feature of the rugby community. The spirit of collaboration has also developed at the international level - formalised by an agreement with The Italian Rugby League-LIRE (Lega Italiana Rugb...

  3. Clothing the Poor in Nineteenth-Century England

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Vivienne

    2013-01-01

    In this pioneering study Vivienne Richmond reveals the importance of dress to the nineteenth-century English poor, who valued clothing not only for its practical utility, but also as a central element in the creation and assertion of collective and individual identities. During this period of rapid industrialisation and urbanisation formal dress codes, corporate and institutional uniforms and the spread of urban fashions replaced the informal dress of agricultural England. This laid the found...

  4. Terminal Forecast Reference Notebook for RAF Alconbury, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-03

    REFERENCE NOTEBOOK FOR RAF ALCONjRY, ENGLAND Published By DETACHMENT 36 28TH WEATHER SQUADRON 2D WEATHER WING ( MAC ) UNITED STATES AIR FORCE UNCLASS I...ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Headquarters, 2d Weather Wing ( MAC ) 3 Oct 1983 Aerospace Sciences Division (DN) 13. NUMBER OF PAGES APO New York 09012 (0 8...squally in nature and produce snow flurries in the winter and brief thunderstorms. In summer it is generally cool and showery, but will often turn into

  5. Variations in prison mental health services in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Andrew; Exworthy, Tim; Olumoroti, Olumuyiwa; Sessay, Mohammed; Parrott, Janet; Spencer, Sarah-Jane; Whyte, Sean

    2013-01-01

    In responding to high levels of psychiatric morbidity amongst prisoners and recognising earlier poor quality prison mental health care, prison mental health in-reach teams have been established in England and Wales over the last decade. They are mostly provided by the National Health Service (NHS), which provides the majority of UK healthcare services. Over the same period, the prison population has grown to record levels, such that prisons in England and Wales now contain almost 90,000 of the world's overall prison population of over 10 million people (roughly the size of Paris or Istanbul). This study provides an overview of mental health in-reach services in prisons in England and Wales, including variations between them, through a telephone survey of senior staff in all prisons and young offender institutions in England and Wales. 73% of prisons took part; of them 13% had no in-reach team at all (usually low security establishments) and the majority of services were run by NHS teams, usually according to a generic community mental health team (CMHT) model rather than other specialist models. Team size was unrelated to prison size. Each nurse covered around 500 prisoners, each doctor over 3700. Many provided few or no healthcare cells and 24-h psychiatric cover (including on-call cover) was uncommon. Despite developments in recent years, mental health in-reach services still fall short of community equivalence and there is wide variation in service arrangements that cannot be explained by prison size or function. The aim of community equivalence has not yet been reached in prison healthcare and a more sophisticated measure of service improvement and standardisation would now be useful to drive and monitor future development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Swiss Manufacturer Sees the Industrial Revolution in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buess, Heinrich

    1962-01-01

    I have recently come across the diaries of Johann Conrad Fischer. These diaries span six decades and cover the years of social, economic, and technological upheaval which marked the industrial revolution in England. The reader is given a picture of these years through the eyes of a Swiss manufacturer with a good perception of history, and his notes are of some value to historians. PMID:13874462

  7. Montane lakes (lagoons) of the New England Tablelands Bioregion

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Dorothy M.; Hunter, John T.; Haworth, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The vegetation of montane lagoons of the New England Tablelands Bioregion, New South Wales is examined using flexible UPGMA analysis of frequency scores on all vascular plant taxa, charophytes and one liverworts. Seven communities are described: 1. Hydrocotyle tripartita – Isotoma fluviatilis – Ranunculus inundatus – Lilaeopsis polyantha herbfield; 2. Eleocharis sphacelata – Potamogeton tricarinatus sedgeland; 3. Eleocharis sphacelata – Utricularia australis – Isolepis fluitans, herbfield; 4....

  8. Heavy metal geochemistry of contaminated fenland soils in NW England

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Nikola R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of peri-urban fenlands for agriculture usmg urban waste as manorial treatments is increasingly common worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The risk to human health from the use of these contaminated materials for crop production has been studied using two historically contaminated fenlands in NW England. The GBASE survey carried out by the British Geological Survey identified two areas of metal contaminated fenland; west of Manchester (Chat Moss) and north of Liverpool (Ha...

  9. In Dahomey in England: A (negative) transatlantic performance heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Saxon, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The first all-black American musical comedy on Broadway, In Dahomey (1902-1905), has made a name for itself in America’s theatre annals and in the history of black American performance. Although critics have written about the relevance of the show in America, investigations into this turn-of-the-century performance in its wider transatlantic context have lagged behind. This article examines the reception of In Dahomey in England through specifically British interpretations of race, This artic...

  10. Briefing book on the energy situation in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, J P; Munson, J S; Palmedo, P F

    1976-10-01

    This briefing book is designed to give a concise overview of the facts of the energy situation in New England and of attitudes within the region towards current energy issues. Many of the central problems of U.S. energy policy are manifested in the region in a magnified form. The region entered the period of energy shortages and increasing prices in an economically declining condition. Energy prices were already high in 1970, 30% higher than the rest of the country; the difference increased to 38% by 1974. With essentially no indigenous energy resources, New England is an energy-importing region. For various reasons it is also more dependent on petroleum than other regions of the country and, at the same time, distant from domestic petroleum-producing regions. The result is that over 60% of the fuels it consumes is imported from abroad. Although the future supply of energy to the region is critically dependent on energy-resource policies, policies related for example to coal and oil shale development, the region's concerns cluster around policies and technologies that are perceived to have a more direct impact on its energy welfare. Thus, energy conservation, solar energy, nuclear power, offshore oil development and, in general, the price of energy to the region are paramount issues of concern and debate. Following the Introductory chapter, these issues are discussed in four additional chapters: The Energy Situation in New England; Regional Energy Issues; Energy-Related Institutions; and State Legislation.

  11. Assessing the obesogenic environment of North East England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Alvanides, Seraphim; Lake, Amelia A

    2011-05-01

    This study examines the influence of the environment (defined as 'walkability', food availability and deprivation), alongside individual factors, on Body Mass Index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable consumption. The aim of this unique study was to objectively scrutinise the concept of the obesogenic environment in the North East of England. A set of theoretical obesogenic indices based on the availability of food to consume within and outside of the home, residential density, street connectivity and land use mix were created for North East England. A pooled sample of 893 individuals (aged 16+) over 3 years (2003, 2004, 2005) from the Health Survey for England (HSE) was isolated for further analysis and correlation with the obesogenic indices. Results suggest that few elements of both walkability and food availability are significantly associated with BMI and fruit and vegetable intake. Some methodological concerns are highlighted, such as the appropriateness of walkability calculations for rural areas. The study concludes by strongly recommending a multi-faceted approach be taken when trying to tackle current levels of obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low immigrant mortality in England and Wales: a data artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Matthew; Kulu, Hill

    2014-11-01

    Previous research shows low mortality for most immigrants compared to natives in host countries. This advantage is often attributed to health selection processes in migration and to protective health behaviours. Little research has examined the role of data quality, especially the registration of moves. Registration errors relating to moves between origin and host countries can mismatch deaths and risk populations, leading to denominator bias and an under-estimation of migrant mortality (data artefact). The paper investigates the mortality of immigrants in England and Wales from 1971 to 2001 using the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study (ONS LS), a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales. We apply parametric survival models to study the mortality of 450,000 individuals. We conduct sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of entry and exit uncertainty on immigrant mortality rates. The analysis shows that most international migrants have lower mortality than natives in England and Wales. Differences largely persist when we adjust models to entry and exit uncertainty and they become pronounced once we control for individual socioeconomic characteristics. This study supports low mortality among immigrants and shows that results are not a data artefact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Sin [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L{sup -1}) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L{sup -1} were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration ({approx}1400 ng L{sup -1}) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: > Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. > Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. > Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  14. Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... Length-weight relationships (LWR) were estimated for 13 fish species which are of economic relevance in the commercial fisheries of the Gulf of Gabes (southern Tunisia). A total of 2403 fish specimens were sampled with several fishing gears from October 2008 to September 2009. The sample size ranged ...

  15. Southern pulpwood production, 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe F. Christopher; Martha E. Nelson

    1963-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the south rose to an all-time high of 25,586,300 cords in 1962-58 percent of the Nation's total. At the year's end, 80 southern pulpmills were operating; their combined daily pulping capacity was more than 52,000 tons. Nine mills outside the region were using wood grown in the South.

  16. Southern Appalachian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles C. van Sickle

    1999-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian study covers a region of 37.4 million acres. Its mountains, foothills, and valleys stretch from northern Virginia and northern West Virginia to northern Georgia and Alabama. When Native Americans came to the region, forests dominated the landscape and they still do, covering 70% of the land (Figure 32.1). Terrain characteristics are...

  17. SOUTHERN WELO, ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between soils and geomorphic processes on the piedmont slopes of the Wurgo valley of southern Welo, Ethiopia. The results revealed that slope processes have played major role in the development of Eutric Cambisols with typical A/Bw/Bb horizon sequences on the convergent footslopes, Luvic Phaeozems with A/Bt/Cr.

  18. Literacy in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    This review covers the status of languages and literacy in the countries of southern Africa, policies of literacy promotion, and the emerging symbioses among spoken languages and among literacies in mother tongues, national or official languages, and metropolitan languages. Five statistical tables are included. (66 references) (LB)

  19. Restoration of southern ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Kenneth Outcalt; William H. Conner; James M. Guldin

    2004-01-01

    Restoration of the myriad communities of bottomland hardwood and wetland forests and of the diverse communities of fire-dominated pine forests is the subject of intense interest in the Southern United States. Restoration practice is relatively advanced for bottomland hardwoods and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), and less so for swamps and...

  20. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  1. Interviewee and Vessel Characteristics from Ethnographic Interviews of New England Groundfish Fishermen on Adaptation and Transition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of fisherman and vessel characteristics selected from ethnographic interviews of New England groundfish fishermen on adaptation and transition

  2. NACP New England and Sierra National Forests Biophysical Measurements: 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes biophysical measurements collected in 2009 from five New England experimental forest stations: Bartlett Experimental Forest, Harvard Forest,...

  3. NACP New England and Sierra National Forests Biophysical Measurements: 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set includes biophysical measurements collected in 2009 from five New England experimental forest stations: Bartlett Experimental Forest, Harvard...

  4. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project; Volume 1, Issue 2 -- December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2006-12-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 2 features an interview with John MacLeod of Hull Municipal Light Plant. Hull 2, a 1.8-MW Vestas turbine installed in the Town of Hull in Massachusetts in 2006, is the largest wind turbine in New England and the first U.S. installation on a capped landfill.

  5. Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Martin J; Feyerabend, Colin

    2015-09-01

    To examine changes in children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in England since 1998. Repeated cross-sectional surveys of the general population in England. The Health Survey for England. A total of 37 038 children participating in surveys from 1998 to 2012, 13 327 of whom were aged 4-15 years, had available cotinine and were confirmed non-smokers. The proportion of children with smoking parents; the proportion of children living in homes reported to be smoke-free; the proportion of children with undetectable concentrations of cotinine; linear and quadratic trend estimates of geometric mean cotinine across years. By 2012, 87.3% of children lived in a home that was smoke-free {97.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 95.9-98.1] when parents were non-smokers, 61.3% (95% CI = 55.5-66.8) when one or both parents smoked}. A total of 68.6% (95% CI = 64.3-72.6%) of children had undetectable cotinine in 2012, up from 14.3% (95% CI = 12.7-16.0%) in 1998. There was a highly significant linear trend across years (with a small but significant quadratic term) to declining geometric mean cotinine in all children from 0.52 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.48-0.57) in 1998 to 0.11 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.10-0.12) in 2012. Children from routine/manual backgrounds were more exposed, but experienced similar gains across years to those from non-manual backgrounds. In England, children's exposure to second-hand smoke has declined by 79% since 1998, with continuing progress since smoke-free legislation in 2007. An emerging social norm in England has led to the adoption of smoke-free homes not only when parents are non-smokers, but also when they smoke. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Envisioning an Ecologically Sustainable Campus At New England College

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula Amato; Gregory Palmer

    2010-09-30

    Appropriation funding for our project Ecologically Sustainable Campus - New England College (NH). 67.09. supported five environmental initiatives: (1) a wood pellet boiler for our Science Building, (2) solar hot water panels and systems for five campus buildings, (3) campus-wide energy lighting efficiency project, (4) new efficiency boiler system in Colby Residence Hall, and (5) energy efficient lighting system for the new artificial athletic turf field. (1) New England College purchased and installed a new wood pellet boiler in the Science Building. This new boiler serves as the primary heating source for this building. Our boiler was purchased through New England Wood Pellet, LLC, located in Jaffrey, New Hampshire. The boiler selected was a Swebo, P500. 300KW wood pellet boiler. The primary goals, objectives, and outcomes of this initiative include the installation of a wood pellet boiler system that is environmentally friendly, highly efficient, and represents a sustainable and renewable resource for New England College. This project was completed on December 15, 2010. (2) New England College purchased and installed solar hot water panels and systems for the Science Building, the Simon Center (student center), the H. Raymond Danforth Library, Gilmore Dining Hall, and Bridges Gymnasium. The College worked with Granite State Plumbing & Heating, LLC, located in Weare, New Hampshire on this project. The solar panels are manufactured by Heat Transfer; the product is Heat Transfer 30-tube collector panels (Evacuated Tube Type) with stainless steel hardware. The interior equipment includes Super Stor Ultra stainless steel super insulated storage tank, Taco 009 Bronze circulator pump, Solar Relay Control Pack, and a Taco Thermal Expansion Tank. The primary goals, objectives, and outcomes of this initiative will allow the College to utilize the sun as an energy resource. These solar hot water panels and systems will alleviate our dependency on fossil fuel as our primary

  7. The British river of the future: how climate change and human activity might affect two contrasting river ecosystems in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; Acreman, Mike C; Dunbar, Michael J; Feist, Stephen W; Giacomello, Anna Maria; Gozlan, Rodolph E; Hinsley, Shelley A; Ibbotson, Anton T; Jarvie, Helen P; Jones, J Iwan; Longshaw, Matt; Maberly, Stephen C; Marsh, Terry J; Neal, Colin; Newman, Jonathan R; Nunn, Miles A; Pickup, Roger W; Reynard, Nick S; Sullivan, Caroline A; Sumpter, John P; Williams, Richard J

    2009-08-15

    The possible effects of changing climate on a southern and a north-eastern English river (the Thames and the Yorkshire Ouse, respectively) were examined in relation to water and ecological quality throughout the food web. The CLASSIC hydrological model, driven by output from the Hadley Centre climate model (HadCM3), based on IPCC low and high CO(2) emission scenarios for 2080 were used as the basis for the analysis. Compared to current conditions, the CLASSIC model predicted lower flows for both rivers, in all seasons except winter. Such an outcome would lead to longer residence times (by up to a month in the Thames), with nutrient, organic and biological contaminant concentrations elevated by 70-100% pro-rata, assuming sewage treatment effectiveness remains unchanged. Greater opportunities for phytoplankton growth will arise, and this may be significant in the Thames. Warmer winters and milder springs will favour riverine birds and increase the recruitment of many coarse fish species. However, warm, slow-flowing, shallower water would increase the incidence of fish diseases. These changing conditions would make southern UK rivers in general a less favourable habitat for some species of fish, such as the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Accidental or deliberate, introductions of alien macrophytes and fish may change the range of species in the rivers. In some areas, it is possible that a concurrence of different pressures may give rise to the temporary loss of ecosystem services, such as providing acceptable quality water for humans and industry. An increasing demand for water in southern England due to an expanding population, a possibly reduced flow due to climate change, together with the Water Framework Directive obligation to maintain water quality, will put extreme pressure on river ecosystems, such as the Thames.

  8. Mortality in England during the 1783 4 Laki Craters eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, C. S.; Oppenheimer, C.

    2004-12-01

    1783/4 has been recognised as a mortality “crisis year” in the population history of England. This demographic incident coincides with the Laki Craters eruption, Iceland, which began in June 1783 and fumigated many parts of Europe with volcanic gases and particles. Many reports and proxy climate records implicate the volcanic cloud in meteorological anomalies, including notably hot 1783 summer conditions in England and a severe subsequent winter. We present here a detailed analysis of the geographical and temporal trends in English mortality data, and interpret them in the light of the climatological records and observations of the pollutant cloud. We show that there were two distinct crisis periods: in August-September 1783, and January-February 1784, which together accounted for ~20,000 extra deaths. In both cases, the East of England was the worst affected region. Possible causes for the two crisis periods are considered and we conclude that the timing and magnitude of the winter mortality peak can be explained by the severe cold of January 1784. The late summer mortality followed 1 2 months after the very hot July of 1783 and may also have been related to the weather, with the time lag reflecting the relatively slow spread of enteric disease or the contraction of malaria. However, it is hard to explain the entire late summer anomaly by these high temperature causes. We therefore consider that fine acid aerosol and/or gases in the volcanic haze may also have contributed to the unusual August-September mortality. Given that complex radiative and dynamical effects of the volcanic cloud are implicated in the climatic anomalies in 1783 4, it is likely that the Laki Craters eruption did play a role in the English mortality crises of the same period.

  9. 15 years of litigation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaffaf, Bilal; Decadt, Bart

    2010-04-01

    We aimed to analyze trends in litigation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in England and compare our findings with data from the United States. Several studies from the United States have highlighted the medico-legal repercussions of complications following LC. In 2007-2008, litigation claims cost the National Health Service in England over 660 million Great British Pounds (GBP) (1.1 billion USD). Despite this, there has been little examination of litigation following LC in England. Data from the National Health Service Litigation Authority on clinical negligence claims between 1995 and 2009 following LC were obtained and analyzed. Four hundred eighteen claims were made of which 303 were settled. One hundred ninety-eight (65%) were found to be in the claimants favor for a total cost of 20.4 million GBP (33.4 million USD). Litigation claims have leveled since 2001. Operator error was the most likely cause to result in a claim and the only cause associated with a successful claim (P = 0.023). A delay in the recognition of complications was the second most common reason for initiation of a claim. Bile duct injury was the most frequent injury resulting in litigation and the most likely injury associated with a successful claim (P < 0.001). The average payout for a successful claim was 102,827 GBP/168,337 USD. Findings from US studies were similar, although the magnitude of payouts was 4 times higher. Strategies that minimize bile duct injury and speed up recognition of injuries should be adopted to reduce the litigation burden and improve patient care.

  10. Characterizing tobacco control mass media campaigns in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Tessa; Lewis, Sarah; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Anna; Szatkowski, Lisa; West, Robert; Sims, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    To characterize publically funded tobacco control campaigns in England between 2004 and 2010 and to explore if they were in line with recommendations from the literature in terms of their content and intensity. International evidence suggests that campaigns which warn of the negative consequences of smoking and feature testimonials from real-life smokers are most effective, and that four exposures per head per month are required to reduce smoking prevalence. Characterization of tobacco control advertisements using a theoretically based framework designed to describe advertisement themes, informational and emotional content and style. Study of the intensity of advertising and exposure to different types of advertisement using data on population-level exposure to advertisements shown during the study period. England. Television Ratings (TVRs), a standard measure of advertising exposure, were used to calculate exposure to each different campaign type. A total of 89% of advertising was for smoking cessation; half of this advertising warned of the negative consequences of smoking, while half contained how-to-quit messages. Acted scenes featured in 72% of advertising, while only 17% featured real-life testimonials. Only 39% of months had at least four exposures to tobacco control campaigns per head. A theory-driven approach enabled a systematic characterization of tobacco control advertisements in England. Between 2004 and 2010 only a small proportion of tobacco control advertisements utilized the most effective strategies-negative health effects messages and testimonials from real-life smokers. The intensity of campaigns was lower than international recommendations. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Changing market for renewable energy in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, M. [Second Wind Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses the rapidly changing power market in New England in the face of deregulation of the electric power industry. Utilities are moving to sell their generation assets, and the new players in the market are striving to present themselves as active in a green market. But there is little knowledge about renewable energy sources on the part of the new marketers, and little capacity available, while there does appear to be customer demand. Legislative action seems to be putting in place policies making renewable energy a more attractive option. The author looks at the disparity between demand and availability at this time.

  12. The mineralogy of mudrocks from the Lias Group of England

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, S.J.; McKervey, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the results of mineralogical analysis of a suite of sedimentary rocks from the Lias Group of England. The work was carried out as part of the ongoing BGS research programme, ‘Engineering Geology of UK Rocks and Soils.’ The first part of the report gives an introduction to the Lias Group geology and a summary of previous mineralogical studies of these rocks. A summary of analytical methods employed (X-ray diffraction analysis and surface area determinations) is then pr...

  13. Education governance and standardised tests in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Ydesen, Christian; Kelly, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this study we identify and compare the impact of standardised student assessment in England, an established neoliberal context, and in Denmark where a neoliberal education reform agenda is emerging in response to both national concerns and international governance. National reading tests...... and analysed to identify the extent to which neoliberal reform is mobilised through testing in each context and how testing shapes curriculum and pedagogy. Significantly, we find that in Denmark, where professional judgement still dominates, teachers often deploy pedagogical approaches to service what...

  14. Price discounts on alcohol in a city in Northern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Beenstock, Jane

    2012-01-01

    To describe the extent and nature of price discounts on alcohol in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. An observational survey in stores licensed for off-sales in December 2010 to January 2011. A total of 2018 price discounts in 29 stores led to a median saving of 25% and required a median purchase of 20 standard UK alcohol units. Median price per standard unit was £0.92 (US$1.49; €1.05) before discount and £0.68 (US$1.10; €0.78) after discount. Restriction of price discounting should be considered as a public health policy.

  15. Microorganisms responsible for periprosthetic knee infections in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleyman, Richard J; Baker, Paul; Charlett, Andre; Gould, Kate; Deehan, David J

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to delineate epidemiology of infecting microorganism genus in first-time revision knee arthroplasty for indication of periprosthetic joint infection in England and Wales using linked registry data. From the National Joint Registry database for England and Wales, a consecutive series of primary knee arthroplasties performed between April 2003 and January 2014 that went on to have a revision for periprosthetic infection were identified (n = 2810). Each case was then linked to microbiology data held by Public Health England in order to identify infecting microorganism at time of revision surgery established from intra-operative cultures. Following data linkage, 403 culture results at time of revision surgery were identified in a group of 331 patients. The demographic characteristics of five microorganism groups were compared: pure staphylococcus (single genus), pure streptococcus (single genus), other gram-positive infections (single genus), gram-negative infections (single genus) and mixed genus infections. Staphylococcus species was the most common organism genus isolated after revision of a primary implant for infection and present in 72 % of cases overall (71.3 % of patients with a single-genus infection and 76.8 % of patients with mixed genus infection). A pure staphylococcal infection was present in 59 % of all cases. A single-genus infection was responsible for infection in 83.1 % of cases, and mixed genera were responsible in 16.9 % of cases. A significant difference was observed for mean age at primary procedure in the cohort of patients where there was an isolated pure streptococcal infection (73.2 years) when compared to gram-negative infections (65.0 years). No other significant differences were observed between microorganism groups in terms of BMI, gender, ASA grade, indication for primary procedure and primary implant characteristics. Staphylococci were the most commonly isolated organism species responsible for periprosthetic

  16. Standardised testing in compulsory schooling in England and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Kelly, Peter; Kousholt, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    have on pupils´ perceptions of their potential academic skills. This article draws on research into the national testing of reading conducted in England and Denmark in Spring 2013 and draws on the work of Basil Bernstein to compare and contrast both sets of national assessment practices......., Denmark, in contrast, has only recently introduced such tests. Thus the two countries present excellent cases for comparison and analysis in order to gain knowledge about the possible consequences of such testing schemes on pedagogy and the content of the school curriculum, as well as the impact they may...

  17. Comparing pedagogy in mathematics in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    the lens of Bernstein’s pedagogic discourse (1990; 1996) to construct mathematics teacher roles which provided a view of pedagogy. Comparison allowed variations in pedagogy across the two countries to be identified and implications drawn. Of particular interest were the differences in experience of lower......This paper reports the findings of a comparative study of pedagogy in lower-secondary school mathematics in Denmark and England. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using...... attaining pupils, and some of the advantages and disadvantages of mathematics pedagogy in each country for this group are indicated....

  18. PROFESSIONALISATION OF NURSING IN ENGLAND AND SPAIN: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Camaño-Puig, Ramón

    2005-01-01

    The publication of this book is the result of the close collaboration,both in terms of research as well as in students and faculty exchanges that has existed for a long time between Laurea Polytechnic, in Finland, and the University of Valencia, Spain. Through the initiative of Laurea Polytechnic, the research of Dr. Ramón Camaño-Puig that led to his European Doctorate, is now brought to the public with the title of “Professionalisation of Nursing in England and Spain: A Comparative Study”. W...

  19. Prices, Wages and Fertility in Pre-Industrial England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Marc

    A two-sector Malthusian model is formulated in terms of a cointegrated vector autoregressive (CVAR) model on error correction form. The model allows for both agricultural product wages and relative prices to affect fertility. The model is estimated using new data for the pre-industrial period...... in England, and the analysis reveals a strong, positive effect of agricultural wages as well as a small and, surprisingly, positive effect of real agricultural prices on fertility. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that there is constant returns to scale with respect to labour in the manufacturing sector...

  20. Understanding Belonging to Church: The cases of England and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Nissen, Karen Marie; Jensen, Pernille Friis

    2016-01-01

    (Davie 2013: 283). Religion is increasing set free from the institutionalized churches (Heelas & Woodhead 2005). You would thus expect to see dramatic declines in church affiliation in all our majority churches. The Church of England is declining at the fastest rate. Yet, the Evangelical Lutheran Church...... in Denmark experiences a rather slow decline (see Kjems, chapter x). How can we explain this difference? In this chapter, we will outline church membership and affiliation for the two churches. Using theories explaining the declines, we will cautious compare the declines in the two churches. The discussion...

  1. P-T-t paths and differential Alleghanian loading and uplift of the Bronson Hill terrane south central New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintsch, R.P.; Kunk, M.J.; Boyd, J.L.; Aleinikoff, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    Late Paleozoic U-Pb ages of sphene and 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of amphibole and muscovite from rocks of the Bronson Hill terrane in Connecticut and central Massachusetts reflect a late Paleozoic (Alleghanian) overprint on Acadian metamorphic rocks. Prograde Alleghanian sphenes crystallized during the Late Pennsylvanian, and eliminate the possibility that amphibole ages reflect delayed Permian cooling from Devonian Acadian metamorphism. Fourteen new amphibole ages from Connecticut form a north-to-south trend of decreasing age from 294 to 245 Ma, while in Massachusetts four new amphibole ages together with three others from the literature produce a random Carboniferous pattern. Seven new muscovite ages support existing data indicating uniform cooling throughout the Bronson Hill terrane through ???350??C in the Early Triassic. The rate of Permian cooling defined by amphibole-muscovite pairs increases from ???4??C/my in northern Connecticut to ???50??C/my near Long Island Sound. Hinged loading and hinged but delayed exhumation in the southern part of the Bronson Hill terrane (with the hinge in central Connecticut) explain these ages and cooling rates as well as a southerly increasing metamorphic field gradient. One-dimensional thermal modeling indicates that loading of Bronson Hill rocks must have begun by the Late Mississippian. The time of peak Alleghanian metamorphic temperature decreases southward from Early Permian in northern Connecticut to Late Permian to the south. These results demonstrate that the metamorphic effects of the Alleghanian orogeny are not restricted to the Avalon terrane of southeastern New England. On the contrary, the Alleghanian orogeny reset 40Ar/39Ar mineral ages, recrystallized minerals, partially melted felsic rocks, and transposed fabrics at least as far west as the Bronson Hill terrane in south-central New England.

  2. The long term response of birds to climate change: new results from a cold stage avifauna in northern England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Stewart

    Full Text Available The early MIS 3 (55-40 Kyr BP associated with Middle Palaeolithic archaeology bird remains from Pin Hole, Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, England are analysed in the context of the new dating of the site's stratigraphy. The analysis is restricted to the material from the early MIS 3 level of the cave because the upper fauna is now known to include Holocene material as well as that from the Late Glacial. The results of the analysis confirm the presence of the taxa, possibly unexpected for a Late Pleistocene glacial deposit including records such as Alpine swift, demoiselle crane and long-legged buzzard with southern and/or eastern distributions today. These taxa are accompanied by more expected ones such as willow ptarmigan /red grouse and rock ptarmigan living today in northern and montane areas. Finally, there are temperate taxa normally requiring trees for nesting such as wood pigeon and grey heron. Therefore, the result of the analysis is that the avifauna of early MIS 3 in England included taxa whose ranges today do not overlap making it a non-analogue community similar to the many steppe-tundra mammalian faunas of the time. The inclusion of more temperate and woodland taxa is discussed in the light that parts of northern Europe may have acted as cryptic northern refugia for some such taxa during the last glacial. These records showing former ranges of taxa are considered in the light of modern phylogeographic studies as these often assume former ranges without considering the fossil record of those taxa. In addition to the anomalous combination of taxa during MIS 3 living in Derbyshire, the individuals of a number of the taxa are different in size and shape to members of the species today probably due to the high carrying capacity of the steppe-tundra.

  3. Malthus in cointegration space: evidence of a post-Malthusian pre-industrial England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze; Sharp, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper re-examines the interaction between population growth and income per capita in pre-industrial England. Our results suggest that, as early as two centuries preceding the Industrial Revolution, England had already escaped the Malthusian Epoch and entered a post-Malthusian regime, where...

  4. New England's travel and recreation markets: trends in the geographic target markets beyond 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to re-examine and update geographic travel and lifestyle activity market trends for those areas targeted by New England destinations beyond the year 2000. The central theme was to examine in detail the primary, secondary and tertiary geographic markets targeted by New England destinations through both travel behavior and lifestyle behavior...

  5. 76 FR 18674 - Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain... Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone. These security zones are nearly identical to security... escorted by Coast Guard or law enforcement agencies assisting the Coast Guard. These zones are needed to...

  6. 76 FR 41073 - Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain... establishing security zones around cruise ships in the Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone... around any cruise ship underway that is being escorted by Coast Guard or law enforcement agencies...

  7. New England Labor and the Economy at the Year-End, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Boston, MA. New England Regional Office.

    The economy of the six New England states expanded swiftly during 1972, with 67,000 jobs being added, which moved the job total close to the previous record of 1969. A slowdown was observed in the rise of both prices and wages in New England under Phase II of the Economic Stabilization Program. However, retail food prices rose four times as much…

  8. Future Apprenticeships in England: The Role of Mediation in the New Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ann; Spours, Ken; Smith, David

    2017-01-01

    Apprenticeship systems across the globe are having to adapt to changing international economic and social trends. England is no exception. This article examines the latest model of apprenticeship in England from the perspective of the "mediators" who work at local and regional level with employers to construct and deliver the majority of…

  9. The Politics of PISA: The Media, Policy and Public Responses in Norway and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Görgen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Using the PISA 2015 releases in Norway and England, this article explores how PISA has been presented in the media and how the policy level has responded to the results. England will be used as an example for comparison. The article presents early media responses from the 20 most circulated daily newspapers in the two countries and discusses them…

  10. Mortality of People with Intellectual Disabilities in England: A Comparison of Data from Existing Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Pauline; Glover, Gyles

    2015-01-01

    Background: At present, there is limited statistical information about mortality of people with intellectual disabilities in England. This study explores the data that are currently available. Materials and Methods: Four recent sources of data about mortality of people with intellectual disabilities in England are reviewed: the Confidential…

  11. Governing Education through Data: Scotland, England and the European Education Policy Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grek, Sotiria; Ozga, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on interview data from national policy makers in England, Scotland and the European Commission to illustrate differences in the referencing of "Europe" in education policy-making in England and Scotland in order to highlight the emergent complexity of post-devolution policy-making in education through a focus on…

  12. Special Deliveries: Certified Nurse-Midwifery Programs Lacking in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzosa, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    With Boston serving as a hub of both educational and medical excellence, it's no wonder that New England has a high reputation to uphold in both of these areas. However, Boston and the rest of the region lack a specific degree program that is putting New England below the radars of potential midwives. Certified nurse-midwifery is a popular field…

  13. New England's travel & tourism markets: trends in the geographic target markets in the 90's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the travel and lifestyle activity market trends to New England in the 90s. The central theme was to fully examine in detail the primary, secondary and tertiary geographic markets targeted by New England destinations.

  14. Trendsetting: A New Way to Keep up with Trends & Indicators in New England's Education and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.

    2013-01-01

    For more than half a century, the "New England Journal of Higher Education" ("NEJHE") has been publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" (T&I) in New England's demography, high school performance and graduation, college enrollment, college graduation rates and degree production, higher…

  15. Reconstructing the Avalon continent: Marginal to inner platform transition in the Cambrian of southern New Brunswick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing, E.

    1996-01-01

    A west to east, marginal to inner Avalonian platform transition, comparable to that in southeast Newfoundland and southern Britain, is present in the Cambrian of southern New Brunswick. The Saint John - Caton's Island - Hanford Brook area lay on the marginal platform, and its thick, uppermost Precambrian - lower Lower Cambrian is unconformably overlain by trilobite-bearing, upper Lower Cambrian. An inner platform remnant is preserved in the Cradle Brook outlier 60 km northeast of Saint John. In contrast to the marginal platform sequences, the Cradle Brook outlier has a very thin lower Lower Cambrian and has middle Lower Cambrian strata (Bonavista Group) not present on the marginal platform. The Cradle Brook Lower Cambrian closely resembles inner platform successions in eastern Massachusetts and Trinity and Placentia bays, southeast Newfoundland. A limestone with Camenella baltica Zone fossils on Cradle Brook seems to be the peritidal limestone cap of the subtrilobitic Lower Cambrian known in Avalonian North America (Fosters Point Formation) and England (Home Farm Member).

  16. Accelerating anthropogenic land surface change and the status of Pleistocene drumlins in New England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah W Woodcock

    Full Text Available Drumlins are glacially derived landforms that are prominent in the landscape over much of southern New England. We carried out a comprehensive ground-based survey in a three-town study area in eastern Massachusetts with the goals of establishing the extent to drumlins have been altered and assessing the associated environmental consequences and probable driving factors. Results show that many drumlins have been significantly altered through levelling and truncation (creation of steep cut and fill slopes, with projects involving movement of 1-1.5×10(6 m(3 of earth materials not now uncommon. Stormwater and wetlands infractions were documented at all the larger excavation sites and resulted in enforcement actions and fines in many cases; the broader environmental consequences of the loss/alteration of these forested uplands are harder to establish. The excavations are significant in terms of materials cycling: the movement of earth materials, when considered regionally, greatly exceeds natural denudation processes and is also greater than during other periods of high anthropogenic denudation. Our findings suggest that the region's glacial landscapes are at risk given current development patterns. The accelerating rate of land-surface change is undoubtedly also generalizable to other fast-developing regions of the United States. The landform alterations documented are part of a changing pattern of land use and vegetation cover since the Colonial era and are linked to shortages of land for development, current development and building practices, and lack of explicit rationales for preservation of the region's geoheritage.

  17. Child survival in England: Strengthening governance for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Ingrid; Mandeville, Kate; Harrison, Katherine; Lingam, Raghu

    2017-11-01

    The United Kingdom, like all European countries, is struggling to strengthen health systems and improve conditions for child health and survival. Child mortality in the UK has failed to improve in line with other countries. Securing optimal conditions for child health requires a healthy society, strong health system, and effective health care. We examine inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral policy and governance for child health and survival in England. Literature reviews and universally applicable clinical scenarios were used to examine child health problems and English policy and governance responses for improving child health through integrating care and strengthening health systems, over the past 15 years. We applied the TAPIC framework for analysing policy governance: transparency, accountability, participation, integrity, and capacity. We identified strengths and weaknesses in child health governance in all the five domains. However there remain policy failures that are not fully explained by the TAPIC framework. Other problems with successfully translating policy to improved health that we identified include policy flux; policies insufficiently supported by delivery mechanisms, measurable targets, and sufficient budgets; and policies with unintended or contradictory aspects. We make recommendations for inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral child health governance, policy, and action to improve child health in England with relevant lessons for other countries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A qualitative study of uptake of free vitamins in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessiman, Tricia; Cameron, Ailsa; Wiggins, Meg; Lucas, Patricia J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify reasons why eligible families are not accessing free ‘Healthy Start’ vitamin supplementation (providing vitamins A, C and D) in England. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting 13 primary care trusts in England. Participants Purposive sample of 15 Healthy Start coordinators, 50 frontline health and children's professionals and 107 parents. Results Vitamin take-up was low across all research sites, reported as below 10% of eligible beneficiaries for free vitamins. Reasons identified by both parents and professionals included (1) poor accessibility of vitamins, (2) low promotion of the scheme by health professionals, (3) a lack of awareness among eligible families, and (4) low motivation among mothers to take vitamins for themselves during pregnancy or for children under 4 years old. Conclusions Low uptake rates can be explained by poor accessibility of vitamins and lack of awareness and motivation to take vitamin supplements among eligible families. Universal provision (at least for pregnant women) and better training for health professionals are identified as potential solutions worthy of further research and evaluation. PMID:23702436

  19. TREATMENT IN ENGLAND OF CANADIAN PATIENTS ADDICTED TO NARCOTIC DRUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRANKAU, L

    1964-02-08

    The method of treatment and the results obtained from the treatment of 50 Canadian patients addicted to narcotic drugs who went to England are recorded. These patients were first stabilized on the minimal dose of narcotic drug which permitted them to work, and to acquire security and self-respect. Then, after psychiatric treatment dealing with the basic problem of their personality disorder, complete withdrawal treatment of the narcotic drug was undertaken.Nine of 10 patients aged between 20 and 30, of good social and cultural background, have been relieved of dependence on drugs for over two years.The other 40 patients came from a different background. Nearly all had been imprisoned for drug offences and they had come to England to obtain treatment and to avoid further prison sentences in Canada.The 31 patients whose prison sentences had been directly connected with drug offences are working steadily and leading an apparently normal life.The remaining nine patients had been convicted of criminal acts before becoming addicted to narcotic drugs and, with two exceptions, the results of their treatment compare unfavourably with the other patients, seven having been convicted and imprisoned in London.

  20. Policy Variation among Japan, Korea, England and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyung Lee

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available School reform initiatives during the last two decades in Japan, Korea, England, and the United States can be understood as balancing acts. Because policymakers in England and the United States saw their school systems fragmented and student outcomes mediocre, they focused reform efforts on raising educational standards, tightening curriculum and assessment, and improving academic achievement. In contrast, policymakers in Japan and Korea, who saw their school systems overstandardized and educational processes deficient, focused their reform efforts on deregulating schools, diversifying curriculum and assessment, and enhancing whole-person education. While school reform policies were formulated and adopted in response to each country’s unique problems, they also were driven by globalization forces that fostered an international perspective. If implemented successfully, such cross-cultural policy variations (i.e., standardization vs. differentiation in curriculum, unification vs. diversification in assessment, and privatization vs. democratization in governance would make distinctive educational systems more alike. Cultural and institutional barriers to educational convergence between the Eastern and Western school systems are discussed.

  1. Origins of modern economic system: England or Holland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozinskaya Natalia, A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, following the approach of the Dutch scholars de Vries and vab der Woude, claims that the Netherlands, rather than England (as it is generally assumed, were the first country, which performed the transition from the traditional society to modern one. Identification of criteria distinguishing traditional and modern societies follows the works of W. Rostow, S. Kuznets and other authors who studied the issue. In order to prove the thesis, author compares urbanization level in Holland and in England, as well as degree of commercialization of those economies, and considers the process of commercial and productive specialization in the United Provinces. Besides that, the formation of modern-type institutional system in Holland is analyzed: the genesis of the markets of factors of production, development of monetary and credit systems and of institutional and technological basis of the industry, strengthening of competitive forces in the economy. Land ownership structure in Holland is considered and its role in genesis of the markets of factors of production. Attention is paid to technological basis of the industry, examined is the impact of immigration. It concludes that the Netherlands were the first country where modern economic growth, as defined by S. Kuznets, started. It was Holland where for the first time the markets of factors of production were formed and, what is particularly important, the industry began to operate on a competitive basis.

  2. Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards in England: implementation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Pennington, Mark; Heginbotham, Chris; Donaldson, Cam

    2011-09-01

    The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS), introduced into the Mental Capacity Act 2005, were fully implemented on 1 April 2009 in England and Wales. The government estimated 20 000 assessments for DoLS at a cost of £600 per assessment. Aims To estimate the costs likely to be incurred with the implementation of DoLS in England. The cost of conducting a single DoLS assessment was estimated using resource-utilisation data ascertained from 37 professionals, secretarial staff and independent mental capacity advocates involved with DoLS assessments in six diverse local DoLS offices. The estimated average cost of a single DoLS assessment was £1277. The estimated average cost of a single DoLS assessment was significantly higher than the £600 estimated by the government. However, the allocated budget, based on 20 000 estimated DoLS assessments in the first year of its implementation, is likely to be adequate because a significantly lower number of assessments (only 5200) were conducted in the first 9 months after its implementation.

  3. Possible windborne spread of myxomatosis to England in 1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R F

    1987-02-01

    An analysis of the meterological conditions showed that the first outbreaks of myxomatosis in S.E. England in 1953 could have resulted from wind carriage of insects infected with myxoma virus from northern France. South-easterly winds on the night 11-12 August would have carried the insects 120-160 km from the Départements of Nord, Pas de Calais and Somme across the English Channel to near Edenbridge, Kent. The flight would have taken 6.5-8.5 h at wind speeds of 15-22 km h-1. On the night 11-12 August, temperatures increased with height (inversion) up to 500 m; at ground level temperature was around 19 degrees C and at 500 m was 25 degrees C. Insects would have travelled up to the top of the inversion arriving on 12 August as the inversion declined. Two or possibly three generations of infection would have taken place before the disease was seen around the middle of September 1953. The most likely insect was the mosquito Anopheles atroparvus which breeds along the coastal marshes of England and northern France and which has been shown experimentally and in the field to transmit myxoma virus mechanically.

  4. A qualitative study of uptake of free vitamins in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessiman, Tricia; Cameron, Ailsa; Wiggins, Meg; Lucas, Patricia J

    2013-08-01

    To identify reasons why eligible families are not accessing free 'Healthy Start' vitamin supplementation (providing vitamins A, C and D) in England. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. 13 primary care trusts in England. Purposive sample of 15 Healthy Start coordinators, 50 frontline health and children's professionals and 107 parents. Vitamin take-up was low across all research sites, reported as below 10% of eligible beneficiaries for free vitamins. Reasons identified by both parents and professionals included (1) poor accessibility of vitamins, (2) low promotion of the scheme by health professionals, (3) a lack of awareness among eligible families, and (4) low motivation among mothers to take vitamins for themselves during pregnancy or for children under 4 years old. Low uptake rates can be explained by poor accessibility of vitamins and lack of awareness and motivation to take vitamin supplements among eligible families. Universal provision (at least for pregnant women) and better training for health professionals are identified as potential solutions worthy of further research and evaluation.

  5. Reforming birth registration law in England and Wales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McCandless

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Law Commission of England and Wales is considering what its 13th Programme of Law Reform should address. During the consultation process, a project on birth registration law has been mooted. This is a very welcome proposal given that civil birth registration in England and Wales is a compulsory procedure that not only finds its roots in the early Victorian era, but also remains very similar, at least in terms of form and the information that is recorded. I first use two recent legal challenges to illustrate why the current system is coming under increasing pressure. I further use these examples to caution against a law reform agenda that is narrowly focused on the precise information recorded, without a preliminary and wider examination of what the role and purpose of birth registration is, and should be, in society. I argue that this needs to be addressed before the state can justify the parameters of the information recorded. I then use an outline of historical reforms relating to the registration of births outside of marriage to highlight the normative two-parent family model that underpins the birth registration system. I argue that legal reform must be cognizant of the tenacity of this normative family model, particularly in relation to reform proposals surrounding donor conception and the annotation of birth certificates. Finally, I draw attention to wider developments in family law that cast birth registration as a social policy tool for the facilitation of parent–child relationships, particularly unmarried fathers.

  6. New England electricity supply outlook: Summer 1998 -- and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    New England is in the third summer of a protracted electricity supply shortage that began with the shutdown of a substantial quantity of nuclear generating capacity, particularly the 2,630 megawatts (MW) from the three Millstone units located in Connecticut and owned and operated by Northeast Utilities. This report was prepared in response to a request from Senator Christopher Dodd and Senator Joseph Lieberman, both of Connecticut, that the Department of Energy provide an update of its June 1997 report, New England Electricity Supply Outlook, Summer 1997--and Beyond, which examines measures that might be taken to ease the supply shortage, particularly measured to relieve transmission constraints that restrict the import of electricity into Connecticut. In the interval since the 1997 report, three changes have occurred in the region`s overall electric supply context that are particularly significant: the Millstone 3 nuclear unit (1,150 MW) has been put back into service at full capacity; electricity demand is higher, due primarily to regional economic growth. The region`s projected 1998 peak demand is 22,100 MW, 1,531 MW higher than the region`s 1997 peak; and many new additions to the region`s generating capacity have been announced, with projected completion dates varying between 1999 and 2002. If all of the announced projects were completed--which appears unlikely--the total additions would exceed 25,000 MW. A small number of new transmission projects have also been announced.

  7. Forward view: advancing health library and knowledge services in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey Bryant, Sue; Bingham, Helen; Carlyle, Ruth; Day, Alison; Ferguson, Linda; Stewart, David

    2018-01-10

    This article is the fourth in a series on New Directions. The National Health Service is under pressure, challenged to meet the needs of an ageing population, whilst striving to improve standards and ensure decision making is underpinned by evidence. Health Education England is steering a new course for NHS library and knowledge services in England to ensure access to knowledge and evidence for all decision makers. Knowledge for Healthcare calls for service transformation, role redesign, greater coordination and collaboration. To meet user expectations, health libraries must achieve sustainable, affordable access to digital content. Traditional tasks will progressively become mechanised. Alongside supporting learners, NHS librarians and knowledge specialists will take a greater role as knowledge brokers, delivering business critical services. They will support the NHS workforce to signpost patients and the public to high-quality information. There is a need for greater efficiency and effectiveness through greater co-operation and service mergers. Evaluation of service quality will focus more on outcomes, less on counting. These changes require an agile workforce, fit for the future. There is a bright future in which librarians' expertise is used to mobilise evidence, manage and share knowledge, support patients, carers and families, optimise technology and social media and provide a keystone for improved patient care and safety. © 2018 Health Libraries Group.

  8. Sporadic Cryptosporidiosis, North Cumbria, England, 1996–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Stella; Casemore, David P.; Verlander, Neville Q.; Chalmers, Rachel; Knowles, Margaret; Williams, Joy; Osborn, Keith; Richards, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis were determined in 152 patients and 466 unmatched controls who resided in two local government districts in North Cumbria, North West England, from March 1, 1996, to February 29, 2000. Risk was associated with the usual daily volume of cold unboiled tap water drunk (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.14 to 1.71 per pint consumed per day [p = 0.001]) and short visits to farms (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.90, p = 0.04). Fifty-six (84%) of 67 fecal specimens from patients obtained from January 1, 1998, and February 29, 2000, were Cryptosporidium parvum genotype 2 (animal and human strain). Livestock fecal pollution of water sources appears to be the leading cause of human sporadic cryptosporidiosis in this population and shows the need for better protection of water catchments from livestock and improved drinking water treatment in this area of England. PMID:15207050

  9. Sporadic cryptosporidiosis, North Cumbria, England, 1996-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Stella; Reacher, Mark; Casemore, David P; Verlander, Neville Q; Chalmers, Rachel; Knowles, Margaret; Williams, Joy; Osborn, Keith; Richards, Sarah

    2004-06-01

    Risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis were determined in 152 patients and 466 unmatched controls who resided in two local government districts in North Cumbria, North West England, from March 1, 1996, to February 29, 2000. Risk was associated with the usual daily volume of cold unboiled tap water drunk (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.14 to 1.71 per pint consumed per day [p = 0.001]) and short visits to farms (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.90, p = 0.04). Fifty-six (84%) of 67 fecal specimens from patients obtained from January 1, 1998, and February 29, 2000, were Cryptosporidium parvum genotype 2 (animal and human strain). Livestock fecal pollution of water sources appears to be the leading cause of human sporadic cryptosporidiosis in this population and shows the need for better protection of water catchments from livestock and improved drinking water treatment in this area of England.

  10. Ongoing outbreak of invasive and non-invasive disease due to group A Streptococcus (GAS) type emm66 among homeless and people who inject drugs in England and Wales, January to December 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundle, Nick; Bubba, Laura; Coelho, Juliana; Kwiatkowska, Rachel; Cloke, Rachel; King, Sarah; Rajan-Iyer, Jill; Courtney-Pillinger, Max; Beck, Charles R; Hope, Vivian; Lamagni, Theresa; Brown, Colin S; Jermacane, Daiga; Glass, Rachel; Desai, Monica; Gobin, Maya; Balasegaram, Sooria; Anderson, Charlotte

    2017-01-19

    We report an outbreak of invasive and non-invasive disease due to an unusual type of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, emm66) among a vulnerable, largely homeless population in southern England and Wales, detected in September 2016. Twenty-seven confirmed cases were subsequently identified between 5 January and 29 December 2016; 20 injected drugs and six reported problematic alcohol use. To date, we have ruled out drug-related vehicles of infection and identified few common risk factors. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017 .

  11. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  12. Region of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma (CM is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.

  13. Radiation risk of breast screening in England with digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lucy M; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the risks and benefits of breast screening in terms of number of deaths due to radiation-induced cancers and the number of lives saved owing to modern screening in the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) in England. Radiation risk model, patient dose data and data from national screening statistics were used to estimate the number of deaths due to radiation-induced breast cancers in the NHSBSP in England. Dose and dose effectiveness factors (DDREFs) equal to one and two were assumed. The breast cancer mortality reduction in the invited population due to screening and the percentage of females diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer, who die from breast cancer, were collated from the literature. The number of lives saved owing to screening was calculated. Assuming, a total of 1,770,436 females between the ages of 50-70 years were screened each year, and a breast cancer mortality reduction of 20% due to screening in the invited population, the number of screen-detected cancers were 14,872 annually, resulting in 1071 lives saved. Conversely, for the same mortality reduction, the number of radiation-induced cancers was 36 and 18 for DDREFs of 1 and 2, respectively. This resulted in seven and three deaths due to radiation-induced cancers annually for DDREFs of 1 and 2, respectively. The ratios of lives saved owing to screening to radiation-induced cancers were 30 : 1 and 60 : 1 for DDREFs of 1 and 2. The ratios of lives saved owing to screening to deaths due to radiation-induced cancers were 156 : 1 and 312 : 1 for DDREFs of 1 and 2. For the 1.8% of the screening population with very thick breasts, the latter ratios decrease to 94 : 1 and 187 : 1 for DDREFs of 1 and 2. The breast cancer mortality reduction due to screening greatly outweighs the risk of death due to radiation-induced cancers. Advances in knowledge: Estimation of the radiation risk for modern breast screening in England using digital mammography.

  14. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, ...

  15. Shakespeare in Southern Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Shakespeare in Southern Africa sets out to publish articles, commentary and reviews on all aspects of Shakespearean studies and performance, with a particular emphasis on the response to Shakespeare in southern Africa. Scholarly notes of a factual nature are also welcome. Submissions are reviewed ...

  16. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger. (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, ...

  17. New Zealand's Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National Park

  18. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  19. Panel Data Models of New Firm Formation in New England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Parajuli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of the determinants of new firm formation in New England at the county level from 1999 to 2009. Based on the Spatial Durbin panel model that accounts for spillover effects, it is found that population density and human capital positively affect single-unit firm births within a county and its neighbors. Population growth rate also exerts a significant positive impact on new firm formation, but most of the effect is from spatial spillovers. On the contrary, the ratio of large to small firm in terms of employment size and unemployment rate negatively influence single-unit firm births both within counties and among neighbors. However, there is no significant impact of local financial capital and personal income growth on new firm formation.

  20. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L(-1)) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L(-1) were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (~1400 ng L(-1)) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Three decades of geochronologic studies in the New England Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartman, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, both isotope geochronology and plate tectonics grew from infancy into authoritative disciplines in the geological sciences. The existing geochronlogy is summarized into a map and table emphasizing the temporal construction of the New England Appalachians. By using lithotectonic zones as the building blocks of the orogen, seven such zones are defined in terms of pre-, syn-, and post-assembly geologic history. The boundaries between these zones are faults in most cases, some of which may have had recurring movement to further complicate any plate-tectonic scenario. A delineation of underlying Grenvillian, Chain Lakes, and Avalonian basement is also attempted, which now can make use of isotopes in igneous rocks as petrogenic indicators to supplement the rare occurrences of basement outcrop within mobile zones of the orogen. -from Author

  2. Prisons and Health Reforms in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayton, Paul; Boyington, John

    2006-01-01

    Prison health in England and Wales has seen rapid reform and modernization. Previously it was characterized by over-medicalization, difficulties in staff recruitment, and a lack of professional development for staff. The Department of Health assumed responsibility from Her Majesty’s Prison Service for health policymaking in 2000, and full budgetary and health care administration control were transferred by April 2006. As a result of this reorganization, funding has improved and services now relate more to assessed health need. There is early but limited evidence that some standards of care and patient outcomes have improved. The reforms address a human rights issue: that prisoners have a right to expect their health needs to be met by services that are broadly equivalent to services available to the community at large. We consider learning points for other countries which may be contemplating prison health reform, particularly those with a universal health care system. PMID:17008562

  3. Survival from childhood cancer in northern England, 1968-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, N O; James, P W; Gomez-Pozo, B; Craft, A W; McNally, R J Q

    2011-10-25

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in children in the developed world. The study investigated patterns and trends in survival from childhood cancer in patients from northern England diagnosed 1968-2005. Five-year survival was analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimation for four successive time periods. Cox regression analysis was used to explore associations with age and demographic factors. The study included 2958 cases (1659 males and 1299 females). Five-year survival for all cancers improved significantly from 39% in 1968-1977 to 79% in 1998-2005 (Psurvival for leukaemia increased from 24% to 81% (PSurvival was worse for cases of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Psurvival over a 38-year time span. Future work should examine factors that could influence further improvement in survival such as diagnosis delays.

  4. Income inequalities in unhealthy life styles in England and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2014-03-01

    Health inequalities in developed societies are persistent. Arguably, the rising inequalities in unhealthy lifestyles might underpin these inequality patterns, yet supportive empirical evidence is scarce. We examine the patterns of inequality in unhealthy lifestyles in England and Spain, two countries that exhibit rising obesity levels with a high prevalence of smoking and alcohol use. This study is unique in that it draws from health survey data spanning over a period in which major contextual and policy changes have taken place. We document persistent income-related inequalities in obesity and smoking; both unhealthy lifestyles appear to be disproportionately concentrated among the relatively poor in recent decades. In contrast, alcohol use appears to be concentrated among richer individuals in both periods and countries examined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The geography of recreational physical activity in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy P

    2011-01-01

    Levels of physical activity have declined considerably over recent decades in England, and there is evidence that activity patterns vary across areas. Previous studies of the geography of physical activity have frequently relied on model based synthetic estimates. Using data from a large population survey this study develops a direct measure of recreational physical activity and investigates variations in activity patterns across English Local Authorities. For both sexes the results show a distinct geography of recreational physical activity associated with north/south variations and urban/rural status. The environmental and behavioural factors driving those patterns are still poorly understood. We conclude that the variations observed might reflect recreational opportunities and the socio-cultural context of areas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical group doses around nuclear sites in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, C.A.; Mayall, A.; Attwood, C.A.; Cabianca, T.; Dodd, D.H.; Fayers, C.A.; Jones, K.A.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1994-12-01

    The assessment of radiation doses received by those members of the public who are most exposed, the critical group, forms an essential part of radiological protection. The report describes a study to estimate critical group doses around twelve nuclear installations in England and Wales, chosen for their potential radiological significance. This study was a joint undertaking between the National Radiological Protection Board, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and Her Majesty`s Inspectorate of Pollution. The aims of the study were, firstly, to calculate critical group doses taking into account exposure from a combination of pathways additively and, secondly, recommendations were to be made on methods for assessing critical group radiation doses and on data requirements. (author).

  7. England and Wales: Stable fertility and pronounced social status differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Sigle-Rushton

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available For nearly three decades, the total fertility rate in England and Wales has remained high relative to other European countries, and stable at about 1.7 births per woman. In this chapter, we examine trends in both period and cohort fertility throughout the twentieth century, and demonstrate some important differences across demographic and social groups in the timing and quantum of fertility. Breaking with a market-oriented and laissez-faire approach to work and family issues, the last 10 years have seen the introduction of new social and economic policies aimed at providing greater support to families with children. However, the effect of the changes is likely to be limited to families on the lower end of the income scale. Rather than facilitating work and parenthood, some policies create incentives for a traditional gendered division of labour. Fertility appears to have remained stable despite, rather than because of, government actions.

  8. The Projects of Two Different Universtiy Libraries in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çev.: Muhittin Gürbüz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To respond to the changing needs of the 21st century, libraries are changing and must continue to change. In a competitive area, libraries either have to be brave and innovative or have to demonstrate their relevance, value and impact to make their community difference. In this study, information was given about the projects of two different universtiy libraries in England. Firstly, Study Happy project of Warwick University Library was mentioned. With the project, besides the information service which is traditional task of library, by organizing various activities aimed at providing a comfortable learning area for its users. Secondly, Reads and Rights project of Bath Spa University library was expressed. The main aim of the project is to stimulate thinking and conversations about equality and diversity and at the same time about books, reading and libraries.

  9. [Abolition of capital punishment in public in England].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, J C

    1975-01-01

    The Author, following a critical approach focussed on society's response to deviance and on the means of social control which society applies to defend itself from crime and criminals, confutes the thesis according to which the demise of public execution is generally considered as a step in the evolution of the humanitarian ideal of total abolition of the death penalty. By means of a detailed historical analysis of the socioeconomic and political climate which gave rise to the campagning for the demise of public execution in England, the Author gives evidence that such abolition cannot be seen as a linear descendant of a long line of criminal law reforms but rather as a successful manoeuvre to ensure the continuance of the use of the dealth penalty in order to reaffirm the power of the elite which represented itself as the moral guardian of society.

  10. Governing obesity policies from England, France, Germany and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-01-01

    . All plans define the physical and food environment as a crucial factor in the obesity development, but only the Scottish Government is prepared to use statutory means towards industry and other actors to achieve change. The policies convey an unresolved dilemma: To govern or not to govern......Defining a phenomenon as a political problem could be considered a crucial part of any political process. Body weight, when categorised as obesity, has been defined as a political problem since the beginning of the 21st century and has entered the political agenda in many countries. In this article......, I present a study of four plans from four Western European countries: England, France, Germany and Scotland, identifying how obesity is defined as a political issue. The questions addressed are: How is the development in the obesity prevalence explained and who is considered responsible...

  11. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, SUSSEX COUNTY, NEW JERSEY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  12. Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map Database, Sussex County, Delaware, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  13. Vivienda Unifamiliar en Sussex - Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock, Tom

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available This two-storey home is located in a pleasant, thickly-wooded property overlooking the nearby valley and lake. It replaces an old manor house of the Edwardian period and incorporates existing buildings used for the help living quarters. The ground floor was arranged, distributing the kitchen area and three guest rooms, provided with independent bathrooms at either side of the receptional area, consisting of an ample drawing room and a dining room. The upper floor is reached from the ground floor through two stairways and is divided into two master bedrooms and a study room with the regular associated services. The gallery connecting the two bedrooms in the upper floor creates a double height for the drawing room below, considerably enhancing the decorative possibilities and the creation of the right atmosphere. The façades have been treated with a moderately formalistic approach, reminiscent of the English 18th century architectural style with porticos and columnated arcades.

    Esta vivienda de dos plantas se halla enclavada en una agradable finca, muy poblada de árboles, y dotada de unas magníficas vistas sobre el valle y el lago próximos. Reemplaza a una antigua mansión del período eduardino, e incorpora antiguas construcciones existentes que destina al personal de servicio. La planta baja organiza, a ambos lados de los ambientes principales —consistentes en un amplio salón con estar y un comedor—, los servicios de cocina y tres dormitorios para huéspedes dotados de baños independientes. La planta alta comunicada con la anterior mediante dos escaleras, está ocupada por dos dormitorios principales y un estudio con dependencias anexas. Una galería que da acceso a los dormitorios proporciona doble altura al salón de la planta baja, ampliando considerablemente sus posibilidades decorativas y ambientales. Las fachadas se han tratado con un planteamiento formal moderado que remeda, mediante el uso de pórticos y columnatas, el estilo arquitectónico inglés del siglo XVlll.

  14. Finds and access at Black Patch, East Sussex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The arrangement of divided space dictates to some extent the activities that take place within the smaller spaces created by such division. Access analysis of Hut Platform 4 at the Bronze Age site at Black Patch, combined with study of the artefacts and ecofacts from the site, gives some insight into the relationship between the constructed spaces and the way they were used. The accessibility of places in which activities occur affects and is affected by the perceived status of these activities. The question of whether or not all of the huts and fences on the hut platform were contemporary has been the subject of some debate; this investigation attempts to establish which configurations of huts and fences fit most closely with the distribution of diagnostic artefacts and ecofacts across the spaces in which they were used. This is achieved by generating control and real relative asymmetry values from permeability maps of the spaces in a number of possible configurations, which are converted into visual form for comparison with the distribution of relevant finds. In order to understand the use of space at the site it is important to consider it in an agrarian context; control of movement between spaces is necessary for certain aspects of livestock farming. A degree of flexibility in the permeability of boundaries allows this control to be exerted. Thus, the fences of Hut Platform 4 may have been erected for practical reasons, rather than to create psychological divisions between 'occupants' of the huts. Individual roundhouses were not necessarily thought of by their users in the same way as 'houses' are thought of today the arrangement of structures at the site was perhaps less influenced by ideas about kinship than the excavator supposed. A possible 'fence corridor' could have had a functional use, as similar arrangements of fences are used today for the control of livestock. Access analysis demonstrates the great range of possibilities for control of movement if all fences were contemporary.

  15. Pathology of naturally occurring bovine tuberculosis in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebana, E; Johnson, L; Gough, J; Durr, P; Jahans, K; Clifton-Hadley, R; Spencer, Y; Hewinson, R G; Downs, S H

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a contemporary data set of pathology in tuberculin reactor and in-contact cattle in England and Wales. Four hundred animals (200 reactors and 200 in-contacts) from 242 farms located in 14 counties in Western England and Wales were examined. The mean number of lymph nodes (LNs) with tuberculosis (TB)-like lesions per TB-confirmed animal was 1.7 in reactors and 1.5 in in-contact animals. Tuberculous lesions in both reactor and in-contact animals were most commonly observed in the LNs of the thorax, followed by the head and abdomen, particularly the mediastinal, retropharyngeal and tracheobronchial LNs. Twenty-five reactors had macroscopic lesions in the palatine tonsils. Among TB-confirmed cattle, 27% of reactors and 9% of in-contact animals had gross TB-like lesions in the lungs, particularly in the caudal lobes. Gross lesions that were not TB-confirmed were parasitic granulomas (45%), bacterial or mycotic club-forming pyogranulomas (27%) and bacterial abscesses (23%). Diagnostic sensitivity was maximised when bacteriology and histopathology were used concurrently. Stage IV granulomas, alone or in combination with other stages, constituted 63% of lesions, while 16% of lesions were stage I/II granulomas. Caseous necrosis and calcification were common features of the granulomas encountered in natural Mycobacterium bovis infections, even with pathology limited to a small number of sites. Granulomas often covered large areas of histological sections and typically contained only small numbers of acid fast bacilli.

  16. Randomised controlled trial adapting US school obesity prevention to England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, R R; Payne, C; Lawlor, D A

    2008-06-01

    To determine whether a school obesity prevention project developed in the United States can be adapted for use in England. A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial and interviews with teachers were carried out in 19 primary schools in South West England. Participants included 679 children in year 5 (age 9-10). Baseline and follow-up assessments were completed for 323 children (screen viewing) and 472 children (body mass index). Sixteen lessons on healthy eating, physical activity and reducing TV viewing were taught over 5 months by teachers. Main outcome measures were hours of screen activities, body mass index, mode of transport to school and teachers' views of the intervention. Children from intervention schools spent less time on screen-viewing activities after the intervention but these differences were imprecisely estimated: mean difference in minutes spent on screen viewing at the end of the intervention (intervention schools minus control schools) adjusted for baseline levels and clustering within schools was -11.6 (95% CI -42.7 to 19.4) for a week day and was -15.4 (95% CI -57.5 to 26.8) for a Saturday. There was no difference in mean body mass index or the odds of obesity. It is feasible to transfer this US school-based intervention to UK schools, and it may be effective in reducing the time children spend on screen-based activities. The study has provided information for a full-scale trial, which would require 50 schools ( approximately 1250 pupils) to detect effects on screen viewing and body mass index over 2 years of follow-up.

  17. Challenges Facing Healthwatch, a New Consumer Champion in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Pam; Martin, Graham

    2016-01-21

    This article engages with debates about the conceptualisation and practical challenges of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health and social care services. Policy in this area in England has shifted numerous times but increasingly a consumerist discourse seems to override more democratic ideas concerning the relationship between citizens and public services. Recent policy change in England has seen the creation of new consumer champion bodies in the form of local Healthwatch. The article describes these new organisational structures for PPI and shows how those who seek to influence planning and delivery of services or comment or complain about aspects of their care face considerable complexity. This is due, in part, to the ambiguous remit set out for newly instigated Healthwatch organisations by government. Drawing on governance theory, we show that it can also be understood as a function of an increasingly polycentric governance arena. Challenges that flow from this include problems of specifying jurisdictional responsibility, accountability, and legitimacy. We review Healthwatch progress to date, then we set out four challenges facing local Healthwatch organisations before discussing the implications of these for patients and the public. The first challenge relates to non-coterminous boundaries and jurisdictional integrity. Secondly, establishing the unique features of Healthwatch is problematic in the crowded PPI arena. The third challenge arises from limited resources as well as the fact that resources flow to Healthwatch from the local authorities that Healthwatch are expected to hold to account. The fourth challenge we identify is how local Healthwatch organisations negotiate the complexity of being a partner to statutory and other organisations, while at the same time being expected to champion local people's views. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  18. Commissioning of specialist palliative care services in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Harriet; Finlay, Ilora; Downman, Maxwell; Dumas, James

    2018-03-01

    Some failures in end-of-life care have been attributed to inconsistent provision of palliative care across England. We aimed to explore the variation in commissioning of services by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) using a data collection exercise. We sent a Freedom of Information request in the form of an open questionnaire to all 209 CCGs in England to assess their commissioning of palliative and end-of-life care services, mainly focused on the provision of specialist palliative care services. 29 CCGs provided information about the number of patients with some form of palliative care needs in their population. For specialist palliative care services, CCGs allocated budgets ranging from £51.83 to £2329.19 per patient per annum. 163 CCGs (77.90%) currently commission 7-day admission to their specialist palliative care beds. 82.84% of CCGs commission 7-day specialist palliative care services in patients' own homes and out-of-hours services rely heavily on hospice provision. 64 CCGs (31.37%) commission pain control teams, the majority of whom only operate in regular working hours. 68.14% of CCGs reported commissioning palliative care education of any sort for healthcare professionals and 44.85% of CCGs had no plans to update or review their palliative care services. The most important finding from this exercise is that the information CCGs hold about their population and services is not standardised. However, information based on data that are more objective, for example, population and total budget for palliative care, demonstrate wide variations in commissioning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Internet testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in England, 2006 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodhall Sarah C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been interest in websites as a means of increasing access to free chlamydia tests through the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP in England. We aimed to describe and evaluate online access to chlamydia testing within the NCSP. Methods We analysed NCSP chlamydia testing data (2006–2010 for 15–24 year olds from the 71/95 programme areas in England where site codes were available to identify tests ordered through the internet. The characteristics of people using online testing services in 2010 were compared with those testing in general practice (GP or community sexual and reproductive health (SRH services. We evaluated 58 websites offering free chlamydia tests through the NCSP, and 32 offering kits on a commercial basis for signposting to clinical service and health promotion advice offered. Results Between 2006 and 2010, 5% of all tests in the included programme areas were accessed through the internet. The number of internet tests increased from 18 (1 sexual partner in the past year. Provision of sexual health information and appropriate signposting for those in need of clinical services varied between websites. Service provision within the NCSP was fragmented with multiple providers serving specific geographical catchment areas. Conclusion Internet testing reaches a population with a relatively high risk of chlamydia infection and appears acceptable to young men, a group that has been difficult to engage with chlamydia testing. In order to maximise the potential benefit of these services, websites should be consistent with national guidelines and adhere to minimum standards for signposting to clinical care and health promotion information. The current system with multiple providers servicing geographically specific catchment areas is contrary to the geographically unrestricted nature of the internet and potentially confusing for clients.

  20. Nutrition practices of nurseries in England. Comparison with national guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Burgoine, Thomas; Hesketh, Kathryn R; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-02-01

    Recent national guidelines call for improved nutrition within early years settings. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe foods and beverages served in nurseries, assess provider behaviors related to feeding, and compare these practices to national guidelines. We administered a mailed survey to a random sample of nurseries across England, stratifying by tertile of deprivation. A total of 851 nurseries returned the survey (54.3% response rate). We fitted separate multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of deprivation with each of the 13 food and beverage guidelines and the seven provider behavior guidelines. We also conducted a joint F-test for any deprivation effect, to evaluate the effect of the guidelines combined. After adjusting for confounders, we observed differences in the frequency of nurseries that reported serving healthier foods across the tertiles of deprivation (p = 0.02 for joint F test). These adjusted results were driven mainly by nurseries in more deprived areas serving more whole grains (OR 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.46)) and legumes, pulses, and lentils (1.40 (1.01, 2.14)). We also observed differences in the frequency of nurseries reporting more provider behaviors consistent with national guidelines across the tertiles of deprivation (p = 0.01 for joint F test). Nurseries in more deprived areas were more likely to dilute juice with water (2.35 (1.48, 3.73)), allow children to select their own portions (1.09 (1.06, 1.58)), and sit with children during meals (1.84 (1.07, 3.15)). While nurseries in the most deprived areas reported serving more healthy foods, a large percentage were still not meeting national guidelines. Policy and intervention efforts may increase compliance with national guidelines in nurseries in more deprived areas, and across England. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrition practices of nurseries in England. Comparison with national guidelines☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Sara E. Benjamin; Burgoine, Thomas; Hesketh, Kathryn R.; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Recent national guidelines call for improved nutrition within early years settings. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe foods and beverages served in nurseries, assess provider behaviors related to feeding, and compare these practices to national guidelines. We administered a mailed survey to a random sample of nurseries across England, stratifying by tertile of deprivation. A total of 851 nurseries returned the survey (54.3% response rate). We fitted separate multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of deprivation with each of the 13 food and beverage guidelines and the seven provider behavior guidelines. We also conducted a joint F-test for any deprivation effect, to evaluate the effect of the guidelines combined. After adjusting for confounders, we observed differences in the frequency of nurseries that reported serving healthier foods across the tertiles of deprivation (p = 0.02 for joint F test). These adjusted results were driven mainly by nurseries in more deprived areas serving more whole grains (OR 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.46)) and legumes, pulses, and lentils (1.40 (1.01, 2.14)). We also observed differences in the frequency of nurseries reporting more provider behaviors consistent with national guidelines across the tertiles of deprivation (p = 0.01 for joint F test). Nurseries in more deprived areas were more likely to dilute juice with water (2.35 (1.48, 3.73)), allow children to select their own portions (1.09 (1.06, 1.58)), and sit with children during meals (1.84 (1.07, 3.15)). While nurseries in the most deprived areas reported serving more healthy foods, a large percentage were still not meeting national guidelines. Policy and intervention efforts may increase compliance with national guidelines in nurseries in more deprived areas, and across England. PMID:25450898

  2. Challenges to dental access - England as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Raman

    2006-06-01

    Access to dental services because of an insufficient workforce is a historic challenge faced by many developing countries. In recent years, however, it has become a major issue for many industrialized countries. The growing demand for cosmetic dentistry, an increase in patients' willingness to pay for dental treatment, and growing numbers of older dentate patients have all put pressure on dental systems. Ways of meeting these challenges and ensuring reasonable dental access will vary from country to country, but the solutions often lie in how the dental workforce is regulated. This case study of the dental reforms currently being implemented in England highlights progress at a particular point in time (Summer 2005). It is clear that it will take a number of years to find a new national dental payment system (the National Health Service) to replace the system which has changed little since 1948. However, the political pressure to address poor access to state-funded dental services calls for more immediate actions. The initial approach was to increase the dental workforce via international recruitment, and in the medium term to increase the number of dental students in training and to expand the numbers of other members of the dental team. An additional stratagem is to retain those already providing dental care under the National Health Service by the introduction of a new method of remuneration. England is trying to improve both access to care and the oral health of the population by creating a workforce more suitable to public demands and changing oral health needs.

  3. New England Energy Congress: a blueprint for energy action. Executive summary and recommendations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Connolly, Patrick F.; Spencer, Bailey

    1979-05-01

    The task of the New England Congress deals with reducing the region's dependence on foreign oil and its cost disadvantage compared to the rest of the country. The work of the Congress is summarized. Recommendations address the demand side of the energy equation and then analysis and recommendations address supply options. Reports from the following committees are included: New England Energy Supply; Alternatives; Economic Development Through Alternative Sources of Energy; New England Energy Demand; Conservation; Demand Transportation; Energy Conservation; Residential Energy Package; Regulatory and Institutional Processes; and Energy Economics and Financing.

  4. The effects of acculturation on obesity rates in ethnic minorities in England: evidence from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neil R; Kelly, Yvonne J; Nazroo, James Y

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the extent of generational differences in adult health-related lifestyles and socio-economic circumstances, and explore whether these differences might explain changing patterns of obesity in ethnic minorities in England. Seven ethnic minority groups were selected from the ethnically boosted 1999 and 2004 Health Survey for England (Indian n = 1580; Pakistani n = 1858; Bangladeshi n = 1549; Black Caribbean n = 1472; Black African n = 587; Chinese n = 1559; and Irish n = 889). Age and sex adjusted odds of being obese in the second generation when compared with the first were estimated before and after adjusting for generational differences in health-related behaviours (snacking, eating cakes and fried foods, low levels of physical exercise, any drinking, current smoker, etc.) and socio-economic factors (social class, equivalized income and highest qualification). Indian [OR: 1.76 (1.14-2.71)] and Chinese [OR: 3.65 (1.37-9.78)] groups were more likely to be obese in the second generation than the first after adjusting for age and sex, with no significant differences observed in all other groups. However, the risk of obesity in all groups converged between generations to the risk observed in the White reference group, with exception to the Black Caribbean group. Adjusting independently for the mixed patterns of acculturative changes and the uniform upward social mobility in all groups increased the risk of obesity in the second generation. Obesity converged to the risk in the majority population following acculturation. Future research needs to consider generation and trans-cultural identities as a fundamental variable in determining the causes of ethnic health inequalities.

  5. Salt-marsh erosion associated with hurricane landfall in southern New England in the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plassche, Orson van de; Erkens, Gilles; Vliet, Frank van; Brandsma, J.; Borg, K. van der; Jong, A.F.M. de

    2006-01-01

    Lithostratigraphic and radiocarbon data from the inland section of Pattagansett River Marsh, Connecticut, show that this sheltered part of the salt marsh underwent significant erosion twice during the past 600 yr, each time followed by rapid and complete infilling of the eroded space with tidal mud

  6. Development of a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of Coastal Marsh Systems in Southern New England USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is accelerating throughout the U.S. Northeast causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat ...

  7. Habitat-associated and temporal patterns of bat activity in a diverse forest landscape of southern New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks

    2009-01-01

    The development and use of acoustic recording technology, surveys have revealed the composition, relative levels of activity, and preliminary habitat use of bat communities of various forest locations. However, detailed examinations of acoustic surveys results to investigate temporal patterns of bat activity are rare. Initial active acoustic surveys of bat activity on...

  8. Soil Respiration and Belowground Carbon Stores Among Salt Marshes Subjected to Increasing Watershed Nitrogen Loadings in Southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal salt marshes are ecosystems located between the uplands and sea, and because of their location are subject to increasing watershed nutrient loadings and rising sea levels. Residential development along the coast is intense, and there is a significant relationship between...

  9. Catchment source contributions to the sediment-bound organic matter degrading salmonid spawning gravels in a lowland river, southern England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, A.L., E-mail: adrian.collins@adas.co.uk [ADAS, Pendeford House, Wobaston Road, Wolverhampton WV9 5AP (United Kingdom); Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, L.J.; Zhang, Y.S. [ADAS, Pendeford House, Wobaston Road, Wolverhampton WV9 5AP (United Kingdom); Marius, M. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dungait, J.A.J. [Department of Sustainable Systems and Grassland Science, Rothamsted Research—North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Smallman, D.J. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dixon, E.R. [Department of Sustainable Systems and Grassland Science, Rothamsted Research—North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Stringfellow, A. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Sear, D.A. [Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Jones, J.I. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Naden, P.S. [CEH Wallingford, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The ingress of particulate material into freshwater spawning substrates is thought to be contributing to the declining success of salmonids reported over recent years for many rivers. Accordingly, the need for reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem has progressed up the management agenda. Whilst previous work has focussed on apportioning the sources of minerogenic fine sediment degrading spawning habitats, there remains a need to develop procedures for generating corresponding information for the potentially harmful sediment-bound organic matter that represents an overlooked component of interstitial sediment. A source tracing procedure based on composite signatures combining bulk stable {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotope values with organic molecular structures detected using near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was therefore used to assess the primary sources of sediment-bound organic matter sampled from artificial spawning redds. Composite signatures were selected using a combination of the Kruskal–Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and GA-driven discriminant function analysis. Interstitial sediment samples were collected using time-integrating basket traps which were inserted at the start of the salmonid spawning season and extracted in conjunction with critical phases of fish development (eyeing, hatch, emergence, late spawning). Over the duration of these four basket extractions, the overall relative frequency-weighted average median (± 95% confidence limits) source contributions to the interstitial sediment-bound organic matter were estimated to be in the order: instream decaying vegetation (39 ± < 1%; full range 0–77%); damaged road verges (28 ± < 1%; full range 0–77%); septic tanks (22 ± < 1%; full range 0–50%), and; farm yard manures/slurries (11 ± < 1%; full range 0–61%). The reported procedure provides a promising basis for understanding the key sources of interstitial sediment-bound organic matter and can be applied alongside apportionment for the minerogenic component of fine-grained sediment ingressing the benthos. The findings suggest that human septic waste contributes to the interstitial fines ingressing salmonid spawning habitat in the study area. - Highlights: • Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and NIR reflectance spectra used as fingerprints • Results suggest human septic waste contributes to organic matter in spawning gravels. • Source contributions are: instream decaying vegetation > road verges > septic tanks > farm manures.

  10. F00321: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southern New England Coast, Connecticut and New York, 1988-11-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. Development of a Climate-Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of Coastal Marsh Systems in Southern New England USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is accelerating throughout the U.S. Northeast causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat ...

  12. Salt-marsh erosion associated with hurricane landfall in southern New England in the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Plassche, O.; Erkens, G.; van Vliet, F.; Brandsma, J.; van de Borg, K.; de Jong, A.F.M

    2006-01-01

    Lithostratigraphic and radiocarbon data from the inland section of Pattagansett River Marsh, Connecticut, show that this sheltered part of the salt marsh underwent significant erosion twice during the past 600 yr, each time followed by rapid and complete infilling of the eroded space with tidal mud

  13. F00363: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southern New England Coast, Connecticut and New York, 1991-08-06

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  14. F00293: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southern New England Coast, Connecticut and New York, 1986-12-10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  15. F00303: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southern New England Coast, Connecticut and New York, 1988-08-21

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. Career Interventions: Practices and Preferences of Southern New England High School Counselors Supporting Students' Individual Learning Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Belinda J.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine public high school counselors' career interventions practices and preferences in comprehensive school counseling programs. Secondarily, this study investigated how those career intervention practices support students' Individual Learning Plans (ILPs). The research questions guiding this study…

  17. F00365: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southern New England Coast, Connecticut and New York, 1991-09-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. F00325: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southern New England Coast, Connecticut and New York, 1989-06-20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. F00378: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southern New England Coast, Connecticut and New York, 1992-11-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. F00376: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southern New England Coast, Connecticut and New York, 1992-09-15

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. H10458: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southern New England Coast, Connecticut and New York, 1993-08-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  2. Investigation of an outbreak of vomiting in nurseries in South East England, May 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, M; Purcell, B; Willis, C; Amar, C F L; Kanagarajah, S; Chamberlain, D; Wooldridge, D; Morgan, J; McLauchlin, J; Grant, K A; Harvey-Vince, L; Padfield, M; Mearkle, R; Chow, J Y

    2016-02-01

    On 30 May 2012, Surrey and Sussex Health Protection Unit was called by five nurseries reporting children and staff with sudden onset vomiting approximately an hour after finishing their lunch that day. Over the following 24 h 50 further nurseries supplied by the same company reported cases of vomiting (182 children, 18 staff affected). Epidemiological investigations were undertaken in order to identify the cause of the outbreak and prevent further cases. Investigations demonstrated a nursery-level attack rate of 55 out of 87 nurseries (63·2%, 95% confidence interval 52·2-73·3). Microbiological tests confirmed the presence of Bacillus cereus in food and environmental samples from the catering company and one nursery. This was considered microbiologically and epidemiologically consistent with toxin from this bacterium causing the outbreak. Laboratory investigations showed that the conditions used by the caterer for soaking of pearl haricot beans (known as navy bean in the USA) used in one of the foods supplied to the nurseries prior to cooking, was likely to have provided sufficient growth and toxin production of B. cereus to cause illness. This large outbreak demonstrates the need for careful temperature control in food preparation.

  3. Integrating Climate Science, Marine Ecology, and Fisheries Economics to Predict the Effects of Climate Change on New England lobster Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bris, A.; Pershing, A. J.; Holland, D. S.; Mills, K.; Sun, C. H. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Gulf of Maine and the northwest Atlantic shelf have experienced one of the fastest warming rates of the global ocean over the past decade, and concerns are growing about the long-term sustainability of the fishing industries in the region. The lucrative American lobster fishery occurs over a steep temperature gradient, providing a unique opportunity to evaluate the consequences of climate change and variability on marine socio-ecological systems. This study aims at developing an integrated climate, population dynamics, and fishery economics model to predict consequences of climate change on the American lobster fishery. In this talk, we first describe a mechanistic model that combines life-history theory and a size-spectrum approach to simulate the dynamics of the population. Results show that as temperature increases, early growth rate and predation on small individuals increases, while size-at-maturity, maximum length and predation on large individuals decreases, resulting in a lower recruitment in the southern New-England and higher recruitment in the northern Gulf of Maine. Second, we present an integrated fishery and economic module that links temperature to landings and price through its influence on catchability and abundance. Preliminary results show that temperature is positively correlated with landings and negatively correlated with price in the Gulf of Maine. Finally, we discuss how model simulations under various fishing effort, market and climate scenarios can be used to identify adaptation opportunities to improve the resilience of the fishery to climate change.

  4. 12 New England Organizations Honored for Outstanding Achievements in Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are honoring 12 New England businesses and organizations for their commitment to saving energy, saving money, and protecting the environment through superior energy efficiency achievements.

  5. Herkunfts-Sprachkompetenz von jugendlichen Immigranten in England, Deutschland, den Niederlanden und Schweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tubergen, Frank; Mentjox, Tessel

    2014-01-01

    We study minority language proficiency of adolescent immigrant children in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. We elaborate on theoretical mechanisms of exposure, efficiency and non-economic incentives of minority language acquisition. Using data from adolescent immigrant children in

  6. EPA Begins Reviews of 24 New England Site Cleanups during Current Fiscal Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA plans to conduct comprehensive reviews of site cleanups at 24 National Priorities List Sites (Superfund Sites), including two Federal Facilities, across New England by performing required Five-Year Reviews of sites.

  7. Equity, justice and the crime drop: the case of burglary in England and Wales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, James; Tseloni, Andromachi

    2016-01-01

    ...) groups taking into account group composition. To this end, it compares their burglary incidence rates based on burglary count models of the 1994 and 2008/09 Crime Survey for England and Wales data...

  8. Have winter fuel payments reduced excess winter mortality in England and Wales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iparraguirre, J

    2015-03-01

    The historical series of excess winter mortality (EWM) in England and Wales presents a negative trend. Winter fuel payments (WFPs) are the most important benefits for people aged 65 or over directly related to Winter Mortality in the UK. This study presents a time series analysis of the direct effect of WFPs on EWM in England and Wales. We find a significant structural break in trend and volatility in the EWM series in England and Wales in 1999-2000. After controlling for a number of covariates, an ARIMA-X model finds that WFPs can account for almost half of the reduction in EWM in England and Wales since 1999/2000. Almost half of the reduction in EWM since 1999/2000 is attributable to WFPs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Adult ADHD patient experiences of impairment, service provision and clinical management in England: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matheson, Lauren; Asherson, Philip; Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Hodgkins, Paul; Setyawan, Juliana; Sasane, Rahul; Clifford, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the published scientific literature. This study aimed to explore the experiences of adults in England with ADHD regarding access to diagnostic and treatment services, ADHD-related impairment and to compare experiences between patients...

  10. Analysis of physical activity and acculturation among Turkish migrants in Germany and England (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Canan; Lapa, Tennur Yerlisu

    2014-12-01

    Recent literature shows that migrant populations in Western countries are generally less physically active than their host populations. The purpose of the present study was to expand research investigating associations between physical activity (PA) and acculturation and their relationship with several socio-demographic factors among Turkish migrants in Germany and England. The sample consisted of 521 Turkish migrants. Migrant generation, length of residence, and language proficiency were used as indicators of acculturation. Acculturation was not associated with PA among migrants in Germany and England. PA of migrants was significantly associated with migrant's host country, age, sex, marital status, and education. The total PA of migrants in Germany was higher than that of migrants in England; the large majority of females in both Germany and England had low PA, whereas most males had moderate PA. Seemingly, PA in Turkish migrant populations will not necessarily increase as a result of greater acculturation to the host society.

  11. Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in the Law of Iran and England: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasat Pour Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the Law of Iran and England: A Comparative Study. There are a lot of similarities and commonalities between the legal system of Iran and England in the field of recognition and enforcement of the foreign judgments including public discipline and conflicting judgments. Public discipline in England Law is more specific than that of Iran. Being a civil case of the judgment, impossibility of recognition, enforcement of tax and criminal judgments are among the similarities of the two systems. On the other hand, reciprocity, precise of the foreign court, and the jurisdiction governing the nature of the claim are among instances which are different in Iran and England legal systems on the recognizing of the enforcement of foreign judgments.

  12. Forestry Across Borders: Proceedings of the New England Society of American Foresters 84th Winter Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; Mark J., eds. Twery

    2004-01-01

    Contains 19 short papers and abstracts presented at the 84th annual winter meeting of the New England Society of American Foresters, Forestry Across Borders, in Quebec City, Canada, March 23-26, 2004.

  13. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum negative rate of change in New England based on a...

  14. New England observed and predicted median August stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median August stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  15. New England observed and predicted growing season maximum stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted growing season maximum stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical...

  16. Predicted median July stream/river temperature regime in New England

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile includes the predicted thermal regime for all NHDPlus version 1 stream and river reaches in New England within the model domain based on the spatial...

  17. New England observed and predicted Julian day of maximum growing season stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted Julian day of maximum growing season stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial...

  18. New England observed and predicted July stream/river temperature daily range points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature daily ranges in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  19. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature daily range points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature daily ranges in New England based on a spatial statistical...

  20. New England observed and predicted median July stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median July stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  1. New England Organizations Step Up for EPAs Food Recovery Challenge and Help to Reduce Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen New England organizations have backed a national effort led by the US Environmental Protection Agency to help cut down on the nearly 35 million tons of food wasted in the United States each year.

  2. Two New England Businesses and One Individual Recognized by EPA for Climate Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has recognized the leadership of one individual and two New England companies for their climate actions, such as investing in energy efficiency and renewable energy, and preparing for the impacts of climate change.

  3. Two New England Small Businesses Awarded EPA Funding to Develop Environmental Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two New England small businesses - one in Connecticut and the other in Massachusetts - were among eight companies nationwide awarded contracts by the U.S. EPA to develop innovative technologies to protect the environment.

  4. Natural and Anthropogenic Methane Sources, New England, USA, 1990-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains an inventory of natural and anthropogenic methane emissions for all counties in the six New England states of Connecticut, Rhode Island,...

  5. Do financial incentives trump clinical guidance? Hip Replacement in England and Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolas, Irene; McGuire, Alistair

    2015-12-01

    Following devolution in 1999 England and Scotland's National Health Services diverged, resulting in major differences in hospital payment. England introduced a case payment mechanism from 2003/4, while Scotland continued to pay through global budgets. We investigate the impact this change had on activity for Hip Replacement. We examine the financial reimbursement attached to uncemented Hip Replacement in England, which has been more generous than for its cemented counterpart, although clinical guidance from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence recommends the later. In Scotland this financial differential does not exist. We use a difference-in-difference estimator, using Scotland as a control, to test whether the change in reimbursement across the two countries had an influence on treatment. Our results indicate that financial incentives are directly linked to the faster uptake of the more expensive, uncemented Hip Replacement in England, which ran against the clinical guidance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Democratic police governance in comparative perspective: reflections from England & Wales and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, T.; van Steden, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the specific institutional arrangements for realizing democratically accountable policing in England & Wales and the Netherlands. It assesses each accountability system against a set of "democratic criteria" and considers the implications for

  7. Snowfall in Southern Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The snowstorm which swept across the eastern United States on December 4 and 5 also brought the season's first snow to parts of the south and southern Appalachia. The extent of snow cover over central Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western North Carolina and Virginia are apparent in this view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). This natural-color image was captured by MISR's downward-looking (nadir) camera on December 7, 2002.The Appalachians are bounded by the Blue Ridge mountain belt along the east and the Appalachian Plateau along the west. Valleys and ridges between the higher elevation areas retain the green and reddish-brown hues of autumn, and many rivers and lakes appear blue and unfrozen. The highest peak in the eastern United States, Mount Mitchell, is found in North Carolina's western tip, near the Great Smoky Mountains (the dark-colored range at lower right).The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 15805. The image covers an area of 347 kilometers x 279 kilometers, and utilizes data from blocks 60 to 62 within World Reference System-2 path 19.

  8. Eastern and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdler-brown, B

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and the spread of HIV/AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa. It includes Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The literature focuses separately on AIDS or migration. HIV/AIDS is widespread and prevalent in these regions. The major concern is that migrants are at risk due to their migration and HIV infection is spread after a return to their home countries. Populations at risk include rural-to-urban migrants, displaced persons in the Sudan and in the Horn of Africa, refugees crossing borders, and pastoralists moving within rural areas. In 1997, there were an estimated 1.3 million refugees in east African countries and 5 million internally displaced due to conflicts in Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa. Risk factors among migrant groups include high rates of partner change, unprotected sexual intercourse, nonuse of condoms, prior sexually transmitted diseases, IV drug use, and residence in a high HIV-prevalence community. Confounding factors may be age, gender, occupation, and mobility. Health services for migrants vary between countries. There are successful models for prevention of HIV. 13 targeted interventions are identified.

  9. The Idea of England in Eighteenth-century Indian Travel Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Satapathy, Amrita

    2012-01-01

    In her article "The Idea of England in Eighteenth-century Indian Travel Writing" Amrita Satapathy discusses how Dean Mahomed's 1794 The Travels of Dean Mahomed maps out territories of the mind of the colonizer and the colonized, how the narrative redefines contours of two diverse communities and cultures, and determines forms of cultural representations. Mahomed's Travels presented for the first time the idea of England from an Indian immigrant's point of view and altered the prejudiced outlo...

  10. A Review on Multicultural Education Programmes in Initial Teacher Training in England

    OpenAIRE

    Morito, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on programmes of multicultural education in initial teacher training (ITT) in England. England, which has a long history as a multiethnic and multicultural society, offers significant opportunities for consideration for multicultural educational design. The issue of educating teachers for diverse schools and classrooms needs to be addressed urgently (OECD, 2010). Hence, it is significant to grasp how teacher education offers trainees and teachers the knowledg...

  11. Temporal patterns of alcohol consumption and attempts to reduce alcohol intake in England

    OpenAIRE

    de Vocht, F; Brown, J.; Beard, E; Angus, C; Brennan, A; Michie, S; Campbell, R.; Hickman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS) is a monthly survey of approximately 1700 adults per month aged 16 years of age or more in England. We aimed to explore patterns of alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce alcohol use in England throughout the year. Methods Data from 38,372 participants who answered questions about alcohol consumption (March 2014 to January 2016) were analysed using weighted regression using the R survey package. Questions assessed alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C) ...

  12. Drinking Outcome Expectancies and Normative Perceptions of Students Engaged in University Sport in England

    OpenAIRE

    Longstaff, Fran; Heather, Nick; Allsop, Susan; Partington, Elizabeth; Jankowski, Mark; Wareham, Helen; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether students engaged in university sport have different drinking outcome expectancies and normative beliefs than students who are not engaged in university sport. A cross-sectional survey of university students in England in 2008–2009 was undertaken. A questionnaire battery, including the Drinking Expectancies Questionnaire (DEQ) and a measure of normative beliefs, was completed by 770 students from seven universities across England. Responses from 638 students who wer...

  13. Documenting Reproductive Phenology using Herbarium Specimens: Experiences from the New England Vascular Plants Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney,Patrick; Gilbert,Edward

    2017-01-01

    Herbarium specimens and associated label data are valuable sources of phenological data. They can provide information about the phenological state of the specimen and information about how phenology varies in space and time. In an effort to leverage this tremendous phenological resource, the New England Vascular Plants project (NEVP) has worked over the past few years to create a data set catered to the study of the effects of climate change in New England. This project has focused on capturi...

  14. Rural in-migration in England and Wales, 1980-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    1995-01-01

    "A partially constrained Poisson regression model approach was used to examine 31,356 district-level flows into and between rural areas in England and Wales between 1980 and 1981.... The results suggest that military redeployment was of considerable importance in explaining the patterns of rural in-migration in England and Wales between 1980 and 1981. Little evidence of a major redistribution of population from the largest urban centres to the rural periphery was identified." excerpt

  15. [Accepted Manuscript] Increased orthogeriatrician involvement in hip fracture care and its impact on mortality in England

    OpenAIRE

    Neuburger, J.; C. Currie; Wakeman, R.; Johansen, A.; Tsang, C.; Plant, F.; Wilson, H.; Cromwell, D. A.; Van der Meulen, J.; De Stavola, B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives to describe the increase in orthogeriatrician involvement in hip fracture care in England and its association with improvements in time to surgery and mortality.\\ud \\ud Study design analysis of Hospital Episode Statistics for 196,401 patients presenting with hip fracture to 150 hospitals in England between 1 April 2010 and 28 February 2014, combined with data on orthogeriatrician hours from a national organisational survey.\\ud \\ud Methods we examined changes in the average number o...

  16. Geography is not destiny: geography, institutions and literacy in England, 1837–63

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Clark; Rowena Gray

    2014-01-01

    Geography made rural society in the southeast of England unequal. Economies of scale in grain growing created a farmer elite and many landless labourers. In the pastoral northwest, in contrast, family farms dominated, with few hired labourers and modest income disparities. Did this geography driven difference in social structure influence educational outcomes in England 1810–45? Using new micro-level data we show that this geographically driven inequality is not a strong predictor of regional...

  17. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  18. A history of Soil Survey in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, S.; Deeks, L.

    2012-04-01

    Early soil mapping in Britain was dominated, as in the USA, by soil texture with maps dating back to the early 1900's identifying surface texture and parent rock materials. Only in the 1920's did Dokuchaev's work in Russia involving soil morphology and the development of the soil profile start to gain popularity, drawing in the influence of climate and topography on pedogenesis. Intentions to create a formal body at this time responsible for soil survey were not implemented and progress remained slow. However, in 1939 definite steps were taken to address this and the soil survey was created. In 1947, its activities were transferred from Bangor to the research branch of the Rothamsted experimental station in Hertfordshire under Professor G.W. Robinson. Soon after, a number of regional offices were also established to act as a link with the National Agricultural Advisory Service. At this time a Pedology Department was established at Rothamsted, focussing on petrological, X-ray, spectrographic and chemical analyses. Although not a Rothamsted Department itself, the Survey did fall under the 'Lawes Agricultural Trust'. A Soil Survey Research Advisory Board was also formed to act as a liaison with the Agricultural Field Council. In Scotland by contrast, soil survey activities became centred on the Macaulay Institute in Aberdeen. Developments in the survey of British soils were accompanied in parallel by the development of soil classification systems. In 1930 a Soils Correlation Committee had been formed to ensure consistency in methods and naming of soil series and to ensure the classification was applied uniformly. In England and Wales the zonal system adopted was similar to that used in the USA, where soil series were named after the location where they were first described. American soil scientists such as Veitch and Lee provided stimulus to the development of mapping methods. In Scotland a differing classification was adopted, being similar to that used in Canada

  19. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  20. Identifying dietary differences between Scotland and England: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Barton, Karen L; Albani, Viviana; Anderson, Annie S; Wrieden, Wendy L

    2017-10-01

    Rates of premature mortality have been higher in Scotland than in England since the 1970s. Given the known association of diet with chronic disease, the study objective was to identify and synthesise evidence on current and historical differences in food and nutrient intakes in Scotland and England. A rapid review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was carried out. After an initial scoping search, Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Relevant grey literature was also included. Inclusion criteria were: any date; measures of dietary intake; representative populations; cross-sectional or observational cohort studies; and English-language publications. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional Studies. A narrative synthesis of extracted information was conducted. Fifty publications and reports were included in the review. Results indicated that children and adults in Scotland had lower intakes of vegetables and vitamins compared with those living in England. Higher intakes of salt in Scotland were also identified. Data were limited by small Scottish samples, difficulty in finding England-level data, lack of statistical testing and adjustment for key confounders. Further investigation of adequately powered and analysed surveys is required to examine more fully dietary differences between Scotland and England. This would provide greater insight into potential causes of excess mortality in Scotland compared with England and suitable policy recommendations to address these inequalities.

  1. Greater Perceived Age Discrimination in England than the United States: Results from HRS and ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninotto, Paola; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cross-national differences in perceptions of age discrimination in England and the United States. Under the premise that the United States has had age discrimination legislation in place for considerably longer than England, we hypothesized that perceptions of age discrimination would be lower in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from two nationally representative studies of aging, the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (n = 4,818) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 7,478). Respondents aged 52 years and older who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination were significantly higher in England than the United States, with 34.8% of men and women in England reporting age discrimination compared with 29.1% in the United States. Associations between perceived age discrimination and older age and lower levels of household wealth were observed in both countries, but we found differences between England and the United States in the relationship between perceived age discrimination and education. Discussion. Our study revealed that levels of perceived age discrimination are lower in the United States than England and are less socially patterned. This suggests that differing social and political circumstances in the two countries may have an important role to play. PMID:26224759

  2. Residential mobility during pregnancy in the north of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bythell Mary

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies assign exposure to an individual's residence at a single time point, such as birth or death. This approach makes no allowance for migration and may result in exposure error, leading to reduced study power and biased risk estimates. Pregnancy outcomes are less susceptible to this bias, however data from North American populations indicate that pregnant women are a highly mobile group. We assessed mobility in pregnant women in the north of England using data from the Northern Congenital Abnormality Survey (NorCAS. Methods Data were extracted from NorCAS for 1985 to 2003. Eligible cases had a gestational age at delivery of ≥ 24 weeks (a viable delivery (n = 11 559. We assessed mobility between booking appointment (average gestational age 13 weeks and delivery for pregnancies where the address at booking appointment and delivery were known. The impacts on mobility of maternal age and area-level socio-economic indicators were explored using standard descriptive statistics. A sensitivity analysis and a small validation exercise were undertaken to assess the impact of missing data on the estimate of mobility. Results Out of 7 919 eligible cases for whom addresses at booking and delivery were known, 705 (8.9% (95% CI 8.3 - 9.5 moved between booking and delivery; the mean and median moving distance was 9.7 and 1.4 km respectively. Movers were significantly younger (25.4 versus 27.3 years, p Conclusion Mobility in the north of England (9% is considerably lower than that reported in North America and the only other study from the UK (23%. Consistent with other studies, mobility was related to maternal age and socio-economic status, and the majority of moves were over a relatively short distance. Although this population appears relatively stable, the mobility we have observed may still introduce misclassification or error into an exposure assessment relying solely on postcode at delivery, and migration

  3. Explaining variation in the uptake of HPV vaccination in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whynes David K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In England, two national programmes of HPV vaccination for girls have been instituted, a routine programme for 12- and 13-year-olds and a catch-up programme for 17- and 18-year-olds. Uptake rates across the country have been far from uniform, and this research sought to identify factors explaining the variation in uptake by locality. Methods An association between uptake, deprivation and ethnic background had been established in pilot research. The present analysis was conducted at an aggregate, Primary Care Trust (PCT, level for the first year of the programmes. Published measures of HPV vaccination uptake, material deprivation, ethnic composition of PCT populations, primary care quality, and uptake of cervical screening and of other childhood immunisations were collated. Strong evidence of collinearity amongst the explanatory variables required a factor analysis to be undertaken. This provided four independent factors, used thereafter in regression models to explain uptake by PCT. Results The factor analysis revealed that ethnic composition was associated with attitudes towards cervical screening and other childhood vaccinations, whilst material deprivation and quality of primary care were orthogonal. Ethnic composition, early childhood vaccination, cervical screening and primary care quality were found to be influential in predicting uptake in both the routine and the catch-up cohorts, although with a lower degree of confidence in the case of the last two independent variables. Lower primary care quality was significant in explaining a greater fall in vaccination uptake between the first two doses in the catch-up cohort. Greater deprivation was a significant explanatory factor for both uptake and the fall in uptake between doses for the catch-up cohort but not for uptake in the routine cohort. Conclusion These results for uptake of the first year of the national programme using aggregate data corroborate findings from

  4. Radiotherapy demand and activity in England 2006-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, C E; Williams, M V; Mee, T; Kirkby, N F; Cooper, T; Hoskin, P; Jena, R

    2013-09-01

    This paper compares the predictions of radiotherapy demand for England from the Malthus model with those from the earlier National Radiotherapy Advisory Group (NRAG) model, from the international literature and also with observed radiotherapy usage in England as a whole as recorded in the English radiotherapy dataset (RTDS). We reviewed the evidence base for radiotherapy for each type and stage of cancer using national and international guidelines, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and key clinical trials. Twenty-two decision trees were constructed and radiotherapy demand was calculated using English cancer incidence data for 2007, 2008 and 2009, accurate to the Primary Care Trust (PCT) level (population 91,500-1,282,384). The stage at presentation was obtained from English cancer registry data. In predictive mode, the model can take account of changes in cancer incidence as the population grows and ages. The Malthus model indicates reduced indications for radiotherapy, principally for lung cancer and rarer tumours. Our estimate of the proportion of patients who should receive radiotherapy at some stage of their illness is 40.6%. This is lower than previous estimates of about 50%. Nevertheless, the overall estimate of demand in terms of attendances is similar for the NRAG and Malthus models. The latter models that 48,827 attendances should have been delivered per million population in 2011. National data from RTDS show 32,071 attendances per million in 2011. A 50% increase in activity would be required to match estimated demand. This underprovision extends across all cancers and represents reduced access and the use of dose fractionation at odds with international norms of evidence-based practice. By 2016, demand is predicted to grow to about 55,206 attendances per million and by 2020 to 60,057. Services have increased their activity by 14% between 2006 and 2011, but estimated demand has increased by 11%. Access remains low and English radiotherapy dose

  5. Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Bronach

    2012-12-01

    Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour.

  6. Background exposure rates of terrestrial wildlife in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Jones, D.G. [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wood, M.D. [Institute for Sustainable Water Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research (SWIMMER), Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Appleton, J.D.; Breward, N. [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    It has been suggested that, when assessing radiation impacts on non-human biota, estimated dose rates due to anthropogenically released radionuclides should be put in context by comparison to dose rates from natural background radiation. In order to make these comparisons, we need data on the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in environmental media and organisms of interest. This paper presents the results of a study to determine the exposure of terrestrial organisms in England and Wales to naturally occurring radionuclides, specifically {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U series and {sup 232}Th series radionuclides. Whole-body activity concentrations for the reference animals and plants (RAPs) as proposed by the ICRP have been collated from literature review, data archives and a targeted sampling campaign. Data specifically for the proposed RAP are sparse. Soil activity concentrations have been derived from an extensive geochemical survey of the UK. Unweighted and weighted absorbed dose rates were estimated using the ERICA Tool. Mean total weighted whole-body absorbed dose rates estimated for the selected terrestrial organisms was in the range 6.9 x 10{sup -2} to 6.1 x 10{sup -1} {mu}Gy h{sup -1}.

  7. Simple rationality? The law of healthcare resource allocation in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charles

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines the law relating to healthcare resource allocation in England. The National Health Service (NHS) Act 1977 does not impose an absolute duty to provide specified healthcare services. The courts will only interfere with a resource allocation decision made by an NHS body if that decision is frankly irrational (or where the decision infringes the principle of proportionality when a right under the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is engaged). Such irrationality is very difficult to establish. The ECHR has made no significant contribution to domestic English law in the arena of healthcare provision. The decision of the European Court in the Yvonne Watts case establishes that, in relation to the question of entitlement to seek treatment abroad at the expense of the NHS, a clinical judgment about the urgency of treatment trumps an administrative decision about waiting list targets. That decision goes against the grain of domestic law about healthcare allocation, but is not likely to have wide ramifications in domestic law.

  8. Advanced level nursing in England: organisational challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Linda; Knowles, Kate; Pettman, Maria; Fisher, Leslie

    2015-11-01

    To explore the background, activities and future development needs of advanced practice nurses within a large NHS Trust in England, allowing for a wider review of the current situation within the UK. There are currently no national requirements for advanced practice nursing within the UK, which has led to considerable variability in these roles. Recently, focus has been placed on local governance rather than regulation of advanced practice nursing. However, governance and coordinated workforce planning within the UK is in its infancy. An electronic survey was sent to all nurses within one Trust identified as practising at an advanced level; a total of 136 responses were received. The survey identified considerable variation in titles, educational preparation and current activities even within similar roles. Some participants identified the need for more support in undertaking professional development activities. The findings echo the wider picture within the UK, and point to the need to actively work on developing strategies for governance, education, and succession planning for advanced practice nursing. In the absence of national regulation, UK NHS Trusts should develop their own registers of advanced practice nurses in order to facilitate improved management, governance and workforce planning systems. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, B; Halsby, K D; O'Connor, C M; Francis, J; Hewitt, K; Verlander, N Q; Guy, E; Morgan, D

    2017-01-01

    Over 300 cases of acute toxoplasmosis are confirmed by reference testing in England and Wales annually. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection to inform prevention strategies. Twenty-eight cases and 27 seronegative controls participated. We compared their food history and environmental exposures using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals in a model controlling for age and sex. Univariable analysis showed that the odds of eating beef (OR 10·7, P < 0·001), poultry (OR 6·4, P = 0·01) or lamb/mutton (OR 4·9, P = 0·01) was higher for cases than controls. After adjustment for potential confounders a strong association between beef and infection remained (OR 5·6, P = 0·01). The small sample size was a significant limitation and larger studies are needed to fully investigate potential risk factors. The study findings emphasize the need to ensure food is thoroughly cooked and handled hygienically, especially for those in vulnerable groups.

  10. Evaluation of educational programmes for paediatric cancer nursing in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Linda; Long, Tony; Hale, Claire

    2004-06-01

    The results of part of a larger study to evaluate educational provision for paediatric oncology and palliative care nursing in England are presented here. Mapping of cancer care provision, based upon the English National Board 240 programme, was undertaken by analysis of relevant curriculum documents. Prescribed programme outcomes were reviewed against expected course outcomes proposed by the European Oncology Nursing Society. Particular attention was also paid to expected processes of assessment of clinical practice, consideration of adolescent patients, and opportunities for shared learning. Widespread compliance with the European Oncology Nursing Society standard was found, with only two of the 19 areas substantially neglected. These related to the prevention and early detection of cancer (less relevant in paediatric cancer than for adults), and understanding the principles of cancer clinical trials (probably due to lack of explicit statement in curriculum documents rather than actual failure to address the topic). A range of prescribed assessment practices were noted, but the degree to which direct observation was involved was variable, and indirect measures appeared to predominate. There was little specific recognition of adolescence as a discrete topic to be addressed in the programmes. Shared learning tended to be introduced for logistical reasons of small class numbers rather than for any perceived intrinsic value.

  11. Longevity and mortality of owned dogs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D G; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2013-12-01

    Improved understanding of longevity represents a significant welfare opportunity for the domestic dog, given its unparalleled morphological diversity. Epidemiological research using electronic patient records (EPRs) collected from primary veterinary practices overcomes many inherent limitations of referral clinic, owner questionnaire and pet insurance data. Clinical health data from 102,609 owned dogs attending first opinion veterinary practices (n=86) in central and southeast England were analysed, focusing on 5095 confirmed deaths. Of deceased dogs with information available, 3961 (77.9%) were purebred, 2386 (47.0%) were female, 2528 (49.8%) were neutered and 1105 (21.7%) were insured. The overall median longevity was 12.0 years (IQR 8.9-14.2). The longest-lived breeds were the Miniature poodle, Bearded collie, Border collie and Miniature dachshund, while the shortest-lived were the Dogue de Bordeaux and Great Dane. The most frequently attributed causes of death were neoplastic, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The results of multivariable modelling indicated that longevity in crossbred dogs exceeded purebred dogs by 1.2 years (95% confidence interval 0.9-1.4; Pdogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. User involvement in assisted reproductive technologies: England and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorinha, Catarina; Lichon, Mateusz; Silva, Susana; Dent, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare user involvement in the case of assisted reproductive technologies in England and Portugal through the concepts of voice, choice and co-production, assessing the implications for user empowerment. This qualitative study draws primarily on policy review and uses exploratory semi-structured interviews with key informants as a way of illustrating points. Data on the following themes was compared: voice (users' representativeness on licensing bodies and channels of communication between users and doctors); choice (funding and accessibility criteria; choice of fertility centres, doctors and level of care); and co-production (criteria through which users actively engage with health professionals in planning the treatment). Inter- and intra-healthcare systems variations between the two countries on choice and co-production were identified. Differences between funding and accessibility, regions, public and private sectors and attitudes towards doctor-patient relationship (paternalistic/partnership) were the key issues. Although consumer choice and indicators of co-production are evident in treatment pathways in both countries, user empowerment is not. This is limited by inequalities in accessibility criteria, dependence on doctors' individual perspectives and lack of genuine and formal hearing of citizens' voice. Enhancing users' involvement claims for individual and organizational cultures reflecting user-centred values. Effective ways to incorporate users' knowledge in shared decision making and co-design are needed to empower patients and to improve the delivery of care.

  13. Salience Effects in the North-West of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jansen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of how we can define salience, what properties it includes and how we can quantify it have been discussed widely over the past thirty years but we still have more questions than answers about this phenomenon, e. g. not only how salience arises, but also how we can define it. However, despite the lack of a clear definition, salience is often taken into account as an explanatory factor in language change. The scientific discourse on salience has in most cases revolved around phonetic features, while hardly any variables on other linguistic levels have been investigated in terms of their salience. Hence, one goal of this paper is to argue for an expanded view of salience in the sociolinguistic context. This article investigates the variation and change of two groups of variables in Carlisle, an urban speech community in the north west of England. I analyse the variable (th and in particular the replacement of /θ/ with [f] which is widely known as th-fronting. The use of three discourse markers is also examined. Both groups of features will then be discussed in the light of sociolinguistic salience.

  14. Screening for breast cancer in England: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Rosalyn Katy F

    2008-12-01

    This year, the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme in the UK (NHSBSP) celebrates its 20th anniversary. Since 1988, it has evolved with the help of randomized control studies to become more efficient at picking up in-situ disease and small invasive cancers. This review will address these new developments and discuss their impact on screening. The introduction of extra mammographic views, the reading of films by two specialists and digital mammography as well as age extension have all made significant differences to the detection of breast cancer through screening. A discussion of how less obvious factors such as organization and structure as well as rigorous national audit have improved matters is also included. Controversial topics such as the screening interval and screening women under 50 will also be addressed in this review. Population-based breast screening will continue to evolve in England. It is unique and with its annual national audit it continues to drive the development of breast services nationally.

  15. Renal calculi in wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, V R; Tomlinson, A J; Molenaar, F M; Lawson, B; Rogers, K D

    2011-07-09

    Macroscopic renal calculi were seen in 50 of 492 (10.2 per cent) wild Eurasian otters found dead in England from 1988 to 2007. Forty-eight adults and two subadults were affected. Calculi were present in 15.7 per cent (31 of 197) of adult males and 12.7 per cent (17 of 134) of adult females. There was an increase in prevalence in the study population over time; no calculi were found in 73 otters examined between 1988 and 1996, but in most subsequent years they were observed with increased frequency. Calculi occurred in both kidneys but were more common in the right kidney. They varied greatly in shape and size; larger calculi were mostly seen in the calyces while the smallest ones were commonly found in the renal medulla. Calculi from 45 cases were examined by x-ray diffraction analysis; in 43 (96 per cent), they were composed solely of ammonium acid urate. Affected otters had heavier adrenal glands relative to their body size than unaffected otters (P0.05). Many otters had fresh bite wounds consistent with intraspecific aggression. The proportion bitten increased over time and this coincided with the increased prevalence of renal calculi.

  16. Bringing it all Together: Networking Heritage Inventories in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, P. K.; Lee, E. S.

    2013-07-01

    This paper will look at the requirements for a future vision of networked, digital heritage inventories to support heritage protection in England. The present loose network presents several challenges for multiple organizations maintaining similar datasets on disparate IT software: Duplication of content; ownership of content and different approaches to recording practice and standards. This paper will discuss the potential use of the Arches Heritage Inventory and Management System as part of the vision for better operation of this network. Arches was developed by the Getty Conservation Institute, World Monuments Fund and Farallon Geographics as an open source web-based geographic information system (GIS) to help inventorize and manage immovable cultural heritage. The system is based around internationally recognized standards from both the heritage and IT sectors. These include: ISO 21127: 2006, commonly referred to as the CIDOC-CRM (Conceptual Reference Model); the CIDOC Core Data Standard for Archaeological and Architectural Sites; Core Data Index to Historic Buildings and Monuments of the Architectural Heritage as well as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The proposed use of Arches as a data collection and exchange platform would provide effective and useful recording systems for small heritage projects lacking in-house IT support and the finances and skills to support their development. In addition it would promote standards to support cross-searching, data exchange and digital archiving and through its use of open source a community of IT developers, standards developers and content specialists can be developed to sustain the network.

  17. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  18. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  19. Selenium in sediments and biota from estuaries of southwest England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Selenium concentrations have been measured in sediment, fucoid macroalgae and macroinvertebrates from four estuaries of SW England (Yealm, Plym, Looe, Fal). Sediment concentrations ranged from about 0.4 μg g(-1) in the Yealm to 1.49 μg g(-1) at one site in the Plym. Concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus (0.05-0.31 μg g(-1)) and F. ceranoides (0.05-0.51 μg g(-1)) were significantly lower than corresponding concentrations in sediment but there was no correlation between algal and sediment concentrations. Selenium concentrations in Littorina littorea (~4 μg g(-1)), Hediste diversicolor (2.82-12.68 μg g(-1)), Arenicola marina (~17 μg g(-1)) and Scrobicularia plana (1.18-6.85 μg g(-1)) were considerably higher than concentrations in macroalga or sediment, suggesting that Se is effectively accumulated from the diet. Although Se concentrations in some invertebrates exceed toxicity thresholds for the diet of predacious birds and fish, no specific evidence for Se toxicity exists in these estuaries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.

  1. Victim support services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, authors tried to present activities of one of the oldest European Victim Support Services - Victim Support for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. During 1970s, through practice and research projects, the need for recognizing the physical and psychological status of victims after the crime was committed, as well as the need of providing them with the (informal assistance and support were noticed. That has resulted in establishing numerous of local victim support services (schemes, which united in the National Association of the Victim Support Services in 1979. Significant support was given to the Service in 1980s through the recommendations of the Council of Europe on the assistance for victims of crime and prevention of victimization through direct support given to the victim immediately after the incident, including protection and safety, medical, mental, social and financial support, as well as providing the victim with information on his/her rights, support during the criminal proceeding, assistance in getting compensation etc. Organization and structure of the service, referral system, code of practice and two main programs: Victim Service and Witness Service are reviewed in the paper.

  2. Support for the Confederate Battle Flag in the Southern United States: Racism or Southern Pride?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshua D. Wright; Victoria M. Esses

    2017-01-01

    ... in the Southern United States. We evaluate these two competing views in explaining attitudes toward the Confederate battle flag in the Southern United States through a survey of 526 Southerners...

  3. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Newsletter #5 -- January 2010, Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region. In addition to regional updates, Issue #5 offers an interview with Angus King, former governor of Maine and co-founder of Independence Wind.

  4. New England and northern New York forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the New England Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria K. Janowiak; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christopher W. Swanston; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; William D. Dijak; Stephen Matthews; Matthew P. Peters; Anantha Prasad; Jacob S. Fraser; Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia Butler-Leopold; Stephen D. Handler; P. Danielle Shannon; Diane Burbank; John Campbell; Charles Cogbill; Matthew J. Duveneck; Marla R. Emery; Nicholas Fisichelli; Jane Foster; Jennifer Hushaw; Laura Kenefic; Amanda Mahaffey; Toni Lyn Morelli; Nicholas J. Reo; Paul G. Schaberg; K. Rogers Simmons; Aaron Weiskittel; Sandy Wilmot; David Hollinger; Erin Lane; Lindsey Rustad; Pamela H. Templer

    2018-01-01

    Forest ecosystems will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems across the New England region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, northern New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont) under a range of future climates. We synthesized and summarized information...

  5. Treasures of the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Gendler, Robert; Malin, David

    2011-01-01

    In these pages, the reader can follow the engaging saga of astronomical exploration in the southern hemisphere, in a modern merger of aesthetics, science, and a story of human endeavor. This book is truly a celebration of southern skies.  Jerry Bonnell, Editor - Astronomy Picture of the Day The southern sky became accessible to scientific scrutiny only a few centuries ago, after the first European explorers ventured south of the equator. Modern observing and imaging techniques have since revealed what seems like a new Universe, previously hidden below the horizon, a fresh astronomical bounty of beauty and knowledge uniquely different from the northern sky. The authors have crafted a book that brings this hidden Universe to all, regardless of location or latitude. Treasures of the Southern Sky celebrates the remarkable beauty and richness of the southern sky in words and with world-class imagery. In part, a photographic anthology of deep sky wonders south of the celestial equator, this book also celebrates th...

  6. Temporal trends in adults' sports participation patterns in England between 1997 and 2006: the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, E; Chaudhury, M

    2008-11-01

    To examine temporal trends in participation in sport and exercise activities in England between 1997 and 2006 while taking into account wider societal changes. A series of annual cross-sectional surveys. Nationally representative samples of men (n = 27 217) and women (n = 33 721) aged >or=16 years. Any (more than once every 4 weeks) and regular (more than once a week) participation in overall sport and exercise and a number of sport and exercise groupings (eg cycling, swimming, gym and fitness club-based activities (G/FC), racquet sports). Time point (1997/98, 2003/04, 2006) was the main dependent variable. Age-standardised overall regular participation changed from 40.8% in 1997/98 to 41.2% in 2006 for men (multivariable-adjusted participation OR = 1.11 in 2006, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19, por=45 years) (1.25, 1.16 to 1.35, p1997 and 2006 as the result of increases among middle-aged and older adults and decreases among young men. There are no signs that the participation gap between less and more advantaged population groups is narrowing.

  7. Patient Safety Incidents Involving Sick Children in Primary Care in England and Wales: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rees, Philippa; Edwards, Adrian; Powell, Colin; Hibbert, Peter; Williams, Huw; Makeham, Meredith; Carter, Ben; Luff, Donna; Parry, Gareth; Avery, Anthony; Sheikh, Aziz; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    .... Methods and Findings We undertook a mixed methods investigation of reports of primary care patient safety incidents involving sick children from England and Wales' National Reporting and Learning...

  8. Moose habitat in Massachusetts: Assessing use at the southern edge of the range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattles, David W.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Moose (Alces alces) have recently re-occupied a portion of their range in the temperate deciduous forest of the northeastern United States after a more than 200 year absence. In southern New England, moose are exposed to a variety of forest types, increasing development, and higher ambient temperatures as compared to other parts of their geographic range. Additionally, large-scale disturbances that shape forest structure and expansive naturally occurring shrub-willow communities used commonly elsewhere are lacking. We used utilization distributions to determine third order habitat selection (selection within the home range) of GPS-collared moose. In central Massachusetts, forests regenerating from logging were the most heavily used cover type in all seasons (48 - 63% of core area use). Habitat use of moose in western Massachusetts varied more seasonally, with regenerating forests used most heavily in summer and fall (57 and 46%, respectively), conifer and mixed forests in winter (47 - 65%), and deciduous forests in spring (41%). This difference in habitat selection reflected the transition from northern forest types to more southern forest types across the state. The intensive use of patches of regenerating forest emphasizes the importance of sustainable forest harvesting to moose. This study provides the first assessment of habitat requirements in this southern portion of moose range and provides insights into re-establishment of moose in unoccupied portions of its historic range in New York and Pennsylvania.

  9. An Introduction: Around Southern Modernisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Leal, Joana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue you will find a discussion on southern modernisms stemming from an exploratory research project funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT between 2014 and 2015. As a project, southern modernisms had a theoretical and historiographical focus driven to discuss the resonances of the two words associated in its title, as well as the disquieting effect of their combination in the fields of visual arts and architecture. The first word – modernisms – stood against the standardized canon of modernism, thus bonding the research to the critical revision of that concept occurring in art history since the closing decades of the 20th century; the second word based the project in southern Europe, meaning that Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece would set the ground for selecting case studies.

  10. Teachers' reported practices for teaching writing in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Julie E; Marshall, Chloë R; Wyse, Dominic

    To date there have been no systematic studies examining the ways in which teachers in England focus and adapt their teaching of writing. The current study addresses this gap by investigating the nature and frequency of teachers' approaches to the teaching of writing in a sample of English primary schools, using the 'simple view of writing' as a framework to examine the extent to which different aspects of the writing process are addressed. One hundred and eighty-eight staff from ten different schools responded to an online questionnaire. Only the data from class teachers (n = 88) who responded to all items on the questionnaire were included in the final analyses. Respondents enjoyed teaching writing and felt prepared to teach it. However, despite feeling that they were effective in identifying approaches to support students' writing, nearly half reported that supporting struggling writers was problematic for them. Overall teachers reported more work at word level, occurring several times a week, than with transcription, sentence or text levels, which were reported to occur weekly. Planning, reviewing and revising occurred least often, only monthly. For these variables no differences were found between teachers of younger (age 4-7) and older students (age 8-11). By contrast, an examination of specific aspects of each component revealed differences between the teachers of the two age groups. Teachers of younger students focused more frequently on phonic activities related to spelling, whereas teachers of older students focussed more on word roots, punctuation, word classes and the grammatical function of words, sentence-level work, and paragraph construction.

  11. Quaternary geology and waste disposal in South Norfolk, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J. M.

    South Norfolk is dominated by the till plain of the Anglian Glaciation in eastern England, and therefore there are very few disused gravel pits and quarries suitable for the landfilling of municipal waste. Consequently, in May 1991, Norfolk County Council applied for planning permission to develop an above ground or 'landraise' waste disposal site at a disused U.S. World War II Airfield at Hardwick in South Norfolk. The proposal involved excavating a pit 2-4 m deep into the Lowestoft Till and overfilling it to create a hill of waste up to 10 m above the existing till plain. In general, leachate containment was to be achieved by utilising the relatively low permeability till on the floor of the site, but with reworking of the till around the site perimeter because of sand lenses in the upper part of the till. This paper examines three aspects of the proposal and the wider issues relating to Quaternary geology and waste disposal planning in South Norfolk: (i) the suitability of the till as a natural leachate containment system; (ii) the appropriateness of the landraise landform; and (iii) alternative sites. A Public Inquiry into the proposals was held in January/February 1993 and notification of refusal of planning permission was published in August 1993. Among the grounds for refusal were an inadequate knowledge of the site's geology and hydrogeology and the availability of alternative sites. The paper concludes by stressing that a knowledge of Quaternary geology is crucial to both the planning and design of landfill sites in areas of glacial/Quaternary sediments.

  12. Using population segmentation to inform local obesity strategy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Jane; Crichton, Nicola; Lorenc, Ava; Kelly, Muireann

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the views of obese people and how best to meet their needs. Amongst London boroughs Barking and Dagenham has the highest prevalence of adult obesity at 28.7%; the lowest level of healthy eating and of physical activity; and is the 22nd most deprived area of England. The study aimed to gain insight into the attitudes, motivations and priorities of people who are obese or overweight to inform the social marketing of an obesity strategy. Two hundred and ten obese or overweight adults were recruited through visual identification in public thoroughfares to attempt to recruit those seldom seen in primary care. One hundred and eighty-one street-intercept and 52 in-depth interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was followed by psychographic segmentation. Eleven population segments were identified based on their readiness to change, the value accorded to tackling obesity, identified enabling factors and barriers to weight management and perceived self-efficacy. This population showed considerable variation in its readiness to change and perceived control over obesity but considerable similarity in the exchange value they attributed to tackling their obesity. Even within a relatively homogenous socio-demographic community, there needs to be a range of interventions and messages tailored for different population segments that vary in their readiness to change and confidence about tackling obesity. The dominant emphasis of policy and practice on the health consequences of obesity does not reflect the priorities of this obese population for whom the exchange value of addressing obesity was daily functioning especially in relation to family life. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Dust from mineral extraction: regulation of emissions in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The United Kingdom, which includes England, has fairly high levels of rainfall but sporadic droughts occur especially in the east. Mineral working gives rise to dust. Concerns about dust soiling are major source of public objections to new minerals extraction operations. Dust emissions from mineral workings are a significant cause of public concern in the United Kingdom and are recognised as sources of health concerns and nuisance. Emissions are controlled through a number of complementary sets of regulations that are generally well observed by the industry and well enforced by the relevant public authorities. comprehensive system of regulation, based on European and national law, to deal with all aspects of these operations including pollution control, planning, occupational health and safety and statutory nuisances. Most minerals applications are subject to EIA which forms that basis for planning and environmental conditions and monitoring of operations. There are limit values on PM10 and PM2.5 in air, and for potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in soils and water, derived from European regulations but, as yet, no limit values for PHEs (other than radioactive materials) in air. Stakeholder engagement is encouraged so that members of the public can express concerns during minerals operations and operators can quickly deal with these. While some effects inevitably remain, the levels of dust emissions are kept low through good site design and management, proper use of machinery which is equipped to minimise emissions, and good training of the workforce. Operational sites are required to have dust monitoring equipment located outside the site boundary so that any emerging problems can be detected and addressed quickly.

  14. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  15. Community pharmacists in England's opinions on skill mix and delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Emma; Bullock, Alison; Allan, Margaret; Hodson, Karen

    2017-12-06

    Following the 2005 contractual framework amendment, the expanding role of community pharmacy team members required a shift in entrenched views on roles and duties. This study aimed to report on community pharmacists' opinions on skill mix and explore how they can be addressed so that skill mix may be optimised. An invitation to complete an online questionnaire was distributed via email, marked for the attention of the lead pharmacist. Following a low response, a paper-based questionnaire was sent to all community pharmacies in England (n = 11,816). Questions elicited data about the respondent, the pharmacy (including staffing profile) and opinions on skill mix. A total of 1154 returns were received, representing a 10% response rate. Of these, most were pharmacy chains (76%; n = 877), with 5-9 staff (54%; n = 600); commonly open 40-49 hours (42%; n = 487), dispensing skill mix, three factors were identified by principal-components factor analysis: 'working well', 'feeling the pressure' and 'open to development'. Characteristics associated with 'working well': pharmacy owners, single businesses, with pharmacy technician(s), dispensing fewer prescriptions and open shorter hours. Characteristics associated with 'feeling the pressure': pharmacy chains, open longer hours, large numbers of prescriptions and relief pharmacists. Characteristics associated with 'open to development': recently qualified, second pharmacists, working longer hours, chains and dispensing lower numbers of prescriptions. Although limited by a low response, results suggest being in a position to influence (more experienced, business owners) may be associated with more positive opinions. Further training (including about legalities and leadership) could contribute to optimising skill mix in community pharmacies. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Healthy children's identification and risk perception of medicines in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Ben; Williams, Sian E; Gard, Paul R; MacAdam, Angela B

    2012-01-01

    Children's understanding of medicines has an impact on their behavior toward those medicines, and yet there has been a paucity of studies exploring this area. To assess children's ability to identify and to explore their risk perceptions of medicines. One hundred eighty-two children aged 4 to 11 years at 2 primary schools in England completed a worksheet containing photos of foods and pharmaceutical products. Children were asked to identify what the picture showed and classify it as "good for them," "bad for them," or "sometimes good/sometimes bad for them." Responses were marked as correct if they identified an item without the need for exact identification. Where an item was correctly identified, risk perception was analyzed. Children correctly identified 5 of the 7 pictures as a form of medicine (mean=5.10, standard deviation=1.51), and identification was positively correlated with age (ρ=0.59, Pwhite (71.4% correct, 95% CI=64.9-78) or pink tablets (33.5% correct, 95% CI=26.7-40.4). There was a significant shift with age in the perceptions of the children as they changed from reporting that medicines were good for them to reporting that they were sometimes good and sometimes bad for them. This held for all medicines (χ(2) tests, P<.05) except for the cream and the inhaler. As children get older, they become better at identifying medicines, and they become more likely to see their potential risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Challenges of research recruitment in a university setting in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeboncoeur, Claudia; Foster, Charlie; Townsend, Nick

    2017-05-20

    The recruitment is an integral part of most research projects in medical sciences involving human participants. In health promotion research, there is increasing work on the impact of environments. Settings represent environments such as schools where social, physical and psychological development unfolds. In this study, we investigated weight gain in students within a university setting. Barriers to access and recruitment of university students within a specific setting, in the context of health research are discussed. An online survey on health behaviours of first year students across 101 universities in England was developed. Ethics committees of each institutions were contacted to obtain permission to recruit and access their students. Recruitment adverts were standardized and distributed within restrictions imposed by universities. Three time points and incentives were used. Several challenges in recruiting from a university setting were found. These included (i) ethics approval, (ii) recruitment approval, (iii) navigating restrictions on advertisement and (iv) logistics of varying university academic calendars. We also faced challenges of online surveys including low recruitment, retention and low eligibility of respondents. From the 101 universities, 28 allowed dissemination of adverts. We obtained 1026 responses at T1, 599 at T2 and 497 at T3. The complete-case sample represented 13% of those originally recruited at T1. Conducting research on students within the university setting is a time consuming and challenging task. To improve research-based health promotion, universities could work together to increase consistency as to their policies on student recruitment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Veterinary problems of endurance horses in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Dyson, S J; Murray, J K

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that a considerable proportion of horses are eliminated from endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic problems. Limited information is available on specific veterinary issues in endurance horses and there are no descriptive data on veterinary problems in a large population of endurance horses. The aim of this study was to describe veterinary problems occurring in endurance horses in England and Wales, the regions of the United Kingdom where endurance rides are organised and regulated by Endurance Great Britain (Endurance GB). A comprehensive online self-completed questionnaire was used for data collection (30th December 2015-29th February 2016) All members of Endurance GB who were the main rider of one or more endurance horses were eligible to participate. From the target population of 1209 horses, 190 questionnaires were completed by riders, resulting in a 15.7% response rate. The most common rider-reported veterinary problem was lameness, affecting 152/190 (80.0%) of endurance horses at some point during their careers and 101/190 (53.2%) of horses in the previous 12 months. Detailed information on the most recent episode of lameness was available for 147 horses. Seventy-six percent of these lameness episodes (112/147) had been initially identified by a veterinarian, but only 52% of these lameness episodes were investigated further by a veterinarian, despite the high proportion of horses affected by lameness and the proportion of horses with recurrent lameness episodes. The second most common veterinary problem was thoracolumbar region pain, followed by non-specific cough, skin disease and colic. Education of endurance riders may improve the number, quality and timing of veterinary investigations, especially for lameness and thoracolumbar region pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of severe childhood obesity in England: 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Louisa J; Hancock, Caroline; Copley, Vicky R; Mead, Emma; Dinsdale, Hywell; Kinra, Sanjay; Viner, Russell M; Rutter, Harry

    2015-07-01

    International evidence shows that severe paediatric obesity results in an increased risk of ill health and may require specialised weight management strategies, yet there remains a lack of data on the extent of the problem. To examine the prevalence of severe obesity in children aged 4-5 and 10-11 years, attending English schools between 2006/2007 and 2012/2013. A retrospective analysis of National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) data. Maintained schools in England. All children aged 4-5 and 10-11 years included in the NCMP dataset. Prevalence of severe childhood obesity, defined using the 99.6th centile of the British 1990 (UK90) growth reference for body mass index (BMI), analysed by sex, geography, ethnic group and deprivation. The key findings show that in 2012/2013, severe obesity (BMI ≥UK90 99.6th centile) was found in 1.9% of girls and 2.3% of boys aged 4-5 years, and 2.9% of girls and 3.9% of boys aged 10-11 years. Severe obesity prevalence varies geographically and is more prevalent in children from deprived areas, and among those from black ethnic groups. The findings from this study should help to raise awareness of the prevalence of severe obesity and support the provision of adequate treatment and prevention services both to support children who are already severely obese and reduce the prevalence of extreme weight in the future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Leverage and other informal pressures in community psychiatry in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canvin, Krysia; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Sinclair, Julia; Burns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Informal practices aimed at managing psychiatric patients in the community setting fall outside legal and policy provision or guidance. "Leverage" is an informal practice whereby practitioners attempt to influence patients' treatment adherence by, for example, making patients' access to subsidised housing conditional upon adherence to treatment or by making treatment adherence a condition of patients' avoidance of financial control. Lower rates of leverage are reported in the UK compared to the USA, possibly due to differences between the US and European social welfare systems. These differences raise questions as to the international comparability of leverage practices described in the literature. The study aimed to capture patients' experiences and perceptions of pressures and to explore (a) whether "leverage" can be distinguished from other pressures, and (b) how a concept of leverage derived from patient experiences in England might fit with the literature to date. In this article we present the different types of pressure that we identified from patients' accounts, and a set of criteria derived for the purpose of distinguishing between these different types of pressure. Twenty-nine qualitative interviews with a purposive subsample from a study of leverage in the English mental health system were analysed. Participants reported a range of what can be classified as both leveraged and non-leveraged pressures. These were perceived as pressures to adhere to treatment, as well as "staying well." Leveraged pressures were distinguishable from non-leveraged pressures by the presence of three features: conditionality, a lever and direct communication. The portrayal of "leverage" in the current literature does not fully capture patient experiences of pressure. Our analysis offers a clearer concept of leverage and other pressures that influence patients, and which may have different legal, ethical and clinical implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Patterns and Predictors of Recent Forest Conversion in New England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Thorn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available New England forests provide numerous benefits to the region’s residents, but are undergoing rapid development. We used boosted regression tree analysis (BRT to assess geographic predictors of forest loss to development between 2001 and 2011. BRT combines classification and regression trees with machine learning to generate non-parametric statistical models that can capture non-linear relationships. Based on National Land Cover Database (NLCD maps of land cover change, we assessed the importance of the biophysical and social variables selected for full region coverage and minimal collinearity in predicting forest loss to development, specifically: elevation, slope, distance to roads, density of highways, distance to built land, distance to cities, population density, change in population density, relative change in population density, population per housing unit, median income, state, land ownership categories and county classification as recreation or retirement counties. The resulting models explained 6.9% of the variation for 2001–2011, 4.5% for 2001–2006 and 1.8% for 2006–2011, fairly high values given the complexity of factors predicting land development and the high resolution of the spatial datasets (30-m pixels. The two most important variables in the BRT were “population density” and “distance to road”, which together made up 55.5% of the variation for 2001–2011, 49.4% for 2001–2006 and 42.9% for 2006–2011. The lower predictive power for 2006–2011 may reflect reduced development due to the “Great Recession”. From our models, we generated high-resolution probability surfaces, which can provide a key input for simulation models of forest and land cover change.

  2. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed pig ind -1 d -1), while those of L. helicina antarctica and C. pyramidata are in the upper range for all Southern Ocean zooplankton, in the latter species reaching 27,757 ng pig ind -1 d -1 and >40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population

  3. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the

  4. Variations in dementia diagnosis in England and association with general practice characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian F; Lord, Paul A; Farragher, Tracey M

    2017-05-01

    Improving dementia diagnosis rates in England has been a key strategic aim of the UK Government but the variation and low diagnosis rates are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore the variation in actual versus expected diagnosis of dementia across England, and how these variations were associated with general practice characteristics. A cross-sectional, ecological study design using secondary data sources and median regression modelling was used. Data from the year 2011 for 7711 of the GP practices in England (92.7%). Associations of dementia diagnosis rates (%) per practice, calculated using National Health Service England's 'Dementia Prevalence Calculator' and various practice characteristics were explored using a regression model. The median dementia diagnosis rate was 41.6% and the interquartile range was 31.2-53.9%. Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated positive associations between dementia diagnosis rates and deprivation of the population, overall Quality and Outcomes Framework performance, type of primary care contract and size of practice list. Negative associations were found between dementia diagnosis rates and average experience of GPs in the practice and the proportion of the practice caseload over 65 years old. Dementia diagnosis rates vary greatly across GP practices in England. This study has found independent associations between dementia diagnosis rates and a number of patient and practice characteristics. Consideration of these factors locally may provide targets for case-finding interventions and so facilitate timely diagnosis.

  5. Trends in penile cancer: a comparative study between Australia, England and Wales, and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, James; Ranasinghe, Weranja; De Silva, Daswin; Ayres, Ben; Ranasinghe, Tamra; Hounsome, Luke; Verne, Julia; Persad, Raj

    2015-01-01

    To investigate and compare the trends in incidence and mortality of penile cancer between Australia, England and Wales, and the US, and provide hypotheses for these trends. Cancer registry data from 1982 to 2005 inclusive were obtained from Australia, England and Wales, and the United States. From these data, age-specific, -standardised and mortality:incidence ratios were calculated, and compared. The overall incidence of penile cancer in England and Wales (1.44 per 100,000 man-years) was higher than in Australia (0.80 per 100,000), and the US (0.66 per 100,000). Incidence of penile cancer in all three countries has remained relatively stable over time. Similarly, although the mortality rates were also higher in England and Wales (0.37 per 100,000 man-years) compared to Australia (0.18 per 100,000) and the US (0.15 per 100,000), the mortality/incidence ratios were similar for all three countries. Penile cancer incidence is low, affecting mainly older men. Rates differ between the three countries, being twice as common in England and Wales as in the other studied regions. Circumcision rates have a potential influence on these rates but are not the sole explanation for the variation.

  6. The population prevalence of Down's syndrome in England and Wales in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianhua; Morris, Joan K

    2013-09-01

    There is uncertainty over the population prevalence of people with Down's syndrome in England and Wales. This study aimed to estimate the population prevalence of Down's syndrome in England and Wales in 2011. A meta-analysis of published survival rates of people with Down's syndrome from 1938 to 2010 was conducted and the results were applied to the estimated numbers of babies born with Down's syndrome since 1938 in England and Wales. An estimated 37 090 people had Down's syndrome in England and Wales in 2011, a population prevalence of 0.66 per 1000 people; 650 under 1, 2673 aged 1-5, 7115 aged 5-18, 12819 aged 19-40, 10 626 aged 41-55 and 3207 aged 56 and older. The average life expectancy for babies with Down's syndrome born in 2011 was 51 years and the median life expectancy was 58 years. This study provides clarity on the number of people with Down's syndrome in England and Wales. Owing to sudden increases in the survival of babies with Down's syndrome in the 1950s there are a large proportion of people with Down's syndrome who are in their 40s. These people have an increased risk of developing dementia in the future and services should be aware of their potential needs.

  7. Recommodification, Unemployment, and Health Inequalities: Trends in England and Sweden 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrants, Kristin; Bambra, Clare; Nylen, Lotta; Kasim, Adetayo; Burstrom, Bo; Hunter, David

    2016-01-01

    Recommodification, the withdrawal of social welfare, has been going on for some decades in both Sweden and England. Recommodification disproportionately affects the unemployed because of their weak market position. We investigated the impact recommodification has had on health inequalities between the employed and unemployed in Sweden and England. Using national surveys, odds ratios for the likelihood of reporting less than good health between the employed and unemployed were computed annually between 1991 and 2011. The correlation between these odds ratios and net replacement rates was then examined. Health inequalities between the employed and unemployed were greater in 2011 than in 1991 in both countries. Sweden began with smaller health inequalities, but by 2011, they were in line with those in England. Sweden experienced more recommodification than England during this period, although it started from a much less commodified position. Correspondingly, correlation between unemployment benefit generosity and health inequalities was stronger in Sweden than in England. Recommodification is linked to ill health among the unemployed and to the health gap between the employed and unemployed. We propose that further recommodification will be associated with increased health inequalities between the employed and unemployed. © IMechE 2016.

  8. Trends in national suicide rates for Scotland and for England & Wales, 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Pearl L H; Kapur, Navneet; Windfuhr, Kirsten; Leyland, Alastair H; Appleby, Louis; Platt, Stephen; Webb, Roger T

    2012-03-01

    Suicide rates in Scotland have increased markedly relative to those in England in recent decades. To compare changing patterns of suicide risk in Scotland with those in England & Wales, 1960-2008. For Scotland and for England & Wales separately, we obtained national data on suicide counts and population estimates. Gender-specific, directly age-standardised rates were calculated. We identified three distinct temporal phases: 1960-1967, when suicide rates in England & Wales were initially higher than in Scotland, but then converged; 1968-1991, when male suicide rates in Scotland rose slightly faster than in England & Wales; and 1992-2008, when there was a marked divergence in national trends. Much of the recent divergence in rates is attributable to the rise in suicide among young men and deaths by hanging in Scotland. Introduction of the 'undetermined intent' category in 1968 had a significant impact on suicide statistics across Great Britain, but especially so in Scotland. Differences in temporal patterns in suicide risk between the countries are complex. Reversal of the divergent trends may require a change in the perception of hanging as a 'painless' method of suicide.

  9. Medication adherence and community pharmacy: a review of education, policy and research in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this narrative review was to identify and describe the current policy, education and research related to community pharmacy and medication adherence in England.Methods: Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and Pharmline were used to search for relevant research articles. Current policy documents were identified via the websites of the Department of Health in England, the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, the National Pharmacy Association, the Pharmaceutical Services Negotiating Committee and NHS Employers. All pharmacy schools in England were contacted to obtain information about the adherence-related courses they provide to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students.Results: National policies and guidelines in England are conducive to an increasing role for community pharmacists to support patients with medication adherence. Many pharmacy schools cover the issue of adherence in their undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Research in this area has tested the effectiveness of pharmacists providing adherence support in the form of compliance aids, education, involvement in discharge planning, and tailored interventions. Conclusion: In community pharmacy in England, current policy and funding arrangements suggest there is great scope for pharmacists to support patients with medication adherence. Further research is necessary to identify the most useful, cost-effective and sustainable approach in practice.

  10. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  11. Sexty Southerners: Sexting Content and Behaviors among Selected Southern Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heather K.; Marshall, S. Alexandra

    Sexting is defined as sending/posting/sharing sexually explicit messages or nude/semi-nude images via electronic communication. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess and determine relationships of sexting behavioral intentions, sexting behaviors, and sexting content among selected Southern undergraduate students. Methods: Survey…

  12. Archives: Southern African Journal of Critical Care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 24 of 24 ... Archives: Southern African Journal of Critical Care. Journal Home > Archives: Southern African Journal of Critical Care. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Review of Southern African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of Southern African Studies is a multidisciplinary journal of Arts, Social and Behavioural Sciences. Vol 13, No 1 (2009). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Health-Care Waste Practices in Selected Health-Care Facilities in Maseru ...

  14. Threatened plants of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available Lists are provided of 1 915 vascular plant taxa regarded to be either extinct or variously threatened in southern Africa, the region south of (but excluding) Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. These include 39 recently extinct taxa} 105 endangered...

  15. (reptilia: gekkonidae) in southern africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additional notes on the herpetology of South West Africa with descriptions of two new subspecies of geckos. Cimbebasia. II: 1-40. HAACKE. W D 1970. New herpetological records from South West Africa. Ann. Transv. Mus. 26: 277-283. HAACKE, W D 1976. The burrowing geckos of southern Africa, 5 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae).

  16. THERAPY DEVELOPMENTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By means of this review the authors wish to stimulate a discussion in southern Africa of the relevance of antiviral therapy strategic treatment interruptions. To achieve this aim we will review the current literature of treatment- related immune reconstitution and HIV-specific immune control of HIV replication, and will propose ...

  17. Politics, Society and Communication in the Constitution of Modern Society: Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim ÖZKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inception of Modern England comprises a hundred and fifty years between sixteenth and mid eighteenth centuries. The structural qualities of modern societies of this day occur in this era. The political and economic changes and transformations that England experienced in this period of time are in enormous scale. In this period all social structure and institutions experienced structural change in terms of cultural, economic and political processes. In addition to this in this period the framework of the international system regarding economy and politics is established too. Important qualities of current modern societies are the speed of communication and interaction between its elements, its transformational capacity and the extent of its scope. In this, it is possible to apprehend the basic cornerstones of today’s information and communication age by analyzing the early modern period of England

  18. The direct cost of intravenous insulin infusions to the NHS in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Rajesh; Scott, Anne; Rayman, Gerry

    2015-08-01

    The cost of intravenous insulin infusion to the NHS is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct cost of insulin infusions to the NHS in England and Wales in the first 24-hour period of infusion. Data from the National Inpatient Diabetes Audit 2013 in the UK were used to estimate the number of insulin infusions in use across England and Wales. Costs were calculated for six models for setting up and maintenance of insulin infusions, depending on the extent of involvement of different healthcare professionals in the UK. In this study, the direct costs of intravenous insulin infusions to the NHS in England and Wales have been estimated to vary from £6.4-8.5 million in the first 24-hour period on infusion. More appropriate use of these infusions could result in substantial cost savings. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  19. Objects, Words, and Religion: Popular Belief and Protestantism in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwikowska Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with selected aspects of popular belief in post-Reformation England as compared to the pre-Reformation popular tradition of the fourteenth and fifteenth century. Through a discussion of the politics of superstition and religiously-shaped concepts of reason in Early Modern England, this article discusses medicinal magic, and the power of objects and words in the context of religion and popular belief, focusing in particular on leprosy and exorcism. By examining the Protestant understanding of the supernatural as well as its polemical importance, the article investigates the perseverance of popular belief after the Reformation and outlines some of the reasons and politics behind this perseverance, while also examining the role of the supernatural in the culture of belief in Early Modern England by tracing the presence and importance of particular beliefs in popular imagination and in the way religion and confessional rhetoric made use of popular beliefs.

  20. New England Energy Congress project. Final report, June 1978-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-20

    From May 1978 until April 1979, 120 New Englanders volunteered for one of six committees to devise and consider energy policy recommendations for the region's twenty-five Member, six state Congressional delegation. Sponsored by the New England Congressional Caucus and Tufts University, the New England Energy Congress was funded by grants from the Economic Development Administration, US Department of Commerce and the Office of Environment, US Department of Energy. The results of the work of the 120 delegates and nine staff was a 500 page report, Blueprint for Energy Action, containing over 150 policy recommendations to the Congress, Executive agencies, state legislatures and municipalities. The New England Congressional Caucus responded in June 1979 with an Energy Package, including twenty (and ultimately twenty-five) legislative bills and several letters to federal agencies, based on the recommendations of the Energy Congress. Following the release of the report in June 1979, 55 delegates continued their efforts as members of the Implementation Group of the Energy Congress. In July 1980, this group released a volume of Strategy Papers designed to assist in the implementation of Energy Congress recommendations. As a result of this work, a broad array of energy activities were initiated in New England and in Washington. By January 1981, 20 of the 25 bills in the Caucus package had been passed in whole or in part. This final report discusses the Energy Congress' activities, consensus decision-making process and its findings. The report reviews the results of a thorough evaluation conducted through the mail and by phone of participants, outside observers and from Capital Hill. The clear conclusion is that the Energy Congress made a unique and significant contribution towards enabling New Englanders, both in the region and in Washington, to set energy goals and priorities and to begin serious efforts to reduce the region's precarious dependence on oil imports.

  1. Historical summer base flow and stormflow trends for New England rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    River base flow is important to aquatic ecosystems, particularly because of its influence on summer water temperatures. Summer (June through September) daily mean streamflows were separated into base flow and stormflow components by use of an automated method at 25 stations in the New England region of the United States that drain predominantly natural basins. Summer monthly mean base flows increased from 1950-2006 at most stations in western New England with many large increases (>20%) and some very large increases (>50%) in and near New Hampshire and Vermont. The same was true for increases in summer 7 day low base flows in and near New Hampshire and Vermont during this same period; in contrast, there were small and large decreases in 7 day low base flows in northern and coastal areas of Maine. Summer stormflows increased from 1950-2006 by more than 50% at many stations in New England, particularly in and near New Hampshire and Vermont. The increases in base flows and stormflows at many stations in and near New Hampshire and Vermont were likely driven by the large increases in summer precipitation recorded at weather stations in this area. Summer rainfall increased at most weather stations in New England from 1950-2006 with many increases of more than 20% in western New England. Summer air temperature increased on average by 1.1??C from 1950-2006 in New England and may have played a role in the decreased base flows in northern and coastal Maine through increased evapotranspiration. Many variables increased less from 1930-2006 than from 1950-2006. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. 78 FR 4143 - Mega Energy of New England, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mega Energy of New England, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Mega Energy of New England, LLC's application for market-based...

  3. 76 FR 29233 - Glacial Energy of New England, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Glacial Energy of New England, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Glacial Energy of New England, Inc.'s application for market...

  4. Teaching Children the Geography of England and Wales: An Analysis of Selected Georgian and Victorian Textbooks and Educational Pastimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Children in Georgian and Victorian times were expected to be familiar with the geography of England and Wales. This study analyses some of the resources then available which taught children this information. John Aikin's "England Delineated" is evaluated as a geographical text and then compared with less formal games and puzzles, then on…

  5. Genealogy of Self-Expression: A Reappraisal of the History of Art Education in England and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kayoko

    2017-01-01

    In both England and Japan, art education was viewed as having nothing to do with self-expression, but was considered to be an efficient means for industrial development. In England, it was designed to train the eyes and hands of artisans. The art critic Ruskin has often been referred to in the context of the transition to self-expression in the…

  6. Primary School Physical Education and Sports Coaches: Evidence from a Study of School Sport Partnerships in North-West England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on interview data from a study of one School Sport Partnership (SSP) in north-west England, this paper examines (from the perspective of teachers): (1) some of the ways in which the SSP programme facilitated the increasing use of sports coaches to deliver aspects of physical education (PE) in state primary schools in England and (2) how…

  7. Launching the next Industrial Revolution in New England: New Hampshire's Green Launching Pad 1.0 and 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittell, Ross; Venkatachalam, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    There is an exciting new opportunity for universities and colleges to advance the New England economy and at the same time help address environmental concerns. The current snapshot of New England's economy relative to other areas is favorable. The region suffered less decline during the recent recession than the national average, and the region's…

  8. 75 FR 61746 - New England Wire Technologies Corp; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New England Wire Technologies Corp; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of New England Wire Technologies Corp's application for...

  9. 75 FR 18828 - PSEG Power Connecticut LLC, Complainant v. ISO New England Inc., Respondent; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Power Connecticut LLC, Complainant v. ISO New England Inc., Respondent... (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against ISO New England Inc. (Respondent) challenging the justness and...

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SENIOR AND JUNIOR ENGLAND INTERNATIONAL AMATEUR BOXERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus S. Smith

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite worldwide popularity of amateur boxing, research focussed on the physiological demands of the sport is limited. The physiological profile of Senior and Junior England international amateur boxers is presented. A gradual (8 to 21-days and rapid (0 to 7-days phase of body weight reduction was evident with 2.2 ± 0.3 % of the 7.0 ± 0. 8 % weight loss occurring over the final 24-hours. An increase in body weight >4% was observed following a recovery period. High urine osmolality values (> 1000 mOsm·kg-1 were recorded during training and competition. High post-competition blood lactate values (>13.5 mmol·l-1 highlighted the need for a well-developed anaerobic capacity and the importance of not entering the ring in a glycogen depleted state. The aerobic challenge of competition was demonstrated by maximum heart rate values being recorded during 'Open' sparring. Mean body fat values of 9-10% were similar to those reported for other weight classified athletes. Normal resting values were reported for hematocrit (Senior 48 ± 2 % and Junior 45 ± 2 %, haemoglobin (Senior 14.7 ± 1.0 g·dl-1 and Junior 14.5 ± 0.8 g·dl-1, bilirubin (Senior 15.3 ± 6.2 µmol·l-1-1 and ferritin (Senior 63.3 ± 45.7 ng·ml-1. No symptoms associated with asthma or exercise-induced asthma was evident. A well- developed aerobic capacity was reflected in the Senior VO2max value of 63.8 ± 4.8 ml·kg-1·min-1. Senior lead hand straight punching force (head 1722 ± 700 N and body 1682 ± 636 N was lower than the straight rear hand (head 2643 ± 1273 N and body 2646 ± 1083 N, lead hook (head 2412 ± 813 N and body 2414 ± 718 N and rear hook (head 2588 ± 1040 N and body 2555 ± 926 N. It was concluded that amateur boxing performance is dependent on the interplay between anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. Current weight making methods may lead to impaired substrate availability, leading to reduced competitive performance and an increased risk to a boxers health

  11. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  12. 'We have beaten HIV a bit': a qualitative study of experiences of peer support during pregnancy with an HIV Mentor Mother project in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie

    2016-06-20

    To explore the experiences of women living with HIV in England who received or gave Mentor Mother (trained mother-to-mother) volunteer peer support during pregnancy and early motherhood. Qualitative descriptive study, using semistructured, in-depth interviews and inductive thematic analysis, theoretically informed by phenomenological social psychology. A London-based third sector peer support organisation for people living with HIV. 12 women living with HIV who had given or received Mentor Mother volunteer peer support (6 had given support and 6 had received support). 11 were black African. The key themes in participants' descriptions of their lives as pregnant women and mothers living with HIV were 'fear and distress', 'stigma and isolation' and 'the gap in maternity care'. The key themes related to Mentor Mother peer support during and after pregnancy were 'support to avoid mother-to-child transmission' (with subthemes 'reinforcing medical advice', 'reframing faith issues', 'prioritisation and problem-solving' and 'practical strategies for managing HIV and motherhood'), and 'emotional support' (with subthemes 'role modelling and inspiring hope', 'openness and non-judgemental acceptance', 'a caring relationship', 'recreating the lost family network', 'being understood from the inside' and 'self-confidence'). The Mentor Mothers' support appeared to be a successful hybrid between the peer education Mentor Mothers programmes in southern Africa and the more general pregnancy volunteer peer support models operating in England. A Mentor Mother peer support programme is acceptable to, and valued by, black African mothers with HIV in England. Peer support from trained volunteers during and after pregnancy can complement and reinforce medical advice on avoiding mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and can have a multidimensional positive impact on vulnerable mothers' emotional well-being. Mentor Mother peer support should be considered by those designing programmes for the

  13. A high resolution study of benthic foraminifera, planktonic foraminifera and geochemistry of the latest cenomanian at eastbourne, england

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, M.; Petrizzo, M.-R.; Tsikos, H.; Turgeon, S.

    2003-04-01

    The Eastbourne section in southern England is the most expanded and complete Cenomanian/Turonian boundary interval (CTBI) record in NW Europe. A high time resolution study of benthic and planktonic foraminifera, chemical element data and stable isotope records for oxygen and carbon has been performed on this section. The objective of this study is to obtain detailed information of changes in productivity during the build-up of the global carbon isotope excursion. Milankovitch cyclicity apparently correlates with benthic foraminiferal fluctuations through the Plenus Marls. Generally it is the high productivity indicators Praebulimina elata and Gavelinella dakotensis that fluctuate. This indicates a fluctuation in the productivity, perhaps controlled by upwelling. During the build-up of the carbon isotope excursion there is a general decrease in species richness for both benthic and planktonic foraminifera. We observed a significant long-term change in benthic foraminiferal assemblages that indicates an environmental change from oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions. While oligotrophic taxa dominates within the lower part of the Plenus Marls, the high productivity indicators P. elata and G. dakotensis successively take over and dominates in the upper part of the marls. A change in the planktonic foraminiferal assemblages also indicates a change from oligotrophic to more eutrophic conditions. After the first carbon isotope peak the oligotrophic indicating Rotalipora cushmani decreases in number and become extinct the assemblage is then dominated by more opportunistic taxa. Above in the second carbon isotope peak high numbers of Whiteinellids and Heterohelicids probably indicate the establishment of more eutrophic conditions. The oxygen isotopes and initial Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca measurements on picked planktonic foraminifera seem to register a decrease in temperature or more likely an increasing degree of diagenetic alteration upwards throughout the Plenus Marls.

  14. Mobility histories of 7th-9th century AD people buried at early medieval Bamburgh, Northumberland, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, S E; Roberts, C A; Lucy, S; Pearson, G; Gröcke, D R; Nowell, G; Macpherson, C G; Young, G

    2013-07-01

    Early Medieval England is described historically as a time when people migrated from the Continent to English shores. This study tests the hypothesis that those buried in the Bowl Hole cemetery, Bamburgh, Northumberland were nonlocally born, because of its royal status. Ninety-one male and female adult, and nonadult, skeletons were studied. Isotope ratios of strontium ((87) Sr/(86) Sr) and oxygen (δ(18) O) were generated for 78 individuals (28 females, 27 males, five "adults," 18 nonadults). The mean Sr value for human enamel was 0.71044, standard deviation (sd) 0.001, and the mean O (δw) value is -5.9‰, sd 1.6‰. Additionally, animal tooth enamel (mean Sr value 0.710587, sd 0.001; mean O value -6.5‰, sd 1.5‰), local soil (mean Sr value 0.709184, sd 0.0006), snail shells (mean Sr value 0.708888, sd 0.0001), and soil samples from a 5 km transect heading inland (mean Sr value 0.709121, sd 0.0003), were analyzed for an indication of the isotopic composition of bioavailable Sr in the modern environment and to assess the impact of sea-spray; water samples from a well, local rivers, and standing water were analyzed for local δ(18) O values (mean O value -6.4‰, relative to VSMOW, sd 2.8‰). Over 50% of those buried at Bamburgh were nonlocal. All ages and both sexes produced "nonlocal" signatures; some suggested childhood origins in Scandinavia, the southern Mediterranean or North Africa. Stature and other indicators of health status indicated differences in quality of life between local and migrant groups. These differences did not extend to burial practices. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of the 2010 World Cup football tournament on emergency department assault attendances in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    We explore the impact of the 2010 World Cup, held in South Africa, on levels of assault attendances to 15 emergency departments in England. The majority (70.1%) of assault attendees during the 2010 World Cup was male and aged 18-34 years (52.5%). Assault attendances increased by 37.5% on the days that England played (P 001). Preparation for major sporting events in non-host countries should include violence prevention activity. Emergency department data can be used to identify violence associated with such events and thus inform both the targeting of prevention efforts and assessments of their effectiveness.

  16. Reading Lydgate's Troy Book: patronage, politics, and history in Lancastrian England

    OpenAIRE

    Fawsitt, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis, Reading Lydgate's Troy Book: Patronage, Politics and History in Lancastrian England, discusses the relationship between John Lydgate as a court poet to his patron Henry V. I contend that the Troy Book is explored as a vehicle to propagate the idea that the House of Lancaster is the legitimate successor to King Richard II in order to smooth over the usurpation of 1399. Paul Strohm's England's Empty Throne was a key influence to the approach of this thesis' topic. I examine that al...

  17. Malthus in the Bedroom: Birth Spacing as Birth Control in Pre-Transition England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnirella, Francesco; Klemp, Marc; Weisdorf, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    We use duration models on a well-known historical data set of more than 15,000 families and 60,000 births in England for the period 1540-1850 to show that the sampled families adjusted the timing of their births in accordance with the economic conditions as well as their stock of dependent children. The effects were larger among the lower socioeconomic ranks. Our findings on the existence of parity-dependent as well as parity-independent birth spacing in England are consistent with the growing evidence that marital birth control was present in pre-transitional populations.

  18. Is education the best contraception: the case of teenage pregnancy in England?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Sourafel; Paton, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines potential explanations for recent declines in teenage pregnancy in England. We estimate panel data models of teenage conception, birth and abortion rates from regions in England. Although point estimates are consistent with the promotion of long acting reversible contraception (LARC) having a negative impact on teenage pregnancy rates, the effects are generally small and statistically insignificant. In contrast, improvements in educational achievement and, to a lesser extent, increases in the non-white proportion of the population are associated with large and statistically significant reductions in teenage pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. School Lunch Take up and Attainment in Primary and Secondary Schools in England

    OpenAIRE

    Michael eNelson; Karen eGibson; Jo eNicholas

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis Average levels of attainment in primary and secondary schools in England in 2010 and 2011 are positively associated with changes in average school lunch take up between 2008–2009 and 2010–2011. Subjects/methods Average school lunch take up and attainment data were available for 2009–2011 for primary and secondary sectors in a minimum of 106 local authorities (LAs) in England and 853 individual primary schools in six LAs. Associations between attainment at 11–12 years (pr...

  20. The Epidemiology of Q Fever in England and Wales 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D. Halsby

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 2000 and 2015, 904 cases of acute Q fever were reported in England and Wales. The case dataset had a male to female ratio of 2.5:1, and a median age of 45 years. Two outbreaks were recognised during this time period, and the incidence of sporadic cases was highest across the southwest of England, and Wales. There are limitations in the surveillance system for Q fever, including possible geographical differences in reporting and limited epidemiological data collection. The surveillance system needs to be strengthened in order to improve the quality and completeness of the epidemiological dataset. The authors conclude with recommendations on how to achieve this.

  1. Emergency medicine in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannebaum, R D; Arnold, J L; De Negri Filho, A; Spadoni, V S

    2001-02-01

    Emergency medicine is developing rapidly in southern Brazil, where elements of both the Franco-German and the Anglo-American models of emergency care are in place, creating a uniquely Brazilian approach to emergency care. Although emergency medical services (EMS) in Brazil have been directly influenced by the French mobile EMS (SAMU) system, with physicians dispatched by ambulances to the scenes of medical emergencies, the first American-style emergency medicine residency training program in Brazil was recently established at the Hospital de Pronto Socorro (HPS) in Porto Alegre. Emergency trauma care appears to be particularly developed in southern Brazil, where advanced trauma life support is widely taught and SAMU delivers sophisticated trauma care en route to trauma centers designated by the state.

  2. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  3. Youth Unemployment in Southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão; Guida Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    The youth unemployment rate in Europe increased to very high levels after the great recession of 2008, reaching 23% in European Union and 45% in southern European countries. We examine the causes of the high youth unemployment rate which is consistently bigger than the overall unemployment rate. The empirical evidence shows that the youth unemployment rate depends crucially of the level of the overall unemployment rate and on the variation of the unemployment rate.

  4. Landscape: A Southern Hemisphere perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, V. R.

    1988-12-01

    Well into the Mesozoic Era, Africa, South America, India and Australia were joined to Antarctica in one supercontinent—Gondwanaland. The northern continents were also joined to form the supercontinent Laurasia. Southern Hemisphere land masses, especially Australia, have been characterised by a long period of relative geological stability and a short period of glaciation during the Quaternary. These circumstances have led to the development of quite old landscapes, developed on surfaces subjected to the processes of weathering for millions of years. Unlike the Gondwanaland continents, much of the Northern Hemisphere has been tectonically active with orogenic processes producing young uplifted surfaces subjected to active erosion. The Northern Hemisphere has experienced four extensive and intense Pleistocene glaciations. The consequence of these periods of glaciation is that present-day landscapes are substantially the product of climate over the past 10,000 years and commonly have not undergone extensive weathering. The applicability therefore of Northern Hemisphere-derived models to explain things as diverse as landforms, stream patterns and processes, soil genesis and ecological theory in the Southern Hemisphere has increasingly come into question. Because southern landscapes have a physiography and palaeohistory quite different from that of the Northern Hemisphere, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop new concepts and theories which may have implications for the whole globe.

  5. The floods of March 1936, part 1, New England rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Nathan Clifford

    1937-01-01

    by white men, were broken many of them by wide margins. The peak of the Connecticut River at Hartford, Conn., was 8.6 feet higher than had been experienced since the settlement by white men, 300 years ago. The Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., was 3.5 feet higher than had been known in a period of record covering about 200 years. The Ohio River at Pittsburgh, Pa., was 6.1 feet higher than had been known in the period beginning 1762. This volume presents many of the facts of these notable floods with respect to the New England rivers, for permanent record and for study and reference by engineers concerned with the building of highways, bridges, and industrial plants, planners of river development, and others. Similar volumes for the region from the Hudson River to the Susquehanna River and for the Potomac, James, and upper Ohio River Basins are presented in companion Water-Supply Papers 799 and 800 respectively. In this volume records of stage and discharge for the period Including the floods are presented for about 150 measurement stations; peak discharges with comparative data for other floods at more than 400 measurement points are summarized; crest stages along an aggregate length of stream channel of 2,820 miles are tabulated; and results of detailed studies of the rainfall and run-off and many other kinds of flood information are presented.

  6. Dance Students' Perceptions of Tertiary Education in England and in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompanaki, Eleni; Benn, Tansin

    2011-01-01

    The comparative study examined dance students' views of their dance education and training in tertiary education (further and higher) and their perceptions about the opportunities offered in the their courses available in England (higher education) and in Greece (further education). The aim was to explore similarities and differences between…

  7. Toppling Teacher Domination of Primary Classroom Talk through Dialogic Literary Gatherings in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Linda; García-Carrión, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Dialogic Literary Gatherings (DLGs), first implemented by Ramon Flecha, have proved to be a "successful educational action" (SEA) for inclusion, social cohesion and raising children's attainment in several European and Latin American countries. This article reports their implementation in England and their consistent and dramatic…

  8. John Dewey and the Democratic Role of Higher Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Michael; Sloam, James

    2010-01-01

    Education policy in England has been criticized for an overemphasis on narrow performance targets and the adoption of private sector principles. Universities and colleges have increasingly been viewed in terms of their value for the U.K. economy. This article argues that there are sound ethical (philosophical), political, and pedagogical reasons…

  9. Physical Education in New England Schools and Academies from 1789 to 1860: Concepts and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Roxanne M.

    This study traces the major programs and factors which contributed to the development of physical education in New England schools and academies between 1789 and 1860. First, the major types of physical exercise programs and the schools in which these programs operated are presented. Types of exercise programs identified include military training…

  10. Neoliberal Globalisation, Managerialism and Higher Education in England: Challenging the Imposed "Order of Things"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Andrea; Cooper, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    This article critically explores the consequences of the imposition of neoliberal ideology on a transnational scale on the higher education system. Its particular focus is England where the context of the "new managerialism" continues to dominate the "lifeworlds" of educators and the educated, despite strong concerns about its…

  11. Access for Women to Higher Education in England and Australia: A "Second Chance".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Mark

    This paper explores the way that opportunity of access to higher education, particularly for women of color and those disadvantaged by homelessness, is placed at risk by market approaches to education. In England, Asian and Afro-Caribbean women, have been able to access higher education through funds made available under the Race Relations Act of…

  12. "Ducking and Diving" Adult Educator Agency in Testing Times: Insights from England and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowl, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the possibilities for adult educators to exercise professional agency in contexts which have become dominated by neoliberalism. It draws on research undertaken in England and New Zealand which investigated the impact of global discourses and policies on experienced adult educators whose philosophy of practice was orientated…

  13. Fatal methadone and heroin overdoses : Time trends in England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Farrell, M

    Study objective-Although the total number of self poisonings in England and Wales has dropped by 32%, the number involving methadone and/or heroin rose by 900% in 1974-92. Because of concern about the role of methadone in this increase, the part played by methadone and heroin in poisoning deaths in

  14. Influences on Students' Views on Religions and Education in England and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Sean; Schihalejev, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Structural modelling offers an overall pattern of relationships; this paper looks at differences in students' attitude structures between England and Estonia. Where different coherent sets of beliefs exist in a national sample, factor analysis, which focuses on sets of responses which differ between groups, should be able to separate them out.…

  15. 77 FR 32573 - New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ..., Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England... should be directed to Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, at (978) 465-0492, at least 5 days prior to the... Council at a future date. Other business may be discussed. Although non-emergency issues not contained in...

  16. MERGANSER: an empirical model to predict fish and loon mercury in New England lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James B.; Moore, Richard; Smith, Richard A.; Miller, Eric K.; Simcox, Alison; Kamman, Neil; Nacci, Diane; Robinson, Keith; Johnston, John M.; Hughes, Melissa M.; Johnston, Craig; Evers, David; Williams, Kate; Graham, John; King, Susannah

    2012-01-01

    MERGANSER (MERcury Geo-spatial AssessmeNtS for the New England Region) is an empirical least-squares multiple regression model using mercury (Hg) deposition and readily obtainable lake and watershed features to predict fish (fillet) and common loon (blood) Hg in New England lakes. We modeled lakes larger than 8 ha (4404 lakes), using 3470 fish (12 species) and 253 loon Hg concentrations from 420 lakes. MERGANSER predictor variables included Hg deposition, watershed alkalinity, percent wetlands, percent forest canopy, percent agriculture, drainage area, population density, mean annual air temperature, and watershed slope. The model returns fish or loon Hg for user-entered species and fish length. MERGANSER explained 63% of the variance in fish and loon Hg concentrations. MERGANSER predicted that 32-cm smallmouth bass had a median Hg concentration of 0.53 μg g-1 (root-mean-square error 0.27 μg g-1) and exceeded EPA's recommended fish Hg criterion of 0.3 μg g-1 in 90% of New England lakes. Common loon had a median Hg concentration of 1.07 μg g-1 and was in the moderate or higher risk category of >1 μg g-1 Hg in 58% of New England lakes. MERGANSER can be applied to target fish advisories to specific unmonitored lakes, and for scenario evaluation, such as the effect of changes in Hg deposition, land use, or warmer climate on fish and loon mercury.

  17. Understanding School Leadership and Management Development in England: Retrospect and Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which leadership and management development (LMD) in England has been researched and analysed over the past 40 years. The article is in two parts. The first analyses the ways in which patterns of provision have evolved in response to changing conceptions of how the school system should be organized and how,…

  18. Legalised Leadership: Law-Based Educational Reform in England and Its Effect on Head Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibton, Dan

    2004-01-01

    "Legalised Leadership" explores the links between educational law and law-based reform that have a profound influence on the work and professional life of school headteachers. The book offers lawmakers and policymakers in England some pathways for strengthening the role of leadership in English law-based reform and empowering…

  19. What Do Geography Textbook Authors in England Consider When They Design Content and Select Case Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Catling, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the perspectives of seven English authors, on aspects of their geography textbook writing for schools in England, through a questionnaire-based enquiry. This investigation asked about the features that geography textbook authors consider to be the most important when designing student activities, and which criteria they…

  20. Assessing Children's Play: Reality or Illusion? The Case of Early Years Foundation Stage in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) in England in 2008, assessment of children has taken a formal and standardized measurable approach. Such an approach goes against most findings of play-oriented research. Thus, the project reported here employed participatory action research with practitioners in order to identify…