WorldWideScience

Sample records for susquehanna township middle

  1. Factors contributing to the resilience of middle-adolescents in a South African township: insights from a resilience questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlalepule Ruth Mampane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to resilience are key to the positive development of youths, and knowledge of such factors is essential for promoting resilience in schools through both policy and practice. This study reports on the results of an item and factor analysis of the Resilience Questionnaire for Middle-adolescents in Township Schools (R-MATS that was used to survey 291 Grade 9 middle-adolescent learners from two black-only township secondary schools. The majority of respondents indicated an overall sense of contending with various stressors, especially the exposure to violence, and academic challenges. Respondents attributed their buoyancy to individual and environmental factors, such as self-confidence, an internal locus of control, a tough personality, commitment, being achievement-oriented, as well as positive identification of and access to social support.

  2. The influence of township schools on the resilience of their learners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: less resilient; middle-adolescent; resilient; township; township school ... a legitimate form of resolving conflict by most learners. ... and unemployment of parents, and poor resources and overcrowded classes (Bush ... We explored the question, 'How does a black-only township school influence ..... Changing class.

  3. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  4. BLM Colorado PLSS Township

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –In the Public Land Survey System (PLSS), a Township refers to a unit of land, that is nominally six miles on a side, usually containing 36 sections....

  5. 77 FR 19050 - Actions Taken at December 15, 2011, Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ..., and the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Services; (5) approval of a final... Production Appalachia, LLC (Middle Branch Wyalusing Creek), Forest Lake Township, Susquehanna County, Pa...

  6. Technological Environment and Innovation of Township Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Qijun

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the technological environment and innovation, and analyzes the barriers of technological innovation in township enterprises. Finally, this paper puts forward related countermeasures to improve the technological innovation of township enterprises in China.

  7. Public Land Survey Township Boundaries of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains polygons representing the PLSS township boundaries of the state of Iowa. TOWNSHIP was developed from a set of 99 individual county coverages...

  8. 75 FR 21194 - Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair; Harrison Township, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair; Harrison Township, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Port Detroit Zone on Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, Michigan. This special local regulation is...

  9. 75 FR 39445 - Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... Detroit Zone on Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, Michigan. This special local regulation is intended to...

  10. 77 FR 66214 - Actions Taken at September 20, 2012, Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... Facility: Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation (Susquehanna River), Susquehanna Depot Borough, Susquehanna County.... Project Sponsor and Facility: Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation (Susquehanna River), Great Bend Township...

  11. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Glen L. Martin NWR, Susquehanna NWR: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater NWR, Glen L. Martin NWR, and Susquehanna NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report...

  12. New energy introduction vision at Kitaura Township; Kitauramachi shin energy donyu vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys and discussions were given on establishing a new energy introduction vision at Kitaura Township. The basic conception of Kitaura Township is to achieve introduction and infiltration of new energies placing coordination with regional development activities at the center. Based on this conception, action plans for the region are established to grope for specific projects. The project A plans installation, operation and management of the Kitaura Green Town Network to form individuals and organizations to work for introduction of the new energies. The project B plans implementation of learning the environment of the Kitaura Town area and introduction of solar energy power generation at middle schools as a project related to environment learning. The project C as a consciousness enlightenment project attempts introducing clean energy fueled buses and a solar energy generation system for road traffic signs. The projects D and E establish plans for forming an agricultural new energy demonstration plant and forming a Kitaura composite complex. (NEDO)

  13. The impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ligthelm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The retail sector forms a critical element of a community’s economic and social welfare. It provides people with choices and services. These choices were until recently very limited in township areas. The pre-1994 retail landscape was dominated by small, often informal businesses offering basic household necessities to relatively low income earners. This has resulted in township residents’ preference to shop outside townships, known as ‘outshopping’. Rapid income growth of township residents since 1994 resulted in a substantial increase in consumer expenditure in these areas, known as ‘in-bound shopping’. This lucrative emerging market forms the last retail frontier in South Africa and is being explored by national retailers, especially supermarket chains. This article is aimed at establishing the impact of shopping mall development in townships on the traditional small township retailers including spaza/tuck shops. The net balance sheet on the impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers clearly suggests a decline in the township retailers’ market share. A change in small business model towards, inter alia, effective customer service with a small dedicated assortment of merchandise, satisfaction of emergency needs, selling in small units and extension of credit facilities may result in the survival of some small township retailers (albeit often at a smaller turnover.

  14. Dimensions of Successful Leadership in Soweto Township Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbokazi, Zakhele

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the success of schools in disadvantaged township communities is shaped by an interplay of four dimensions: strategy, regulation, pedagogy and compensation. The paper presents these dimensions of successful leadership in secondary schools by drawing on a research study focusing on cases of three Soweto township secondary…

  15. 75 FR 3486 - Susquehanna to Roseland 500kV Transmission Line, Environmental Impact Statement, Delaware Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... National Park Service Susquehanna to Roseland 500kV Transmission Line, Environmental Impact Statement... the Susquehanna to Roseland 500kV Transmission Line. SUMMARY: Pursuant to National Environmental..., Pennsylvania) to Roseland, New Jersey 500 kilovolt (kV) Transmission Line. The line is being proposed by...

  16. 78 FR 67216 - The New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-Passaic and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board The New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway Corporation-- Abandonment Exemption--Passaic and Morris Counties, NY The New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway Corporation (NYS&W... filed with the Board should be sent to NYS&W's representative: Eric M. Hocky, Clark Hill Thorp Reed, One...

  17. Evaluation of genetic population structure of smallmouth bass in the Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Megan K.; Bartron, Meredith L.; Wertz, Timothy; Niles, Jonathan M.; Shaw, Cassidy H.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    The Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu was introduced into the Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania, nearly 150 years ago. Since introduction, it has become an economically and ecologically important species that supports popular recreational fisheries. It is also one of the most abundant top predators in the system. Currently, there is no information on the level of genetic diversity or genetic structuring that may have occurred since introduction. An understanding of genetic diversity is important for the delineation of management units and investigation of gene flow at various management scales. The goals of this research were to investigate population genetic structure of Smallmouth Bass at sites within the Susquehanna River basin and to assess genetic differentiation relative to Smallmouth Bass at an out-of-basin site (Allegheny River, Pennsylvania) located within the species’ native range. During spring 2015, fin clips (n = 1,034) were collected from adults at 11 river sites and 13 tributary sites in the Susquehanna River basin and at one site on the Allegheny River. Fin clips were genotyped at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Based on our results, adults sampled throughout the Susquehanna River basin did not represent separate genetic populations. There were only subtle differences in genetic diversity among sites (mean pairwise genetic differentiation index FST = 0.012), and there was an overall lack of population differentiation (K = 3 admixed populations). The greatest genetic differentiation was observed between fish collected from the out-of-basin site and those from the Susquehanna River basin sites. Knowledge that separate genetic populations of Smallmouth Bass do not exist in the Susquehanna River basin is valuable information for fisheries management in addition to providing baseline genetic data on an introduced sport fish population.

  18. Characterisation of mobile data usage in township communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phokeer, A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a measurement study of mobile Internet usage in township communities in South Africa. The idea is to understand usage pattern of mobile data that would motivate the provisioning of a localised cloudlet infrastructure...

  19. Attitudes towards environmental issues: a case of Bophelong Township

    OpenAIRE

    Maloma, Ismael; Sekatane, Mmapula Brendah

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the attitudes that the households of Bophelong Township have towards environmental issues in their area. Focus was placed on issues pertaining to air pollution and littering in the Township. The study investigated the attitudes of households as to the causes of pollution and littering in their area. Emphasis was also placed on their attitudes as to who should take the initiative and responsibility for the abatement of the pollution and the cleaning of the area. The results...

  20. 77 FR 53226 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Susquehanna to Roseland 500-kilovolt Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Electric Utilities Corporation and the Public Service Electric and Gas Company, request NPS permission to... construction of a 500-kV transmission line from the Susquehanna Substation (Berwick, Pennsylvania) to the Roseland Substation (Roseland, New Jersey). The construction and ROW permits would allow the construction...

  1. Twenty-five-year study of radionuclides in the Susquehanna river via periphyton biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John; Kreeger, Danielle; Harris, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This 25-y study monitored aquatic and terrestrial gamma-ray-emitting radionuclide levels near a nuclear power plant. It is the only known, long-term environmental survey of its kind. It was conducted neither by a utility owner, nor by a government agency, but rather by a private, environmental research institution. Compared to dozens of other flora and fauna, periphyton was found to be the best indicator to biomonitor the Susquehanna River, which runs near PPL Susquehanna's nuclear plant. Sampling began in 1979 before the first plant start-up and continued for the next 24 years. Monitoring began two months after the Three Mile Island accident of 28 March 1979 and includes Three Mile Island area measurements. Ongoing measurements detected fallout from Chernobyl in 1986, as well as I not released from PPL Susquehanna. Although this paper concentrates on radionuclides found in periphyton, the scope of the entire environmental program includes a wide variety of aquatic and land-based plants, animals, and inorganic matter. Other species and matter studied were fish, mussels, snails, crayfish, insects, humus, mushrooms, lichens, squirrels, deer, cabbage, tomatoes, coarse and flocculated sediment, and more. Results show periphyton works well for detection of radionuclide activity, even in concentrations less than 100 Bq kg (picocuries per gram amounts). Data indicate that PPL Susquehanna's radionuclide releases have had no known environmental or human health impact.

  2. 76 FR 72001 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Susquehanna to Roseland 500-kilovolt Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Transmission Line AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The... Susquehanna to Roseland 500-kilovolt transmission line, which will affect the Appalachian National Scenic... visitors each year. The existing transmission line right-of-way predates the establishment of the...

  3. Multiple meanings of the middle class in Soweto, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the meanings of middle class amongst those who label themselves middle class. 2559 people were surveyed in Soweto, South Africa biggest township. The study revealed that a diverse number of people call themselves middle class and defined class in terms of ability to afford basic goods.

  4. Political Township Boundaries in Iowa for 2010, derived from Census Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Currently, Iowa townships are not actually classified as civil townships, but as special district governments. Special district governments exist to provide only one...

  5. Flood-inundation maps for the Susquehanna River near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Underwood, Stacey M.; Thomas, Craig M.; Miller, Jason F.; Pratt, Benjamin A.; Hogan, Laurie G.; Wnek, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    A series of 28 digital flood-inundation maps was developed for an approximate 25-mile reach of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The study was selected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) national Silver Jackets program, which supports interagency teams at the state level to coordinate and collaborate on flood-risk management. This study to produce flood-inundation maps was the result of a collaborative effort between the USACE, National Weather Service (NWS), Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC), The Harrisburg Authority, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These maps are accessible through Web-mapping applications associated with the NWS, SRBC, and USGS. The maps can be used in conjunction with the real-time stage data from the USGS streamgage 01570500, Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., and NWS flood-stage forecasts to help guide the general public in taking individual safety precautions and will provide local municipal officials with a tool to efficiently manage emergency flood operations and flood mitigation efforts. The maps were developed using the USACE HEC–RAS and HEC–GeoRAS programs to compute water-surface profiles and to delineate estimated flood-inundation areas for selected stream stages. The maps show estimated flood-inundation areas overlaid on high-resolution, georeferenced, aerial photographs of the study area for stream stages at 1-foot intervals between 11 feet and 37 feet (which include NWS flood categories Action, Flood, Moderate, and Major) and the June 24, 1972, peak-of-record flood event at a stage of 33.27 feet at the Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., streamgage.

  6. Time-of-travel studies, Susquehanna River, Binghamton, New York, to Clarks Ferry, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C.D.; Armbruster, J.T.; Voytik, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Results of time-of-travel studies are presented in both tabular and graphical form for several flow conditions in the Susquehanna River from Binghamton, N.Y., to Clarks Ferry, Pa. This reach is approximately 240 miles (386 kilometres) long, measured along the center of the channel, and has a drainage area of about 19,700 square miles (51,000 square kilometres) at its downstream end.

  7. 76 FR 27251 - Safety Zone; Coughlin Wedding Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ..., Harrison Township, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI. This safety zone is intended to... radius of the fireworks barge launch site located off the shore of Harrison Township, MI at position 42...

  8. 76 FR 58110 - Safety Zone; Giannangeli Wedding Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    .... Clair, Harrison Township, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI. This zone is... site located off the shore of Harrison Township, MI at position 42 36'31'' N, 082 48'2'' W from 10 p.m...

  9. Liberating voices: narrative strategies and style in township choral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article the authors argue for the close reading of South African township choral music in order to liberate the voices of a musical genre that has long been one of this country's musical silences. In this regard an analysis of selected compositions by three composers from the Eastern Cape – Tonny Vumazonke, Phillippe ...

  10. Determinants of Obesity in an Urban Township of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Obesity in an Urban Township of South Africa. R Malhotra, C Hoyo, T Østbye, G Hughes, D Schwartz, L Tsolekile, J Zulu, T Puoane. Abstract. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and identify factors associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among ...

  11. Water quality assessment in Bangwe Township, Blantyre City, Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed microbial contamination of water in sources (boreholes and open wells) and selected households in four Malawian villages (situated in Bangwe Township, Blantyre city) by analyzing the presence of faecal coliforms using membrane filtration. Additionally, pH, conductivity and temperature of the water ...

  12. Teen Center: Schaumburg Township District Library, Schaumburg, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Teen Center at the Schaumburg Township District Library (Illinois) that was built with a sports theme. Highlights include the physical environment; the library collection, mainly recreational, that includes music CDs; the young adult population and community; hours of operation; staffing; youth participation and programs; and the…

  13. The experiences of AIDS orphans living in a township

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... studied (Welman, Kruger & Mitchell 2010). The researcher, therefore, made use of a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design with a phenomenological approach to inquiry, to explore and describe the lived experiences of AIDS orphans in a township. The research design selected, enabled.

  14. Social entrepreneurship as a way of developing sustainable township economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semape J. Manyaka-Boshielo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates using social entrepreneurship as a way of developing sustainabletownship economies, so that poverty can be eradicated from the townships of South Africaand township dwellers can begin to play a role in the economic development of the country.The author also thinks it is God’s purpose for people to enjoy life, free from economic hardship.A reduction in poverty would also bring down the crime rate and other social ills. It starts bydefining and clarifying the concepts of ‘entrepreneur’ and ‘social entrepreneurship’. Itcontinues by looking in more depth into township life and its challenges. This is done throughreviewing the literature and observations obtained through participant observation research.Post-foundationalist practical theology believes in interdisciplinary dialogue as a means ofallowing the concept of social entrepreneurship to bring about a sustainable townshipeconomy. From the author’s observations, it became apparent that to see the attainment of asustainable township economy, training and development should start with a strong emphasison personal identity and interpersonal and business skills. The author, therefore, proposes aholistic approach to social entrepreneurship.

  15. Boosting tourism in South Africa's townships | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-12

    Jul 12, 2011 ... In the dim light of a makeshift beer hall in Phillipi township, South Africa, tourist Rob Denhom is introduced to a taste like no other. A man passes him a rusty can full of Umqomboti, a traditional bitter-sour millet beer. It is more than the British teacher has bargained for. His face puckers at the taste and he ...

  16. Radionuclide distributions and sorption behavior in the Susquehanna--Chesapeake Bay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; McLean, R.I.; Domotor, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclides released into the Susquehanna--Chesapeake System from the Three Mile Island, Peach Bottom, and Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plants are partitioned among dissolved, particulate, and biological phases and may thus exist in a number of physical and chemical forms. In this project, we have measured the dissolved and particulate distributions of fallout /sup 137/Cs; reactor-released /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 58/Co; and naturally occurring /sup 7/Be and /sup 210/Pb in the lower Susquehanna River and Upper Chesapeake Bay. In addition, we chemically leached suspended particles and bottom sediments in the laboratory to determine radionuclide partitioning among different particulate-sorbing phases to complement the site-specific field data. This information has been used to document the important geochemical processes that affect the transport, sorption, distribution, and fate of reactor-released radionuclides (and by analogy, other trace contaminants) in this river-estuarine system. Knowledge of the mechanisms, kinetic factors, and processes that affect radionuclide distributions is crucial for predicting their biological availability, toxicity, chemical behavior, physical transport, and accumulation in aquatic systems. The results from this project provide the information necessary for developing accurate radionuclide-transport and biological-uptake models. 76 refs., 12 figs.

  17. 76 FR 1666 - Susquehanna Union Railroad Company-Control Exemption-North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Susquehanna Union Railroad Company--Control Exemption--North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company, Shamokin Valley Railroad Company, Juniata Valley Railroad Company, Lycoming Valley Railroad Company, and Union County Industrial Railroad Company On April 12, 2010...

  18. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Susquehanna River near the Boroughs of Lewisburg and Milton, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximate 8-mile reach of the West Branch Susquehanna River from approximately 2 miles downstream from the Borough of Lewisburg, extending upstream to approximately 1 mile upstream from the Borough of Milton, Pennsylvania, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict the estimated areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa. In addition, the information has been provided to the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) for incorporation into their Susquehanna Inundation Map Viewer (SIMV) flood warning system (http://maps.srbc.net/simv/). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasted peak-stage information (http://water.weather.gov/ahps) for USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibration of the model was achieved using the most current stage-discharge relations (rating number 11.1) at USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., a documented water-surface profile from the December 2, 2010, flood, and recorded peak stage data. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 26 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 14 feet (ft) to 39 ft. Modeled flood stages, as defined by NWS, include Action Stage, 14 ft; Flood Stage, 18 ft; Moderate Flood Stage, 23 ft; and Major Flood Stage, 28 ft. Geographic information system (GIS) technology

  19. From Township to Townscape- Urban renewal in Galeshewe, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eskilsson, Anneli; Häggdahl, Lisa; Örenfors, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Galeshewe is a former township in South Africa that has been neglected for a long time. The economic activity is low and the design of the physical environment poor. The Urban Renewal Programme started in 1999 as an attempt to improve the situation in previously disadvan-taged areas in South Africa. This diploma work can be seen as one part of that program. In South Africa one way of strengthening the economic growth is to work with the development of economic activity clusters connected thro...

  20. Decolonised Sexualities : The Lived Experiences of Black Township Women Who Love Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbasalaki, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis centres the lived experiences of black township women in same-sex relationships in Cape Town and Johannesburg. The main question—‘How do black township women construct their same-sex sexuality?’—called for a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative data. Set against

  1. SIR2012-5282 Surficial Geology: Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and...

  2. Risk-based Inspection Guide for the Susquehanna Station HPCI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, R; Higgins, J; Gunther, W; Shier, W [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system has been examined from a risk perspective. A system Risk-based Inspection Guide (S-RIG) has been developed as an aid to HPCI system inspections at the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES) which is operated by Pennsylvania Power & Light (PP&L). Included in this S-RIG is a discussion of the role of HPCI in mitigating accidents and a presentation of PRA-based failure modes which could prevent proper operation of the system. The S-RIG uses industry operating experience, including plant-specific illustrative examples, to augment the basic PRA failure modes. It is designed to be used as a reference for both routine inspections and the evaluation of the significance of component failures.

  3. Geochemistry of manganese, iron, uranium, lead-210 and major ions in the Susquehanna River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The change in water composition accompanying a change in discharge of large streams and the Susquehanna River results from the change in the proportions of the total flow composed of type waters of constant composition. This change in the flow proportions is due to the different hydrologic responses to precipitation inputs of basins underlain by different single rock types. The in-river precipitation of mine-drainage-injected Mn and Fe was studied at a pH of approximately 7. For Mn the removal from solution appears to be first order. The rate constant is 10/sup 3/ times greater than the extrapolated autocatalytic rate constant of previous laboratory experiments. The study of the removal of Fe from solution yields a first order rate constant consistent with previous laboratory experiments. Lead-210 was used as a natural tracer to study the fate of trace metals.

  4. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    1999-10-01

    This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned

  5. Manage water resources allocation and water use in the Susquehanna River Basin with a GIS-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Balay, J.

    2012-12-01

    Water supply is one of the priority management areas of the Susquehanna River Basin Commission. The desired results of the water supply is to meet immediate and future water needs of the people of the basin, in order to maintain sustainable economic viability, protect instream uses, and ensure ecological diversity. In this study, a GIS-based model is designed and developed to assist water resource planning and management in the Susquehanna River Basin. A comprehensive basin-wide water use geographic database is compiled by integrating reported/approved water use and estimated water use if no monitoring data is available, such as agriculture water use. Then water availability at each WBD10 watersheds within the Susquehanna River Basin are then determined based on the ecosystem flow needs and acceptable hydrologic alternation. A GIS-based basin-wide model integrates the water use and water availability and couples with a module that allows iterative evaluation of water resources management alternatives. The model is capable of quantification and graphic presentation of water use and availability at various spatial scale and performance of spatial analysis and scenario analysis to aid in determining optimized water resources management.

  6. 77 FR 3321 - Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    .... Project Sponsor: Anadarko E&P Company LP. Project Facility: Sproul State Forest--Council Run, Snow Shoe.... Project Sponsor and Facility: Williams Production Appalachia, LLC (Middle Branch Wyalusing Creek), Forest... Stone, LLC (Salt Lick Creek), New Milford Township, Susquehanna County, Pa. Modification to increase...

  7. Public Land Survey (Township, Range, and Section) for northern Arizona, including Grand Canyon National Park.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This ALRIS (Arizona Land Resource Information System) coverage contains Public Land Survey gridding and labels for Townships, Ranges, and Sections for Northern Arizona

  8. Political Township and Incorporated City Boundaries in Iowa in 2010 as Derived from Census Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Political Township and Incorporated City Boundaries in Iowa in 2010, as Derived from Census Datasets Original Abstract: The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and...

  9. [Study on elasticity of medical service demand at the township level in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-xing; Lv, Jun; Xie, Yi-ping; Wang, Ying; Jia, Jin-zhong; Chang, Feng-shui; Duan, Lin; Sun, Mei; Wang, Zhi-feng; Hao, Mo

    2010-06-18

    To find out the economic laws regulating medical service demand in accordance with influencing factors at the township level, thus to provide references for further adjusting the medical service demand reasonably in the future. The model of medical service demand was established to measure the elasticity of demand in 49 township health clinics in 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2007. The price elasticity of outpatient and inpatient demand was stable during the four periods, and the average value was -0.029 and -0.132 respectively; the average value of income elasticity was 0.973 and 0.977, registering a downward trend in general. The medical service demand at the township level is price inelastic, indicating that it is a necessity for rural residents. The downward trend of income elasticity under the influence of some health policies illustrates a lightening in economic burden for medical service demand among rural residents in township health clinics.

  10. Quantifying shale weathering by Li isotopes at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoefel, Grit; Fantle, Matthew S.; Brantley, Sue L.

    2017-04-01

    Lithium isotopes have emerged as a powerful tool to investigate abiotic weathering processes because isotope fraction is controlled by silicate weathering depending on the weathering rate. In this study, we explore Li isotopes as a proxy for shale weathering in the well-investigated Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (USA), which is a first-order catchment in a temperate climate in the Appalachian Mountain. Groundwater, soil and stream water reveal large variation in δ7Li (14.5 to 40.0‰) controlled by variable but high degrees of Li retention by kaolinite and vermiculite formation. Parental shales, bulk soils and stream sediments reveal similar isotope signatures with little variations giving average δ7Li values of -0.6, 0.5 and -0.3‰, respectively which is in the typical range for shales dominated by structural-bound Li and consistent with high Li retention. An isotope mass balance approach reveal that Li is virtually quantitatively exported by erosional weathering from the system. This result is consisted with a high depletion of Li along with clay minerals in soils whereas both is enriched in stream sediments. Overall shale weathering is dominated by clay transformation forming kaolinite through intermediate phases under highly incongruent weathering conditions followed by preferentially loss of fine-grained weathering products, a processes which is likely an important mechanism in the modern global Li cycle.

  11. Influence of Topography on Root Processes in the Shale Hills-Susquehanna Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenstat, D. M.; Orr, A. S.; Adams, T. S.; Chen, W.; Gaines, K.

    2015-12-01

    Topography can strongly influence root and associated mycorrhizal fungal function in the Critical Zone. In the Shale Hills-Susquehanna Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO), soil depths range from more than 80 cm deep in the valley floor to about 25 cm on the ridge top. Tree height varies from about 28 m tall at the valley floor to about 17 m tall at the ridge top. Yet total absorptive root length to depth of refusal is quite similar across the hillslope. We find root length density to vary as much at locations only 1-2 m apart as at scales of hundreds of meters across the catchment. Tree community composition also varies along the hillslope, including tree species that vary widely in thickness of their absorptive roots and type of mycorrhiza (arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal). Studies of trees in a common garden of 16 tree species and in forests near SSCZO indicate that both root morphology and mycorrhizal type can strongly influence root foraging. Species that form thick absorptive roots appear more dependent on mycorrhizal fungi and thin-root species forage more by root proliferation. Ectomycorrhizal trees show more variation in foraging precision (proliferation in a nutrient-rich patch relative to that in an unenriched patch) of their mycorrhizal hyphae whereas AM trees show more variation in foraging precision by root proliferation, indicating alternative strategies among trees of different mycorrhizal types. Collectively, the results provide insight into how topography can influence foraging belowground.

  12. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg

    2003-12-01

    This report represents the thirteenth Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this semi annual reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township's Jacobs Road Compost Storage Facility, construction was completed during this reporting period and surface monitoring began. Surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the Mt. Hope Road subsidence work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

  13. URBAN RECONFIGURATIONS OF SPACE AND PLACE WITHIN TOWNSHIP TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Craciunescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays global economic and cultural constellation determined urban communities to find a solution in order to preserve local identity and at the same time to attract capital into the area. Tourism represents in our opinion one of the greatest solutions ever exploited in mankind’s history which erases boundaries of nations and economic policies, creating glocalized encounters. In the case of a city, tourism or township tourism becomes an economical, political and cultural vector that unifies urban space which develops a network of genuine and artificial urban inter-relations between the principal stakeholders. The city as a destination must be a ‘safe’ construct that meets the expectations of various kinds of travellers and of their different travelling motivations. We believe that to a certain extent, the (rebranding of cities consists in the creation of a harmonized space that would reiterate the home-facilities of the traveller. A matter of life-style and life-quality, this issue will be analysed through the lens of travelling as a leisure activity, or as a way of escaping monotone routine of daily living, eventually a way of reinvesting income and creating economic equilibrium.

  14. Child Support Grant access and receipt among 12-week-old infants in an urban township setting in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Doherty, Tanya; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfers (CTs) are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30). Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. At the 12-week visit, half (52%) of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327) of all children had received the CSG. In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery.

  15. Child Support Grant access and receipt among 12-week-old infants in an urban township setting in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanga Zembe-Mkabile

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cash transfers (CTs are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30. Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. Methods: This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. Results: At the 12-week visit, half (52% of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327 of all children had received the CSG. Conclusions: In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery.

  16. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    2001-04-01

    This report represents the seventh Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, research and preliminary design was performed during this reporting period toward development of the engineering plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the White Meadow Mine site, the remediation project was conducted last reporting period by others, out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

  17. The Remediation of Abandoned Iron Ore Mine Subsidence in Rockaway Township, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartenberg, Gary; Poff, Gregory

    2010-06-30

    This report represents the twenty-seventh and Final Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this last reporting period ending June 30, 2010 and a summary of the work accomplished since the agreement inception in 1997. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperator's Agreement between the United States Government - Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperator's Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township's Jacobs Road Compost Storage Facility, surface monitoring continued after completion of construction in September 2003. Surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the Mt. Hope Road subsidence work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. In March 2007, a seventh collapse occurred over a portion of the White Meadow Mine in a public roadway at the intersection of Iowa and Erie Avenues in Rockaway Township. After test drilling, this portion of the mine was remediated by drilling and grouting the stopes.

  18. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    2001-04-01

    This report represents the sixth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the White Meadow Mine site, after amended specifications were prepared and continued negotiations took place with the Property Owner, the property ownership was transferred during the reporting period. As a result in the change in property ownership, the remediation project was then to be done by the new Property Owner out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, no additional field work was undertaken during this reporting period subsequent to the previous completion of the geophysical survey. With the termination of the White

  19. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality, Chippewa Township, Isabella County, Michigan, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westjohn, David B.; Hoard, Chris J.

    2006-01-01

    The ground-water resource potential of Chippewa Township, Isabella County, Mich. was characterized on the basis of existing hydrogeologic data, water-level records, analyses of water samples, and interpretation of geophysical survey data. Eight ground-water samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and trace-metal composition. In addition, 10 direct current-resistivity soundings were collected throughout Chippewa and Coe Townships to identify potential freshwater in the aquifer system. The aquifer system includes complexly interbedded glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, and basal-lodgment tills, which overlie Jurassic or Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks. In parts of the township, freshwater is present in all geologic units, but in most areas saline water is encountered near the base of Pleistocene glacial deposits and in the Jurassic or Pennsylvanian bedrock. A near-surface sheet of relatively dense basal-lodgment till likely prevents, or substantially retards, significant direct recharge of ground water to glacial and bedrock aquifers in Chippewa and adjacent townships.Glacial sands and gravels form the principal aquifer for domestic wells (97.5 percent of wells in the township). The single community water supply in the township has wells screened in glacial deposits near the base of the glacial drift. Increased withdrawals of ground water in response to increasing demand has led to a slight decline in water quality from this supply. This water-quality decline is related primarily to an increase of dissolved sulfate, which is probably a function of well depth and dissolution of gypsum, a common mineral constituent in the Jurassic “red beds” , which form the uppermost bedrock unit throughout most of the township. One explanation for the increase in sulfate is upconing of saline water from bedrock sources, which may contain saline water.

  20. The floods of March 1936, part 2, Hudson River to Susquehanna River region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Nathan C.

    1937-01-01

    by white men, were broken many of them by wide margins. The peak of the Connecticut River at Hartford, Conn., was 8.6 feet higher than had been experienced since the settlement by white men, 300 years ago. The Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., was 3.5 feet higher than had been known in a period of record covering about 200 years. The Ohio River at Pittsburgh, Pa., was 6.1 feet higher than had been known in the period beginning 1762. This volume presents many of the facts of these notable floods with respect to the New England rivers, for permanent record and for study and reference by engineers concerned with the building of highways, bridges, and industrial plants, planners of river development, and others. Similar volumes for the region from the Hudson River to the Susquehanna River and for the Potomac, James, and upper Ohio River Basins are presented in companion Water-Supply Papers 799 and 800 respectively. In this volume records of stage and discharge for the period Including the floods are presented for about 150 measurement stations; peak discharges with comparative data for other floods at more than 400 measurement points are summarized; crest stages along an aggregate length of stream channel of 2,820 miles are tabulated; and results of detailed studies of the rainfall and run-off and many other kinds of flood information are presented.

  1. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system in the Endicott-Vestal area of southwestern Broome County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-07-29

    The village of Endicott, New York, and the adjacent town of Vestal have historically used groundwater from the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system for municipal water supply, but parts of some aquifers in this urban area suffer from legacy contamination from varied sources. Endicott would like to identify sites distant from known contamination where productive aquifers could supply municipal wells with water that would not require intensive treatment. The distribution or geometry of aquifers within the Susquehanna River valley fill in western Endicott and northwestern Vestal are delineated in this report largely on the basis of abundant borehole data that have been compiled in a table of well records.

  2. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Allegheny and Susquehanna Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Coalbed methane, which is sometimes extracted using the same technique, is commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and is frequently developed in clusters of wells across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Allegheny County and Susquehanna County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  3. Identifying resilient and non-resilient middle-adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non- resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient ...

  4. Factors contributing to the resilience of middle-adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that contribute to resilience are key to the positive development of youths, and knowledge of such factors is essential for promoting resilience in schools through both policy and practice. This study reports on the results of an item and factor analysis of the Resilience Questionnaire for Middle-adolescents in Township ...

  5. Deposition and simulation of sediment transport in the Lower Susquehanna River reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainly, R.A.; Reed, L.A.; Flippo, H.N.; Barton, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Susquehanna River drains 27,510 square miles in New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland and is the largest tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. Three large hydroelectric dams are located on the river, Safe Harbor (Lake Clarke) and Holtwood (Lake Aldred) in southern Pennsylvania, and Conowingo (Conowingo Reservoir) in northern Maryland. About 259 million tons of sediment have been deposited in the three reservoirs. Lake Clarke contains about 90.7 million tons of sediment, Lake Aldred contains about 13.6 million tons, and Conowingo Reservoir contains about 155 million tons. An estimated 64.8 million tons of sand, 19.7 million tons of coal, 112 million tons of silt, and 63.3 million tons of clay are deposited in the three reservoirs. Deposition in the reservoirs is variable and ranges from 0 to 30 feet. Chemical analyses of sediment core samples indicate that the three reservoirs combined contain about 814,000 tons of organic nitrogen, 98,900 tons of ammonia as nitrogen, 226,000 tons of phosphorus, 5,610,000 1tons of iron, 2,250,000 tons of aluminum, and about 409,000 tons of manganese. Historical data indicate that Lake Clarke and Lake Aldred have reached equilibrium, and that they no longer store sediment. A comparison of cross-sectional data from Lake Clarke and Lake Aldred with data from Conowingo Reservoir indicates that Conowingo Reservoir will reach equilibrium within the next 20 to 30 years. As the Conowingo Reservoir fills with sediment and approaches equilibrium, the amount of sediment transported to the Chesapeake Bay will increase. The most notable increases will take place when very high flows scour the deposited sediment. Sediment transport through the reservoir system was simulated with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' HEC-6 computer model. The model was calibrated with monthly sediment loads for calendar year 1987. Calibration runs with options set for maximum trap efficiency and a "natural" particle-size distribution resulted in an overall computed trap

  6. Key Dimensions of Effective Leadership for Change: A Focus on Township and Rural Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngcobo, Thandi; Tikly, Leon Paul

    2010-01-01

    The article identifies key dimensions of effective leadership for change in historically disadvantaged, township and rural schools in South Africa. It is based on original case study research in 13 schools in Kwa-Zulu Natal. Although the sample included mainly township and rural primary and secondary schools it also included a smaller sample of…

  7. SOCIO-CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE E-MARKETING USERS (CASE OF RASHT TOWNSHIP, IRAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed ALAVIOON; Mohammad ALLAHYARI

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to study the socio-cultural index of rice electronic marketing users in Rasht Township, Iran. This study used a survey design and was conducted with a random sample of 367 paddy farmers in Rasht Township. To identify the socio-cultural characteristics of rice e-marketing users, a self-designed questionnaire was developed to gather data. For determining the validity of the questionnaire, the face and content validity were used. Reliability for the instrume...

  8. 78 FR 2313 - Actions Taken at December 14, 2012, Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    .... Project Sponsor and Facility: Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation (Bowman Creek), Eaton Township, Wyoming County.... Project Sponsor and Facility: Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation (Meshoppen Creek), Lemon Township, Wyoming.... Project Sponsor and Facility: Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation (Tunkhannock Creek), Lenox Township, Susquehanna...

  9. The experiences of AIDS orphans living in a township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Ricks

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An overwhelming challenge to health-care professionals today, is the rendering of care services to AIDS orphans. This article is based on a study that explored and described the lived experiences of AIDS orphans in a township in order to understand their ‘life world’ as AIDS orphans. A further purpose was to provide information to primary health-care nurses (PHCNs, related professionals and partners involved in the care of these children, so that they could plan a care response to meet the orphans’ unique needs. A qualitative research design that used an explorative, descriptive, contextual and phenomenological strategy of inquiry was employed. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews from a purposively selected sample, and were analysed according to the steps of qualitative data analysis proposed by Tesch (Creswell 1994. Guba’s model was used to ensure the trustworthiness of the qualitative data. Two main themes and their sub-themes were identified. The first theme was that children experience devastating changes in their life circumstances when they become AIDS orphans. The second theme highlighted how the participants rediscovered hope to persevere. Recommendations directed at nursing practice, education and research, were made based upon the findings.

    Opsomming

    ‘n Uitdaging wat professionele gesondheidswerkers huidiglik oorweldig, is dienslewering aan VIGS weeskinders. Die doel van die studie was om die geleefde ervaring van kinders wat in dorpsgebiede woon en VIGS weeskinders geword het, te verken en te beskryf ten einde hul leefwêreld te verstaan. Hierdie inligting kan deur Primêre Gesondheidsorg Verpleegkundiges (PVGs, verwante beroepslui en vennote betrokke by die versorging van hierdie kinders, gebruik word as basis om versorging te beplan wat in die kinders se unieke behoeftes sal voorsien. ‘n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp met verkennende, beskrywende, kontekstuele en fenomologiese

  10. Job Satisfaction Analysis in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Doctors in a Township Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method. To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction of doctors and to make recommendations for improvements. Results. About 75% (28/39 of the doctors expressed negative attitudes related to their work conditions. Slightly more than half (22/39 mentioned they should receive greater compensation for their work and more than one were seriously considering other options. Many participants (35/39 showed their satisfaction about the achievement of serving as a doctor. Conclusion. Their main concerns related to job satisfaction included working conditions, financial rewards, and the doctor’s relationships with patients. Increasing the incomes and fringe benefits of healthcare workers, improving their work conditions, and providing training and continuing education opportunities would help rural clinics retain doctors and eliminate the current unsatisfactory conditions. The findings also highlight the need for the government to increase financial support of township hospitals.

  11. Money and violence : financial self-help groups in a South African township

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bähre, Erik

    2007-01-01

    This ethnography is about the way in which Xhosa migrants in the townships of Cape Town, South Africa, collectively manage their money in financial self-help groups, also known as financial mutuals. This is an umbrella term for a myriad of collective financial arrangements that are mostly informal.

  12. Living with Bats: The Case of Ve Golokuati Township in the Volta Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S. Ayivor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bats to humans through direct and indirect contact with bats raises public apprehension about living close to bats. In the township of Ve Golokuati in Ghana, several “camps” of Epomophorus gambianus roost in fruit trees that provide ecosystems services for residents. This study explored human-bat interaction in the township and the potential risks of disease transmission from bats to humans. Data were derived through questionnaire administration and participatory appraisal approach involving focus group discussions, participatory landscape mapping, and transect walk. The study found that most human activities within the township, such as petty-trading, domestic chores, and children’s outdoor recreation, exposed people to bats. Though there have been no reported cases of disease spillover from bats to humans from the perspective of residents and from medical records, respondents whose activities brought them closer to bats within the township were found to be more likely to experience fevers than those who do not interact with bats frequently. The study recommends education of community members about the potential risks involved in human-bat interactions and makes suggestions for reducing the frequent interactions with and exposure to bats by humans.

  13. Identifying Some Factors That Might Predispose Drug Abuse among Learners in a South African Township School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, R.; Khatite, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study inquires into some of the factors that might predispose the use and abuse of drugs among secondary school learners in a township school. The objective of this research is to identify these factors and to offer a few suggestions on how the abuse may be prevented. A quantitative research strategy is used and a document analysis technique…

  14. TownshipNet: A localized hybrid TVWS-WiFi and cloud services network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadzic, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a network architecture to provide low cost last mile access and cloud services for local content sharing in a poorly resourced township environment. We describe how ICT solutions are developed in close partnership with the local...

  15. 78 FR 21849 - Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ AGENCY... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications...

  16. The influence of township schools on the resilience of their learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many learners living in townships require protection and resilience to overcome obstacles and adversities in their context of development. The literature on resilience indicates strongly that resilience is embedded systemically. In the absence of constructive and supportive conditions in the home environment, the school ...

  17. 77 FR 70372 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River (South Channel), Avon Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River (South..., across Shark River (South Channel) at Avon Township, NJ. The existing regulation contains a drawbridge... Transportation (NJDOT) to replace the existing bascule bridge, which carries S35 over Shark River (South Channel...

  18. Inter-Trip Characteristics Model for Ado-Ekiti Township, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    area from the business area. A number of retail ... township; these are: Ado-Akure park, New Motor park at Orilewu, Ado-. Aramoko/Efon park at ... traveler. The travel time was regressed against travel distance and travel cost while varying ...

  19. Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Qian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59. About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM, and almost all prescriptions (98.07% contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the

  20. Ground-Water Quality in the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, New York, 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetcher-Aguila, Kari K.; Eckhardt, David A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 production wells and 13 private residential wells throughout the upper Susquehanna River Basin (upstream from the Pennsylvania border) during the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 and analyzed to describe the chemical quality of ground water in the upper basin. Wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and highest vulnerability to contamination, and to provide a representative sampling from the entire (4,516 square-mile) upper basin. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients, inorganic constituents, metals, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; the anions that were detected in the greatest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, the concentrations of which were greater in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The metals barium, boron, cobalt, copper, and nickel were detected in every sample; the metals with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, manganese, strontium, and lithium. The pesticide compounds detected most frequently were atrazine, deethylatrazine, alachlor ESA, and two degradation products of metolachlor (metolachlor ESA and metolachlor OA); the compounds detected in highest concentration were metolachlor ESA and OA. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 11 samples, and concentrations of 3 of these compounds exceeded 1 microgram per liter (?g/L). Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasollline additive, was not detected in any sample. Several analytes were found in concentrations that exceeded Federal and New York State water-quality standards, which are typically identical. Chloride concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in two samples

  1. Micro-enterprise predicament in township economic development: Evidence from Ivory Park and Tembisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Charman

    2017-05-01

    Aim: In response to the developmental need to stimulate micro-enterprise growth in South African townships, the paper poses the question: what approaches are most likely to have a positive impact on township businesses, given current micro-enterprise dynamics? Setting: Primary research was undertaken in two neighbouring townships in Gauteng province, in Ivory Park and Tembisa. Methods: The data comprises a geospatial census of enterprise activities, a survey of select firms and qualitative interviews with business owners. The research utilised a small-area census approach to obtain data on business activities within an area of approximately 2km2 in each site. The census enumerated 2509 micro-enterprises in Ivory Park and 1722 micro-enterprises in Tembisa. Firm interviews were conducted with business owners in four sectors: grocery retail, liquor retail, hair care and early childhood development centres. Results: The business census identifies a strong similarity in the structure of the townships’ informal micro-entrepreneurship despite the considerable differences in the socio-economic status of the respective case sites. The enterprise survey highlights the resource constraints of township businesses and thinness of local markets. Interviews with entrepreneurs reveal four main pathways through which individuals enter into self-employment with the most dynamic enterprises established by inward investing entrepreneurs. Spatial considerations exert an influence on the position of enterprise sectors, whilst access to land and business infrastructure are notable constraints. Conclusion: Reflecting on the evidence, the paper concludes with making a call for a more low-geared development approach, focusing on lessening the legal, institutional and regulatory obstacles to enterprise growth as a first step. Municipalities have an important role in liberalising the spaces and places where township informal enterprises can and should be permitted to trade as well as

  2. Contested multiple voices of young masculinities amongst adolescent boys in Alexandra Township, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, Malose

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, the author explores how adolescent boys negotiate multiple voices of masculinity in Alexandra Township, a historically working-class and black community in Gauteng, South Africa. Thirty adolescent boys were recruited and provided with disposable cameras to take 27 photos under the theme 'my life as a boy' in the new South Africa. Arrangements were made for photos to be collected and processed. In the follow-up interviews, boys were asked to give a description of each photo and why and how they had decided to take that photo to represent aspects of their masculinity. Results Some of the photos taken depict books, cars, boys smoking, gambling, fighting and reading books at school. This study reveals that being a boy is not a homogeneous phenomenon. All the participants agreed that there are different ways of being a boy and that some boys are more popular than others, which often depends on the context in which the boys find themselves. The interviews revealed recurring allusions to different 'types' of boys at schools in Alexandra Township-namely, tsotsi boys and academic boys. However, it is important to note that boys do not fit neatly into each of these categories. The findings of the study reveal some interesting complexities on how adolescent boys simultaneously accept and reject certain practices of township masculinity in their daily lives, depending on the time and space in which they find themselves. Some positions are more dominant than others and this reveals how adolescent boys 'police' each other as part of a process of conforming to idealised norms of township masculinity as lived out in the township context of Alexandra.

  3. Identifying Resilient and Non-Resilient Middle-Adolescents in a Formerly Black-Only Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampane, Ruth; Bouwer, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non-resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient and non-resilient…

  4. PLSS Townships and Sections, Sections-The data set is a polygon feature consisting of 221 polygons representing section boundaries. It was created to maintain the location of township and range sections., Published in 1995, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — PLSS Townships and Sections dataset current as of 1995. Sections-The data set is a polygon feature consisting of 221 polygons representing section boundaries. It was...

  5. The life-world of mothers who care for mentally retarded children: the Katutura township experience

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Ntswane; L. van Rhyn

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155) of analysing qualitative d...

  6. Background research paper : township of East Garafraxa utilities and renewable energy planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-11

    This paper established the foundation for future policies in Ontario's Township of East Garafraxa regarding renewable energy facilities and utilities. The paper provided research which included a summary of policy and regulatory best practices; a lexicon for renewable energy and wind power terminology; a baseline for scales of facilities; identification of constraints and land use issues; a discussion on alternative energy sources and their impacts; a summary of discussions with stakeholders and interest groups; and an opportunity and constraints analysis. Specifically, the report provided an overview of the Township of East Garafraxa and discussed regulations such as the Environmental Assessment Act and Environmental Protection Act. The forms of renewable energy that were discussed included wind, solar, biomass, hydro and geothermal energy. A jurisdictional analysis was then presented. Scale options for each renewable energy system were presented along with recommended scales for each renewable energy system. It was concluded that the Township of East Garafraxa has an opportunity to proactively accommodate new renewable energy land uses in a manner that reflects the local characteristics and aspirations of its residents. 50 refs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  7. Intercultural partnering for the benefit of South Africa township high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janis; Dodge, Emily; Welderufael, Martha

    2014-12-01

    An intercultural partnership was formed to meet South African township high schools' need to provide career education and identify barriers and hope in relation to career choice. The objective of this study was to collect data on the students' perceptions of career choice, barriers prohibiting students from engaging in a career of choice and their general hopefulness. A non-experimental, descriptive study was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis strategies was used. A significant difference was found based on gender in relation to having career options and with regard to how knowledge about careers is gained. Despite barriers to career choice, students are hopeful about the future. Occupational deprivation is a risk factor for South African youth living in disadvantaged communities. Results are from two township high schools in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. English as a second language may have influenced data analysis. Future research must explore the role of occupational therapy in South African township high schools and the issue of career choice among South African youth. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Flux of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment from the Susquehanna River Basin to the Chesapeake Bay during Tropical Storm Lee, September 2011, as an indicator of the effects of reservoir sedimentation on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment are measured at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage at Conowingo Dam at the downstream end of the Susquehanna River Basin in Maryland, where the river flows into the Chesapeake Bay. During the period September 7-15, 2011, in the aftermath of Tropical Storm Lee, concentrations of these three constituents were among the highest ever measured at this site. These measurements indicate that sediment-storage processes behind the three dams on the lower Susquehanna River are evolving. In particular, they indicate that scouring of sediment (and the nitrogen and phosphorus attached to that sediment) may be increasing with time. Trends in flow-normalized fluxes at the Susquehanna River at Conowingo, Maryland, streamgage during 1996-2011 indicate a 3.2-percent decrease in total nitrogen, but a 55-percent increase in total phosphorus and a 97-percent increase in suspended sediment. These large increases in the flux of phosphorus and sediment from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay have occurred despite reductions in the fluxes of these constituents from the Susquehanna River watershed upstream from the reservoirs. Although the Tropical Storm Lee flood event contributed about 1.8 percent of the total streamflow from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay over the past decade (water years 2002-11), it contributed about 5 percent of the nitrogen, 22 percent of the phosphorus, and 39 percent of the suspended sediment during the same period. These results highlight the importance of brief high-flow events in releasing nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment derived from the Susquehanna River watershed and stored in the Conowingo Reservoir to the Chesapeake Bay.

  9. Capturing interactions between nitrogen and hydrological cycles under historical climate and land use: Susquehanna watershed analysis with the GFDL land model LM3-TAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, Paul C. D.; Jaffé, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a process model LM3-TAN to assess the combined effects of direct human influences and climate change on terrestrial and aquatic nitrogen (TAN) cycling. The model was developed by expanding NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land model LM3V-N of coupled terrestrial carbon and nitrogen (C-N) cycling and including new N cycling processes and inputs such as a soil denitrification, point N sources to streams (i.e., sewage), and stream transport and microbial processes. Because the model integrates ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes, it captures key controls of the transport and fate of N in the vegetation–soil–river system in a comprehensive and consistent framework which is responsive to climatic variations and land-use changes. We applied the model at 1/8° resolution for a study of the Susquehanna River Basin. We simulated with LM3-TAN stream dissolved organic-N, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N loads throughout the river network, and we evaluated the modeled loads for 1986–2005 using data from 16 monitoring stations as well as a reported budget for the entire basin. By accounting for interannual hydrologic variability, the model was able to capture interannual variations of stream N loadings. While the model was calibrated with the stream N loads only at the last downstream Susquehanna River Basin Commission station Marietta (40°02' N, 76°32' W), it captured the N loads well at multiple locations within the basin with different climate regimes, land-use types, and associated N sources and transformations in the sub-basins. Furthermore, the calculated and previously reported N budgets agreed well at the level of the whole Susquehanna watershed. Here we illustrate how point and non-point N sources contributing to the various ecosystems are stored, lost, and exported via the river. Local analysis of six sub-basins showed combined effects of land use and climate on soil denitrification rates, with the highest rates in the

  10. The Role of Villages and Townships in Informal Land Development in China: An Investigation on the City Fringe of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjun Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past decades have witnessed a number of informal land developments on the urban fringe in China although many strict state regulations have been made to control this. The dual urban rural land system is widely believed to be one major determinant of informal developments in the existing literature. However, the important role of local villages and townships are often neglected. This paper aims to shed light on this by looking at the gated informal housing communities in Beijing as a case study. It investigates the role of villages and townships in informal land development and the conflicts of interest that arise with state regulations in the context of political decentralization. The results of analysis show that township governments have an ambivalent attitude or even give tacit approval to informal land development in villages since these informal developments actually bring economic benefits to local villagers and themselves. The situation seems to be worse as townships have poor fiscal capacity and a growing administrative responsibility for improvement of local development in the context of decentralization. Villages are keen to capture economic benefits from informal land development with help from private developers. As a result, a local, informal coalition between townships, villages, and private developers emerged at the grass roots level. This presents a major challenge to the state regulations designed for sustainable urban growth management.

  11. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Jiao, Mingli; Ma, Hongkun; Qiao, Hong; Hao, Yanhua; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Sun, Hong; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Wu, Qunhong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%). A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%), followed by the patient (22.6%); 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60) resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%). Most respondents (62.8%) did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting) with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats) was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc.). Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  12. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  13. Product platform considerations on a project that develops sustainable low-cost housing for townships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörösch, Michael; Bonev, Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    Construction companies in Denmark are often working with profit margins as little as 1-3% in situations where they deliver high-end buildings to the local market. Even though customers are willing to pay a premium price for high quality, construction companies earn very little on their products....... Consequently one Danish company took the decision to produce sustainable low-cost houses and to sell them to development countries that have township housing programs. Why does this company believe in still making profit in the low-cost housing segment abroad, when there is almost no profit in the high...

  14. Streamflow and water-quality monitoring in response to young-of-year smallmouth bass (micropterus dolomieu) mortality in the Susquehanna River and major tributaries, with comparisons to the Delaware and Allegheny Rivers, Pennsylvania, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Crawford, J. Kent

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005, spring hatched young-of-year (YOY) smallmouth bass in Pennsylvania reaches of the Susquehanna River have experienced above-normal mortality when summertime streamflows are near or lower than normal. Stress factors include, but are not limited to, low dissolved oxygen and elevated water temperatures during times critical for survival and development (critical period is May 1 through July 31). At this time (2010), widespread disease and mortality are believed to be more prevalent for YOY smallmouth bass in the Susquehanna River Basin than in the Delaware or Allegheny River Basins.

  15. Occurrence and concentrations of volatile organic compounds in shallow ground water in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Matthew H.; Lindsey, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a regional assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground water from six sampling areas within the Lower Susquehanna River Basin. The sampling areas, selected to represent aquifers where ground water is used as a drinking water supply, include four areas underlain by limestone, one area underlain by crystalline bedrock, and one area underlain by interbedded sandstone and shale. The land use is rural in five areas and urban in one area. Samples were collected in 1993-95 from 118 wells ranging from 30 to 226 feet deep. Analyses for 60 VOC's at detection levels ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/L (micrograms per liter) reveal the presence of 24 compounds. The compounds were present in water from 32 of the 118 wells. Methyl tert-butyl ether was the most commonly detected compound. Concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether, found in 16 of the 118 wells, ranged from 0.11 to 51 mg/L. Chloroform was the second most commonly detected compound. The highest concentration detected in a water sample was 61 mg/L of chloroform. None of the detections in samples from wells used as drinking water supplies exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels or Lifetime Health Advisory Levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the 51 mg/L of methyl tert-butyl ether, detected in water from a monitoring well, is in the 20 to 200 mg/L range proposed for a Lifetime Health Advisory Level. The occurrence of VOC's in limestone aquifers in the Great Valley near Harrisburg, Pa., is influenced by land use. VOC's occur more frequently in the urban area than in the agricultural area. Within the urban area, analyses of samples from wells, springs, and a spring-fed stream show contaminated ground water discharging from springs and flowing into the stream.

  16. 78 FR 73233 - Actions Taken at September 19, 2013, Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ....300 mgd (peak day). 3. Project Sponsor and Facility: Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation (Meshoppen Creek...: Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation (Meshoppen Creek), Springville Township, Susquehanna County, Pa. Surface...

  17. Flexible Weaving: Investigating the Teaching and Learning Opportunities in the Practices of Theatre-Makers and Performers from Selected Townships in Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gay

    2013-01-01

    In 2005-2009, the author researched the theatre-making practices of young people in selected black townships near Cape Town, South Africa. Township theatre groups comprised secondary school learners and out-of-school youth who join together to learn about and make theatre, perform and watch each other. These theatre practitioners do not describe…

  18. [Promoting family planning work in Xiaqidu township by establishing a family planning association in each village].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C

    1987-07-01

    A family planning association was established in each village of Xiaqidu Township in Hunan Province, China in October 1986. The positive functions of each such association were so fully developed that family planning work reached new levels. For example, most villages are no longer experiencing early marriages or unplanned births. Some of the villages have established associations for individual work groups. The traditional method was for both township and village associations to rely upon the positive attitudes of officials to instill into fertile women Party policy, and to arouse their patriotism and initiative. By establishing family planning associations at the village level, however, the people can conduct their own affairs and educate themselves. Emphasis has been placed on attracting into the associations those who are of childbearing age, as well as older villagers of experience. The associations' raison d'etre was to serve the people. They did so through: propaganda (disseminating population theory, birth control and family planning information); helping the people overcome poverty, traditional thinking, and ignorance; assisting women with any problems and anxieties relating to child-bearing; delivering contraceptives to households; and providing the elderly with care and the young with education.

  19. Social Mixing Patterns Within a South African Township Community: Implications for Respiratory Disease Transmission and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone-Robertson, Simon P.; Mark, Daniella; Morrow, Carl; Middelkoop, Keren; Chiswell, Melika; Aquino, Lisa D. H.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin

    2011-01-01

    A prospective survey of social mixing patterns relevant to respiratory disease transmission by large droplets (e.g., influenza) or small droplet nuclei (e.g., tuberculosis) was performed in a South African township in 2010. A total of 571 randomly selected participants recorded the numbers, times, and locations of close contacts (physical/nonphysical) and indoor casual contacts met daily. The median number of physical contacts was 12 (interquartile range (IQR), 7–18), the median number of close contacts was 20 (IQR, 13–29), and the total number of indoor contacts was 30 (IQR, 12–54). Physical and close contacts were most frequent and age-associative in youths aged 5–19 years. Numbers of close contacts were 40% higher than in corresponding populations in industrialized countries (P < 0.001). This may put township communities at higher risk for epidemics of acute respiratory illnesses. Simulations of an acute influenza epidemic predominantly involved adolescents and young adults, indicating that control strategies should be directed toward these age groups. Of all contacts, 86.2% occurred indoors with potential exposure to respiratory droplet nuclei, of which 27.2%, 20.1%, 20.0%, and 8.0% were in transport, own household, crèche/school, and work locations, respectively. Indoor contact time was long in households and short during transport. High numbers of indoor contacts and intergenerational mixing in households and transport may contribute to exceptionally high rates of tuberculosis transmission reported in the community. PMID:22071585

  20. Information and communications technology adoption amongst township micro and small business: The case of Soweto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Marnewick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: No empirical evidence is available on whether or not information and communications technology (ICT is adopted by South African township micro and small businesses (MSBs in order to grow the business. ICT, as an enabler, can grow the business. It is evident from literature that ICT enables MSBs to be more productive and efficient.Objectives: This research determines to what extent ICT is adopted by MSBs in Soweto, and whether or not a positive correlation exists between the adoption rate of ICT and the financial and growth performance of the MSB itself.Method: A structured questionnaire was completed by 978 respondents to determine the extent of ICT adoption and for what ICT is used. This exploratory research provides new knowledge about the acceptance of ICT within township MSBs.Results: The results indicate that ICT is not used to the fullest by MSBs. Rather, it is used as a basic tool for doing business but it does not form an integral part of the business. This research provides insight into the usage and adoption of ICT and it opens the door for further cross-analysis research.Conclusion: Education and training are needed to ensure that MSBs use ICT to the fullest. MSBs embracing ICT can evolve from a survivalist SME to a more sustainable micro and small MSB.

  1. Renewable Energy Use in Smallholder Farming Systems: A Case Study in Tafresh Township of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shabanali Fami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate use of renewable energy and materials in smallholder farming system of the Tafresh township of Iran. The population of the study consisted of 2,400 small farmers working in the smallholder farming systems of the area, in which 133 people were selected as sample using Cochran formula and simple random sampling technique. In order to gather the information, a questionnaire was developed for the study and validated by the judgment of the experts in agricultural development and extension. The reliability of the main scales of the questionnaire was examined by Cronbach Alpha coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 0.93, indicating the tool of study is reliable. The findings revealed that the majority of the respondents use renewable energy and materials directly in its traditional forms without enabling technologies, and they lack the access to renewable technologies to improve the efficiency of energy use. They preferred fossil energy for many activities due to its lower cost and ease of access. The overall conclusion is that there are potentials and capacities for using renewable energies and materials in the farming systems of the Tafresh township. The government has to support and encourage the adoption of renewable technologies and abandon fossil fuels wherever possible.

  2. Exploring safety in township secondary schools in the Free State province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Masitsa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research overwhelmingly suggests that effective teaching and learning can occur only in a safe and secure school environment. However, despite the plethora of laws and acts protecting teachers and learners in South African schools, scores of them are still unsafe. This study examines the safety of teachers and learners in township secondary schools in the Free State province, South Africa. The sample of study consisted of 396 teachers who were randomly selected from 44 township secondary schools across the province. The sample completed a questionnaire based on the safety of teachers and learners in their schools. Prior to completion, the questionnaire was tested for reliability using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and it was found to have a reliability score of .885, indicating an acceptable reliability coefficient. The questionnaire was computer analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Primer Version 12. The results of the analysis revealed that both teachers and learners are not safe in their schools, either during or after school hours. The causes of a lack of safety in these schools reside within and without the schools, implying that learners are sometimes the culprits. The study concludes with recommendations on addressing the problem.

  3. The story of a narrative: Teaching and assessing English writing in a township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Akinyeye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The new language curriculum in South Africa recommends that extended writing be taught through a combination of text-based (or genre and process approaches. This article reports on a study of the teaching and assessment of narrative writing in English as a first additional language (FAL at a time of curriculum change. The setting is a Cape Flats township school. In focusing on a story written by a Grade 9 learner and assessed by her teacher, the study sought evidence of the use of text-based and process approaches. The theoretical frame is informed by genre theory, which draws on Systemic Functional Linguistics and social constructivist approaches to language learning. A qualitative research paradigm was used. Data obtained for this case study included the learner’s writing, interviews with the teacher, and classroom observation. The study finds very little evidence of a scaffolded approach to the teaching and assessment of writing, and explores the constraints on the realisation of the curriculum cycle in English FAL. These relate to the teacher’s understanding of writing as well as to material conditions in township schools.

  4. Understanding teenage pregnancy in a post-apartheid South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi

    2010-05-01

    Although South Africa's total fertility rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of early childbearing remain a concern. Most teenage pregnancies occur among poor black and coloured South Africans. The majority of these pregnancies are said to be unwanted and unplanned and the teenager's relationships, unstable. Becoming a mother during one's teenage years is perceived to be socially, economically and physically deleterious for the teenager and her baby. This paper presents ethnographic data collected over a five-year period in the South African township of Nyanga East in the Western Cape. It draws attention to the circumstances that surround teenage pregnancy and discusses reactions to teenage pregnancies in this community. Findings highlight that despite the negative perception of teenage pregnancy within the township, particular social and cultural circumstances provided fertile ground for its occurrence. Furthermore, the paper argues that in this particular community the management of a teenage pregnancy played a functional and critical role in maintaining and reproducing social norms and ideals regarding intergenerational relationships, which ultimately ensured that the rates of early childbearing remained high.

  5. SOCIO-CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE E-MARKETING USERS (CASE OF RASHT TOWNSHIP, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed ALAVIOON

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study the socio-cultural index of rice electronic marketing users in Rasht Township, Iran. This study used a survey design and was conducted with a random sample of 367 paddy farmers in Rasht Township. To identify the socio-cultural characteristics of rice e-marketing users, a self-designed questionnaire was developed to gather data. For determining the validity of the questionnaire, the face and content validity were used. Reliability for the instrument was estimated at 0.81. The Kurskal-Wallis and U Mann-Whitney test have been used to identify the effective factors on e-marketing. The result revealed that almost 68% of farmers had high tendency to adoption of electronic marketing and more than 70% of respondents chose rural ICT offices for rice e-marketing. Experience in using the internet services and internet skill had significant effects on e-marketing adoption. Finally, the result of this research presents a brokerage model. The nature of this model is (B2C which means truck between business (ICT office and customers. In this model, rural ICT offices have a role as buy/sell fulfillment.

  6. High Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis Infection among Schoolchildren in Three Townships around Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Seung Koo; Kim, Jae Won; Choi, Soo-Lyoen; Song, Gyu-Young; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Min-Jae; Cho, Jaeeun; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Cho, Seon; Park, Jong-Bok; Hong, Sooji; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay

    2015-12-01

    In order to determine the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among schoolchildren in suburban areas of Myanmar, 761 primary schoolchildren in 3 different townships around Yangon City were subjected to a survey using cello-tape anal swabs. The subjected schoolchildren were 383 boys and 378 girls who were 5-7 years of age. Only 1 anal swab was obtained from each child. The overall egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was 47.2% (359 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable (48.6% in boys and 45.8% in girls). However, the positive rate was the highest in South Dagon (54.6%) followed by Hlaing Thayar (43.8%) and North Dagon (34.8%). This difference was highly correlated with the living standards of the people in each township. Nucleotide sequence of the 5S rDNA from the eggs on the cello-tape (2 children) revealed 99.7% identity with that of E. vermicularis reported in GenBank. The results indicated that E. vermicularis infection is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren around Yangon, Myanmar.

  7. Critical Failure Factors in Selling Shoplots towards Sustainability of New Township Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawil N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is to identify the critical factors of shop houses sale failure in Nilai New Township. The critical factors of sale failure of commercial property types, shop houses in new township need to be discover as reported by Valuation and Property Services Department (JPPH showed 5,931 units of shop houses in Malaysia is currently completed but remained unsold where Johor was recorded as the highest with unsold units followed by Negeri Sembilan. Thus Nilai New towship is chosen as research sample for unsold shop houses units due to its strategic location which is near to KLIA, International Sepang Circuit, educational instituitions and surrounded by housing scheme but yet still has numbers of unsold units. Data was gathered from survey question between developers, local authority, purchasers/tenant and local residents.. Generally, the factors of sale failure are economy, demography, politic, location and access, public and basic facilities, financial loan, physical of product, current stock of shop houses upon completion, future potential of subsale and rental, developer’s background, promotion and marketing, speculation and time.

  8. Applying spatial clustering analysis to a township-level social vulnerability assessment in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yen Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The degree of social vulnerability may vary according to the conditions and backgrounds of different locations, yet spatial clustering phenomena may exist when nearby spatial units exhibit similar characteristics. This study applied spatial autocorrelation statistics to analyze the spatial association of vulnerability among townships in Taiwan. The vulnerability was first assessed on the basis of a social vulnerability index that was constructed using Fuzzy Delphi and analytic hierarchy process methods. Subsequently, the corresponding indicator variables were applied to calculate standardized vulnerability assessment scores by using government data. According to the results of the vulnerability assessment in which T scores were normalized, the distribution of social vulnerabilities varied among the townships. The scores were further analyzed using spatial autocorrelation statistics for spatial clustering of vulnerability distribution. The Local G statistic identified 42 significant spatial association pockets, whereas the Global G statistic indicated no spatial phenomenon of clustering. This phenomenon was verified and explained by applying Moran's I statistics to examine the homogeneity and heterogeneity of spatial associations. Although both statistics were originally designed to identify the existence of spatial clustering, they serve diverse purposes, and the results can be compared to obtain additional insights into the distribution patterns of social vulnerability.

  9. Implementation of a "County-Township-Village" Allied HIV Prevention and Control Intervention in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao

    2017-09-01

    In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.

  10. The influence of township schools on the resilience of their learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Mampane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many learners living in townships require protection and resilience to overcome obstacles and adversities in their context of development. The literature on resilience indicates strongly that resilience is embedded systemically. In the absence of constructive and supportive conditions in the home environment, the school would logically appear to be the next resource in line to be tapped. We investigated the contribution of two South African township schools to the resilience of their middleadolescent learners. Case studies with focus groups of resilient and less-resilient Grade 9 learners were used, following the Interactive Qualitative Analysis method, to determine the participants' perceptions of how the school contributes to the degree and nature of their resilience. The influence of the school varied depending on the degree of the learners' resilience, but also depending on factors within the school itself, suggesting that schools play a distinctive and determining role. Contributions particularly highlighted included creation, or failure to create, a supportive teaching and learning environment with effective implementation of rules and educational policy to provide care and safety for its learners and develop them to reach their future goals. Resilient learners were more ready than less resilient learners to acknowledge and utilise these characteristics. All focus groups placed much emphasis on goal attainment, suggesting a strong relationship with resilience.

  11. Factors contributing to the resilience of middle-adolescents in a South African township : insights from a resilience questionnaire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mampane, Motlalepule Ruth

    2014-01-01

    .... Respondents attributed their buoyancy to individual and environmental factors, such as self-confidence, an internal locus of control, a tough personality, commitment, being achievement-oriented, as well as positive identification of and access to social support.

  12. A Diagnostic-Predictive Framework for Assessing Drought Risk in the Susquehanna River Basin in Response to Large-Scale Circulation Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, E.; Steinschneider, S.

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 drought in the Northeast US led to widespread water use restrictions and agricultural losses, as summertime streamflows approached 100 year lows. Recent research has suggested a possible oceanic forcing in the North Atlantic of past droughts in the region, such as those in the 1960s and 1990's, but others have suggested that at least a subset of these droughts are the result of natural atmospheric variability. This study presents a diagnostic-predictive framework to examine the prevailing atmospheric and oceanic conditions of the 2016 drought in the context of past droughts (1950-2015) and with a specific focus on the Susquehanna River Basin, the longest river on the U.S. east coast draining into the Atlantic. We first assess basin-wide hydroclimatic conditions (streamflow, precipitation, temperature, incident radiation, and relative humidity) during past droughts and determine whether the characteristics of these hydroclimatic variables cluster into distinct drought typologies. Prevailing features of atmospheric circulation (geopotential height and wind vector fields) and oceanic forcing (sea surface temperature anomalies) are identified during different drought types. We then present a hierarchical Bayesian modeling framework that formally links ocean forcing to atmospheric circulation to regional drought impacts and accounts for potential differences in the ocean-atmosphere-regional climate causal chain under varying drought typologies. Potential applications for seasonal drought forecasting in the Susquehanna River Basin, as well as in the causal analysis of relevant climatic processes across dynamical models used for climate reconstruction and climate changes projections, are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of the streamgage network for estimating streamflow statistics at ungaged sites in Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Stuckey, Marla H.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2017-05-10

    The current (2015) streamgage network in Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania and New York was evaluated in order to design a network that would meet the hydrologic needs of many partners and serve a variety of purposes and interests, including estimation of streamflow statistics at ungaged sites. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Susquehanna River Basin Commission. The study area includes the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania and New York. For this study, 229 streamgages were identified as reference streamgages that could be used to represent ungaged watersheds. Criteria for a reference streamgage are a minimum of 10 years of continuous record, minimally altered streamflow, and a drainage area less than 1,500 square miles. Some of the reference streamgages have been discontinued but provide historical hydrologic information valuable in the determination of streamflow characteristics of ungaged watersheds. Watersheds in the study area not adequately represented by a reference streamgage were identified by examining a range of basin characteristics, the extent of geographic coverage, and the strength of estimated streamflow correlations between gaged and ungaged sites.Basin characteristics were determined for the reference streamgage watersheds and the 1,662 12-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC12) subwatersheds in Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin using a geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis and nationally available GIS datasets. Basin characteristics selected for this study include drainage area, mean basin elevation, mean basin slope, percentage of urbanized area, percentage of forested area, percentage of carbonate bedrock, mean annual precipitation, and soil thickness. A GIS spatial analysis was used to identify HUC12 subwatersheds outside the range of basin

  14. "Girls Don't Play Soccer": Children Policing Gender on the Playground in a Township Primary School in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeza, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is based on an ethnographic study conducted between 2012 and 2014 with a group of 64 boys and girls aged 6-10, all attending the same township primary school in South Africa. The paper explores how the young children construct gender "boundaries" and "police" gender "transgressions" on the school playground…

  15. Reasons for the Slow Completion of Masters and Doctoral Degrees by Adult Learners in a South African Township

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motseke, Masilonyana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the reasons why adult learners took longer than required to complete their Master's and Doctoral degrees. A questionnaire and focus group interviews were used to collect data. Twenty adult learners who registered for the Master's and Doctoral degrees at one township campus of a university were targeted, and…

  16. On the Use of Spreadsheet Algebra Programs in the Professional Development of Teachers from Selected Township High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierdien, M. Faaiz

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the initial stages of a small-scale project involving the use of "spreadsheet algebra programs" in the professional development of eight teachers from three township high schools. In terms of the education context, the paper draws on social practice theory. It then details what is meant by spreadsheet algebra. An…

  17. 77 FR 38271 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 33B Verosol USA, Inc. Kennedy Township, Allegheny...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 33B Verosol USA, Inc. Kennedy Township, Allegheny County, PA Pursuant to the authority granted in the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the Foreign- Trade Zones Board Regulations (15 CFR part 400...

  18. Soils as a Record of Anthropogenic Metal Inputs: From Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory to Marietta, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M.; Herndon, E.; Brantley, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of metals emitted by anthropogenic activities has been a significant source of metal loading into soils in the United States for more than 200 years. Based on research at the Susquehanna Shale Hills CZO, we began investigating Mn inputs to soils in the northeastern U.S.A. from widespread atmospheric Mn emissions from steel manufacturers and coal-burning power plants. Total Mn inputs to Shale Hills soils at ridgetops are calculated to be 42 mg Mn/cm2. In order to more directly evaluate the link between Mn emissions and Mn enrichment in soils, we are now investigating soils around a ferromanganese refinery in Marietta, Ohio that is currently the largest emission source of manganese (Mn) into the atmosphere in the U.S.A. Particulate emissions during production are up to 31-34% percent manganese oxide (MnO) by weight. These particles range in diameter from 0.05 to 0.4 μm, making them both highly mobile and respirable. In order to assess the role of soils in Marietta as sinks for atmospherically-derived Mn, a series of soil cores have been collected from a range of distances (0.5 - 35 km) from the refinery. Mn is enriched at the soil surface up to 8 times above parent material composition sampled at 1 m depth near the source and decreases as a function of distance. Total mass of Mn added to soils per unit land area integrated over the soil depth core was calculated to be 50 mg Mn/cm2¬¬ near the refinery. In contrast, 10 mg Mn/cm2 was lost from the soil profile at a distance of 35 km from the facility. Enrichment of chromium (Cr) up to 3 times was also found in surface soils near the refinery, consistent with the production of ferrochromium at the Marietta plant. Further trace element analyses are being used to fingerprint atmospheric inputs from the refinery into the soil. Models of Mn addition to soils are also being developed and compared to known rates of emission.

  19. Perceived and actual cost of healthier foods versus their less healthy alternatives: a case study in a predominantly black urban township in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzigaba, M; Puoane, T

    2011-12-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the role played by the food retail characteristics in determining individuals' healthy food purchasing and consumption behaviors. The perceived costs of healthier food alternatives have been shown to contribute negatively to individual's food choices in developed societies. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge regarding this phenomenon in low to middle income countries particularly in Africa. This study explored health club member's experiences in buying healthier food options and compared their perceived cost of selected healthier and less healthy foods with actual market costs in a South African township. A cross-sectional study design using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The study was conducted in Khayelitsha, a township in the Western Cape Province in South Africa. Participants were 50 members of a health club, mostly female and above 50 years of age. The study was conducted in three phases. The first phase involved interviews with all 50 health club members. During the second phase ten purposively selected members participated in in-depth interviews based on their unhealthy food-purchasing and consumption patterns identified in the first phase. The third phase involved food price audits from supermarkets as well as convenient stores located in the study setting. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, while content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Most of the members were illiterate and unemployed, largely dependent on government grants. Qualitative findings showed that low household incomes, their inability to read and interpret nutritional information and personal food preferences contributed to Health club members' unhealthy food-purchasing behaviour. When objectively measured in local stores, the healthier food options proved to be more expensive than their less healthy equivalents. This was consistent with subjects' perceptions about the relative cost

  20. Evaluation of the Township Proper Carrying Capacity over Qinghai-Tibet plateau by CASA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengyong; Cao, Guangchao; Xue, Huaju; Jiang, Gang; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Jie; Chen, Kelong

    2018-01-01

    The existing study of proper carrying capacity (PCC) has mostly focused on province or county administrative units, which can only macroscopically master the quantitative characteristics of PCC, but could not effectively take some animal husbandry management measures that are pertinent and operational. At town-scale, this paper used CASA model to estimate the PCC in Mongolian Autonomous County of Henan, Qinghai province, China,with serious grassland degeneration that mainly caused by overgrazing. The results showed that the PCC throughout the County was 950,417 sheep unit. For the township, the PCC of Saierlong and Duosong were the largest (247,100 sheep unit) and the smallest (82,016 sheep unit) respectively. This study will provide reference data for developing sustainable development of town-scale pasture policies and also will help to evaluate the health status of the alpine grassland ecosystem on Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

  1. Engineering feasibility analysis for in-situ stabilization of Burrell Township site residues. [UMTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-11-01

    The Burrell Township site, located in western Pennsylvania, received approximately 11,600 tons of radioactively-contaminated material in late 1956 and early 1957 from the Vitro Manufacturing Company's operations in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. WESTON was requested to conduct an engineering study to determine the feasibility of stabilizing the site in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) interim and proposed standards (45 FR 27366--27368, April 22, 1980, and 46 FR 2556--2563, January 9, 1981). The scope of this study is limited to those alternatives that can be implemented on the site and will not require removal and offsite disposal of radioactively-contaminated material. Four alternatives for control of the radioactive material at the Burrell site were considered and evaluated, as follows: 1. Site stabilization and closure. 2. Site control and containment. 3. Waste excavation and encapsulation. 4. Waste excavation, incineration, and encapsulation. 2 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Reservoir management strategy for East Randolph Field, Randolph Township, Portage County, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safley, L.E.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.; Fowler, M.L.; Wing, J.L.; Thomas, J.B.; Mills, J.; Wood, D.

    1998-07-01

    The primary objective of the Reservoir Management Field Demonstration Program is to demonstrate that multidisciplinary reservoir management teams using appropriate software and methodologies with efforts scaled to the size of the resource are a cost-effective method for: Increasing current profitability of field operations; Forestalling abandonment of the reservoir; and Improving long-term economic recovery for the company. The primary objective of the Reservoir Management Demonstration Project with Belden and Blake Corporation is to develop a comprehensive reservoir management strategy to improve the operational economics and optimize oil production from East Randolph field, Randolph Township, Portage County, Ohio. This strategy identifies the viable improved recovery process options and defines related operational and facility requirements. In addition, strategies are addressed for field operation problems, such as paraffin buildup, hydraulic fracture stimulation, pumping system optimization, and production treatment requirements, with the goal of reducing operating costs and improving oil recovery.

  3. Challenging Pentecostal moralism: erotic geographies, religion and sexual practices among township youth in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, Marian

    2011-06-01

    Research on constructions of sexuality in Pentecostalism often struggles with the fact that the research setting is defined ex ante in terms of church communities, which imposes upon ethnographic accounts the same limitations Pentecostal morality imposes upon church members' discourse. Taking young Pentecostals operating in a space that is not explicitly religious as the methodological entrance to the field, this paper explores negotiations over sexuality, intimate relationships and love among Xhosa-speaking township youth. It introduces the notion of erotic geographies to consider how possible influences of religious discourses on sexuality are refracted by alternative cultural orientations and material contexts. Findings suggest that premarital abstinence appears as a highly exceptional ideal for youth. Even among Pentecostal youth, notions of sexuality are largely severed from religiosity and faithfulness and romanticism are dominant ideals. Future research on Pentecostalism and sexuality should be less religious-centric and rooted more firmly in ethnographies of youth sexual cultures.

  4. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York. The surficial geology, inferred ice-marginal positions, and distribution of stratified-drift aquifers were mapped from existing data. Ice-marginal positions, which represent pauses in the retreat of glacial ice from the region, favored the accumulation of coarse-grained deposits whereas more steady or rapid ice retreat between these positions favored deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits with limited coarse-grained deposits at depth. Unconfined aquifers with thick saturated coarse-grained deposits are the most favorable settings for water-resource development, and three several-mile-long sections of valley were identified (mostly in Broome County) as potentially favorable: (1) the southernmost valley section, which extends from the New York–Pennsylvania border to about 1 mile north of South Windsor, (2) the valley section that rounds the west side of the umlaufberg (an isolated bedrock hill within a valley) north of Windsor, and (3) the east–west valley section at the Broome County–Chenango County border from Nineveh to East of Bettsburg (including the lower reach of the Cornell Brook valley). Fine-grained lacustrine deposits form extensive confining units between the unconfined areas, and the water-resource potential of confined aquifers is largely untested. Recharge, or replenishment, of these aquifers is dependent not only on infiltration of precipitation directly on unconfined aquifers, but perhaps more so from precipitation that falls in adjacent upland areas. Surface runoff and shallow groundwater from the valley walls flow downslope and recharge valley aquifers. Tributary streams that drain upland areas lose flow as they enter main valleys on permeable alluvial fans. This infiltrating water also recharges valley aquifers. Current (2012) use of

  5. FLOODPLAIN, SUSQUEHANNA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  6. (Re)visualizing Black lesbian lives, (trans)masculinity, and township space in the documentary work of Zanele Muholi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imma, Z'étoile

    2017-04-03

    This article explores the politics of representing Black queer and trans subjectivities in the recent documentary film and photography of South African lesbian visual activist Zanele Muholi. While Muholi's work has been most often been positioned as an artistic response to the hate-crimes and violence perpetuated against Black lesbians in South African townships, most notably acts of sexual violence known increasingly as corrective rape, I argue that Muholi's documentary texts trouble the spatial, gendered, and highly racialized articulations that make up an increasingly global corrective rape discourse. The article considers how her visual texts foreground and (re)visualize Black queer and trans gender experiences that relocate, challenge, collaborate with, and at times, perform, masculinity as means to subvert heterosexist and racist constructions of township space and the Black gendered body.

  7. EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL SITUATION IN CASE OF ACCIDENTS ON TOWNSHIP ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Rusakova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper examines the question of creation a mathematical apparatus for estimation the ecological situation in case of accidents on township roads (explosions. First of all the development of numerical model to calculate the level of air pollution in the emission of toxic chemical, taking into account meteorological parameters of the environment. Identifying areas where the maximum allowable concentration of this pollutant (in this case, ammonia is exceeded and favorable areas for the population. Methodology. The developed method of numerical calculation of the air pollution concentration in case of toxic chemical (ammonia was used, which is based on the coordinated decision of the hydrodynamic task and task of the pollutants transfer in the atmosphere. Hydrodynamic solution is based on the method of discrete vortices with the different geometry of buildings and their relative position, and solution of the task about transfer the pollutant is based on convection-diffusion equation of pollutant transfer using implicit difference schemes. Findings. Several computational experiments were made on the base of the developed numerical model.As a result of the calculations the vortex structures were obtained, which are formed in the flow around buildings; the velocity field of the wind flow around buildings and picture of the streamlines in the flow were come out; the concentration of the toxic chemical (ammonia in research domain was calculated; the comparative analysis with the maximum permissible concentration (MPC for this pollutant were made; the regularities of changing the ammonia concentration from different sides of the building were determined. Originality. A numerical model that allows visually reconstructing and analyzing the flow pattern, the presence of dead zones, areas of reverse flow at different geometry of buildings and their relative position that influences the distribution of pollutant in the atmosphere was calculated

  8. The relationship between income and demand for energy commodities in Malawi: the case of South Lunzu Township

    OpenAIRE

    Betchani H.M. Tchereni

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of household income on demand for electricity and fuel-wood in South Lunzu Township of Blantyre city, Malawi. Survey data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Using Engel function analysis employed in ordinary least squares framework, the study found a negative relationship between fuel-wood and income and a positive relationship between income and electricity expenditure. This shows that fuel-wood is regarded as an inferior commodity and elect...

  9. 75 FR 31508 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    .... 7. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: RoseC P1, ABR-20100407, Dimock Township, Susquehanna County....; Approval Date: April 19, 2010. 31. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: BlaisureJe P1, ABR- 20100431, Dimock Township, Susquehanna County, Pa.; Approval Date: April 19, 2010. 32. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation...

  10. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Jiao, Mingli; Cui, Yu; Lu, Yan; Liu, Jinghua; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuchong; Zhao, Yanming; Li, Ye; Liang, Libo; Kang, Zheng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei

    2016-08-10

    Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers' worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory). Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%). One hundred and six (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%). While most (85.2%) respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents' suggested measures for controlling violence included "widening channels on medical dispute solutions," "improving doctor-patient communication," and "advocating for respect for medical workers via the media." Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers' worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals.

  11. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers’ worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory. Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%. One hundred and six (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%. While most (85.2% respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents’ suggested measures for controlling violence included “widening channels on medical dispute solutions,” “improving doctor-patient communication,” and “advocating for respect for medical workers via the media.” Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers’ worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals.

  12. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Jiao, Mingli; Cui, Yu; Lu, Yan; Liu, Jinghua; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuchong; Zhao, Yanming; Li, Ye; Liang, Libo; Kang, Zheng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers’ worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory). Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%). One hundred and six (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%). While most (85.2%) respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents’ suggested measures for controlling violence included “widening channels on medical dispute solutions,” “improving doctor-patient communication,” and “advocating for respect for medical workers via the media.” Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers’ worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals. PMID:27517949

  13. Aedes larval indices and the occurrence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in urban community of Thanlyin Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thae’ Zar Chi Bo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban community of Thanlyin Township, Yangon Region during 2014 to determine Aedes larval indices and the occurrence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF within past one year. A total of 327 households and 1491 members were included in the study. Aedes larval indices detected in this study were 25.7% for house index, 15.5% for container index and 48.0% for Breteau index. The occurrence of DHF among households and family members were 2.1% (95% CI: 0.9%, 4.4% and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3%, 1.1%, respectively. The occurrence was highest among 5 to 14 years age-group. No case was reported among persons with equal or more than 60 years of age. Mortality and case fatality rates were 0% during study period. Larval positivity among households was significantly related to sufficiency of family income and number of water container they have. Surveillance and control procedures for both DHF and vector should be intensified in urban area. Awareness and participation of the community in prevention and control of DHF should also be raised. Socioeconomic status as well as proper water supply and storage should be improved in urban area.

  14. Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in Orange Farm Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangile Bingma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I reflect on the methodological processes underpinning a dissertation that investigated male learners' reasons for leaving high school early and the strategies they employed to negotiate everyday life. A qualitative case study was conducted with nine male early high school leavers between the ages of 18 and 25, as well as 12 stakeholders involved in the Orange Farm Township, south of Johannesburg. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, document reviews, and observations. Narrative analysis revealed complications related to the notions of space and place of the potential participants and the researcher. In the first place, the difficulty was not in identifying participants, but in establishing rapport to the extent that they agreed to participate in the research. Assumptions about space and place gave rise to expectations that had to be managed, and consequently the researcher had to rethink the methodological choices. In particular, participants' perceived real social positions and their relation to different social spaces had to be negotiated. It is suggested that relatively novice researchers, researching male early high school leaving in familiar spaces, can mitigate complications of space, place and stigma during fieldwork by using multiple sources of data and strategic, flexible interviewing techniques.

  15. Integrating social contact and environmental data in evaluating tuberculosis transmission in a South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jason R; Morrow, Carl; Walensky, Rochelle P; Wood, Robin

    2014-08-15

    Population models of tuberculosis transmission have not accounted for social contact structure and the role of the environment in which tuberculosis is transmitted. We utilized extensions to the Wells-Riley model of tuberculosis transmission, using exhaled carbon dioxide as a tracer gas, to describe transmission patterns in an endemic community. Drawing upon social interaction data and carbon dioxide measurements from a South African township, we created an age-structured model of tuberculosis transmission in households, public transit, schools, and workplaces. We fit the model to local data on latent tuberculosis prevalence by age. Most tuberculosis infections (84%) were estimated to occur outside of one's own household. Fifty percent of infections among young adults (ages 15-19) occurred in schools, due to high contact rates and poor ventilation. Despite lower numbers of contacts in workplaces, assortative mixing among adults with high rates of smear-positive tuberculosis contributed to transmission in this environment. Households and public transit were important sites of transmission between age groups. Consistent with molecular epidemiologic estimates, a minority of tuberculosis transmission was estimated to occur within households, which may limit the impact of contact investigations. Further work is needed to investigate the role of schools in tuberculosis transmission. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Information and communications technology adoption amongst township micro and small business: The case of Soweto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Marnewick

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: This research determines to what extent ICT is adopted by MSBs in Soweto, and whether or not a positive correlation exists between the adoption rate of ICT and the financial and growth performance of the MSB itself. Method: A structured questionnaire was completed by 978 respondents to determine the extent of ICT adoption and for what ICT is used. This exploratory research provides new knowledge about the acceptance of ICT within township MSBs. Results: The results indicate that ICT is not used to the fullest by MSBs. Rather, it is used as a basic tool for doing business but it does not form an integral part of the business. This research provides insight into the usage and adoption of ICT and it opens the door for further cross-analysis research. Conclusion: Education and training are needed to ensure that MSBs use ICT to the fullest. MSBs embracing ICT can evolve from a survivalist SME to a more sustainable micro and small MSB.

  17. [An epidemiological survey on paragonimiasis in Jin Miaopu township in Shanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Man-Ling; Li, Shao-Gang; Wu, Zhao-Yong; Yin, Cheng-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zhai, Jian-Guo; Chen, Jie; Han, Su-Fang; Zhang, Xia-Xia; Shang, Ya-Li; Yan, Xiao-Chou

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the epidemiological factors and tendency of paragonimiasis in Jin Miaopu township in Zezhou county of Shanxi Province, and to understand the current status of public awareness for providing references to paragonimiasis education and prevention. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 2172 villagers probing awareness of paragonimiasis and their experiences of eating crabs; Infection screening and antibody test were also performed by means of ELISA. The paragonimiasis knowledge coverage rate was zero, and 67.7% (1471/2172) of the respondents claimed their histories of crab eating and 96.7% (29/30) of crabs were infected with metacercaria of paragonimus. Of all the study subjects, 11% (241/2172) of them were infected with the positive rate of 4.1% (89/270). The incidence of paragonimiasis is closely related to dietetic habit in local residents. It is extremely necessary to increase the public awareness of paragonimiasis prevention and control and to improve the living conditions and dietetic habits.

  18. Maternal health care utilization among ever married youths in Kyimyindaing Township, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Kyi Kyi

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to identify maternal care services utilization among ever married female youths (15-24 years) in Kyimyindaing Township, Yangon, Myanmar. A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 196 ever married females who had delivered at least one child were included. Multistage sampling was employed. Face to face interviews using a structured questionnaire were carried out. Respondents were asked about their maternal care services utilization at the last pregnancy. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were applied to determine the factors associated with utilization of maternal care services. Overall 96% of respondents received antenatal care (ANC) at least once and 79% had at least 4 ANC visits. The mean number of antenatal visits increased with women's education level. The majority received late ANC regardless of residence, age, education and family income. Nearly 39% delivered at home, especially in rural areas and 79% of home deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants (TBAs). Only 56.6% of women received at least one postnatal care visit. Inadequate postnatal care (rural women and women with little or no education. Quality ANC should be the entry point of safe delivery and postnatal care. Further intensification of information, education and communication activities on "safe motherhood" is needed.

  19. Energy aspects of city districts and rural townships; Energieaspekte staedtischer und laendlicher Siedlungen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Arend, M.; Philippen, D. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilgen, K.; Beaujean, K. [Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil, Institut fuer Raumentwicklung, Rapperswil (Switzerland); Schneider, S. [Planungsbuero Jud AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-01-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning the energy consumption of various residential districts in cities and in rural townships. The analysis examines the consumption of primary energy by residential buildings, their supply and disposal infrastructures and that of traffic induced by settlements. Also, grey energy: consumption for the construction, renovation and demolition of buildings and infrastructures as well as the consumption of primary energy for the production and disposal of individual motor vehicle traffic and public transport is reviewed. Four Swiss case studies are dealt with including largely homogenous residential districts in Effretikon, Oetwil am See, Uster and the City of Zurich. The results of the analyses made are presented in graphical form. The authors quote the great potential for the reduction of the consumption of settlement-dependent primary energy that lies in the fields of energy-efficiency of buildings, mobility and power consumption. The report is rounded off with a comprehensive appendix.

  20. A journey towards inclusive education; a case study from a 'township' in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Rosemary; Prudhomme, Debbie; Bullen, Ann; Pitt, Catherine; Geiger, Martha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to relate part of the journey to appropriate education for two young children with physical disabilities in a low socio-economic peri-urban informal settlement - or 'township' - in South Africa. The part of the on-going journey described here spanned four-and-a-half years and included the two children, their families, their teachers, their community and a small team of rehabilitation professionals working for a non-profit organisation in the area. The rehabilitation professionals' goals were to provide support for the children, their families, their current special care centre and the school(s) they would attend in the future. The steps from the special care centre, to a mainstream early childhood development (ECD) centre for both of them, and then on to (a) a school for learners with special educational needs (LSEN) for one child and (b) a mainstream primary school for the other, are described. Challenges encountered on the way included parental fears, community attitudes and physical accessibility. Practical outcomes included different placements for the two children with implications and recommendations for prioritised parent involvement, individual approaches, interdisciplinary and community-based collaborations. Recommendations are given for clinical contexts, curricula and policy matters; for research and for scaling up such a programme through community workers.

  1. Silence, blame and AIDS conspiracy theories among the Xhosa people in two townships in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivelä, Jonas Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Conspiratorial expressions about the origins of HIV/AIDS have been recognised as an outcome of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa. This article examines the reasons behind AIDS conspiracy theories, which include a reoccurring repertory of themes, motifs and characters. In these expressions, the malevolent antagonist is the replaced apartheid regime, along with other more archetypal adversaries. So far, AIDS conspiracy theories have been interpreted in terms of currently perceived injustices and frustrations related to the complex past of South Africa. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among Xhosa people in two townships in Cape Town, this article goes further to examine how AIDS conspiracy theories in South Africa can be ascribed to gender-based communication. Sporadic but pronounced expressions of conspiratorial thinking should be understood as connected to local traditions of avoidance and respect. Moreover, the fact that conspiratorial expressions are more common among men can be seen in terms of a counter-narrative mechanism, which is to some extent due to the blame that is cast on men for being the main culprits behind the spread of HIV/AIDS.

  2. Ground water quality evaluation in the lean period of a mining township

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Maiti, Deblina; Kumar, Adarsh

    2017-11-01

    Groundwater of mining towns is very much affected due to mining activity. During mining of mineral from underground, huge quantity of ground water is pumped out to make mining possible. Groundwater samples have been collected from the 20 sampling sites of Dhanbad, a mining Township, in the lean period (summer) of the years 2011 and 2014. Four samples have been obtained from open well and 16 from hand pumps. Water quality parameters such as pH, total hardness, Ca hardness, Mg Hardness, chloride, sulphate, total dissolved solids, and heavy metals have been evaluated. The values of pH, total hardness, Ca hardness, Mg hardness, chloride, sulphate, and total dissolved solids have increased in 2014 as compared to 2011 which may be due to increase in mineral content in the lean period and decrease in the rate of recharge of aquifers in 2014. The concentration of heavy metals has decreased in 2014 as compared to 2011 which may be due to less leaching of heavy metals from the ground strata. From the overall study, it has been concluded that most of the water quality parameters of all the 20 groundwater samples in the year 2014 are not exceeding the acceptable concentration level, as mentioned in Indian drinking water specifications. Groundwater in the year 2014 has not shown any significant change in its quality as compared to the year 2011. In the incoming years, quality of groundwater will not show any drastic change unless and until any anthropogenic activity other than mining will affect it.

  3. Are we teaching critical literacy? Reading practices in a township classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynis Lloyd

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in educational provision in South Africa since 1994, the opportunities for learners from historically under-resourced schools to gain access to powerful English resources remain limited and unequal (Prinsloo 2012. In this article I will provide a detailed description of literacy practices in a township high school in Cape Town, specifically of the orientations to text that are made available to learners. I will draw on feminist poststructuralist theory, in which the subject is theorised as constructed and contested in language to construct difference. The analysis of classroom discourse and text-based tasks shows that the orientations to reading that were offered were characterised by a focus on the surface meaning of the texts and by an absence of critical engagement, despite the latter being required in the new Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement. The analysis reveals how the power dynamics of our racialised past and dominant ideologies about gender, class and race continue to define teaching in our classrooms in ways that limit access to the English resources that learners in under-resourced schools need for academic success.

  4. Mothers' perinatal and infant mental health knowledge in a Johannesburg township setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Katherine; Richards, Jade

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines maternal knowledge regarding perinatal and infant mental health amongst mothers in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. The applicability and utility of these Western-derived concepts in a low socio-economic South African setting is examined. A concurrent mixed methods approach was used. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on the responses of 255 mothers on a structured questionnaire, designed to elicit levels of knowledge about the relational needs and awareness of infants and the psychosocial needs of mothers, to determine trends in mothers' knowledge. A thematic content analysis was also conducted on the responses to determine themes and understandings within the mothers' responses. Maternal knowledge in Alexandra regarding perinatal and infant mental health correlates with maternal education levels. Cultural, contextual and psychological factors appear to influence maternal understandings of infant sentience and maternal ambivalence. Further research is required to determine possible contributions of the denial of negative maternal affect post-birth to elevated levels of post-natal depression found amongst South African mothers parenting in adverse circumstances. There is a need for education regarding key messages from the neuroscience of development, to give these parents opportunities to raise their children in a way that supports healthy cognitive and emotional development.

  5. HIV testing practices of South African township MSM in the era of expanded access to ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G M; Knox, Justin; Collier, Kate L; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu

    2015-03-01

    While men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, few of those already infected know their status. Effectively promoting frequent HIV testing-of increasing importance with the expanding accessibility of antiretroviral treatment-requires an understanding of the testing practices in this population. To understand men's HIV testing practices, including their behavior, experiences, and perceptions, we conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black South African MSM (ages 20-39), purposively recruited from four townships. Many men in the sample had tested for HIV. While ever having tested seemed to facilitate repeat testing, men still expressed a high level of discomfort with testing. It was common to test after having engaged in risky behavior, thus increasing anxiety about testing that was already present. Fear that they might test HIV positive caused some men to avoid testing until they were clearly sick, and others to avoid testing completely. HIV testing may increase in this population if it becomes a routine practice, instead of being driven by anxiety-inducing incidents. Mobilization through social support might facilitate frequent testing while education about current treatment options is needed.

  6. The life-world of mothers who care for mentally retarded children: the Katutura township experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ntswane

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155 of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.

  7. The life-world of mothers who care for mentally retarded children: the Katutura township experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntswane, A M; van Rhyn, L

    2007-03-01

    This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155) of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.

  8. The Role of Rural Communities in Conservation of Rangelands in Mahneshan Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Karimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the action of rangeland-depended livestock holders regarding rangeland conservation, including protection and rehabilitation activities and to analyse relevant influencing factors, using a mixed method of survey and case study. The data were collected through analysing existing documents, focus groups, semi-structured and structured interviews using questionnaires submitted to 204 rural livestock holders in the Mahneshan Township. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS and AMOS software. According to the results farmers’ knowledge regarding the role, importance and factors affecting rangeland degradation was relatively high, however they had a low level of knowledge and action about mechanical conservation techniques. The action of livestock holders in terms of biological conservation activities and grazing management showed a positive and signifincat corrletaion with variables such as implementing of rangeland projects, their interaction with external institutions, participating in extension training courses, education level and irrigated and rainfed agricultural land size. Moreover, based on a path analysis, 37% of the variance of the farmers’ actions regarding the rangeland conservation was explained by the variables such as rangeland rehabilitation actions, farmers’ conservation knowledge, farmers’ interaction with natural resources experts, beekeeping, and participating in extension training courses. Promotional and extension activities and farmers’ interaction with experts have a positive effect in enhancing farmers’ knowledge and actions for sustainable rangeland use and conservation.

  9. Widening the cervical cancer screening net in a South African township: who are the underserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet; Risi, Liliana; Denny, Lynette

    2004-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening services in South Africa have failed to reach the majority of the population and to significantly reduce mortality. A household survey in a predominantly Black African population living in a low-income township on the outskirts of Cape Town was undertaken to ascertain the characteristics of women reporting never having been screened. In our group of 664 representatively sampled women. 45% of women reported having had a cervical screening test. However, in what at first glance appears to be a fairly homogeneous population, there were significant differences in the types of women who access and who do not access cervical smear services. The underserved tend to be the older, poorer, less educated, and unemployed (or working in the informal sector) women. They tend to live in nonpermanent dwellings without a partner, they do not know anyone else who has had a cervical smear, and they have not recently sought care for other ailments, or used contraception. Cervical cancer is a slow-to-develop, eminently preventable disease, and yet opportunistic screening through antenatal and family planning services has failed to reach the women most at risk. Efforts in the future must include targeting older women in health centres where they present for other curative services (diabetes, hypertension). Most importantly, areas of the community with the greatest concentration of marginalized women need to be targeted through peer education and other innovative programs. As the underserved tend to be the poorer and less educated women in the community, we must ensure that messages are culturally relevant and appropriate and have a holistic focus on women's physical, mental, and emotional health.

  10. Unmet needs in continuing medical education programs for rural Chinese township health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Yi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to describe the system of continuing medical education (CME in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and to ascertain the perceived needs related to that system, in order to improve the performance of health professionals in Chinese township health centers (THCs. Methods: In-depth key informant interviews were conducted to gain insights into the current CME system. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was also carried out from March to August 2014 in order to identify perceived needs among THC personnel in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Logistic regression was used to identify factors related to respondents’ interest in pursuing different levels of degree study. Results: The areas of need perceived by the respondents included general clinical competence and emergency or first aid knowledge. Most respondents wanted to study at medical colleges in order to obtain a higher degree. Respondents aged below 45 years with neutral or positive attitudes about the benefit of degree study for the licensure examination were more likely to attend a bachelor-level CME program than their older peers and respondents with negative attitudes towards degree study. Female respondents and respondents aged below 45 years were more likely to attend a junior college CME program than males and older respondents, respectively. Conclusion: It is necessary to develop degree-linked CME programs to meet the need for young health professionals in Chinese THCs; therefore, this programs can improve the expertise of poorly educated young health workers, who overwhelm rural Chinese heath systems.

  11. How is their word knowledge growing? Exploring Grade 3 vocabulary in South African township schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Pretorius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report on a study that examined the active and receptive English vocabulary of two different groups of Grade 3 learners in South African township schools. The groups consisted of English Home Language (HL learners in the Western Cape and Xhosa HL and English First Additional Language (FAL learners in the Eastern Cape. The purpose was to document their different vocabulary trajectories during Grade 3. The Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey was used to measure the active vocabulary levels of 118 learners at the beginning and the end of the school year. Another 284 learners from the same eight Grade 3 classes participated in a receptive vocabulary test at the end of the year. This test assessed their knowledge of the 60 most frequent words that occur in South Africa Grade 4 English textbooks. Results showed that although the HL learners knew almost double the number of words their English FAL peers did, both groups of learners increased their active word knowledge through the year by about 9%. Regarding their receptive vocabulary, the English FAL learners on average only knew 27% of the most frequent words at the end of their Grade 3. No significant gender differences were found. Learners in both language groups who were above their grade age had significantly lower scores than their younger peers. This confirms findings that children who start school with weak language skills tend to stay weak. Finally, initial active vocabulary knowledge was found to be a strong predictor of vocabulary development during the school year.

  12. PLSS Townships and Sections, QuarterSectionPoly-The data set is a polygon feature consisting of 1047 polygons representing quarter section boundaries. It was created to maintain the location of township and range quarter sections., Published in 1995, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — PLSS Townships and Sections dataset current as of 1995. QuarterSectionPoly-The data set is a polygon feature consisting of 1047 polygons representing quarter section...

  13. PLSS Townships and Sections, Public Land Survey square-mile section boundaries within Sedgwick County. Layer was developed interactively by GIS staff. Primary attribues include section, township, and range identifiers, and x-y coordinates, and Public Safety (ortho) map numbers., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — PLSS Townships and Sections dataset current as of 2008. Public Land Survey square-mile section boundaries within Sedgwick County. Layer was developed interactively...

  14. Cities, Towns and Villages, Public Land Survey township boundaries within Sedgwick County. Layer was developed interactively by GIS staff. Primary attribues include township, and range identifiers, and x-y coordinates., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cities, Towns and Villages dataset current as of 2008. Public Land Survey township boundaries within Sedgwick County. Layer was developed interactively by GIS staff....

  15. The Choices and Relationships of Tea Producers: A Case Study on Tea Production in Namhsan Township, Shan State, Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    生駒, 美樹

    2014-01-01

    In Myanmar, tea is used not only as a drink but also as a food product in the form of pickled tea. The Namhsan Township, which is in the highlands of northern Shan State - and where the Palaung people, of the Mon-Khmer group, constitute 90 percent of the population - is the largest tea-producing region in Myanmar. All three kinds of tea - pickled tea (post-fermentation tea), green tea (non-fermented tea), and black tea (fully fermented tea) - are produced in Namhsan, where producers choose th...

  16. Characterizing Subsurface Lithology and Hydrological Processes at the Susquehanna Shale Hills CZO Using Multi-scale Near-surface Geophysical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, G.; Guo, L.; Comas, X.; DiBiase, R.; Hayes, J. L.; Del Vecchio, J.; Forsythe, B.; Brantley, S. L.; Lin, H.

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of the subsurface lithology of the critical zone using traditional point scale methods such as coring is complicated by the number of samples and time required to properly capture the spatial variability in complex hydrogeological systems, particularly for large scale (i.e. km) studies. Near-surface geophysical techniques can be used to efficiently collect subsurface data at high spatial and temporal resolution and over several scales of measurement to image the subsurface lithology and capture changes over time that can be linked to hydrogeological processes. In this research, preliminary geophysical data including ground penetrating radar, seismic, magnetometry, and terrain conductivity were collected at a series of sites within the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory to characterize the subsurface lithology within two distinct geologic settings: the Garner Run sub-catchment overlaying quartzite, and the Shale Hills sub-catchment overlaying fractured shales. Techniques were applied at both sites in the to 1) investigate the thickness and hydrologic properties of shallow soils, and 2) characterize the hydrological settings of an artisanal spring. This study shows the potential of near-surface geophysical methods to better understand subsurface structure and processes and to develop parameters that could be utilized by local and regional hydrology models.

  17. Age-group differences in risk perceptions of non-communicable diseases among adults in Diepsloot township, Johannesburg, South Africa: A cross-sectional study based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Z; Khamisa, N; Tshuma, N

    2017-08-25

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa (SA) occur simultaneously with an ageing HIV-positive population, resulting in premature deaths in persons <70 years of age. Poor risk perception of NCDs results in poor adoption practices of NCD preventive measures. There is a gap in age-related research regarding risk perceptions of NCDs among the SA population. To investigate age-group differences in risk perceptions of NCDs based on the Health Belief Model. This cross-sectional design used secondary data obtained from Community AIDS Response (CARe), Johannesburg, SA. Data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in Extension 2 (Blocks I, J, K and L) of Diepsloot township, Johannesburg, SA. The Pearson χ2 test of independence was used to examine the relationship between age groups and risk perceptions of NCDs. A p<0.05 value was considered statistically significant. A total of 2 135 participants were included in the analysis, of whom 71.5% were young adults (18 - 35 years). The mean age of the study participants was 32.1 (standard deviation 9.87) years. Significant associations were found between age groups and risk perceptions of NCDs. More middle-aged adults than young adults and older-aged adults perceived family history (74.00% v. 72.74% v. 62.39%, p=0.045) and smoking (83.80% v. 77.20% v. 74.31%, p=0.004) as risk factors that would increase their risk of NCDs. A higher proportion of older-aged adults than young adults and middle-aged adults perceived effects on life and family (89.91% v. 77.39% v. 75.40%, p=0.004) as risks of NCD morbidities. More middle-aged adults than young adults and older-aged adults perceived the usefulness of not smoking (84.60% v. 81.06% v. 74.31%, p=0.028) as an effective NCD preventive measure. More young adults than middle-aged and older-aged adults considered health check-ups (59.31% v. 58.00% v. 41.28%, p=0.001) as a time-consuming process to prevent risks of NCDs. Young adults had poorer risk perceptions of NCDs than

  18. Geohydrology of the Stockton Formation and cross-contamination through open boreholes, Hatboro Borough and Warminster Township, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, R.A.; Macchiaroli, Paola; Towle, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    The study area consists of a 9-square-mile area underlain by sedimentary rocks of the middle arkose member of the Stockton Formation of Upper Triassic age. In the Hatboro area, the Stockton Formation strikes approximately N. 65 degrees E. and dps approximately 9 degrees NW. The rocks are chiefly arkosic sandstone and siltstone. Rocks of the Stocton Formation form a complex, heterogeneous, multiaquifer system consisting of a series of gently dipping lithologic units with different hydraulic properties. Most ground water in the unweathered zone moves through a network of interconnecting secondary openigns-fractures, bedding plans, and joints. Ground water is unconfined in the shallower part of the aquifer and semiconfined or confined in the deeper part of the aquifer. Nearly all deep wells in the Stockton Formation are open to several water-bearing zones and are multiaquifer wells. Each water-bearing zone usually has a different hydraulic head. Where differences in hydraulic head exist between water-bearing zones, water in the well bore flows under nonpumping conditions in the direction of decreasing head. Determination of the potential for borehole flow was based on caliper, natural-gamma, single- point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, and (or) fluid-temperature logs that were run in 162 boreholes 31 to 655 feet deep. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement were determined in 83 boreholes by the bring-tracing method and in 10 boreholes by use of a heat-pulse flowmeter. Borehole flow was measurable in 65 of the 93 boreholes (70 percent). Fluid movement at rates up to 17 gallons per minute was measured. Downward flow was measured in 36 boreholes, and upward flow was measured in 23 boreholes, not including those boreholes in which two directions of flow were measured. Both upward and downward vertical flow was measured in six boreholes; these boreholes are 396 to 470 feet deep and were among the deepest boreholes logged. Fluid movement was upward in the upper

  19. Post-trauma coping in the context of significant adversity: a qualitative study of young people living in an urban township in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M; Halligan, Sarah L; Tomlinson, Mark; Stewart, Jackie; Skeen, Sarah; Christie, Hope

    2017-10-06

    Compared with knowledge of the post-trauma needs of young people living in developed countries, little is known about the needs of those in low-middle-income countries. Such information is crucial, particularly as young people in these environments can be at increased risk of experiencing trauma, coupled with less available resources for formal support. The aim of this study was to explore post-trauma coping and support-seeking of young people living in a high-adversity settlement in South Africa. Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using thematic analysis. An urban settlement ('township') in Cape Town, South Africa. 25 young people, aged 13-17 years, who had experienced trauma. Events included serious car accidents, hearing of a friend's violent death, and rape, and all reported having experienced multiple traumatic events. All participants identified as black South African and spoke Xhosa as their first language. Social support was considered key to coping after trauma, although the focus of the support differed depending on the source. Parents would most commonly provide practical support, particularly around safety. Peers often provided an avenue to discuss the event and young person's emotional well-being more openly. Outside of social support another key theme was that there were numerous community-level barriers to participants receiving support following trauma. Many young people continued to be exposed to the perpetrator of the event, while there was also the realistic concern around future traumas and safety, community stigma and a perceived lack of justice. This study provides insight into how young people cope and seek support following trauma when they are living in a context of significant adversity and risk. Overall, most young people identified helpful sources of support and thought talking about the event was a useful strategy, but concerns around safety and trust could impede this process. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  20. Microclimate controls on weathering: Insights into deep critical zone evolution from seismic refraction surveys in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N.; Kirby, E.; Nyblade, A.; Brantley, S. L.; Clarke, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of regolith is fundamental to the functioning and structure of the critical zone - the physically and chemically altered material formed from in situ parent bedrock that is available for transport. Understanding how regolith production and transport respond to perturbations in climate and/or tectonic forcing remains a first-order question. At the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHO), high resolution LiDAR-derived topographic data and depths to hand auger refusal reveal a systematic asymmetry in hillslope gradient and mobile regolith thickness; both are greater on north-facing hillslopes. Hydrologic and geochemical studies at the SSHO also suggest asymmetric sediment transport, fluid flow, and mineral weathering with respect to hillslope aspect. Here, we combine shallow seismic surveys completed along 4 hillslope transects (2 north-facing and 2-south facing), 2 ridgetops transects, and subsurface observations in boreholes to investigate the role of climate in inducing fracturing and priming the development of the observed asymmetry. Comparisons of shallow p-wave velocities with borehole and pit observations lead us to hypothesize the presence of three distinct layers at SSHO: 1) a deep, high velocity layer that is consistent with unweathered shale bedrock; 2) an intermediate velocity layer that is consistent with fractured and chemically altered bedrock which overlies unaltered bedrock, and 3) a shallow, slow velocity layer that is consistent with mobile material or shallow soil. Shallow p-wave velocity profiles suggest differences in thickness for both the mobile and immobile regolith material with respect to aspect. Patterns of p-wave velocities with depth are consistent with patterns of fracture densities observed in boreholes and with predictive cracking intensity models related to frost action. The models and data are consistent with climate as a primary driver for the development of asymmetry in the subsurface architecture at

  1. Facilitating access to English for Xhosa-speaking pupils in black township primary schools around Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel Hibbert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper results from a research project completed by the author in 1994 on the quality of language-learning environments in the Cape Town area . . Xhosa is now constitutionally enshrined as one of the eleven official languages of South Africa, and is the dominant language in Western Cape black townships. This paper questions the fruitfUlness of primary schools in black townships attempting to use English as the sole medium of instruction. The paper shows that in actual classroom situations the Ll (Xhosa is used as an aid to L2 (English medium instruction in the schools of Khayelitsha and Lagunya townships around Cape Town. The paper argues for the recognition and forther extension of such bilingual practices in primary schools to work towards more successfUl use of the L2 as the medium of instruction. It assesses the implications of such bilingual policy for classroom interaction and materials development. Hierdie artikel spruit voort uit 'n navorsingsprojek wat in 1994 deur die skrywer onderneem is in groter Kaapstad oor die kwaliteit van die omgewings waarbinne taal aange/eer word. Xhosa is volgens die konstitusie een van die elf amptelike tale in Suid-Afrika en is die oorheersende taal in die swart woonbuurte van die Wes-Kaap. In hierdie artikel word die waarde bevraagteken van die poging wat in die primere skole in die swart woonbuurte aangewend word om Engels as enigste medium van onderrig te gebruik. In die artikel word ook daarop gewys dat skole in Khayelitsha en Lagunya, twee swart woonbuurte naby Kaapstad, Xhosa (Tl gebruik as hulpmiddel by die onderrig deur medium van Engels (T2. Daar word aangevoer dat hierdie gebruik van tweetalige onderrig in primere skole erkenning behoort te kry en verder uitgebrei behoort te word sodat daar gestrewe kan word na 'n meer suksesvol/e gebruik van die tweede taal as onderrigmedium. 'n Waardebepaling van die implikasies van so 'ntweetalige beleid vir k/askamerinteraksie en die ontwikkeling van

  2. Identification of Opinion Leaders in Public Affairs, Educational Matters and Family Planning in the Township of Atteridgeville. Research Finding Comm N-142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M. R.; Bekker, S. J.

    A study examined opinion leadership among blacks in Atteridgeville, South Africa. Specifically the study sought to identify potential opinion leaders, opinion seekers and opinion avoiders with respect to public affairs, educational and family planning matters in Atteridgeville township, and to construct a profile of such opinion leaders. Subjects,…

  3. Teachers' Knowledge and Views on the Use of Learners' Socio-Cultural Background in Teaching Natural Sciences in Grade 9 Township Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavuru, Lydia; Ramnarain, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    This article explores teachers' knowledge and views on the role of learners' socio-cultural background when teaching Natural Sciences to Grade 9 learners at three South African township schools. Within a socio-cultural framework, the research investigated how teachers accommodate learners' cultural norms and values, religion and beliefs,…

  4. Career Guidance Lesson Plans for Grades K-12. Developed as Part of New Jersey Comprehensive Career Development Guidelines Program in Neptune Township Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neptune Township Public Schools, NJ.

    This document contains the career development scope and sequence and 39 lesson plans for career guidance activities, for grades K-5, 6-8, and 9-12, developed for use in the Neptune Township Public Schools (New Jersey). Each one-to-two-page lesson plan includes information on subject area, competency, indicators, lesson objectives, resources, time…

  5. Superfund Technology Evaluation Report: SITE Program Demonstration Test Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System at the Rose Township Demode Road Superfund Site Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System was evaluated during a series of seventeen test runs under varied operating conditions at the Demode Road Superfund Site located in Rose Township, Michigan. The tests sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of the unit and the t...

  6. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE - VOLUME II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. The waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. Volume I gi...

  7. Unmet needs in health training among nurses in rural Chinese township health centers: a cross-sectional hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yan; Hu, Guijie; Yi, Yanhua; Ying, Yanping; Huang, Huiqiao; Huang, Zhongxian; Lin, Jiafeng

    2017-10-04

    Maintaining a sufficient and competent rural nursing workforce is important in Chinese health delivery system. However, few studies have involved in the health training status and needs assessment of rural Chinese nurses in great transformations of health policy. This study is to explore the current health training status and to ascertain needs perceived by nurses working in rural Chinese township health centers (THCs). A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was conducted to 240 THC nurses in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous region, China from March 2014 to August 2014. Survey questionnaire was adopted from the Second Chinese Survey of Demographic Data and Training Demand for Health Professionals in THCs by the Ministry of Education. The nurses in THCs were young with low educational background. The perceived needs in health training included further clinical study in city level hospitals to improve skills and theory study in medical universities in emergency medicine and general practice. There are 71.9% of the nurses with secondary technical school background and 68.5% of nurses with junior college education expected to take junior college or bachelor degree study, respectively. A decentralized program with theory study in medical universities and practice study in county hospitals were regarded as feasible by 66.9% of total respondents. There is a need to improve health-training programs for nurses in Chinese township health centers in coverage, delivery mode, and contents. A decentralized degree-linked training program collaborated with medical universities and city hospitals would be an appropriate mode.

  8. Preliminary estimates of regolith generation and mobility in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, Pennsylvania, using meteoric {sup 10}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Nicole, E-mail: nxw157@psu.edu [Penn State University, 542 Deike Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kirby, Eric [Penn State University, 542 Deike Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bierman, Paul [University of Vermont, 180 Colchester Ave., Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Rood, Dylan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Research Highlights: > At our field site, most meteoric {sup 10}Be remains in the uppermost decimeters of soil. > Meteoric {sup 10}Be inventories suggest that ridge top soils are Holocene. > Meteoric {sup 10}Be inventories suggest a ridge top erosion rate of 19.4 m/Ma. > The downslope increase in {sup 10}Be suggests relatively slow downslope transport of soil. - Abstract: This study seeks to quantify the rate and timing of regolith generation in the Critical Zone at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHO). Meteoric {sup 10}Be depth profiles were determined using measurements from 30 hillslope soil and bedrock core samples in an effort to constrain {sup 10}Be inventories. The SSHO is located in the temperate climate zone of central Pennsylvania and comprises a first-order watershed developed entirely on a Fe-rich, organic-poor, Silurian-aged shale. Two major perturbations to the landscape have occurred at SSHO in the geologically recent past, including significant and sustained periglacial activity until after the retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet ({approx}21 ka) and deforestation during early colonial land-use. Bulk soil samples (n = 16) were collected at three locations along a planar hillslope on the southern ridge of the catchment, representing the ridge top, mid-slope and valley floor. Rock chip samples (n = 14) were also collected from a 24 m deep core drilled into the northern ridge top. All meteoric {sup 10}Be concentration profiles show a declining trend with depth, with most of the {sup 10}Be retained in the uppermost decimeters of the soil. Meteoric {sup 10}Be inventories are higher at the mid-slope and valley floor sample sites, at 3.71 {+-} 0.02 x 10{sup 10} at/cm{sup 2} and 3.69 {+-} 0.02 x 10{sup 10} at/cm{sup 2}, than at the ridge top site (1.90 {+-} 0.01 x 10{sup 10} at/cm{sup 2}). The {sup 10}Be inventory at the convex ridge top site implies a minimum residence time of {approx}10.6 ka, or if erosion is steady, an erosion rate

  9. Factors Associated with the Competencies of Public Health Workers in Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing Municipality, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifei He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to explore the competencies of public health workers (PHWs of township hospitals in Chongqing Municipality (China, and determine the related impact factors of the competencies of PHWs; Methods: A cross-sectional research was conducted on 314 PHWs from 27 township hospitals in three districts in Chongqing Municipality (China, from June to August 2014. A self-assessment questionnaire was established on the basis of literature reviews and a competency dictionary. The differences in competencies among the three districts were determined by adopting the chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA method, and the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs were determined by adopting stepwise regression analysis. Results: (1 Results of the demographic characteristics of PHWs in three sample districts of Chongqing Municipality showed that a significant difference in age of PHWs (p = 0.021 < 0.05 and the majors of PHWs (p = 0.045 < 0.05; (2 In terms of the self-evaluation competency results of PHWs in township hospitals, seven among the 11 aspects were found to have significant differences in the three districts by the ANOVA test; (3 By adopting the t-test and ANOVA method, results of the relationship between the characteristics of PHWs and their competency scores showed that significant differences were found in the economic level (p = 0.000 < 0.05, age (p = 0.000 < 0.05, years of working (p = 0.000 < 0.05 and title of PHWs (p = 0.000 < 0.05; (4 Stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs in township hospitals, including the economic level (p = 0.000 < 0.001, years of working (p = 0.000 < 0.001, title (p = 0.001 < 0.005, and public health major (p = 0.007 < 0.01. Conclusions: The competencies of the township hospital staff in Chongqing Municipality (China, are generally insufficient, therefore, regulating the medical education and training skills of PHWs is crucial

  10. The role of school management teams in human resource management in selected township schools in the Mpumalanga Province / Nhlapo Job Mphikeleli

    OpenAIRE

    Nhlapo, Job Mphikeleli

    2008-01-01

    Education in South Africa faces many challenges; among them is the betterment of teaching and learning in order to improve the performance in schools, particularly in township schools where the results of learners are still not up to the required standard. For schools to function effectively, the School Management Teams (Principal, Deputy Principal, HODs), need to understand the importance of the effective management of human resources. The proper and effective management of people cannot be ...

  11. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Qing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs, the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. Methods: An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Results: Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33% had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55% had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Conclusion: Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.

  12. Impact on the performance of health workers adopted performance-related contracts in the provision of basic public health service at village and township levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaojun; Huo, Zhen'ang; Wu, Jian; Xie, Shuangbao; Zhang, Liang; Feng, Zhanchun

    2013-01-01

    This paper focus on the impact on the performance of health workers at village and township levels in the provision of a government stipulated package of basic public health service, which adopted the performance-related contracts mode. The concept of balanced scorecard was adopted and developed to gather the 11 evaluation indicators distributed in four quadrants. These were implemented using on-site questionnaire and interview design. Four thousand and twenty-one respondents at 30 administrative villages including 2674 respondents at 20 pilot villages and 1347 at 10 control villages were investigated. Meanwhile, 62 administration officials from three counties and nine townships were interviewed. Eight of 11 evaluation indicators were obviously better in pilot counties than in Control County, The remaining three indicators respectively represented that equal, inferior to control county, and could not clear judge. The performance of health workers at village and township levels in the provision of basic public health service in pilot counties, which adopted the performance-related contracts mode, is better than before and control county.

  13. TOO SICK TO START: ENTREPRENEUR’S HEALTH AND BUSINESS ENTRY IN TOWNSHIPS AROUND DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAO, LI-WEI; SZREK, HELENA; PEREIRA, NUNO SOUSA; PAULY, MARK V.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike large firms with management teams, small businesses are usually run by one key person, the owner-entrepreneur, who bears almost all of the risks and makes almost all of the decisions related to the business. Because the owner-entrepreneur also embodies most of the firm-specific knowledge capital, health of the owner-entrepreneur is an important factor in the production process. Following a cohort of respondents in townships around Durban, South Africa, over a three-year period, we examined the relationship between an individual’s physical health and the decision to start a business. Our results suggest that respondents who were recent business entrants were in better health than respondents who did not start new businesses. Moreover, respondents without a business at the beginning of the study who later opened businesses during the three-year study interval were significantly more likely to have better baseline health than those respondents who never started a new business. Hence, good health among entrepreneurs seems to be an important prerequisite to small business entry. PMID:21603114

  14. The roles of community health workers in management of non-communicable diseases in an urban township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungiswa P. Tsolekile

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community health workers (CHWs are increasingly being recognised as a crucial part of the health workforce in South Africa and other parts of the world. CHWs have taken on a variety of roles, including community empowerment, provision of services and linking communities with health facilities. Their roles are better understood in the areas of maternal and child health and infectious diseases (HIV infection, malaria and tuberculosis. Aim: This study seeks to explore the current roles of CHWs working with non-communicable diseases (NCDs.Setting: The study was conducted in an urban township in Cape Town, South Africa.Method: A qualitative naturalistic research design utilising observations and in-depth interviews with CHWs and their supervisors working in Khayelitsha was used.Results: CHWs have multiple roles in the care of NCDs. They act as health educators, advisors, rehabilitation workers and support group facilitators. They further screen for complications of illness and assist community members to navigate the health system. These roles are shaped both by expectations of the health system and in response to community needs.Conclusion: This study indicates the complexities of the roles of CHWs working with NCDs. Understanding the actual roles of CHWs provides insights into not only the competencies required to enable them to fulfil their daily functions, but also the type of training required to fill the present gaps.

  15. Community perceptions of risk factors for interpersonal violence in townships in Cape Town, South Africa: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen

    2017-10-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major contributor to the burden of disease globally, and in South Africa, it is the leading cause of injury. There is an emerging consensus that the development of actionable policy and effective prevention strategies for interpersonal violence requires an understanding of the contextual matters that elevate risk for interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to explore community perceptions of risks for interpersonal violence in five townships in Cape Town, South Africa, with high rates of violence. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members to identify key factors in that contributed to being either a perpetrator or victim of interpersonal violence. The ecological framework was used to classify the risk factors as occurring at individual, relationship, community or society levels. Some of the risk factors identified included alcohol abuse, poverty, informality of settlements and cultural norms. Differences in how each of these risk factors are expressed and experienced in the five communities are also elucidated. This approach enabled the collection of contextual community-based data that can complement conventional surveillance data in the development of relevant community-level strategies for interpersonal violence prevention.

  16. Job satisfaction and its modeling among township health center employees: a quantitative study in poor rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun A; Wang, Qi; Lu, Zu X

    2010-05-10

    Job satisfaction is important to staff management of township health centers (THCs), as it is associated with organizational performance, quality of care and employee retention. The purpose of this study was to measure job satisfaction level of THC employees in poor rural China and to identify relevant features in order to provide policy advice on human resource development of health service institutions in poor regions. A self-completion questionnaire was used to assess the job satisfaction and relevant features (response rate: 90.5%) among 172 employees (i.e., clinic doctors, medico-technical workers and public health workers) of 17 THCs in Anhui and Xinjiang provinces of China. The study covered a time period of two months in 2007. The mean staff job satisfaction scored 83.3, which was in the category of "somewhat satisfied" on a scale ranging from 0 (extremely dissatisfied) to 100 (extremely satisfied) by employing Likert's transformation formula. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed eight domains involved in modeling of job satisfaction, among which, the caregivers were more satisfied with job significance (88.2), job competency (87.9) and teamwork (87.7), as compared with work reward (72.9) and working conditions (79.7). Mean job satisfaction in Xinjiang (89.7) was higher than that in Anhui (75.5). Employees of THCs have moderate job satisfactions in poor areas, which need to be raised further by improving their working conditions and reward.

  17. Synthane Pilot Plant, South Park Township, Pennsylvania. Run report No. 1-DB. Operating period: February--August 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This report covers the operation of the Synthane Coal Gasification Pilot Plant, South Park Township, Pennsylvania from February through August 1977. The facility is owned by the United States Government and operated by C-E Lummus. Following Test Directive No. 1-DB, the plant operated with Montana Rosebud coal at a pressure of 600 psig, at temperatures from 1300/sup 0/F to 1550/sup 0/F and at coal feed rates of 1.5 to 3.0 tons/hour. Gas was produced for 556 hours and 1304 tons of coal were fed to the gasifier. Continuous operation of up to 97 hours and carbon conversions of up to 78% were achieved. A total of 29 steady state periods, ranging from 1 hour and 30 minutes to 14 hours and 54 minutes, were obtained. This successful operation has demonstrated that the Synthane Process is a viable route to coal gasification. Data obtained during the operation are adequate for the preliminary design of a commercial facility. During this period of operation the coal was fed into the fluidized bed of the gasifier by ''deep bed injection'' rather than by free fall as in previous studies. The results showed conclusively that this procedure is advantageous to the operation of the gasifier and the Synthane Process in that little tar, phenol or oils were produced. This will have a considerable advantage in the cost and operation of a commercial facility.

  18. Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, Aziz; Leblanc, Samuel

    2011-05-01

    Pesticides associated to genetically modified foods (PAGMF), are engineered to tolerate herbicides such as glyphosate (GLYP) and gluphosinate (GLUF) or insecticides such as the bacterial toxin bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between maternal and fetal exposure, and to determine exposure levels of GLYP and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphoric acid (AMPA), GLUF and its metabolite 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (3-MPPA) and Cry1Ab protein (a Bt toxin) in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Blood of thirty pregnant women (PW) and thirty-nine nonpregnant women (NPW) were studied. Serum GLYP and GLUF were detected in NPW and not detected in PW. Serum 3-MPPA and CryAb1 toxin were detected in PW, their fetuses and NPW. This is the first study to reveal the presence of circulating PAGMF in women with and without pregnancy, paving the way for a new field in reproductive toxicology including nutrition and utero-placental toxicities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors related to reduction of height and weight in children under two years of Aleshtar township of Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam Mohsenzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Materials and Methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population were all children under two years old referred to health centers of Aleshtar township in the first half of 2007. All data were collected using questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS statistical software. Results: From 299 infants, 77 (25.8% had reduction in weight curve and 24(8% infants had reduction in height curve. There was a significant relationship between reduction of weight and following variables including place of residence, infectious diseases, the kind of used-milk, duration of breastfeeding, complementary feeding beginning time, interval of breast-fed from next birth, level of mother's education, mother's employment, father's job, using of iron-complementary and low birth weight. Also there were significant statistical relationship between reduction of height and place of residence, infectious diseases, duration of breastfeeding, the use of iron supplements and vitamin A+ D, mother,s education level, mother,s employment status, father's occupation and low birth weight. Conclusion: In this study, 25.8% of the cases had reduction in the growth curve of weight and 8% had reduction in the growth curve of hight. There was a significant relationship between reduction of height and weight graph and infectious diseases, mother education level, employment status, mother's occupation, father's job, the use of iron supplements and low birth weight.

  20. Job satisfaction and its modeling among township health center employees: a quantitative study in poor rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zu X

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job satisfaction is important to staff management of township health centers (THCs, as it is associated with organizational performance, quality of care and employee retention. The purpose of this study was to measure job satisfaction level of THC employees in poor rural China and to identify relevant features in order to provide policy advice on human resource development of health service institutions in poor regions. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was used to assess the job satisfaction and relevant features (response rate: 90.5% among 172 employees (i.e., clinic doctors, medico-technical workers and public health workers of 17 THCs in Anhui and Xinjiang provinces of China. The study covered a time period of two months in 2007. Results The mean staff job satisfaction scored 83.3, which was in the category of "somewhat satisfied" on a scale ranging from 0 (extremely dissatisfied to 100 (extremely satisfied by employing Likert's transformation formula. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA revealed eight domains involved in modeling of job satisfaction, among which, the caregivers were more satisfied with job significance (88.2, job competency (87.9 and teamwork (87.7, as compared with work reward (72.9 and working conditions (79.7. Mean job satisfaction in Xinjiang (89.7 was higher than that in Anhui (75.5. Conclusions Employees of THCs have moderate job satisfactions in poor areas, which need to be raised further by improving their working conditions and reward.

  1. The roles of community health workers in management of non-communicable diseases in an urban township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolekile, Lungiswa P; Puoane, Thandi; Schneider, Helen; Levitt, Naomi S; Steyn, Krisela

    2014-11-21

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly being recognised as a crucial part of the health workforce in South Africa and other parts of the world. CHWs have taken on a variety of roles, including community empowerment, provision of services and linking communities with health facilities. Their roles are better understood in the areas of maternal and child health and infectious diseases (HIV infection, malaria and tuberculosis). This study seeks to explore the current roles of CHWs working with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The study was conducted in an urban township in Cape Town, South Africa. A qualitative naturalistic research design utilising observations and in-depth interviews with CHWs and their supervisors working in Khayelitsha was used. CHWs have multiple roles in the care of NCDs. They act as health educators, advisors, rehabilitation workers and support group facilitators. They further screen for complications of illness and assist community members to navigate the health system. These roles are shaped both by expectations of the health system and in response to community needs. This study indicates the complexities of the roles of CHWs working with NCDs. Understanding the actual roles of CHWs provides insights into not only the competencies required to enable them to fulfil their daily functions, but also the type of training required to fill the present gaps.

  2. Job satisfaction and its modeling among township health center employees: a quantitative study in poor rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction is important to staff management of township health centers (THCs), as it is associated with organizational performance, quality of care and employee retention. The purpose of this study was to measure job satisfaction level of THC employees in poor rural China and to identify relevant features in order to provide policy advice on human resource development of health service institutions in poor regions. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was used to assess the job satisfaction and relevant features (response rate: 90.5%) among 172 employees (i.e., clinic doctors, medico-technical workers and public health workers) of 17 THCs in Anhui and Xinjiang provinces of China. The study covered a time period of two months in 2007. Results The mean staff job satisfaction scored 83.3, which was in the category of "somewhat satisfied" on a scale ranging from 0 (extremely dissatisfied) to 100 (extremely satisfied) by employing Likert's transformation formula. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed eight domains involved in modeling of job satisfaction, among which, the caregivers were more satisfied with job significance (88.2), job competency (87.9) and teamwork (87.7), as compared with work reward (72.9) and working conditions (79.7). Mean job satisfaction in Xinjiang (89.7) was higher than that in Anhui (75.5). Conclusions Employees of THCs have moderate job satisfactions in poor areas, which need to be raised further by improving their working conditions and reward. PMID:20459725

  3. Reading is FUNdamental: The effect of a reading programme on vocabulary development in a high poverty township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheepers, Ruth

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the vocabulary of grade 7 learners in a reading project currently underway at a school in Atteridgeville, a township on the outskirts of Pretoria. A library has been established at the school and teachers throughout the school attend workshops designed to heighten their awareness of the value of reading and the importance of vocabulary, and to provide them with strategies to facilitate the development of reading. This paper focuses on the vocabulary development of grade 7 learners – they are in the senior phase of primary school and will soon be entering high school where they will be faced with more academic vocabulary in context-reduced textbooks. Learners’ vocabulary was tested early in the year and then again towards the end to assess whether increased access to books and reading had had an effect on vocabulary growth. Results revealed that learners at the project school showed a lack of vocabulary, even at the end of the study period, not only in terms of academic words but also high frequency words. Extensive reading alone is clearly not enough – learners need explicit vocabulary instruction: in order to read successfully at high school level, learners need a working knowledge of academic vocabulary, and this knowledge is developed by reading – but learners cannot read successfully without an adequate basic high-frequency vocabulary.

  4. Using Micro-Gravity Techniques to Map Alluvium Thickness and Pleistocene Location of the West Branch of the Susquehanna River Near Muncy, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, M.; Hayes, B.; Jacob, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Laurentide glaciation during the early Pleistocene (~ or approximately 970 ka) dammed the northeast-flowing West Branch of the Susquehanna River (WBSR), scouring bedrock and creating 100-km-long glacial Lake Lesley near the Great Bend at Muncy, Pennsylvania. Local drill logs and well data indicate that subsequent paleo-outwash floods and modern fluvial processes have deposited as much as 30 meters of alluvium in this area, but little is known about the valley fill architecture and the bedrock-alluvium interface. This project determined if variations in the thickness of the valley fill were detectable as deviations in the gravitational field using micro-gravity techniques to map the bedrock-alluvium interface. A LaCoste and Romberg Gravitron unit was used to collect gravitational field readings at 50 locations over 5 transects across the Muncy Creek and WBSR valleys (approximately 30 km2), with at least two gravity base stations per transect. Latitude, longitude and ground surface elevation at each location were measured using an OPUS corrected Trimble RTK-GPS unit. Base stations were chosen based on ease of access due to the necessity of repeat measurements. Gravity measurement locations were selected and marked to provide easy access and repeat measurements. The gravimeter was returned to a base station within every two hours and a looping procedure was used to determine drift and maximize confidence in the gravity measurements. A two minute calibration reading at each station was used to minimize any tares in the data. The Gravitron digitally recorded finite impulse response filtered gravity measurements every 20 seconds at each station. A measurement period of 15 minutes was used for each base station occupation and a minimum of 5 minutes at all other locations. Longer or multiple measurements were utilized at some sites if drift or other externalities (i.e. train or truck traffic) were effecting readings. Average, median, standard deviation and 95% confidence

  5. 78 FR 11947 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ....; Consumptive Use of Up to 4.999 mgd; Approval Date: December 7, 2012. 6. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID..., 2012. 8. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: ZickW P1, ABR-201212008, Lenox Township, Susquehanna...

  6. 76 FR 42159 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    .... Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: Augustine P1, ABR- 201105002, Springville Township, Susquehanna... 20, 2011. 15. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: LopatofskyJ P1, ABR- 201105015, Springville...

  7. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-08-28

    Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = -0.372, p job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres' job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort studies.

  8. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = −0.372, p job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort studies. PMID:28846644

  9. Synthane Pilot Plant, South Park Township, Pennsylvania. Run report No. 2-DB: operating period September 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This report covers the operation of the Synthane Coal Gasification Pilot Plant, South Park Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania from September 1977 through September 1978. The facility is owned by the United States Government and operated by C-E Lummus. Test Directive No. 2-DB directed the plant be operated with Illinois No. 6 coal from the River King Mine of the Peabody Coal Company at a pressure of 600 psig. Concurrent pretreater/gasifier operation was to take place at coal feed rates from 1.5 to 2.5 tons/hour. Gas was produced for 182 hours and 1,100 tons of coal were fed to the pretreater and gasifier. Continuous operation of up to 56 hours and carbon conversions based on char of up to 72% were achieved. This successful operation demonstrates that coal gasification via the Synthane Process is viable. Additional data are required for the design of a commercial facility; however, the data obtained to date are adequate to recommend improvements and modifications to the Synthane Process Pilot Plant to increase on stream time efficiency. The successful operation of the pilot plant with Illinois No. 6 coal demonstrates the feasibility of the Synthane Pilot Plant to process a caking type of coal. The ability to successfully pretreat a caking coal at high pressure in a plant of this size is a first and a direct result of the successful operation of the Synthane Process. Other similar type processes operated to date require pretreatment of a caking coal at atmospheric pressure with little or no recovery of the gases or heat produced during pretreatment.

  10. Volunteers as Middle Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertz, Courtney

    1978-01-01

    Additional volunteer middle managers to work with extension agents in Four-H Clubs are needed for effective organizational structure and quality programs. The article discusses the value of these middle managers and their recruitment, selection, training, use, recognition, and evaluation. (MF)

  11. The Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  12. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  13. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections and associated risk factors among drug users in southwestern China: a township-level ecological study incorporating spatial regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Biao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are major public health problems. Many studies have been performed to investigate the association between demographic and behavioral factors and HIV or HCV infection. However, some of the results of these studies have been in conflict. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data of all entrants in the 11 national methadone clinics in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected from the national database. Several spatial regression models were used to analyze specific community characteristics associated with the prevalence of HIV and HCV infection at the township level. The study enrolled 6,417 adult patients. The prevalence of HIV infection, HCV infection and co-infection was 25.4%, 30.9%, and 11.0%, respectively. Prevalence exhibited stark geographical variations in the area studied. The four regression models showed Yi ethnicity to be associated with both the prevalence of HIV and of HIV/HCV co-infection. The male drug users in some northwestern counties had greater odds of being infected with HIV than female drug users, but the opposite was observed in some eastern counties. The 'being in drug rehabilitation variable was found to be positively associated with prevalence of HCV infection in some southern townships, however, it was found to be negatively associated with it in some northern townships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The spatial modeling creates better representations of data such that public health interventions must focus on areas with high frequency of HIV/HCV to prevent further transmission of both HIV and HCV.

  14. On middle cube graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dalfo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a family of graphs related to the $n$-cube. The middle cube graph of parameter k is the subgraph of $Q_{2k-1}$ induced by the set of vertices whose binary representation has either $k-1$ or $k$ number of ones. The middle cube graphs can be obtained from the well-known odd graphs by doubling their vertex set. Here we study some of the properties of the middle cube graphs in the light of the theory of distance-regular graphs. In particular, we completely determine their spectra (eigenvalues and their multiplicities, and associated eigenvectors.

  15. Use of DNA Markers for Investigating Sources of Bacteria in Contaminated Ground Water: Wooster Township, Wayne County, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, a public-health nuisance was declared by the Wayne County Board of Health in the Scenic Heights Drive-Batdorf Road area of Wooster Township, Wayne County, Ohio, because of concerns about the safety of water from local wells. Repeated sampling had detected the presence of fecal-indicator bacteria and elevated nitrate concentrations. In June 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA), collected and analyzed samples from some of the affected wells to help investigate the possibility of human-origin bacterial contamination. Water samples from 12 wells and 5 home sewage-treatment systems (HSTS) were collected. Bromide concentrations were determined in samples from the 12 wells. Samples from 5 of the 12 wells were analyzed for wastewater compounds. Total coliform, enterococci and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria concentrations were determined for samples from 8 of the 12 wells. In addition, two microbial source-tracking tools that employ DNA markers were used on samples from several wells and a composite sample of water from five septic tanks. The DNA markers from the Enterococcus faecium species and the order Bacteroidales are associated with specific sources, either human or ruminant sources. Bromide concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.18 milligrams per liter (mg/L). No wastewater compounds were detected at concentrations above the reporting limits. Samples from the 12 wells also were collected by Ohio EPA and analyzed for chloride and nitrate. Chloride concentrations ranged from 12.6 to 61.6 mg/L and nitrate concentrations ranged from 2.34 to 11.9 mg/L (as N). Total coliforms and enterococci were detected in samples from 8 wells, at concentrations from 2 to 200 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL) and 0.5 to 17 CFU/100 mL, respectively. E. coli were detected in samples from three of the eight wells, at concentrations of 1 or 2 CFU/100 mL. Tests for the human

  16. Middle Turbinate Osteoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daneshi, Ahmad; Jalessi, Maryam; Heshmatzade-Behzadi, Ashkan

    2010-01-01

    Osteoma is the most common benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. Turbinate osteomas are very rare and only four middle turbinate, one superior turbinate and one inferior turbinate osteoma cases have been reported...

  17. Middle School Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Teddy J.; Clements, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    After viewing and discussing slides of Van Gogh's and Munch's paintings and studying the principles of color, middle school students had to execute two drawings, one showing any emotion and the second depicting an expressionistic self-portrait. (RM)

  18. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  19. “They see you as a different thing”: The Experiences of Men Who Have Sex with Men with Health Care Workers in South African Township Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Tim; Mogale, Thomas; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James; Kegeles, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To describe interactions between men who have sex with men (MSM) and health care workers (HCWs) in peri-urban township communities in South Africa. Method Qualitative study using semistructured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions in the Gauteng province townships of Soweto and Mamelodi. We purposively sampled 32 MSM for in-depth interviews and 15 for focus group discussions. Topics explored included identity, sexuality, community life, use of health services, and experiences of stigma and discrimination. Results MSM felt their options for non-stigmatizing sexual health care services were limited by homophobic verbal harassment by HCWs. Gay-identified men sought out clinics with reputations for employing HCWs who respected their privacy and their sexuality, and challenged those HCWs who mistreated them. Non-gay identified MSM presented masculine, heterosexual identities when presenting for sexual health problems, and avoided discussing their sexuality with HCWs. Conclusions The strategies MSM employ to confront or avoid homophobia from HCWs may not be conducive to sexual health promotion in this population. Interventions that increase the capacity of public sector HCWs to provide appropriate sexual health services to MSM are urgently needed. PMID:19028941

  20. The Christian church’s role in the escalating mob justice system in our black townships – An African pastoral view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Baloyi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the crimes in the South African black townships, mob justice has become a growing concern. Some questions that need to be asked are: Is our police force doing enough to protect the ordinary citizens of this country? If the situation continues, will all suspects be killed in the same manner or will there be a solution to change the situation? What is the impact of mob justice on the families of the victims and the witnesses of the brutal acts? How long are we going to live as a traumatised nation as a result of these violent acts? Is there any hope that our nation will ever have the peace it deserves in the context of democracy? This article intends to investigate the impact of the mob justice system and find out what the role of the Christian church should be in the midst of this escalating violence. This study aims to unveil the negative impact of mob justice on the lives of many township South Africans and giving pastoral-biblical suggestions of the church’s role in the elimination of this kind of brutality.

  1. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources.

    This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant

  2. 75 FR 38591 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ..., ABR-20100517, Sullivan Township, Tioga County, Pa.; Approval Date: May 12, 2010. 18. Cabot Oil & Gas... 13, 2010. 19. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: WarrinerR P5, ABR- 20100519, Dimock Township, Susquehanna County, Pa.; Approval Date: May 13, 2010. 20. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: CarsonJ P1, ABR...

  3. 76 FR 66117 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Township, Bradford County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of up to 6.000 mgd; Approval Date: August 1, 2011. 5. Cabot.... Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: CorbinJ P1, ABR-201108049, Brooklyn Township, Susquehanna County...: September 26, 2011. 83. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: HeitzenroderA P1, ABR- 201109025, Springville...

  4. 78 FR 41972 - Actions Taken at June 20, 2013, Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Warning System for water suppliers with intakes on the Susquehanna River; (3) adopted the proposed FY-2015... System, Peach Bottom Township, York County, Pa. Groundwater withdrawal of up to 0.073 mgd (30-day average... Water System, Peach Bottom Township, York County, Pa. Groundwater withdrawal of up to 0.043 mgd (30-day...

  5. Flood-inundation maps for the Peckman River in the Townships of Verona, Cedar Grove, and Little Falls, and the Borough of Woodland Park, New Jersey, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemoczynski, Michal J.; Watson, Kara M.

    2016-10-19

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximate 7.5-mile reach of the Peckman River in New Jersey, which extends from Verona Lake Dam in the Township of Verona downstream through the Township of Cedar Grove and the Township of Little Falls to the confluence with the Passaic River in the Borough of Woodland Park, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the probable areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Peckman River at Ozone Avenue at Verona, New Jersey (station number 01389534). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/.Flood profiles were simulated for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgages on the Peckman River at Ozone Avenue at Verona, New Jersey (station number 01389534) and the Peckman River at Little Falls, New Jersey (station number 01389550). The hydraulic model was then used to compute eight water-surface profiles for flood stages at 0.5-foot (ft) intervals ranging from 3.0 ft or near bankfull to 6.5 ft, which is approximately the highest recorded water level during the period of record (1979–2014) at USGS streamgage 01389534, Peckman River at Ozone Avenue at Verona, New Jersey. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps along with Internet information regarding current stage from the USGS

  6. Epidemic characteristics, high-risk townships and space-time clusters of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province of China, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiulan; Lai, Shengjie; Yin, Wenwu; Zhou, Hang; Li, Yu; Mu, Di; Li, Zhongjie; Yu, Hongjie; Yang, Weizhong

    2016-12-19

    Brucellosis, one of the world's most important zoonosis, has been re-emerging in China. Shanxi Province, located in northern China, where husbandry development has been accelerated in recent years, has a rather high incidence of human brucellosis but drew little attention from the researchers. This study aimed to describe the changing epidemiology of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province from 2005 to 2014 and explore high-risk towns and space-time clusters for elucidating the necessity of decentralizing disease control resource to township level in epidemic regions, particularly in hotspot areas. We extracted data from the Chinese National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System to describe the incidence and spatiotemporal distribution of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province. Geographic information system was used to identify townships at high risk for the disease. Space-Time Scan Statistic was applied to detect the space-time clusters of human brucellosis during the past decade. From 2005 to 2014, a total of 50,002 cases of human brucellosis were recorded in Shanxi, with a male-to-female ratio of 3.9:1. The reported incidence rate increased dramatically from 7.0/100,000 in 2005 to 23.5/100,000 in 2014, with an average annual increase of 14.5%. There were still 33.8% cases delaying diagnosis in 2014. The proportion of the affected towns increased from 31.5% in 2005 to 82.5% in 2014. High-risk towns spread from the north to the center and then south of Shanxi Province, which were basins and adjacent highlands suitable for livestock cultivation. During the past decade, there were 55 space-time clusters of human brucellosis detected in high risk towns; the clusters could happen in any season. Some clusters' location maintained stable over time. During the last decade, Shanxi province's human brucellosis epidemic had been aggravated and high-risk areas concentrated in some towns located in basins and adjacent highlands. Space-time clusters existed and some

  7. Montessori and Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Describes the School of the Woods' (Houston, Texas) middle school environment, a learning environment developed to create trust and community, provide meaningful work, and allow adolescents to create a vision for their future. Explains the school's philosophy in terms of adolescent psychology, trust, and curriculum. (TJQ)

  8. Middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Gangadhara Somayaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is becoming more common in the society living in cities with lot of background noise around, and frequent use of gadgets like mobile phones, MP3s, and IPods are adding to the problem. The loss may involve the conductive or perceptive pathway. Majority of the patients with conductive hearing loss will revert back to normal hearing levels with medical and/or surgical treatment. However, in sensorineural hearing loss, many factors are involved in the management. Though traditionally hearing aids in various forms are the most commonly used modality in managing these patients, there are some drawbacks associated with them. Implantable middle ear amplifiers represent the most recent breakthrough in the management of hearing loss. Middle ear implants are surgically implanted electronic devices that aim to correct hearing loss by stimulating the ossicular chain or middle ear. Of late, they are also being used in the management of congenital conductive hearing loss and certain cases of chronic otitis media with residual hearing loss. The article aims to provide general information about the technology, indications and contraindications, selection of candidates, available systems, and advantages of middle ear implants. (MEI

  9. Middle ear effusion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJSR

    Abstract. Carcinoma of the breast can metastasise to many organs. Metastasis to the temporal bone is rare and even when it does, it would usually spread to other parts of the body. This is a report of isolated metastasis to the temporal bone with middle ear effusion. Key words: Carcinoma, breast, metastasis, temporal bone, ...

  10. Chemistry: The Middle Kingdom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 7. Chemistry: The Middle Kingdom. Gautam R Desiraju. General Article Volume 12 Issue 7 July 2007 pp 44-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/07/0044-0060. Keywords.

  11. Middle ear effusion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJSR

    organs including the skull and brain. Metastasis to the temporal bone is extremely rare. 1. An unusual presentation of isolated metastasis with middle ear effusion is reported. Case report. A 45 year old woman presented with a short history of blockage and pain in the right ear. She also complained of a feeling of pulsation in ...

  12. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    administration, e.g. the administrative buildings and the sealing of products, were abandoned. The economic decline of the Middle Bronze Age affected the social stratification as well. The changes in social stratification appear in a series of completely new burial customs which show the prevalence of social...

  13. The Forgotten Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been heightened awareness of the importance of early childhood education and high school as intervention points in the educational lives of America's children. Less attention has been paid to the importance of the upper elementary grades and middle school and the role they must play in the preparation of students for…

  14. Chemistry: The Middle Kingdom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-02-10

    Feb 10, 2005 ... Chemistry occupies a unique middle position between physics and mathematics on the one side and biology, .... The late nineteenth century saw the zenith of the industrial revolution, the emergence of capitalism and colo- .... of the processes occurring in living systems. Chemists were slow to recognize the ...

  15. Middle Schoolers Go Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mark; McTighe, Jay

    2017-01-01

    From global hunger to the world's water crisis, middle school students at New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District spend the last few days of the school year problem solving about the planet's most dire issues. With the Global Challenge, the school district's administrators not only want to implement an interesting and dynamic…

  16. Middle School Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Kallio, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of primary resources in the teaching of middle school social studies. Describes a lesson in which students were given a copy of the Declaration of Independence, written in everyday language, and were asked to discuss and evaluate it. Suggests another activity based on Thomas Jefferson's writings. (SG)

  17. Co-Occurring Psychosocial Problems and HIV Risk Among Women Attending Drinking Venues in a South African Township: A Syndemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2012-01-01

    Background In South Africa, women comprise the majority of HIV infections. Syndemics, or co-occurring epidemics and risk factors, have been applied to understanding HIV risk among marginalized groups. Purpose To apply the syndemic framework to examine psychosocial problems that co-occur among women attending drinking venues in South Africa, and to test how the co-occurrence of these problems may exacerbate risk for HIV infection. Method 560 women from a Cape Town township provided data on multiple psychosocial problems, including food insufficiency, depression, abuse experiences, problem drinking, and sexual behaviors. Results Bivariate associations among the syndemic factors showed a high degree of co-occurrence and regression analyses showed an additive effect of psychosocial problems on HIV risk behaviors. Conclusions These results demonstrate the utility of a syndemic framework to understand co-occurring psychosocial problems among women in South Africa. HIV prevention interventions should consider the compounding effects of psychosocial problems among women. PMID:23054944

  18. Effect of atmospheric stability on the impact of domestic wood combustion to air quality of a small urban township in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, S. K.; Salmond, J. A.; Trompetter, W. J.; Davy, P. K.; Ancelet, T.

    2013-05-01

    In the winter of 2011, a field campaign was undertaken in the small township of Nelson, New Zealand to measure the vertical and horizontal distribution of concentrations of airborne particulate matter. The aim of this campaign was to improve our understanding of the causal factors which result in periods of very high concentrations of particulate pollution in small townships during winter where emissions are dominated by the combustion of wood for domestic heating. The results showed that mean hourly surface concentrations of particulates throughout the airshed were characterized by a distinctive diurnal cycle, with two peaks in concentration (one in the late evening and then, unusually, a second mid-morning). Although the timing and magnitude of hourly peak concentrations was variable throughout the valley, there was no evidence to suggest that regional or topographic flows played a significant role in the build-up of pollutants at any given location. Analysis of vertical profiles of black carbon showed that high concentrations of particulates were confined to the lowest 50 m of the boundary layer. Concentrations decreased with increasing height within this polluted surface layer. The atmosphere was very stable during the evening period. After midnight, a period of increased mixing was consistently identified throughout the lowest 100 m of the boundary layer and associated with the sudden cleansing of the surface and lower layers of the boundary layer. Throughout the observational period there was no evidence for the storage of pollutants aloft. Thus the vertical mixing of pollutants to the surface could not account for increased pollutant concentrations during the morning period. However, at this time the boundary layer remained stable and concentrations of black carbon were mixed through a very shallow layer. This suggests that despite lower domestic heating emissions in the morning, the reduced mixing volume is a likely cause of the observed marked peak in

  19. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated ...

  20. Water data to answer urgent water policy questions: Monitoring design, available data, and filling data gaps for determining whether shale gas development activities contaminate surface water or groundwater in the Susquehanna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betanzo, Elin A.; Hagen, Erik R.; Wilson, John T.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.; Hayes, Laura; Argue, Denise M.; Cangelosi, Allegra A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its history, the United States has made major investments in assessing natural resources, such as soils, timber, oil and gas, and water. These investments allow policy makers, the private sector and the American public to make informed decisions about cultivating, harvesting or conserving these resources to maximize their value for public welfare, environmental conservation and the economy. As policy issues evolve, new priorities and challenges arise for natural resource assessment, and new approaches to monitoring are needed. For example, new technologies for oil and gas development or alternative energy sources may present new risks for water resources both above and below ground. There is a need to evaluate whether today’s water monitoring programs are generating the information needed to answer questions surrounding these new policy priorities. The Northeast-Midwest Institute (NEMWI), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated this project to explore the types and amounts of water data needed to address water-quality related policy questions of critical concern to today’s policy makers and whether those data are currently available. The collaborating entities identified two urgent water policy questions and conducted case studies in the Northeast-Midwest region to determine the water data needed, water data available, and the best ways to fill the data gaps relative to those questions. This report details the output from one case study and focuses on the Susquehanna River Basin, a data-rich area expected to be a best-case scenario in terms of water data availability.

  1. PLSS Townships and Sections, This data set consists of a set of diagrams containing control survey information for the Southeastern Wisconsin Region. The information on the Control Survey Summary Diagrams is compiled from the records of U.S. Public Land Survey System (USPLSS) survey, Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Racine County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — PLSS Townships and Sections dataset current as of unknown. This data set consists of a set of diagrams containing control survey information for the Southeastern...

  2. PLSS Townships and Sections, The PLSS vector data provides value added, vector representations of the United States Public Land Survey System for Louisiana as depicted on the USGS 1:24,000 DRGs., Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — PLSS Townships and Sections dataset current as of 2004. The PLSS vector data provides value added, vector representations of the United States Public Land Survey...

  3. Mosquitoes of Middle America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-30

    Report Number 12 ‘ MOSQUITOES OF MIDDLE AMERICA FINAL REPORT For the period 1 Aug 1963 — 30 Sept 1976 Q ’io ~ n: 2:1~~~; Ph D Supported by U.S. ARMY...Janeiro area, Dec 1975-Mar 1976. Barr , A. Ral ph , School of Public Health , University of California , Los Angeles. — Pupae of North American...lnsti tut o Nacional Pars Programas Especiales de Salud , Bogota , Colom- bia .—Topotypic survey of mosquitoes in Colombia, 1964- 1 966. Morales Ayala

  4. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and the latter are non-manual office workers, supervisors and profession...

  5. Designing as Middle Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian; Binder, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is science and technology studies and actor network theory, enabling investigation of heterogeneity, agency and perfor-mative effects through ‘symmetric’ analysis. The concept of design is defined as being imaginative and mindful to a number of actors in...... research is an articulation of design activity taking place as a middle ground and as an intermixture between a ‘scientific’ regime of knowledge transfer and a capital ‘D’ ‘Designerly’ regime of authoring....

  6. In search of middle Indonesia: middle classes in provincial towns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; Berenschot, W.

    2014-01-01

    The post-1998 surge in local politics has moved the provincial town back to centre stage. This book examines the Indonesian middle class (now 43%!) up close in the place where its members are most at home: the town. Middle Indonesia generates national political forces, yet it is neither particularly

  7. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Cassadaga Creek Tributary Crossing, Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. Topical report, August 1992--November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 3-4, 1992, at the Cassadaga wetlands crossing in Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. The pipeline at this site was installed during February and March 1981. After completion of pipeline installation, the ROW was fertilized, mulched, and seeded with annual ryegrass. Two adjacent sites were surveyed in this study: a forested wetland and an emergent wetlands Eleven years after pipeline installation, the ROW at both sites supported diverse vegetative communities. Although devoid of large woody species, the ROW within the forested wetland had a dense vegetative cover. The ROW within the emergent wetland had a slightly less dense and more diverse vegetative community compared with that in the adjacent natural areas (NAs). The ROW within the emergent wetland also had a large number of introduced species that were not present in the adjacent NAs. The ROW, with its emergent marsh plant community, provided habitat diversity within the forested wetlands Because the ROW contained species not found within the adjacent NAs, overall species diversity was increased.

  8. A Household Level Analysis of Water Sanitation Associated with Gastrointestinal Disease in an Urban Slum Setting of South Okkalapa Township, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Ni Hlaing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the prevalence of water sanitation at the household level against gastrointestinal disease occurrence in the urban slum setting of South Okkalapa Township, Myanmar, using cross-sectional study design techniques. A total of 364 household respondents were interviewed face to face by well-trained research assistants using structured questionnaires. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between independent and dependent variables. Results showed that the source of household water (OR: 13.58, 95% CI: 6.90-26.74, and the types of drinking water (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 0.92-3.71, were significantly associated with gastrointestinal diseases (p-value<0.05. After adjustment for confounding factors, this study found that occupation (AOR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.25-5.54, employment status (AOR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.01-5.01, type of household toilet (AOR: 8.66, 95% CI: 4.03-18.60, sources of household water (AOR: 6.56, 95% CI: 2.86-15.08, and the method of vector control (AOR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.37-7.30 were all significantly associated with gastrointestinal diseases (p-value<0.05. Health education and appropriate technology for household water, sanitary latrines, environmental sanitation and waste disposal, and the implementation of policies focusing on systematic water management are therefore urgently required to control the spread of waterborne diseases.

  9. Factors influencing the intention to utilize out-of-pocket health checkup services: A sample of citizens from 12 townships of Taichung County in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiu, Yen-Lin; Liao, Hui-Ling; Chen, Jin-Tang; Lee, Fu-Chun

    2010-05-01

    Taiwan started its National Health Insurance (NHI) system in 1995. However, until now, most cancer screening tests and preventive care have been out-of-pocket (OOP) medical items excluded from the coverage of NHI. The aim of this study was to explore the factors influencing an individual's intention to utilize OOP health checkups. A cross-sectional research method was adopted in this study. Based on the theory of planned behavior, a questionnaire was developed and used to survey purposively sampled residents (n = 940) from 12 randomly selected townships in Taichung County, Taiwan, from August to September 2006. Descriptive statics and linear regression were conducted to analyze the collected data. Our results showed that result evaluation (beta = 0.092), behavioral beliefs (beta = 0.088), behavioral norms of people with experience in utilizing OOP health checkups (beta = 0.116), perceived convenience (beta = 0.273), and worry about illness and perceived health (beta = 0.110) were important factors influencing the intention to utilize OOP health checkups. Age, education and acceptable health checkup charges were also related. Reinforcing disease- and health checkup-related knowledge may positively influence an individual's intention to utilize OOP health checkups. In addition, improving perceived convenience and reducing disease-screening barriers can intensify the individual's intention to use OOP health checkups. The influence of age, education level and OOP checkup charges should also be taken into consideration when related policies are formulated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations Between Resilience, Community Belonging, and Social Participation Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results From the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Roy, Mathieu; Michallet, Bernard; St-Hilaire, France; Maltais, Danielle; Généreux, Mélissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the associations between resilience, community belonging, and social participation, and the moderating effect of resilience on the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional; secondary analyses of the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. Community. A sample (N=4541) of women (n=2485) and men (n=2056) aged ≥60 years was randomly selected according to area. Most participants had resilience were collected by phone interviewer-administered questionnaire. A social participation scale measured frequency of participation in 8 community activities. A 4-point Likert scale ranging from "very strong" to "very weak" estimated sense of belonging to the local community. Social participation and sense of belonging questions came from Statistics Canada surveys. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, capturing the ability to cope with adversity. Controlling for age, education, and psychological distress, greater resilience and community belonging were associated with greater social participation among women (R 2 =.13; Presilience, especially in men. Greater community belonging further enhanced social participation, especially among women (P=.03) and men (Presilience (moderator effect). Resilience moderates the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older women and, especially, men. Interventions targeting social participation should consider the potential impact of resilience on improving community belonging. Future studies should investigate why resilience moderates associations between community belonging and social participation, and how to enhance resilience among older adults. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Duplicated middle cerebral artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion. PMID:22140405

  12. Calculus in the Middle School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

  13. Evaluation of Methane Sources in Groundwater in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A; Wylie, Albert S; Wagner, Tom; Farhat, Shahla K

    2013-01-01

    Testing of 1701 water wells in northeastern Pennsylvania shows that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater, with higher concentrations observed in valleys vs. upland areas and in association with calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, sodium-bicarbonate, and sodium-chloride rich waters—indicating that, on a regional scale, methane concentrations are best correlated to topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction. In addition, our assessment of isotopic and molecular analyses of hydrocarbon gases in the Dimock Township suggest that gases present in local water wells are most consistent with Middle and Upper Devonian gases sampled in the annular spaces of local gas wells, as opposed to Marcellus Production gas. Combined, these findings suggest that the methane concentrations in Susquehanna County water wells can be explained without the migration of Marcellus shale gas through fractures, an observation that has important implications for understanding the nature of risks associated with shale-gas extraction. PMID:23560830

  14. Susquehanna River Basin Flood Control Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Economy 31 Flood Damages 31 Water Use 33 Power Supply 39 Recreation Resources 41 Existing Plans and Improvements 43 Reservoirs 43 Upstream Watershed...a broadview of the overall study. Included in the report is a descrirption of the basin resources and economy ; problems and needs; the evaluation and...accompanied by heavy showers and thundershowers. Tropical Storm Agnes, which had originated days earlier as a tropical depression of the Yucatan

  15. DCS Hydraulic Submission for Susquehanna County PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  16. Les Township tours au KwaZulu-Natal (Afrique du Sud : d’une réappropriation historique et identitaire à l’avènement d’un socio-tourisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Folio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Des processus de réappropriation identitaire et historique, à finalité économique, sont à l’œuvre à l’heure actuelle en Afrique du Sud. Un type de tourisme au caractère authentique et interactif connaît notamment un certain engouement : les Township tours. Il assume un épisode médiatisé de l’histoire du pays, soit l’apartheid urbain, en tentant d’inverser l’image répulsive qui lui est associée. L’attirance pour les townships se nourrit d’un désir de compréhension de la ségrégation raciale institutionnalisée et de la mise à bas d’une politique inique. Paradoxalement, la réputation de dangerosité, de pauvreté et « d’informalité » accolée à ces quartiers noirs semble aussi agir comme un produit d’appel. A travers l’exemple de la province du KwaZulu-Natal, il sera vu que cette activité socio-touristique s’oriente à présent vers un multiculturalisme prudent, porté par des icônes (internationales, avec en toile de fond les velléités de développement local.Processes of identity and historical appropriation, rooted in economic purpose, are today arising in South Africa. A tourism activity, based on authenticity and interaction, becomes particularly popular: the Township tours. It assumes an episode of the country history, i.e. urban segregation, which was given a lot of media coverage. In the meantime, it tries to invert the repulsive image that is commonly associated with apartheid. The attraction for township areas has to be linked to the wish of understanding the institutionalized racial discrimination in South Africa, as well as its pacific end. Paradoxically, the reputation of dangerousness, poverty and informality of those former black urban areas seems to act as a loss leader. Through the example of the province of KwaZulu-Natal, it will be seen that this new socio-tourist activity is now playing a multiculturalism card carried by popular icons, with the local development target in

  17. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other volatile organic compounds in lakes in Byram Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, summer 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    1998-01-01

     Water samples were collected from four lakes in Byram Township, Sussex County, N.J., in the summer of 1998 as part of an investigation of the occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in domestic wells of lakeside communities. Cranberry Lake and Lake Lackawanna are surrounded by densely populated communities where the use of gasoline-powered watercraft is prevalent, and water is supplied by lakeside wells. Forest Lake is surrounded by a densely populated community where the use of gasoline-powered watercraft is prohibited. Stag Pond is privately owned, is situated in a sparsely populated area, and is not navigated by gasoline-powered watercraft. Samples were collected from Cranberry Lake in early summer and again in late summer 1998. Concentrations of the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) ranged from 1.6 to 15.0 µg/L (micrograms per liter) on June 24 and decreased with depth. The depth-related concentration gradient is attributed to density stratification caused by the temperature gradient that is present in the lake during the early summer. MTBE concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 29.0 µg/L on September 8 and were uniform with depth, as was water temperature, indicating that the lake was vertically mixed. On the basis of these concentration profiles, the mass of MTBE in Cranberry Lake was estimated to be 15 kilograms on June 24 and 27 kilograms on September 8. These mass estimates are equal to the amount of MTBE in 52 and 95 gallons, respectively, of gasoline that contains 10 percent MTBE by volume. Concentrations of another gasoline oxygenate, tert-amyl-methyl ether (TAME), ranged from 0.07 to 0.43 µg/L on June 24 and from 0.2 to 0.69 µg/L on September 8. The highest concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) were 0.18, 1.2, 0.18, and 0.97 µg/L, respectively, on June 24. All BTEX concentrations in Cranberry Lake on September 8 were less than 0.2 µg/L.

  18. Middle Managers and the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1998-01-01

    ) middle managers, and (iii) workers. The project has been based partly on interviews in a small number of European companies at the forefront of environmental management and ditto educational and training institutions, and partly on more large-scale questionnaire surveys. This paper briefly describes...... the background of the overall project, and in more detail a questionnaire-based survey on environmental attitudes and training interests among middle managers in Danish companies.......It has long been realised that education and training are essential factors in promoting environmental management in business organisations. So far, however, there has been little information about environmental management practice and related educational and training requirements in even leading...

  19. Are Ghanaian Diaspora Middle Class? Linking Middle Class to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, since the return to constitutional rule in 1992, Ghana has emerged as one of the most stable countries in the West African sub-region and has become a beacon of democracy for other African countries to emulate. This political stability has been largely attributed to the positive role of the educated middle class ...

  20. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine the…

  1. AED in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the varied activities undertaken by AED throughout the Middle East. Current AED Programs include: (1) Behavior…

  2. Geophysical Logs, Aquifer Tests, and Water Levels in Wells in and Near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 from October 2002 through December 2006. This followed work that began in 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form fractured-rock aquifers that act as a set of confined to semi-confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area. This stream flows southwest approximately parallel to strike and bisects North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 42 wells that ranged in depth from 40 to 477 ft. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 17 of the 42 wells, for a total of 122 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping and shutdown of a 600-ft deep production well in November-December 2004. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in four wells in the area from October 2002 through September 2006, and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on

  3. Relationship power, communication, and violence among couples: results of a cluster-randomized HIV prevention study in a South African township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minnis AM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra M Minnis,1,2 Irene A Doherty,1,3 Tracy L Kline,1 William A Zule,1 Bronwyn Myers,4,5 Tara Carney,4 Wendee M Wechsberg1,3,6,7 1RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 3University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, 5Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 6North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 7Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Background: Inequitable gender-based power in relationships and intimate partner violence contribute to persistently high rates of HIV infection among South African women. We examined the effects of two group-based HIV prevention interventions that engaged men and their female partners together in a couples intervention (Couples Health CoOp [CHC] and a gender-separate intervention (Men’s Health CoOp/Women’s Health CoOp [MHC/WHC] on women’s reports of power, communication, and conflict in relationships. Methods: The cluster-randomized field experiment included heterosexual couples from a high-density South African township in which neighborhoods were randomized to one of the intervention arms or a control arm that received the WHC only. Participants completed in-person study visits at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We examined group differences using one-way analysis of variance and multivariable regression models.Results: Of the 290 couples enrolled, 255 women remained in the same partnership over 6 months. Following the intervention, women in the CHC arm compared with those in the WHC arm were more likely to report an increase in relationship control (ß=0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 1.83, P=0.045 and gender norms supporting female autonomy in relationships (ß=0.99, 95% CI: 0.07, 1.91, P=0.035. Women in the MHC/WHC arm were more likely to report increases

  4. Middle School: Lessons from the Rand Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Carolyn E.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a recent study by the Rand Corporation that concluded that there is cause for middle schools to worry. Commissioned by the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, one of four major philanthropies supporting the middle school movement, the Rand investigation is clear in its assessment: The American middle school leaves adolescents…

  5. Funding problems threaten Middle East's synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Scientists will tour the Middle East to try to raise support for the Synchrotron radiation for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East project. The plan is to dismantle and move a decommissioned synchrotron from Berlin to the Middle East where scientists of any nationality would be able to use it (3 paragraphs).

  6. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  7. Secondary middle turbinate: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Moreira, Wanderval, E-mail: bruninha86@hotmail.com [Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Secondary middle turbinate is an anatomical variant rarely observed in the nasal cavity, firstly described by Khanobthamchai et al. as a bone structure originating from the lateral nasal wall and covered by soft tissue. In most cases reported in the literature, this variant is bilateral, occurring without associated complications. In the present report, the authors describe the case of patient of their institution with such anatomical variation. (author)

  8. Rhinoplasty for Middle Eastern noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ghavami, Ashkan

    2009-04-01

    Rhinoplasty remains one of the most challenging operations, as exemplified in the Middle Eastern patient. The ill-defined, droopy tip, wide and high dorsum, and thick skin envelope mandate meticulous attention to preoperative evaluation and efficacious yet safe surgical maneuvers. The authors provide a systematic approach to evaluation and improvement of surgical outcomes in this patient population. A retrospective, 3-year review identified patients of Middle Eastern heritage who underwent primary rhinoplasty and those who did not but had nasal photographs. Photographs and operative records (when applicable) were reviewed. Specific nasal characteristics, component-directed surgical techniques, and aesthetic outcomes were delineated. The Middle Eastern nose has a combination of specific nasal traits, with some variability, including thick/sebaceous skin (excess fibrofatty tissue), high/wide dorsum with cartilaginous and bony humps, ill-defined nasal tip, weak/thin lateral crura relative to the skin envelope, nostril-tip imbalance, acute nasolabial and columellar-labial angles, and a droopy/hyperdynamic nasal tip. An aggressive yet nondestructive surgical approach to address the nasal imbalance often requires soft-tissue debulking, significant cartilaginous framework modification (with augmentation/strengthening), tip refinement/rotation/projection, low osteotomies, and depressor septi nasi muscle treatment. The most common postoperative defects were related to soft-tissue scarring, thickened skin envelope, dorsum irregularities, and prolonged edema in the supratip/tip region. It is critical to improve the strength of the cartilaginous framework with respect to the thick, noncontractile skin/soft-tissue envelope, particularly when moderate to large dorsal reduction is required. A multitude of surgical maneuvers are often necessary to address all the salient characteristics of the Middle Eastern nose and to produce the desired aesthetic result.

  9. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  10. 75 FR 15462 - PPL Susquehanna, LLC; Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... implement the requirements of this section through its Commission-approved Physical Security Plan, Training..., (2) specialized industry expertise whose availability is being challenged by the significant demand...

  11. 77 FR 75674 - Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2, PPL Susquehanna, LLC, Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... unplanned Unit 1 outage necessary due to fatigue cracking experienced on the Unit 1 turbine blades described... licensee subsequently reduced reactor power on Units 1 and 2 to minimize blade tip vibration and allow...

  12. Homophobic stigma, depression, self-efficacy and unprotected anal intercourse for peri-urban township men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional association model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Andrew; Liht, Jose; de Swardt, Glenn; Jobson, Geoffrey; Rebe, Kevin; McIntyre, James; Struthers, Helen

    2014-01-01

    While research now highlights that men who have sex with men (MSM) in places such as South Africa are at particular risk of HIV infection, left relatively unexplored are potential relationships between one of the most pressing social issues affecting peri-urban MSM - namely homophobic stigma - and sexual risk-taking behaviour. Drawing on research from the Ukwazana baseline study of 316 township MSM in Cape Town we examine how homophobic stigma relates to psychosocial factors such as depression and self-efficacy and the risk activity of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). By deploying cross-sectional association models, we examine a series of relationships between these variables and offer evidence to suggest that HIV prevention programmes aimed at sexual minority groups should be mindful of potentially complex relationships between social stigmas such as homophobia and sexual risk-taking behaviour.

  13. Changes in Groundwater Flow and Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations at the Fischer and Porter Superfund Site, Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    The 38-acre Fischer and Porter Company Superfund Site is in Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pa. Historically, as part of the manufacturing process, trichloroethylene (TCE) degreasers were used for parts cleaning. In 1979, the Bucks County Health Department detected TCE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water from the Fischer and Porter on-site supply wells and nearby public-supply wells. The Fischer and Porter Site was designated as a Superfund Site and placed on the National Priorities List in September 1983. A 1984 Record of Decision for the site required the Fischer and Porter Company to pump and treat groundwater contaminated by VOCs from three on-site wells at a combined rate of 75 gallons per minute to contain groundwater contamination on the property. Additionally, the Record of Decision recognized the need for treatment of the water from two nearby privately owned supply wells operated by the Warminster Heights Home Ownership Association. In 2004, the Warminster Heights Home Ownership Association sold its water distribution system, and both wells were taken out of service. The report describes changes in groundwater levels and contaminant concentrations and migration caused by the shutdown of the Warminster Heights supply wells and presents a delineation of the off-site groundwater-contamination plume. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted this study (2006-09) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The Fischer and Porter Site and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Stockton Formation of Late Triassic age. The rocks are chiefly interbedded arkosic sandstone and siltstone. The Stockton aquifer system is comprised of a series of gently dipping lithologic units with different hydraulic properties. A three-dimensional lithostratigraphic model was developed for the site on the basis of rock cores and borehole geophysical logs. The model was simplified by combining individual lithologic

  14. 77 FR 40402 - Actions Taken at June 7, 2012 Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... budget subject to future revision; (8) amendment of the Comprehensive Plan for the Water Resources of the... water withdrawal of up to 0.432 mgd (peak day). 5. Project Sponsor and Facility: Empire Kosher Poultry...: Southwestern Energy Production Company (East Branch Tunkhannock Creek), Lenox Township, Susquehanna County, PA...

  15. 75 FR 51155 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ....; Consumptive Use of up to 7.500 mgd; Approval Date: June 2, 2010. 3. Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation, Pad ID.... Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: Post P1, ABR-20100605, Brooklyn Township, Susquehanna County, Pa..., Tioga County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of up to 4.000 mgd; Approval Date: June 2, 2010. 8. Cabot Oil & Gas...

  16. 78 FR 2315 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    .... Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: AldrichL P1, ABR-201210002, Gibson Township, Susquehanna County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of Up to 3.575 mgd; Approval Date: October 3, 2012. 3. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID...; Approval Date: October 3, 2012. 4. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: BrayB P1, ABR-201210004, Auburn...

  17. 76 FR 33019 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    .... Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: HawleyJ P1, ABR-201103009, Forest Lake Township, Susquehanna County... Use of up to 7.500 mgd; Approval Date: March 17, 2011. 20. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: ZickJ....990 mgd; Approval Date: April 13, 2011. 69. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: Lyman J P1, ABR...

  18. 75 FR 22172 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    .... 37. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: ChudleighW P2, ABR- 20100137, Dimock Township, Susquehanna County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of up to 3.575 mgd; Approval Date: January 9, 2010. 38. Cabot Oil & Gas...; Approval Date: January 10, 2010. 45. Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, Pad ID: CarlsonW P1, ABR-20100145, Dimock...

  19. Geoscientists and the Radical Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Addressing the great challenges facing society requires industry, government, and academia to work together. I call this overlap space, where compromises are made and real solutions determined, the Radical Middle. Radical because it can appear at times as if the loudest and most publicly influential voices lie outside of the actual solution space, content to provoke but not problem-solve. One key area where geoscientists can play a lead role in the Radical Middle is in the overlap between energy, the environment, and the economy. Globally, fossil fuels still represent 85% of the aggregate energy mix. As existing conventional oil and natural-gas reservoir production continues to slowly decline, unconventional reservoirs, led today by shale and other more expensive resources, will represent a growing part of the oil and gas production mix. Many of these unconventional reservoirs require hydraulic fracturing. The positive economic impact of hydraulic fracturing and associated natural gas and oil production on the United States economy is well documented and undeniable. Yet there are environmental concerns about fracking, and some states and nations have imposed moratoria. This energy-environment-economy space is ideal for leadership from the geosciences. Another such overlap space is the potential for geoscience leadership in relations with China, whose economy and global presence continue to expand. Although China is building major hydropower and natural-gas power plants, as well as nuclear reactors, coal is still king—with the associated environmental impacts. Carbon sequestration—onshore in brine and to enhance oil recovery, as well as offshore—could prove viable. It is vital that educated and objective geoscientists from industry, government, and academia leave their corners and work together in the Radical Middle to educate the public and develop and deliver balanced, economically sensible energy and environmental strategies.

  20. The Science of Middle Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Pincetl, S.

    2012-12-01

    In the field of biogeochemistry, urbanization is often considered as an "alteration" or "disturbance" to the earth's surface and its natural processes. This view is an outcome of the view of nature inherent in earth system science and ecology, in which nature is defined as separate from humans and society. However, other disciplines are based in alternative views of nature in which humans are more integral components of the landscape. Urban planning, landscape architecture, agriculture, and horticulture, for example, more fully integrate the role of landscape design and management in the functioning of human-dominated ecosystems. We suggest that the field of urban biogeochemistry has been somewhat limited by the predominant, disturbance-based view of the role of nature in cities, and that more deeply evaluating and broadening the concept of nature inherent in studies of urban processes can enhance our understanding of the role of urbanization in the earth system. A particularly useful concept is the "middle nature" proposed by Cosgrove (1993), which serves a purpose of "actively transforming nature into culture." It is this view of urban landscapes as middle nature, or transformation of urban space into human-dominated nature with a purpose, that is lacking from the current scientific discourse about the role of biogeochemistry in urban ecosystem services. A scientific evaluation of middle nature implies studying the performance of urban designs to meet intended cultural and environmental goals, including beauty, social equity, governance, and social capital as well as environmental quality. We describe our work in evaluating the transformed urban landscapes of Los Angeles from multiple perspectives that focus on urban livability, equity, and beauty as well as the physical impacts of plants and soils on the environment. The outcomes of this process do not necessary meet the traditional demands of biophysical ecology such as utilizing native species, maximizing

  1. [Implantable middle ear hearing aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    à Wengen, D F

    2004-01-01

    Conventional acoustic hearing aids are limited in their performance. Due to physical laws their amplification of sound is limited to within 5 kHz. However, the frequencies between 5 and 10 kHz are essential for understanding consonants. Words can only be understood correctly if their consonants can be understood. Furthermore noise amplification remains a problem with hearing aids. Other problems consist of recurrent infections of the external auditory canal, intolerance for occlusion of the ear canal, feedback noise, and resonances in speech or singing. Implantable middle ear hearing aids like the Soundbridge of Symphonix-Siemens and the MET of Otologics offer improved amplification and a more natural sound. Since the first implantation of a Soundbridge in Switzerland in 1996 almost one thousand patients have been implanted worldwide. The currents systems are semi-implantable. The external audio processor containing the microphone, computer chip, battery and radio system is worn in the hair bearing area behind the ear. Implantation is only considered after unsuccessful fitting of conventional hearing aids. In Switzerland the cost for these implantable hearing aids is covered by social insurances. Initially the cost for an implant is higher than for hearing aids. However, hearing aids need replacement every 5 or 6 years whereas implants will last 20 to 30 years. Due to the superior sound quality and the improved understanding of speech in noise, the number of patients with implantable hearing aids will certainly increase in the next years. Other middle ear implants are in clinical testing.

  2. PARACENTRAL ACUTE MIDDLE MACULOPATHY IN PURTSCHER RETINOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-De La Parra, David; Fromow-Guerra, Jans

    2017-12-27

    To describe paracentral acute middle maculopathy associated with Purtscher retinopathy, particularly in Purtscher flecken lesions as a retinal complication in a case secondary to fractures of long bones. Case report. A 16-year-old boy with bilateral paracentral scotomata presented with bilateral paracentral acute middle maculopathy as part of Purtscher retinopathy in both eyes as consequence of tibia and fibula fractures. Paracentral acute middle maculopathy is one of the optical coherence tomography findings in Purtscher retinopathy.

  3. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  4. Developmental morphology of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, K; Anniko, M

    1997-01-01

    The development of the murine middle ear was monitored both qualitatively and morphometrically by scanning electron microscopy from the 19th gestational day to the adult stage. At birth, the middle ear was less well developed than the inner ear. The tympanic membrane (TM) was obscured by occlusion of the external auditory canal. Ciliated cells and secretory granules were present in the middle ear epithelium already 5 days after birth (DAB). Keratin debris was discerned on the external layer of the TM 9 DAB. By 12 DAB, mesenchymal tissue had resorbed from the middle ear cavity, except around the upper part of the ossicles. The middle ear was immature at birth but developed rapidly until 12 DAB. When compared with the avian middle ear the mouse middle ear was basically similar to that of humans, although in the human the stapedial artery is vestigial whereas in the mouse it persists as an important vessel. In man, there is no orbicular apophysis and no gonial of the malleus. The hypotympanum of the human middle ear is less developed than that of the murine middle ear. The mouse external auditory canal matures postnatally until 12 DAB, while in humans its development is complete at birth.

  5. Promoting Healthy Body Image in Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akos, Patrick; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2002-01-01

    Provides advice for school counselors on promoting healthy body image among middle school students. Interventions for the promotion of healthy body image at individual, group, and systemic levels can offer students a protective factor for common disruptions associated with puberty and the transition into middle school. Outlines issues for…

  6. Sex Roles and Depression in Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broschart, Kay Richards

    Middle age is a phase of the life cycle marked by poorly defined boundaries and declining status. Studies reveal that depression is more likely to occur during middle age than during any other phase of the life cycle. In addition, research has verified that depression occurs more commonly in women than men. A sociological analysis of factors which…

  7. Educational Film Guide for Middle Eastern Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Joseph; Joachim, Ann

    This annotated guide lists 16mm. films on the Middle East for use in grades K-12 and with adults. The Middle East refers to a vast area extending from eastern Afghanistan and the northern Caucasus to the western coast of Morocco and the southern periphery of the Sahara. The guide does not list films according to their merits. Rather, it includes…

  8. Size variation in Middle Pleistocene humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M; Lorenzo, C; Gracia, A; Martínez, I; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E

    1997-08-22

    It has been suggested that European Middle Pleistocene humans, Neandertals, and prehistoric modern humans had a greater sexual dimorphism than modern humans. Analysis of body size variation and cranial capacity variation in the large sample from the Sima de los Huesos site in Spain showed instead that the sexual dimorphism is comparable in Middle Pleistocene and modern populations.

  9. Learning Leadership Skills in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    For middle school students, the essence of 21st-century leadership development is being "in influence" versus being "in control." A core student leadership skill involves listening intently to others, framing others' concerns, and advancing the other person's interests. Creating contexts in which middle school…

  10. Green chemistry education in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-06-01

    The Middle East once dominated the age of alchemy, and today it is experiencing a resurgence by transforming the age of petroleum chemicals into a greener science through Estidama. This green conversion is taking place through green chemical research and education. This report examines and reviews the understudied subject of green chemical education in the Middle East through the lens of context and history.

  11. Middle Level Students' Goal Orientations and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Emmanuel; Atta, George

    2015-01-01

    The study used a phenomenological lens to explore middle level classroom goal perceptions and classroom experiences that were pivotal in motivating students to achieve their learning goals. A total of 46 participants (31 students and 15 teachers) from two middle schools in a Midwestern city participated in focus group discussions and one-on-one…

  12. MIDDLE SCHOOL SURVEY OF NEW YORK STATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIMPSON, GEORGE C.; SMITH, GEORGE J.

    TO GATHER INFORMATION ON THE CONCEPT OF THE MIDDLE SCHOOL, A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS SENT TO 648 SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN NEW YORK STATE, 510 OF WHOM RESPONDED. IT WAS FOUND THAT (1) 60 SCHOOL DISTRICTS HAD A MIDDLE SCHOOL IN OPERATION, (2) 170 SCHOOL DISTRICTS WERE STUDYING REORGANIZATION TO INCLUDE IT, (3) 35 DISTRICTS HAD CONSIDERED AND REJECTED IT, (4)…

  13. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  14. Motivating Middle Schoolers Grades 5-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    What motivates middle school students? Hormones and success! There is not much that teachers can do about the hormones, but they sure can affect the success. "Teaching Information and Communication Technology Skills: The Big6 in Middle Schools," a new book from Linworth Publishing, offers classroom teachers and teacher librarians new strategies…

  15. Morality from infancy to middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, Fieke Dineke

    2007-01-01

    In the present thesis, a homogeneous upper middle class sample of firstborn girls and their mothers were followed from infancy (18 and 24 months) to middle childhood (89 months) using questionnaires and observations. The focus of the study was on three components of moral behavior, i.e. empathy,

  16. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  17. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  18. [Comparative ophthalmology in the Middle Ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, M; Norn, O

    2001-01-01

    Descriptions of animal eyes in the Middle Ages in the learned work Physiologus from the 4th century, based on Aristoteles, Plutarc, the Bible etc. are commented on. The modern biologist is horrified, the historian understands the ethical - religious aspects behind the edifying stories concerning the lion, gazelle, eagle, snake, lizard, swallow etc. Medical science and theology were not separated in the Middle Ages.

  19. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brasil: I. famílias Annonaceae e Gnetaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brazil: I. families Annonaceae and Gnetaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, no Estado do Amazonas, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos, de 1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de se obter amostras botânicas da área, para estudos no Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas" com a finalidade de se elaborar uma Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas neste período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida foram identificadas 39 espécies distribuídas em 15 gêneros. Destes, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries e Xylopia L.destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo os dois primeiros representados por oito e seis espécies, respectivamente, e os três últimos, com quatro espécies. A família Gnetaceae Lindl. (Gimnospermae está representada no Município apenas pelo gênero Gnetum L., com a espécie G. leyboldii Tul.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies in the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" SubProject, for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Thirty nine (39 species distributed into 15 genera were identified for the family Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida. Of these, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries and Xylopia L. stood out on account of their species diversity, the former two were represented by eight and six species

  20. Middle-class projects in modern Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2017-01-01

    if the Malays constitute the largest and fastest growing section of the middle class in Malaysia. Based on research projects I have carried out from the mid-1990s to the present, this article argues that an unpacking of the Malay Muslim middle class over time is important in order to understand the broader...... picture surrounding this class and its relationship to Malaysian national repertoires such as Islamic revivalism, politics, consumer culture, social mobility and the state-market nexus. I understand middle-class projects to be the making of local class culture in Malaysia and explore these in four...... research projects that each in their own way examine how Malay Muslim informants understand and practice “middle-classness” in different spatial and temporal contexts. In short, my findings show how Malay Muslim middle-class projects such as Islamic consumption shape local class culture in Malaysia....

  1. Estonian Middle Semantics with Evidence from Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve-Anneli Vihman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents arguments for recognizing a middle voice in Estonian. The claim that the semantics of middle-marked verbs differs in a substantial way from the semantics of other intransitive constructions leads to the examination of the discourse pragmatics of these constructions, and the relationship between discourse patterns and their valency and argument properties. Various topicality measures show that the argument participant in middle clauses lies between that of the sole participant (S in intransitive clauses and the O of active transitive clauses. The results regarding the discourse behaviour of middle arguments constitute new evidence for the view that middle constructions differ from ordinary intransitive verbs, despite structural similarities, and mark a unique range on the scale of transitivity exhibited by verbs in Estonian.

  2. Middle ear structure in relation to function : the rat in middle ear research

    OpenAIRE

    Albiin, Nils

    1985-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the rat as a model for middle ear re­search. The rat was chosen primarily because the gross structure of its middle ear shows several similarities to that of man. It was considered of great importance to make a thorough structural study of the rat middle ear and to compare the results with those reported for the human middle ear. The thesis therefore includes indepen­dent studies on various aspects of rat middle ear structure and function as well a...

  3. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.

  4. Localization of antileukoprotease in middle ear mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, B; Ohlsson, K

    1983-01-01

    The localization of antileukoprotease was studied immunohistologically in normal middle ear mucosa specimens obtained at autopsy and in chronically inflamed middle ear mucosa specimens obtained at middle ear surgery for chronic otitis media. In the sections of normal as well as in the sections of chronically inflamed middle ear mucosa, antileukoprotease localization was confined to PAS-positive goblet cells of surface epithelium and to PAS-positive goblet-like cells of submucosal glands and crypts, whereas ciliated mucosal cells and stratified squamous epithelial cells were devoid of anti-leukoprotease. In comparison with normal middle ear mucosa, an increased number of goblet cells--and thus an increased number of cells containing antileukoprotease--was present in the chronically inflamed middle ear mucosa. Since antileukoprotease is a potent inhibitor of granulocyte elastase and Cathepsin G, it was concluded that this proliferation of the respiratory epithelium during inflammatory processes in the middle ear indicates an increased activity of the biologic defence system against the action of granulocyte proteases.

  5. Imaging of the postoperative middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Marc T. [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25 rue Manin, 75940, Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris (France)

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to present the principles and the indications of surgical treatment of middle ear pathologies; and (b) to review the imaging findings after middle ear surgery, including the normal postoperative aspects and imaging findings in patients presenting with unsatisfactory surgical results or with suspicion of postoperative complications. This review is intentionally restricted to the most common diseases involving the middle ear: chronic otitis media and otosclerosis. In these specific fields of interest, CT and MR imaging play a very important role in the postoperative follow-up and in the work-up of surgical failures and complications. (orig.)

  6. Return of the Vampire (Middle School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Kuby, Sue Ann; Katz, Claudia Anne

    1996-01-01

    Presents, in the form of a conversation with a vampire, results of a teacher's research on middle school students' reading preferences. Includes a list of favorite books mentioned, favorite authors mentioned, and how students found these favorite books. (SR)

  7. The Water Conflict in the Middle East

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The water conflict in the Middle East is reaching a crisis peak. The region suffers from a shortage of water, a high rate of population growth and the absence of a clear criteria for sharing waters within the region...

  8. The Middle School Curriculum: A New Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Mary F.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes clustering content areas of a middle school curriculum under humanities, technology, and personal study. An interdisciplinary team planning approach could eliminate the schism between academic and other subjects. (MLF)

  9. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  10. Mast cells and middle ear effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfors, L E; Albiin, N; Bloom, G D; Hellström, S; Widemar, L

    1985-01-01

    The mast cell--an important component of connective tissue--carries in its cytoplasmic granules various biologically active substances, such as heparin, histamine, and a broad spectrum of enzymes. This cell type plays a prominent role in inflammatory and allergic conditions. In the middle ear, the mast cells are mainly localized in the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane and beneath the tracts of secretory and ciliated cells in the middle ear mucosa. Degranulation of the mast cells by the histamine liberator compound 48/80 causes histamine-rich effusion material to accumulate in the middle ear. Plugging of the eustachian tube and/or tympanic isthmus will bring about a similar accumulation. It would thus seem that mast cells in some way participate in the production of middle ear effusion, probably via their potent mediators.

  11. The Middle Islamic and Crusader Periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2008-01-01

    The book chapter presents a critical review of the archaeology of Jordan in the middle Islamic periods (8th - 17th centuries CE), presenting a new evaluation of settlement and culture in the period, and assesses the errors of past appraoches.......The book chapter presents a critical review of the archaeology of Jordan in the middle Islamic periods (8th - 17th centuries CE), presenting a new evaluation of settlement and culture in the period, and assesses the errors of past appraoches....

  12. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa [College of Medicine, Inje University, Dongrae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media.

  13. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  14. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color. ...

  15. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  16. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  17. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  18. Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of communities in Pennsylvania are implementing land-treatment systems to dispose of treated sewage effluent. Disposal of treated effluent by spraying onto the land surface, instead of discharging to streams, may recharge the ground-water system and reduce degradation of stream-water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and with assistance from the New Garden Township Sewer Authority, conducted a study from October 1997 through December 2001 to assess the effects of spray irrigation of secondary treated sewage effluent on the water quantity and quality and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a 38-acre watershed in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pa. On an annual basis, the spray irrigation increased the recharge to the watershed. Compared to the annual recharge determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed above the USGS streamflow-gaging station (01479820) near Kennett Square, Pa., the spray irrigation increased annual recharge in the study watershed by approximately 8.8 in. (inches) in 2000 and 4.3 in. in 2001. For 2000 and 2001, the spray irrigation increased recharge 65-70 percent more than the recharge estimates determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed. The increased recharge was equal to 30-39 percent of the applied effluent. The spray-irrigated effluent increased base flow in the watershed. The magnitude of the increase appeared to be related to the time of year when the application rates increased. During the late fall through winter and into the early spring period, when application rates were low, base flow increased by approximately 50 percent over the period prior to effluent application. During the early spring through summer to the late fall period, when application rates were high, base flow increased by approximately 200 percent over the period prior to effluent application

  19. Women's knowledge and perception of male circumcision before and after its roll-out in the South African township of Orange Farm from community-based cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraux, Barbara; Lissouba, Pascale; Rain-Taljaard, Reathe; Taljaard, Dirk; Bouscaillou, Julie; Lewis, David; Puren, Adrian; Auvert, Bertran

    2017-01-01

    The roll-out of medical male circumcision (MC) is progressing in Southern and Eastern Africa. Little is known about the effect of this roll-out on women. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and perceptions of women regarding MC in a setting before and after the roll-out. This study was conducted in the South African township of Orange Farm where MC prevalence among men increased from 17% to 53% in the period 2008-2010. Data from three community-based cross sectional surveys conducted in 2007, 2010 and 2012 among 1258, 1197 and 2583 adult women, respectively were studied. In 2012, among 2583 women, 73.7% reported a preference for circumcised partners, and 87.9% knew that circumcised men could become infected with HIV. A total of 95.8% preferred to have their male children circumcised. These three proportions increased significantly during the roll-out. In 2007, the corresponding values were 64.4%, 82.9% and 80.4%, respectively. Among 2581 women having had sexual intercourse with circumcised and uncircumcised men, a majority (55.8%, 1440/2581) agreed that it was easier for a circumcised man to use a condom, 20.5% (530/2581) disagreed; and 23.07 (611/2581) did not know. However, some women incorrectly stated that they were fully (32/2579; 1.2%; 95%CI: 0.9% to 1.7%) or partially (233/2579; 9.0%; 95%CI: 8.0% to 10.2%) protected when having unprotected sex with a circumcised HIV-positive partner. This study shows that the favorable perception of women and relatively correct knowledge regarding VMMC had increased during the roll-out of VMMC. When possible, women should participate in the promotion of VMMC although further effort should be made to improve their knowledge.

  20. Women's knowledge and perception of male circumcision before and after its roll-out in the South African township of Orange Farm from community-based cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Maraux

    Full Text Available The roll-out of medical male circumcision (MC is progressing in Southern and Eastern Africa. Little is known about the effect of this roll-out on women. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and perceptions of women regarding MC in a setting before and after the roll-out. This study was conducted in the South African township of Orange Farm where MC prevalence among men increased from 17% to 53% in the period 2008-2010. Data from three community-based cross sectional surveys conducted in 2007, 2010 and 2012 among 1258, 1197 and 2583 adult women, respectively were studied. In 2012, among 2583 women, 73.7% reported a preference for circumcised partners, and 87.9% knew that circumcised men could become infected with HIV. A total of 95.8% preferred to have their male children circumcised. These three proportions increased significantly during the roll-out. In 2007, the corresponding values were 64.4%, 82.9% and 80.4%, respectively. Among 2581 women having had sexual intercourse with circumcised and uncircumcised men, a majority (55.8%, 1440/2581 agreed that it was easier for a circumcised man to use a condom, 20.5% (530/2581 disagreed; and 23.07 (611/2581 did not know. However, some women incorrectly stated that they were fully (32/2579; 1.2%; 95%CI: 0.9% to 1.7% or partially (233/2579; 9.0%; 95%CI: 8.0% to 10.2% protected when having unprotected sex with a circumcised HIV-positive partner. This study shows that the favorable perception of women and relatively correct knowledge regarding VMMC had increased during the roll-out of VMMC. When possible, women should participate in the promotion of VMMC although further effort should be made to improve their knowledge.

  1. Co-occurrence of arseniasis and fluorosis due to indoor combustion of high fluorine and arsenic content coal in a rural township in northwest China: epidemiological and toxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guo-fang; Shen, Jian-hua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai (China); Gong, Shi-you [County Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Ziyang, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Cheng [Township Clinics of Haoping, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Ji-gang [Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control of Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Golka, Klaus [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    A large number of fluorosis and arseniasis cases appeared in a mountainous area in northwest China. The residents relied on local inferior coal (''bone coal'') of high fluorine and arsenic content for domestic heating and cooking. For deep-inside information about this rare case of co-endemia of fluorosis and arseniasis in the population in this special exposure scenario, a field investigation in one of the hyperendemic townships was conducted. The resident population registered (n = 27,713) was enrolled in the investigation. All cases were diagnosed and assigned to three symptom severity groups, that is severe, medium, and mild according to Chinese National Standard Criteria GB 16396-96 and to the technical guideline WS/T208-01 or WS/T211-01 issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Gender difference was analyzed by standardized incidence ratio. Age trend and severity trend were tested by {chi}{sup 2} analysis. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 56.7% of the residents. Over 95% of the diagnosed arseniasis cases were simultaneously diagnosed with fluorosis symptoms. Combined fluorosis-arseniasis represented 11.9% of the total fluorosis cases and 6.7% of the local population. No gender-related differences in the prevalence of skeletal, dental, or dermal symptoms inside all severity groups were detected. Symptom severity increased with age. The high frequency of superposition of arseniasis with fluorosis might be due to the fact that the local resident population has been exposed to very high levels of fluorine and arsenic via the same exposure route. (orig.)

  2. Talking about consumption. How an Indian middle class dissociates from middle-Class life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the middle class in the Indian city of Baroda employ a common moral discourse on consumption, one that is shaped through the operationalization of historically rooted ideals of community, family solidarity and asceticism. These ideals are set against the experience of urban middle-class

  3. Leading in the Middle: Leadership Behaviors of Middle Level Principals that Promote Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minus, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between middle school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement. In particular, this study investigated the specific principal leadership behaviors of middle level principals that promote student achievement in school. A secondary variable for consideration was student…

  4. Occupational Outlets for Middle Level Training. What Is the Future of Middle Level Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Paul; Cesnich, Janine

    This project intended to determine whether a middle-level employment base existed in manufacturing and service industries in South Australia and to examine current trends and future directions of middle-level (paraprofessional) vocational training. The study used the following methods: literature review; labor market analysis; surveys of…

  5. The Perceptions of Secondary School Middle Leaders Regarding Their Needs Following a Middle Leadership Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Anthony; Bennett-Powell, Gay

    2014-01-01

    The importance of middle leaders in bringing about improvement in schools is well recognized in the UK, as in many other countries, with the ever-present demand for raising standards and achievement. This article outlines some initial findings and discussion points emerging from the first stage of a project exploring how middle leaders in…

  6. Teaching in the Middle Grades Today: Examining Teachers' Beliefs about Middle Grades Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCicco, Mike; Cook, Chris M.; Faulkner, Shawn A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the middle school movement in the mid-1960s, middle level advocates have called for a school experience for young adolescents grounded in adolescent development that engages students in meaningful learning (Alexander & Williams, 1965; Eichhorn, 1966). The aim of this exploratory multicase study was to understand middle…

  7. Understanding Middle Leaders: A Closer Look at Middle Leadership in Primary Schools in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Mary Anne; Marsh, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    What is the nature of middle leadership in primary schools? What are middle leaders' understanding and experiences in leading learning and teaching? Set against the policy context of decentralised centralism in Singapore and an emerging worldwide trend of decentralisation as a means to encourage school-based development and innovation, this study…

  8. Compensating for Deviant Middle Ear Pressure in Otoacoustic Emission Measurements, Data, and Comparison to a Middle Ear Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Janny R.; de Kleine, Emile; Avan, Paul; Anteunis, Lucien J. C.; Koopmans, Peter J.; van Dijk, Pim

    Objective: Deviant middle ear pressure has a negative effect on the forward and backward transmission of stimulus and emissions through the middle ear. Resolving this deviant middle ear pressure is expected to lead to better middle ear transmission and, as a result of this, stronger otoacoustic

  9. Globalization and Its Impact on the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Economy of the Middle East,” Review of A Political Economy of the Middle East, Third Edition, by Alan Richards and John Waterbury . Westview Press...will intensify a widening income gap within the developing world.100 As Richards and Waterbury make it clear, what the future holds for the Middle...Review of A Political Economy of the Middle East, Third Edition, by Alan Richards and John Waterbury . Westview Press, 2008. The Middle East Policy 15

  10. MIDDLE JURASSIC NAUTILOIDEA FROM WESTERN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICK BRANGER

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic shelf margin limestones and marly limestones of Western France yield quite numerous Nautilida. This record is here described for the first time in detail, nine genera and more than forty species, whose range rarely exceeds one or two ammonite biozones, constitute a rather precise tool to date Middle Jurassic beds. Each taxon is placed in an accurate biostratigraphical chart; a new genus, Pictonautilus nov. gen., is described. The stratigraphical range of Cenoceras, Digonioceras and Gen. B n. ? (sensu Chirat 1997 is extended up to the Middle Callovian. In the Jurassic successions of Poitou, Nautilida always represent a minor part of the fossil record, they are more abundant in four levels: Middle Aalenian, base of Upper Bajocian, Lower Bathonian and top of Middle Bathonian. Dwarf Nautilida (Paracenoceras and species showing more folded septa and a subventral siphuncle (Pseudaganides or strongly ribbed specimens (Cymatonautilus are characteristic of stable open-shelf environments (Callovian, whereas large shelled nautilus would be mostly present during deepening episodes. The geographical extension of many taxa indicates a provincialism that fits with that of ammonites of the same period.

  11. Temperature variability over the tropical middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanakumar

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on the variability of temperature in the tropical middle atmosphere over Thumba (8 32' N, 76 52' E, located at the southern part of India, has been carried out based on rocket observations for a period of 20 years, extending from 1970 to 1990. The rocketsonde-derived mean temperatures over Thumba are corrected prior to 1978 and then compared with the middle atmospheric reference model developed from satellite observations and Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME satellite data. Temperature variability at every 1 km interval in the 25-75 km region was analysed. The tropical stratosphere is found to be highly stable, whereas considerable variability is noted in the middle mesosphere. The effect of seasonal cycle is least in the lower stratosphere. Annual and semi-annual oscillations in temperature are the primary oscillations in the tropical middle atmosphere. Annual temperature oscillations are dominant in the mesosphere and semi-annual oscillations are strong in the stratosphere. The stratopause region is noted to be the part of the middle atmosphere least sensitive to the changes in solar activity and long-term variability.

  12. Middle ear cholesteatoma: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C G; Meyerhoff, W L; Burns, D K

    1985-01-01

    Topical otic preparations now in clinical use contain a variety of antibiotics and solvents that may produce severe inflammation if they reach the middle ear cavity. This report describes the response of the chinchilla middle ear to direct application of one such preparation that appears to act as a nonspecific irritant. Cortisporin otic suspension (containing neomycin, polymyxin B, hydrocortisone, and propylene glycol) was introduced into the bullae of 32 chinchillas that were kept alive for four days to five months before histologic examination of their temporal bones. All the experimental animals had tissue damage and inflammation within the middle ear. The changes observed included proliferation of ciliated and secretory columnar cells, formation of granulation tissue, bone erosion, and osteoneogenesis. Some areas of the mucosa underwent metaplasia to stratified squamous epithelium; this metaplastic epithelium, however, did not produce keratin. In the majority of animals kept for two months or more, cholesteatoma was identified in the middle ear. The cholesteatomas appeared to develop as a result of penetration of external canal epidermis through intact tympanic membranes or as the result of migration of epidermis through perforations. The experimental cholesteatomas behaved like those seen clinically in humans, with extensive erosion of bony structures within the middle ear.

  13. Virtual endoscopy of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, E.; Caramella, D.; Panconi, M.; Bartolozzi, C. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in Medicine; Berettini, S.; Sellari Franceschini, S.; Forli, F. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Neuroscience

    2001-01-01

    Virtual endoscopy is a computer-generated simulation of fiberoptic endoscopy, and its application to the study of the middle ear has been recently proposed. The need to represent the middle ear anatomy by means of virtual endoscopy arose from the increased interest of otolarygologists in transtympanic endoscopy. In fact, this imaging method allows the visualization of middle ear anatomy with high detail, but it is evasive and is essentially used for surgical guidance. Virtual endoscopy provides similar perspectives of the tympanic cavity but does not require the tympanic perforation. In the study of the middle ear, specific attention is given to the retroperitoneum. This region contains elevations of the medial wall (pyramidal eminence and ridge, styloid eminence and ridge, subiculum, ponticulus) and depressions (sinus tympani, posterior sinus tympani, facial sinus, fossula of Grivot, oval window fossula), which can be effectively displayed by virtual endoscopy. Virtual endoscopy is foreseen as a useful tool in preoperative management of patients who are candidates for middle ear surgery, since it can predict with high detail the patient's specific anatomy by imaging perspectives familiar to otosurgeons. (orig.)

  14. Subjective Meanings and Identification With Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberg, Pnina; Ayalon, Liat

    2017-01-01

    The "middle-age" life period has not been researched extensively and lacks a theoretical conceptualization. The present study explores subjective experiences of members of this age-group. This is a qualitative research, based on in-depth interviews and thematic analysis, which looks into the life stories of 25 Israeli residents aged 48-64 years. The results indicate that the definition of middle age is not clear-cut, and some participants regard their age negatively. Yet, participants report that this period is characterized by a relief of tasks, broader choice opportunity, a sense of liberation, peace of mind, experience, self-awareness, and self-acceptance. Description of middle age as a peak in life, with concerns about future old age, came up repeatedly. Middle-aged individuals' difficulties to identify with their age-group and the social concept that dichotomizes age into young versus old are discussed. The article calls for further research of and engagement with middle age.

  15. Early Predictors of Middle School Fraction Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic proficiency, domain general cognitive abilities, parental income and education, race, and gender. Similarly, knowledge of whole number arithmetic in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction arithmetic in middle school, controlling for whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade and the other control variables. In contrast, neither type of early whole number knowledge uniquely predicted middle school reading achievement. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of numerical development and for improving mathematics learning. PMID:24576209

  16. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  17. An Accelerator control middle layer using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Portmann, G J; Terebilo, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Matlab is a matrix manipulation language originally developed to be a convenient language for using the LINPACK and EISPACK libraries. What makes Matlab so appealing for accelerator physics is the combination of a matrix oriented programming language, an active workspace for system variables, powerful graphics capability, built-in math libraries, and platform independence. A number of software toolboxes for accelerators have been written in Matlab – the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) for machine simulations, LOCO for accelerator calibration, Matlab Channel Access Toolbox (MCA) for EPICS connections, and the Middle Layer. This paper will describe the MiddleLayer software toolbox that resides between the high-level control applications and the low-level accelerator control system. This software was a collaborative effort between ALS and Spear but was written to easily port. Five accelerators presently use this software – Spear, ALS, CLS, and the X-ray and VUV rings at Brookhaven. The Middle Layer fu...

  18. A Primer of Middle Eastern Leadership Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Greaves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is natural for someone looking in on a foreign culture from the outside to interpret what they see and frame their reactions based on their own background and assumptions. With cultures as a different as those of the Middle East and the West, the potential for blunders increases dramatically, made worse by the high political, diplomatic, military, and commercial stakes involved. Leadership culture in this region has been shaped over centuries through a variety of factors, such as reputation, family, and religion, which continue to influence decision making. The present study posits that an understanding of these factors and how they work is crucial for intelligence analysts, policy and decision makers, strategists, and scholars who must find their way through a very unfamiliar cultural landscape in the Middle East. It is hoped that this discussion will in some way assist in the creation of more effective interaction, policies, and analysis associated with the Middle East.

  19. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  20. Middle East: New Balkans of the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Georgescu Stefan; Dr.Sc. Munteanu Marilena

    2012-01-01

    Middle East is a region whose geopolitical dynamics has many analogies with the role of the Balkans in the first half of the 19th century and up to the 3rd decade of the 20th century, namely a "Powder keg of Europe", defined in the same period as the "Eastern Issue".Moreover, Middle East is a region located at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Africa, and along with ancient Egypt is the cradle of Western civilization, providing for it political, economic, re...

  1. Ultrastructure of the middle ear mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentzer, E

    1984-01-01

    Light- and electron microscopic studies of recent years have definitely concluded that the epithelium of the middle ear is a modified respiratory epithelium with ciliated and secretory cells including goblet cells. Goblet cells are secretory cells completely filled with secretory granules. Secretory cells and ciliated cells are both derived from the basal cell. The subepithelial layer which consists of loose connective tissue is a structure of just as great importance as the epithelial layer. It is still not clear whether the dark granulated cell is the site of production of the serous middle ear effusion or whether it merely represents an immature stage of the mucigen-producing cell.

  2. Innervation of the human middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, L; Gulbenkian, S; Barroso, C P

    1998-01-01

    The majority of nerve fibers in the middle meningeal artery and branching arterioles are sympathetic, storing norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y (NPY). A sparse supply of fibers contain acetylcholinesterase activity and immunoreactivity toward vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), peptidine histidine...... methionine (PHM), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Only few substance P and neuropeptide K immunoreactive fibers are noted. Electronmicroscopy shows axons and terminals at the adventitial medial border of the human middle meningeal artery, with a fairly large distance to the smooth muscle cells...

  3. Middle-Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic tetrapod track assemblages of southern Tunisia, Sahara Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Soussi, Mohamed; Boukhalfa, Kamel; Gierliński, Gerard D.

    2017-05-01

    Three tetrapod track assemblages from the early-middle Mesozoic of southern Tunisia are reported. The strata exposed at the Tejra 2 clay-pit near the Medenine and Rehach site, located in the vicinity of Kirchaou, contain the first tetrapod tracks found in the Triassic of Tunisia. The Middle Jurassic (early Aalenian) dinosaur tracks are reported from the Mestaoua plain near Tataouine. In the Middle Triassic outcrop of the Tejra 2 clay-pit, tridactyl tracks of small and medium-sized dinosauromorphs, were discovered. These tracks represent the oldest evidence of dinosaur-lineage elements in the Triassic deposits of Tunisia. Similar tracks have been described from the Middle Triassic of Argentina, France and Morocco. An isolated set of the manus and pes of a quadrupedal tetrapod discovered in Late Triassic Rehach tracksite is referred to a therapsid tracemaker. The Middle Jurassic deposits of the Mestaoua plain reveal small and large tridactyl theropod dinosaur tracks (Theropoda track indet. A-C). Based on comparison with the abundant record of Triassic tetrapod ichnofossils from Europe and North America, the ichnofauna described here indicates the presence of a therapsid-dinosauromorph ichnoassociation (without typical Chirotheriidae tracks) in the Middle and Late Triassic, which sheds light on the dispersal of the Middle-Upper Triassic tetrapod ichnofaunas in this part of Gondwana. The reported Middle Jurassic ichnofauna show close similarities to dinosaur track assemblages from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of northwestern Africa, North America, Europe and also southeastern Asia. Sedimentological and lithostratigraphic data of each new tracksite have been defined on published data and new observations. Taken together, these discoveries present a tantalizing window into the evolutionary history of tetrapods from the Triassic and Jurassic of southern Tunisia. Given the limited early Mesozoic tetrapod record from the region, these discoveries are of both temporal and

  4. Developing Study Guides for Middle School Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Study guides are a popular tool teachers provide to help students prepare for an upcoming test or quiz. They are especially appropriate for middle school students as they transition from reading narrative to informational text. However, some teachers are unfamiliar with various types of study guides. Therefore, this article describes various types…

  5. Arranging Musicals for Middle School Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobetsky, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Middle school choral students and their teachers can benefit from studying and performing a musical. The students can apply their vocal skills to the exploration of this important genre of American music. Outstanding chores members will have opportunities to perform as soloists and to master dramatic roles. The teachers can express themselves…

  6. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  7. Soldiers and Civilians in Contemporary Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that the co-called Arab Spring has spread promising winds across the Middle East and the Northern Afria (MENA) region over the past decade, several countries in the region have nevertheless been caught up in devastating and destructive intra-state conflicts. A prevailing trend am...

  8. Middle managers: their role in management innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Sidhu (Jatinder)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the last 30 years, leaders of innovative companies have been treated as the heroes of business, people who transformed our lives with their vision. That’s true, but as important as great leaders are in building an innovative company, little would happen if effective middle

  9. Liquidity Constraints of the Middle Class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, J.R.; Hercowitz, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Among U.S. middle-class households, the marginal propensity to consume is either invariant to household wealth or a U-shaped function thereof. In contrast, precautionary savings models predict that wealth reduces the marginal propensity to consume. We bridge this gap between theory and data with

  10. Middle School Teachers' Assignment of Test Accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lindy; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty middle school special education teachers from five states were interviewed in order to gain insight into their understanding of accommodation practices. Interview questions solicited information about teachers' understanding of test accommodations, the decision-making process they employed when choosing accommodations, and their reasons for…

  11. Ultra Physical Education in Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth

    1987-01-01

    The physical education program at Tilford Middle School (Vinton, IA) emphasizes the development of each student's self-concept through the avenues of mental development, skill awareness and improvement, emotional and social development, and health development. The program is described. (MT)

  12. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 1. Depositional environment and ... These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fanapex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived ...

  13. Student Perceptions of Middle Grades Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Uline, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers used student-generated photographs to mediate interviews with middle grades students about their school environment. Findings suggest that school leaders and facilities planners should be responsive to students' needs for both personal and social spaces and be aware of ways the built environment may shape the perceptions students hold…

  14. Twelve Middle-School Teachers' Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Deborah Sardo

    1988-01-01

    Case studies described 12 middle-school teachers' instructional yearly, unit, weekly, and daily planning on the basis of a background questionnaire, interview protocols, an analysis of written plans, think-aloud typescripts, and a questionnaire. A process model best characterized teachers long-term planning, while an agenda-formulation model fit…

  15. PARACENTRAL ACUTE MIDDLE MACULOPATHY IN SUSAC SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Ali S; Viswanathan, Deepa; Williams, David; Davies, Peter

    2017-10-09

    To present the first reported case of paracentral acute middle maculopathy in association with Susac syndrome. Case report. A young female patient presented with unilateral sudden loss of vision of her right eye to count fingers. There were numerous cotton wool spots in a multifocal pattern concentrated around the right macula and optic disk. Clinical examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging were consistent with paracentral acute middle maculopathy, and fluorescein angiography showed features of retinal arteriole vasculitis. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple white matter lesions in a pericallosal distribution. High-dose corticosteroid therapy was commenced, and visual acuity gradually improved to 6/6 corrected. The patient reported hearing impairment and was diagnosed with Susac syndrome for which she has responded extremely well to long-term immunosuppressive therapy. Paracentral acute middle maculopathy can occur in association with Susac syndrome. Susac syndrome may present only with multifocal retinal ischemia, and such patients with paracentral acute middle maculopathy should be checked for characteristic magnetic resonance imaging lesions and hearing loss.

  16. Video Games in the Middle School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth; Clem, Frances A.

    2008-01-01

    During the fall 2005 semester, an eighth grade teacher in a Laramie, Wyoming, middle school made an urgent plea for more progressive tools for a beginning computers course. Janet Johnson, a veteran teacher returning to the classroom after a hiatus of 10 years, was frustrated with the apparent lack of motivation and engagement by the students. She…

  17. Performance Appraisals Systems in the Middle Eeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea; Pilati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically examines the logics behind performance appraisal systems in Western contexts in an effort to better understand their applicability in the Middle East (ME). We present a literature review that investigates the major justifications and uses of Performance appraisal systems (PASs...

  18. Middles and argument structure across languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marelj, M.

    2004-01-01

    Middles across languages share a core of common semantic characteristics. Yet they exhibit striking differences, as shown on the language-sample that includes Dutch, English, Hebrew, French, Italian, Polish, and Serbo-Croat. The author argues that a single ARB operation, inspired by the

  19. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  20. Five bid to host Middle East synchroton

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Germany is willing to donate a synchrotron to a research centre to be built somewhere in the Middle East. Bids to host the centre were submitted by Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt. Funding of at least 30 million US dollars still needs to be found (1 page).

  1. Middle Grades: Misconceptions in Statistical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Mary Margaret; Kulm, Gerald; Capraro, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 134 sixth-grade students who were using the Connected Mathematics curriculum were administered an open-ended item entitled, Vet Club (Balanced Assessment, 2000). This paper explores the role of misconceptions and naive conceptions in the acquisition of statistical thinking for middle grades students. Students exhibited misconceptions…

  2. Middle School Physical Education: Good Sport Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenoschok, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Presents a checklist for monitoring middle school students' behavior during athletics. The checklist highlights: sportsmanship (e.g., playing by the rules, being a good loser, and playing fair); respect (refraining from fighting, avoiding alcohol and other drugs, and shaking hands with opponents); and teamwork (practicing hard, not embarrassing…

  3. Collaborative Action Research for Middle Grades Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, John M.; Bishop, Penny A.; Swallow, Meredith; Olofson, Mark; Hennessey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Technology's rapid evolution applies constant pressure to educational organizations, suggesting a need to continually re-envision schools for the digital age. Yet educators often struggle to understand the growing chasm between students' out-of-school and in-school technology lives. This gap is particularly noticeable during the middle grades…

  4. Systems Thinking among School Middle Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim; Schechter, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Systems thinking is a holistic approach that puts the study of wholes before that of parts. This study explores systems thinking among school middle leaders--teachers who have management responsibility for a team of teachers or for an aspect of the school's work. Interviews were held with 93 school coordinators, among them year heads, heads of…

  5. Informational Literacy in the Middle Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lawrence

    1998-01-01

    Compares classical literacy (which treats reading and writing as distinct from content subjects) with informational literacy. Discusses seven key informational-literacy teaching practices and class activities that middle grade teachers can use to prepare their students for life in the information age. (SR)

  6. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    of anthropological fieldwork in Northern Ghana 2001-2002, supplemented with two weeks of fieldwork in branches of the Faculty of Islamic Call in Libya and Syria, 2003 and 2005, the paper will document the role which Muslim institutions, resident in Africa as well as in the Middle East, play in furthering...

  7. Nurturing the "golden middle" | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-10

    Apr 10, 2014 ... The aim is to help middle-income countries in Asia shape policies that support small and medium businesses as a pathway to higher incomes and more inclusive growth. Ten proposals were selected on topics ranging from the effects of corruption to women's access to credit. Preliminary findings show that:.

  8. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyngeraa, T. S.; Pedersen, L. M.; Mantoni, T.; Belhage, B.; Rasmussen, L. S.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Pott, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA)

  9. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brasil - II: famílias Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae e Monimiaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil - II: families Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae and Monimiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos (1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de obter-se amostras botânicas da área para estudos do Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas", com a finalidade de elaborar-se a Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas nesse período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Myristicaceae Br. R. foram identificadas 23 espécies e duas variedades, distribuídas em quatro gêneros. Destes, Iryanthera Warb. e Virola Aubl. destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo Iryanthera ulei Warb. e Virola calophylla (Spruce Warb. var. calophylla as espécies mais coletadas. A família Monimiaceae Juss. está representada apenas pelo gênero Mollinedia Ruiz & Pavón, pela espécie M. ovata Ruiz & Pavón; já a família Siparunaceae (A. DC. Schodde encontra-se representada pelo gênero Siparuna Aubl. com oito espécies, sendo S. cristata (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. a espécie mais coletada.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies on the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" Subproject for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Twenty three (23 species and two varieties, distributed in four genera were identified for family Myristicaceae Br. R. Of these Iryanthera Warb. and Virola Aubl. stood out on account of their species diversity

  10. Interpretation of Borehole Geophysical Logs, Aquifer-Isolation Tests, and Water-Quality Data for Sites 1, 3, and 5 at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania: 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, borehole television surveys, and aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in 2005 at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Navy in support of hydrogeological investigations to address ground-water contamination. Data collected for this study are valuable for understanding ground-water flow in the Stockton Formation at the local and regional scale. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB is underlain by the Stockton Formation, which consists of sedimentary rocks of Triassic age. The rocks of the Stockton Formation form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer with partially connected zones of high permeability. Borehole geophysical logs, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, and borehole television surveys made in seven boreholes ranging from 70 to 350 ft deep were used to identify potential water-producing fractures and fracture zones and to select intervals for aquifer-isolation tests. An upward vertical hydraulic gradient was measured in one borehole, a downward vertical hydraulic gradient was measured in four boreholes, both an upward and a downward vertical hydraulic gradient were measured in one borehole, and no flow was measurable in one borehole. The aquifer-isolation tests isolated 30 discrete fractures in the seven boreholes for collection of depth-discrete hydraulic and water-quality data. Of the 30 fractures identified as potentially water producing, 26 fractures (87 percent) produced more than 1 gallon per minute of water. The specific capacity of the isolated intervals producing more than 1 gallon per minute ranged from 0.02 to 5.2 gallons per minute per foot. There was no relation between specific capacity and depth of the fracture. Samples for analysis for volatile organic compounds were collected from each isolated zone. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was the most

  11. Effect of sanitation facilities, domestic solid waste disposal and hygiene practices on water quality in Malawi’s urban poor areas: a case study of South Lunzu Township in the city of Blantyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    Household water supply problems remain one of the major challenges facing developing countries. In Malawi, there is lack of documentation on the levels and causes of water pollution particularly in peri-urban areas so that meaningful interventions can be adopted. Therefore, a study was carried out in South Lunzu Township a peri-urban area in the city of Blantyre. The study revealed that the major form of sewerage disposal is the on-site sanitation system where about 58.8% of the respondents use traditional pit latrine while in terms of solid waste disposal, the Blantyre City Assembly which is responsible for solid waste collection, has only two collection vans to cater for more than half a million residents (Blantyre City Assembly, 1999. Urban Structure Plan, Draft Background Report, Blantyre.) hence indiscriminate disposal rampant in the area. Water samples collected from the major sources of domestic water supply showed that there are variations in the levels of water pollution between the ground water and surface water sources and between the wet and dry season. For instance, physically, the ground water turbidity levels were in the range of 2-12 mg/l during the dry season but increased to a maximum of 114 mg/l during the wet season while for surface water the turbidity increased from 4 to 408 mg/l over the seasons compared to the WHO standard set at 5 mg/l and the Water Department standard set at 25 mg/l. Chemical pollution for surface water sources show seasonal variations with an increase in the concentration during the wet season, for instance, iron levels ranged from 2.3 to 4.03 mg/l. This is above the WHO and Water Department drinking standards which are 1 and 3 mg/l, respectively. However, bacteriologically both the ground water and the surface water sources are grossly polluted. Ground water spring coliform count ranged from 190/100 ml to 9500/100 ml, and the well 3500/100 ml to 11,000/100 ml having the maximum during the wet season. Surface water

  12. There and Back Again: A Middle Scholar's Inquiry Excursion (Middle School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Johnson-Kuby, Sue Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes an inquiry project that middle school students complete during the first quarter of the year, and that serves as a foundation for future inquiry undertakings, research papers, and writing workshops. (SR)

  13. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Castaigne, Vanina [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Paris (France); Gonzales, Marie; Marlin, Sandrine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Genetique et Embryologie medicales, Paris (France); Galliani, Eva [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Chirurgie maxillo-faciale, Paris (France); Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre pluridisciplinaire de diagnostic prenatal, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia. (orig.)

  14. Albuquerque/Middle Rio Grande Urban Waters Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data have been compiled in support of the Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Partnership for the region including Albuquerque, New Mexico.The Middle...

  15. Malaysian skills development and the middle-income trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    Education, human resource training, middle-income trap and the way towards a more knowledge-based economy......Education, human resource training, middle-income trap and the way towards a more knowledge-based economy...

  16. Middle Schools: The Heart of Schools in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gwen; Tickle, Les

    1983-01-01

    British middle schools, which were originally developed to minimize ability grouping, are coming under pressure from industry and government to group pupils. The history and response of six middle schools to these pressures are discussed. (IS)

  17. A sourcing strategy for the middle offices in financial institutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George L Ye; Hai Wang

    2015-01-01

    ... for sourcing the functions of middle offices. Outsourcing or co-sourcing of the middle offices implies contracting out the risk management function of a financial institution partially or completely...

  18. Evaluation of the incidence of bacteremia following middle ear operations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Naeimi; Kiarash Ghazvini K; Mohammad Taghi Shakeri MT; Merangiz Kaboli; Mahmood Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Bacteremia following middle ear surgeries occurs in a significant number of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of bacteremia following middle ear surgeries. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients who where candidates for middle ear operation were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were obtained from each patient immediately before and after operation for bacteriologic analysis. Demographic and middle ear disease characteristics were also record...

  19. The neurocysticercosis project in Atteridgeville - Mamelodi townships

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated for 14 days with oral praziquantel (pyrazino-iso- quinolone) at 50 mg/kg body-weight/day, divided into three equal doses. Symptomatic treannem, such as anti- .... J NellTosurg 1983; 59: 660-663. 7. Hisser A, Perez-MomfoTt R, Larralde C. The immunology of human and animal cysticercosis: a review. Bull World ...

  20. Gendered Social Capital in a Johannesburg Township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myroniuk, Tyler W

    2016-01-01

    Social capital research rarely takes a gendered approach. This article explores how black women and men from a marginalized community in Johannesburg, South Africa, rely on family, friends, and community members to survive and strategize for the future by utilizing social capital. The results from 30 semi-structured interviews and ego network mapping illustrate that gender moderates the type of social capital used and benefits associated with bonding and bridging social capital in important ways. This research builds upon knowledge of gendered advantages and disadvantages in social networks and informs researchers how women and men survive in pervasive poverty. I posit that identifying potential sources of support is an important consideration within social capital or any network research because the prospect of receiving assistance in the future undoubtedly alters the development of these individuals' livelihood strategies.

  1. Nutritional status of children in Alexandra township

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D. J. Coetzee, P. Ferrinho. A community-based survey of the nutritional status of children aged 12 - 23 months was conducted. A cluster sampling technique was used. The weight and height of. 426 children were measured. Compared with clinic-based growth-monitoring data, which showed that 5,5% of the children were ...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... A middle ear mold is made of materials such as polyamide, polytetrafluoroethylene, silicone... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

  3. Modeling Alternative Assessment for Pre-Service Middle Level Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenfuss, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    College assessment models for our future middle school teachers must be varied, on-going, engaging, equitable and empowering. Traditional assessments do not often model the critical components of what makes assessment appropriate for middle level students. To provide the appropriate model for future middle level teachers, the establishment of…

  4. RAND's Impact in the Middle East. Corporate Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAND Corporation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The RAND Corporation works throughout the Middle East to analyze complex policy problems and help policymakers create enduring solutions. RAND's work in the Middle East focuses on the issues that drive economic development. This brief report provides an overview of RAND's impact in the Middle East in the areas of supporting youth, health and…

  5. The importance of stride length and stride frequency in middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... also found that the better runners have faster stride frequencies and that provincial middle distance runners use lower stride frequencies than international middle distance runners. Key Words: Biomechanics, stride length, stride frequency, maximum oxygen consumption, leg length, middle distance runners, road runners.

  6. Middle-Age Gender Differences in Emotional Adjustments to Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Middle-Age Gender Differences in Emotional Adjustments to Career Depression: Implication for Counselling. ... development of adult counselling schemes for the middle-aged persons, individuals should be taught ahead of time to help envision the possible middle-age career and adjustment of female career challenges.

  7. 7 CFR 28.432 - Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Tinged Color. 28.432 Section 28.432... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.432 Middling Tinged Color. Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  8. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  9. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  10. 7 CFR 28.401 - Good Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Color. 28.401 Section 28.401 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.401 Good Middling Color. Good Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  11. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color. ...

  12. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  13. 7 CFR 28.405 - Low Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Color. 28.405 Section 28.405 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.405 Low Middling Color. Low Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  14. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  15. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United States...

  16. 7 CFR 28.434 - Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.434 Section 28.434... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.434 Low Middling Tinged Color. Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the...

  17. The post-war Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempest, P.

    1992-03-09

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand

  18. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  19. Ultrastructural morphology of a middle ear ceruminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Peter; Handisurya, Alessandra; Steurer, Martin

    2002-01-01

    The ultrastructural morphology of a ceruminous gland adenoma in the middle ear was examined electron microscopically. The epithelial tumor cells displayed apocrine caps, microvilli, cell junctions, secretory granules, vacuoles, lipid droplets and siderosomes, which are the characteristic ultrastructural features of apocrine glands. Concentric membranous bodies of the endoplasmic reticulum, phagocytic activity of the tumor cells, intracytoplasmic lumina, ciliated cells and also spiny collagen in the tumor stroma could be seen. The myoepithelial cells are an important tumor marker in the differential diagnosis between ceruminomas and adenomas of the middle ear. The ectopic origin in the modified apocrine ceruminous glands, the specific localization, the clinical features and the extremely rare occurrence of the ceruminoma makes this tumor a unique neoplastic entity. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Eating disorders in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Nitzburg, George

    2008-10-01

    Eating disorders are generally viewed as afflicting females during adolescence and early adulthood. However, in recent years there has been a growing recognition that these disorders may occur during midlife as well. When eating disorders have been observed in middle age, they have often been believed to be associated with depression. In an Internet survey, responses by middle-aged women (N = 290; aged 45-60 years) indicated that the factors significantly associated with eating pathology-body image dissatisfaction, sociocultural pressures to be thin, and perfectionism-closely parallel those reported for younger people. Furthermore, in the presence of these factors, depression and concerns about the effects of aging on appearance are not significantly related to eating pathology.

  1. Water resource conflicts in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, C

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the causes and sources of water resource conflict in the 3 major international river basins of the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk. The physical geography of the Middle East is arid due to descending air, northeast trade winds, the southerly location, and high evaporation rates. Only Turkey, Iran, and Lebanon have adequate rainfall for population needs. Their mountainous geography and more northerly locations intercept rain and snow bearing westerly winds in winter. Parts of every other country are vulnerable to water shortages. Rainfall is irregular. Water resource conflicts are due to growing populations, economic development, rising standards of living, technological developments, political fragmentation, and poor water management. Immigration to the Jordan-Yarmuk watershed has added to population growth in this location. Over 50% of the population in the Middle East lives in urban areas where populations consume 10-12 times more water than those in rural areas. Water is wasted in irrigation schemes and huge dams with reservoirs where increased evaporation occurs. Technology results in greater water extraction of shallow groundwater and pollution of rivers and aquifers. British colonial government control led to reduced friction in most of the Nile basin. Now all ethnic groups have become more competitive and nationalistic. The Cold War restrained some of the conflict. Israel obtains 40% of its water from aquifers beneath the West Bank and Gaza. Geopolitical factors determine the mutual goodwill in managing international water. The 3 major water basins in the Middle East pose the greatest risk of water disputes. Possible solutions include conservation, better management, prioritizing uses, technological solutions, increased cooperation among co-riparians, developing better and enforceable international water laws, and reducing population growth rates.

  2. Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

    OpenAIRE

    Nohemi Sala; Juan Luis Arsuaga; Ana Pantoja-Pérez; Adrián Pablos; Ignacio Martínez; Quam, Rolf M.; Asier Gómez-Olivencia; José María Bermúdez de Castro; Eudald Carbonell

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force ...

  3. The Middle Ages Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Silva Ranhel

    Full Text Available Abstract The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments. Knowledge on the cardiovascular system and heart diseases has been classically described as a repetition of the concepts developed by Galen from the dissection of animals and his keen sense of observation. However, the Middle East, especially Persia, was the birth place of a lot of intellectuals who preserved the ancient knowledge of the Greeks while building new knowledge and practices, especially from the 8th to the 13th century. The invasion of the Arabs in North of Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and the eclosion of the Crusades resulted in a greater contact between the East and the West, which in turn brought on the arrival of the Arab medical knowledge, among others, to 12th century Europe. Such fact contributed to an extremely important change in the scientific medical knowledge in the West, leading to the incorporation of different concepts and practices in the field of cardiovascular Medicine. The new way of teaching and practicing Medicine of the great Arab doctors, together with the teaching hospitals and foundations in the Koran, transformed the Medicine practiced in Europe definitely. The objective of this paper is to describe the knowledge drawn up from the Middle Ages about the cardiovascular system, its understanding and therapeutic approach to cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons.

  4. Potamogeton pusillus agg. in Tajikistan (Middle Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Nobis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The locality of Potamogeton berchtoldii Fieber, the new species to the flora of Tajikistan (Middle Asia, together with its ecological conditions are presented. Additionally, the list of herbarium specimens of P. pusillus L. s. stricto gathered in Tajikistan and few specimens of P. berchtoldii collected from the area of adjacent countries are also provided. Taxonomical position of the species within the Potamogeton pusillus aggregation, the main morphological features of both taxa and possibility of finding other localities are discussed.

  5. [Preoperative CT Scan in middle ear cholesteatoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethom, Anissa; Akkari, Khemaies; Dridi, Inès; Tmimi, S; Mardassi, Ali; Benzarti, Sonia; Miled, Imed; Chebbi, Mohamed Kamel

    2011-03-01

    To compare preoperative CT scan finding and per-operative lesions in patients operated for middle ear cholesteatoma, A retrospective study including 60 patients with cholesteatoma otitis diagnosed and treated within a period of 5 years, from 2001 to 2005, at ENT department of Military Hospital of Tunis. All patients had computed tomography of the middle and inner ear. High resolution CT scan imaging was performed using millimetric incidences (3 to 5 millimetres). All patients had surgical removal of their cholesteatoma using down wall technic. We evaluated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan comparing otitic damages and CT finding, in order to examine the real contribution of computed tomography in cholesteatoma otitis. CT scan analysis of middle ear bone structures shows satisfaction (with 83% of sensibility). The rate of sensibility decrease (63%) for the tympanic raff. Predictive value of CT scan for the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was low. However, we have noticed an excellent sensibility in the analysis of ossicular damages (90%). Comparative frontal incidence seems to be less sensible for the detection of facial nerve lesions (42%). But when evident on CT scan findings, lesions of facial nerve were usually observed preoperatively (spécificity 78%). Predictive value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistulae (FL) was low. In fact, CT scan imaging have showed FL only for four patients among eight. Best results can be obtained if using inframillimetric incidences with performed high resolution computed tomography. Preoperative computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis and the evaluation of chronic middle ear cholesteatoma in order to show extending lesion and to detect complications. This CT analysis and surgical correlation have showed that sensibility, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan depend on the anatomic structure implicated in cholesteatoma damages.

  6. MST radar detection of middle atmosphere tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Meteorological and dynamical requirements pertaining to the specification of middle atmosphere tides by the MST radar technique are outlined. Major issues addressed include: (1) the extraction of tidal information from measurements covering a fraction of a day; (2) the ramifications of transient effects (tidal variability) on the determination and interpretation of tides; (3) required temporal and spatial resolutions and; (4) global distributions of MST radars, so as to complement existing MST, meteor wind, and partial reflection drift radar locations.

  7. [Smoking in public middle schools in Casablanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serhier, Zineb; Bennani Othmani, Mohammed; Housbane, Samy; Lembachar, Ihssane; Moumaris, Mina

    2012-01-01

    The transition period between elementary and middle school is a high-risk period for smoking initiation. Hence the importance of primary prevention programs in adolescent populations. The development and implementation of appropriate preventive measures requires information on tobacco use among adolescents. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking among middle school students in Casablanca and to describe associated drug use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in six collèges (middle schools) in Casablanca. The average age of the students was 16.3 years (SD = 2.1). 55% of the students were female. Overall smoking prevalence was 7.5% (CI 95% = 5.5% - 10.1%) ? 11.4% among boys and 4.6% among girls. 52.5% of the smokers began smoking between the ages of 14 and 18. The reasons for smoking included smoking as a way of escaping from problems (30%), relaxation (16%) and experience (7%). Smoking behavior was associated with drug use in 23.3% of smokers, compared to 0.6% among non-smokers (p < 10?3). These results suggest the need for prevention measures aimed at strengthening tobacco control policies in schools and other gathering places for young people.

  8. Electronic bullying among middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Robin M; Limber, Susan P

    2007-12-01

    Electronic communications technologies are affording children and adolescents new means of bullying one another. Referred to as electronic bullying, cyberbullying, or online social cruelty, this phenomenon includes bullying through e-mail, instant messaging, in a chat room, on a website, or through digital messages or images sent to a cell phone. The present study examined the prevalence of electronic bullying among middle school students. A total of 3,767 middle school students in grades 6, 7, and 8 who attend six elementary and middle schools in the southeastern and northwestern United States completed a questionnaire, consisting of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and 23 questions developed for this study that examined participants' experiences with electronic bullying, as both victims and perpetrators. Of the students, 11% that they had been electronically bullied at least once in the last couple of months (victims only); 7% indicated that they were bully/victims; and 4% had electronically bullied someone else at least once in the previous couple of months (bullies only). The most common methods for electronic bullying (as reported by both victims and perpetrators) involved the use of instant messaging, chat rooms, and e-mail. Importantly, close to half of the electronic bully victims reported not knowing the perpetrator's identity. Electronic bullying represents a problem of significant magnitude. As children's use of electronic communications technologies is unlikely to wane in coming years, continued attention to electronic bullying is critical. Implications of these findings for youth, parents, and educators are discussed.

  9. First middle Miocene sivaladapid primate from Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaimanee, Y.; Yamee, C.; Tian, P.; Chavasseau, O.; Jaeger, J.J. [Bureau for Paleontology & Museum, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. for Mineral Resources

    2008-03-15

    Sivaladapids are a group of Asian adapiform primates that were previously documented from deposits dating to the middle Eocene through the late Miocene in Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Thailand, and China. The group is notable for the persistence of three genera, Sivaladapis, Indraloris and Sinoadapis, into the late Miocene. In Thailand, sivaladapids were previously documented only from late Eocene deposits of the Krabi mine. Here, we describe the first Southeast Asian Miocene sivaladapid, Siamoadapis maemohensis gen. et sp. nov. from a 13.3 to 13.1 Ma lignite layer from the Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand. It differs from other Miocene sivaladapids by its distinctly smaller size and in features of the dentition. This discovery enhances the paleoecological diversity of the middle Miocene primate fauna of Thailand, which now includes sivaladapids, a loris, tarsiids, and hominoids. In this respect, the fossil primate community from the middle Miocene of Thailand is similar in its composition to roughly contemporaneous assemblages from southern China, India, and Pakistan. However, the Thai fossils represent a distinct genus, suggesting a different biogeographic province with distinctive paleoenvironments.

  10. Middle East respiratory syndrome in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sehaibany, Fares S.

    2017-01-01

    As of January 2016, 1,633 laboratory-confirmed cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and 587 MERS-related deaths have been reported by the World Health Organization globally. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus may occur sporadically in communities or may be transmitted within families or hospitals. The number of confirmed MERS-CoV cases among healthcare workers has been increasing. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus may also spread through aerosols generated during various dental treatments, resulting in transmission between patients and dentists. As MERS-CoV cases have also been reported among children, pediatric dentists are at risk of MERS-CoV infection. This review discusses MERS-CoV infection in children and healthcare workers, especially pediatric dentists, and considerations pertaining to pediatric dentistry. Although no cases of MERS-CoV transmission between a patient and a dentist have yet been reported, the risk of MERS-CoV transmission from an infected patient may be high due to the unique work environment of dentists (aerosol generation). PMID:28397938

  11. Middle ear mucosa in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiin, N; Hellström, S; Stenfors, L E; Cerne, A

    1986-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to review thoroughly the literature and summarize it in a standardized fashion; to study the mucosa, including the distribution of mast cells, in all parts of the middle ear cavity in rats; and to compare the experimental findings with those known in humans. Adult, healthy rats were studied by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopic techniques. The ciliated and secretory cells of the rat tympanic cavity are confined to two tracts, one anterior and one inferoposterior to the promontory. The tracts connect the epitympanum with the eustachian tube. The pars flaccida exhibits the highest density of mast cells, but mast cells are also distributed in the subepithelial layer of the tracts and in the floor of the tympanic bulla. The structure of the rat mucosa shows striking similarities to that of humans. Thus, from a morphological point of view, the rat seems to be a suitable model for middle ear studies. However, to be able to compare results obtained in different species and/or different laboratories, the areas of the middle ear from which the specimens have been taken must be carefully defined and presented in a standardized manner.

  12. Solar activity forcing of the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanakumar

    Full Text Available Studies on the influence of solar activity in 11-year cycle on middle atmospheric thermodynamic parameters, such as temperature, pressure and density, and zonal and meridional wind components over three meteorological rocket launching stations, located in the tropics (Thumba, mid-latitude (Volgograd and high-latitude (Heiss Island regions of the northern hemisphere have been carried out. The temperature in all the three regions showed a negative response in the stratosphere and positive association in the mesosphere with the changes in solar activity. The temperature decreases by 2–3% from its mean value in the stratosphere and increases by 4–6% in the mesosphere for an increase in 100 units of solar radio flux. Atmospheric pressure is found to be more sensitive to solar changes. An average solar maximum condition enhances the pressure in the stratosphere by 5% and in the upper mesosphere by 16–18% compared to the respective mean values. Density also showed strong association with the changes in solar activity. Increase in the solar radio flux tends to strengthen winter westerlies in the upper stratosphere over the mid-latitude and summer easterlies in the middle stratosphere over tropics. Larger variability in the zonal wind is noted near stratopause height. Results obtained from the study indicate that there is an external force exerted on the Earth's atmosphere during the period of high solar activity. These results can be incorporated for further studies on the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in association with the changes in solar activity.

  13. Middle Ear Barotrauma in Student Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jung Heob; Cho, Kyoung Rai

    2017-04-01

    The present study reports the clinical features of middle ear barotrauma in student pilots in the Republic of Korea Air Force. The authors reviewed medical records of student pilots with barotrauma. The grade of barotrauma was assigned using Teed's classification. This study included nasal symptoms, endoscopic findings of the nasal cavity, and clinical course (duration, recurrence). The relationship between middle ear barotrauma and the nasal airway was also evaluated. There were 57 cases in 51 pilots included. There were 49 cases (86.0%) that showed unilateral disease and 4 subjects experienced relapse. Two subjects (3.9%) had chronic rhinosinusitis and four subjects (7.8%) had allergic rhinitis. Ear fullness was reported in all cases, while hearing loss and persistent ear pain were reported in 3 cases (5.3%) and 19 cases (33.3%), respectively. Stuffy nose (26 cases, 45.6%) and rhinorrhea (24 cases, 42.1%) were relatively common. Most cases were Grade 0 (23 cases, 40.3%) or Grade III (27 cases, 47.4%) according to Teed's classification. Septal deviation was observed in 12 cases (21.0%), while turbinate hypertrophy was seen in 53 cases (93.0%) and increased nasal discharge in 33 cases (57.9%). The grade of barotrauma varied significantly according to the severity of turbinate hypertrophy and nasal discharge. The mean duration of disease was 6.8 d. Nasal symptoms and endoscopic findings showed some association with the grade and duration of barotrauma. Most cases resolved within a week; however, barotrauma showed persistence or relapse in some cases.Sohn JH, Cho KR. Middle ear barotrauma in student pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):406-412.

  14. Lebanon in the Middle East Subordinate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-03

    the land of Aram;4 the "people of the sea," became the Philistines ; and the Hebrews created their kingdom under the scepter of King David), the ...legislative. Before sunrise, they were taken to an ancient fort at Rashaya to be . held in separate cells. On the same day, M. Helleu, French delegate...R AD-138 031 LEBANON IN THE MIDDLE EAST SUBORDINATE SYSTEM(U) RRMY 1/3, COMMRAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS N S EID 03 JUN 83 SBI-AD

  15. AVICENA : Arabian Physician of Middle Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo Martínez, Joaquín; Departamento de Historia y Filosofía de la Medicina Facultad de Medicina Universidad Autónoma de México D.F., México

    2014-01-01

    Avicena, a physician and philosopher of the Middle Ages, is considered one of the most important thinkers of Arabian medicine. After a paper justification, the author appoints the context, life and work of Avicena. Later he appoints a commentary on particular. En este trabajo se hace una reseña de la vida y obra del médico árabe medioeval Avicena, uno de los más importantes de su cultura y época. Previa justificación del artículo, se hace referencia al contexto, el hombre y su obra, seguid...

  16. Middle America - Regional Geological Integrity, Hydrocarbon Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K. H.

    2008-05-01

    Dogma holds that the Caribbean Plate and its islands formed in the Pacific and comprise oceanic crust and intra- oceanic arc rocks. Middle America, between N and S America, manifests a regional, N35°E and N60°W tectonic fabric. The NE trend results from Triassic-Jurassic reactivation of Palaeozoic convergent structures as extensional faults during Pangean rifting and commencement of N America drift. The NW trend parallels major inter-continental faults and oceanic fractures along which extension and drift occurred. Triassic-Jurassic red beds accumulated in the NE trending, intra-continental rifts of N, S and Central America. Proximal extended continental margins subsided to accommodate thick Cretaceous carbonate sections (Florida - Bahamas, Campeche, Nicaragua Rise). Distal margins formed continental blocks flanked by seaward-dipping wedges. Seismic and drilling in basins along the eastern seaboard of N America (Baltimore Canyon to Blake Plateau) document Triassic-Jurassic red beds overlain by salt and carbonates. Hydrocarbons are present. In Middle America the Gulf of Mexico remained "intra-continental", surrounded by continental blocks (N America, Maya, Florida). The area further south experienced greater extension, manifest by diverging oceanic fracture patterns to the east and west. Seismic data over the Caribbean Plateau reveal deep architecture of NE trending highs flanked by dipping wedges of reflections, similar to eastern N America distal basins. DSDP drilling calibrated the overlying smooth seismic Horizon B" as recording Cenomanian basalts. Smoothness, great lateral extent and coeval exposed sections with palaeosols followed by shallow marine carbonates suggest they were sub-aerial. Adjacent, rough seismic Horizon B" probably records top of submarine, serpentinized mantle. Seismic over the plateau also reveals features identical to drilled Sigsbee salt diapirs of the Gulf of Mexico. The regional tectonic fabric demonstrates a shared geological history

  17. Middle Prut plain's erosion susceptibility evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor CASTRAVEȚ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The given article is dedicated to Middle Prut Plain’s erosion susceptibility evaluation  using factorial analysis and methodology of principal component analysis implemented byGeographical Informational System GRASS. Susceptibility evaluation is executed in a qualitative mode, and the results have preliminary character, for further quantitative andmore precise study. This type of natural hazards analysis offers information on probable localization and severity of erosion phenomena, as well as their manifestation probabilityin a given place.

  18. The Science of Middle Nature (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Pincetl, S.; Hinners, S.

    2013-12-01

    In the field of biogeochemistry, urbanization is often considered as an 'alteration' or 'disturbance' to the earth's surface and its natural processes. This view is an outcome of the view of nature inherent in earth system science and ecology, in which nature is defined as separate from humans and society. However, other disciplines are based in alternative views of nature in which humans are more integral components of the landscape. Urban planning, landscape architecture, agriculture, and horticulture, for example, more fully integrate the role of landscape design and management in the functioning of human-dominated ecosystems. We suggest that the field of urban biogeochemistry has been somewhat limited by the predominant, disturbance-based view of the role of nature in cities, and that more deeply evaluating and broadening the concept of nature inherent in studies of urban processes can enhance our understanding of the role of urbanization in the earth system. A particularly useful concept is the 'middle nature' proposed by Cosgrove (1993), which serves a purpose of 'actively transforming nature into culture.' It is this view of urban landscapes as middle nature, or transformation of urban space into human-dominated nature with a purpose, that is lacking from the current scientific discourse about the role of biogeochemistry in urban ecosystem services. A scientific evaluation of middle nature implies studying the performance of urban designs to meet intended cultural and environmental goals, including beauty, social equity, governance, and social capital as well as environmental quality. We describe our work in evaluating the transformed urban landscapes of Los Angeles and Salt Lake City from multiple perspectives that focus on urban livability, equity, and beauty as well as the physical impacts of plants and soils on the environment. The outcomes of this process do not necessary meet the traditional demands of biophysical ecology such as utilizing native

  19. Penetration of ceftibuten into middle ear fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, C; Kumari, P; Perrotta, R J; Reidenberg, B E

    1996-01-01

    The penetration of ceftibuten, an extended-spectrum oral cephalosporin, into middle ear fluid (MEF) was evaluated in pediatric patients during a course of daily oral doses of 9 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days. Plasma and MEF collected at 2, 4, 6, or 12 h after at least 3 days of dosing were analyzed for ceftibuten by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method, and the data were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Plasma and MEF had almost identical maximum concentrations (Cmax) o...

  20. Law and Learning in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that the 'creators' of the laws received at the major centres of learning in Europe, and address a number of important questions concerning the creation and development of legal professions and the dynamics between legal practice and theoretical, learned approaches to jurisprudence. Contributors to this volume......This volume contains papers presented at the conference on "Law and Learning in the Middle Ages" held at the Carlsberg Academy in Copenhagen in May 2005. Here, a group of European and American scholars give their contribution to the examination of the theological and legal schooling...

  1. Middle School Drinking: Who, Where, and When

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research was to describe the most common drinking situations for young adolescents (N=1171; 46.6% girls), as well as determine predictors of their drinking in the seventh and eighth grades. Middle school students most frequently drank at parties with three to four teens, in their home or at a friend’s home, and reported alcohol-related problems including conflicts with friends or parents, memory loss, nausea, and doing things they would not normally do. Differences emerged in...

  2. The Relationship between Middle Grade Student Belonging and Middle Grade Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Phyllis B.; Ennis, Leslie S.; Hodge, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a middle school initiative to develop student voice, interpersonal relationships, and intrapersonal relationships and students' sense of belonging. The literature indicated a strong connection between students' sense of belonging in school and positive outcomes in and out of the classroom (Deci &…

  3. Managing Curriculum Change from the Middle: How Academic Middle Managers Enact Their Role in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudhumbu, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Literature shows that the role of academic middle managers (AMMs) has been a subject of contestation for a long time the world over owing to the fact that there has not been a clear cut articulation of what exactly this role constitutes or means. Such a situation according to literature has tended to affect the way the AMMs enact their role in…

  4. Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Learning Environment and Middle School Students' Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monix, Demetria Dianna

    2012-01-01

    Research shows the effectiveness of encouraging safe and supportive learning environments for all students. Unfortunately, many of today's classrooms fail to positively implement these learning environments, especially within middle schools. The assumption for students struggling with reading has often been associated with low teacher…

  5. Democratic Leadership in Middle Schools of Chihuahua Mexico: Improving Middle Schools through Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Manuel Lopez

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of the implementation of a democratic approach to lead and manage middle schools in Chihuahua, Mexico. This research was based on a Likert questionnaire and semistructured interviews to explore the level of involvement of students, teachers, and parents in schools participating in a programme…

  6. Parental Involvement among Middle-Income Latino Parents Living in a Middle-Class Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoa, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Parental involvement has often shared a positive correlation with student academic achievement. To better understand parental involvement dynamics among middle-class Latino families, in-depth parent interviews were conducted among 21 such parents. Results from this study which add to the educational literature include high levels of academic…

  7. Oral contraception for women of middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2015-11-01

    Women at middle age have decreased fertility and their pregnancies are higher risk. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are effective but confer increased risk of age-related diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. These risks are lower, however, with progestogen-only pills (POP). Therefore, other than the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD), POP are usually the first choice, even though they do often lead to bleeding problems, which are already frequent in the perimenopause. However, the main risk of COC, venous thromboembolism, seems not to be relevant in (non-hospitalized) Chinese women and perhaps also other Asian women. COC may therefore be in fact a better choice than POP for these groups. In contrast to POP and IUDs, they have a variety of benefits especially important for middle-aged women, including a large decrease of the risk of ovarian, endometrial and colorectal cancer, an improvement in bleeding irregularities, a reduction of climacteric symptoms and some protection against bone loss. Further research is needed into individualized and safe contraception that takes into account ethnicity, as well as other factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fellows in the Middle: Fabulous Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Mary Lou

    2008-05-01

    Montclair State University's NSF GK-12 Program focuses on grades 7 and 8 in five urban public school districts in northern New Jersey. Each year four fieldtrips are taken by the students, middle school teachers, and graduate student Fellows. Many interdisciplinary hands-on lessons are written for use before, during and after each trip with this year's theme of Earth history. The Sterling Hill Mine trip evoked lessons on geology, economics, crystal structure, density, and pH. A virtual trip (webcam link) to scientists in the rainforest of Panama prompted critical thinking, categorizing layers and animals, and construction of model food webs. In the field trip to the NJ School of Conservation the students will build model aquifers, measure tree heights, and measure stream flow to compare to their Hackensack River. Finally the students will travel to MSU for a Math/Science Day with research talks, lab tours, hands-on activities, and a poster session. In January 2008 seventeen teachers, Fellows, and grant personnel took a field trip to China to set up collaborations with researchers and schools in Beijing and Xi'an, including the Beijing Ancient Observatory. All field trips are fabulous! Next year (IYA) our theme will be planetary science and will feature field trips to the Newark Museum's Dreyfuss Planetarium, BCC Buehler Challenger & Science Center, and star parties. We look forward to invigorating middle school science and mathematics with exciting astronomy. Funded by NSF #0638708

  9. Box Cello Middle School Science Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegrift, Guy

    1998-10-01

    The Box Cello is a middle school science club which is attempting to (1) understand the cello and (2) design a low-cost starter instrument. We can support and justify this research by adding a third goal: (3) to help supply local science classes with equipment. My policy of spending one entire day each week away from the university, out in a local school is essential to this project. This schedule also permits me to conduct lessons on optics and music in the schools. And, it permits circulation of tools and equipment. A simple calculation demonstrates the great economy achieved by combining science clubs with academic year school visits. Consider the cost of letting 10,000 students in 10 middle schools each learn about and play with a pair of "upside-down" glasses for one hour. A visit to each school for three consecutive weeks would easily permit such a circulation if only 30 pairs were constructed. Assume rhetorically, that the construction of 30 pairs of glasses were to consume the entire estimated annual budget of $100,000. The cost per student would be only ten dollars! The visits, guest lectures, and equipment loans permit informal networking (including lunch) with math, science and music teachers in 10 schools. For more information, visit the http://www.utep.edu/boxcello/

  10. Modeling the Middle Jurassic ocean circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Brunetti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present coupled ocean–sea-ice simulations of the Middle Jurassic (∼165 Ma when Laurasia and Gondwana began drifting apart and gave rise to the formation of the Atlantic Ocean. Since the opening of the Proto-Caribbean is not well constrained by geological records, configurations with and without an open connection between the Proto-Caribbean and Panthalassa are examined. We use a sea-floor bathymetry obtained by a recently developed three-dimensional (3D elevation model which compiles geological, palaeogeographical and geophysical data. Our original approach consists in coupling this elevation model, which is based on detailed reconstructions of oceanic realms, with a dynamical ocean circulation model. We find that the Middle Jurassic bathymetry of the Central Atlantic and Proto-Caribbean seaway only allows for a weak current of the order of 2 Sv in the upper 1000 m even if the system is open to the west. The effect of closing the western boundary of the Proto-Caribbean is to increase the transport related to barotropic gyres in the southern hemisphere and to change water properties, such as salinity, in the Neo-Tethys. Weak upwelling rates are found in the nascent Atlantic Ocean in the presence of this superficial current and we discuss their compatibility with deep-sea sedimentological records in this region.

  11. Middle East: New Balkans of the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Georgescu Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Middle East is a region whose geopolitical dynamics has many analogies with the role of the Balkans in the first half of the 19th century and up to the 3rd decade of the 20th century, namely a "Powder keg of Europe", defined in the same period as the "Eastern Issue".Moreover, Middle East is a region located at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Africa, and along with ancient Egypt is the cradle of Western civilization, providing for it political, economic, religious, scientific, military, intellectual and institutional models.Four millennia of civilization before Christian era did not pass without leaving a trace.Trade, currency, law, diplomacy, technology applied to works in time of war or peace, the profit based economy and the bureaucratized economy, popular and absolutist government, nationalist and universal spirit, tolerance and fanaticism – all these are not inventions of the modern world, but have their origins and methods of implementation, often even sophisticated methods, in this region.

  12. Are healthcare middle management jobs extreme jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David A; Parry, Emma; Gascoigne, Charlotte; Moore, Cíara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the incidence of "extreme jobs" among middle managers in acute hospitals, and to identify individual and organizational implications. The paper is based on interviews and focus groups with managers at six hospitals, a "proof of concept" pilot with an operations management team, and a survey administered at five hospitals. Six of the original dimensions of extreme jobs, identified in commercial settings, apply to hospital management: long hours, unpredictable work patterns, tight deadlines with fast pace, broad responsibility, "24/7 availability", mentoring and coaching. Six healthcare-specific dimensions were identified: making life or death decisions, conflicting priorities, being required to do more with fewer resources, responding to regulatory bodies, the need to involve many people before introducing improvements, fighting a negative climate. Around 75 per cent of hospital middle managers have extreme jobs. This extreme healthcare management job model was derived inductively from a qualitative study involving a small number of respondents. While the evidence suggests that extreme jobs are common, further research is required to assess the antecedents, incidence, and implications of these working practices. A varied, intense, fast-paced role with responsibility and long hours can be rewarding, for some. However, multi-tasking across complex roles can lead to fatigue, burnout, and mistakes, patient care may be compromised, and family life may be adversely affected. As far as the authors can ascertain, there are no other studies exploring acute sector management roles through an extreme jobs lens.

  13. The Psychiatric Case Register Middle Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boks Marco PM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Psychiatric Case Register Middle Netherlands (PCR-MN registers the mental healthcare consumption of over Dutch 760,000 inhabitants in the centre of the Netherlands. In 2010 the follow-up period was over ten years. In this paper we describe the content, aims and research potential of this case register. Description All mental healthcare institutions in the middle-western part of the province of Utrecht participate in the PCR-MN case register. All in- and out-patients treated in these institutions have been included in the database from the period 2000 to 2010. Diagnosis according to DSM-IV on axis I to IV, visits to in- and out-patient clinics and basic demographics are recorded. A major advantage of this register is the possibility to link patients anonymously from the PCR-MN cohort to other databases to analyze relationships with determinants and outcomes, such as somatic healthcare consumption, mortality, and demographics, which further increases the research potential Conclusions The PCR-MN database has a large potential for scientific research because of its size, duration of follow-up and ability to link with additional databases, and is accessible for academic researchers.

  14. Middle East in World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Yurtaev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the role and importance of the region of the Middle East and North African theater of operations during World War II, not only the battles occured in the region are analyzed, but also the diplomatic efforts of the allies, related to the region. Author shows the role of the North African theater of operations in the context of other battles, parses the Allied landing operation called «Torch». Particular attention is given to the Conference of the three Allied leaders during World War II - Stalin (USSR, Roosevelt (USA and Churchill (UK, which was held in Tehran on November 28 - December 1, 1943. The author focuses on the psychological aspects of the conference, emphasizing that it was in the nature of the meeting of equal members of one family. The article also dismantled symbolic importance of presenting to the people of Stalingrad, on behalf of King George VI and the English people specially made sword on November 29, 1943 in the conference hall of the Soviet embassy in Tehran. According to the analysis, the author emphasizes the special importance of the region of the Middle East as a place to search for compromises on the way to the future world order.

  15. Metacognitive instruction in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Dianna

    The purpose of this action research project was to determine the extent to which metacognitive instruction affected students' performance in the middle-grade science classroom. Conducted with four seventh grade science classes over a three-month time period, 105 students were engaged in 21 metacognitively enhanced lessons. Both quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected for this study and analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. Quantitative data came from the Jr. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, administered as a pre-post test. Qualitative teacher-generated data was collected in a metacognitive observation protocol containing observations and reflections while student-generated data was gathered from reflective journal entries, modified rubrics, and checklists. Analysis of the data led to the assertions that metacognitive development occurred over time through systematic and varied implementation of explicit instruction. In addition, students perceived they learned best both when working collaboratively and when making multiple connections with content material. Implications for middle-grade teachers include the need for explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies, providing for instructional variation and student collaboration, and guiding students in making connections to prior learning.

  16. Nurse middle manager ethical dilemmas and moral distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Freda D; Wagner, Nurit; Toren, Orly

    2015-02-01

    Nurse managers are placed in a unique position within the healthcare system where they greatly impact upon the nursing work environment. Ethical dilemmas and moral distress have been reported for staff nurses but not for nurse middle managers. To describe ethical dilemmas and moral distress among nurse middle managers arising from situations of ethical conflict. The Ethical Dilemmas in Nursing-Middle Manager Questionnaire and a personal characteristics questionnaire were administered to a convenience sample of middle managers from four hospitals in Israel. Middle managers report low to moderate levels of frequency and intensity of ethical dilemmas and moral distress. Highest scores were for administrative dilemmas. Middle managers experience lower levels of ethical dilemmas and moral distress than staff nurses, which are irrespective of their personal characteristics. Interventions should be developed, studied, and then incorporated into institutional frameworks in order to improve this situation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. NON-TYPICAL MIDDLES IN TAIWAN SOUTHERN MIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Ling Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses non-typical middles that involve resultative verbal compounds in Taiwan Southern Min. This paper first applies tests to prove that the patient NP before the compound in question is a subject, not a topic, and thus this compound occurs in a middle construction. Next, this paper distinguishes middles (surface unaccusatives from another type of intransitive compound, deep unaccusatives, which alternate with causatives. The two types differ in that middles retain an implicit agent and thus are paraphrasable by their passive counterparts. Moreover, with an implied agent, middles do not allow another overt agent. As to the derivation stage, this paper proposes a mixed account. Middles are argued to be formed in syntax through verb-incorporation, de-thematization, and NP movement. Even though the implied agent is not available in syntax, it is arbitrarily interpreted at the Conceptual-Intentional interface.

  18. Supertall Asia/Middle East: Technological Responses and Contextual Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Sun Moon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Supported by rapid economic growth, major cities in Asia and the Middle East have been rising as new centers for tall buildings. This article reviews the state of tall building developments in Asian and Middle Eastern countries with an emphasis on supertall buildings, with their greater urban and global impacts. Focusing primarily on physical construction, this article examines technological responses for building tall in Asian and Middle Eastern contexts. The architectural transformation and globalization of what was once called the “American Building Type” in Asian and Middle Eastern countries is studied. Sustainable design technology transfer and adjustment in Asian and Middle Eastern climates are presented. Further, future prospects on supertall design in Asian and Middle Eastern contexts are discussed.

  19. Ciliary activity of the middle ear lining in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Y; Nakai, Y; Kihara, S

    1985-01-01

    Since the middle ear lining is an extension and a modification of the respiratory epithelium, it is conceivable that it has a mucociliary system and plays an important role in clearing the middle ear cavity. It has already been noted in morphological investigations that the middle ear mucosa has ciliated cells. To our knowledge, however, ciliary activity has never been observed directly. In our research, we used the photoelectric method to study ciliary activity of the middle ear mucosa directly and quantitatively. We made special reference to the frequency of ciliary beating at various sites within the middle ear cavity. Ciliary activity was found to exist in the eustachian tube and the middle ear, the same as in other respiratory organs, and this activity was stronger in cells distal to the eustachian tube.

  20. Western chapels in Middle Byzantine churches: Meaning and significance

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkević Ida

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines functional and compositional relationship between the narthex and the western chapels adjacent to it in middle Byzantine churches The author examines the architectural features, archaeological evidence decorative programs and literary sources related to the western end of middle Byzantine churches and establishes that that the process of integration of the western chapels with the narthex proper, seen in a number of Palaeologan monuments, actually began in middle Byzantine...

  1. Western chapels in Middle Byzantine churches: Meaning and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkević Ida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines functional and compositional relationship between the narthex and the western chapels adjacent to it in middle Byzantine churches The author examines the architectural features, archaeological evidence decorative programs and literary sources related to the western end of middle Byzantine churches and establishes that that the process of integration of the western chapels with the narthex proper, seen in a number of Palaeologan monuments, actually began in middle Byzantine times.

  2. Uncovering middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birken Sarah A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Middle managers have received little attention in extant health services research, yet they may have a key role in healthcare innovation implementation. The gap between evidence of effective care and practice may be attributed in part to poor healthcare innovation implementation. Investigating middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation may reveal an opportunity for improvement. In this paper, we present a theory of middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation to fill the gap in the literature and to stimulate research that empirically examines middle managers' influence on innovation implementation in healthcare organizations. Discussion Extant healthcare innovation implementation research has primarily focused on the roles of physicians and top managers. Largely overlooked is the role of middle managers. We suggest that middle managers influence healthcare innovation implementation by diffusing information, synthesizing information, mediating between strategy and day-to-day activities, and selling innovation implementation. Summary Teamwork designs have become popular in healthcare organizations. Because middle managers oversee these team initiatives, their potential to influence innovation implementation has grown. Future research should investigate middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation. Findings may aid top managers in leveraging middle managers' influence to improve the effectiveness of healthcare innovation implementation.

  3. Mean platelet volume (MPV) predicts middle distance running performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Skafidas, Spyros; Tarperi, Cantor; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity...

  4. Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle East and Africa — 3- and 6-month efficacy and safety results. The Intercontinental Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

  5. Middle Range Theory: A Perspective on Development and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Smith, Mary Jane

    This replication and critique addresses ongoing development and use of middle range theory since considering this body of nursing knowledge 18 years ago. Middle range theory is appreciated as essential to the structure of nursing knowledge. Nine middle range theories that demonstrate ongoing use by the theory authors are analyzed using the criteria of theory name, theory generation, disciplinary perspective, theory model, practice use and research use. Critique conclusions indicate the importance of staying with the theory over time, naming and development consistent with the disciplinary perspective, movement to an empirical level, and bringing middle range theory to the interdisciplinary table.

  6. Uncovering middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Sarah A; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Weiner, Bryan J

    2012-04-03

    Middle managers have received little attention in extant health services research, yet they may have a key role in healthcare innovation implementation. The gap between evidence of effective care and practice may be attributed in part to poor healthcare innovation implementation. Investigating middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation may reveal an opportunity for improvement. In this paper, we present a theory of middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation to fill the gap in the literature and to stimulate research that empirically examines middle managers' influence on innovation implementation in healthcare organizations. Extant healthcare innovation implementation research has primarily focused on the roles of physicians and top managers. Largely overlooked is the role of middle managers. We suggest that middle managers influence healthcare innovation implementation by diffusing information, synthesizing information, mediating between strategy and day-to-day activities, and selling innovation implementation. Teamwork designs have become popular in healthcare organizations. Because middle managers oversee these team initiatives, their potential to influence innovation implementation has grown. Future research should investigate middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation. Findings may aid top managers in leveraging middle managers' influence to improve the effectiveness of healthcare innovation implementation.

  7. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports studies have focused on all parts of the world with one exception: the Middle East and North Africa. Nonetheless, sports and particularly soccer has been in various parts of the Middle East key to ...

  8. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Modulated Proterozoic Oxygen and Sustained Earth's Middle Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. T. Johnston; F. Wolfe-Simon; A. Pearson; A. H. Knoll

    2009-01-01

    ... (including physiologically versatile cyanobacteria) influenced biogeochemical cycling during Earth's middle age, helping to perpetuate our planet's intermediate redox state by tempering O₂ production...

  9. [Risk sharing methods in middle income countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotai, András; Kaló, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    The pricing strategy of innovative medicines is based on the therapeutic value in the largest pharmaceutical markets. The cost-effectiveness of new medicines with value based ex-factory price is justifiable. Due to the international price referencing and parallel trade the ex-factory price corridor of new medicines has been narrowed in recent years. Middle income countries have less negotiation power to change the narrow drug pricing corridor, although their fair intention is to buy pharmaceuticals at lower price from their scarce public resources compared to higher income countries. Therefore the reimbursement of new medicines at prices of Western-European countries may not be justifiable in Central-Eastern European countries. Confidential pricing agreements (i.e. confidential price discounts, claw-back or rebate) in lower income countries of the European Union can alleviate this problem, as prices of new medicines can be adjusted to local purchasing power without influencing the published ex-factory price and so the accessibility of patients to these drugs in other countries. In order to control the drug budget payers tend to apply financial risk sharing agreements for new medicines in more and more countries to shift the consequences of potential overspending to pharmaceutical manufacturers. The major paradox of financial risk-sharing schemes is that increased mortality, poor persistence of patients, reduced access to healthcare providers, and no treatment reduce pharmaceutical spending. Consequently, payers have started to apply outcome based risk sharing agreements for new medicines recently to improve the quality of health care provision. Our paper aims to review and assess the published financial and outcome based risk sharing methods. Introduction of outcome based risk-sharing schemes can be a major advancement in the drug reimbursement strategy of payers in middle income countries. These schemes can help to reduce the medical uncertainty in coverage

  10. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA......) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  11. Beekeeping from Antiquity Through the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Gene

    2017-01-31

    Beekeeping had its origins in honey hunting-the opportunistic stealing of honey from wild honey bee nests. True beekeeping began when humans started providing artificial cavities within which the bees could build comb for the queen to lay her eggs and the workers could process honey. By 2450 BCE, the Egyptians had developed sophisticated apiculture, and, within two millennia, beekeeping with horizontal hives had spread throughout the Mediterranean. During Europe's Middle Ages, honey and wax became important commodities for trade, and beekeeping in skep, log, box, and tree hives flourished to meet the demand. Other species of honey bees contributed to the development and spread of beekeeping in Asia beginning around 300 BCE. Meanwhile, beekeeping evolved independently in Mesoamerica with the stingless bee Melipona beecheii, as documented by archaeological finds and written accounts that survived Spanish conquest.

  12. Linguistic variation and change: Middle English infinitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In Middle English the old inflected infinitive lost its supine function and gradually replaced the uninflected infinitive in all positions, except in the complementation of moal and a limited number of other verbs. According to most linguists, the choice between the to infinitive and the bare infinitive was either lexically or structurally conditioned. The theory of linguistic change as the assertion of weaker or stronger linguistic variants postulates the affinity of stronger variants for more complex, i. e. functionally marked grammaticall environment. The author tests the validity of the theory against the assertion of the English to infinitive at the expanse of the bare infinitive after the Norman Conquest. The results confirm the initial hypothesist that the degree of formal marked­ ness of the infinitive concurred with the degree of the functional markedness of grammatical pa­ rameters.

  13. MODIS Views the Middle-East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    To paraphrase English author T.H. White, borders are the one thing a man sees that a bird cannot see as it flies high overhead. For the 15th consecutive day, differences in ideology have sparked violence and tension in the middle-east as the rest of the world watches, concerned. This true-color image of the region was taken on September 10, 2000, by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The image shows the lands of Israel along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, with the countries of Jordan to the southeast and Syria to the Northeast. Jerusalem, labeled, is Israel's capital city and Aman, labeled, is the capital of Jordan. The region known as the West Bank lies between the two countries. Running from north to south, the Jordan River links the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC

  14. Romanian Astronomical Activity in the Middle Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, Magdalena; Mioc, Vasile

    The authors describe the main astronomical events and personalities in Romania since th Middle Ages, which begun aproximately at the threeshold between the first and second milleniums of ours era and ends only at the beggining of the 19-th century. The contributions by Ioan Vitez, Ioan Honterus, Conrad Haas, Sevastos Kymnitis, Israel Hubner, Constantin Cantacuzino, Hrisant Notara, Nicolae Mavrocordat, Maximilian Hell, Ignatius Bathyanni, Iosif Bede are underlined. The main contacts of Romanian astronomers with foreigners in such areas as teaching and observations are mentioned. The existing today museums of astronomical instruments are also mentioned. Bibliography: 4. The authors ommit to mention in the bibliography the outstanding book by George Stefan Andonie, concerning the History of Mathematics in Romania as well as few other sources.

  15. Endoscopic anatomy of the pediatric middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, "less invasively" has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the first decade, when structure and function change most rapidly. Understanding the limits and possibilities afforded by new endoscopic technologies, the pediatric otologist can strive for results matching or exceeding those achieved by more invasive surgical approaches.

  16. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able...... to have their situation – their affectedness - acknowledged in interactions with others and gain considerable attention right after the accident. In addition it demonstrates how the initial acknowledgement decreased over time. In this case the axes of differentiation did not relate to questions of gender......, ethnicity, class or other social categories normally recognized as influential in case of disastrous events. Since the population in the area was very homogenous, the axis of differentiation was instead linked to the social category of affectedness, and a hierarchy of affectedness was identified within...

  17. Best Practice in Middle-School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Wilcox, Kristen C.; Angelis, Janet; Applebee, Arthur N.; Amodeo, Vincent; Snyder, Michele A.

    2013-03-01

    Using socio-ecological theory, this study explores best practice (educational practices correlated with higher student performance) in middle-school science. Seven schools with consistently higher student performance were compared with three demographically similar, average-performing schools. Best practice included instructional approaches (relevance and engagement, inquiry, differentiated instruction, collaborative work, moderate amounts of homework, and integration of language literacy and science) and administrative practices (nurturing a climate of opportunity to succeed in science, offering professional development based on data and dialogue, engaging teachers in standards-based curriculum revision and alignment, and recruiting the right fit of teacher). It is argued that best practice entails multiple levels of teaching and administrative praxis that together form a school-wide socio-ecological system conducive to higher performance.

  18. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the improvements introduced into the original version of ozone reference model of Keating and Young (1985, 1987) which is to be incorporated in the next COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide information on the global ozone distribution (including the ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from 25 to 90 km) combining data from five recent satellite experiments: the Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE), Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV Spectrometer, and SME 1.27 Micron Airglow. The improved version of the reference model uses reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extends the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the 1981-1983 time period. Comparisons are presented between the results of this ozone model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  19. Study of speed endurance middle distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Golovaschenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To investigate the boost performance speed endurance runners who specialize in middle-distance running . Material and methods : The study involved team members Vinnytsia region in an amount of 44 people, whose average age was 20,2 ± 2,1 years. Classes are held during the 21-day mesocycle, 5 times a week, twice a day. Things were aimed at enhancing the development of indicators of special speed endurance. Results : The dynamics of the running speed of the model segments that characterize speed endurance athletes. Proved that the improved running 400 meter intervals helps reduce travel time competitive distance of 1500 meters. Conclusion : The use of the program contributes to higher speed endurance, which determines the result in the women's 1,500 meters.

  20. XVI. Yüzyılda Aclun Şehri Ve Kasabalarının Nüfusu The Population Of Ajlun And Ajlun’s Township In The Sixteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal TAŞKIN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Locating in the borders of Jordan today, Ajlun is a city which hasan altitude of 1000 meters. Geographically it is surrounded with Gavrin the West, Syria desert (Hamad in the east, Yermuk in the North andVadi-i Zerka in the South. Today it is an accomodation unit connectedto the city of Irbit of Jordan.Ajlun came under the rule of Ottoman as a result of Egyptexpedition and was rationalized as a sanjak connected to province ofDamascus. As it was considered as a defence line against crusaders, acastle was built there in the era of Ayyubids and because of this reasonit was also called Kalatu’l-Aclun. Used as a detention colony in the eraof Mamelukes, Ajlun became one of the important transition point inthe route of Damascus and Iraq by developing in time. It was a route forDamascus pilgrims in the era of Ottoman. Even in that era the governerof sanjak had the responsibility of maintaining the road safety of thosepilgrims. In Ajlun several economic activities were carried out. In thecity open bazaar was set up and the goods were presented there.Several properties in the city were allocated to Sultan Berkukfoundation.Being one one of the small cities of the area in the 16th century,Aclun was constituted of 8 nahiye. Lacking of the feature of beingcrowded in terms of population, Ajlun hosted Muslims generally while itwas also possible to mention a small community of Christians.In this work township, disctricts and population of the city in the16th century are tried to be detected according to the Tahrir defters. Bugün Ürdün devleti sınırları içerinde yer alan Aclun, denizden yüksekliği 1000 m olan bir yerleşim yeridir. Coğrafi olarak batıda Gavr, doğuda Suriye Çölü (Hamad kuzeyde Yermuk ve güneyde ise Vadi-i Zerka ile çevrilidir. Bugün Ürdün’ün İrbit iline bağlı bir yerleşim yeridir. Aclun, Yavuz Sultan Selim’in Mısır seferi sonucu Osmanlı topraklarına katılmış ve Şam eyaletine bağlı bir sancak olarak te

  1. Mouse middle ear ion homeostasis channels and intercellular junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Morris

    Full Text Available The middle ear contains homeostatic mechanisms that control the movement of ions and fluids similar to those present in the inner ear, and are altered during inflammation.The normal middle ear cavity is fluid-free and air-filled to allow for effective sound transmission. Within the inner ear, the regulation of fluid and ion movement is essential for normal auditory and vestibular function. The same ion and fluid channels active in the inner ear may have similar roles with fluid regulation in the middle ear.Middle and inner ears from BALB/c mice were processed for immunohistochemistry of 10 specific ion homeostasis factors to determine if similar transport and barrier mechanisms are present in the tympanic cavity. Examination also was made of BALB/c mice middle ears after transtympanic injection with heat-killed Haemophilus influenza to determine if these channels are impacted by inflammation.The most prominent ion channels in the middle ear included aquaporins 1, 4 and 5, claudin 3, ENaC and Na(+,K(+-ATPase. Moderate staining was found for GJB2, KCNJ10 and KCNQ1. The inflamed middle ear epithelium showed increased staining due to expected cellular hypertrophy. Localization of ion channels was preserved within the inflamed middle ear epithelium.The middle ear epithelium is a dynamic environment with intrinsic mechanisms for the control of ion and water transport to keep the middle ear clear of fluids. Compromise of these processes during middle ear disease may underlie the accumulation of effusions and suggests they may be a therapeutic target for effusion control.

  2. [The tempestuous history of middle ear operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The paper is a review of primary and secondary historical and scientific literature concerning the surgical treatment of the middle ear diseases. The development of mastoid surgery can be traced through the past 4 centuries. Once used as a means of evacuating a postauricular abscess, it has evolved to become a method for gaining entry into the middle ear to control acute and chronic ear diseases, or for treatment of otogenic complications. Earlier works led the way to the postauricular "Wilde incision", which gave rise to Schwartze mastoidectomy. Oscar Wilde's ultimate demise from an otogenic meningitis appears all the more ironic when one considers the role his father, Sir William Wilde, played as one of the founding fathers of modern otology. The death of baron von Berger after mastoidectomy performed for treatment of tinnitus and hypacusis, stopped the further development of surgical procedures for about hundred years. The Joseph Toynbee's "Diseases of the ear" was the first work about ear diseases on a pathologic anatomical base, and fundamental for otology of the German speaking countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Otology was emerging as a specific specialty. Von Tröltsch was the first surgeon, who proposed the antral opening through the external ear canal. When Schwartze and his assistant, Eysell, published their paper: "On the Artificial Opening of the Mastoid Air Cells," a century or so had passed since the few previous attempts to remove the tegmen of the mastoid had been reported. One of the greatest otologists of the 19th century was Adam Politzer, His influence on the 50 years of otology has never been equaled. It is in his honor that the International Society of Otology bears his name.

  3. Anastomosis between accessory middle cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masao; Uchino, Akira; Suzuki, Chihiro

    2017-06-01

    The accessory middle cerebral artery (MCA) is a common variation of the MCA that arises from the anterior cerebral artery. We report a patient with anastomosis of the accessory MCA with the main MCA, an extremely rare variant that we diagnosed by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. Both partial maximum-intensity-projection and partial volume-rendering MR angiographic images obtained at 3 T are useful to identify such rare vascular variation.

  4. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  5. Conformers and pretenders: The case of middle class political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From soon after the Second World War this class has been vocal in advocating for a political dispensation opposed to traditional politics centred on the monarchy. Up to now no coherent study has attempted a critical analysis of middle class opposition politics in Swaziland. This is in spite of the fact that the middle class ...

  6. The Union Defence Force entertainment group in the Middle East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In November 1941, Major Myles Bourke flew from South Africa to Cairo to investigate the possibilities of sending South African concert parties to the Middle East. He was accompanied by Capt (then Lieut) Mrs Sybil Gaiger. Keywords: Major Myles Bourke; South African concert parties; Middle East; ENSA; ME Live ...

  7. The Peril of Ignoring Middle School Student Speech Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of two recent federal court cases in which principals violated student speech rights offers guidance to middle school administrators as they attempt to address student expression. Characteristics of a successful school from the Association for Middle Level Education provide a framework for analyzing these cases in order to prevent…

  8. Characterization of middle Eocene tide-influenced delta: a study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    42

    The Hazad Member (Middle Eocene) of the Ankleswar Formation in Cambay Basin, India, is traditionally reported as .... derived from acid igneous and high rank metamorphic source rocks (Mohan et al. 1990). 3. Materials .... middle and upper part of the successions in the central and eastern part of the basin, respectively.

  9. Suicide in Middle Level Schools: Implications for Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Prevention of teenage suicide and coping with it when it occurs is an increasing concern for middle-level principals. This article focuses on specific implications of the youth suicide problem for middle-level principals with considerations for other principals as well. (Author/TE)

  10. Middle School Girls: Perceptions and Experiences with Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the impact a robotics curriculum might have on the experiences and perceptions of middle school girls in two California classrooms. The research found that middle school girls in two different California classrooms felt that their experiences with robotics were personalized experiences…

  11. Do a Dozen Dispatches Constitute a Consensus? (Middle School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Johnson-Kuby, Sue Ann

    1997-01-01

    Reviews mail sent in response to a year's worth of "Middle School" columns in this journal. Notes that the column on a middle scholar's inquiry excursion went completely unnoticed and that the column on portfolio assessment received the most attention. (SR)

  12. Experiences and Perceptions of Middle School Handbell Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the process of music learning and the perceptions of members in a school-based middle school handbell setting. The participants were 39 students and one music teacher in a middle school in Texas. The design of the current study was a case study using observation and interview data. The results…

  13. New Entrepreneurs and High Performance Enterprises in the Middle ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New Entrepreneurs and High Performance Enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa. Book cover New Entrepreneurs and High Performance Enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa. Auteur(s) : OECD, IDRC. Maison(s) d'édition : OECD, IDRC. 6 février 2013. ISBN : 9789264100251. 114 pages. e-ISBN :.

  14. Normal Foetal Middle Cerebral Arteries Doppler Velocimetry; Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doppler assessment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one method of evaluating foetus before delivery and can determine foetuses at risk in high risk pregnancies. This study was done to determine the normal reference values of foetal middle cerebral artery Doppler indices in our population. One hundred and forty ...

  15. Human Resource Education in the Middle East Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Khalil M.; Hamie, Christine Silva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of human resource development (HRD) education in Middle Eastern countries. In particular, the authors discuss the current state of HRD education, country readiness and challenges that hinder HRD progress in Middle Eastern countries. They argue that HRD programs need to prepare young…

  16. Water Management in Africa and the Middle East : Challenges and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1996-01-01

    Water Management in Africa and the Middle East : Challenges and Opportunities. Book cover Water Management in Africa and the Middle East : Challenges and Opportunities. Editor(s):. Eglal Rached, Eva Rathgeber et David B. Brooks. Publisher(s):. CRDI. January 1, 1996. ISBN: Épuisé. 295 pages. e-ISBN: 1552502899.

  17. The Image of the Middle East in Secondary School Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, William J.

    Forty-two secondary-level Canadian and American world history, social studies, and geography textbooks on the Middle East are examined for errors in content, oversimplification of complicated issues, and stereotyping. Areas under examination for distortion include Middle East geography and culture, economics, and maldistribution of wealth,…

  18. Response to Intervention in Middle School: A Case Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evelyn S.; Smith, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is a tiered model of service delivery being implemented in many middle grades schools. The authors provide an overview of RTI and describe the experience and outcomes of RTI implementation at Cheyenne Mountain Junior High. A discussion of lessons learned and implications for other middle schools considering RTI…

  19. Learning Physics with Digital Game Simulations in Middle School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janice L.; Barnett, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with middle school students. To this end, we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on middle school students' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students…

  20. Religious Broadcasting in the Middle East : Content Analysis of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Religious Broadcasting in the Middle East : Content Analysis of Selected Channels and Programs. Over the past decade, television broadcasting has become central in shaping public attitudes in the Middle East. Against a backdrop of authoritarian governments, political instability, war and pervasive foreign military ...

  1. Case Studies on Africa and the Middle East | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... These case studies illustrate some of the work IDRC's Rural Poverty and Environment program has supported in Africa and the Middle East. Topics covered include the African Highland Initiative; transboundary water research in the Middle East; Isang Bagsak (participatory development communication); ...

  2. Middle Leadership in Higher Education: A Relational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Christopher M.; Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    The paper is informed by a research study exploring middle leadership as experienced by Chairpersons of Departments within one faculty in a university in Aotearoa New Zealand. It is argued that middle leadership in higher education needs to be understood as a highly complex relational endeavour, characterised by compromises that are negotiated…

  3. Coping with Verbal and Social Bullying in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Christopher; Almeida, Angela; Brandwein, David; Rocha, Gabriela; Callahan, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Becoming a victim of verbal and social bullying in middle school can lead to illness, psychological stress, and maladjustment. The coping strategies that students utilize when they are bullied may influence the likelihood and severity of these negative effects. In this study, we examined the predictions made by students in two middle schools about…

  4. Cyberbullying: What Middle School Students Want You to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, J. J.; Wright, V. H.

    2012-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a growing concern because youth are technologically savvy. Much is to be learned about this pervasive phenomenon, especially during the middle school years when cyberbullying often peaks. This focus group study examined cyberbullying attitudes, beliefs, and opinions among middle school students in Alabama and describes…

  5. Multiple meanings of the middle class in soweto, south Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market Soweto shopping centre in 2006). This paper focuses on what middle class identity means to .... of individual virtue which includes good money management' (Urciuoli 1995). Middle class also implied possible advance through ..... London: Routledge Taylor and Francis. Bozzoli, B and History Workshop, 1987. Class ...

  6. Middle School Responses to Cyberbullying: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidack, Astri Marie

    2013-01-01

    This action research study engaged a small public middle school in the northwest United States in a collaborative process to address cyberbullying issues that often lead to academic and behavior problems in schools (Hinduja, 2010; Olweus, 2010). The specific purpose of this action research study was to address the middle school's cyberbullying…

  7. Attachment in Middle Childhood: An Evolutionary-Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Middle childhood is a key transitional stage in the development of attachment processes and representations. Here I discuss the middle childhood transition from an evolutionary-developmental perspective and show how this approach offers fresh insight into the function and organization of attachment in this life stage. I begin by presenting an…

  8. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports

  9. American Sign Language: An Innovative Middle School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Karen

    2009-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) began at Seminole Middle School in August 2007 as part of the program, D.E.C.A.L (Division of Communication and Law), the brainchild of principal, Dr. Kris Black. Her goal was to offer a program that would entice advanced middle school students from around Broward County to Seminole and the hook she used to entice them…

  10. Exploring Korean Middle School Students' View about Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Il-Ho; Park, Sang-Woo; Shin, Jung-Yun; Lim, Sung-Man

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine Korean middle school students' view about scientific inquiry with the Views about Scientific Inquiry (VASI) questionnaire, an instrument that deals with eight aspects of scientific inquiry. 282 Korean middle school students participated in this study, and their responses were classified as informed, mixed, and…

  11. Nanotechnology Awareness, Opinions and Risk Perceptions among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were elicited…

  12. Relationship of Middle School Student STEM Interest to Career Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding middle school students' perceptions regarding STEM dispositions, and the role attitudes play in establishing STEM career aspirations, is imperative to preparing the STEM workforce of the future. Data were gathered from more than 800 middle school students participating in a hands-on, real world application curriculum to examine the…

  13. Interreligious transfers in the Middle Ages: the case of astrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Stuckrad, K.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the discipline of astrology as an example of manifold interreligious contacts and transfers in the Middle Ages. Over against an image of the Middle Ages as being predominantly Christian and striving to violently suppress science, philosophy, and astrology, it is shown that in

  14. Conceptualizing Academic Norms in Middle School: A Social Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of research has documented the relationship between social norms and individual behaviors. There is growing evidence that academic behaviors in early adolescence--when most children begin middle school--may be subject to normative influence as well. However, the structure and composition of peer relationships within middle schools have…

  15. Pesticide Poisonings in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Neupane, Dinesh; London, Leslie

    2018-01-01

    Aims and scope This editorial is an introduction to the papers making up the special issue on 'pesticide poisonings in low- and middle income countries'.......Aims and scope This editorial is an introduction to the papers making up the special issue on 'pesticide poisonings in low- and middle income countries'....

  16. Work and Family Life: Middle School Content Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document, which lists the middle school content competencies for the Work and Family Studies curriculum within Family and Consumer Sciences in Ohio, is intended to help middle school students develop self-responsibility and competence dealing with the practical problems of early adolescence. (Career awareness and career choice options are…

  17. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  18. 7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in...

  19. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  20. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory lesions of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tono, Tetsuya; Saku, Kazuaki; Miyanaga, Satoshi; Kano, Kiyo; Morimitsu, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Yukiko.

    1988-05-01

    Eighteen patients with chronic otitis media, middle ear cholesteatoma, and postoperative inflammatory diseases of the middle ear underwent high resolution computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgical exploration of the middle ear. Results showed that CT provides higher detail resolution in middle ear structures, but provides limited density resolution in displaying inflammatory soft tissue lesions. By contrast, MRI differentiates among soft tissue lesions such as fluid-filled spaces, granulation tissues, and cholesteatomatous debris. Cholesterin granulomas show a particularly characteristic signal pattern with a very high intensity area in both T1 and T2 weighted images. It is concluded that MRI is useful in differentiating soft tissue density masses when used in conjunction with CT in middle ear inflammatory diseases.

  2. 3D visualization of middle ear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

    1998-06-01

    The achievement of volume geometry data from middle ear structures and surrounding components performs a necessary supposition for the finite element simulation of the vibrational and transfer characteristics of the ossicular chain. So far those models base on generalized figures and size data from anatomy textbooks or particular manual and one- or two-dimensional distance measurements of single ossicles, mostly obtained by light microscopy, respectively. Therefore the goal of this study is to create a procedure for complete three-dimensional imaging of real middle ear structures (tympanic membrane, ossicles, ligaments) in vitro or even in vivo. The main problems are their microscopic size with relevant structures from 10 micrometer to 5 mm, representing various tissue properties (bone, soft tissue). Additionally, these structures are surrounded by the temporal bone, the most solid bone of the human body. Generally there exist several established diagnostic tools for medical imaging that could be used for geometry data acquisition, e.g., X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Basically they image different tissue parameters, either bony structures (ossicles), or soft tissue (tympanic membrane, ligaments). But considering this application those standard techniques allow low spatial resolution only, usually in the 0.5 - 1mm range, at least in one spatial direction. Thus particular structures of the middle ear region could even be missed completely because of their spatial location. In vitro there is a way out by collecting three complete data sets, each distinguished by 90 degree rotation of a cube-shaped temporal bone specimen. That allows high-resolution imaging in three orthogonal planes, which essentially supports the three-dimensional interpolation of the unknown elements, starting from the regularly set elements of the cubic grid with an edge extension given by the original two-dimensional matrix. A different approach represents the

  3. Refugee children from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, E

    1998-01-01

    To map the frequency (prevalence) of torture victims among parents in asylum seeking Middle Eastern refugee families, to map the occurrence (prevalence) of experiences of war and other forms of organised violence among the children in these families, to map the occurrence (prevalence) of emotional symptoms and behavioural problems among the children, and to identify risk indicators and modifying factors for anxiety symptoms among the children. Interview with parents using a structured interview questionnaire developed for this study. Validated through a blinded semi-structured interview conducted with approximately 1/3 of the families. AUSPICES: The study has been carried out by the Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT) in cooperation with the Danish Red Cross. Structured interviews with parents regarding 311 children aged 3-15 from 149 families, all registered as asylum seekers from the Middle East between February 1, 1992 and April 30, 1993. The response was 90.4%. PRINCIPAL VARIABLES: Background (past-past)--social and demographic data; trauma complex (past)--war-related life circumstances (conditions) and experiences of war and other forms of organized violence such as loss, separation, direct exposure to violence and witnessing acts of violence (specific events and changes of life conditions); present life context (past-present)--family circumstances upon arrival in Denmark; effect (present)--the child's current psychological state. 28% of the parents (44% of the fathers and 13% of the mothers) had been tortured, to the effect that 51% of the children were part of a family including a survivor of torture. The most frequent specific types of violence-related events or circumstances were 'lived in a refugee camp outside the home country' (92%), 'lived under conditions of war' (89%) and 'been on the run with parents' (89%). Twenty percent of the children had lost one parent, and another 60% had been separated from one parent for more than a

  4. The Middle School Concept Meets the Age of Assessments: How One Middle School Has Adapted to the New Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Allen H.; Watts, Cherry

    2011-01-01

    The Middle School Concept brings together good teaching practices with the unique needs of pre-adolescent students. Since the passing of the NCLB, more and more attention has been generated on the results of high stakes testing. The question of what happens to the middle school concept when it confronts the demands of this new age of testing is…

  5. The Middle Aragonian (Middle Miocene) Micromammals from La Retama (Intermediate Depression, Tagus Basin) Province of Cuenca, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Álvarez Sierra, M.A.; García Paredes, I.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Meulen, van der A.J.; Peláez-Campomanes, P.; Sevilla, P.

    2006-01-01

    The micromammal fauna from the Middle Miocene (Middle Aragonian) of La Retama, eastern central Spain, is described. It is a relatively poor rodent fauna composed by ten species only, associated to a highly diverse bat fauna, which includes five genera. The insectivores are represented by two

  6. Middle Grades Teachers' Use of Motivational Practices to Support Their Visions and Identities as Middle Grades Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Amanda; Miller, Samuel D.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored 4 middle grades teachers' naïve theories of motivation, and the links between these theories and their thoughts and actions related to motivation. Their naïve theories of motivation stemmed from their overall visions for teaching, and their strong identities as middle grades educators. These naïve theories also…

  7. The middle manager role in energy company environmental efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Maya E.

    2005-12-01

    This research examines the internal organizational processes determining corporate environmental action. Corporations have a tremendous environmental impact, yet relatively little is known about how employees within them view and work on these issues. The research focused on middle managers, a level of the company whose value is often questioned. Interviews were conducted with 70 middle managers at two energy companies (comprising utilities and unregulated businesses). Interviews examined the shape and significance of middle manager involvement in environmental issues, looking specifically at what issues middle managers deal with, what goals they pursue, and what approaches they use. The research finds middle managers' roles with respect to environmental issues to be far-reaching and complex. Much of their effort is focused on meeting regulatory requirements ("complying"). They are committed to compliance, in part for ethical reasons, but often find regulations frustrating and costly. Compliance is more challenging than commonly thought; it demands time, knowledge, and substantial creativity. In pursuing it, interviewees work with employees throughout the organization. This research shows middle managers interacting with those hierarchically above and below them in ways that greatly modify earlier portrayals of middle managers. Earlier portrayals often emphasized struggles for power within the organization. Here, middle managers work in ways best characterized as collaborative and supportive. Middle managers also have extensive involvement laterally within the company and with groups outside the company. These links have received modest attention in literature, yet are found to be terribly important. Middle managers' lateral efforts inside the company, often on teams, allow diverse expertise (e.g., from people in different functions) to be applied to environmental issues. Documenting middle managers' involvement externally, with governmental officials and sectors

  8. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  9. Technological Middle Level Education in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cruz Prieto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological middle level education in Mexico trains young people between 15 to 18 years old to continue higher studies or to enter the labor market. It serves about 807,433 students through its 755 campuses with an educational model that has a focus on developing competences. High School Educational Reform, in operation since 2008, has initiated some programs to serve students, with the aim of reducing dropout rates. It also has implemented innovative management and information systems. In 2013, an educational reform was begun with an orientation to working conditions, focusing on the evaluation of school administrators and teachers. Received: 25/09/2013 / Accepted: 03/10/2013How to reference this articleCruz Prieto, S., Egido, I. (2014. La Educación Tecnológica de Nivel Medio Superior en México. Foro de Educación, 12(16, pp. 99-121. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2014.012.016.004

  10. Laryngeal biomechanics in Middle Eastern singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Sibai, Abla; Moukarbel, Roger V; Deeb, Reem

    2006-12-01

    We would like to describe the muscle tension patterns observed in Middle Eastern singing and correlate these findings with demographic data. A total of 42 candidates were included in this study. The medical charts and video records of their fiberoptic nasopharyngeal laryngoscopy were reviewed. Demographic information included age, sex, history of smoking, history of reflux, history of voice overuse/abuse, status in singing (professional vs. amateur), and style of singing (classical vs pop). Each frame was analyzed for each of the four muscle tension patterns (MTPs): MTP I, MTP II, MTP III, and MTP IV. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was conducted. Twenty-six subjects were professional singers and half sang classical singing. The mean MTP total score for all subjects was 35.58 +/- 21.98% (+/- standard deviation). The highest muscle tension score was obtained for type III pattern followed by type II. There were no statistical differences in the mean MTP total, MTP II, and MTP III scores among the professional singers versus the amateurs. Similar results were obtained when MTP scores were compared by style of singing. The vocal technique and status of singing did not seem to affect the muscle tension score.

  11. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohemi Sala

    Full Text Available Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  12. Opposites detract: middle school peer group antipathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-08-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age=15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor groups (nominators) that predicted antipathy for youths in target groups (nominatees) on the basis of target group characteristics. Most antipathies were based on dissimilarity between groups representing the mainstream culture and groups opposed to it. The higher a peer group's school burnout, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school grades and students in peer groups with higher sports participation. Conversely, the higher a peer group's school grades, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school burnout. Students in peer groups with less problem behavior disliked students in peer groups with more problem behavior. There was some evidence of rivalry within the mainstream culture: The higher a group's school grades, the more its members disliked groups whose members participated in sports. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Esthesioneuroblastoma arising from the middle meatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female presented with 13-year history of unilateral recurrent nasal mass, epistaxis and facial pain. Nasal examination revealed a pale glistening mass in the right nasal cavity. On probing, mass was insensitive to touch and bled on handling. Computed tomographic scan showed a mass filling the right nasal cavity, ipsilateral maxillary and ethmoid sinuses. Diagnosis of pansinusitis polyposis was made.Transnasal endoscopy-assisted excision of the mass was done, and the diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma was established by histopathology and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The mass was classified as a Kadish stage B tumor. Further intervention including medial maxillectomyand ethmoidectomy, and complete endoscopic-resection of the tumor from cribriform plate was done via lateral rhinotomy approach. The tumor was found adhered to the lateral wall-the middle meatus and was easily peeled away from the cribriform plate and ethmoids. Patient was referred for radiotherapy. No evidence of loco-regional recurrence or systemic metastasis observed at 10-month follow-up.

  14. Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M.; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin. PMID:26018668

  15. Penetration of ceftibuten into middle ear fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C; Kumari, P; Perrotta, R J; Reidenberg, B E

    1996-06-01

    The penetration of ceftibuten, an extended-spectrum oral cephalosporin, into middle ear fluid (MEF) was evaluated in pediatric patients during a course of daily oral doses of 9 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days. Plasma and MEF collected at 2, 4, 6, or 12 h after at least 3 days of dosing were analyzed for ceftibuten by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method, and the data were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Plasma and MEF had almost identical maximum concentrations (Cmax) of ceftibuten (14 micrograms/ml). These Cmax values in MEF during acute otitis media were well in excess of the MIC for 90% of the isolates of each of four major pathogens in this disease. The time to Cmax was longer in MEF (4 h) than in plasma (2 h). Excellent penetration (71%) of ceftibuten into MEF was observed on the basis of the area under the curve ratio (MEF/plasma). These data clearly indicate that ceftibuten penetrated well into the MEF to yield clinically effective concentrations.

  16. Primary culture of chinchilla middle ear epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; DeMaria, T F; Lim, D J; van Blitterswijk, C A

    1991-09-01

    Chinchilla middle ear epithelium was successfully cultured in medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, Ham's F12 mixture, and fetal bovine serum. After 3 to 5 days, the explants produced outgrowths of primarily flat polygonal and ciliated cells that persisted for up to 10 days in culture. These cells in the outgrowth often formed a "dome" indicating the presence of functional polarization and fluid transportation capability. The ciliated cells were more frequently found near the explant, and were fewer in number in the area distant from the explant. This finding suggests that the ciliated cells in the outgrowth are migrated ciliated cells deriving from the explant. That secretory cells were not identified in the outgrowth indicated that the present culture technique did not support secretory activity. Using the present culture technique, we were able to maintain the explants and primary cultured cells for up to 14 days in a majority of cases; hence, these techniques appear to be applicable to a number of in vitro studies.

  17. Green adobe houses of the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Dayyeh [Society for Energy Conservation and Sustainable Environment, Amman (Jordan)

    2006-07-01

    Due to the increasing energy consumption that is expected to occur over the next quarter century, reducing expenditures on heating and cooling as well as reducing the pollution emitted by low cost residential dwellings into the atmosphere are an economic and environmental priority. Green houses are energy efficient and thermally comfortable and are also environmentally friendly. The efficiency of Adobe houses in the Middle East were studied in order to understand their energy efficiency and thermal comfort characteristics. Adobe houses are green dwellings and are made of a brick mixture of sand, clay and straws left to dry in the sun. Two case studies were presented from an Adobe complex in Eastern Turkey and a complex of houses in a village in Jordan that were built with a mixture of stones, straws and mud. A method of wall construction for a low cost structure that takes into account low energy consumption, thermal comfort, and psychological impact of modern techniques was also provided. Several recommendations were presented including: using local materials and unskilled local labor force; building environmentally sustainable green dwellings using no timber, minimum heating-cooling needs, the least maintenance possible and producing minimal constructional waste; and, building structures that are culturally acceptable and attractive to inhabitants. It was suggested that as a substitute for the efficient adobe bricks of low thermal conductivity and emissivity characteristics, a double hollow concrete block wall with an aluminum foil situated loose in the air gap between the sandwich panels should be used. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

    Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  19. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  20. Microbiology of middle meatus in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariante, Afonso Ravanello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal microbiology of healthy individuals is not much documented. Its knowledge allows to determine the nasosinusal colonizing agents and to monitor the patterns of bacterial resistance. Objective: To evaluate the microbiology of the middle meatus in healthy individuals and to compare it with that of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Method: 61 healthy individuals were included. The samples were collected under endoscopic view and Gram stained with leucocytes count and aerobic, anaerobic and fungus cultures. 114 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis formed the control group. Results: In healthy individuals 58 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequent ones were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Fungi were cultivated in 10%. There were rare or no white blood cells in all samples. There was penicillin resistance in 75% of the Staphylococcus aureus and 69% of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. As for oxacillin, 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and 92% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were sensitive. In the control group 158 microorganisms were cultivated. The most common ones were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Gram-negatives represented 26% of the aerobics. 73% of the samples with positive cultures presented a few or many white blood cells. Conclusion: Rare or no white blood cell, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium were more frequent in healthy individuals and Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobics and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Gram-negative were more frequent in the control group.