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Sample records for suspicious psw nodes

  1. The value of preoperative ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of radiologically suspicious axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torill Sauer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preoperative ultrasound (US and eventually US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of suspicious axillary lymph nodes (ALN is a standard procedure in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions. Preoperative US FNAC may prevent sentinel node biopsy (SNB procedure in 24-30% of patients with early stage breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the institutional results of this preoperative diagnostic procedure. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 cases of preoperative FNAC of suspicious ALN where retrieved from the pathology files. The results were compared with the final histology and staging. False negative (FN FNAC cases were reviewed and possibly missed metastatic cases (2 were immunostained with the epithelial marker AE1/AE3. Results: There were no false positives, whereas 16 cases were FN. In all but one case the FN′s represented sampling error. Half of the 16 FN cases in this series were macrometastases. Discussion: About 83% of the preoperatively aspirated cases were N+, indicating that a radiologically suspicious ALN has a very high risk of being metastatic. Preoperative US guided FNAC from radiologically suspicious ALN is highly efficient in detecting metastases. Depending on national guidelines, a preoperative, positive ALN FNAC might help to stratify the patients as to SNB and/or ALN dissection.

  2. Detection of suspicious malignant cervical lymph nodes of unknown origin: diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy with nodal size and central necrosis correlate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.-P.; Chen, C.-Y.; Chin, S-.C.; Lee, K.-W.; Hsueh, C.-J.; Juan, C.-J.; Kao, H.-W.; Huang, G.-S.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the role of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-guided FNAB) in the diagnostic workup of suspicious malignant cervical lymph nodes in patients with palpable neck masses and without known primary cancer. The diagnostic accuracy of imaging morphologic criteria, including sizes and central necrosis for assessing suspicious malignant nodes, were also examined. This is a retrospective study of 426 patients with palpable neck masses from an outpatient department evaluated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or US. US-guided FNABs were performed in 102 patients with suspicious malignant cervical lymph nodes at a single institution. Cytologically positive lymph nodes (n = 12) were further validated with excisional biopsy. Negative lymph nodes (n = 90) were either excised (n = 10) or followed up by imaging studies for at least one year (n = 80). The diagnostic accuracy of the FNABs along with the imaging findings of nodal sizes and presence of central necrosis, which were classified by a consensus of 2 radiologists, were assessed. Twelve malignant nodes were detected with US-guided FNAB with one false-positive and one false-negative result. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for FNAB were 91.7%, 98.9%, and 98.0%. respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 66.7%, 30.0%, and 34.3% for size criterion and 75.0%, 83.3%, and 82.3% for central necrosis criterion. The size of cervical lymph node does not appear to be an important imaging criterion for assessing suspicious malignant lymph nodes, compared with the criterion of central necrosis. US-guided FNAB is highly specific and sensitive in the diagnostic workup of suspicious malignant cervical lymph nodes in patients without known primary cancers. (author)

  3. SUSPICIOUS POST

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    If you receive a suspicious letter or package in the post, please do not open it and contact the Fire Brigade Tel. 74444. They will contact the CERN Medical Service. This is especially important in today's current situation with regard to the Anthrax scare. For further information, the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva recommends the following web sites:   http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/cf/brennpunkt/03.html http://www.who.int/emc-documents/zoonoses/whoemczdi986c.html

  4. Recycling and recovery routes of plastic solid waste (PSW): A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salem, S.M.; Lettieri, P.; Baeyens, J.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic solid waste (PSW) presents challenges and opportunities to societies regardless of their sustainability awareness and technological advances. In this paper, recent progress in the recycling and recovery of PSW is reviewed. A special emphasis is paid on waste generated from polyolefinic sources, which makes up a great percentage of our daily single-life cycle plastic products. The four routes of PSW treatment are detailed and discussed covering primary (re-extrusion), secondary (mechanical), tertiary (chemical) and quaternary (energy recovery) schemes and technologies. Primary recycling, which involves the re-introduction of clean scrap of single polymer to the extrusion cycle in order to produce products of the similar material, is commonly applied in the processing line itself but rarely applied among recyclers, as recycling materials rarely possess the required quality. The various waste products, consisting of either end-of-life or production (scrap) waste, are the feedstock of secondary techniques, thereby generally reduced in size to a more desirable shape and form, such as pellets, flakes or powders, depending on the source, shape and usability. Tertiary treatment schemes have contributed greatly to the recycling status of PSW in recent years. Advanced thermo-chemical treatment methods cover a wide range of technologies and produce either fuels or petrochemical feedstock. Nowadays, non-catalytic thermal cracking (thermolysis) is receiving renewed attention, due to the fact of added value on a crude oil barrel and its very valuable yielded products. But a fact remains that advanced thermo-chemical recycling of PSW (namely polyolefins) still lacks the proper design and kinetic background to target certain desired products and/or chemicals. Energy recovery was found to be an attainable solution to PSW in general and municipal solid waste (MSW) in particular. The amount of energy produced in kilns and reactors applied in this route is sufficiently

  5. Twin-crane placement of pressure vessel, PSW speeds nuclear construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamais, A.

    1982-01-01

    A new crane design, the twin Transi-Lift, that can lift and walk both a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and a primary shield wall (PSW), was chosen by Gulf States Utilities (GSU) for its River Bend station on the basis of performance, availability, and cost. The lifts avoid delays because they can be assembled and taken down away from the construction site. Nine photographs illustrate how the lift operated. es

  6. The significance of enlarged cervical lymph nodes in diagnosing thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Eldin Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: ECLN are associated with an increased likelihood of thyroid malignancy in the patients undergoing evaluation of a suspicious nodule. The risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules increases with the presence of suspicious ultrasonographic features on cervical lymph nodes.

  7. Role of the phosphopantetheinyltransferase enzyme, PswP, in the biosynthesis of antimicrobial secondary metabolites by Serratia marcescens Db10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerc, Amy J; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R; Coulthurst, Sarah J

    2014-08-01

    Phosphopantetheinyltransferase (PPTase) enzymes fulfil essential roles in primary and secondary metabolism in prokaryotes, archaea and eukaryotes. PPTase enzymes catalyse the essential modification of the carrier protein domain of fatty acid synthases, polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). In bacteria and fungi, NRPS and PKS enzymes are often responsible for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites with clinically relevant properties; these secondary metabolites include a variety of antimicrobial peptides. We have previously shown that in the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens Db10, the PPTase enzyme PswP is essential for the biosynthesis of an NRPS-PKS dependent antibiotic called althiomycin. In this work we utilize bioinformatic analyses to classify PswP as belonging to the F/KES subfamily of Sfp type PPTases and to putatively identify additional NRPS substrates of PswP, in addition to the althiomycin NRPS-PKS, in Ser. marcescens Db10. We show that PswP is required for the production of three diffusible metabolites by this organism, each possessing antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Genetic analyses identify the three metabolites as althiomycin, serrawettin W2 and an as-yet-uncharacterized siderophore, which may be related to enterobactin. Our results highlight the use of an individual PPTase enzyme in multiple biosynthetic pathways, each contributing to the ability of Ser. marcescens to inhibit competitor bacteria by the production of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. A review on thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic solid waste (PSW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, S M; Antelava, A; Constantinou, A; Manos, G; Dutta, A

    2017-07-15

    Plastic plays an important role in our daily lives due to its versatility, light weight and low production cost. Plastics became essential in many sectors such as construction, medical, engineering applications, automotive, aerospace, etc. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. Hence, a sustainable and an efficient plastic waste treatment is essential to avoid such issues. Pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical plastic waste treatment technique which can solve such pollution problems, as well as, recover valuable energy and products such as oil and gas. Pyrolysis of plastic solid waste (PSW) has gained importance due to having better advantages towards environmental pollution and reduction of carbon footprint of plastic products by minimizing the emissions of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide compared to combustion and gasification. This paper presents the existing techniques of pyrolysis, the parameters which affect the products yield and selectivity and identify major research gaps in this technology. The influence of different catalysts on the process as well as review and comparative assessment of pyrolysis with other thermal and catalytic plastic treatment methods, is also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Examination of suspicious objects by virus analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananin, E. V.; Ananina, I. S.; Nikishova, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents data on virus threats urgency. But in order for antiviruses to work properly, all data on new implementations of viruses should be added to its database. For that to be done, all suspicious objects should be investigated. It is a dangerous process and should be done in the virtual system. However, it is not secure for the main system as well. So the diagram of a secure workplace for a virus analyst is proposed. It contains software for its protection. Also all kinds of setting to ensure security of the process of investigating suspicious objects are proposed. The proposed approach allows minimizing risks caused by the virus.

  10. A Suspicious Action Detection System Considering Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuka, Noriaki; Kimura, Koji; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    The paper proposes a new system that can detect suspicious actions such as a car break-in and surroundings in an open space parking, based on image processing. The proposed system focuses on three points of “order”, “time”, and “location” of human actions. The proposed system has the following features: it 1) deals time series data flow, 2) estimates human actions and the location, 3) extracts suspicious action detection rules automatically, 4) detects suspicious actions using the suspicious score. We carried out experiments using real image sequences. As a result, we obtained about 7.8% higher estimation rate than the conventional system.

  11. 75 FR 75586 - Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...] RIN 1550-AC26 Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports AGENCY: The Office of Thrift Supervision... implementing the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) governing the confidentiality of a suspicious activity report (SAR) to... corporations regulated by the OTS, to keep certain records and make certain reports that have been determined...

  12. 75 FR 75576 - Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...-2010-0019] RIN 1557-AD17 Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports AGENCY: The Office of the... suspicious activity report (SAR) to: clarify the scope of the statutory prohibition on the disclosure by a... institutions, including national banks regulated by the OCC, to keep certain records and make certain reports...

  13. 12 CFR 21.11 - Suspicious Activity Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or a suspicious transaction related to a money laundering activity or a violation of the Bank Secrecy... of suspects. (4) Transactions aggregating $5,000 or more that involve potential money laundering or...

  14. Node cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, David Mark

    2014-01-01

    In Node Cookbook Second Edition, each chapter focuses on a different aspect of working with Node. Following a Cookbook structure, the recipes are written in an easy-to-understand language. Readers will find it easier to grasp even the complex recipes which are backed by lots of illustrations, tips, and hints.If you have some knowledge of JavaScript and want to build fast, efficient, scalable client-server solutions, then Node Cookbook Second Edition is for you. Knowledge of Node will be an advantage but is not required. Experienced users of Node will be able to improve their skills.

  15. Effect of hydrothermal pre-treatment (HTP) on poultry slaughterhouse waste (PSW) sludge for the enhancement of the solubilization, physical properties, and biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyong; Yoon, Young-Man; Han, Seong Kuk; Kim, Daegi; Kim, Ho

    2017-06-01

    This study is an assessment of the hydrothermal pre-treatment (HTP) of poultry slaughterhouse waste (PSW) sludge for the enhancement of the solubilization, physical properties, and biogas production through anaerobic digestion. This assessment was carried out to ascertain the optimal HTP temperature. The solubilization and physical properties efficacy was investigated by capillary suction time (CST), time to filter (TTF), and particle size. In addition, the anaerobic digestion was investigated through biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and subsequent statistical analysis using the modified Gompertz model. HTP was found to have improved the solubilization of the PSW sludge with increasing HTP temperature. In addition, the results of the CST, TTF, and particle size decreased with increasing HTP temperature. These results of the assessment that was conducted in this study confirm that the HTP process indeed modifies the physical properties of PSWs to enhance the solubilization of organic solids. Nevertheless, the results of the BMP tests and the modified Gompertz model analysis show that the optimal HTP temperature of PSWs for anaerobic digestion is 190°C. These findings show that to achieve high conversion efficiency, an accurately designed pre-treatment step must be included in the overall anaerobic digestion process for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Money laundering: correlation between risk assessment and suspicious transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cindori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk assessment system was introduced in the Republic of Croatia in 2009, as a result of harmonization with international standards, especially the Directive 2005/60/EC on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing. Risk assessment is an extensive concept which requires not only a legislative framework, but also the application of numerous criteria for its effective implementation in practice. Among these criteria are suspicious transactions, closely related to the assessment of the customer, transaction, product or service.The undeniable contribution of suspicious transactions to the quality of the risk assessment system will be confirmed by a statistical analysis of a number of West and East European countries. A combination of strict, but sufficiently flexible legal provisions governing the system for prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing and a statistical analysis of reported suspicious transactions will lead to conclusions that either support or represent criticism of the efficiency of application of the risk assessment system in practice.The aforementioned statistical analysis will show whether suspicious transactions are a reliable criterion for the risk assessment analysis, and whether they can be considered the only such criterion. There is a possibility that the findings of the analysis will be contradictory to those of some international studies.

  17. Neural Correlates of Suspiciousness and Interactions with Anxiety during Emotional and Neutral Word Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joscelyn E Fisher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat. However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat. Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing.. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing.

  18. Schizotypy and mindfulness: Magical thinking without suspiciousness characterizes mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Antonova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males from the Buddhist tradition (meditators and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. All participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Raine, 1991, a self-report scale containing 9 subscales (ideas of reference, excessive social anxiety, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, odd/eccentric behavior, no close friends, odd speech, constricted affect, suspiciousness. Participants of study 2 also completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire which assesses observing (Observe, describing (Describe, acting with awareness (Awareness, non-judging of (Non-judgment and non-reactivity to inner experience (Non-reactivity facets of trait mindfulness. In both studies, meditators scored significantly lower on suspiciousness and higher on magical thinking compared to meditation-naïve individuals and showed a trend towards lower scores on excessive social anxiety. Excessive social anxiety correlated negatively with Awareness and Non-judgment; and suspiciousness with Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity facets across both groups. The two groups did not differ in their total schizotypy score. We conclude that mindfulness practice is not associated with an overall increase in schizotypal traits. Instead, the pattern suggests that mindfulness meditation, particularly with an emphasis on the Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity aspects, may help to reduce suspiciousness and excessive social anxiety.

  19. Teaching preschool children to report suspicious packages to adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E; Shayter, Ashley M; Schmick, Ayla; Barron, Becky; Doherty, Meghan; Johnson, Matthew

    2018-05-16

    Law enforcement agencies stress that public reporting of terror-related crime is the predominant means for disrupting these actions. However, schools may be unprepared because the majority of the populace may not understand the threat of suspicious materials or what to do when they are found on school grounds. The purpose of this study was to systematically teach preschool children to identify and report suspicious packages across three experiments. In the first experiment, we used multiple exemplar training to teach children to identify the characteristics of safe and unsafe packages. In the second experiment, we taught participants to identify the locations where packages should be considered unsafe. Finally, in the third experiment, we used behavioral skills training to teach participants to avoid touching unsafe packages, leave the area where they were located, and report their discovery to an adult. Results suggest the participants quickly developed these skills. Implications for safety skills in young school children are discussed. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. 76 FR 69204 - Anti-Money Laundering Program and Suspicious Activity Reporting Requirements for Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... 1506-AB14 Anti-Money Laundering Program and Suspicious Activity Reporting Requirements for Housing... enterprises as financial institutions for the purpose of requiring them to establish anti-money laundering... organizations to establish anti-money laundering programs and report suspicious activities is intended to help...

  1. 31 CFR 103.21 - Reports by casinos of suspicious transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports by casinos of suspicious....21 Reports by casinos of suspicious transactions. (a) General. (1) Every casino shall file with Fin... relevant to a possible violation of law or regulation. A casino may also file with FinCEN, by using the...

  2. Sonographic findings of thyroid cancer initially assessed as no suspicious malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Youn; Kang, Seok Seon; Ji, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Tae Hee; Park, Hae Lin; Shim, Jeong Yun

    2008-01-01

    To review the retrospective imaging findings of thyroid cancer initially assessed as no suspicious malignancy. Of 338 nodules confirmed to be thyroid cancer, this study included 38 patients with 39 nodules assessed as no suspicious malignancy on initial sonography. (mean age:39 years, 36 females and 2 males). We evaluated sonographic findings by shape, margin, echogenecity, calcification, cystic degeneration and peripheral hypoechoic rim retrospectively. We analyzed whether sonographic findings were different according to the size (standard:1 cm). The most frequent sonographic findings were avoid to round shape 90%, well-defined smooth margin 64%, hypoechogenecity 54%, no calcification 92%, no cystic degeneration 77% and peripheral hypoechoic rim 56%. Suspicious malignancy findings were taller than wide shape 10%, well-defined spiculated margin 36%, markedly hypoechogenecity 10% and microcalcifications 8%. Isoechogenecity, cystic degeneration and peripheral hypoechoic rim were common in 1 cm more than nodules. Well-defined spiculated margin was common in 1 cm less than nodules. In retrospective, 56% showed no suspicious malignancy finding. Although nodules assessed as no suspicious malignancy on initial US had many retrospectively suspicious malignancy findings, still many nodules showed no suspicious malignancy finding. Suspicious findings were ignored due to equivocal finding in small size, isoechogenecity, cystic degeneration or peripheral hypoechoic rim. We need careful observation

  3. Identification of sentinel lymph nodes in vulvar carcinoma patients with the aid of a patent blue V injection: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansink, A. C.; Sie-Go, D. M.; van der Velden, J.; Sijmons, E. A.; de Barros Lopes, A.; Monaghan, J. M.; Kenter, G. G.; Murdoch, J. B.; ten Kate, F. J.; Heintz, A. P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the feasibility and negative predictive value of sentinel lymph node detection with blue dye in vulvar carcinoma patients. METHODS: In patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva without suspicious groin lymph nodes, patent blue

  4. Role of axillary lymph node ultra-sound and large core biopsy in the preoperative assessment of patients selected for sentinel node biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, Jacopo; Boeri, Cecilia; Vanzi, Ermanno; Nori Bufalini, Filippo; Masi, Andrea; Bazzocchi, Massimo; Londero, Viviana; Mangialavori, Giuseppe; Distante, Vito; Simoncini, Roberta

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of axillary lymph node sonography, if necessary in collaboration with US-guided large core biopsy, in the preoperative evaluation of breast cancer patients scheduled for quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph node excision. Materials and methods: From July 2001 to December 2002, we evaluated 117 breast cancer patients with ultrasound and, where indicated, FNAB. Breast lesions has diameters between 4 and 26 mm (mean diameter 11 mm). Fifteen (13%) of the 117 patients were excluded from the series as they did not found fulfil the criteria for preliminary sonography of the axilla: in 9 patients fewer than 4 nodes were detected and in 6 patients the breast lesions were intraoperatively found to be benign. Eleven patients (10.7%) with sonographically suspicious axillary nodes were sampled by US-guided core biopsy using a 14 or 16 Gauge Tru-Cut needle. Results: The ultrasound study aims to evaluate the dimensions and morphology of the breast lesion as well as detect and assess at least 4 axillary nodes. These were evaluated for hilar and cortical thickening and radio between the sinus diameter and the total longitudinal diameter. Lymph nodes with hilar diameters equal to or greater than 50% of the longitudinal diameter were considered normal. Of the 102 patients evaluated, 77 (75.7%) had normal axillary nodes according to the US criteria adopted. Negativity was confirmed by histology in 56 cases (72.7%, true negative); 21 (27.3%, false negative) were found to be positive, in contrast with the sonographic appearance. The false negative cases were due to lymph node micrometastasis which probably did not cause morphologic alterations perceptible at ultrasound. The remaining 25 patients (24.5%) had axillary lymph nodes classified as suspicious. In 13 cases of (52%, true positive) there was agreement with histology, whereas in 12 cases (48%, false positive) the US suspicion was not confirmed at surgery. The most

  5. Minimising bias in the forensic evaluation of suspicious paediatric injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skellern, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    In the rules of evidence in all legal jurisdictions, medical experts are required to maintain objectivity when providing opinions. When interpreting medical evidence, doctors must recognise, acknowledge and manage uncertainties to ensure their evidence is reliable to legal decision-makers. Even in the forensic sciences such as DNA analysis, implicit bias has been shown to influence how results are interpreted from cognitive and contextual biases unconsciously operating. In cases involving allegations of child abuse there has been significant exposure in the media, popular magazines, legal journals and in the published medical literature debating the reliability of medical evidence given in these proceedings. In these cases judges have historically been critical of experts they perceived had sacrificed objectivity for advocacy by having an investment in a 'side'. This paper firstly discusses the issue of bias then describes types of cognitive biases identified from psychological research applied to forensic evidence including adversarial bias, context bias, confirmation bias and explains how terminology can influence the communication of opinion. It follows with previously published guidelines of how to reduce the risk of bias compromising objectivity in forensic practices then concludes with my own recommendations of practices that can be used by child protection paediatricians and within an organisation when conducting forensic evaluations of suspicious childhood injury to improve objectivity in formulation of opinion evidence. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Suspiciousness and low self-esteem as predictors of misattributions of anger in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul Henry; Davis, Louanne Whitman; Tsai, Jack

    2009-04-30

    While it is widely recognized that many with schizophrenia have significant difficulties in correctly identifying the emotions of others, less is known about the causes and correlates of particular forms of misattribution, including mistakenly seeing anger in others. One possibility is that persons with high levels of suspiciousness and low levels of self-esteem are at risk to attribute their poor feelings about themselves to the malice of others. To explore this possibility, we identified 52 persons with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder who made significant numbers of errors on the Bell-Lysaker Emotional Recognition Test. We then performed a cluster analysis based on measures of suspiciousness from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and self-esteem from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Schedule, and found the following four groups: a) High Suspiciousness/High Self-Esteem; b) Mild Suspiciousness/High Self-Esteem; c) High Suspiciousness/Low Self-Esteem; and d) Minimal Suspiciousness/Low Self-Esteem. Comparisons between groups revealed that as predicted the High Suspiciousness/Low Self-Esteem group made significantly more misattributions of anger than other groups, even when levels of depression were controlled for statistically. Implications for addressing the misattributions of anger in schizophrenia are discussed.

  7. Event-related potential correlates of suspicious thoughts in individuals with schizotypal personality features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-bing; Huang, Jia; Cheung, Eric F C; Gong, Qi-yong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2011-01-01

    Suspiciousness is a common feature of schizophrenia. However, suspicious thoughts are also commonly experienced by the general population. This study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of suspicious thoughts in individuals with and without schizotypal personality disorder (SPD)-proneness, using an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded when the "feeling of being seen through" was evoked in the participants. The findings showed a prominent positive deflection of the difference wave within the time window 250-400 ms after stimuli presentation in both SPD-prone and non-SPD-prone groups. Furthermore, the P3 amplitude was significantly reduced in the SPD-prone group compared to the non-SPD-prone group. The current density analysis also indicated hypoactivity in both frontal and temporal regions in the SPD-prone group, suggesting that the frontotemporal cortical network may play a role in the onset of suspicious thoughts. The P3 of difference wave was inversely correlated with the cognitive-perception factor and the suspiciousness/paranoid ideation trait, which provided preliminary electrophysiological evidence for the association of suspiciousness with SPD features.

  8. Ultrasound of the axilla: where to look for the sentinel lymph node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, P.; Moyle, P.; Benson, J.R.; Goud, A.; Sinnatamby, R.; Barter, S.; Gaskarth, M.; Provenzano, E.; Wallis, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this paper is to guide the radiologist to the most likely location of the sentinel lymph node (SLN). Materials and methods: Patients with invasive breast cancer underwent axillary ultrasound examination. The position and morphological appearances of the lymph nodes were noted and core biopsy (CB) was performed of the largest or most suspicious node. Those patients whose biopsy revealed no evidence of malignancy proceeded to a surgical sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy (SLNB) looking for histopathological evidence of previous CB. Results: Of 121 patients who underwent axillary ultrasound and CB no malignancy was identified in 73, all of whom subsequently underwent SLNB. Histological evidence of CB in the SLN was identified in 47 (64%) patients. The position of all the lymph nodes identified on ultrasound and the 47 patients whose SLNs were identified were drawn on composite diagrams of the axilla. Of the 36 nodes identified as sentinel whose position relative to other nodes could be determined, 29 (81%) represented the lowest node identified in the axilla, four (11%) were the second lowest, and three (8%) were the third lowest node. None of the four patients whose CB was from the fourth lowest node had the CB site identified at subsequent SLNB. Conclusion: Ultrasound of the axilla should be carried out in a systematic fashion focusing on level I nodes paying particular attention to the lowest one or two lymph nodes.

  9. Ultrasound of the axilla: where to look for the sentinel lymph node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, P., E-mail: peter.britton@addenbrookes.nhs.u [Cambridge Breast Unit, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Moyle, P.; Benson, J.R.; Goud, A.; Sinnatamby, R.; Barter, S.; Gaskarth, M.; Provenzano, E.; Wallis, M. [Cambridge Breast Unit, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Aims: The aim of this paper is to guide the radiologist to the most likely location of the sentinel lymph node (SLN). Materials and methods: Patients with invasive breast cancer underwent axillary ultrasound examination. The position and morphological appearances of the lymph nodes were noted and core biopsy (CB) was performed of the largest or most suspicious node. Those patients whose biopsy revealed no evidence of malignancy proceeded to a surgical sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy (SLNB) looking for histopathological evidence of previous CB. Results: Of 121 patients who underwent axillary ultrasound and CB no malignancy was identified in 73, all of whom subsequently underwent SLNB. Histological evidence of CB in the SLN was identified in 47 (64%) patients. The position of all the lymph nodes identified on ultrasound and the 47 patients whose SLNs were identified were drawn on composite diagrams of the axilla. Of the 36 nodes identified as sentinel whose position relative to other nodes could be determined, 29 (81%) represented the lowest node identified in the axilla, four (11%) were the second lowest, and three (8%) were the third lowest node. None of the four patients whose CB was from the fourth lowest node had the CB site identified at subsequent SLNB. Conclusion: Ultrasound of the axilla should be carried out in a systematic fashion focusing on level I nodes paying particular attention to the lowest one or two lymph nodes.

  10. Modular sensor network node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring [Berkeley, CA; Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul; Kershaw, Christopher Patrick [Hayward, CA; Kyker, Ronald Dean [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  11. Preoperative US-guided hook-needle insertion in recurrent lymph nodes of papillary thyroid cancer: A help for the surgeon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprez, Raphaelle; Lebas, Patrick; Marc, Olivier Saint; Mongeois, Elise; Emy, Philippe; Michenet, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate whether preoperative ultrasound guided insertion of a hook-needle is useful in reoperations for cervical recurrent lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid cancer. Patients and methods: 8 patients with operated papillary thyroid cancer were included in this study. They all had suspicious nonpalpable cervical lymph nodes discovered during follow-up. These lymph nodes were identified by ultrasound imaging and their metastatic nature was confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology and measurement of in situ thyroglobulin. In all cases, surgical excision of these lymph nodes was decided. All 8 patients had a hook-needle inserted in the suspicious lymph node(s) preoperatively and under ultrasound guidance. Results and conclusion: In all 8 patients, the suspicious lymph nodes were removed and their metastatic nature was confirmed by the final pathological examination. This localization technique is very helpful for the surgeon during the excision of small and nonpalpable lymph nodes, especially in previously operated area.

  12. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  13. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide...

  14. [Identification and management of intra-operative suspicious tissues in 20 transsphenoidal surgery cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Feng; Ke, Chang-Shu; Chen, Xi; Xu, Yu; Zhang, Hua-Qiu; Chen, Juan; Gan, Chao; Li, Chao-Xi; Lei, Ting

    2013-05-01

    To determine appropriate protocols for the identification and management of intra operative suspicious tissues during transsphenoidal surgery. Clinical data and pathological reports of 20 patients with intra-operative suspicious tissues during transsphenoidal surgeries were analyzed retrospectively. The methods for discriminating between adenoma and normal pituitary tissues were reviewed. The postoperative pathological reports revealed that adenoma and normal pituitary tissues coexisted in 9 samples, while 5 samples were identified as normal pituitary tissues, 2 as adenoma tissues, and 4 as other tissues. Adenomas were distinguished from normal pituitary tissues on the basis of intra-operative appearance, texture, blood supply and possible existence of boundary. If decisions are difficult to made during surgeries from the appearance of the suspicious tissues, pathological examinations are advised as a guidance for the next steps.

  15. Suspicious breast calcifications undergoing stereotactic biopsy in women ages 70 and over: Breast cancer incidence by BI-RADS descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Johnson, David Y; Johnson, Karen S; Baker, Jay A; Soo, Mary Scott; Hwang, E Shelley; Ghate, Sujata V

    2017-06-01

    To determine the malignancy rate overall and for specific BI-RADS descriptors in women ≥70 years who undergo stereotactic biopsy for calcifications. We retrospectively reviewed 14,577 consecutive mammogram reports in 6839 women ≥70 years to collect 231 stereotactic biopsies of calcifications in 215 women. Cases with missing images or histopathology and calcifications associated with masses, distortion, or asymmetries were excluded. Three breast radiologists determined BI-RADS descriptors by majority. Histology, hormone receptor status, and lymph node status were correlated with BI-RADS descriptors. There were 131 (57 %) benign, 22 (10 %) atypia/lobular carcinomas in situ, 55 (24 %) ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and 23 (10 %) invasive diagnoses. Twenty-seven (51 %) DCIS cases were high-grade. Five (22 %) invasive cases were high-grade, two (9 %) were triple-negative, and three (12 %) were node-positive. Malignancy was found in 49 % (50/103) of fine pleomorphic, 50 % (14/28) of fine linear, 25 % (10/40) of amorphous, 20 % (3/15) of round, 3 % (1/36) of coarse heterogeneous, and 0 % (0/9) of dystrophic calcifications. Among women ≥70 years that underwent stereotactic biopsy for calcifications only, we observed a high rate of malignancy. Additionally, coarse heterogeneous calcifications may warrant a probable benign designation. • Cancer rates of biopsied calcifications in women ≥70 years are high • Radiologists should not dismiss suspicious calcifications in older women • Coarse heterogeneous calcifications may warrant a probable benign designation.

  16. Computer aided detection of suspicious regions on digital mammograms : rapid segmentation and feature extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, C; Giacomini, M; Sacile, R [DIST - Department of Communication Computer and System Sciences, University of Genova, Via Opera Pia 13, 16145 Genova (Italy); Rosselli Del Turco, M [Centro per lo studio e la prevenzione oncologica, Firenze (Italy)

    1999-12-31

    A method is presented for rapid detection of suspicious regions which consists of two steps. The first step is segmentation based on texture analysis consisting of : histogram equalization, Laws filtering for texture analysis, Gaussian blur and median filtering to enhance differences between tissues in different respects, histogram thresholding to obtain a binary image, logical masking in order to detect regions to be discarded from the analysis, edge detection. This method has been tested on 60 images, obtaining 93% successful detection of suspicious regions. (authors) 4 refs, 9 figs, 1 tabs.

  17. Protocol for multiple node network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  18. 31 CFR 103.18 - Reports by banks of suspicious transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... violations that require immediate attention, such as, for example, ongoing money laundering schemes, the bank... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports by banks of suspicious transactions. 103.18 Section 103.18 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...

  19. 31 CFR 103.15 - Reports by mutual funds of suspicious transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... suspected terrorist financing or ongoing money laundering schemes, a mutual fund shall immediately notify by... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports by mutual funds of suspicious transactions. 103.15 Section 103.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...

  20. 31 CFR 103.20 - Reports by money services businesses of suspicious transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... immediate attention, such as ongoing money laundering schemes, the money services business shall immediately... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports by money services businesses of suspicious transactions. 103.20 Section 103.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to...

  1. 75 FR 76677 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network: Anti-Money Laundering Program and Suspicious Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ...: Anti-Money Laundering Program and Suspicious Activity Report Filing Requirements for Residential... loan or finance companies for the purpose of requiring them to establish anti-money laundering programs...-money laundering program requirements on financial institutions.\\3\\ The authority of the Secretary to...

  2. 75 FR 75593 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... continuing effort to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of its anti-money laundering and counter... law or regulation, or a suspicious activity related to money laundering, terrorist financing, or other...). \\3\\ The Annunzio-Wylie Anti-Money Laundering Act of 1992 (the Annunzio-Wylie Act), amended the BSA...

  3. 77 FR 8148 - Anti-Money Laundering Program and Suspicious Activity Report Filing Requirements for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... 1506-AB02 Anti-Money Laundering Program and Suspicious Activity Report Filing Requirements for... finance companies for the purpose of requiring them to establish anti-money laundering programs and report... Secretary is authorized to impose anti-money laundering (``AML'') program requirements on financial...

  4. Automatic detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a shopping mall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Burghouts, G.J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Huis, J.R. van; Dijk, J.; Rest, J.H.C. van

    2014-01-01

    Proactive detection of incidents is required to decrease the cost of security incidents. This paper focusses on the automatic early detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a crowded shopping mall. Our method consists of several steps: pedestrian tracking, feature

  5. Clinical experiences with photoacoustic breast imaging: the appearance of suspicious lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, M.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes photoacoustic (PA) imaging of suspicious breast lesions. In PA imaging, the tissue of interest is illuminated by short pulses of laser light, usually in the near infrared (NIR) regime. Upon absorption by primarily the tumor vasculature, the light causes a small temperature

  6. 31 CFR 103.19 - Reports by brokers or dealers in securities of suspicious transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports by brokers or dealers in... Reports Required To Be Made § 103.19 Reports by brokers or dealers in securities of suspicious transactions. (a) General. (1) Every broker or dealer in securities within the United States (for purposes of...

  7. 31 CFR 103.17 - Reports by futures commission merchants and introducing brokers in commodities of suspicious...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... merchants and introducing brokers in commodities of suspicious transactions. 103.17 Section 103.17 Money and... merchants and introducing brokers in commodities of suspicious transactions. (a) General—(1) Every futures commission merchant (“FCM”) and introducing broker in commodities (“IB-C”) within the United States shall...

  8. Deploying Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an intermediate or advanced developer deploying your Node.js applications, then this book is for you. If you have already built a Node application or module and want to take your knowledge to the next level, this book will help you find your way.

  9. Strain elastography of abnormal axillary nodes in breast cancer patients does not improve diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional ultrasound alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Mi; Fornage, Bruno D; Benveniste, Ana Paula; Fox, Patricia S; Bassett, Roland L; Yang, Wei Tse

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of strain elastography (SE) alone and in combination with gray-scale ultrasound in the diagnosis of benign versus metastatic disease for abnormal axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. Patients with breast cancer and axillary lymph nodes suspicious for metastatic disease on conventional ultrasound who underwent SE of the suspicious node before ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) were included in this study. On conventional ultrasound, the long- and short-axis diameters, long-axis-to-short-axis ratio, cortical echogenicity, thickness, and evenness were documented. The nodal vascularity was assessed on power Doppler imaging. Elastograms were evaluated for the percentage of black (hard) areas in the lymph node, and the SE-ultrasound size ratio was calculated. Two readers assessed the images independently and then in consensus in cases of disagreement. ROC AUCs were calculated for conventional ultrasound, SE, and both methods combined. Interreader reliability was assessed using kappa statistics. A total of 101 patients with 104 nodes were examined; 35 nodes were benign, and 69 had metastases. SE alone showed a significantly lower AUC (62%) than did conventional ultrasound (92%) (pultrasound and the AUC of the combination of conventional ultrasound and SE (93%) (p=0.16). Interreader reliability was moderate for all variables (κ≥0.60) except the SE-ultrasound size ratio (κ=0.35). Added SE does not improve the diagnostic ability of conventional ultrasound when evaluating abnormal axillary lymph nodes.

  10. Intelligent Mission Controller Node

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, David

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...

  11. Lymph node culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  12. Suspicious Behavior Detection System for an Open Space Parking Based on Recognition of Human Elemental Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Teppei; Kimura, Kouji; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    Studies for video surveillance applications for preventing various crimes such as stealing and violence have become a hot topic. This paper proposes a new video surveillance system that can detect suspicious behaviors such as a car break-in and vandalization in an open space parking, and that is based on image processing. The proposed system has the following features: it 1)deals time series data flow, 2)recognizes “human elemental actions” using statistic features, and 3)detects suspicious behavior using Subspace method and AdaBoost. We conducted the experiments to test the performance of the proposed system using open space parking scenes. As a result, we obtained about 10.0% for false positive rate, and about 4.6% for false negative rate.

  13. Suspicious amorphous microcalcifications detected on full-field digital mammography: correlation with histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Christina Camargo de Siqueira Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate suspicious amorphous calcifications diagnosed on full-field digital mammography (FFDM and establish correlations with histopathology findings. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 78 suspicious amorphous calcifications (all classified as BI-RADS® 4 detected on FFDM. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB was performed. The histopathological classification of VABB core samples was as follows: pB2 (benign; pB3 (uncertain malignant potential; pB4 (suspicion of malignancy; and pB5 (malignant. Treatment was recommended for pB5 lesions. To rule out malignancy, surgical excision was recommended for pB3 and pB4 lesions. Patients not submitted to surgery were followed for at least 6 months. Results: Among the 78 amorphous calcifications evaluated, the histopathological analysis indicated that 8 (10.3% were malignant/suspicious (6 classified as pB5 and 2 classified as pB4 and 36 (46.2% were benign (classified as pB2. The remaining 34 lesions (43.6% were classified as pB3: 33.3% were precursor lesions (atypical ductal hyperplasia, lobular neoplasia, or flat epithelial atypia and 10.3% were high-risk lesions. For the pB3 lesions, the underestimation rate was zero. Conclusion: The diagnosis of precursor lesions (excluding atypical ductal hyperplasia, which can be pB4 depending on the severity and extent of the lesion should not necessarily be considered indicative of underestimation of malignancy. Suspicious amorphous calcifications correlated more often with precursor lesions than with malignant lesions, at a ratio of 3:1.

  14. Flow detection via sparse frame analysis for suspicious event recognition in infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Henrique C.; Batista, Marcos A.; Barcelos, Celia A. Z.; Maldague, Xavier P. V.

    2013-05-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that intelligent systems are very bene¯cial for society and that the further development of such systems is necessary to continue to improve society's quality of life. One area that has drawn the attention of recent research is the development of automatic surveillance systems. In our work we outline a system capable of monitoring an uncontrolled area (an outside parking lot) using infrared imagery and recognizing suspicious events in this area. The ¯rst step is to identify moving objects and segment them from the scene's background. Our approach is based on a dynamic background-subtraction technique which robustly adapts detection to illumination changes. It is analyzed only regions where movement is occurring, ignoring in°uence of pixels from regions where there is no movement, to segment moving objects. Regions where movement is occurring are identi¯ed using °ow detection via sparse frame analysis. During the tracking process the objects are classi¯ed into two categories: Persons and Vehicles, based on features such as size and velocity. The last step is to recognize suspicious events that may occur in the scene. Since the objects are correctly segmented and classi¯ed it is possible to identify those events using features such as velocity and time spent motionless in one spot. In this paper we recognize the suspicious event suspicion of object(s) theft from inside a parked vehicle at spot X by a person" and results show that the use of °ow detection increases the recognition of this suspicious event from 78:57% to 92:85%.

  15. Suspiciousness perception in dynamic scenes: a comparison of CCTV operators and novices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Jayne Howard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Perception of scenes has typically been investigated by using static or simplified visual displays. How attention is used to perceive and evaluate dynamic, realistic scenes is more poorly understood, in part due to the problem of comparing eye fixations to moving stimuli across observers. When the task and stimulus is common across observers, consistent fixation location can indicate that that region has high goal-based relevance. Here we investigated these issues when an observer has a specific, and naturalistic, task: closed-circuit television (CCTV monitoring. We concurrently recorded eye movements and ratings of perceived suspiciousness as different observers watched the same set of clips from real CCTV footage. Trained CCTV operators showed a greater consistency in fixation location and greater consistency in suspiciousness judgements than untrained observers. Training appears to increase between-operators consistency by learning 'knowing what to look for' in these scenes. We used a novel ‘Dynamic Area of Focus (DAF’ analysis to show that in CCTV monitoring there is a temporal relationship between eye movements and subsequent manual responses, as we have previously found for a sports video watching task. For trained CCTV operators and for untrained observers, manual responses were most highly related to between-observer eye position spread when a temporal lag was introduced between the fixation and response data. Shortly after between-observer eye positions became most similar, observers tended to push the joystick to indicate perceived suspiciousness. Conversely, shortly after between-observer eye positions became dissimilar, observers tended to rate suspiciousness as low. These data provide further support for this DAF method as an important tool for examining goal-directed fixation behaviour when the stimulus is a real moving image.

  16. Automatic detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a shopping mall

    OpenAIRE

    Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Burghouts, G.J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Huis, J.R. van; Dijk, J.; Rest, J.H.C. van

    2014-01-01

    Proactive detection of incidents is required to decrease the cost of security incidents. This paper focusses on the automatic early detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a crowded shopping mall. Our method consists of several steps: pedestrian tracking, feature computation and pickpocket recognition. This is challenging because the environment is crowded, people move freely through areas which cannot be covered by a single camera, because the actual snat...

  17. Utilizing Social Media to Further the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Initiative NYPD New York Police Department OSINT Open Source Intelligence P2P Peer to Patent SAR Suspicious Activity Report SMS Short Message (or...Media as an Open-Source Intelligence Tool Several government documents outline the use of social media as an Open Source intelligence tool ( OSINT ...social media to be an OSINT tool that federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies should use to develop timely, relevant, and actionable

  18. Surgical resection of highly suspicious pulmonary nodules without a tissue diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Eun-Young; Lee, Kyung-Won; Jheon, Sanghoon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Yoon, Ho-II

    2011-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of surgical resection of lung nodule without tissue diagnosis is controversial. We evaluated direct surgical resection of highly suspicious pulmonary nodules and the clinical and radiological predictors of malignancy. Retrospective analyses were performed on 113 patients who underwent surgical resection without prior tissue diagnosis for highly suspicious pulmonary nodules. Clinical and radiological characteristics were compared between histologically proven benign and malignant nodules after resection. Total costs, length of hospitalization and waiting time to surgery were compared with those of patients who had tissue diagnosis prior to surgery. Among 280 patients with pulmonary nodules suspicious for lung cancer, 113 (40.4%) underwent operation without prior tissue diagnosis. Lung nodules were diagnosed as malignant in 96 (85%) of the 113 patients. Except for forced expiratory volume in 1 s, clinical characteristics were not significantly different according to the pathologic results. Forty-five (90%) of 50 patients with ground-glass opacity nodules had a malignancy. Mixed ground-glass opacity, bubble lucency, irregular margin and larger size correlated with malignancy in ground-glass opacity nodules (P<0.05). Fifty-one (81%) of 67 patients with solid nodules had a malignancy. Spiculation, pre-contrast attenuation and contrast enhancement significantly correlated with malignancy in solid nodules (P<0.05). Surgical resection without tissue diagnosis significantly decreased total costs, hospital stay and waiting time (P<0.05). Direct surgical resection of highly suspicious pulmonary nodules can be a valid procedure. However, careful patient selection and further investigations are required to justify direct surgical resection. (author)

  19. Role of percent tissue altered on ectasia after LASIK in eyes with suspicious topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Smadja, David; Wilson, Steven E; Krueger, Ronald R; Monteiro, Mario L R; Randleman, J Bradley

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the association of the percent tissue altered (PTA) with the occurrence of ectasia after LASIK in eyes with suspicious preoperative corneal topography. This retrospective comparative case-control study compared associations of reported ectasia risk factors in 129 eyes, including 57 eyes with suspicious preoperative Placido-based corneal topography that developed ectasia after LASIK (suspect ectasia group), 32 eyes with suspicious topography that remained stable for at least 3 years after LASIK (suspect control group), and 30 eyes that developed ectasia with bilateral normal topography (normal topography ectasia group). Groups were subdivided based on topographic asymmetry into high- or low-suspect groups. The PTA, preoperative central corneal thickness (CCT), residual stromal bed (RSB), and age (years) were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Average PTA values for normal topography ectasia (45), low-suspect ectasia (39), high-suspect ectasia (36), low-suspect control (32), and high-suspect control (29) were significantly different from one another in all comparisons (P topography ectasia groups, and CCT was not significantly different between any groups. Stepwise logistic regression revealed the PTA as the most significant independent variable (P topography. Less tissue alteration, or a lower PTA value, was necessary to induce ectasia in eyes with more remarkable signs of topographic abnormality, and PTA provided better discriminative capabilities than RSB for all study populations. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Separating Facts from Fiction: Linguistic Models to Classify Suspicious and Trusted News Posts on Twitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Svitlana; Shaffer, Kyle J.; Jang, Jin Yea; Hodas, Nathan O.

    2017-07-30

    Pew research polls report 62 percent of U.S. adults get news on social media (Gottfried and Shearer, 2016). In a December poll, 64 percent of U.S. adults said that “made-up news” has caused a “great deal of confusion” about the facts of current events (Barthel et al., 2016). Fabricated stories spread in social media, ranging from deliberate propaganda to hoaxes and satire, contributes to this confusion in addition to having serious effects on global stability. In this work we build predictive models to classify 130 thousand news tweets as suspicious or verified, and predict four subtypes of suspicious news – satire, hoaxes, clickbait and propaganda. We demonstrate that neural network models trained on tweet content and social network interactions outperform lexical models. Unlike previous work on deception detection, we find that adding syntax and grammar features to our models decreases performance. Incorporating linguistic features, including bias and subjectivity, improves classification results, however social interaction features are most informative for finer-grained separation between our four types of suspicious news posts.

  1. Angiosonography in suspicious breast lesions with non-diagnostic FNAC: comparison with power Doppler US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caumo, F; Carbognin, G; Casarin, A; Pinali, L; Vasori, S; D'Onofrio, M; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of angiosonography in comparison with colour Doppler ultrasound (US) in the discrimination of suspicious breast lesions with nondiagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Pre-operative Power Doppler US and angiosonography were prospectively performed in 20 suspicious breast lesions with non-diagnostic FNAC. A second-generation US contrast agent was utilised with a high-frequency transducer and a contrast-specific algorithm (low acoustic pressure CnTI). The enhancement characteristics of all lesions were analysed using qualitative and quantitative parameters obtained from time-intensity curves with the different imaging modalities. The final diagnosis was confirmed at pathology in all cases. Microvessel density (MVD) was assessed in the surgical specimen using CD34. The correct assessment of biological behaviour was achieved in all cases by angiosonography (sensitivity of 100%; specificity of 91%) and colour Doppler US (45% sensitivity; 78% specificity). MVD correlated with the biological behaviour. Angiosonography is more accurate than colour Doppler US in the correct assessment of biological behaviour of suspicious breast lesions.

  2. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of ovarian masses with suspicious features: Strengths and challen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mansour

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: DWI supported by conventional MRI data can confirm or exclude malignancy in suspicious ovarian masses. The combined analysis of quantitative and qualitative criteria and knowledge of the sequence pitfalls are required.

  3. The value of quantitative shear wave elastography in differentiating the cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jun; Chen, Juan; Xiang, Feixiang; Song, Yue; Khamis, Simai; Lu, Chengfa; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Yanrong; Xie, Mingxing

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography (SWE) in differentiating metastatic cervical lymph nodes from benign nodes in patients with thyroid nodules. One hundred and forty-one cervical lymph nodes from 39 patients with thyroid nodules that were diagnosed as papillary thyroid cancer had been imaged with SWE. The shear elasticity modulus, which indicates the stiffness of the lymph nodes, was measured in terms of maximum shear elasticity modulus (maxSM), minimum shear elasticity modulus (minSM), mean shear elasticity modulus (meanSM), and standard deviation (SD) of the shear elasticity modulus. All the patients underwent thyroid surgery, 50 of the suspicious lymph nodes were resected, and 91 lymph nodes were followed up for 6 months. The maxSM value, minSM value, meanSM value, and SD value of the metastatic lymph nodes were significantly higher than those of the benign nodes. The area under the curve of the maxSM value, minSM value, meanSM value, and SD value were 0.918, 0.606, 0.865, and 0.915, respectively. SWE can differentiate metastasis from benign cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid nodules, and the maxSM, meanSM, and SD may be valuable quantitative indicators for characterizing cervical lymph nodes.

  4. Instant node package module

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Juzer

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical exploration of the lifecycle of creating node modules as well as learning all of the top features that npm has to offer.Intended for readers who want to create their first node.js modules. The programming paradigm of JavaScript is not covered so a foundation in these concepts would be beneficial.

  5. [Elective lymph node dissection in malignant melanoma--status of color Doppler findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, G; Dill-Müller, D; Gross, G; Kautz, G; Schüder, G; Zaun, H; Feifel, G

    1996-01-01

    Since there is still a controversial discussion about the ELND in melanoma patients, the purpose of this prospective study was to optimize the indication concerning ELND by ultrasound examinations. 144 patients with primary melanomas were checked every 3 months after excision. Echomorphologic pattern and intranodal vascularisation in the color-flow Doppler modus provide essential information for differential diagnosis. We found 47 patients (32.6%) with suspicious ultrasound lesions. 50% of these patients had no pathological clinical findings, the histological findings of excised lymph nodes were positive in all cases. It must be emphasized, however, that the group with lymph node metastases included 12 patients with low-risk-melanomas (2 x Tis, 10 x T1 historical control group (141 patients), where ELND was performed routinely in high-risk-patients ( > T2), the incidence of ELND in our hospital decreased more than 50%; at the same time the percentage of detected lymph node metastases increased (twice).

  6. Role of 3D power Doppler ultrasound in the further characterization of suspicious breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupeli, Ali; Kul, Sibel; Eyuboglu, Ilker; Oguz, Sukru; Mungan, Sevdegul

    2016-01-01

    To investigate effectiveness of vascular indices obtained with 3D power Doppler ultrasound in the further characterization of breast masses and prevention of unnecessary biopsies. Between April 2013 and March 2014, 109 patients (age range, 17-85 years; mean age, 47 years) with 117 radiologically or clinically suspicious breast masses were prospectively evaluated with 3DPDUS before biopsy. Mass volume (MV), vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) were calculated using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL) software and they were correlated with the final diagnosis. Cutoff values of vascular indices were determinated and diagnostic efficacy was calculated with receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. All vascular indices, age of patients and tumor volume were significantly lower in benign masses compared with malignant ones (p<0.001). AUCs were 0.872, 0.867 and 0.789 for VI, VFI and FI, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of VI (for cutoff 1.1; 83% sensitivity, 82% specificity and 82% accuracy) and VFI (for cutoff 0.4; 80% sensitivity, 83% specificity and 80% accuracy) were significantly higher than FI (for cutoff 33,9; 73% sensitivity, 69% specificity and 71% accuracy). It was found that with the use of vascular indices of 3DPDUS in the further characterization of suspicious breast masses between 24% to 37% of unnecessary biopsies could have been avoided. The vascular indices obtained with 3DPDUS seem reliable in the further characterization of suspicious breast masses and might be used to decrease unnecessary biopsies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phishing suspiciousness in older and younger adults: The role of executive functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon E Gavett

    Full Text Available Phishing is the spoofing of Internet websites or emails aimed at tricking users into entering sensitive information, with such goals as financial or identity theft. The current study sought to determine whether age is associated with increased susceptibility to phishing and whether tests of executive functioning can predict phishing susceptibility. A total of 193 cognitively intact participants, 91 younger adults and 102 older adults, were primarily recruited through a Psychology department undergraduate subject pool and a gerontology research registry, respectively. The Executive Functions Module from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery and the Iowa Gambling Task were the primary cognitive predictors of reported phishing suspiciousness. Other predictors included age group (older vs. younger, sex, education, race, ethnicity, prior knowledge of phishing, prior susceptibility to phishing, and whether or not browsing behaviors were reportedly different in the laboratory setting versus at home. A logistic regression, which accounted for a 22.7% reduction in error variance compared to the null model and predicted phishing suspiciousness with 73.1% (95% CI [66.0, 80.3] accuracy, revealed three statistically significant predictors: the main effect of education (b = 0.58, SE = 0.27 and the interactions of age group with prior awareness of phishing (b = 2.31, SE = 1.12 and performance on the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Mazes test (b = 0.16, SE = 0.07. Whether or not older adults reported being suspicious of the phishing attacks used in this study was partially explained by educational history and prior phishing knowledge. This suggests that simple educational interventions may be effective in reducing phishing vulnerability. Although one test of executive functioning was found useful for identifying those at risk of phishing susceptibility, four tests were not found to be useful; these results speak to the need for more ecologically valid

  8. Pre-operative and intra-operative detection of axillary lymph node metastases in 108 patients with invasive lobular breast cancer undergoing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jerica; Besic, Nikola; Dzodic, Radan; Gazic, Barbara; Vogrin, Andrej

    2018-02-05

    Despite the recent changes in the treatment of the axilla in selected breast cancer patient, positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) in patients undergoing mastectomy still necessitates axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). In invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), pre-operative detection of the lymph node metastasis may be demanding due to its unique morphology. The aim of this study was to examine the benefit of preoperative axillary ultrasound (AUS), ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB), and intra-operative imprint cytology (IIC), in order to avoid two-stage axillary surgery in patients with ILC undergoing mastectomy. The object of this study were 102 patients (median age 52, range 34-73 years) with clinically non-suspicious axilla in whom 108 mastectomies were performed after a pre-operative AUS investigation. Whenever a metastasis was detected in a sentinel lymph node, ALND was done. Reports of the pre-operative AUS investigation, US-FNAB, and IIC were compared with definitive histopathological reports of surgical specimens. In 46 cases lymph node metastases were diagnosed. AUS suspicious lymph nodes were found in 29/108 cases and histopathology confirmed metastases in 22/30 cases. US-FNAB was performed in 29 cases with AUS suspicious lymph nodes. Cytology proved metastases in 11/29 cases. Histopathology confirmed metastases in 10/11 cases with only isolated tumor cells found in one case. IIC investigation was performed in 63 cases and in 10/27 cases metastases were confirmed by histopathology. Pre-operative AUS, US-FNAB, and/or IIC investigation enabled ALND during a single surgical procedure in 20/46 patients with metastases in lymph nodes. Pre-operative AUS, US-FNAB, and/or IIC are/is beneficial in patients with ILC planned for mastectomy in order to decrease the number of two stage axillary procedures.

  9. Upright stereotactic vacuum-assisted needle biopsy of suspicious breast microcalcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, L. S. J.; Kei, P. L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Stereotactic core needle biopsy is a useful technique for evaluation of suspicious breast microcalcifications. Thf development of the 11-G vacuum-assisted biopsy system offers another method of minimally invasive biopsy carried out on a conventional mammography unit. We evaluate its usefulness, efficacy and safety in Asian women.. Vacuum-assisted biopsy was carried out through the lateral approach using an add-on stereotactic device attached to a mammography unit. One hundred and five lesions were sampled in 97 patients. Excisional biopsy was subsequently Carried out for diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia or carcinoma in high-risk patients. Patients with benign diagnosis underwent mammographic follow up. The technical success rate was 97%. An average of 13.5 tissue cores were retrieved for each lesion. The histopathological result obtained from mammotome was benign in 84.8% and malignant in 15.2%. The benign microcalcifications were predominantly fibrocystic change (n = 42)| whereas the malignant microcalcifications included ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 15) and invasive carcinoma (n = 1). Twenty-two patients underwent subsequent open surgical biopsy but no underestimation of disease was seen. Only two patients had vasovagal syncope and three others felt unwell during the biopsy. Nine patients had small haema-1 tomas, which resolved spontaneously. Vacuum-assisted biopsy carried out on an upright stereotactic mammography] unit is a safe and effective method for evaluation of suspicious microcalcifications.

  10. Informing cancer patient based on his type of personality: the suspicious (paranoid) patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallergis, G

    2013-01-01

    Imparting bad news had always been an unpleasant task for the physician, as shown from ancient years to our days. In the healthcare sector and as far as the cancer patient is concerned, the imparting of bad news is performed by the patient's doctor within a therapeutic relationship of course. The fundamental question is how a therapist could tailor the information to any patient and if "Is it possible to determine who should be told what, when and how ?". The aim of this paper was to describe the suspicious character or type of personality thoroughly so that any physician can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to the patient's needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. The degree of informing of the suspicious personality in the range "minimal - small - medium - large - very large" is : the degree of denial varies between large and very large. The degree of informing varies between medium and small and sometimes minimal. Informing the Family: The hardest family to deal with. Pay attention to litigious mania. Avoid confrontation or be drawn into agreeing with the family views.

  11. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  12. One node driving synchronisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes of behaviour in complex networks can be triggered by a single node. This work describes the dynamical fundamentals of how the behaviour of one node affects the whole network formed by coupled phase-oscillators with heterogeneous coupling strengths. The synchronisation of phase-oscillators is independent of the distribution of the natural frequencies, weakly depends on the network size, but highly depends on only one key oscillator whose ratio between its natural frequency in a rotating frame and its coupling strength is maximum. This result is based on a novel method to calculate the critical coupling strength with which the phase-oscillators emerge into frequency synchronisation. In addition, we put forward an analytical method to approximately calculate the phase-angles for the synchronous oscillators.

  13. Node web development

    CERN Document Server

    Herron, David

    2013-01-01

    Presented in a simple, step-by-step format, this book is an introduction to web development with Node.This book is for anybody looking for an alternative to the ""P"" languages (Perl, PHP, Python), or anyone looking for a new paradigm of server-side application development.The reader should have at least a rudimentary understanding of JavaScript and web application development.

  14. Thyroid nodules with highly suspicious ultrasonographic features, but with benign cytology on two occasions: is malignancy still possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Calsolari, Maria Regina

    2016-01-01

    There is no information about the frequency of malignancy specifically in the case of thyroid nodules with highly suspicious sonographic features, but with two fine needle aspiration (FNA) showing benign cytology. This was the objective of the study. Subjects and methods: We report the results of 105 patients with thyroid nodules considered 'highly suspicious' according to the ultrasonographic classification of American Thyroid Association, in whom FNA revealed benign cytology on two occasions (interval of 6 months). Results: Thyroidectomy was performed in 11 cases due to desire of the patient or significant growth of the nodule. In these patients, cytology continued to be benign in 9, was non-diagnostic in 1, and suspicious in 1. Histology revealed papillary carcinoma in only one nodule. In patients in whom a third FNA was obtained for this study (n = 94), cytology continued to be benign in 86, became non-diagnostic in 5, indeterminate in 2, and suspicious in 1. The last 8 patients (with non-benign cytology) were submitted to thyroidectomy and histology revealed malignancy in only one nodule. Conclusion: The rate of malignancy found here for nodules with highly suspicious sonographic features, even after two FNA showing benign cytology, was 2%. We believe that in these cases, the continuation of follow-up consisting of ultrasound at intervals of 2 years may still be adequate. (author)

  15. Thyroid nodules with highly suspicious ultrasonographic features, but with benign cytology on two occasions: is malignancy still possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Calsolari, Maria Regina, E-mail: pedrowsrosario@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    There is no information about the frequency of malignancy specifically in the case of thyroid nodules with highly suspicious sonographic features, but with two fine needle aspiration (FNA) showing benign cytology. This was the objective of the study. Subjects and methods: We report the results of 105 patients with thyroid nodules considered 'highly suspicious' according to the ultrasonographic classification of American Thyroid Association, in whom FNA revealed benign cytology on two occasions (interval of 6 months). Results: Thyroidectomy was performed in 11 cases due to desire of the patient or significant growth of the nodule. In these patients, cytology continued to be benign in 9, was non-diagnostic in 1, and suspicious in 1. Histology revealed papillary carcinoma in only one nodule. In patients in whom a third FNA was obtained for this study (n = 94), cytology continued to be benign in 86, became non-diagnostic in 5, indeterminate in 2, and suspicious in 1. The last 8 patients (with non-benign cytology) were submitted to thyroidectomy and histology revealed malignancy in only one nodule. Conclusion: The rate of malignancy found here for nodules with highly suspicious sonographic features, even after two FNA showing benign cytology, was 2%. We believe that in these cases, the continuation of follow-up consisting of ultrasound at intervals of 2 years may still be adequate. (author)

  16. Status of lymph node staging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieweg, O. E.; Estourgie, S. H.; Deurloo, E. E.; Rutgers, E. J. Th; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2002-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy has the potential to provide more accurate staging information than axillary node dissection. Given the considerable morbidity of axillary node dissection this less invasive approach is attractive. However, there are a number of issues to be resolved before the best technique of

  17. Visualization of suspicious lesions in breast MRI based on intelligent neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twellmann, Thorsten; Lange, Oliver; Nattkemper, Tim Wilhelm; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2006-05-01

    Intelligent medical systems based on supervised and unsupervised artificial neural networks are applied to the automatic visualization and classification of suspicious lesions in breast MRI. These systems represent an important component of future sophisticated computer-aided diagnosis systems and enable the extraction of spatial and temporal features of dynamic MRI data stemming from patients with confirmed lesion diagnosis. By taking into account the heterogenity of the cancerous tissue, these techniques reveal the malignant, benign and normal kinetic signals and and provide a regional subclassification of pathological breast tissue. Intelligent medical systems are expected to have substantial implications in healthcare politics by contributing to the diagnosis of indeterminate breast lesions by non-invasive imaging.

  18. Student Perceptions of Auditor Responses to Evidence of Suspicious Activities: An Experimental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Murphy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed student perceptions of auditor responses to evidence that a client failed to respond appropriately to suspicious activities that could indicate money laundering. Subjects were presented with a series of randomized cases in which partner type (new vs. experienced, firm type (regional vs. international and audit fee materiality (not material, material to the local office only, material to the firm were manipulated asked to indicate their perceptions of the likelihood that an audit partner would discuss such evidence with the client, and the likelihood that the issue would be disclosed by the auditor. Both partner type and audit fee materiality was found to have significant effects on perceived likelihoods.

  19. Computerized classification of suspicious regions in chest radiographs using subregion Hotelling observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydush, Alan H.; Catarious, David M. Jr.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Abbey, Craig K.; Floyd, Carey E. Jr.

    2001-01-01

    We propose to investigate the use of subregion Hotelling observers (SRHOs) in conjunction with perceptrons for the computerized classification of suspicious regions in chest radiographs for being nodules requiring follow up. Previously, 239 regions of interest (ROIs), each containing a suspicious lesion with proven classification, were collected. We chose to investigate the use of SRHOs as part of a multilayer classifier to determine the presence of a nodule. Each SRHO incorporates information about signal, background, and noise correlation for classification. For this study, 225 separate Hotelling observers were set up in a grid across each ROI. Each separate observer discriminates an 8 by 8 pixel area. A round robin sampling scheme was used to generate the 225 features, where each feature is the output of the individual observers. These features were then rank ordered by the magnitude of the weights of a perceptron. Once rank ordered, subsets of increasing number of features were selected to be used in another perceptron. This perceptron was trained to minimize mean squared error and the output was a continuous variable representing the likelihood of the region being a nodule. Performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and reported as the area under the curve (A Z ). The classifier was optimized by adding additional features until the A Z declined. The optimized subset of observers then were combined using a third perceptron. A subset of 80 features was selected which gave an A Z of 0.972. Additionally, at 98.6% sensitivity, the classifier had a specificity of 71.3% and increased the positive predictive value from 60.7% to 84.1%. Preliminary results suggest that using SRHOs in combination with perceptrons can provide a successful classification scheme for pulmonary nodules. This approach could be incorporated into a larger computer aided detection system for decreasing false positives

  20. Introducing a Model for Suspicious Behaviors Detection in Electronic Banking by Using Decision Tree Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohulla Kosari Langari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Change the world through information technology and Internet development, has created competitive knowledge in the field of electronic commerce, lead to increasing in competitive potential among organizations. In this condition The increasing rate of commercial deals developing guaranteed with speed and light quality is due to provide dynamic system of electronic banking until by using modern technology to facilitate electronic business process. Internet banking is enumerate as a potential opportunity the fundamental pillars and determinates of e-banking that in cyber space has been faced with various obstacles and threats. One of this challenge is complete uncertainty in security guarantee of financial transactions also exist of suspicious and unusual behavior with mail fraud for financial abuse. Now various systems because of intelligence mechanical methods and data mining technique has been designed for fraud detection in users’ behaviors and applied in various industrial such as insurance, medicine and banking. Main of article has been recognizing of unusual users behaviors in e-banking system. Therefore, detection behavior user and categories of emerged patterns to paper the conditions for predicting unauthorized penetration and detection of suspicious behavior. Since detection behavior user in internet system has been uncertainty and records of transactions can be useful to understand these movement and therefore among machine method, decision tree technique is considered common tool for classification and prediction, therefore in this research at first has determinate banking effective variable and weight of everything in internet behaviors production and in continuation combining of various behaviors manner draw out such as the model of inductive rules to provide ability recognizing of different behaviors. At least trend of four algorithm Chaid, ex_Chaid, C4.5, C5.0 has compared and evaluated for classification and detection of exist

  1. Comet 29P/SW1 outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep M.

    2008-10-01

    The present outburst experienced by this Centaur (#IAUC 8978) is the brightest detected since September 2004 [for more details see Trigo-Rodriguez et al. (2008) A&A485, pp. 599-606]. In the previously reported work the outburst frequency was established in 7.3 outbursts/year, typically reaching a +13 maximum magnitude or less.

  2. Computed tomography is not justified in every pediatric blunt trauma patient with a suspicious mechanism of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Yehuda; Zoarets, Itai; Stepansky, Albert; Kozer, Eran; Shapira, Zahar; Klin, Baruch; Halevy, Ariel; Jeroukhimov, Igor

    2014-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become an important tool for the diagnosis of intra-abdominal and chest injuries in patients with blunt trauma. The role of CT in conscious asymptomatic patients with a suspicious mechanism of injury remains controversial. This controversy intensifies in the management of pediatric blunt trauma patients, who are much more susceptible to radiation exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of abdominal and chest CT imaging in asymptomatic pediatric patients with a suspicious mechanism of injury. Forty-two pediatric patients up to 15 years old were prospectively enrolled. All patients presented with a suspicious mechanism of blunt trauma and multisystem injury. They were neurologically intact and had no signs of injury to the abdomen or chest. Patients underwent CT imaging of the chest and abdomen as part of the initial evaluation. Thirty-one patients (74%) had a normal CT scan. Two patients of 11 with an abnormal CT scan required a change in management and were referred for observation in the Intensive Care Unit. None of the patients required surgical intervention. The routine use of CT in asymptomatic pediatric patients with a suspicious mechanism of blunt trauma injury is not justified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrical impedance scanning - application of this new technique for lymph node evaluation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Malich, Ansgar; Freesmeyer, Martin; Boettcher, Joachim; Vogt, Susanna; Kaiser, Werner A. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Kentouche, Karim; Gruhn, Bernd; Zintl, Felix [Department of Pediatrics, University of Jena, Jena (Germany); Schneider, Gerlind [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Jena, Jena (Germany); Anderson, Roselle [Siemens-Elema, Elema (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Precise assessment of lymph nodes is crucial to the choice of therapy and prediction of outcome in cases of malignancy. Electrical impedance scanning (EIS) is being experimentally investigated for potential use as a diagnostic tool for differentiation of malignant lesions. Malignancies show different electrical properties with changes in conductivity and capacitance that can be analysed by EIS. Using a TransScan TS-2000 (TransScan Medical, Migdal Ha'Emek, Israel, distributed by Siemens-Elema AB, Solna, Sweden), EIS has been used in various studies for the identification of breast cancer as well as for characterisation of superficial lesions. To evaluate the reliability of EIS for classifying lymph nodes in a pediatric population with sonographically suspicious lesions and to prove its accuracy. The study population consisted of 77 children (42 boys, 35 girls) aged 1.1-17.1 years. All EIS results were compared to either histopathological findings or long-term follow-up investigations. Sensitivity for malignancies using EIS was 75% and specificity was 87%. The negative predictive value was 93% and the positive predictive value was 60%. This study suggests the potential usefulness of EIS as an additional imaging modality for the differentiation of lymph-node diseases in children. The histopatholgical spectrum of malignant lymph node transformation in children compared to studies in adults, and the characteristic meltdown in inflammatory or granulomatous transformed nodes, pose challenges to differentiation based on sonographic evaluation, and also to EIS classification. (orig.)

  4. Toxicity and outcome of pelvic IMRT for node-positive prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.C.; Luetjens, J.; Eckert, F.; Bamberg, M.; Alber, M.; Schilling, D.; Belka, C.; Gaswindt, U.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study reports on the treatment techniques, toxicity, and outcome of pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for lymph node-positive prostate cancer (LNPPC, T1-4, c/pN1 cM0). Patients and methods: Pelvic IMRT to 45-50.4 Gy was applied in 39 cases either after previous surgery of involved lymph nodes (n = 18) or with a radiation boost to suspicious nodes (n = 21) with doses of 60-70 Gy, usually combined with androgen deprivation (n = 37). The prostate and seminal vesicles received 70-74 Gy. In cases of previous prostatectomy, prostatic fossa and remnants of seminal vesicles were given 66-70 Gy. Treatment-related acute and late toxicity was graded according to the RTOG criteria. Results: Acute radiation-related toxicity higher than grade 2 occurred in 2 patients (with the need for urinary catheter/subileus related to adhesions after surgery). Late toxicity was mild (grade 1-2) after a median follow-up of 70 months. Over 50% of the patients reported no late morbidity (grade 0). PSA control and cancer-specific survival reached 67% and 97% at over 5 years. Conclusion: Pelvic IMRT after the removal of affected nodes or with a radiation boost to clinically positive nodes led to an acceptable late toxicity (no grade 3/4 events), thus justifying further evaluation of this approach in a larger cohort. (orig.)

  5. Sentinel nodes outside lymph node basins in patients with melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, GK; de Vries, JDH; van Poll, D; Jansen, L; Nieweg, OE; Kroon, BBR; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    Background: Lymphoscintigraphy occasionally reveals hot spots outside lymph node basins in patients with melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate such abnormally located hot spots. Methods: Sentinel node biopsy was studied prospectively in 379 patients with clinically localized cutaneous

  6. NRC/UBC Node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis-Perry, B. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Yogendran, Y. [NRC Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' In the search for cleaner, more sustainable energy sources, many of the most promising breakthroughs have been in hydrogen technology. However, this promise will remain unfulfilled without public interest and enthusiasm, and without the infrastructure to support the technology. In order to get there, we have to test, perfect, and demonstrate technology that is safe and affordable, and we must do so in practical, familiar settings. Ideally, such settings should be easily accessible to the engineers, planners, and architects of tomorrow while providing a showcase for hydrogen technology that will attract the general public. This place is the NRC/UBC Hydrogen Node. The UBC campus in Point Grey is home to leading edge, internationally recognized researchers in a range of disciplines, both within the University and at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. On average, 40,000 students, faculty, and staff use the campus every day; UBC graduates go on to leadership positions in communities around the globe. Its spectacular setting makes UBC a popular destination for thousands of visitors from around the world. In 2006 UBC will host the World Urban Forum, and in 2010 it will be one of the sites for the Vancouver-Whistler Olympic Games. UBC and its South Campus neighbourhoods are developing as a model sustainable community, offering an excellent opportunity to develop and showcase hydrogen infrastructure and technology in a real-life, attractive setting that will be seen by thousands of people around the world. UBC's facilities, location, and Trek 2010 commitment to excellence in learning, research, and sustainability make it an ideal location for such a project. The H2 Village at UBC will be an integrated hydrogen demonstration project, linked to the hydrogen highway. This project is bringing together leading companies, researchers, and government agencies committed to making the refinement and early adoption of safe hydrogen technology a

  7. NRC/UBC Node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis-Perry, B.; Yogendran, Y.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' In the search for cleaner, more sustainable energy sources, many of the most promising breakthroughs have been in hydrogen technology. However, this promise will remain unfulfilled without public interest and enthusiasm, and without the infrastructure to support the technology. In order to get there, we have to test, perfect, and demonstrate technology that is safe and affordable, and we must do so in practical, familiar settings. Ideally, such settings should be easily accessible to the engineers, planners, and architects of tomorrow while providing a showcase for hydrogen technology that will attract the general public. This place is the NRC/UBC Hydrogen Node. The UBC campus in Point Grey is home to leading edge, internationally recognized researchers in a range of disciplines, both within the University and at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. On average, 40,000 students, faculty, and staff use the campus every day; UBC graduates go on to leadership positions in communities around the globe. Its spectacular setting makes UBC a popular destination for thousands of visitors from around the world. In 2006 UBC will host the World Urban Forum, and in 2010 it will be one of the sites for the Vancouver-Whistler Olympic Games. UBC and its South Campus neighbourhoods are developing as a model sustainable community, offering an excellent opportunity to develop and showcase hydrogen infrastructure and technology in a real-life, attractive setting that will be seen by thousands of people around the world. UBC's facilities, location, and Trek 2010 commitment to excellence in learning, research, and sustainability make it an ideal location for such a project. The H2 Village at UBC will be an integrated hydrogen demonstration project, linked to the hydrogen highway. This project is bringing together leading companies, researchers, and government agencies committed to making the refinement and early adoption of safe hydrogen technology a reality

  8. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique. Software-defined networking (SDN), on the other hand, is expected to be the ideal future for the convergent network since it can provide a controllable, dynamic, and cost-effective network. However, SDN has an original structural vulnerability behind a lot of advantages, which is the centralized control plane. As the brains of the network, a controller manages the whole network, which is attractive to attackers. In this context, we proposes a novel solution called adaptive suspicious prevention (ASP) mechanism to protect the controller from the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that could incapacitate an SDN. The ASP is integrated with OpenFlow protocol to detect and prevent DoS attacks effectively. Our comprehensive experimental results show that the ASP enhances the resilience of an SDN network against DoS attacks by up to 38%.

  9. 3-T breast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with suspicious microcalcifications on mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, B.L.; Merckel, L.G.; Verkooijen, H.M.; Peters, N.H.G.M.; Mali, W.P.T.M.; Veldhuis, W.B.; Bosch, M.A.A.J. van den [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mann, R.M. [University Medical Center St Radboud, Departement of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Duvivier, K.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Peeters, P.H.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the diagnostic value of 3-Tesla (T) breast MRI in patients presenting with microcalcifications on mammography. Between January 2006 and May 2009, 123 patients with mammographically detected BI-RADS 3-5 microcalcifications underwent 3-T breast MRI before undergoing breast biopsy. All MRIs of the histopathologically confirmed index lesions were reviewed by two breast radiologists. The detection rate of invasive carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was evaluated, as well as the added diagnostic value of MRI over mammography and breast ultrasound. At pathology, 40/123 (33 %) lesions proved malignant; 28 (70 %) DCIS and 12 (30 %) invasive carcinoma. Both observers detected all invasive malignancies at MRI, as well as 79 % (observer 1) and 86 % (observer 2) of in situ lesions. MRI in addition to conventional imaging led to a significant increase in area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve from 0.67 (95 % CI 0.56-0.79) to 0.79 (95 % CI 0.70-0.88, observer 1) and to 0.80 (95 % CI 0.71-0.89, observer 2), respectively. 3-T breast MRI was shown to add significant value to conventional imaging in patients presenting with suspicious microcalcifications on mammography. (orig.)

  10. Automatic detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a shopping mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Burghouts, Gertjan J.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; van Huis, Jasper R.; Dijk, Judith; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.

    2014-10-01

    Proactive detection of incidents is required to decrease the cost of security incidents. This paper focusses on the automatic early detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a crowded shopping mall. Our method consists of several steps: pedestrian tracking, feature computation and pickpocket recognition. This is challenging because the environment is crowded, people move freely through areas which cannot be covered by a single camera, because the actual snatch is a subtle action, and because collaboration is complex social behavior. We carried out an experiment with more than 20 validated pickpocket incidents. We used a top-down approach to translate expert knowledge in features and rules, and a bottom-up approach to learn discriminating patterns with a classifier. The classifier was used to separate the pickpockets from normal passers-by who are shopping in the mall. We performed a cross validation to train and evaluate our system. In this paper, we describe our method, identify the most valuable features, and analyze the results that were obtained in the experiment. We estimate the quality of these features and the performance of automatic detection of (collaborating) pickpockets. The results show that many of the pickpockets can be detected at a low false alarm rate.

  11. Clinical and diagnostic value of preoperative MR mammography and FDG-PET in suspicious breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.; Scheidhauer, K.; Theissen, P.; Scharl, A.; Goering, U.J.; Kugel, H.; Krahe, T.; Pietrzyk, U.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) mammography and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) of the breast were directly compared preoperatively in suspicious breast lesions. Forty-two breast lesions in 40 patients were examined with a three-dimensional dynamic MR imaging series and FDG-PET. The MR and PET examinations were evaluated separately and the results were compared with the histological findings. The sensitivity and specificity of each method were calculated. The diagnostic value of both modalities as single diagnostic tool and in combination was investigated. Nineteen malignant and 23 benign breast lesions were proven histologically. Magnetic resonance mammography and FDG-PET showed a sensitivity of 89 and 63%, respectively. The specificity was 74 and 91%, respectively. The combination of both imaging methods decreased the not-required biopsies from 55 to 17%. Only one false-negative finding - a patient pre-treated with chemotherapy - was observed in both methods. The combination of MR mammography and FDG-PET can help to decrease biopsies of benign breast lesions. Because of their high cost, these modalities should only be used in problematic cases to either rule out or to demonstrate malignancy. The best diagnostic strategy is achieved using MR mammography first. If the diagnosis is still questionable, FDG-PET can be performed. (orig.)

  12. The utility of lymph node mapping sonogram and thyroglobulin surveillance in post thyroidectomy papillary thyroid cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Chowdhury F; Zaman, Jessica A; Simon, Mitchell; Davidov, Tomer; Trooskin, Stanley Z

    2014-12-01

    The American Thyroid Association recommends lymph node mapping (LNM) ultrasonography 6-12 months after thyroidectomy for patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The yield of LNM over thyroglobulin (TG) screening is not well defined. We sought to investigate this relationship. Post thyroidectomy LNM was performed on 163 patients with PTC. LNM was considered positive based on these criteria: Loss of fatty hilum (LOFH), microcalcifications, hypervascularity, architectural distortion, or short axis (>8 mm). Serum TG levels were compared to LNM and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Sixty-nine patients had suspicious LNM (42%) and 17 had PTC on FNA (25%). There were 135 suspicious lymph nodes described with malignant nodes found in 6 of 65 patients (9%) with LOFH, 13 of 18 patients (76%) with microcalcifications, 11 of 12 patients (92%) with hypervascularity, 16 of 28 patients (52%) with architectural distortion, and 4 of 7 patients (52%) with enlarged size on FNA. The positive predictive value of LNM was 0.34, increasing to 0.66 when LOFH was excluded. Among 152 patients with documented TG data, LNM identified cervical nodal metastasis in 4 patients with TG < 0.5 pg/mL (anti-TG antibody negative, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressed). Of the 15 patients with positive anti-TG antibody, 3 with recurrence were found on LNM. LNM can detect recurrent PTC when TG level is undetectable, and LOFH is a low-yield sonographic characteristic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Size of cervical lymph node and metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and floor of mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarungroongruangchai, Weerawut; Charoenpitakchai, Mongkol; Silpeeyodom, Tawatchai; Pruksapong, Chatchai; Burusapat, Chairat

    2014-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue and floor of mouth are the most common head and neck cancers. Regional metastasis of SCC is most likely found at the cervical lymph node. Size and characteristics of pathologically suspicious lymph nodes are related to the aggressiveness of the primary tumor: The objective of this study is to analyze the conrrelation between sizes of cervical node and metastasis in SCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth. Retrospective review was conducted firom the patient's charts between January 2008 and December 2012. Clinical, histopathology and surgical records were reviewed. Cervical lymph nodes ofSCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth were reviewed and divided into four groups depending on their size (1-5 mm, 6-9 mm, 10-30 mm and more than 30 am,). A p-value oral cavity were recorded. Sixteen patients ofSCC of the oral tongue and 15patients of SCC of the floor of mouth underwent neck dissection (641 cervical nodes). Most ofthe patients were diagnosed with stage 3 (41.94%). Extracapsular extension was found in 72.15% of SCC of oral tongue and 73.33 % of SCC ofthe floor of mouth. Size of cervical lymph nodes less than 10 mm was found to be metastasis at 9.27% and 10.82% of SCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth, respectively. Cervical node metastasis can be found in SCC of the oral tongue and floor ofmouth with clinlically negative node andsize of cervical node less than 10 mm. Here in, size of cervical node less than 10 mm was still important due to the chance for metastasis especially high grade tumors, advanced stage cancer and lymphovascular invasion.

  14. Evaluation of a mammographic stereotactic device for localization, fine-needle aspiration cytologic studies, and core biopsy of suspicious lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.J.; Davey, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Mammography-guided interventional breast procedures, such as preoperative localization, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and core biopsy of suspicious lesions, require accurate three-dimensional localization. The authors have evaluated a prototype stereotactic mammography device for localizing abnormalities with both phantom and clinical studies. Twenty-six localizations on a phantom were within 0.5 mm +- 0.93 (standard deviation) from the lesions; accuracy in clinical procedures was within 0.6 mm +- 0.8. Procedures are performed an average of 8 minutes faster with this device. They are prospectively evaluating mammography-guided FNAC and core biopsy of suspicious lesions in 100 patients. Results of FNAC performed without the stereotactic device agreed with results of open surgical biopsy in six of eight patients; results of core biopsy agreed in seven of eight

  15. Error in laboratory report data for platelet count assessment in patients suspicious for dengue: a note from observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a common tropical infection that is still a global health threat. An important laboratory parameter for the management of dengue is platelet count. Platelet count is an useful test for diagnosis and following up on dengue. However, errors in laboratory reports can occur. This study is a retrospective analysis on laboratory report data of complete blood count in cases with suspicious dengue in a medical center within 1 month period during the outbreak season on October, 2015. According to the studied period, there were 184 requests for complete blood count for cases suspected for dengue. From those 184 laboratory report records, errors can be seen in 12 reports (6.5%. This study demonstrates that there are considerable high rate of post-analytical errors in laboratory reports. Interestingly, the platelet count in those erroneous reports can be unreliable and ineffective or problematic when it is used for the management of dengue suspicious patients.

  16. The diagnostic value of thyroglobulin concentration in fine-needle aspiration of the cervical lymph nodes in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosinski, S.; Oszukowska, L.; Makarewicz, J.; Adamczewski, Z.; Lewinski, A.; Pomorski, L.; Sporny, S.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer generally occurs first in the neck. Ultrasound is sensitive in detecting enlarged cervical lymph nodes but is not specific enough. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy increases the specificity but still may fail to detect a recurrence of the disease in the cystic metastatic lymph nodes. The aim of the study was to estimate the value of Tg concentration in the needle washout after fine-needle aspiration of suspicious lymph nodes. Material and methods: The 105 patients studied had presented one or more enlarged suspicious cervical lymph nodes. All had undergone total thyroidectomy and 131I ablative therapy. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration was within the 0.15 - 711.5 ng/ml range (mean 22.24 ng/ml) and Tg recovery range 94 - 100%. The positive Tg washout concentration cut-off value was established as equal to the mean plus two standard deviations of the Tg washout concentration of patients with negative cytology. Results: Lymph node involvement was diagnosed by cytology in 15 patients and in 28 lymph nodes. Positive Tg washout concentration was found in 22 patients and in 48 lymph nodes. All the lymph nodes which turned out to have positive cytology had a positive Tg washout concentration. All lymph nodes with positive cytology were positive in pathology. Seven patients and 20 lymph nodes with negative cytology were positive in the Tg washout concentration test. All but one patients and all but two lymph nodes with a positive Tg washout concentration had positive pathology. Conclusions: 1. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy is not sensitive enough to detect all metastatic lymph nodes. 2. The Tg washout concentration test is 100% sensitive in the detection of metastatic lymph nodes. 3. Cytology in ultrasound- guided fine-needle biopsy is 100% specific. 4. The Tg washout concentration test carries a risk of false-positive results. 5. Both methods should be used for early detection of metastatic lymph nodes

  17. Combining PET/CT with serum tumor markers to improve the evaluation of histological type of suspicious lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rifeng; Dong, Ximin; Zhu, Wenzhen; Duan, Qing; Xue, Yunjing; Shen, Yanxia; Zhang, Guopeng

    2017-01-01

    Histological type is important for determining the management of patients with suspicious lung cancers. In this study, PET/CT combined with serum tumor markers were used to evaluate the histological type of lung lesions. Patients with suspicious lung cancers underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT and serum tumor markers detection. SUVmax of the tumor and serum levels of tumor markers were acquired. Differences in SUVmax and serum levels of tumor markers among different histological types of lung cancers and between EGFR mutation statues of adenocarcinoma were compared. The diagnostic efficiencies of SUVmax alone, each serum tumor marker alone, combined tumor markers and the combination of both methods were further assessed and compared. SCC had the highest level of SUVmax, followed by SCLC and adenocarcinoma, and benign lesions had a lowest level. CYFRA21-1 and SCC-Ag were significantly higher in SCC, NSE was significantly higher in SCLC (Ptumor marker or SUVmax alone. When combined, the AUC, sensitivity and specificity increased significantly (Ptumor markers (P>0.05 for all). SUVmax and serum tumor markers show values in evaluating the histological types of suspicious lung cancers. When properly combined, the diagnostic efficiency can increase significantly.

  18. Revaluation of breast cytology with pathologist on-site of lesions with suspicious sonographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capalbo, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuelacapalbo@tiscalinet.it [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Sajadidehkordi, Farideh, E-mail: faridehit@yahoo.it [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Colombi, Claudio; Ticha, Vladimira; Moretti, Angela, E-mail: info.radiologia@sancarlo.mi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Diagnostiche, UOC di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, A.O San Carlo Borromeo. Via Pio II, 3, 20153 Milano (Italy); Peli, Michela, E-mail: peli.michela@gmail.com [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Cosentino, Maria, E-mail: maria-cosentino@tiscali.it [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Lovisatti, Maria, E-mail: marialovisatti@hotmail.com [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Berti, Elisabetta, E-mail: eliberti@hotmail.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Diagnostiche, UOC di Anatomia Patologica, A.O San Carlo Borromeo. Via Pio II, 3, Milano 20153 (Italy); Cariati, Maurizio, E-mail: info.radiologia@sancarlo.mi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Diagnostiche, UOC di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, A.O San Carlo Borromeo. Via Pio II, 3, 20153 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: Evaluating correlation estimation between diagnostic ultrasound (U.S.) of breast lesions and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and the correlation between cytology and histology (I) of these lesions undergo surgery. Materials and methods: In 2010 we performed 1589 ultrasound breast. We identified 210 suspicious lesions to be subjected to FNAC, which was performed with pathologist on site, and extemporaneous analysis of the sample to assess their appropriateness. We classified the lesions in 5 ultrasound (U) classes according to the criteria defined by Echographic BIRADS Lexicon. The results of cytology were classified in 5 classes (C) according to the guidelines of F.O.N.Ca.M. Then we evaluated the diagnostic correlation between U.S. and FNAC, and between FNAC and Histology. Results: The distribution of lesions in U classes was: 57U2, 55U3, 36U4 and 62U5. The diagnostic concordance between U and FNAC was 96.7%, with a sensitivity of 98%, specificity 93%, negative and positive predictive value respectively of 94.9% and 97.3%, and diagnostic accuracy of 96.6%. The 98 patients with C4-C5 lesions were subjected to surgery and the histology confirmed high-grade malignancy of lesions with a concordance of 99.7%. Conclusions: Having achieved high diagnostic concordance between U and FNAC, and then between FNAC and histology, we may say that the FNAC, less invasive and traumatic for the patient than needle biopsy (CB), may be still a valid method when performed with pathologist on-site to assess the adequacy of the sample taken.

  19. Ultrasound guided core biopsy of suspicious mammographic calcifications using high frequency and power Doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, W.L.; Wilson, A.R.M; Evans, A.J.; Burrell, H.; Pinder, S.E.; Ellis, I.O.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The pre-operative diagnosis of suspicious mammographic microcalcifications usually requires stereotactic needle biopsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate if high frequency 13 MHz ultrasound (HFUS) and power Doppler (PD) can aid visualization and biopsy of microcalcifications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four consecutive patients presenting with microcalcifications without associated mammographic or palpable masses were examined with HFUS and PD. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy (USCB) was performed where possible. Stereotactic biopsy was carried out when US-guided biopsy was unsuccessful. Surgery was performed if a diagnosis of malignancy was made on core biopsy or if the repeat core biopsy was non-diagnostic. RESULTS: Forty-one patients (93%) had ultrasound abnormalities corresponding to mammographic calcification. USCB was performed on 37 patients. In 29/37, USCB obtained a definitive result (78.4%). USCB was non-diagnostic in 4/9 benign (44.4%) and 4/28 (14.3%) malignant lesions biopsied. The complete and absolute sensitivities for malignancy using USCB were 85.7% (24/28) and 81% (23/28), respectively. USCB correctly identified invasive disease in 12/23 (52.2%) cases. There was no significant difference in the presence of abnormal flow on PD between benign and malignant lesions. However, abnormal PD vascularity was present in 43.5% of invasive cancer and was useful in directing successful biopsy in eight cases. CONCLUSION: The combination of high frequency US with PD is useful in the detection and guidance of successful needle biopsy of microcalcifications particularly where there is an invasive focus within larger areas of DCIS. Teh, W.L. (2000)

  20. Fusion of classifiers for REIS-based detection of suspicious breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Dror; Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Sumkin, Jules H.; Tublin, Mitchell; Gur, David

    2011-03-01

    After developing a multi-probe resonance-frequency electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system aimed at detecting women with breast abnormalities that may indicate a developing breast cancer, we have been conducting a prospective clinical study to explore the feasibility of applying this REIS system to classify younger women (breast cancer. The system comprises one central probe placed in contact with the nipple, and six additional probes uniformly distributed along an outside circle to be placed in contact with six points on the outer breast skin surface. In this preliminary study, we selected an initial set of 174 examinations on participants that have completed REIS examinations and have clinical status verification. Among these, 66 examinations were recommended for biopsy due to findings of a highly suspicious breast lesion ("positives"), and 108 were determined as negative during imaging based procedures ("negatives"). A set of REIS-based features, extracted using a mirror-matched approach, was computed and fed into five machine learning classifiers. A genetic algorithm was used to select an optimal subset of features for each of the five classifiers. Three fusion rules, namely sum rule, weighted sum rule and weighted median rule, were used to combine the results of the classifiers. Performance evaluation was performed using a leave-one-case-out cross-validation method. The results indicated that REIS may provide a new technology to identify younger women with higher than average risk of having or developing breast cancer. Furthermore, it was shown that fusion rule, such as a weighted median fusion rule and a weighted sum fusion rule may improve performance as compared with the highest performing single classifier.

  1. Malignancy rate of biopsied suspicious bone lesions identified on FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Hugo J.A.; Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Heggelman, Ben G.F. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Dubois, Stefan V. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2016-07-15

    To determine the malignancy rate of bone lesions identified on FDG PET/CT in patients who have undergone CT-guided biopsy because of the suspicion of malignancy. This single-centre retrospective study spanned eight consecutive years and included all patients who underwent both FDG PET/CT and CT-guided bone biopsy because of the suspicion of malignancy. The positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy was calculated, and different patient and imaging characteristics were compared between malignant and benign bone lesions. Of 102 included patients with bone lesions that all showed FDG uptake exceeding mediastinal uptake, bone biopsy showed a malignant lesion in 91 patients, yielding a PPV for malignancy of 89.2 % (95 % CI 81.7 - 93.9 %). In the 94 patients with bone lesions that showed FDG uptake exceeding liver uptake, bone biopsy showed a malignant lesion in 83 patients, yielding a PPV for malignancy of 88.3 % (95 % CI 80.1 - 93.5 %). Higher age, bone marrow replacement of the lesion seen on CT, expansion of the lesion seen on CT, and presence of multifocal lesions on FDG PET/CT were significantly more frequent in patients with malignant lesions than in those with benign bone lesions (P = 0.044, P = 0.009, P = 0.015, and P = 0.019, respectively). Furthermore, there was a trend towards a higher incidence of cortical destruction (P = 0.056) and surrounding soft tissue mass (P = 0.063) in patients with malignant bone lesions. The PPV for malignancy of suspicious bone lesions identified on FDG PET/CT is not sufficiently high to justify changes in patient management without histopathological confirmation. Nevertheless, ancillary patient and imaging characteristics may increase the likelihood of a malignant bone lesion. (orig.)

  2. Autofluorescence guided diagnostic evaluation of suspicious oral mucosal lesions: opportunities, limitations, and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2011-03-01

    Wide-filed autofluorescence examination is currently considered as a standard of care for screening and diagnostic evaluation of early neoplastic changes of the skin, cervix, lung, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Naturally occurring fluorophores within the tissue absorb UV and visible light and can re-emit some of this light at longer wavelengths in the form of fluorescence. This non-invasive tissue autofluorescence imaging is used in optical diagnostics, especially in the early detection of cancer. Usually, malignant transformation is associated with thickening of the epithelium, enhanced cellular density due to increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio which may attenuate the excitation leading to a decrease in collagen autofluorescence. Hence, dysplastic and cancerous tissues often exhibit decreased blue-green autofluorescence and appear darker compared to uninvolved mucosa. Currently, there are three commercially available devices to examine tissue autofluorescence in the oral cavity. In this study we used the oral cancer screening device IdentafiTM 3000 to examine the tissue reflectance and autofluorescence of PML and confounding lesions of the oral cavity. Wide-field autofluorescence imaging enables rapid inspection of large mucosal surfaces, to aid in recognition of suspicious lesions and may also help in discriminate the PML (class 1) from some of the confounding lesions (class II). However, the presence of inflammation or pigments is also associated with loss of stromal autofluorescence, and may give rise to false-positive results with widefield fluorescence imaging. Clinicians who use these autofluorescence based oral cancer screening devices should be aware about the benign oral mucosal lesions that may give false positivity so that unnecessary patient's anxiety and the need for scalpel biopsy can be eliminated.

  3. Economic Impact of Frozen Section for Thyroid Nodules with "Suspicious for Malignancy" Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Craig A; Gilley, David; Lesko, David; Jorgensen, Jeffrey B; Galloway, Tabitha L; Zitsch, Robert P; Dooley, Laura M

    2018-02-01

    Objective To perform a cost analysis of the routine use of intraoperative frozen section (iFS) among patients undergoing a thyroid lobectomy with "suspicious for malignancy" (SUSP) cytology in the context of the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines. Study Design Case series with chart review; cost minimization analysis. Setting Academic. Subjects and Methods Records were reviewed for patients with SUSP cytology who underwent thyroid surgery between 2010 and 2015 in which iFS was utilized. The diagnostic test performance of iFS and the frequency of indicated completion/total thyroidectomies based on the 2015 guidelines were calculated. A cost minimization analysis was performed comparing lobectomy, with and without iFS, and the need for completion thyroidectomy according to costs estimated from 2014 data from Medicare, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Results Sixty-five patients met inclusion criteria. The malignancy rate was 61.5%, 45% of which was identified intraoperatively. The specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity were 83% and 95%, respectively. Completion/total thyroidectomy was indicated for 9% of patients; 83% of these individuals had findings on iFS that would have changed management intraoperatively. Application of the new guidelines would have resulted in a significant reduction in the frequency of conversion to a total thyroidectomy when compared with the actual management (26.1% vs 7.7%, P = .005). Performing routine iFS was the less costly scenario, resulting in a savings of $474 per case. Conclusion For patients with SUSP cytology undergoing lobectomy, routine use of iFS would result in decreased health care utilization.

  4. Sonographic findings predictive of central lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma: influence of associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the diagnostic performance of sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Cheong Soo

    2013-12-01

    To analyze sonographic findings suggesting central lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and to evaluate the influence of associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting central lymph node metastasis. A total of 124 patients (101 female and 23 male; mean age, 47.5 years; range, 21-74 years) underwent sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration in central lymph nodes from January 2008 to July 2011. Sonographic features of size, shape, margin, thickening of the cortex, cortical echogenicity, presence of a hilum, cystic changes, calcification, and vascularity of enlarged lymph nodes were analyzed before fine-needle aspiration and classified into 2 categories (probably benign and suspicious). Sonographic findings were correlated with the pathologic diagnosis and associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting central lymph node metastasis according to the associated thyroiditis. Fifty-one lymph nodes (39.5%) were malignant, and 73 (60.5%) were benign. On univariate analysis, size, shape, margin, cortical thickening, cortical echogenicity, cystic changes, calcification, and vascularity were significantly different between the benign and metastatic nodes (P thyroiditis-positive patients and 0.971 (95% CI, 0.938-1.000) in negative patients. Eccentric cortical thickening and cortical hyperechogenicity were the sonographic findings predictive of central lymph node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting metastasis was superior in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis-negative patients than in positive patients.

  5. Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Richard; Christensen, Anders; Java, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative analysis of sentinel lymph nodes would enhance the care of early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We determined the frequency and extent of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) expression in OSCC primary tumours and surrounding tissues to explore the feasibility of a "clinic......-ready" intraoperative diagnostic test (one step nucleic acid amplification-OSNA, sysmex). METHODS: Two cohorts were assembled: cohort 1, OSCC with stage and site that closely match cases suitable for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB); cohort 2, HNSCC with sufficient fresh tumour tissue available for the OSNA assay (>50......% of tumours. Discordance between different techniques indicated that OSNA was more sensitive than qRT-PCR or RNA-ISH, which in turn were more sensitive than IHC. OSNA results showed CK19 expression in 80% of primary cases, so if used for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis would lead to a false-negative result...

  6. Methodology of sentinel node detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maublant, J.

    2000-01-01

    The isotopic localisation of the sentinel node, i.e., the first functional lymph node in a tumor basin, is probably the fastest growing field ever experienced in nuclear medicine. Although based on the simple concept of the lymphatic migration of Tc-labeled colloids, the choice of the optimal technique remains controversial. We review and discuss the role of the colloids, of the site of injection, of the injected volume, of early imaging and of the colorimetric approach. Initially applied to melanoma and breast cancer, the sentinel node detection is now tested in other types of cancer such as lung, colon and prostate. It could become one of the leading tools in minimally invasive surgical oncology. The nuclear medicine physician has to remain aware of the rapid evolutions in this field in order to be able to answer to a rapidly growing demand. (author)

  7. The role of ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of lymph nodes in patients with skin tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solivetti, Francesco Maria; Elia, Fulvia; Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Guerrisi, Antonino; Visca, Paolo; Cercato, Maria Cecilia; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound (US) in the study of superficial lymph nodes during the follow-up of patients surgically treated for skin tumours. The secondary objective was to compare positive cytological results with histological reports. From 2004 to 2011, 480 patients (male/female: 285/195; median age 57 years; prevalent skin tumour: melanoma) underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of suspicious recurrent lymph nodes. An expert radiologist first performed US testing of the lymph nodes, expressing either a negative or positive outcome of the test. Subsequently, US-guided FNAB was performed. FNAB positive patients were subjected to lymphadenectomy; the patients who tested negative underwent the follow-up. The size of lymph nodes was ≤ 2 cm in 90% of cases. Out of the 336 (70%) US “positive” patients, 231 (68.8%) were FNAB positives. Out of the 144 (30%) US “negatives”, 132 (91.7%) were FNAB negatives. The sensitivity and specificity of the US were 95% and 55.7%, respectively; the negative predictive value was 91.7% and the positive predictive value was 68.8%. Definitive histological results confirmed FNAB positivity in 97.5% of lymphadenectomies. US is a sensitive method in the evaluation of superficial lymph nodes during the follow-up of patients with skin tumours. High positive predictive value of cytology was confirmed

  8. Comparison of F-18 FDG PET and I-131 whole body scan in diagnosis of suspicious metastatic thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Ju Won; Chung, June Key

    2005-01-01

    There are several reports about the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET in thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of F-18 FDG PET and I-131 whole body scan in suspicious metastatic thyroid cancer. There were 46 patients (11 men, 35 women; age range, 18-74yr; mean age, 47.3yr) with suspicious metastatic thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy who performed FDG PET and I-131 scan. The interval of FDG PET and I-131 scan was within 6 months. An overall clinical evaluation was performed including cytology, thyroglobulin level, sonography, MRI and CT. Metastatic regions were divided into four areas: neck, mediastinum, lung and bone. Among 46 patients, the number of patients, metastatic lesions were detected, totaled 36 (78.3%). Twenty-nine patients (63.0%) were detected by FDG PET and 18 patients (39.1%) were detected by I-131 scan. Twenty-one patients were detected in neck by two methods. Nineteen patients (90.5%) were detected by FDG PET and 7 patients (33.3%) were detected by I-131 scan. Eighteen patients were detected in mediastinum by two methods. Ten patients (55.5%) were detected by FDG PET and 10 patients (55.5%) were detected by I-131 scan. Ten patients were detected in lung by two methods. Nine patients (90.0%) were detected by FDG PET and 3 patients (30.0%) were detected by I-131 scan. Three patients were detected in bone by two methods. Three patients (100%) were detected by FDG PET and 0 patients (0%) were detected by I-131 scan. These data indicate that for detecting metastatic lesions, F-18 FDG PET and I-131 whole body scan may provide complementary information. Thus, the combination of FDG PET and I-131 scan is the method of choice for detecting suspicious metastatic thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy

  9. Can pelvic node dissection at radical prostatectomy influence the nodal recurrence at salvage lymphadenectomy for prostate cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Sivaraman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To verify the quality of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND performed at radical prostatectomy (RP and its impact on nodal recurrence in patients undergoing salvage lymph node dissection (sLND. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of 48 patients who underwent sLND for presumed nodal recurrence, to describe the PLND characteristics at RP and correlate the anatomical sites and number of suspicious nodes reported in radiological imaging and final pathology of sLND. Results: Overall, at RP, 8 (16.7% did not undergo PLND, 32 (66.7% and 8 (16.7% received a “limited” (between external iliac vein and obturator nerve and an “extended” (external iliac, hypogastric, and obturator dissection, respectively. Median nodes removed during limited and extended dissection were 2 and 24, respectively. At sLND, the mean age was 61.3 years and median prostate specific antigen (PSA was 1.07 ng/mL. Median nodes removed at sLND were 17 with a median of 2 positive nodes. Recurrent nodes were identified within the template of an extended PLND in 62.5%, 50.0% and 12.5% patients, respectively, following prior no, limited and extended dissection at RP. Recurrence outside the expected lymphatic drainage pathway was noted in 37.5% patients with prior extended dissection at RP. There was a correlation between imaging and pathology specimen in 83% for node location and 58.3% for number of anatomical sites involved. Conclusions: In prostate cancer patients undergoing sLND, most had inadequate PLND at the original RP. Pattern of nodal recurrence may be influenced by the prior dissection and pre sLND imaging appears to underestimate the nodal recurrence.

  10. Can pelvic node dissection at radical prostatectomy influence the nodal recurrence at salvage lymphadenectomy for prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Arjun; Benfante, Nicole; Touijer, Karim; Coleman, Jonathan; Scardino, Peter; Laudone, Vincent; Eastham, James

    2018-03-01

    To verify the quality of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) performed at radical prostatectomy (RP) and its impact on nodal recurrence in patients undergoing salvage lymph node dissection (sLND). Retrospective review of 48 patients who underwent sLND for presumed nodal recurrence, to describe the PLND characteristics at RP and correlate the anatomical sites and number of suspicious nodes reported in radiological imaging and final pathology of sLND. Overall, at RP, 8 (16.7%) did not undergo PLND, 32 (66.7%) and 8 (16.7%) received a "limited" (between external iliac vein and obturator nerve) and an "extended" (external iliac, hypogastric, and obturator) dissection, respectively. Median nodes removed during limited and extended dissection were 2 and 24, respectively. At sLND, the mean age was 61.3 years and median prostate specific antigen (PSA) was 1.07 ng/mL. Median nodes removed at sLND were 17 with a median of 2 positive nodes. Recurrent nodes were identified within the template of an extended PLND in 62.5%, 50.0% and 12.5% patients, respectively, following prior no, limited and extended dissection at RP. Recurrence outside the expected lymphatic drainage pathway was noted in 37.5% patients with prior extended dissection at RP. There was a correlation between imaging and pathology specimen in 83% for node location and 58.3% for number of anatomical sites involved. In prostate cancer patients undergoing sLND, most had inadequate PLND at the original RP. Pattern of nodal recurrence may be influenced by the prior dissection and pre sLND imaging appears to underestimate the nodal recurrence.

  11. Allocating resources between network nodes for providing a network node function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meulenhoff, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a method wherein a first network node advertises available resources that a second network node may use to offload network node functions transparently to the first network node. Examples of the first network node are a client device (e.g. PC, notebook, tablet, smart phone), a

  12. Does the atrioventricular node conduct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Fisch, C.

    1989-01-01

    It is difficult to be certain wh en the term "conduction" was first applied to the transfer of atrial activation to the ventricles .' In 1894, Engelmann used the word "Leitung", which can be translated as "connection" or as "conduction" .2 In 1906, Tawara described the atrioventricular node,

  13. Node.js by example

    CERN Document Server

    Tsonev, Krasimir

    2015-01-01

    If you are a JavaScript developer with no experience with Node.js or server-side web development, this book is for you. It will lead you through creating a fairly complex social network. You will learn how to work with a database and create real-time communication channels.

  14. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    . This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless...

  15. Critical nodes in signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Emanuelli, Brice; Kahn, C Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Physiologically important cell-signalling networks are complex, and contain several points of regulation, signal divergence and crosstalk with other signalling cascades. Here, we use the concept of 'critical nodes' to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique role...... using insulin signalling as a model system....

  16. Can positron emission mammography help to identify clinically significant breast cancer in women with suspicious calcifications on mammography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, Almir G.V.; Lima, Eduardo N.P.; Macedo, Bruna R.C.; Conrado, Jorge L.F.A.; Marques, Elvira F.; Chojniak, Rubens [A C Camargo Cancer Center-Department of Imaging, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of positron emission mammography (PEM) for identifying malignant lesions in patients with suspicious microcalcifications detected on mammography. A prospective, single-centre study that evaluated 40 patients with suspicious calcifications at mammography and indication for percutaneous or surgical biopsy, with mean age of 56.4 years (range: 28-81 years). Patients who agreed to participate in the study underwent PEM with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose before the final histological evaluation. PEM findings were compared with mammography and histological findings. Most calcifications (n = 34; 85.0 %) were classified as BIRADS 4. On histology, there were 25 (62.5 %) benign and 15 (37.5 %) malignant lesions, including 11 (27.5 %) ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 4 (10 %) invasive carcinomas. On subjective analysis, PEM was positive in 15 cases (37.5 %) and most of these cases (n = 14; 93.3 %) were confirmed as malignant on histology. There was one false-positive result, which corresponded to a fibroadenoma, and one false negative, which corresponded to an intermediate-grade DCIS. PEM had a sensitivity of 93.3 %, specificity of 96.0 % and accuracy of 95 %. PEM was able to identify all invasive carcinomas and high-grade DCIS (nuclear grade 3) in the presented sample, suggesting that this method may be useful for further evaluation of patients with suspected microcalcifications. (orig.)

  17. A comparisonof lymphocytic thyroiditis with papillary thyroid carcinoma showing suspicious ultrasonographic findings in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Sang Yu; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Hahn, Soo Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medicine Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this study was to compare ultrasonographic features in patients with lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) having suspicious thyroid nodule(s) in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma and to determine the clinical and radiological predictors of malignancy. We reviewed the cases of 100 patients who underwent ultrasonography between April 2011 and October 2012, and showed suspicious thyroid nodule(s) in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma. Eight patients who did not undergo ultrasonography-guided fineneedle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and 34 cases of follow-up ultrasonography after initial FNAC were excluded. We compared the benign and malignant nodules in terms of their clinical and radiological factors. For the 58 nodules including 31 LTs (53.4%) and 27 PTCs (46.6%), the mean tumor sizes of the two groups were 0.96 cm for LT and 0.97 cm for PTC. A univariate analysis revealed that PTCs were more frequent in patients younger than 45 years and having microcalcifications than was LT. An independent predictor of PTC after adjustment was an age of <45 years. LT mimics malignancy in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma on ultrasonography. A young age of <45 years is the most important predictor of malignancy in this condition.

  18. Controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2011-06-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node that include: receiving, by an application messaging module on the target compute node, an indication of a data transfer from an origin compute node to the target compute node; and administering, by the application messaging module on the target compute node, the data transfer using one or more messaging primitives of a system messaging module in dependence upon the indication.

  19. Allocating resources between network nodes for providing a network node function

    OpenAIRE

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meulenhoff, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a method wherein a first network node advertises available resources that a second network node may use to offload network node functions transparently to the first network node. Examples of the first network node are a client device (e.g. PC, notebook, tablet, smart phone), a server (e.g. application server, a proxy server, cloud location, router). Examples of the second network node are an application server, a cloud location or a router. The available resources may b...

  20. Secure message authentication system for node to node network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, R.; Vanitha, M. M.; Norman, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Message verification remains some of the best actual methods for prevent the illegal and dis honored communication after presence progressed to WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). Intend for this purpose, several message verification systems must stand established, created on both symmetric key cryptography otherwise public key cryptosystems. Best of them will have some limits for great computational then statement above in count of deficiency of climb ability then flexibility in node settlement occurrence. In a polynomial based system was newly presented for these problems. Though, this system then situations delay will must the dimness of integral limitation firm in the point of polynomial: once the amount of message transferred remains the greater than the limitation then the opponent will completely improve the polynomial approaches. This paper suggests using ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography). Though using the node verification the technique in this paper permits some nodes to transfer a limitless amount of messages lacking misery in the limit problem. This system will have the message cause secrecy. Equally theoretic study then model effects show our planned system will be effective than the polynomial based method in positions of calculation then statement above in privacy points though message basis privacy.

  1. Lymph node metastases near the celiac trunk should be considered separately from other nodal metastases in patients with cancer of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction after neoadjuvant treatment and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Sjoerd M; Anderegg, Martinus C J; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Meijer, Sybren L; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify the incidence and prognostic significance of lymph node metastases near the celiac trunk in patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy followed by esophagectomy. Between March 1994 and September 2013 a total of 462 consecutive patients with cancer of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) who underwent potentially curative esophageal resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N=88; 19.0%) or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (N=374; 81.0%) were included. Seventy one (15.4%) patients had truncal node metastases in the resection specimen. Metastases to these nodes occurred more frequently in male patients with adenocarcinoma and in tumors at the gastro-esophageal junction. A lower response to neoadjuvant treatment, higher ypT and ypN stages and a poorer grade of differentiation were significantly related with truncal node metastases. Patients with tumor positive truncal nodes had a worse median overall survival (17 vs. 55 months). In multivariate analysis, truncal node metastases were independently associated with a worse survival. Only 22 (31.0%) of the 71 patients with tumor positive truncal nodes were identified preoperatively with EUS or CT. In contrast, 37 patients had suspicious truncal nodes on EUS or CT, but metastases in the pathology specimen were absent. In the present study, it is demonstrated that positive truncal nodes in the resection specimen after neoadjuvant therapy, are associated with advanced tumor stages and are an independent factor for inferior survival.

  2. Codimension n saddle-nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheiner, Jaques

    2014-01-01

    We consider the generic unfolding of a diffeomorphism on a compact C ∞ manifold that is Morse–Smale except for one non-hyperbolic periodic orbit being a codimension n saddle-node (one eigenvalue is 1, the other eigenvalues have norm different from 1). Local and global bifurcations are described. We characterize structural stability of the unfolding, depending on the codimension. A universal model of the unfolding is given when there is stability. Dynamical behaviour is analysed in other cases. (paper)

  3. Sentinel node biopsy in penile cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J. K.; Krarup, K. P.; Sommer, P.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Nodal involvement is a strong prognosticator in penile cancer and lymph node staging is crucial. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has proven a useful staging tool with few complications, but evidence rely mostly on single institution publications with a short follow-up. In th......INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Nodal involvement is a strong prognosticator in penile cancer and lymph node staging is crucial. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has proven a useful staging tool with few complications, but evidence rely mostly on single institution publications with a short follow...... died from complications. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first complete national study on sentinel node biopsy. Penile cancer sentinel node biopsy with a close follow-up is a reliable lymph node staging and has few complications in a national multicentre setting. Inguinal lymph node...

  4. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white blood cells that help fight illness. If breast cancer spreads, the lymph nodes in the underarm (called ... if they contain cancer cells. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. Sentinel node biopsy and ...

  5. Sentinel Node in Oral Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartaglione, Girolamo; Stoeckli, Sandro J; de Bree, Remco

    2016-01-01

    /static scan and/or SPECT/CT. RESULTS: Lymphoscintigraphy identified 723 lymphatic basins. 1398 sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) were biopsied (3.2 SN per patient; range, 1-10). Dynamic scan allowed the differentiation of sentinel nodes from second tier lymph nodes. SPECT/CT allowed more accurate anatomical......PURPOSE: Nuclear imaging plays a crucial role in lymphatic mapping of oral cancer. This evaluation represents a subanalysis of the original multicenter SENT trial data set, involving 434 patients with T1-T2, N0, and M0 oral squamous cell carcinoma. The impact of acquisition techniques, tracer...... localization and estimated SN depth more efficiently. After pathological examination, 9.9% of the SN excised (138 of 1398 SNs) showed metastases. The first neck level (NL) containing SN+ was NL I in 28.6%, NL IIa in 44.8%, NL IIb in 2.8%, NL III in 17.1%, and NL IV in 6.7% of positive patients. Approximately...

  6. A Wearable Goggle Navigation System for Dual-Mode Optical and Ultrasound Localization of Suspicious Lesions: Validation Studies Using Tissue-Simulating Phantoms and an Ex Vivo Human Breast Tissue Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeshu Zhang

    Full Text Available Surgical resection remains the primary curative treatment for many early-stage cancers, including breast cancer. The development of intraoperative guidance systems for identifying all sites of disease and improving the likelihood of complete surgical resection is an area of active ongoing research, as this can lead to a decrease in the need of subsequent additional surgical procedures. We develop a wearable goggle navigation system for dual-mode optical and ultrasound imaging of suspicious lesions. The system consists of a light source module, a monochromatic CCD camera, an ultrasound system, a Google Glass, and a host computer. It is tested in tissue-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo human breast tissue model. Our experiments demonstrate that the surgical navigation system provides useful guidance for localization and core needle biopsy of simulated tumor within the tissue-simulating phantom, as well as a core needle biopsy and subsequent excision of Indocyanine Green (ICG-fluorescing sentinel lymph nodes. Our experiments support the contention that this wearable goggle navigation system can be potentially very useful and fully integrated by the surgeon for optimizing many aspects of oncologic surgery. Further engineering optimization and additional in vivo clinical validation work is necessary before such a surgical navigation system can be fully realized in the everyday clinical setting.

  7. The hidden sentinel node in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; van Sandick, J. W.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Rutgers, E. J. T.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of non-visualisation during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in breast cancer. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 495 clinically node-negative breast cancer patients (501 sentinel node procedures)

  8. T.Node, industrial version of supernode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieller, Sylvain

    1989-12-01

    The Esprit I P1085 "SuperNode" project developed a modular reconfigurable archtecture, based on transputers. This highly parallel machine is now marketed by Telmat Informatique under the name T.Node. This paper presents the P1085 project, the architecture of SuperNode, its industrial implementation and its software enviroment.

  9. CT perfusion study of neck lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Liu Jun; Hua Rui; Qiao Hui; Gong Yi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT perfusion features of various lymph nodes in the neck. Methods: Dynamic perfusion CT scanning was performed in 83 neck lymph nodes proved by pathology, including tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes. The shapes, blood flow modes, and perfusion parameters of these lymph nodes were compared among 3 groups. Statistical analysis of L/T and CT perfusion parameters was performed by one-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results: The values of MTT of tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes were (28.13±5.08), (31.08±5.82), and (11.24±5.31) s, respectively. The MTT of metastatic lymph nodes was statistically lower than that of tuberculosis lymph nodes and lymphoma (P -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively. The values of BV were (24.68±2.84), (25.30±3.16), and (25.15± 8.81) ml·100 g -1 respectively. The values of TTP were (40.90±8.85), (40.67±6.45), and (40.98±6.62) s, respectively. There were no significant differences in L/T, BF, BV and TTP among tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes (P>0.05). Conclusion: CT perfusion, especially combination functional imaging with perfusion images may be helpful in judging the nature of neck lymph nodes. (authors)

  10. Sentinel node concept in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiricuta, I.C.

    2000-01-01

    Background/purpose: It seems that there exists a specific lymph node center called sentinel node (SN) which appears to be the primary site of metastases. The sentinel node concept (SNC) is fundamentally based on the orderly progression of tumor cells within the lymphatic system. It is the most important new concept in surgical and radiation oncology. The purpose is to present the biological significance, the diagnostic and clinical basis of the sentinel node concept in breast cancer patients. Material and methods: Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe biopsy is necessary to show predictable lymph flow to the regional sentinel node, to multiple sentinel nodes or unpredictable lymph flow to extra-regional sentinel nodes and for performing sentinel node procedure. The standard protocol for the evaluation of the sentinel node metastases consists of extensive histopathological investigation including step Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stained sections and immunohistochemistry. Results: A high rate of success of the identification of the sentinel node for breast cancer was reported. The presence or absence of metastasis in this node is a very accurate predictor of overall nodal status. The temptation to examine the sentinel node with the greatest possible degree of accuracy highlights one of the major problems related to sentinel node biopsy. The success of the sentinel node procedure depends primarily on the adequate functional capacity necessary for sufficient uptake to ensure the accurate identification. In negative sentinel-node patients a complete axillary lymph node dissection is avoidable. In sentinel-node positive patients and clinically negative patients a postoperative radiotherapy would permit an adequate tumor control. The last 2-procedures permit a low morbidity. In the actual TNM classification it was recently introduced a definition of a 'pN0' patient based on sentinel node biopsy. New target volumes are defined for adjuvant radiotherapy or lymphatic basins

  11. Offloading of a Wireless Node Authentication with Core Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    An example technique may include controlling receiving, by a second node from a first node in a wireless network, a request to offload authentication of the first node with the core network to the second node, controlling receiving, by the second node from the first node, data to be forwarded...... to the core network, performing, by the second node based on the request, an authentication with the core network on behalf of the first node while the first node is not connected with the second node, and controlling forwarding the received data from the second node to the core network while the first node...

  12. The added value of contrast enhanced spectral mammography in identification of multiplicity of suspicious lesions in dense breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Farouk Ibrahim Moustafa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the additive value of Contrast Enhanced Spectral Mammography (CESM in the preoperative assessment of malignant lesions in dense breast parenchyma regarding multiplicity. Material and methods: The study included 160 women having heterogeneous dense breast parenchyma (ACR c and d with suspicious lesions identified on sono mammography examination. All patients performed contrast enhanced spectral mammography to confirm or exclude lesion multiplicity. The number of lesions was calculated in the contrast high energy subtraction images with the reference standard being histopathological analysis. Results: Adding CESM to sono-mammography the accuracy in identifying multiple malignant lesion increased from 81.8% accuracy of sono-mammography up to 100% accuracy after adding CESM. Conclusion: Contrast enhanced spectral mammogram showed an added value in the preoperative assessment of breast masses increasing the accuracy of detection of lesions and multiplicity (multifocality and multi-centricity. Keywords: Breast cancer, Contrast enhanced spectral mammogram

  13. The clinical value of bilateral breast MR imaging: is it worth performing on patients showing suspicious microcalcifications on mammography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akita, Ayano; Tanimoto, Akihiro; Kuribayashi, Sachio [Keio University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Jinno, Hiromitsu [Keio University, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kameyama, Kaori [Keio University, Division of Diagnostic Pathology, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of bilateral breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) in patients showing suspicious microcalcifications on mammography and negative ultrasound findings. Fifty patients underwent MRI before stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (SVAB). MR findings were classified into five types for interpretation, and types 4 and 5 were considered malignant. SVAB revealed 13 carcinomas and 37 benign lesions. Malignant lesions were more frequently found in cases of positive MRI diagnoses than in negative MRI diagnoses (P < 0.001). Mammography had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 24% and an accuracy of 44%, whereas mammography plus MRI had a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 96%. In the evaluation of mammographically detected microcalcifications, bilateral breast MRI is of good diagnostic value and may alter the indications for SVAB. (orig.)

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To validate lymphatic mapping combined with sentinel lymph node biopsy as a staging procedure, and to evaluate the possible clinical implications of added oblique lymphoscintigraphy and/or tomography and test the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of lymphoscintigraphy. MATERIAL......: Eleven (28%) patients were upstaged. The sentinel lymph node identification rate was 97.5%. Sentinel lymph node biopsy significantly differentiated between patients with or without lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). Lymphatic mapping revealed 124 hotspots and 144 hot lymph nodes were removed by sentinel...

  15. Pattern of Colon Cancer Lymph Node Metastases in Patients Undergoing Central Mesocolic Lymph Node Excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus A; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Anders; Nielsen, Mingyuan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extended mesocolic lymph node dissection in colon cancer surgery seems to improve oncological outcome. A possible reason might be related to metastases in the central mesocolic lymph nodes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of mesocolic lymph node...... metastases, particularly in central lymph nodes, and the risk of skip, aberrant, and gastrocolic ligament metastases as the argument for performing extended lymph node dissection. DATA SOURCES: EMBASE and PubMed were searched using the terms colon or colorectal with sentinel node, lymph node mapping, or skip...... node; lymph node resection colon; and complete or total and mesocolic excision. STUDY SELECTION: Studies describing the risk of metastases in central, skip, aberrant, and gastrocolic ligament lymph node metastases from colon adenocarcinomas in 10 or more patients were included. No languages were...

  16. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Azzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo.

  17. Sentinel node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy spares breast cancer patients axillary lymph node dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijk, Maartje C; Nieweg, Omgo E; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Oldenburg, Hester S A; Olmos, Renato Valdés; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A; Kroon, Bin B R

    2006-04-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients is a valuable method to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy and potentially downsize the primary tumor, which facilitates breast-conserving therapy. In 18 studies published about sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the sentinel node was identified in on average 89%, and the false-negative rate was on average 10%. Because of these mediocre results, no author dares to omit axillary clearance just yet. In our institute, sentinel lymph node biopsy is performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience with this approach. Sentinel node biopsy was performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 25 T2N0 patients by using lymphoscintigraphy, a gamma ray detection probe, and patent blue dye. Axillary lymph node dissection was performed after chemotherapy if the sentinel node contained metastases. Ten patients had a tumor-positive axillary sentinel node, and one patient had an involved lateral intramammary node. Four patients had additional involved nodes in the completion lymph node dissection specimen. The other 14 patients (56%) had a tumor-negative sentinel node and did not undergo axillary lymph node dissection. No recurrences have been observed after a median follow-up of 18 months. Fourteen (56%) of the 25 patients were spared axillary lymph node dissection when the sentinel node was found to be disease free. Performing sentinel node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy seems successful and reliable in patients with T2N0 breast cancer.

  18. Node-pair reliability of network systems with small distances between adjacent nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    A new method for computing the node-pair reliability of network systems modeled by random graphs with nodes arranged in sequence is presented. It is based on a recursive algorithm using the 'sliding window' technique, the window being composed of several consecutive nodes. In a single step, the connectivity probabilities for all nodes included in the window are found. Subsequently, the window is moved one node forward. This process is repeated until, in the last step, the window reaches the terminal node. The connectivity probabilities found at that point are used to compute the node-pair reliability of the network system considered. The algorithm is designed especially for graphs with small distances between adjacent nodes, where the distance between two nodes is defined as the absolute value of the difference between the nodes' numbers. The maximal distance between any two adjacent nodes is denoted by Γ(G), where G symbolizes a random graph. If Γ(G)=2 then the method can be applied for directed as well as undirected graphs whose nodes and edges are subject to failure. This is important in view of the fact that many algorithms computing network reliability are designed for graphs with failure-prone edges and reliable nodes. If Γ(G)=3 then the method's applicability is limited to undirected graphs with reliable nodes. The main asset of the presented algorithms is their low numerical complexity-O(n), where n denotes the number of nodes

  19. Anxiety/Depression and Hostility/Suspiciousness in Adolescent Boys: Testing Adherence to Honor Code as Mediator of Callousness and Attachment Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Lior Y.; Elizur, Yoel

    2012-01-01

    Research of psychological distress (PD) needs to differentiate between anxiety/depression and hostility/suspiciousness, which are associated with different motivational systems. In this study, structural equation modeling was used to test two hypothesized models for the prediction of each facet of PD. Hypotheses were proposed about the effects of…

  20. Lymphoscintigraphic diagnosis of the lymph node metastasis of esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terui, Shoji; Kawai, Hideo; Hirashima, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kato, Hoichi; Iizuka, Norifumi

    1985-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled rhenium sulfur colloid was performed preoperatively in 30 patients with esopohageal cancer. It showed hot nodes in a total of 267 lymph nodes, 176 mediastinal nodes and 91 celiac artery nodes. Of these 267 nodes, 47 (18 %) were found to have metastasis, including 34 (19 %) mediastinal nodes and 13 (14 %) celiac artery nodes. On the other hand, the number of non-visualized lymph nodes (cold nodes) was 542. Of them, 78 (14 %) had metastasis; 46 (15 %) were mediastinal nodes and 32 (14 %) were celiac artery nodes. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Localizing and placement of network node functions in a network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meulenhoff, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The invention enables placement and use of a network node function in a second network node instead of using the network node function in a first network node. The network node function is e.g. a server function or a router function. The second network node is typically located in or close to the

  2. The hidden sentinel node in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanis, P.J.; Sandick, J.W. van; Nieweg, O.E.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Kroon, B.B.R.; Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of non-visualisation during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in breast cancer. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 495 clinically node-negative breast cancer patients (501 sentinel node procedures) after injection of technetium-99m nanocolloid. Anterior and prone lateral (hanging breast) planar images were obtained a few minutes and 4 h after injection. The sentinel node was intraoperatively identified with the aid of patent blue dye and a gamma-ray detection probe. A sentinel node was visualised on the 4-h images in 449 of 501 procedures (90%). This visualisation rate improved from 76% to 94% during the study period. Delayed imaging (5-23 h) in 19 patients whose sentinel nodes failed to show, resulted in visualisation in four of them. A repeat injection of radiocolloid in 11 patients revealed a sentinel node in six. In the end, the visualisation rate was 92%. The sentinel node was surgically retrieved in 24 of the remaining 42 patients with non-visualisation (57%). Sentinel nodes that were visualised were tumour-positive in 38% and non-visualised sentinel nodes were involved in 50% (χ 2 , P=0.17). In a multivariate regression analysis, scintigraphic non-visualisation was independently associated with increased patient age (P<0.001), decreased tracer dose (P<0.001) and increased number of tumour-positive lymph nodes (P=0.013). The use of a sufficient amount of radioactivity (at least 100 MBq) is recommended for lymphatic mapping in breast cancer, especially in elderly women. Delayed imaging and re-injection of the radioactive tracer increase the visualisation rate. The non-visualised sentinel node can be identified intraoperatively in more than half of the patients. (orig.)

  3. The hidden sentinel node in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanis, P.J.; Sandick, J.W. van; Nieweg, O.E.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Kroon, B.B.R. [Department of Surgery, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of non-visualisation during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in breast cancer. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 495 clinically node-negative breast cancer patients (501 sentinel node procedures) after injection of technetium-99m nanocolloid. Anterior and prone lateral (hanging breast) planar images were obtained a few minutes and 4 h after injection. The sentinel node was intraoperatively identified with the aid of patent blue dye and a gamma-ray detection probe. A sentinel node was visualised on the 4-h images in 449 of 501 procedures (90%). This visualisation rate improved from 76% to 94% during the study period. Delayed imaging (5-23 h) in 19 patients whose sentinel nodes failed to show, resulted in visualisation in four of them. A repeat injection of radiocolloid in 11 patients revealed a sentinel node in six. In the end, the visualisation rate was 92%. The sentinel node was surgically retrieved in 24 of the remaining 42 patients with non-visualisation (57%). Sentinel nodes that were visualised were tumour-positive in 38% and non-visualised sentinel nodes were involved in 50% ({chi}{sup 2}, P=0.17). In a multivariate regression analysis, scintigraphic non-visualisation was independently associated with increased patient age (P<0.001), decreased tracer dose (P<0.001) and increased number of tumour-positive lymph nodes (P=0.013). The use of a sufficient amount of radioactivity (at least 100 MBq) is recommended for lymphatic mapping in breast cancer, especially in elderly women. Delayed imaging and re-injection of the radioactive tracer increase the visualisation rate. The non-visualised sentinel node can be identified intraoperatively in more than half of the patients. (orig.)

  4. Gammascintigraphy of metastases of the lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shishkina, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    It was indicated that according to the degree of informative value all the methods used in this study can be listed as follows: the method of combined use of positive and negative scintigraphy, the method of positive scintigraphy with Ga 67 -citrate (the tymph nodes above the diagram) and Tc 99 -pertechnate (the lymph nodes below the diaphragm), the method of indirect radionuclide lymphography with colloids. The main indices of radionuclide methods in the diagnosis of the lymph node metastatic involvement are presented

  5. The complex network reliability and influential nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; He, Yongfeng

    2017-08-01

    In order to study the complex network node important degree and reliability, considering semi-local centrality, betweenness centrality and PageRank algorithm, through the simulation method to gradually remove nodes and recalculate the importance in the random network, small world network and scale-free network. Study the relationship between the largest connected component and node removed proportion, the research results show that betweenness centrality and PageRank algorithm based on the global information network are more effective for evaluating the importance of nodes, and the reliability of the network is related to the network topology.

  6. Clinical utility of routine pre-operative axillary ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology in patient selection for sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattay, T; Muttalib, M; Khalifa, E; Duncan, A; Parker, S J

    2012-04-01

    In patients with operable breast cancer, pre-operative evaluation of the axilla may be of use in the selection of appropriate axillary surgery. Pre-operative axillary ultrasound (US) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) assessments have become routine practice in many breast units, although the evidence base is still gathering. This study assessed the clinical utility of US+/-FNAC in patient selection for either axillary node clearance (ANC) or sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients undergoing surgery for operable breast cancer. Over a two-year period, 348 patients with a clinically negative axilla underwent axillary US. 67 patients with suspicious nodes on US also underwent FNAC. The sensitivity and specificity of axillary investigations to determine nodal involvement were 56% (confidence interval: 47-64%) and 90% (84-93%) for US alone, and 76% (61-87%) and 100% (65-100%) for FNAC combined with US, respectively. With a positive US, the post-test probability was 78%. A negative US carried a post-test probability of 25%. When FNAC was positive, the post-test probability was greater than unity. A negative FNAC yielded a post-test probability of 52%. All patients with positive FNAC and most patients with suspicious US were listed for axillary node clearance (ANC) after consideration at the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meeting. With pre-operative axillary US+/-FNAC, 20% of patients were saved a potential second axillary procedure, facilitating a reduction in the overall re-operation rate to 12%. In this study, a positive pre-operative US+/-FNAC directs patients towards ANC. When the result is negative, other clinico-pathological factors need to be taken into account in the selection of the appropriate axillary procedure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sentinel node concept in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiricuta, I.C. [St. Vincenz-Hospital, Limburg (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Oncology

    2000-07-01

    Background/purpose: It seems that there exists a specific lymph node center called sentinel node (SN) which appears to be the primary site of metastases. The sentinel node concept (SNC) is fundamentally based on the orderly progression of tumor cells within the lymphatic system. It is the most important new concept in surgical and radiation oncology. The purpose is to present the biological significance, the diagnostic and clinical basis of the sentinel node concept in breast cancer patients. Material and methods: Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe biopsy is necessary to show predictable lymph flow to the regional sentinel node, to multiple sentinel nodes or unpredictable lymph flow to extra-regional sentinel nodes and for performing sentinel node procedure. The standard protocol for the evaluation of the sentinel node metastases consists of extensive histopathological investigation including step Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stained sections and immunohistochemistry. Results: A high rate of success of the identification of the sentinel node for breast cancer was reported. The presence or absence of metastasis in this node is a very accurate predictor of overall nodal status. The temptation to examine the sentinel node with the greatest possible degree of accuracy highlights one of the major problems related to sentinel node biopsy. The success of the sentinel node procedure depends primarily on the adequate functional capacity necessary for sufficient uptake to ensure the accurate identification. In negative sentinel-node patients a complete axillary lymph node dissection is avoidable. In sentinel-node positive patients and clinically negative patients a postoperative radiotherapy would permit an adequate tumor control. The last 2-procedures permit a low morbidity. In the actual TNM classification it was recently introduced a definition of a 'pN0' patient based on sentinel node biopsy. New target volumes are defined for adjuvant radiotherapy or

  8. Sentinel Node Biopsy Alone versus Completion Axillary Node Dissection in Node Positive Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients with positive sentinel node as the study sample were included in the meta-analysis using the reported hazard ratios with a fixed effect model. Results. Three randomised controlled trials and five retrospective studies were identified. The pooled effect for overall survival was HR 0.94, 95% CI [0.79, 1.19], and for disease free survival was HR 0.83, 95% CI [0.60, 1.14]. The reported rates for locoregional recurrence were similar in both groups. The surgical morbidity was found to be significantly more in patients who had underwent axillary dissection. Conclusion. Amongst patients with micrometastasis in the sentinel node, no further axillary dissection is necessary. For patients with macrometastasis in the sentinel node, it is reasonable to consider omitting axillary dissection to avoid the morbidity of the procedure.

  9. Male occult breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastasis as the first manifestation: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruixin; Li, Jianbin; Zhang, Yingjie; Jing, Hongbiao; Zhu, Youzhe

    2017-12-01

    Occult breast cancer (OBC) is extremely rare in males with neither symptoms in the breast nor abnormalities upon imaging examination. This current case report presents a young male patient who was diagnosed with male OBC first manifesting as axillary lymph node metastasis. The physical and imaging examination showed no primary lesions in either breasts or in other organs. The pathological results revealed infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the axillary lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), cytokeratin (CK)20 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), positive for CK7, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and suspicious positive for human epidermal receptor-2 (Her-2). On basis of IHC markers, particularly such as CK7, CK20 and GCDFP-15, and eliminating other malignancies, male OBC was identified in spite of negativity for hormone receptors. The patient underwent left axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) but not mastectomy. After the surgery, the patient subsequently underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is currently being followed up without any signs of recurrence. Carefully imaging examination and pathological analysis were particularly essential in the diagnosis of male OBC. The guidelines for managing male OBC default to those of female OBC and male breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Penile Cancer: Contemporary Lymph Node Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jonathan S; Perera, Marlon; Manning, Todd; Bozin, Mike; Cabarkapa, Sonja; Chen, Emily; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    In penile cancer, the optimal diagnostics and management of metastatic lymph nodes are not clear. Advances in minimally invasive staging, including dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy, have widened the diagnostic repertoire of the urologist. We aimed to provide an objective update of the recent trends in the management of penile squamous cell carcinoma, and inguinal and pelvic lymph node metastases. We systematically reviewed several medical databases, including the Web of Science® (with MEDLINE®), Embase® and Cochrane databases, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The search terms used were penile cancer, lymph node, sentinel node, minimally invasive, surgery and outcomes, alone and in combination. Articles pertaining to the management of lymph nodes in penile cancer were reviewed, including original research, reviews and clinical guidelines published between 1980 and 2016. Accurate and minimally invasive lymph node staging is of the utmost importance in the surgical management of penile squamous cell carcinoma. In patients with clinically node negative disease, a growing body of evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsies. Dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy exposes the patient to minimal risk, and results in superior sensitivity and specificity profiles compared to alternate nodal staging techniques. In the presence of locoregional disease, improvements in inguinal or pelvic lymphadenectomy have reduced morbidity and improved oncologic outcomes. A multimodal approach of chemotherapy and surgery has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with advanced disease. Recent developments in lymph node management have occurred in penile cancer, such as minimally invasive lymph node diagnosis and intervention strategies. These advances have been met with a degree of controversy in the contemporary literature. Current data suggest that dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy provides excellent

  11. Enhancement characteristics of retroperitoneal lymphomatous lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagtvedt, Trond; Smith, Hans-Joergen; Kolbenstvedt, Alf; Aaloekken, Trond Mogens; Graff, Bjoern Anton; Holte, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of CT enhancement of lymphomatous lymph nodes (LLN) of the neck and the mediastinum showed that the LLN had lower enhancement values than normal lymph nodes. Purpose: To elucidate the contrast medium enhancement curves of LLN in the retroperitoneum by comparing the curves of LLN with those of normal lymph nodes, to test whether differences between these curves could be of diagnostic value, and to compare the present enhancement curves of LLN of the retroperitoneum with the curves of LLN of the neck and the mediastinum from previous similar investigations. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with LLN of the retroperitoneum (three with Hodgkin's lymphoma [HL]) and 21 control patients with sarcomas and thus presumably normal retroperitoneal nodes underwent dynamic CT examinations. The previous, similar investigation of lymph nodes of the neck comprised 28 patients with LLN and the investigation of mediastinal lymph nodes comprised 24 patients with LLN. Results: The enhancement curves of the retroperitoneal LLN had significantly lower attenuation than those of the retroperitoneal control nodes. A combination of peak contrast value and time to peak adjusted to total body weight yielded a diagnostic accuracy which at the best showed a sensitivity of 90.5% with a specificity of 82.6%. The LLN of the retroperitoneum had higher attenuation values than corresponding nodes of the mediastinum but no significant difference was found between LLN of the retroperitoneum and LLN of the neck in previous similar investigations. Conclusion: The comparison of enhancement curves of retroperitoneal LLN with retroperitoneal control nodes showed a marked similarity with and substantiates our previous findings in lymph nodes of the neck and of the mediastinum. The best diagnostic accuracy was achieved by combining the parameters peak contrast value and time to peak and adjusting these values to the body weight. Peak enhancement of the

  12. Technetium-99m-tetrofosmin in diagnosis of breast cancer and axillary lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaukovic, Dj.; Ajdinovic, B.Z.; Jankovic, Z. D.; Strbac, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of breast cancer seeking agent Tc-99m-Tetrofosmin in the detection of breast malignancy and axillary lymph node metastases. Twenty-eight female patients (mean age 52.4) with 30 breast lesions suspected of malignancy were enrolled in the study. All the patients underwent clinical investigation, Tc-99m Tetrofosmin scintimammography (SMM), mammography (MM) and biopsy/surgery for final histopathologic diagnosis. Patients were injected intravenously with 555 MBq of Tc-99m Tetrofosmin, cubitally, in the contralateral arm to the side of suspicious lesion. Seven minute static scans or at least 2.0 million counts were obtained using single head gamma camera (Orbiter 75, Siemens). Planar images were acquired in left and right prone lateral view as well as in the supine position for an anterior view of chest and axillary region. SMM scans of 30 breast lesions were compared to the definitive histopathology findings (HP) using decision matrix. In the group of 23 patients with positive SMM scans 19 had breast malignancy: 15 infiltrating ductal cancer, three patients with one infiltrating lobular, one papillary, one colloidal cancer and one patient with cystosarcoma phyllodes-malignant type. SMM detected primary breast malignancy with 95% sensitivity, 60% specificity and 83% accuracy. Axillary dissection was performed in 19/20 with malignant disease. The number of lymph nodes extracted and HP evaluated varied from 4 to 23 per patient. Metastatic involvement was confirmed by HP in 9 out of 20 patients. SMM detected axillary metastases with 55% sensitivity and 80% accuracy. Our results showed that SMM might be useful as a complementary test to improve the sensitivity and specificity of conventional imaging modalities, although SMM in the staging of breast carcinoma was less reliable. Further studies to evaluate the role of SMM in metastatic node involvement are necessary. (author)

  13. Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC with the standardized uptake value (SUV in lymph node metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients using hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Michael Schaarschmidt

    Full Text Available To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC in lymph node metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients with standardized uptake values (SUV derived from combined 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (18F-FDG PET/MRI.38 patients with histopathologically proven NSCLC (mean age 60.1 ± 9.5 y received whole-body PET/CT (Siemens mCT™ 60 min after injection of a mean dose of 280 ± 50 MBq 18F-FDG and subsequent PET/MRI (mean time after tracer injection: 139 ± 26 min, Siemens Biograph mMR. During PET acquisition, simultaneous diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, b values: 0, 500, 1000 s/mm² was performed. A maximum of 10 lymph nodes per patient suspicious for malignancy were analyzed. Regions of interest (ROI were drawn covering the entire lymph node on the attenuation-corrected PET-image and the monoexponential ADC-map. According to histopathology or radiological follow-up, lymph nodes were classified as benign or malignant. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for all lymph node metastases correlating SUVmax and SUVmean with ADCmean.A total of 146 suspicious lymph nodes were found in 25 patients. One hundred lymph nodes were eligible for final analysis. Ninety-one lymph nodes were classified as malignant and 9 as benign according to the reference standard. In malignant lesions, mean SUVmax was 9.1 ± 3.8 and mean SUVmean was 6.0 ± 2.5 while mean ADCmean was 877.0 ± 128.6 x10(-5 mm²/s in PET/MRI. For all malignant lymph nodes, a weak, inverse correlation between SUVmax and ADCmean as well as SUVmean and ADCmean (r = -0.30, p<0.05 and r = -0.36, p<0.05 existed.The present data show a weak inverse correlation between increased glucose-metabolism and cellularity in lymph node metastases of NSCLC patients. 18F-FDG-PET and DWI thus may offer complementary information for the evaluation of treatment response in lymph node metastases of NSCLC.

  14. Localized Lymph Node Light Chain Amyloidosis

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    Binod Dhakal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin-derived light chain amyloidosis can occasionally be associated with localized disease. We present a patient with localized lymph node light chain amyloidosis without an underlying monoclonal protein or lymphoproliferative disorder and review the literature of lymph node amyloidosis discussing work-up and risk factors for systemic progression.

  15. Sentinel lymph node identification with magnetic nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, Joost Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Most solid malignancies have a tendency to spread through the lymphatic system to locoregional lymph nodes. Presence of metastasis is an important prognostic factor, and is used to determine the optimal treatment of the patient. The sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) receive direct lymphatic drainage from

  16. Testnodes: a Lightweight node-testing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, R; Bland, J

    2014-01-01

    A key aspect of ensuring optimum cluster reliability and productivity lies in keeping worker nodes in a healthy state. Testnodes is a lightweight node testing solution developed at Liverpool. While Nagios has been used locally for general monitoring of hosts and services, Testnodes is optimised to answer one question: is there any reason this node should not be accepting jobs? This tight focus enables Testnodes to inspect nodes frequently with minimal impact and provide a comprehensive and easily extended check with each inspection. On the server side, Testnodes, implemented in python, interoperates with the Torque batch server to control the nodes production status. Testnodes remotely and in parallel executes client-side test scripts and processes the return codes and output, adjusting the node's online/offline status accordingly to preserve the integrity of the overall batch system. Testnodes reports via log, email and Nagios, allowing a quick overview of node status to be reviewed and specific node issues to be identified and resolved quickly. This presentation will cover testnodes design and implementation, together with the results of its use in production at Liverpool, and future development plans.

  17. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinWu Cui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  18. Sentinel lymph node imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Tae

    1999-01-01

    Currently, dissection of the axillary or regional lymph nodes is considered the standard staging procedure in breast cancer. However, accumulating evidence is becoming available that the sentinel node concept may provide the same or even better staging information. In the case of melanoma, it is proven that the histological characteristics of the sentinel node reflect the histological characteristics of the distal part of the lymphatic basin. Morbidity can be reduced significantly by the use of sentinel node dissection as several authors have reported successful introduction of this technique into clinical practice. But in breast cancer patients, there are significant differences in practice relating to the technology, such as radiopharmaceuticals, injection sites, volume of injectate, combination with vital blue dye, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, etc. Valuable reports on these topics appeared in recent journals. This review is a summary of those reports for nuclear physicians interested in sentinel node detection by lymphoscintigraphy in breast cancer patients

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howman-Giles, R.

    2002-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an important technique in the management of patients with intermediate level melanoma, clinical operable breast cancer and some other cancers. The technique relies on lymphatic mapping to define the lymph drainage from a primary tumour with the premise that the lymph nodes, which directly drain from that area, will reflect the tumour status of the remainder of the node field. Current techniques use lymphoscintigraphy where a radioactive labelled particle and / or blue dye are injected intradermally or intraparenchymally to map the lymph drainage, often in conjunction with a radioactive gamma probe at surgery. In patients with melanoma the SLNB has improved the staging and prognostic information by more accurate determination of whether regional lymph nodes have metastatic spread. This has a major impact on patient management as those patients with negative nodes do not require regional lymph node dissection and have a significantly better prognosis. In our experience of over 3000 patients the combined sentinel node biopsy technique localised accurately 98% of sentinel lymph nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy in patients with melanoma to locate the sentinel lymph nodes involves the intradermal injection of a radiocolloid around the melanoma site or the excision biopsy site. Injections of 5 -10 MBq in 0.05-0.1ml/inj are used and typically 4 injections are usually required. Following tracer injection dynamic imaging is performed to follow the lymphatic collecting vessels until they reach the draining sentinel nodes. An image should be acquired as the vessels reach the node field so that the sentinel nodes directly receiving the channels can be identified and distinguished from any second tier nodes which may sometimes be seen. Delayed scans are performed 2 hours later at which time all regions which can possible drain the primary melanoma site are examined with 5-10 minute static images. The surface location of all sentinel nodes is

  20. Presence of histopathological premalignant lesions and infection caused by high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus in patients with suspicious cytological and colposcopy results: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Mileta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In patients with premalignant cervical lesions, human papillomavirus (HPV infection, at any moment, may be spontaneously eliminated, or may persist or transform cervical epithelium from a lower to a higher degree. Due to that, it is necessary to wisely select the patients who are at high risk of cancer development. The aim of the study was to establish the interdependence between a suspicious Papanicolaou (Pap test and colposcopy with the infection caused by high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus and the presence of premalignant cervical lesions. Methods. This prospective study used cytological, colposcopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR of high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus and histopathological analysis of cervical biopsy specimen. Out of 2,578 female patients sent to cytological analyses in Clinical Center of Montenegro, during 2012, 2013 and 2014, the study included 80 women who had to submit their biopsy specimens due to a suspicious Pap test and atypical colposcopy results. Results. In the group of 80 (3.1%; n = 80/2,578 of the selected female patients with suspicious Pap test and colposcopy, 2/3 or 56 (70% of them had cervicitis, and 1/3 or 24 (30% had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The most common type in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was HPV16 in 8 female patients, ie 61.53% out of the number of infected, or 33.33% out of the total number of premalignant lesions. Conclusion. Patients with suspicious Papanicolaou test, colposcopy results and infection which is caused by high-risk HPV infection (HPV 16 in particular often have premalignant cervical lesions. In these cases, histopathological confirmation of lesions is mandatory, since it serves as a definitive diagnostic procedure.

  1. Isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma with clinically node-negative neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sangeet Kumar; Arora, Sowrabh Kumar; Kumar, Gopal; Sarin, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of occult perifacial nodal disease in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is not well reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The study will shed light on current controversies and will provide valuable clinical and pathological information in the practice of routine comprehensive removal of these lymph node pads in selective neck dissection in the node-negative neck. Prospective analysis. This study was started in August 2011 when intraoperatively we routinely separated the lymph node levels from the main specimen for evaluation of the metastatic rate to different lymph node levels in 231 patients of oral squamous cell cancer with a clinically node-negative neck. The current study demonstrated that 19 (8.22%) out of 231 patients showed ipsilateral isolated perifacial lymph node involvement. The incidence of isolated perifacial nodes did not differ significantly between the oral tongue (7.14%) and buccal mucosa (7.75%). Incidence was statistically significant in cases with lower age group (oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The incidence of isolated perifacial involvement is high in cases of buccal mucosal and tongue cancers. A meticulous dissection of the perifacial nodes seems prudent when treating the neck in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2252-2256, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Subcategorization of Suspicious Breast Lesions (BI-RADS Category 4) According to MRI Criteria: Role of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltez de Almeida, João Ricardo; Gomes, André Boechat; Barros, Thomas Pitangueira; Fahel, Paulo Eduardo; de Seixas Rocha, Mário

    2015-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is adequate for subcategorization of suspicious lesions (BI-RADS category 4) and to evaluate whether use of DWI improves diagnostic performance. The study group was composed of 103 suspicious lesions found in 83 subjects. Patient ages and lesion sizes were compiled, and two radiologists reanalyzed the images; subcategorized the findings as BI-RADS 4A, 4B, or 4C; and calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The stratified variables were tested by univariate analysis and inserted in two multivariate predictive models, which were used to generate ROC curves and compare AUCs. Positive predictive values (PPVs) for each subcategory and ADC level were calculated, and interobserver agreement was tested. Forty-four (42.7%) suspicious findings proved malignant. Except for age (p = 0.08), all stratified predictor variables were significant in univariate analyses (p BI-RADS 4 subcategory (4A, 0.15; 4B, 0.37; 4C, 0.84). ADC values of 1.10 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s or less had the second highest PPV (0.77). Interobserver agreement was substantial at a kappa value of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.70-0.90; p BI-RADS category 4) can be satisfactorily performed with DCE-MRI and slightly improved when DWI is introduced.

  3. Qualitative and Semiquantitative Elastography for the Diagnosis of Intermediate Suspicious Thyroid Nodules Based on the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo Ra; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Park, Vivian Y; Kwak, Jin Young

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate qualitative and semiquantitative elastography for the diagnosis of intermediate suspicious thyroid nodules based on the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines. Through a retrospective search of our institutional database, 746 solid thyroid nodules found on grayscale ultrasonography, strain elastography, and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration between June and November 2009 were collected. Among them, 80 nodules from 80 patients with an intermediate suspicion of malignancy based on the 2015 ATA guidelines that were 10 mm or larger were recruited as the final study nodules. Elastographic findings were categorized according to the criteria of Rago et al (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92:2917-2922) and Asteria et al (Thyroid 2008; 18:523-531), and strain ratio values were calculated and recorded. The independent 2-sample t test and χ 2 test (or Fisher exact test) were used to evaluate differences in clinical parameters between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. All variables were compared by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 80 nodules, 6 (7.5%) were malignant, and 74 (92.5%) were benign. No significant differences were observed in age, sex, nodule size, elasticity score, and strain ratio between benign and malignant nodules. No variables significantly predicted thyroid malignancy on the univariate analysis. On the multivariate logistic regression analysis, there were no independent variables associated with thyroid malignancy, including the elasticity score and strain ratio (all P > .05). Elastographic analysis using the elasticity score and strain ratio has limited ability to characterize the benignity or malignancy of thyroid nodules with an intermediate suspicion of malignancy based on the 2015 ATA guidelines. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Clinical and molecular profile of newborns with confirmed or suspicious congenital adrenal hyperplasia detected after a public screening program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacek, Cristiane; Prado, Mayara J; da Silva, Claudia M D; de Castro, Simone M; Beltrão, Luciana A; Vargas, Paula R; Grandi, Tarciana; Rossetti, Maria L R; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2018-04-30

    To describe the results obtained in a neonatal screening program after its implementation and to assess the clinical and molecular profiles of confirmed and suspicious congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Newborns with suspected disease due to high 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels and adjusted for birth weight were selected. Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (salt-wasting and simple virilizing forms) was diagnosed by an increase in 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels as confirmed in the retest, clinical evaluation, and genotype determined by SNaPshot and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. After 24 months, 15 classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases were diagnosed in a total of 217,965 newborns, with an estimated incidence of 1:14,531. From 132 patients, seven non-classical and 14 heterozygous patients were screened for CYP21A2 mutations, and 96 patients presented false positives with wild type CYP21A2. On retest, increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were found in classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients and showed significant correlation with genotype-related classical genital adrenal hyperplasia. The most frequent mutations were IVS2-13A/C>G followed by gene deletion or rearrangement events in the classical form. In non-classical and heterozygous diseases, p.Val282Leu was the most common mutation. The results underscore the effectiveness of congenital adrenal hyperplasia neonatal screening in the public health system and indicate that the adopted strategy was appropriate. The second sample collection along with genotyping of suspected cases helped to properly diagnose both severe and milder cases and delineate them from false positive patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  5. The Usefulness of the Transabdominal Ultrasonography as a Screening Examination in the Evaluation of the Patient with Suspicious Gastric Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Park, Seong Jin; Nam, Deok Ho; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young; Jeong, Du Shin; Chung, Il Kwun [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening examination in patients with suspicious gastric disease. We selected 141 patients with epigastric pain and who were found to have antral gastric wall thickening of more than 5 mm in transabdominal ultrasonography, and who underwent gastroscopy immediately following the ultrasonography examination, because we suspected that these patients had gastric disease. We measured the full thickness of the five layers of the gastric wall and evaluated the preservation of this five layered structure. We respectively compared the gastric wall thickness and the preservation of gastric layers in 26 normal, 91 gastritis, 12 gastric ulcer, and 12 gastric cancer patients, who were classified based on the gastroscopy results. The mean thicknesses of the gastric wall in the normal, gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer patients were 5.13{+-}0.14 mm, 6.71{+-}1.33 mm, 8.08{+-}2.80 mm, and 12.45{+-}3.70 mm, respectively. The gastric walls in the gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer patients were significantly thicker than that in the normal patients (p < 0.01). The gastric wall in the gastric cancer patients was significantly thicker than those in the gastritis and gastric ulcer patients (p < 0.01). However, the difference in the gastric wall thickness between the gastritis and gastric ulcer patients was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Except for two patients with gastritis and three patients with gastric ulcer, the stratification of the gastric wall was preserved in all of the normal, gastritis and gastric ulcer patients, whereas it was disrupted in all of the patients with gastric cancer. Transabdominal ultrasonography in the fasting state may be a helpful and convenient modality, which can serve as a screening examination in the evaluation of gastric disease. Therefore, careful attention and effort are needed to evaluate the gastric wall during transabdominal ultrasonography

  6. Retrospective analysis of suspicious pelvic masses using the Pelvic Mass Index (PMI) scoring system from 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Anju; Drews, Florian; Lim, Kenneth; Pugh, Neil D

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to validate the accuracy of the Pelvic Mass Index (PMI) by comparing it with Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) in a large patient cohort. This retrospective study used data of women with ovarian masses collected from 2007 to 2014, referred to the Pelvic Mass Clinic (PMC) at University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff. The locally developed PMI was used to triage patients for surgery, surveillance or discharge. Performance measures for PMI, RMI and CA125 are reported as sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) for premenopausal and postmenopausal women alike. PMI was calculated on 1468 patients of whom 497 underwent surgery, 176 (71.0%) were in the high risk group, 63 (68.0%) intermediate and 258 (23%) amongst low risk women. Compared to RMI, PMI had a higher sensitivity (90.4%) and NPV (96.9%) for the entire cohort, as well as in the premenopausal (88.9%; 97.6%) and postmenopausal (91.5%; 95.6%) subcategories. ROC curves indicated better performance in the total group (AUC 0.823 vs. 0.770) and the premenopausal group (AUC 0.847 vs. 0.728), though AUC in the postmenopausal group was similar (0.779 vs. 0.791) - likely due to increased specificity of CA125 after menopause. Histology revealed PMI significantly outperforms RMI in diagnosing malignancy, missing only 1 compared to 20 cancers. The high sensitivity and NPV of PMI makes it a useful tool in triaging patients with suspicious ovarian masses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Usefulness of the Transabdominal Ultrasonography as a Screening Examination in the Evaluation of the Patient with Suspicious Gastric Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Park, Seong Jin; Nam, Deok Ho; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young; Jeong, Du Shin; Chung, Il Kwun

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening examination in patients with suspicious gastric disease. We selected 141 patients with epigastric pain and who were found to have antral gastric wall thickening of more than 5 mm in transabdominal ultrasonography, and who underwent gastroscopy immediately following the ultrasonography examination, because we suspected that these patients had gastric disease. We measured the full thickness of the five layers of the gastric wall and evaluated the preservation of this five layered structure. We respectively compared the gastric wall thickness and the preservation of gastric layers in 26 normal, 91 gastritis, 12 gastric ulcer, and 12 gastric cancer patients, who were classified based on the gastroscopy results. The mean thicknesses of the gastric wall in the normal, gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer patients were 5.13±0.14 mm, 6.71±1.33 mm, 8.08±2.80 mm, and 12.45±3.70 mm, respectively. The gastric walls in the gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer patients were significantly thicker than that in the normal patients (p 0.01). Except for two patients with gastritis and three patients with gastric ulcer, the stratification of the gastric wall was preserved in all of the normal, gastritis and gastric ulcer patients, whereas it was disrupted in all of the patients with gastric cancer. Transabdominal ultrasonography in the fasting state may be a helpful and convenient modality, which can serve as a screening examination in the evaluation of gastric disease. Therefore, careful attention and effort are needed to evaluate the gastric wall during transabdominal ultrasonography

  8. Node Immunization with Time-Sensitive Restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When we encounter a malicious rumor or an infectious disease outbreak, immunizing k nodes of the relevant network with limited resources is always treated as an extremely effective method. The key challenge is how we can insulate limited nodes to minimize the propagation of those contagious things. In previous works, the best k immunised nodes are selected by learning the initial status of nodes and their strategies even if there is no feedback in the propagation process, which eventually leads to ineffective performance of their solutions. In this paper, we design a novel vaccines placement strategy for protecting much more healthy nodes from being infected by infectious nodes. The main idea of our solution is that we are not only utilizing the status of changing nodes as auxiliary knowledge to adjust our scheme, but also comparing the performance of vaccines in various transmission slots. Thus, our solution has a better chance to get more benefit from these limited vaccines. Extensive experiments have been conducted on several real-world data sets and the results have shown that our algorithm has a better performance than previous works.

  9. Defining nodes in complex brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lawrence Stanley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel. The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10-20 millimeter diameter spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the correct method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that

  10. Efficient Graph Computation for Node2Vec

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Dongyan; Niu, Songjie; Chen, Shimin

    2018-01-01

    Node2Vec is a state-of-the-art general-purpose feature learning method for network analysis. However, current solutions cannot run Node2Vec on large-scale graphs with billions of vertices and edges, which are common in real-world applications. The existing distributed Node2Vec on Spark incurs significant space and time overhead. It runs out of memory even for mid-sized graphs with millions of vertices. Moreover, it considers at most 30 edges for every vertex in generating random walks, causin...

  11. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  12. The potential of liquid-based cytology in lymph node cytological evaluation: the role of morphology and the aid of ancillary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, E D; Martini, M; Straccia, P; Bizzarro, T; Fadda, G; Larocca, L M

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) on lymph node fine needle aspiration (FNA). FNA may fulfil a challenging role in the evaluation of the majority of primary (benign and malignant) diagnoses as well as metastatic lymph node lesions. Although the morphological features may be quite easily recognized, cytological samples with a scant cellular component may raise some issues. We appraised 263 cytological lymph nodes from different body regions analysed between January and December 2013, including 137 male and 126 female patients, and processed with LBC. The cytological diagnoses included 160 benign and 103 malignant lesions. We reported 35 benign and 73 malignant lesions from 108 with surgical follow-up. The latter malignant series included 68 metastatic lesions, four suspicious for malignancy and one inadequate sample. The cytological diagnoses were supported by 62 conclusive immunocytochemical and 28 molecular analyses. Of the 108 cases, we documented 35 true negatives, 72 true positives, one false negative and no false positives, resulting in 98.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 99% diagnostic accuracy, 97.2% negative predictive value and 100% positive predictive value. FNA represents the first diagnostic tool in lymph node management and a reliable approach in order to avoid an excision biopsy. Furthermore, LBC is a feasible method for ancillary tests for which methanol-fixed samples are suitable, such as immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. phylo-node: A molecular phylogenetic toolkit using Node.js.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2017-01-01

    Node.js is an open-source and cross-platform environment that provides a JavaScript codebase for back-end server-side applications. JavaScript has been used to develop very fast and user-friendly front-end tools for bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses. However, no such toolkits are available using Node.js to conduct comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. To address this problem, I have developed, phylo-node, which was developed using Node.js and provides a stable and scalable toolkit that allows the user to perform diverse molecular and phylogenetic tasks. phylo-node can execute the analysis and process the resulting outputs from a suite of software options that provides tools for read processing and genome alignment, sequence retrieval, multiple sequence alignment, primer design, evolutionary modeling, and phylogeny reconstruction. Furthermore, phylo-node enables the user to deploy server dependent applications, and also provides simple integration and interoperation with other Node modules and languages using Node inheritance patterns, and a customized piping module to support the production of diverse pipelines. phylo-node is open-source and freely available to all users without sign-up or login requirements. All source code and user guidelines are openly available at the GitHub repository: https://github.com/dohalloran/phylo-node.

  14. ARC Code TI: NodeMon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NodeMon is a resource utilization monitor tailored to the Altix architecture, but is applicable to any Linux system or cluster. It allows distributed resource...

  15. Resilience against Misbehaving Nodes in Asynchronous Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Senejohnny, D.; Sundaram, S.; De Persis, C.; Tesi, P.

    2018-01-01

    Network systems are one of the most active research areas in the engineering community as they feature a paradigm shift from centralized to distributed control and computation. When dealing with network systems, a fundamental challenge is to ensure their functioning even when some of the network nodes do not operate as intended due to faults or attacks. The objective of this paper is to address the problem of resilient consensus in a context where the nodes have their own clocks, possibly ope...

  16. Node insertion in Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Srijanani Anurag

    2013-01-01

    The Iterated Function System (IFS) used in the construction of Coalescence Hidden-variable Fractal Interpolation Function (CHFIF) depends on the interpolation data. The insertion of a new point in a given set of interpolation data is called the problem of node insertion. In this paper, the effect of insertion of new point on the related IFS and the Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function is studied. Smoothness and Fractal Dimension of a CHFIF obtained with a node are also discussed

  17. Neck control after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Na Young; Lee, Keun-Wook; Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Sung; Ah Kim, In

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck control outcomes after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancer. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of fifty patients with node-positive head and neck cancer who received definitive radiochemotherapy. Twelve patients subsequently underwent neck dissection for suspicious recurrent or persistent disease. A median dose of 70 Gy (range 60-70.6) was delivered to involved nodes. Response evaluation was performed at a median of 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Neck failure was observed in 11 patients and the 3-year regional control (RC) rate was 77.1%. Neck dissection was performed in 10 of the 11 patients; seven of these cases were successfully salvaged, and the ultimate rate of neck control was 92%. The remaining two patients who received neck dissection had negative pathologic results. On univariate analysis, initial nodal size > 2 cm, a less-than-complete response at the primary site, post-radiotherapy nodal size > 1.5 cm, and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were associated with RC. On multivariate analysis, less-than-complete primary site response and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were identified as independent prognostic factors for RC. The neck failure rate after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection was 22%. Two-thirds of these were successfully salvaged with neck dissection and the ultimate neck control rate was 92%. Our results suggest that planned neck dissection might not be necessary in patients with complete response of primary site, no evidence of residual lesion > 1.5 cm, or no necrotic lymph nodes at the 1-2 months follow-up evaluation after radiotherapy

  18. Lymph Node Micrometastases are Associated with Worse Survival in Patients with Otherwise Node-Negative Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, Hendrik T. J.; Wiggers, Jim K.; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J.; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Porte, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The

  19. Dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Thomas A [Rochester, MN; Knudson, Brant L [Rochester, MN; Megerian, Mark G [Rochester, MN; Miller, Samuel J [Rochester, MN; Stockdell, William M [Byron, MN

    2012-03-20

    Methods, systems, and products for dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job that include: identifying that a job failed to execute on the block of compute nodes because connectivity failed between a compute node assigned as at least one of the connected nodes for the block of compute nodes and its supporting I/O node; and re-launching the job, including selecting an alternative connected node that is actively coupled for data communications with an active I/O node; and assigning the alternative connected node as the connected node for the block of compute nodes running the re-launched job.

  20. Lymph Node Yield as a Predictor of Survival in Pathologically Node Negative Oral Cavity Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Aaron; Kedarisetty, Suraj; Raju, Sharat; Orosco, Ryan; Coffey, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Even after a pathologically node-negative (pN0) neck dissection for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), patients may develop regional recurrence. In this study, we (1) hypothesize that an increased number of lymph nodes removed (lymph node yield) in patients with pN0 oral SCC predicts improved survival and (2) explore predictors of survival in these patients using a multivariable model. Case series with chart review. Administrative database analysis. The SEER database was queried for patients diagnosed with all-stage oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2009 who were determined to be pN0 after elective lymph node dissection. Demographic and treatment variables were extracted. The association of lymph node yield with 5-year all-cause survival was studied with multivariable survival analyses. A total of 4341 patients with pN0 oral SCC were included in this study. The 2 highest lymph node yield quartiles (representing >22 nodes removed) were found to be significant predictors of overall survival (22-35 nodes: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.854, P = .031; 36-98 nodes: HR = 0.827, P = .010). Each additional lymph node removed during neck dissection was associated with increased survival (HR = 0.995, P = .022). These data suggest that patients with oral SCC undergoing elective neck dissection may experience an overall survival benefit associated with greater lymph node yield. Mechanisms behind the demonstrated survival advantage are unknown. Larger nodal dissections may remove a greater burden of microscopic metastatic disease, diminishing the likelihood of recurrence. Lymph node yield may serve as an objective measure of the adequacy of lymphadenectomy. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  1. Implementation of Multiple Host Nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System for Landslide Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Abas, Faizulsalihin; Takayama, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes multiple host nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System (WSNNS) for landslide monitoring. As landslide disasters damage monitoring system easily, one major demand in landslide monitoring is the flexibility and robustness of the system to evaluate the current situation in the monitored area. For various reasons WSNNS can provide an important contribution to reach that aim. In this system, acceleration sensors and GPS are deployed in sensing nodes. Location information by GPS, enable the system to estimate network topology and enable the system to perceive the location in emergency by monitoring the node mode. Acceleration sensors deployment, capacitate this system to detect slow mass movement that can lead to landslide occurrence. Once deployed, sensing nodes self-organize into an autonomous wireless ad hoc network. The measurement parameter data from sensing nodes is transmitted to Host System via host node and ''Cloud'' System. The implementation of multiple host nodes in Local Sensing Node Network System (LSNNS), improve risk- management of the WSNNS for real-time monitoring of landslide disaster

  2. Implementation of Multiple Host Nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System for Landslide Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Faizulsalihin bin; Takayama, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes multiple host nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System (WSNNS) for landslide monitoring. As landslide disasters damage monitoring system easily, one major demand in landslide monitoring is the flexibility and robustness of the system to evaluate the current situation in the monitored area. For various reasons WSNNS can provide an important contribution to reach that aim. In this system, acceleration sensors and GPS are deployed in sensing nodes. Location information by GPS, enable the system to estimate network topology and enable the system to perceive the location in emergency by monitoring the node mode. Acceleration sensors deployment, capacitate this system to detect slow mass movement that can lead to landslide occurrence. Once deployed, sensing nodes self-organize into an autonomous wireless ad hoc network. The measurement parameter data from sensing nodes is transmitted to Host System via host node and "Cloud" System. The implementation of multiple host nodes in Local Sensing Node Network System (LSNNS), improve risk- management of the WSNNS for real-time monitoring of landslide disaster.

  3. Cumulative impacts: current research and current opinions at PSW

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice

    1987-01-01

    Consideration of cumulative watershed effects (CWEs) has both political and physical aspects. Regardless of the practical usefulness of present methods of dealing with CWEs, the legal requirement to address them remains. Management of federal land is regulated by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. The...

  4. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  5. Eyes with Suspicious Appearance of the Optic Disc and Normal Intraocular Pressure: Using Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics to Differentiate Those with and without Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego T Dias

    Full Text Available Among all glaucoma suspects, eyes with optic nerve head features suspicious or suggestive of early glaucoma are probably those that offer the greatest challenge for clinicians. In contrast with the robust longitudinal data published on ocular hypertension, there is no specific management guideline for these patients. Therefore, evaluating eyes with suspicious optic disc appearance and normal intraocular pressure (IOP, we sought to investigate potential differences in clinical and epidemiological characteristics to differentiate those with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG from those with presumed large physiological optic disc cups (pLPC. In this observational case-control study, we consecutively enrolled individuals with pLPC and NTG. All eyes had vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR≥0.6 and untreated IOP<21 mmHg. Glaucomatous eyes had reproducible visual field defects. Eyes with pLPC required normal visual fields and ≥30 months of follow-up with no evidence of glaucomatous neuropathy. Clinical and epidemiological parameters were compared between groups. Eighty-four individuals with pLPC and 40 NTG patients were included. Regarding our main results, NTG patients were significantly older and with a higher prevalence of Japanese descendants (p<0.01. Not only did pLPC eyes have smaller mean VCDR, but also larger optic discs (p≤0.04. There were no significant differences for gender, central corneal thickness, and spherical equivalent (p≥0.38. Significant odds ratios (OR were found for race (OR = 2.42; for Japanese ancestry, age (OR = 1.05, VCDR (OR = 5.03, and disc size (OR = 0.04; p≤0.04. In conclusion, in patients with suspicious optic disc and normal IOP, those with older age, Japanese ancestry, smaller optic discs, and larger VCDR are more likely to have NTG, and therefore, deserve deeper investigation and closer monitoring.

  6. Value of irradiation of neck nodes metastases. Pt. 1. Treatment of palpable nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujko, K.

    1993-01-01

    Medical records of 222 patients with neck nodes metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of supraglottic larynx, tonsil and base of tongue were analyzed. All cases were treated with definitive irradiation. 110 patients were treated with orthovoltage technique with total doses of 5000-6000 rads, 150-10 rads per fraction; 112 patients with Co-60 with total doses 6000-7000 rads, 180-230 rads per fraction. Local-regional control was achieved in 28% of cases. Failures in the neck nodes with primary tumor controlled, were recorded in 10% of patients. Failures in a primary tumor alone were observed in 26% of patients, in primary tumor and neck nodes in 36%. Radiocurability of primary tumor and involved neck nodes was similar. In cases with primary tumor controlled, the probability of eradication of neck nodes metastases is high, even in N3 stage patients. Residual neck nodes palpable 1 to 3 months after irradiation were unfavorable prognostic factor indicated 50% risk of neck recurrence. In patients with complete regression of primary and nodal disease, failure in neck nodes was recorded in 5% of cases. The role of surgery following irradiation in patients with cervical nodes metastases is discussed. (author)

  7. Fast and Noninvasive Characterization of Suspicious Lesions Detected at Breast Cancer X-Ray Screening: Capability of Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging with MIPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Laun, Frederik B; Tesdorff, Jana; Lederer, Wolfgang; Daniel, Heidi; Stieber, Anne; Delorme, Stefan; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the ability of a diagnostic abbreviated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol consisting of maximum intensity projections (MIPs) from diffusion-weighted imaging with background suppression (DWIBS) and unenhanced morphologic sequences to help predict the likelihood of malignancy on suspicious screening x-ray mammograms, as compared with an abbreviated contrast material-enhanced MR imaging protocol and a full diagnostic breast MR imaging protocol. This prospective institutional review board-approved study included 50 women (mean age, 57.1 years; range, 50-69 years), who gave informed consent and who had suspicious screening mammograms and an indication for biopsy, from September 2014 to January 2015. Before biopsy, full diagnostic contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed that included DWIBS (b = 1500 sec/mm(2)). Two abbreviated protocols (APs) based on MIPs were evaluated regarding the potential to exclude malignancy: DWIBS (AP1) and subtraction images from the first postcontrast and the unenhanced series (AP2). Diagnostic indexes of both methods were examined by using the McNemar test and were compared with those of the full diagnostic protocol and histopathologic findings. Twenty-four of 50 participants had a breast carcinoma. With AP1 (DWIBS), the sensitivity was 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73, 0.98), the specificity was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.99), the negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.99), and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.99). The mean reading time was 29.7 seconds (range, 4.9-110.0 seconds) and was less than 3 seconds (range, 1.2-7.6 seconds) in the absence of suspicious findings on the DWIBS MIPs. With the AP2 protocol, the sensitivity was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95), the specificity was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.97), the NPV was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.95), the PPV was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.97), and the mean reading time was 29.6 seconds (range, 6.0-100.0 seconds). Unenhanced diagnostic

  8. Early experience with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsies under visual transrectal ultrasound guidance in patients suspicious for prostate cancer undergoing repeated biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Noergaard, Nis; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection rate of prostate cancer (PCa) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsies (mp-MRI-bx) in patients with prior negative transrectal ultrasound biopsy (TRUS-bx) sessions without previous experience of this......-RADS) and Likert classification. All underwent repeated TRUS-bx (10 cores) and mp-MRI-bx under visual TRUS guidance of any mp-MRI-suspicious lesion not targeted by systematic TRUS-bx. RESULTS: PCa was found in 39 out of 83 patients (47%) and mp-MRI identified at least one lesion with some degree of suspicion...

  9. Account Deletion Prediction on RuNet: A Case Study of Suspicious Twitter Accounts Active During the Russian-Ukrainian Crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Svitlana; Bell, Eric B.

    2016-06-17

    Social networks are dynamically changing over time e.g., some accounts are being created and some are being deleted or become private. This ephemerality at both an account level and content level results from a combination of privacy concerns, spam, and deceptive behaviors. In this study we analyze a large dataset of 180,340 accounts active during the Russian-Ukrainian crisis to discover a series of predictive features for the removal or shutdown of a suspicious account. We find that unlike previously reported profile and net- work features, lexical features form the basis for highly accurate prediction of the deletion of an account.

  10. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of thenodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarityof nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure toanalyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large...... university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  11. SpicyNodes Radial Map Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The need for information has increased exponentially over the past decades. The current systems for constructing, exploring, classifying, organizing, and searching information face the growing challenge of enabling their users to operate efficiently and intuitively in knowledge-heavy environments. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an advanced user interface for difficult interaction contexts. It is based on an underlying structure known as a radial map, which allows users to manipulate and interact in a natural manner with entities called nodes. This technology overcomes certain limitations of existing solutions and solves the problem of browsing complex sets of linked information. SpicyNodes is also an organic system that projects users into a living space, stimulating exploratory behavior and fostering creative thought. Our interactive radial layout is used for educational purposes and has the potential for numerous other applications.

  12. Node-based analysis of species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon

    2014-01-01

    overrepresentation score (SOS) and the geographic node divergence (GND) score, which together combine ecological and evolutionary patterns into a single framework and avoids many of the problems that characterize community phylogenetic methods in current use.This approach goes through each node in the phylogeny...... with case studies on two groups with well-described biogeographical histories: a local-scale community data set of hummingbirds in the North Andes, and a large-scale data set of the distribution of all species of New World flycatchers. The node-based analysis of these two groups generates a set...... of intuitively interpretable patterns that are consistent with current biogeographical knowledge.Importantly, the results are statistically tractable, opening many possibilities for their use in analyses of evolutionary, historical and spatial patterns of species diversity. The method is implemented...

  13. [Radiotherapy in node-positive prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, D; Bartkowiak, D; Bolenz, C; Wiegel, T

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous randomized trials to guide the management of patients with localized (and metastatic) prostate cancer, but only a few (mostly retrospective) studies have specifically addressed node-positive patients. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding optimal treatment in this situation. Current guidelines recommend long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone or radiotherapy plus long-term ADT as treatment options. This overview summarizes the existing literature on the use of radiotherapy for node-positive prostate cancer as definitive treatment and as adjuvant or salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy. In this context, we also discuss several PET tracers in the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. As for definitive treatment, retrospective studies suggest that ADT plus radiotherapy improves overall survival compared with ADT alone. These studies also consistently demonstrated that many patients with node-positive prostate cancer can achieve long-term survival - and are likely curable - with aggressive therapy. The beneficial impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in patients with pN1 prostate cancer seems to be highly influenced by tumor characteristics. Men with ≤ 2 positive lymph nodes in the presence of intermediate- to high-grade disease, or positive margins, and those with 3 or 4 positive lymph nodes are the ideal candidates for adjuvant radiotherapy (plus long-term ADT) after surgery. There is a need for randomized trials to further examine the potential role of radiotherapy as either definitive or adjuvant treatment, for patients with node-positive prostate cancer.

  14. Towards Interactive, Incremental Programming of ROS Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Marian Sorin; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    Writing software for controlling robots is a complex task, usually demanding command of many programming languages and requiring significant experimentation. We believe that a bottom-up development process that complements traditional component- and MDSD-based approaches can facilitate...... experimentation. We propose the use of an internal DSL providing both a tool to interactively create ROS nodes and a behaviour-replacement mechanism to interactively reshape existing ROS nodes by wrapping the external interfaces (the publish/subscribe topics), dynamically controlled using the Python command line...

  15. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin

    2011-01-01

    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple conventions...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  16. Simultaneous dual pathology in lymph node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakas Kumar Mandal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available [Abstract] Tubercuous lymphadenitis and Non Hodgkins’ Lymphoma are common in India. As both diseases can occur in elderly persons there is a definite chance of co-existence of both diseases; but that coexistence has not been reported. Here we present a unique case in an elderly woman who had synchronous double pathology of tuberculosis (TB and Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma (DLBCL of the lymph nodes.     Key words:- lymph nodes, tuberculosis (TB, Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma (DLBCL.

  17. Magnetization of topological line-node semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikitik, G. P.; Sharlai, Yu. V.

    2018-02-01

    Using an approximate expression for the Landau levels of the electrons located near a nodal line of a topological line-node semimetal, we obtain formulas for the magnetization of this semimetal at an arbitrary shape of its line. It is also shown that the dependence of the chemical potential on the magnetic field can be strong in these materials, and this dependence can essentially influence the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations. The obtained results are applied to the rhombohedral graphite, which is one of the line-node semimetals. For this material, we find temperature and magnetic field dependencies of its magnetic susceptibility.

  18. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  19. Detection of sentinel nodes with radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Kinuya, Seigo; Konishi, Shota; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2000-01-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes have been found to be an indicator of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. In Japan, the theory and concept of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer have begun to be applied to carcinomas of the digestive system. Based on clinical experience in the detection of sentinel lymph nodes with radiopharmaceuticals, differences and similarities between the radiopharmaceuticals, methods, and techniques used to detect sentinel lymph nodes have been assessed in relation to breast cancer and carcinomas of the digestive system (including carcinomas of the esophagus and large intestine). The greatest difference between the methods used for breast and digestive cancers is the site of administration of the radiopharmaceutical. In breast cancer, the radiopharmaceutical is administered into a superficial organ (i.e., the mammary gland), whereas in carcinomas of the digestive system, it is administered into a deep organ (i.e., digestive tract). Another obvious difference is in lymph flow, i.e., the flow of the mammary glands is subcutaneous whereas lymph flow in the digestive tract is submucosal. Two radionuclide diagnostic methods are available to detect sentinel lymph nodes: sentinel lymphoscintigraphy with a gamma camera and a method that involves the use of a gamma probe intraoperatively. Radiopharmaceuticals used to detect sentinel lymph nodes must be smoothly transferred from the site of administration into the lymph, and uptake by the sentinel lymph node must continue for a long time without excessive flowing to lower reaches. The optimal particle size remains a matter of controversy, and no radiopharmaceuticals appropriate for lymphoscintigraphy have ever been approved in Japan. The authors compared the pharmacokinetics of three different radiopharmaceuticals used for sentinel lymphoscintigraphy in breast cancer ( 99m Tc-labeled albumin, 99m Tc-labeled tin colloid, and 99m Tc-labeled phytic acid) and founded that the detection rate was lowest with

  20. Lymphatic drainage and sentinel node location in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.F.; Howman-Giles, R.B.; Roberts, J.; Renwick, S.; Gillett, D.; Neische, F.; Ramsay-Stewart, G.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Mammary lymphoscintigraphy using small volume (0.1-0.2 ml) peritumoral injections of 99 Tc m -antimony sulphide colloid provided a map of the lymph drainage of a breast cancer to its draining sentinel lymph nodes in 92 of 102 patients (over 90%). Non-migration of tracer is reduced by post-injection massage for 5 min but may occur especially if the lymphatics are blocked by metastases. Drainage included the axilla in 92%, internal mammary nodes in 43%, supraclavicular nodes in 12% and intramammary interval nodes in 10% of patients. One patient drained to an interpectoral node. Drainage across the centre-line of the breast occurred in 46% of patients but direct drainage to the contralateral side of the patient was not seen. Lymphatic drainage occurred to 1 node field in 52 patients, 2 node fields in 34 patients and 3 node fields in 6 patients, so that 43% of patients had multiple draining node fields. Drainage to non-axillary sites occurred in 51% of patients. In conclusion, mammary lymphoscintigraphy accurately maps sentinel node location in breast cancer. Approximately half of the patients will have sentinel nodes outside the axilla. To achieve complete lymph node staging in patients with breast cancer, it is logical to biopsy these non-axillary sentinel nodes as well as the sentinel nodes in the axilla. Failure to do so will potentially understage the node status in 50% of patients

  1. Value of PET-CT and PET-CT combined with lung VCAR software in the diagnosis of hilar area lymph nodes of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lijuan; Li Yingci; Wang Wenzhi; Wang Xin; Lu Pei'ou; Tian Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of PET-CT and PET-CT combined with lung volume computed assisted reading (Lung VCAR) software in hilar area lymph nodes. Methods: Preoperative whole body PET-CT imaging was performed in 49 patients who were highly suspicious of non-small cell lung cancer. PET-CT images of the hilar area lymph nodes and the PET-CT images of the hilar area lymph nodes from Lung VCAR software were evaluated by two experienced doctors, and then compared with the pathological diagnosis. Results: There was no significant difference between the CT values of benign and malignant lymph nodes (t=-1.40, P>0.05). But a significant difference was existed between the benign and malignant hilar lymph nodes with the density visual analysis, the lymph short diameter and the maximum of standardized uptake value (SUV max ) (χ 2 =30.37, 27.40, 20.06, all P<0.05). The sensibility,specificity and accuracy of PET-CT in diagnosis of the hilar area lymph nodes were 76.5%, 90.7%, 88.3% respectively, and the accuracy of the diagnosis was significantly higher than that of CT and PET alone (χ 2 =15.27, P<0.05) using the lymph short diameter ≥1 cm of CT, the density of lymph node is equal to (slightly lower than) the same layer vascular density and the lymph node SUV max ≥2.5 of PET as the diagnostic criteria. One hundred and three hilar area lymph nodes were diagnosed by PET-CT and four nodes were not hilar lymph nodes proved by the Lung VCAR software (3 hilar vascular uptake,1 bronchial cartilage). Conclusion: The methods of PET-CT lymph visual density analysis plus lymph node diameter and SUV max had a high diagnostic accuracy of non-small cell lung hilar lymph. For the PET-CT,the pulmonary vascular uptake was the main cause affecting the discrimination of hilar lymph nodes,while Lung VCAR software was helpful to diagnosis. (authors)

  2. Patterns of Lymph Node Pathology; Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy as an Evaluation Tool for Lymphadenopathy: A Retrospective Descriptive Study Conducted at the Largest Hospital in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denasha Lavanya Reddy

    Full Text Available Lymphadenopathy is a common clinical presentation of disease in South Africa (SA, particularly in the era of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and tuberculosis (TB co-infection.Data from 560 lymph node biopsy reports of specimens from patients older than 12 years at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012 was extracted from the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS, division of Anatomical Pathology. Cytology reports of lymph node fine needle aspirates (FNAs performed prior to lymph node biopsy in 203 patients were also extracted from the NHLS. Consent was not obtained from participants for their records to be used as patient information was anonymized and de-identified prior to analysis.The majority of patients were female (55% and of the African/black racial group (90%. The median age of patients was 40 years (range 12-94. The most common indication for biopsy was an uncertain diagnosis (more than two differential diagnoses entertained, followed by a suspicion for lymphoma, carcinoma and TB. Overall, malignancy constituted the largest biopsy pathology group (39%, with 36% of this group being carcinoma and 27% non-Hodgkin lymphoma. 22% of the total sampled nodes displayed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation (including histopathology and cytology demonstrating definite, and suspicious for mycobacterial infection, 8% comprised HIV reactive nodes; in the remainder no specific pathology was identified (nonspecific reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Kaposi sarcoma (KS accounted for 2.5% of lymph node pathology in this sample. Concomitant lymph node pathology was diagnosed in four cases of nodal KS (29% of the subset. The co-existing pathologies were TB and Castleman disease. HIV positive patients constituted 49% of this study sample and the majority (64% of this subset had CD4 counts less than 350 cells/ul. 27% were HIV negative and in the remaining nodes, the HIV status of patients was unknown

  3. Mammographic evaluation of suspicious malignant lesions based on ACR(American College of Radiology) breast imaging reporting and data system(BI-RADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jei Hee; Oh, Ki Keun; Chang, So Yong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Mi Hye

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the mammographic features and pathologic outcome of category 4 lesions using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System(BI-RADS), and to evaluate the significance of final assessment categories. Using BI-RADS, the interpretations of 8,134 mammograms acquired between January 1997 and May 1998 were categorized. From among 161 lesions categorized as '4' ('suspicious abnormality') and pathologically confirmed by surgery or biopsy, we analysed 113, found in 66 patients. The pathologic outcome of these 113 lesions was as follows:infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 17.7%(20/113); DCIS(ductal carcinoma in sitv), 8.0%(9/113); ADH(atypical ductal hyperplasia), 5.3%(6/113); DEH(ductal epithelial hyperplasia), 1.8%(2/113); ductectasia, 0.9%(1/113), FCD(fibrocystic change), 27.4%(31/113); firoadenoma, 7.1%(8/113); stromal fibrosis, 9.7%(11/113); normal parenchyma, 7.1%(8/113); other pathology, 15.0%(17/113). The most frequent mammographic features of BI-RADS category 4 lesions were irregular mass shape(41.2%), spiculated mass margin(52.3%), amorphous calcification(47.3%) and clustered calcification distribution(37.1%). Because category 4 lesions account for about 25.7% of all breast malignancies, mammographic lesions in this category ('suspicious abnormality') should be considered for supplementary study and breast biopsy rather than short-term follow-up. Initial pathologic findings can thus be confirmed

  4. Application of classification trees for the qualitative differentiation of focal liver lesions suspicious for metastasis in gadolinium-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelhorn, J. [Sophien und Hufeland Klinikum, Weimar (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Benndorf, M.; Dietzel, M.; Burmeister, H.P.; Kaiser, W.A.; Baltzer, P.A.T. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of qualitative descriptors alone and in combination for the classification of focal liver lesions (FLLs) suspicious for metastasis in gadolinium-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with clinically suspected liver metastases were eligible for this retrospective investigation. 50 patients met the inclusion criteria. All underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI (T2w, chemical shift T1w, dynamic T1w). Primary liver malignancies or treated lesions were excluded. All investigations were read by two blinded observers (O1, O2). Both independently identified the presence of lesions and evaluated predefined qualitative lesion descriptors (signal intensities, enhancement pattern and morphology). A reference standard was determined under consideration of all clinical and follow-up information. Statistical analysis besides contingency tables (chi square, kappa statistics) included descriptor combinations using classification trees (CHAID methodology) as well as ROC analysis. Results: In 38 patients, 120 FLLs (52 benign, 68 malignant) were present. 115 (48 benign, 67 malignant) were identified by the observers. The enhancement pattern, relative SI upon T2w and late enhanced T1w images contributed significantly to the differentiation of FLLs. The overall classification accuracy was 91.3 % (O1) and 88.7 % (O2), kappa = 0.902. Conclusion: The combination of qualitative lesion descriptors proposed in this work revealed high diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement in the differentiation of focal liver lesions suspicious for metastases using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI. (orig.)

  5. A Fast-Track Referral System for Skin Lesions Suspicious of Melanoma: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study from a Plastic Surgery Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Dina Jarjis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM, a national fast-track referral system (FTRS was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma in the FTRS. Methods. Patients referred to the Department of Plastic Surgery and Breast Surgery in Zealand University Hospital were registered prospectively over a 1-year period in 2014. A cross-sectional study was performed analyzing referral patterns, including patient and tumor characteristics. Results. A total of 556 patients were registered as referred to the center in the FTRS for skin lesions suspicious of melanoma. Among these, a total of 312 patients (56.1% were diagnosed with CM. Additionally, 41 (7.4% of the referred patients were diagnosed with in situ melanoma. Conclusion. In total, 353 (63.5% patients had a malignant or premalignant melanocytic skin lesion. When only considering patients who where referred without a biopsy, the diagnostic accuracy for GPs and dermatologists was 29% and 45%, respectively. We suggest that efforts of adequate training for the referring physicians in diagnosing melanocytic skin lesions will increase diagnostic accuracy, leading to larger capacity in secondary care for the required treatment of malignant skin lesions.

  6. Post-clip placement MRI following second-look US-guided core biopsy for suspicious lesions identified on breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Nariya; Han, Wonshik

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whether the post-clip placement MRI following second-look ultrasound (US)-guided core biopsy is useful to confirm the adequate sampling of suspicious lesions identified on breast MRI. Between 2014 and 2016, 31 consecutive women with 34 suspicious lesions that had not been identified on previous mammography or US were detected using MRI. Among them, 26 women with 29 lesions (mean size 1.5 cm, range 0.5-5.8 cm) found by second-look US underwent US-guided biopsy, subsequent clip insertion and post-clip placement MRI. Five women with five lesions that were not found by second-look US underwent MRI-guided biopsy. The technical success rate and lesion characteristics were described. The technical success rate was 96.6% (28/29). One failure case was a benign, 1.1-cm non-mass enhancement. Of the 28 success cases, 23 (82.1%) were masses and 5 (17.9%) were non-mass enhancements; 17 (60.7%) were benign, 4 (14.3%) were high-risk and 7 (25.0%) were malignant lesions. The technical success rate was 100% (28/28) for masses and 83.3% (5/6) for non-mass enhancements. Post-clip placement MRI following US-guided biopsy is useful in confirming the adequate sampling of lesions identified on MRI. This method could be an alternative to MRI-guided biopsy for lesions visible on US. (orig.)

  7. Post-clip placement MRI following second-look US-guided core biopsy for suspicious lesions identified on breast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Eun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Centre, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate whether the post-clip placement MRI following second-look ultrasound (US)-guided core biopsy is useful to confirm the adequate sampling of suspicious lesions identified on breast MRI. Between 2014 and 2016, 31 consecutive women with 34 suspicious lesions that had not been identified on previous mammography or US were detected using MRI. Among them, 26 women with 29 lesions (mean size 1.5 cm, range 0.5-5.8 cm) found by second-look US underwent US-guided biopsy, subsequent clip insertion and post-clip placement MRI. Five women with five lesions that were not found by second-look US underwent MRI-guided biopsy. The technical success rate and lesion characteristics were described. The technical success rate was 96.6% (28/29). One failure case was a benign, 1.1-cm non-mass enhancement. Of the 28 success cases, 23 (82.1%) were masses and 5 (17.9%) were non-mass enhancements; 17 (60.7%) were benign, 4 (14.3%) were high-risk and 7 (25.0%) were malignant lesions. The technical success rate was 100% (28/28) for masses and 83.3% (5/6) for non-mass enhancements. Post-clip placement MRI following US-guided biopsy is useful in confirming the adequate sampling of lesions identified on MRI. This method could be an alternative to MRI-guided biopsy for lesions visible on US. (orig.)

  8. Sonographically-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy with digital mammography-guided skin marking of suspicious breast microcalcifications: comparison of outcomes with stereotactic biopsy in Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Soo Yeon; Shin, Jung Hee; Han, Boo-Kyung; Ko, Eun Young

    2011-02-01

    Management of suspicious microcalcifications in very thin breasts is problematic. To evaluate whether sonographically-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy (USVAB) with digital mammography-guided skin marking (DM) for the diagnosis of breast microcalcifications is comparable to stereotactic-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy (SVAB) in Asian women with thin breasts. Retrospective review was performed for 263 consecutive suspicious microcalcification lesions in 261 women who underwent USVAB with DM or SVAB using a prone table between January 2004 and December 2007. SVAB was performed for 190 lesions and USVAB for 73 lesions. Biopsy results were correlated with surgical pathology or followed up for at least 12 months. The diagnostic outcomes of SVAB and USVAB to diagnose microcalcifications were compared. Of 263 lesions, 104 (40%) underwent surgery and 159 (60%) were followed up. SVAB and USVAB groups showed similar final categories or the extent of microcalcifications. US visible lesions were 57 (78%) of 73 at USVAB and 14 (10%) of 140 at SVAB. Of 57 US visible lesions at USVAB, 29 (51%) were not found in initial US but were detectable with the help of DM. Specimen radiographs were negative in 2.1% of lesions at SVAB and in 4.1% at USVAB (p=0.4008). The under-estimation rate and false-negative rate were similar in SVAB and USVAB. US with DM facilitates US visibility of microcalcifications. USVAB with DM can produce acceptable biopsy results, as can SVAB, to diagnose breast microcalcifications in patients with thin breasts.

  9. Semi-automated volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases in patients with malignant melanoma stage III/IV-A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabel, M.; Tengg-Kobligk, H. von; Giesel, F.L.; Delorme, S.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Bornemann, L.; Dicken, V.; Kopp-Schneider, A.; Moser, C.

    2008-01-01

    Therapy monitoring in oncological patient care requires accurate and reliable imaging and post-processing methods. RECIST criteria are the current standard, with inherent disadvantages. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of semi-automated volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases in patients with malignant melanoma compared to manual volumetric analysis and RECIST. Multislice CT was performed in 47 patients, covering the chest, abdomen and pelvis. In total, 227 suspicious, enlarged lymph nodes were evaluated retrospectively by two radiologists regarding diameters (RECIST), manually measured volume by placement of ROIs and semi-automated volumetric analysis. Volume (ml), quality of segmentation (++/-) and time effort (s) were evaluated in the study. The semi-automated volumetric analysis software tool was rated acceptable to excellent in 81% of all cases (reader 1) and 79% (reader 2). Median time for the entire segmentation process and necessary corrections was shorter with the semi-automated software than by manual segmentation. Bland-Altman plots showed a significantly lower interobserver variability for semi-automated volumetric than for RECIST measurements. The study demonstrated feasibility of volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases. The software allows a fast and robust segmentation in up to 80% of all cases. Ease of use and time needed are acceptable for application in the clinical routine. Variability and interuser bias were reduced to about one third of the values found for RECIST measurements. (orig.)

  10. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  11. Network Design with Node Degree Balance Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    This presentation discusses an extension to the network design model where there in addition to the flow conservation constraints also are constraints that require design conservation. This means that the number of arcs entering and leaving a node must be the same. As will be shown the model has ...

  12. FDG PET/CT criteria for diagnosing mediastinal lymph node metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y. S.; Choi, J. Y.; Lee, K. S.; Kwon, O. J.; Sim, Y. M.; Lee, S. J.; Hyun, S. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, B. T.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the most accurate FDG PET/CT criteria using various PET and CT parameters for diagnosing metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with untreated NSCLC. Subjects were 178 consecutive patients with NSCLC undergoing PET/CT and surgical nodal staging. Diagnostic criteria of PET/CT for involvement of each mediastinal nodal station were max. SUV (mSUV), average SUV (aSUV), max. CT Hounsfield unit (mHU), average CT Hounsfield unit (aHU), and 5-point visual grading for CT attenuation; normal, suspicious/definite high attenuation (HA), partial/definite calcification (CAL). ROC curve analysis was done to assess the performance of each PET/CT criterion for detection of metastatic mediastinal nodal station. Of the pathologically examined 649 mediastinal nodal stations, 50 stations in 39 patients were proven to be malignant. The areas under curve (AUC) of ROC analysis for each criteria were 0.8882 (mSUV), 0.8875 (aSUV), 0.5668 (mHU), 0.5468 (aHU), and 0.4369 (VA), respectively. There were no malignant lymph nodes with increased FDG uptake having mHU > 120, aHU > 90, visually definite HA, or CAL. Using the benign criteria of mHU > 120, the AUCs of PET were significantly improved to 0.9233 (mSUV) and 0.9080 (aSUV), respectively (p 90, the AUCs of PET were improved to 0.8991 (mSUV, p 0.05), respectively. Using the benign criteria of visually definite HA or CAL, the AUCs of PET were significantly improved to 0.9094 (mSUV) and 0.9091 (aSUV), respectively (p 120, and visually definite HA or CAL can be used as PET/CT diagnostic criteria suggesting benign mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with NSCLC, irrespective of FDG uptake

  13. Penile lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A.; Tanis, P.J.; Jansen, L.; Nieweg, O.E.; Meinhardt, W.; Horenblas, S.

    2001-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node (SN) identification has been extensively validated in breast cancer and melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the findings of lymphoscintigraphy for SN identification in carcinoma of the penis. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 74 consecutive patients (mean age 62.2 years, range 28-87 years) with clinically lymph node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (stage T2 or greater). Following local anaesthesia by xy-locaine 10% spray, technetium-99m nanocolloid (mean dose 64.8 MBq, range 40-131 MBq) in a volume of 0.3-0.4 ml was injected intradermally around the tumour. Shortly after injection, a 20-min dynamic study was performed with a dual-head gamma camera; subsequently, static anterior and lateral images were obtained at 30 min and 2 h using simultaneous cobalt-57 flood source transmission scanning. 57 Co-assisted skin marking defined SN location for gamma probe/blue dye-guided biopsy, which was performed the next day. The SN visualization rate was 97% (72/74). Lymphatic drainage was bilateral in 81% of the cases (58/72), exclusively to the left groin in 13% (9/72) and only to the right groin in 6%. Bilateral lymph node drainage was synchronous in 38% (22/58) and asynchronous in 62% (in 18 patients the initial route was the left groin, and in the other 18, the right groin). Visualization before 30 min occurred in 66 patients (93%), in 64 of them (88%) already during the dynamic study. A total of 173 SNs were visualized (85 in the right groin, 88 in the left groin). Pitfalls were caused by inguinal skin contamination during injection (four patients) and intracavernous administration (one patient). At surgery, a total of 161 SNs were identified and removed. Sixteen patients (22%) had a tumour-positive SN and underwent standard regional lymph node dissection subsequently. During follow-up (median 28 months, range 3-74 months), two patients with a negative SN developed lymph node metastases in the mapped basin

  14. Penile lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Tanis, P.J.; Jansen, L.; Nieweg, O.E. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Meinhardt, W.; Horenblas, S. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Urology

    2001-05-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node (SN) identification has been extensively validated in breast cancer and melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the findings of lymphoscintigraphy for SN identification in carcinoma of the penis. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 74 consecutive patients (mean age 62.2 years, range 28-87 years) with clinically lymph node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (stage T2 or greater). Following local anaesthesia by xy-locaine 10% spray, technetium-99m nanocolloid (mean dose 64.8 MBq, range 40-131 MBq) in a volume of 0.3-0.4 ml was injected intradermally around the tumour. Shortly after injection, a 20-min dynamic study was performed with a dual-head gamma camera; subsequently, static anterior and lateral images were obtained at 30 min and 2 h using simultaneous cobalt-57 flood source transmission scanning. {sup 57}Co-assisted skin marking defined SN location for gamma probe/blue dye-guided biopsy, which was performed the next day. The SN visualization rate was 97% (72/74). Lymphatic drainage was bilateral in 81% of the cases (58/72), exclusively to the left groin in 13% (9/72) and only to the right groin in 6%. Bilateral lymph node drainage was synchronous in 38% (22/58) and asynchronous in 62% (in 18 patients the initial route was the left groin, and in the other 18, the right groin). Visualization before 30 min occurred in 66 patients (93%), in 64 of them (88%) already during the dynamic study. A total of 173 SNs were visualized (85 in the right groin, 88 in the left groin). Pitfalls were caused by inguinal skin contamination during injection (four patients) and intracavernous administration (one patient). At surgery, a total of 161 SNs were identified and removed. Sixteen patients (22%) had a tumour-positive SN and underwent standard regional lymph node dissection subsequently. During follow-up (median 28 months, range 3-74 months), two patients with a negative SN developed lymph node metastases in the mapped

  15. Mining Important Nodes in Directed Weighted Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In complex networks, mining important nodes has been a matter of concern by scholars. In recent years, scholars have focused on mining important nodes in undirected unweighted complex networks. But most of the methods are not applicable to directed weighted complex networks. Therefore, this paper proposes a Two-Way-PageRank method based on PageRank for further discussion of mining important nodes in directed weighted complex networks. We have mainly considered the frequency of contact between nodes and the length of time of contact between nodes. We have considered the source of the nodes (in-degree and the whereabouts of the nodes (out-degree simultaneously. We have given node important performance indicators. Through numerical examples, we analyze the impact of variation of some parameters on node important performance indicators. Finally, the paper has verified the accuracy and validity of the method through empirical network data.

  16. Sentinel node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy spares breast cancer patients axillary lymph node dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijk, Maartje C.; Nieweg, Omgo E.; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; Valdés Olmos, Renato; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A.; Kroon, Bin B. R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients is a valuable method to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy and potentially downsize the primary tumor, which facilitates breast-conserving therapy. In 18 studies published about sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy,

  17. Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Shackelford, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js teaches any novice Node.js developer to configure, deploy, and maintain scalable small to large scale Node.js applications in Amazon Web Services. Hosting a Node.js application in a production environment usually means turning to PaaS hosting, but this approach brings problems. Deploying Node.js directly to AWS solves the problems you encounter in these situations, enabling you to cut out the middle man. You will begin with a basic RESTful web service in Node.js, using the popular Express.js framework, pre-built and ready to run in your local env

  18. Added value of dedicated axillary hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI for improved axillary nodal staging in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients. A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijnatten, Thiemo J.A. van; Goorts, B.; Voeoe, S.; Wildberger, J.E.; Boer, M. de; Kooreman, L.F.S.; Heuts, E.M.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Lobbes, M.B.I.; Smidt, M.L.

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and potential added value of dedicated axillary 18F-FDG hybrid PET/MRI, compared to standard imaging modalities (i.e. ultrasound [US], MRI and PET/CT), for axillary nodal staging in clinically node-positive breast cancer. Twelve patients with clinically node-positive breast cancer underwent axillary US and dedicated axillary hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI. Nine of the 12 patients also underwent whole-body PET/CT. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were measured for the primary breast tumor and the most FDG-avid axillary lymph node. A positive axillary lymph node on dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI was defined as a moderate to very intense FDG-avid lymph node. The diagnostic performance of dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI was calculated by comparing quantitative and its qualitative measurements to results of axillary US, MRI and PET/CT. The number of suspicious axillary lymph nodes was subdivided as follows: N0 (0 nodes), N1 (1-3 nodes), N2 (4-9 nodes) and N3 (≥ 10 nodes). According to dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI findings, seven patients were diagnosed with N1, four with N2 and one with N3. With regard to mean SUVmax, there was no significant difference in the primary tumor (9.0 [±5.0] vs. 8.6 [±5.7], p = 0.678) or the most FDG-avid axillary lymph node (7.8 [±5.3] vs. 7.7 [±4.3], p = 0.767) between dedicated axillary PET/MRI and PET/CT. Compared to standard imaging modalities, dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI resulted in changes in nodal status as follows: 40% compared to US, 75% compared to T2-weighted MRI, 40% compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, and 22% compared to PET/CT. Adding dedicated axillary 18F-FDG hybrid PET/MRI to diagnostic work-up may improve the diagnostic performance of axillary nodal staging in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients. (orig.)

  19. Added value of dedicated axillary hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI for improved axillary nodal staging in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijnatten, Thiemo J.A. van; Goorts, B. [Maastricht University Medical Center+, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center+, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center+, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Voeoe, S.; Wildberger, J.E. [Maastricht University Medical Center+, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Boer, M. de [Maastricht University Medical Center+, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center+, Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medical Oncology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kooreman, L.F.S. [Maastricht University Medical Center+, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center+, Department of Pathology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Heuts, E.M. [Maastricht University Medical Center+, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, F.M. [Maastricht University Medical Center+, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Aachen (Germany); Lobbes, M.B.I. [Maastricht University Medical Center+, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center+, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Smidt, M.L. [Maastricht University Medical Center+, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center+, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2018-02-15

    To investigate the feasibility and potential added value of dedicated axillary 18F-FDG hybrid PET/MRI, compared to standard imaging modalities (i.e. ultrasound [US], MRI and PET/CT), for axillary nodal staging in clinically node-positive breast cancer. Twelve patients with clinically node-positive breast cancer underwent axillary US and dedicated axillary hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI. Nine of the 12 patients also underwent whole-body PET/CT. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were measured for the primary breast tumor and the most FDG-avid axillary lymph node. A positive axillary lymph node on dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI was defined as a moderate to very intense FDG-avid lymph node. The diagnostic performance of dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI was calculated by comparing quantitative and its qualitative measurements to results of axillary US, MRI and PET/CT. The number of suspicious axillary lymph nodes was subdivided as follows: N0 (0 nodes), N1 (1-3 nodes), N2 (4-9 nodes) and N3 (≥ 10 nodes). According to dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI findings, seven patients were diagnosed with N1, four with N2 and one with N3. With regard to mean SUVmax, there was no significant difference in the primary tumor (9.0 [±5.0] vs. 8.6 [±5.7], p = 0.678) or the most FDG-avid axillary lymph node (7.8 [±5.3] vs. 7.7 [±4.3], p = 0.767) between dedicated axillary PET/MRI and PET/CT. Compared to standard imaging modalities, dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI resulted in changes in nodal status as follows: 40% compared to US, 75% compared to T2-weighted MRI, 40% compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, and 22% compared to PET/CT. Adding dedicated axillary 18F-FDG hybrid PET/MRI to diagnostic work-up may improve the diagnostic performance of axillary nodal staging in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients. (orig.)

  20. Migrant workers’ occupation and healthcare-seeking preferences for TB-suspicious symptoms and other health problems: a survey among immigrant workers in Songkhla province, southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naing Tinzar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the unskilled and semi-skilled workforce in Thailand comprises migrant workers from neighbouring countries. While, in principle, healthcare facilities in the host country are open to those migrants registered with the Ministry of Labour, their actual healthcare-seeking preferences and practices, as well as those of unregistered migrants, are not well documented. This study aimed to describe the patterns of healthcare-seeking behaviours of immigrant workers in Thailand, emphasizing healthcare practices for TB-suspicious symptoms, and to identify the role of occupation and other factors influencing these behaviours. Methods A survey was conducted among 614 immigrant factory workers (FW, rubber tappers (RT and construction workers (CW, in which information was sought on socio-demography, history of illness and related healthcare-seeking behaviour. Mixed effects logistic regression modeling was employed in data analysis. Results Among all three occupations, self-medication was the most common way of dealing with illnesses, including the development of TB-suspicious symptoms, for which inappropriate drugs were used. Only for GI symptoms and obstetric problems did migrant workers commonly seek healthcare at modern healthcare facilities. For GI illness, FW preferred to attend the in-factory clinic and RT a private facility over government facilities owing to the quicker service and greater convenience. For RT, who were generally wealthier, the higher cost of private treatment was not a deterrent. CW preferentially chose a government healthcare facility for their GI problems. For obstetric problems, including delivery, government facilities were utilized by RT and CW, but most FW returned to their home country. After adjusting for confounding, having legal status in the country was associated with overall greater use of government facilities and being female and being married with use of both types of modern healthcare

  1. Diagnostic value of breast ultrasound in mammography BI-RADS 0 and clinically indeterminate or suspicious of malignancy breast lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrosavljević Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Not only that ultrasound makes the difference between cystic and solid changes in breast tissue, as it was the case at the beginning of its use, but it also makes the differential diagnosis in terms of benign-malignant. The aim of this study was to assess the role of sonography in the diagnosis of palpable breast masses according to the American College of Radiology Ultrasonographic Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS and to correlate the BI-RADS 4 and BI-RADS 5 category with pathohistological findings. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted with the breast sonograms of 30 women presented with palpable breast masses found to be mammography category BI-RADS 0 and ultrasonographic BI-RADS categories 4 and 5. The sonographic categories were correlated with pathohistological findings. Results. Surgical biopsy in 30 masses revealed: malignancy (56.7%, fibroadenoma (26.7%, fibrocystic dysplasia with/without atypia (10%, lipoma (3.3% and intramammary lymph node (3.3%. Correlation between BI-RADS categories and pathohistological findings was found (p < 0.05. All BI-RADS 5 masses were malignant, while in BI-RADS 4A category fibroadenomas dominated. A total of 53.8% of all benign lesions were found in women 49 years of age or younger as compared with 35.3% of all malignancies in this group (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Ultrasonography BI-RADS improved classification of breast masses. The ultrasound BI-RADS 4 (A, B, C and BI-RADS 5 lesions should be worked-up with biopsy.

  2. Node clustering for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, S.; Qureshi, I.A.; Memon, S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed considerable growth in the development and deployment of clustering methods which are not only used to maintain network resources but also increases the reliability of the WSNs (Wireless Sensor Network) and the facts manifest by the wide range of clustering solutions. Node clustering by selecting key parameters to tackle the dynamic behaviour of resource constraint WSN is a challenging issue. This paper highlights the recent progress which has been carried out pertaining to the development of clustering solutions for the WSNs. The paper presents classification of node clustering methods and their comparison based on the objectives, clustering criteria and methodology. In addition, the potential open issues which need to be considered for future work are high lighted. Keywords: Clustering, Sensor Network, Static, Dynamic

  3. Source and sink nodes in absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Abner C; Machado, Birajara S; Caboclo, Luis Otavio S F; Fujita, Andre; Baccala, Luiz A; Sameshima, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    As opposed to focal epilepsy, absence seizures do not exhibit a clear seizure onset zone or focus since its ictal activity rapidly engages both brain hemispheres. Yet recent graph theoretical analysis applied to absence seizures EEG suggests the cortical focal presence, an unexpected feature for this type of epilepsy. In this study, we explore the characteristics of absence seizure by classifying the nodes as to their source/sink natures via weighted directed graph analysis based on connectivity direction and strength estimation using information partial directed coherence (iPDC). By segmenting the EEG signals into relatively short 5-sec-long time windows we studied the evolution of coupling strengths from both sink and source nodes, and the network dynamics of absence seizures in eight patients.

  4. Primary lymph node responses to mosquito bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellink, J J; Vos, B J

    1977-03-29

    Post-auricular lymph node responses and changes in fresh weight of thymus and spleen of hamsters and mice at 4 and 8 days after primary exposure of both ears to 20 bites by the mosquito Aedes aegypti were studied quantitatively. In both hosts lymph node changes characteristic of the development of cell-mediated immune responses and those which are believed to lead to antibody production occurred, with the emphasis on the latter phenomena. No reactions of thymus and spleen were observed. The responses recorded are considered to be immunologically specific. In hamsters, but not in mice, the responses related to humoral sensitization coincided in time to a large extent with those of the cell-mediated immune processes. The stronger humoral responses in mice were probably in the first place the result of the relatively higher dosages applied.

  5. Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Mi; Maoyuan Sun; Moeti Masiane; Yong Cao; Chris North

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph to...

  6. Sentinel lymph node concept in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shogo; Omura, Ken; Harada, Hiroyuki; Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Yoshihiko; Uekusa, Masaru; Togawa, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The cervical lymph node (CLN) status is one of the most important prognostic factors in oral cancer. However, the main method of addressing the CLN depends on diagnostic imaging. Sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy combined with lymphoscintigraphy may be a minimally invasive technique that samples first-echelon lymph node to predict the need for neck dissection. Focused analysis of the SN is highly accurate in identifying metastases. In this study, we investigate the possibility of identifying the SN in oral cancer and the detection of metastases in SN by HE stain, cytokeratin IHC and cytokeratin 17 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Twenty-four consecutive patients who had clinically negative CLN underwent SN biopsy, followed by elective neck dissection. SNs were detected by means of mapping with isotope labeling 99m Tc-phytate. All lymph nodes were examined by conventional HE staining for evaluating metastasis. In addition, each SN was cut into multiple sections for cytokeratin IHC staining and for RT-PCR for cytokeratin 17. SNs were identified in 24 (100%) of 24 patients by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe. One to seven SNs were identified in each patient. Both HE and immunohistochemical staining of SN identified metastasis in 7 patients (29.2%), and the expression of cytokeratin 17 by RT-PCR of SN was positive in 8 patients (34.8%). No metastases were identified using HE, cytokeratin IHC staining in non-SNs. Neck failure has not developed in 23 (95.8%) of 24 patients. The results strongly suggest the usefulness of the SN concept in oral cancer and for better assessing the status of the CLN. (author)

  7. Node-Dependence-Based Dynamic Incentive Algorithm in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networks lack end-to-end paths between source nodes and destination nodes, so the communications are mainly carried out by the “store-carry-forward” strategy. Selfish behaviors of rejecting packet relay requests will severely worsen the network performance. Incentive is an efficient way to reduce selfish behaviors and hence improves the reliability and robustness of the networks. In this paper, we propose the node-dependence-based dynamic gaming incentive (NDI algorithm, which exploits the dynamic repeated gaming to motivate nodes relaying packets for other nodes. The NDI algorithm presents a mechanism of tolerating selfish behaviors of nodes. Reward and punishment methods are also designed based on the node dependence degree. Simulation results show that the NDI algorithm is effective in increasing the delivery ratio and decreasing average latency when there are a lot of selfish nodes in the opportunistic networks.

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: An audit of intraoperative assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-02

    Jul 2, 2015 ... Sentinel lymph node biopsy: An audit of ... cytotechnology service ... To audit results from intraoperative assessment of sentinel lymph node ..... out, and turnaround time in gynecologic cytology quality assurance: Findings.

  9. Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Grinders Spindle Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demec, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The contribution deals with the simplified dynamic analysis of surface grinding machine spindle node. Dynamic analysis is based on the use of the transfer matrix method, which is essentially a matrix form of method of initial parameters. The advantage of the described method, despite the seemingly complex mathematical apparatus, is primarily, that it does not require for solve the problem of costly commercial software using finite element method. All calculations can be made for example in MS Excel, which is advantageous especially in the initial stages of constructing of spindle node for the rapid assessment of the suitability its design. After detailing the entire structure of spindle node is then also necessary to perform the refined dynamic analysis in the environment of FEM, which it requires the necessary skills and experience and it is therefore economically difficult. This work was developed within grant project KEGA No. 023TUKE-4/2012 Creation of a comprehensive educational - teaching material for the article Production technique using a combination of traditional and modern information technology and e-learning.

  10. Hybrid tracers for sentinel node biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Berg, N. S.; Kleinjan, G. I.; Valdés-Olmos, R. A.; Buckle, T.; Van Leeuwen, F. I.; Klop, W. M.; Horenblas, S.; Van Der Poel, H. G.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional sentinel node (SN) mapping is performed by injection of a radiocolloid followed by lymphoscintigraphy to identify the number and location of the primary tumor draining lymph node(s), the so-called SN(s). Over the last decade research has focused on the introduction of new imaging agents that can further aid (surgical) SN identification. Different tracers for SN mapping, with varying sizes and isotopes have been reported, most of which have proven their value in a clinical setting. A major challenge lies in transferring this diagnostic information obtained at the nuclear medicine department to the operating theatre thereby providing the surgeon with (image) guidance. Conventionally, an intraoperative injection of vital blue dye or a fluorescence dye is given to allow intraoperative optical SN identification. However, for some indications, the radiotracer-based approach remains crucial. More recently, hybrid tracers, that contain both a radioactive and fluorescent label, were introduced to allow for direct integration of pre- and intraoperative guidance technologies. Their potential is especially high when they are used in combination with new surgical imaging modalities and navigation tools. Next to a description of the known tracers for SN mapping, this review discusses the application of hybrid tracers during SN biopsy and how the introduction of these new techniques can further aid in translation of nuclear medicine information into the operating theatre.

  11. The local lymph node assay (LLNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovida, Costanza; Ryan, Cindy; Cinelli, Serena; Basketter, David; Dearman, Rebecca; Kimber, Ian

    2012-02-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a widely accepted method for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. Compared with other in vivo methods in guinea pig, the LLNA offers important advantages with respect to animal welfare, including a requirement for reduced animal numbers as well as reduced pain and trauma. In addition to hazard identification, the LLNA is used for determining the relative skin sensitizing potency of contact allergens as a pivotal contribution to the risk assessment process. The LLNA is the only in vivo method that has been subjected to a formal validation process. The original LLNA protocol is based on measurement of the proliferative activity of draining lymph node cells (LNC), as determined by incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine. Several variants to the original LLNA have been developed to eliminate the use of radioactive materials. One such alternative is considered here: the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA method, which uses 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in place of radiolabeled thymidine to measure LNC proliferation in draining nodes. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. X-ray appearance of intrathoracic lymph nodes in lymphogranulomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodskaya, M.M.; Antonova, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of clinico-roentgenological data obtained when examining 174 patients with lymphogranulomatosis is carried out. Roentgenological semiotics of the lesions of intrathoracic lymp nodes according to the Rouviere classification supplemented by Zhdanov has been specified. Technique of layer-by-layer examination with an account of roentgenotopography of intrathoracic lymph nodes promoting to their determination is developed. Dynamics of the lymph node changes under treatment is traced. Rarely occurring wide-spread decalcification of prevascular nodes after the radiotherapy is described

  13. Experimental studies of metastases of esophageal carcinoma to lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazumasa

    1977-01-01

    Marked progress has been made in surgery for esophageal carcinoma, however, when compared to results of surgery for other carcinomas of the digestive tract, much research remains to be done. The author transplanted VX2 carcinoma, a transplantable tumor of the rabbit, to the esophagus in attempt to determine the mode of metastases of esophageal carcinoma to lymph nodes and also to observe the effect of chemotherapy (Bleomycin) and radiotherapy (Betatron). Carcinoma of the cervical esophagus metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes and then to the paratracheal lymph nodes. Carcinoma of the upper thoracic esophagus metastasized to the paratracheal lymph nodes and then to the cervical lymph nodes. Carcinoma of the mid-thoracic esophagus metastasized to the intrathoracic lymph nodes and then to the intraperitoneal lymph nodes. Carcinoma of the abdominal esophagus metastasized to the intraperitoneal lymph nodes and then to the intrathoracic lymph nodes. Skipping metastasis was rarely observed. Carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus with metastases of lymph nodes in the cervical or abdominal portion was considerably advanced, therefore it is considered that cleaning of the intrathoracic lymph nodes and simultaneous chemotherapy are required when such cases are encountered clinically. Irradiation resulted in regression in the size of the tumor and metastases to lymph nodes and there was a decrease in metastases to the distant lymph nodes. Effects of irradiation were similar on tumors and lymph nodes with positive metastases located within the field of irradiation. Bleomycin medication resulted in regression in the size of tumor and metastases to lymph nodes. Effects of Bleomycin medication were similar on tumors and lymph nodes with positive metastases. (auth.)

  14. Post-clip placement MRI following second-look US-guided core biopsy for suspicious lesions identified on breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Nariya; Han, Wonshik

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate whether the post-clip placement MRI following second-look ultrasound (US)-guided core biopsy is useful to confirm the adequate sampling of suspicious lesions identified on breast MRI. Between 2014 and 2016, 31 consecutive women with 34 suspicious lesions that had not been identified on previous mammography or US were detected using MRI. Among them, 26 women with 29 lesions (mean size 1.5 cm, range 0.5-5.8 cm) found by second-look US underwent US-guided biopsy, subsequent clip insertion and post-clip placement MRI. Five women with five lesions that were not found by second-look US underwent MRI-guided biopsy. The technical success rate and lesion characteristics were described. The technical success rate was 96.6% (28/29). One failure case was a benign, 1.1-cm non-mass enhancement. Of the 28 success cases, 23 (82.1%) were masses and 5 (17.9%) were non-mass enhancements; 17 (60.7%) were benign, 4 (14.3%) were high-risk and 7 (25.0%) were malignant lesions. The technical success rate was 100% (28/28) for masses and 83.3% (5/6) for non-mass enhancements. Post-clip placement MRI following US-guided biopsy is useful in confirming the adequate sampling of lesions identified on MRI. This method could be an alternative to MRI-guided biopsy for lesions visible on US. • Post-clip MRI is useful for confirming adequate sampling of US-guided biopsy. • Post-clip MRI following US-guided biopsy revealed a 96.6 % technical success rate. • One technical failure case was a benign, 1.1-cm non-mass enhancement. • The technical success rate of US-guided biopsy for non-mass enhancements was 83.3 %.

  15. Mammographic evaluation of suspicious malignant lesions based on ACR(American College of Radiology) breast imaging reporting and data system(BI-RADS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jei Hee; Oh, Ki Keun; Chang, So Yong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Mi Hye [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the mammographic features and pathologic outcome of category 4 lesions using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System(BI-RADS), and to evaluate the significance of final assessment categories. Using BI-RADS, the interpretations of 8,134 mammograms acquired between January 1997 and May 1998 were categorized. From among 161 lesions categorized as '4' ('suspicious abnormality') and pathologically confirmed by surgery or biopsy, we analysed 113, found in 66 patients. The pathologic outcome of these 113 lesions was as follows:infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 17.7%(20/113); DCIS(ductal carcinoma in sitv), 8.0%(9/113); ADH(atypical ductal hyperplasia), 5.3%(6/113); DEH(ductal epithelial hyperplasia), 1.8%(2/113); ductectasia, 0.9%(1/113), FCD(fibrocystic change), 27.4%(31/113); firoadenoma, 7.1%(8/113); stromal fibrosis, 9.7%(11/113); normal parenchyma, 7.1%(8/113); other pathology, 15.0%(17/113). The most frequent mammographic features of BI-RADS category 4 lesions were irregular mass shape(41.2%), spiculated mass margin(52.3%), amorphous calcification(47.3%) and clustered calcification distribution(37.1%). Because category 4 lesions account for about 25.7% of all breast malignancies, mammographic lesions in this category ('suspicious abnormality') should be considered for supplementary study and breast biopsy rather than short-term follow-up. Initial pathologic findings can thus be confirmed.

  16. "Small intestinal biopsy and anti endomyosial sorologic test in children suspicious for celiac disease: a comparative study in Children Medical Center "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mahjoub

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac is one the most common causes of malabsorption and is an autoimmune disorder resulting in damage to intestinal epithelial cells by self T lymphocytes. The main culprit is gluten. The aim of our study was to assess the histopathologic findings of patients suspicious to have celiac disease in their first admission and compare them with serologic findings (endomyosial antibody test: EMA. Methods: The study is a prospective descriptional type and 95 patients suspicious to have celiac disease were included who went under upper endoscopy and sampling and also serologic studies. Histopathologic findings were grouped by Marsh classification. Specimens in Marsh stage 0 and 1 were also stained for leukocyte common antigen by immunohistochemistry Results: Ninety five patients, 49 males and 46 females, ranging from 9 months to 17 years (mean: 6.3 ys were included in the study The most common complaint was abdominal pain. EMA test was positive in 43 patients. Most specimens were categorized as Marsh stage IIIA (51 cases by histopatholgic examination, which can be seen in many other conditions. Only 16 patients were categorized as Marsh stage IIIB & IIIC, which are seen in established celiac patients No significant correlation was found between histopathologic and serologic findings. No difference was found between H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining in counting of intra- epithelial lymphocytes. Conclusion: Most of our patients had mild partial villous atrophy which is also seen in many other disorders and also EMA test was negative in this group. It appears that current assessment of celiac disease has many drawbacks and necessity of more specific methods is highly appreciated.

  17. Application of classification trees for the qualitative differentiation of focal liver lesions suspicious for metastasis in gadolinium-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelhorn, J; Benndorf, M; Dietzel, M; Burmeister, H P; Kaiser, W A; Baltzer, P A T

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of qualitative descriptors alone and in combination for the classification of focal liver lesions (FLLs) suspicious for metastasis in gadolinium-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging. Consecutive patients with clinically suspected liver metastases were eligible for this retrospective investigation. 50 patients met the inclusion criteria. All underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI (T2w, chemical shift T1w, dynamic T1w). Primary liver malignancies or treated lesions were excluded. All investigations were read by two blinded observers (O1, O2). Both independently identified the presence of lesions and evaluated predefined qualitative lesion descriptors (signal intensities, enhancement pattern and morphology). A reference standard was determined under consideration of all clinical and follow-up information. Statistical analysis besides contingency tables (chi square, kappa statistics) included descriptor combinations using classification trees (CHAID methodology) as well as ROC analysis. In 38 patients, 120 FLLs (52 benign, 68 malignant) were present. 115 (48 benign, 67 malignant) were identified by the observers. The enhancement pattern, relative SI upon T2w and late enhanced T1w images contributed significantly to the differentiation of FLLs. The overall classification accuracy was 91.3 % (O1) and 88.7 % (O2), kappa = 0.902. The combination of qualitative lesion descriptors proposed in this work revealed high diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement in the differentiation of focal liver lesions suspicious for metastases using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Intraoperative examination of sentinel lymph nodes using scrape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-03

    Aug 3, 2014 ... Background. In breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is widely used to assess the axilla when the nodes appear normal on palpation and ultrasonography. When the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are negative, no further dissection is required. Surgical dissection or radiotherapy of the axilla is ...

  19. Intraoperative examination of sentinel lymph nodes using scrape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is widely used to assess the axilla when the nodes appear normal on palpation and ultrasonography. When the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are negative, no further dissection is required. Surgical dissection or radiotherapy of the axilla is indicated for ...

  20. A Longitudinal Comparison of Arm Morbidity in Stage I-II Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Followed by Completion Lymph Node Dissection, or Axillary Lymph Node Dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Jan J.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Rietman, Johan S.; de Vries, Jakob; Baas, Peter C.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    Background. Long-term shoulder and arm function following sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) may surpass that following complete axillary lymph node dissection (CLND) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We objectively examined the morbidity and compared outcomes after SLNB, SLNB + CLND, and

  1. The histogenesis of lymph nodes in rat and rabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Nassy, J. J.; Post, J.; Versteeg, J. C.; Langevoort, H. L.

    1978-01-01

    The histogenesis of the popliteal lymph node in the rat and the popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes in the rabbit was examined by light microscopy. Special emphasis has been laid on the initial lymphocyte population in the lymph node anlage. In the rat on the seventeenth day of gestation lymphoid

  2. A longitudinal comparison of arm morbidity in stage I-II breast cancer patients treated with sentinel lymph node biopsy, sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by completion lymph node dissection, or axillary lymph node dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Jan J.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E.; Rietman, Johan Swanik; de Vries, Jakob; Baas, Peter C.; Geertzen, Jan H.B.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Long-term shoulder and arm function following sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) may surpass that following complete axillary lymph node dissection (CLND) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We objectively examined the morbidity and compared outcomes after SLNB, SLNB + CLND, and

  3. The sentinel node concept in breast cancer: A commentary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizales, A.L. . E-mail A.L.Canizales@qmul.ac.uk; Al-Yasi, A.; Gambhir, S.; Morris, G.; Granowska, M.; Britton, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    As there are multiple lymphatic pathways from the breast to the axilla with multiple possible choices for a cancer cell or a colloid, it appears intuitively unusual that one node is preferentially 'chosen'. The intuitive response would be that there is an equal chance for a breast cancer cell to travel by any lymphatic pathway to any axillary node at level 1. If this were true, then after a colloid injection into the peritumoural lymphatics or the periareolar lymphatic plexus, such a colloid has a similar chance to travel to any level 1 axillary node, be it an involved node or an uninvolved node. We have tried to resolve this conflict between intuition and practice. It was tested by identifying and measuring the activity of the radiolabelled colloid in the nodes removed in an axillary clearance and in the sentinel node or nodes after applying a sentinel node technique similar to that of Veronesi et al. The histology of all the nodes that were counted was analysed so that the colloid activity in each node was able to be correlated with its histology, whether it was involved with cancer or not involved. Measurements were obtained in those patients, in whom there were both involved and uninvolved nodes in the axillae. The colloid counts in cpm/g of each node were compared with the related sentinel node findings either involved with cancer or not involved. These were calculated either as the involved to uninvolved that is a 'positive' to 'negative' ratio. The results were that the activity ratio of all involved axillary nodes to uninvolved axillary nodes was about 4:1. The involved Sentinel nodes had on average over 25 times the uptake of the uninvolved Sentinel nodes. P value was <0.009 for a significant difference between colloid uptake in sentinel nodes with positive histology and those with negative histology. It is a new observation that involved axillary nodes show greater uptake of the colloid than uninvolved nodes in all patients where there are both involved

  4. Identifying Vulnerable Nodes of Complex Networks in Cascading Failures Induced by Node-Based Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research on network security, distinguishing the vulnerable components of networks is very important for protecting infrastructures systems. Here, we probe how to identify the vulnerable nodes of complex networks in cascading failures, which was ignored before. Concerned with random attack (RA and highest load attack (HL on nodes, we model cascading dynamics of complex networks. Then, we introduce four kinds of weighting methods to characterize the nodes of networks including Barabási-Albert scale-free networks (SF, Watts-Strogatz small-world networks (WS, Erdos-Renyi random networks (ER, and two real-world networks. The simulations show that, for SF networks under HL attack, the nodes with small value of the fourth kind of weight are the most vulnerable and the ones with small value of the third weight are also vulnerable. Also, the real-world autonomous system with power-law distribution verifies these findings. Moreover, for WS and ER networks under both RA and HL attack, when the nodes have low tolerant ability, the ones with small value of the fourth kind of weight are more vulnerable and also the ones with high degree are easier to break down. The results give us important theoretical basis for digging the potential safety loophole and making protection strategy.

  5. Defining the incidence and clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, Emily Z; Chiang, Yi-Ju; Voss, Rachel K; Cormier, Janice N; Torres, Keila E; Hunt, Kelly K; Feig, Barry W; Roland, Christina L

    2018-01-01

    The incidence and clinical significance of lymph node metastasis (LNM, N1) in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is unclear. Recent studies have focused on extremity/trunk STS (ETSTS). We sought to define the subgroup of patients with LNM at sarcoma diagnosis across all disease sites and histologies. We identified and categorized 89,870 STS patients from the National Cancer Data Base (1998-2012) by nodal stage. Pathologically confirmed LNM (pN1) were identified in 1404 patients; 1750 had clinically suspicious but not pathologically confirmed LNM (cN1). Survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier method. Of 3154 patients (3.5%) with pN1 or cN1 LNM at presentation, 1310 had synchronous distant metastasis (M1). LNM affected a small proportion of patients (5.8% head/neck, 5.3% intrathoracic, 5.1% intra-abdominal, 2.0% ETSTS). Angiosarcoma (6%), epithelioid (13%), clear cell (16%), and small cell sarcoma (19%) had the highest incidence of LNM, although liposarcoma, fibrous histiocytoma, and leiomyosarcoma accounted for the greatest number of LNM patients. For pN1M0 disease, median overall survival (OS) was 28.2 months, varying by histology. Among patients with pN1M0 STS, angiosarcoma, clear cell sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and fibrous histiocytoma were associated with worse median OS (19.4, 23.8, 27.1, and 29.3 months) compared to epithelioid sarcoma and liposarcoma (49.6 and 56.0 months, p < 0.001). Despite clinical suspicion, pathologic LN evaluation in STS is inconsistently performed. LNM occurs across anatomic disease sites and is unevenly distributed across histologies. Although M1 disease portends poor prognosis regardless of LN status, LNM predicts worse OS in a histology-dependent manner in M0 disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A random network based, node attraction facilitated network evolution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study, I present a method of network evolution that based on random network, and facilitated by node attraction. In this method, I assume that the initial network is a random network, or a given initial network. When a node is ready to connect, it tends to link to the node already owning the most connections, which coincides with the general rule (Barabasi and Albert, 1999 of node connecting. In addition, a node may randomly disconnect a connection i.e., the addition of connections in the network is accompanied by the pruning of some connections. The dynamics of network evolution is determined of the attraction factor Lamda of nodes, the probability of node connection, the probability of node disconnection, and the expected initial connectance. The attraction factor of nodes, the probability of node connection, and the probability of node disconnection are time and node varying. Various dynamics can be achieved by adjusting these parameters. Effects of simplified parameters on network evolution are analyzed. The changes of attraction factor Lamda can reflect various effects of the node degree on connection mechanism. Even the changes of Lamda only will generate various networks from the random to the complex. Therefore, the present algorithm can be treated as a general model for network evolution. Modeling results show that to generate a power-law type of network, the likelihood of a node attracting connections is dependent upon the power function of the node's degree with a higher-order power. Matlab codes for simplified version of the method are provided.

  7. Lymph Node Micrometastases are Associated with Worse Survival in Patients with Otherwise Node-Negative Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, Hendrik T. J.; Wiggers, Jim K.; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J.; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Porte, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The objective of

  8. Broadband Control of Topological Nodes in Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Alex Y.; Catrysse, Peter B.; Fan, Shanhui

    2018-05-01

    We study topological nodes (phase singularities) in electromagnetic wave interactions with structures. We show that, when the nodes exist, it is possible to bind certain nodes to a specific plane in the structure by a combination of mirror and time-reversal symmetry. Such binding does not rely on any resonances in the structure. As a result, the nodes persist on the plane over a wide wavelength range. As an implication of such broadband binding, we demonstrate that the topological nodes can be used for hiding of metallic objects over a broad wavelength range.

  9. Effects of node buffer and capacity on network traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Xiang; Ding Jian-Xun; Hu Mao-Bin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the optimization of network traffic by considering the effects of node buffer ability and capacity. Two node buffer settings are considered. The node capacity is considered to be proportional to its buffer ability. The node effects on network traffic systems are studied with the shortest path protocol and an extension of the optimal routing [Phys. Rev. E 74 046106 (2006)]. In the diagrams of flux—density relationships, it is shown that a nodes buffer ability and capacity have profound effects on the network traffic

  10. Partial axillary lymph node dissection inferior to the intercostobrachial nerves complements sentinel node biopsy in patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyi; Jia, Shi; Zhang, Wenhai; Qiu, Fang; Zhang, Yang; Gu, Xi; Xue, Jinqi

    2015-06-30

    The practice of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in China varies to that in western developed countries. With the unavailability of radioactive tracer technique for sentinel lymph nodes biopsy (SLNB), using blue dye alone has been the only option in China. Also, the diagnosis of breast malignant tumor in most Chinese centres heavily relies on intraoperative instant frozen histology which is normally followed by sentinel lymph nodes mapping, SLNB and the potential breast and axillary operations in one consecutive session. This practice appears to cause a high false negative rate (FNR) for SLNB. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the current practice in China on the accuracy of SLNB, and whether partial axillary lymph node dissection (PALND), dissection of lymph nodes inferior to the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN), was a good complementary procedure following SLNB using blue dye. 289 patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer were identified and recruited. Tumorectomy, intraoperative instant frozen histological diagnosis, SLNB using methylene blue dye, and PALND or complete axillary node dissection (ALND) were performed in one consecutive operative session. The choice of SLNB only, SLNB followed by PALND or by ALND was based on the pre-determined protocol and preoperative choice by the patient. Clinical parameters were analyzed and survival analysis was performed. 37% patients with clinically negative nodes were found nodes positive. 59 patients with positive SLN underwent ALND, including 47 patients with up to two positive nodes which were all located inferior to the ICBN. 9 patients had failed SLNB and underwent PALND. Among them, 3 (33.3%) patients were found to have one metastatic node. 149 patients showed negative SLNB but chose PALND. Among them, 30 (20.1%), 14 (9.4) and 1 (0.7%) patients were found to have one, two and three metastatic node(s), respectively. PALND detected 48 (30.4%) patients who had either failed SLNB or

  11. The generation of random directed networks with prescribed 1-node and 2-node degree correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora-Lopez, Gorka; Kurths, Juergen [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, PO Box 601553, 14415 Potsdam (Germany); Zhou Changsong [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Zlatic, Vinko [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, PO Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-06-06

    The generation of random networks is a very common problem in complex network research. In this paper, we have studied the correlation nature of several real networks and found that, typically, a large number of links are deterministic, i.e. they cannot be randomized. This finding permits fast generation of ensembles of maximally random networks with prescribed 1-node and 2-node degree correlations. When the introduction of self-loops or multiple-links are not desired, random network generation methods typically reach blocked states. Here, a mechanism is proposed, the 'force-and-drop' method, to overcome such states. Our algorithm can be easily simplified for undirected graphs and reduced to account for any subclass of 2-node degree correlations.

  12. The generation of random directed networks with prescribed 1-node and 2-node degree correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora-Lopez, Gorka; Kurths, Juergen; Zhou Changsong; Zlatic, Vinko

    2008-01-01

    The generation of random networks is a very common problem in complex network research. In this paper, we have studied the correlation nature of several real networks and found that, typically, a large number of links are deterministic, i.e. they cannot be randomized. This finding permits fast generation of ensembles of maximally random networks with prescribed 1-node and 2-node degree correlations. When the introduction of self-loops or multiple-links are not desired, random network generation methods typically reach blocked states. Here, a mechanism is proposed, the 'force-and-drop' method, to overcome such states. Our algorithm can be easily simplified for undirected graphs and reduced to account for any subclass of 2-node degree correlations

  13. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is indicated for patients with thick clinically lymph node-negative melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maki; Fisher, Kate J; Wong, Joyce Y; Koscso, Jonathan M; Konstantinovic, Monique A; Govsyeyev, Nicholas; Messina, Jane L; Sarnaik, Amod A; Cruse, C Wayne; Gonzalez, Ricardo J; Sondak, Vernon K; Zager, Jonathan S

    2015-05-15

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is indicated for the staging of clinically lymph node-negative melanoma of intermediate thickness, but its use is controversial in patients with thick melanoma. From 2002 to 2012, patients with melanoma measuring ≥4 mm in thickness were evaluated at a single institution. Associations between survival and clinicopathologic characteristics were explored. Of 571 patients with melanomas measuring ≥4 mm in thickness and no distant metastases, the median age was 66 years and 401 patients (70.2%) were male. The median Breslow thickness was 6.2 mm; the predominant subtype was nodular (45.4%). SLNB was performed in 412 patients (72%) whereas 46 patients (8.1%) presented with clinically lymph node-positive disease and 113 patients (20%) did not undergo SLNB. A positive SLN was found in 161 of 412 patients (39.1%). For SLNB performed at the study institution, 14 patients with a negative SLNB developed disease recurrence in the mapped lymph node basin (false-negative rate, 12.3%). The median disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) for the entire cohort were 62.1 months, 42.5 months, and 21.2 months, respectively. The DSS and OS for patients with a negative SLNB were 82.4 months and 53.4 months, respectively; 41.2 months and 34.7 months, respectively, for patients with positive SLNB; and 26.8 months and 22 months, respectively, for patients with clinically lymph node-positive disease (Pthick melanoma and a negative SLNB appear to have significantly prolonged RFS, DSS, and OS compared with those with a positive SLNB. Therefore, SLNB should be considered as indicated for patients with thick, clinically lymph node-negative melanoma. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. Sentinel lymph node detection in canine oncological patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, L.; Andocs, G.; Mathe, D.

    2002-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node detection was investigated in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumours. In this pilot study, 24 client-owned spontaneously tumorous dogs presented for sentinel lymph node detection. A multiple method was used with a nuclear medicine technique (injection of 99mT c human serum albumin colloid) with scintigraphy and intraoperative guidance, and blue dye injection. Of the 35 lymph nodes histologically demonstrated to contain metastases, 34 (97%) were found by radioguided surgery, which means that one would have been missed in the intraoperative localisation process; 31 nodes (89%) were clearly visualised in the gamma camera images; only 27 (77%) were blue-stained by vital dye; a mere 8 lymph nodes (23%) were enlarged and therefore easily detectable by palpation. Data obtained from the harmless application of the sentinel node concept are useful for the radiopharmaceutist. The sentinel lymph node concept is well applicable in the veterinary clinic. (author)

  15. Diagnostic possibilities in lymphatic node diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeva, M.

    1994-01-01

    A brief review of lymphoscintigraphy applied in Bulgarian medical practice is presented. The most widely used radiopharmaceuticals are listed: 9 m Tc-colloid and 113 In-colloid; 67 Ga-citrate, 75 Se-methionine, 51 Cr-bleomycin, 201 Tl-chloride; monoclonal antibodies labelled with 125 I, 131 I, 111 In, 99 Tc. Some pathological changes occurring during indirect colloid lymphoscintigraphy re mentioned. Except for diagnostic purposes, lymphoscintigraphy is also used in following up the development of malignant lymphomas. A combination of indirect lymphoscintigraphy with succeeding radioimmunoscintigraphy of lymph nodes gives maximal reliable and precise data about the disease process and its distribution. 9 refs. (orig.)

  16. Functional Testing of Wireless Sensor Node Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Madsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are networked embedded computer systems with stringent power, performance, cost and form-factor requirements along with numerous other constraints related to their pervasiveness and ubiquitousness. Therefore, only a systematic design methdology coupled with an efficient...... test approach can enable their conformance to design and deployment specifications. We discuss off-line, hierarchical, functional testing of complete wireless sensor nodes containing configurable logic through a combination of FPGA-based board test and Software-Based Self-Test (SBST) techniques...

  17. B-Flow Twinkling Sign in Preoperative Evaluation of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Napolitano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is the most common histologic type of differentiated thyroid cancer. The first site of metastasis is the cervical lymph nodes (LNs. The ultrasonography (US is the best diagnostic method for the detection of cervical metastatic LNs. We use a new technique, B-flow imaging (BFI, recently used for evaluation of thyroid nodules, to estimate the presence of BFI twinkling signs (BFI-TS, within metastatic LNs in patients with PTC. Two hundred and fifty-two patients with known PTC were examined for preoperative evaluation with conventional US and BFI. Only 83 with at least one metastatic LN were included. All patients included underwent surgery; the final diagnosis was based on the results of histology. The following LN characteristics were evaluated: shape, abnormal echogenicity, absent hilum, calcifications, cystic appearance, peripheral vascularization, and BFI-TS. A total of 604 LNs were analyzed. Of these, 298 were metastatic, according to histopathology. The BFI-TS showed high values ​​of specificity (99.7% and sensitivity (80.9%. The combination of each conventional US sign with the BF-TS increases the specificity. Our findings suggest that BFI can be helpful in the selection of suspicious neck LNs that should be examined at cytologic examination for accurate preoperative staging and individual therapy selection.

  18. The relationship between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and central neck lymph node metastasis in North American patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Sebastian M; Carson, Kathryn A; Pai, Sara I; Agrawal, Nishant; Richmon, Jeremy D; Prescott, Jason D; Dackiw, Alan; Zeiger, Martha A; Bishop, Justin A; Tufano, Ralph P

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have reported that concurrent chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with improved prognosis of the PTC, including decreased lymph node metastasis. We sought to assess the incidence of central nodal metastasis (CNM) in patients with PTC and concurrent CLT. We studied 495 consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy with nodal excision for PTC. Pathology reports identified the presence of CLT and the extent of CNM. There were 226 patients (46%) with CLT and 220 (44%) with CNM. Patients with CLT were more often female (88% vs. 71%; P CLT was associated with a 39% decreased odds of CNM after adjusting for age, gender, tumor size, PTC histopathologic subtype, and presence of lymphovascular invasion (odds ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.99; P = .046). Predicted probability modeling showed that all females with CLT and no suspicious nodal findings on ultrasonography had a 9-11% risk of CNM with pT1a tumors. Female patients of all ages with CLT and small PTCs have the least incidence of CNM. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Mi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph topology. This algorithm can interactively layout graphs with millions of nodes, and support real-time interaction to explore alternative graph layouts. Users can directly manipulate the layout of vertices in a force-directed fashion. The complexity of traditional repulsive force computation is reduced by approximating calculations based on the hierarchical structure of multi-level clustered graphs. We evaluate the algorithm performance, and demonstrate human-in-the-loop layout in two sensemaking case studies. Moreover, we summarize lessons learned for designing interactive large graph layout algorithms on the GPU.

  20. Initiating a Human Variome Project Country Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAama, Jumana; Smith, Timothy D; Lo, Alan; Howard, Heather; Kline, Alexandria A; Lange, Matthew; Kaput, Jim; Cotton, Richard G H

    2011-05-01

    Genetic diseases are a pressing global health problem that requires comprehensive access to basic clinical and genetic data to counter. The creation of regional and international databases that can be easily accessed by clinicians and diagnostic labs will greatly improve our ability to accurately diagnose and treat patients with genetic disorders. The Human Variome Project is currently working in conjunction with human genetics societies to achieve this by establishing systems to collect every mutation reported by a diagnostic laboratory, clinic, or research laboratory in a country and store these within a national repository, or HVP Country Node. Nodes have already been initiated in Australia, Belgium, China, Egypt, Malaysia, and Kuwait. Each is examining how to systematically collect and share genetic, clinical, and biochemical information in a country-specific manner that is sensitive to local ethical and cultural issues. This article gathers cases of genetic data collection within countries and takes recommendations from the global community to develop a procedure for countries wishing to establish their own collection system as part of the Human Variome Project. We hope this may lead to standard practices to facilitate global collection of data and allow efficient use in clinical practice, research and therapy. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Histological step sectioning of pelvic lymph nodes increases the number of identified lymph node metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, Birte; Poulsen, Mads H; Staun, Pia W

    2014-01-01

    Pathological examinations of lymph nodes (LN) in prostate cancer patients are handled differently at various institutions. The objective of this study is to provide means to improve the guidelines by examining the impact of step sectioning on LN status in patients with intermediate and high...

  2. Does sentinel lymph node biopsy have a role in node- positive head ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10.1097/MOO.0b013e3283293631]. 6. Taylor RJ, Wahl RL, Sharma PK, et al. Sentinel node localization in oral cavity and oropharynx squamous cell cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2001;127(8):970-974. 7. Nieuwenhuis EJ, Pijpers R, ...

  3. Data driven CAN node reliability assessment for manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leiming; Yuan, Yong; Lei, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The reliability of the Controller Area Network(CAN) is critical to the performance and safety of the system. However, direct bus-off time assessment tools are lacking in practice due to inaccessibility of the node information and the complexity of the node interactions upon errors. In order to measure the mean time to bus-off(MTTB) of all the nodes, a novel data driven node bus-off time assessment method for CAN network is proposed by directly using network error information. First, the corresponding network error event sequence for each node is constructed using multiple-layer network error information. Then, the generalized zero inflated Poisson process(GZIP) model is established for each node based on the error event sequence. Finally, the stochastic model is constructed to predict the MTTB of the node. The accelerated case studies with different error injection rates are conducted on a laboratory network to demonstrate the proposed method, where the network errors are generated by a computer controlled error injection system. Experiment results show that the MTTB of nodes predicted by the proposed method agree well with observations in the case studies. The proposed data driven node time to bus-off assessment method for CAN networks can successfully predict the MTTB of nodes by directly using network error event data.

  4. Fractal dimension analysis of malignant and benign endobronchial ultrasound nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiz, José Antonio; Monte-Moreno, Enrique; Andreo, Felipe; Auteri, Santiago José; Sanz-Santos, José; Serra, Pere; Bonet, Gloria; Castellà, Eva; Manzano, Juan Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) has been applied as a routine procedure for the diagnostic of hiliar and mediastinal nodes. The authors assessed the relationship between the echographic appearance of mediastinal nodes, based on endobronchial ultrasound images, and the likelihood of malignancy. The images of twelve malignant and eleven benign nodes were evaluated. A previous processing method was applied to improve the quality of the images and to enhance the details. Texture and morphology parameters analyzed were: the image texture of the echographies and a fractal dimension that expressed the relationship between area and perimeter of the structures that appear in the image, and characterizes the convoluted inner structure of the hiliar and mediastinal nodes. Processed images showed that relationship between log perimeter and log area of hilar nodes was lineal (i.e. perimeter vs. area follow a power law). Fractal dimension was lower in the malignant nodes compared with non-malignant nodes (1.47(0.09), 1.53(0.10) mean(SD), Mann–Whitney U test p < 0.05)). Fractal dimension of ultrasonographic images of mediastinal nodes obtained through endobronchial ultrasound differ in malignant nodes from non-malignant. This parameter could differentiate malignat and non-malignat mediastinic and hiliar nodes

  5. Information spreading in Delay Tolerant Networks based on nodes' behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yahui; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin

    2014-07-01

    Information spreading in DTNs (Delay Tolerant Networks) adopts a store-carry-forward method, and nodes receive the message from others directly. However, it is hard to judge whether the information is safe in this communication mode. In this case, a node may observe other nodes' behaviors. At present, there is no theoretical model to describe the varying rule of the nodes' trusting level. In addition, due to the uncertainty of the connectivity in DTN, a node is hard to get the global state of the network. Therefore, a rational model about the node's trusting level should be a function of the node's own observing result. For example, if a node finds k nodes carrying a message, it may trust the information with probability p(k). This paper does not explore the real distribution of p(k), but instead presents a unifying theoretical framework to evaluate the performance of the information spreading in above case. This framework is an extension of the traditional SI (susceptible-infected) model, and is useful when p(k) conforms to any distribution. Simulations based on both synthetic and real motion traces show the accuracy of the framework. Finally, we explore the impact of the nodes' behaviors based on certain special distributions through numerical results.

  6. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  7. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko

    1996-01-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  8. Agreement Among RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists in Contouring Suspicious Peritumoral Edema for Preoperative Radiation Therapy of Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahig, Houda [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Roberge, David, E-mail: david.roberge.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Bosch, Walter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Levin, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Freeman, Carolyn [Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Indelicato, Danny J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Medical Center, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Baldini, Elizabeth H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hitchcock, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Wolfson, Aaron [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); and others

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Peritumoral edema may harbor sarcoma cells. The extent of suspicious edema (SE) included in the treatment volume is subject to clinical judgment, balancing the risk of missing tumor cells with excess toxicity. Our goal was to determine variability in SE delineation by sarcoma radiation oncologists (RO). Methods and Materials: Twelve expert ROs were provided with T1 gadolinium and T2-weighted MR images of 10 patients with high-grade extremity soft-tissue sarcoma. Gross tumor volume, clinical target volume (CTV)3cm (3 cm longitudinal and 1.5 cm radial margin), and CTV2cm (2 cm longitudinal and 1 cm radial margin) were contoured by a single observer. Suspicious peritumoral edema, defined as abnormal signal on T2 images, was independently delineated by all 12 ROs. Contouring agreement was analyzed using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm and kappa statistics. Results: The mean volumes of GTV, CTV2cm, and CTV3cm were, respectively, 130 cm{sup 3} (7-413 cm{sup 3}), 280 cm{sup 3} and 360 cm{sup 3}. The mean consensus volume computed using the STAPLE algorithm at 95% confidence interval was 188 cm{sup 3} (24-565 cm{sup 3}) with a substantial overall agreement corrected for chance (mean kappa = 0.71; range: 0.32-0.87). The minimum, maximum, and mean volume of SE (excluding the GTV) were 4, 182, and 58 cm{sup 3} (representing a median of 29% of the GTV volume). The median volume of SE not included in the CTV2cm and in the CTV3cm was 5 and 0.3 cm{sup 3}, respectively. There were 3 large tumors with >30 cm{sup 3} of SE not included in the CTV3cm volume. Conclusion: Despite the fact that SE would empirically seem to be a more subjective volume, a substantial or near-perfect interobserver agreement was observed in SE delineation in most cases with high-grade soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremity. A median of 97% of the consensus SE is within the CTV2cm (99.8% within the CTV3cm). In a minority of cases, however, significant

  9. Agreement among RTOG sarcoma radiation oncologists in contouring suspicious peritumoral edema for preoperative radiation therapy of soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahig, Houda; Roberge, David; Bosch, Walter; Levin, William; Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael; Freeman, Carolyn; Delaney, Thomas F; Abrams, Ross A; Indelicato, Danny J; Baldini, Elizabeth H; Hitchcock, Ying; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Wolfson, Aaron; Wang, Dian

    2013-06-01

    Peritumoral edema may harbor sarcoma cells. The extent of suspicious edema (SE) included in the treatment volume is subject to clinical judgment, balancing the risk of missing tumor cells with excess toxicity. Our goal was to determine variability in SE delineation by sarcoma radiation oncologists (RO). Twelve expert ROs were provided with T1 gadolinium and T2-weighted MR images of 10 patients with high-grade extremity soft-tissue sarcoma. Gross tumor volume, clinical target volume (CTV)3cm (3 cm longitudinal and 1.5 cm radial margin), and CTV2cm (2 cm longitudinal and 1 cm radial margin) were contoured by a single observer. Suspicious peritumoral edema, defined as abnormal signal on T2 images, was independently delineated by all 12 ROs. Contouring agreement was analyzed using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm and kappa statistics. The mean volumes of GTV, CTV2cm, and CTV3cm were, respectively, 130 cm(3) (7-413 cm(3)), 280 cm(3) and 360 cm(3). The mean consensus volume computed using the STAPLE algorithm at 95% confidence interval was 188 cm(3) (24-565 cm(3)) with a substantial overall agreement corrected for chance (mean kappa = 0.71; range: 0.32-0.87). The minimum, maximum, and mean volume of SE (excluding the GTV) were 4, 182, and 58 cm(3) (representing a median of 29% of the GTV volume). The median volume of SE not included in the CTV2cm and in the CTV3cm was 5 and 0.3 cm(3), respectively. There were 3 large tumors with >30 cm(3) of SE not included in the CTV3cm volume. Despite the fact that SE would empirically seem to be a more subjective volume, a substantial or near-perfect interobserver agreement was observed in SE delineation in most cases with high-grade soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremity. A median of 97% of the consensus SE is within the CTV2cm (99.8% within the CTV3cm). In a minority of cases, however, significant expansion of the CTVs is required to cover SE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Agreement Among RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists in Contouring Suspicious Peritumoral Edema for Preoperative Radiation Therapy of Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahig, Houda; Roberge, David; Bosch, Walter; Levin, William; Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael; Freeman, Carolyn; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Abrams, Ross A.; Indelicato, Danny J.; Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Hitchcock, Ying; Kirsch, David G.; Kozak, Kevin R.; Wolfson, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Peritumoral edema may harbor sarcoma cells. The extent of suspicious edema (SE) included in the treatment volume is subject to clinical judgment, balancing the risk of missing tumor cells with excess toxicity. Our goal was to determine variability in SE delineation by sarcoma radiation oncologists (RO). Methods and Materials: Twelve expert ROs were provided with T1 gadolinium and T2-weighted MR images of 10 patients with high-grade extremity soft-tissue sarcoma. Gross tumor volume, clinical target volume (CTV)3cm (3 cm longitudinal and 1.5 cm radial margin), and CTV2cm (2 cm longitudinal and 1 cm radial margin) were contoured by a single observer. Suspicious peritumoral edema, defined as abnormal signal on T2 images, was independently delineated by all 12 ROs. Contouring agreement was analyzed using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm and kappa statistics. Results: The mean volumes of GTV, CTV2cm, and CTV3cm were, respectively, 130 cm 3 (7-413 cm 3 ), 280 cm 3 and 360 cm 3 . The mean consensus volume computed using the STAPLE algorithm at 95% confidence interval was 188 cm 3 (24-565 cm 3 ) with a substantial overall agreement corrected for chance (mean kappa = 0.71; range: 0.32-0.87). The minimum, maximum, and mean volume of SE (excluding the GTV) were 4, 182, and 58 cm 3 (representing a median of 29% of the GTV volume). The median volume of SE not included in the CTV2cm and in the CTV3cm was 5 and 0.3 cm 3 , respectively. There were 3 large tumors with >30 cm 3 of SE not included in the CTV3cm volume. Conclusion: Despite the fact that SE would empirically seem to be a more subjective volume, a substantial or near-perfect interobserver agreement was observed in SE delineation in most cases with high-grade soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremity. A median of 97% of the consensus SE is within the CTV2cm (99.8% within the CTV3cm). In a minority of cases, however, significant expansion of the CTVs is required to cover SE

  11. Molecular Testing of Nodules with a Suspicious or Malignant Cytologic Diagnosis in the Setting of Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features (NIFTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Kyle C; Eszlinger, Markus; Paschke, Ralf; Angell, Trevor E; Alexander, Erik K; Marqusee, Ellen; Nehs, Matthew A; Jo, Vickie Y; Lowe, Alarice; Vivero, Marina; Hollowell, Monica; Qian, Xiaohua; Wieczorek, Tad; French, Christopher A; Teot, Lisa A; Cibas, Edmund S; Lindeman, Neal I; Krane, Jeffrey F; Barletta, Justine A

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is an indolent thyroid tumor characterized by frequent RAS mutations and an absence of the BRAF V600E mutation commonly seen in classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC). The ability to differentiate potential NIFTP/follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) from cPTC at the time of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can facilitate conservative management of NIFTP. The aim of the current study was to investigate how molecular testing may add to cytologic assessment in the pre-operative differentiation of potential NIFTP/FVPTC and cPTC. We had previously evaluated cytologists' ability to prospectively distinguish potential NIFTP/FVPTC from cPTC in a cohort of 56 consecutive FNAs diagnosed as malignant or suspicious for malignancy. We utilized this cohort to perform molecular analysis. Detected molecular abnormalities were stratified into two groups: (1) those supporting malignancy and (2) those supporting a diagnosis of potential NIFTP/FVPTC. The cytologists' characterization of cases and the detected molecular alterations were correlated with the final histologic diagnoses. Molecular testing was performed in 52 (93%) of the 56 cases. For the 37 cases cytologists favored to be cPTC, 31 (84%) had a molecular result that supported malignancy (28 BRAF V600E mutations, 2 NTRK1 fusions, 1 AGK-BRAF fusion). For the 8 cases that were favored to be NIFTP/FVPTC by cytologists, 7 (88%) had a molecular result that supported conservative management (1 NRAS mutation, 6 wild-type result). Seven cases were designated as cytomorphologically indeterminate for NIFTP/FVPTC or cPTC, of which 6 (86%) had a molecular result that would have aided in the pre-operative assessment of potential NIFTP/FVPTC or cPTC/malignancy. These included 3 BRAF V600E mutations in nodules that were cPTC on resection, an HRAS mutation, and a wild-type result in the 2 nodules that were NIFTP, and a TERT promoter

  12. Ultrasound differentiation of benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to see whether the size (measured by maximal short axis diameter, shape (expressed in terms of ratio dividing long axis diameter of the node by short axis diameter or L/S ratio, marginal clarity (regular or irregular margin, internal echo-pattern (homogeneous hypoechoic or heterogeneous and hilar echogenicity (presence or absence of echo-genicity in hilum are good criteria for differentiating benign from malignant cervical lymph nodes using high frequency (high resolution ultrasound probe. The study was carried out from January 1998 to December 1998, among patients with enlarged cervical lymph nodes who were scanned with a high frequency (5.0 MHz curvilinear probe. Chi-Square test was done to see the statistical correlation between two groups of nodes. A p value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Out of 65 nodes studied, 26 (100% enlarged cervical nodes with short axis diameter more than 1 cm were all malignant. In contrast 31 (79.5% of 39 enlarged nodes with short axis diameter less than 1cm were benign and rest were malignant (p<0.001. Of 34 enlarged nodes with L/S ratio <2, 30 (88.2% nodes were found malignant and 4 (11.8% were benign. Among the rest 31 enlarged nodes, 27 (87.1% with L/S ratio  2 were benign while 4 (12.9% were malignant (p <0.001. Among the 39 nodes with regular margin 28 (71.8% were found benign, where as among 26 nodes with irregular margin 23 (88.5% were malignant (p <0.001. When the internal echopattern was taken in account, 32 nodes had homogeneous hypoechoic echo of which 28 (87.5% were benign and among 33 nodes with heterogeneous echopattern 30 (90.9% were malignant (p <0.001. Among the 43 enlarged nodes with presence of hilar echogenicity 31(72.1% were found benign and 22 (100% nodes with no hilar echogenicity were all malignant (p <0.001. Such findings suggest that real time high resolution ultrasound might assist in differentiation of benign and malignant enlarged cervical lymph nodes

  13. Lymphoscintigraphic Identification of Sentinel Nodes in Malignant Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andries, G.; Dindelegan, G.; Ciule, Larisa; Cosgarea, Rodica; Cobzac, Gh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The most important prognostic factor in malignant melanoma is the presence or absence of metastasis in lymph nodes. It has been demonstrated the orderly progression of different types of tumours. Sentinel lymph node identification is done lymphoscintigraphically, followed by surgical excision and morpho pathological exam. Material and methods: We studied 33 patients with malignant melanoma (age 26-84 years) divided in 2 subgroups: group A without gamma probe (18 patients) and group B with gamma probe (15 patients). The lymphoscintigraphy (LS) was performed with a totally dose of 20-30 MBq of 99mTc-nanocoloid (Amersham) injected peritumoral or pericicatriceal in 4-6 points in volume of 0,1-0,2 ml per point. Acquisition was performed dynamic for 10-15 min and static at 30-60 min p.i. on perpendicular projections. Patent blue dye was injected prior surgery. In group A has performed sentinel node excision (13 patients) or ELND (4), one patient has died before surgery. In group B sentinel nodes were surgically excised with gamma probe and ELND was performed in patients with positive lymph nodes. Histopathologically, sentinel nodes were stained with HE and in 6 cases with HMB45. Results: In group A we identified the sentinel nodes scintigraphically in all patients (median 1,83±-1,50 nodes, range 1-7). Surgically with PBD were identified 1,69±1,18 sentinel nodes, in 2 patients the SN lymphadenectomy was negative. All nodes excised were histopathologically negative, but in 4 patients loco-regional recurrence or distant metastasis developed. In group B we identified scintigraphically 33 SNs (median 2,20±1,37 nodes, range 1-5) and 4 in transit nodes in 14 patients, 24 of them being blue dye positive (80%), in 1 patient LS was negative. With gamma probe surgeon excised 39 radioactive nodes and 1 SN blue dye positive only, 10 of them being histopathologically positive (25% node metastasis). No metastasis were identified after ELND in patients with positive SNs

  14. Lymph Node Micrometastases are Associated with Worse Survival in Patients with Otherwise Node-Negative Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Hendrik T J; Wiggers, Jim K; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M; Gouw, Annette S H; Porte, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The objective of this study was to assess the effect on survival of immunohistochemically detected lymph node micrometastases in patients with node-negative (pN0) hilar cholangiocarcinoma on routine histology. Between 1990 and 2010, a total of 146 patients underwent curative-intent resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with regional lymphadenectomy at two university medical centers in the Netherlands. Ninety-one patients (62 %) without lymph node metastases at routine histology were included. Micrometastases were identified by multiple sectioning of all lymph nodes and additional immunostaining with an antibody against cytokeratin 19 (K19). The association with overall survival was assessed in univariable and multivariable analysis. Median follow-up was 48 months. Micrometastases were identified in 16 (5 %) of 324 lymph nodes, corresponding to 11 (12 %) of 91 patients. There were no differences in clinical variables between K19 lymph node-positive and -negative patients. Five-year survival rates in patients with lymph node micrometastases were significantly lower compared to patients without micrometastases (27 vs. 54 %, P = 0.01). Multivariable analysis confirmed micrometastases as an independent prognostic factor for survival (adjusted Hazard ratio 2.4, P = 0.02). Lymph node micrometastases are associated with worse survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical detection of lymph node micrometastases leads to better staging of patients who were initially diagnosed with node-negative (pN0) hilar cholangiocarcinoma on routine histology.

  15. Suppressing epidemics on networks by exploiting observer nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Hasegawa, Takehisa; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    To control infection spreading on networks, we investigate the effect of observer nodes that recognize infection in a neighboring node and make the rest of the neighbor nodes immune. We numerically show that random placement of observer nodes works better on networks with clustering than on locally treelike networks, implying that our model is promising for realistic social networks. The efficiency of several heuristic schemes for observer placement is also examined for synthetic and empirical networks. In parallel with numerical simulations of epidemic dynamics, we also show that the effect of observer placement can be assessed by the size of the largest connected component of networks remaining after removing observer nodes and links between their neighboring nodes.

  16. Suppressing epidemics on networks by exploiting observer nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Hasegawa, Takehisa; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    To control infection spreading on networks, we investigate the effect of observer nodes that recognize infection in a neighboring node and make the rest of the neighbor nodes immune. We numerically show that random placement of observer nodes works better on networks with clustering than on locally treelike networks, implying that our model is promising for realistic social networks. The efficiency of several heuristic schemes for observer placement is also examined for synthetic and empirical networks. In parallel with numerical simulations of epidemic dynamics, we also show that the effect of observer placement can be assessed by the size of the largest connected component of networks remaining after removing observer nodes and links between their neighboring nodes.

  17. Research on centrality of urban transport network nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Fu, Xiufen

    2017-05-01

    Based on the actual data of urban transport in Guangzhou, 19,150 bus stations in Guangzhou (as of 2014) are selected as nodes. Based on the theory of complex network, the network model of Guangzhou urban transport is constructed. By analyzing the degree centrality index, betweenness centrality index and closeness centrality index of nodes in the network, the level of centrality of each node in the network is studied. From a different point of view to determine the hub node of Guangzhou urban transport network, corresponding to the city's key sites and major transfer sites. The reliability of the network is determined by the stability of some key nodes (transport hub station). The research of network node centralization can provide a theoretical basis for the rational allocation of urban transport network sites and public transport system planning.

  18. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-02

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  19. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of inguinal lymph nodes, simulating lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akansha Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple enlarged lymph nodes in an elderly female patient can have varied etiologies as well as histologic pictures. We are presenting the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with inguinal lymphadenopathy with fever, which was clinically misconstrued as lymphoma. Cytology could not exclude a lymphoma. Histology led to the unusual diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of lymph node in this case. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lymph node is a rare, distinctive reactive proliferative pattern in the lymph node which involves proliferation of the connective tissue elements of the lymph node, admixed with lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and histiocytes. Multiple etiologic agents have been suggested in existing literature. Despite extensive search, no definite attributable cause could be sought. It is now widely accepted that inflammatory pseudotumor of the lymph node is a non-neoplastic proliferation which has a benign clinical course and excellent prognosis after surgical resection.

  20. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  1. Error Control in Distributed Node Self-Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Location information of nodes in an ad hoc sensor network is essential to many tasks such as routing, cooperative sensing, and service delivery. Distributed node self-localization is lightweight and requires little communication overhead, but often suffers from the adverse effects of error propagation. Unlike other localization papers which focus on designing elaborate localization algorithms, this paper takes a different perspective, focusing on the error propagation problem, addressing questions such as where localization error comes from and how it propagates from node to node. To prevent error from propagating and accumulating, we develop an error-control mechanism based on characterization of node uncertainties and discrimination between neighboring nodes. The error-control mechanism uses only local knowledge and is fully decentralized. Simulation results have shown that the active selection strategy significantly mitigates the effect of error propagation for both range and directional sensors. It greatly improves localization accuracy and robustness.

  2. Node design in optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The thesis discusses motivation, realisation and performance of the Optical Packet Switching (OPS) network paradigm. The work includes proposals for designs and methods to efficiently use both the wavelength- and time domain for contention resolution in asynchronous operation. The project has also......S parameter. Finally, the thesis includes a proposal for a node design and associated MAC protocol for an OPS ring topology metropolitan area network with high throughput and fairness, also for unbalanced traffic....... proposed parallel designs to overcome scalability constraints and to support migration scenarios. Furthermore, it has proposed and demonstrated optical input processing schemes for hybrids networks to simultaneously support OPS and Optical Circuit Switching. Quality of Service (QoS) differentiation enables...

  3. Cervical lymph node metastases from thyroid cancer: does thyroglobulin and calcitonin measurement in fine needle aspirates improve the diagnostic value of cytology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldini Enke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg protein in the washout of the needle used for fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C has been shown to increase the sensitivity of FNAB-C in identifying cervical lymph node (CLN metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer (TC. In this study, we evaluated whether routine measurement of Tg protein (FNAB-Tgp, Tg mRNA (FNAB-Tgm and calcitonin (CT mRNA (FNAB-CTm in the FNAB washout of CLN increases the accuracy of FNAB-C in the diagnosis of suspicious metastatic CLN. Methods In this prospective study 35 CLN from 28 patients were examined. Histology showed metastatic papillary TC (PTC in 26 CLN, metastatic medullary TC (MTC in 3 CLN, metastatic anaplastic TC (ATC in 3 CLN and 3 metastatic CLN from extra-thyroidal cancers. Results The overall accuracy of FNAB-C was 84.4%, reaching 95.7% when the analysis was restricted to PTC. Both FNAB-Tgp and FNAB-Tgm compared favorably with FNAB-C and shown diagnostic performances not statistically different from that of FNAB-C. However, FNAB-Tgp and FNAB-Tgm/FNAB-CTm were found useful in cases in which cytology results were inadequate or provided diagnosis inconsistent with patient's clinical parameters. Conclusions We demonstrated that FNAB-C, Tg/CT mRNA and Tg protein determination in the fine-needle washout showed similar accuracy in the diagnosis of metastatic CLN from TC. The results of this study suggest that samples for Tg protein and Tg/CT mRNA measurements from CLN suspicious for metastatic TC should be collected, but their measurements should be restricted to cases in which FNAB-C provides uninformative or inconsistent diagnosis with respect to patient's clinical parameters.

  4. Cervical lymph node metastases from thyroid cancer: does thyroglobulin and calcitonin measurement in fine needle aspirates improve the diagnostic value of cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg) protein in the washout of the needle used for fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C) has been shown to increase the sensitivity of FNAB-C in identifying cervical lymph node (CLN) metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer (TC). In this study, we evaluated whether routine measurement of Tg protein (FNAB-Tgp), Tg mRNA (FNAB-Tgm) and calcitonin (CT) mRNA (FNAB-CTm) in the FNAB washout of CLN increases the accuracy of FNAB-C in the diagnosis of suspicious metastatic CLN. Methods In this prospective study 35 CLN from 28 patients were examined. Histology showed metastatic papillary TC (PTC) in 26 CLN, metastatic medullary TC (MTC) in 3 CLN, metastatic anaplastic TC (ATC) in 3 CLN and 3 metastatic CLN from extra-thyroidal cancers. Results The overall accuracy of FNAB-C was 84.4%, reaching 95.7% when the analysis was restricted to PTC. Both FNAB-Tgp and FNAB-Tgm compared favorably with FNAB-C and shown diagnostic performances not statistically different from that of FNAB-C. However, FNAB-Tgp and FNAB-Tgm/FNAB-CTm were found useful in cases in which cytology results were inadequate or provided diagnosis inconsistent with patient's clinical parameters. Conclusions We demonstrated that FNAB-C, Tg/CT mRNA and Tg protein determination in the fine-needle washout showed similar accuracy in the diagnosis of metastatic CLN from TC. The results of this study suggest that samples for Tg protein and Tg/CT mRNA measurements from CLN suspicious for metastatic TC should be collected, but their measurements should be restricted to cases in which FNAB-C provides uninformative or inconsistent diagnosis with respect to patient's clinical parameters. PMID:23421519

  5. Mapping lymphatic nodes: Role of thrombospondin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spana, G.S.; Liu, J.; Rao, P.S.; Thakur, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Lymphatic (sentinel) node (SN) mapping determines the status of lymphatic basin draining a primary tumor, provides staging information of systemic spread of malignancy, and is vital in the management of breast cancer and melanoma. Thrombospondin (TSP), a matrix bound adhesive glycoprotein, promotes cell proliferation and angiogenesis. TSP receptors are expressed on lymphocytes, and on the cells of breast cancer and melanoma. We hypothesized that Tc-99m-CSVTCR, a small, soluble, and TSP specific peptide, can image SN. Method: CSVTCR was modified at the N terminus with Aba-G(D) AGG (TP1300) and labeled with Tc-99m. Female New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized and 125 μCi TP1300 was given into the plantar/palmer surface of each foot pad in the metacarpal/metatarsal region, followed by dynamic imaging for 2 hrs and quantification of Tc-99m in SN and injection site by ROI. Control rabbits received Tc-99m-O 4 - and TP1300>Tc-99mO- 4 . Tc-99m clearance from injection site was Tc-99m-O 4 >TP1300>>TSC. % ID/g in the axillary SN was greater in than the popliteal SN for all agents. For TP1300, SN to muscle Tc-99m ratios were 552 for axillary and 140 for popliteal nodes. With infiltrating tumor cells higher uptake in SN is expected. Summary: Due to high SN uptake, rapid clearance from injection site delivering low radiation dose at injection site and ease of handling, targeting TSP receptors with Tc-99m-TP1300, a soluble, receptor specific, small biomolecule for efficient imaging of SN is promising

  6. SOME ASPECTS OF THE ANATOMY OF AXILLARY LYMPH NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Shvedavchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concisely reviews the classifications of axillary lymph nodes (LN and considers various approaches to their formation. The authors identify the axillary lymph chain consisting of lateral, central, and apical groups of nodes through which lymph outflows into the overlying lymph collectors, as well as of subscapular and medial groups of nodes from where lymph makes its way into the auxil- lary lymph chain.

  7. A Stirling engine analysis method based upon moving gas nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    A Lagrangian nodal analysis method for Stirling engines (SEs) is described, validated, and applied to a conventional SE and an isothermalized SE (with fins in the hot and cold spaces). The analysis employs a constant-mass gas node (which moves with respect to the solid nodes during each time step) instead of the fixed gas nodes of Eulerian analysis. The isothermalized SE is found to have efficiency only slightly greater than that of a conventional SE.

  8. Jumping to Conclusions Is Associated with Paranoia but Not General Suspiciousness: A Comparison of Two Versions of the Probabilistic Reasoning Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models ascribe jumping to conclusions (JTCs a prominent role in the pathogenesis of paranoia. While many earlier studies corroborated this account, some newer investigations have found no or only small associations of the JTC bias with paranoid symptoms. The present study examined whether these inconsistencies in part reflect methodological differences across studies. The study was built upon the psychometric high-risk paradigm. A total of 1899 subjects from the general population took part in an online survey and were administered the Paranoia Checklist as well as one of two different variants of the probabilistic reasoning task: one variant with a traditional instruction (a and one novel variant that combines probability estimates with decision judgments (b. Factor analysis of the Paranoia Checklist yielded an unspecific suspiciousness factor and a psychotic paranoia factor. The latter was significantly associated with scores indicating hasty decision making. Subjects scoring two standard deviations above the mean of the Paranoia Checklist showed an abnormal data-gathering style relative to subjects with normal scores. Findings suggest that the so-called decision threshold parameter is more sensitive than the conventional JTC index. For future research the specific contents of paranoid beliefs deserve more consideration in the investigation of decision making in schizophrenia as JTC seems to be associated with core psychosis-prone features of paranoia only.

  9. Active sensing and its application to sensor node reconfiguration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyong

    2014-10-08

    This paper presents a perturbation/correlation-based active sensing method and its application to sensor node configuration for environment monitoring. Sensor networks are widely used as data measurement tools, especially in dangerous environments. For large scale environment monitoring, a large number of nodes is required. For optimal measurements, the placement of nodes is very important. Nonlinear spring force-based configuration is introduced. Perturbation/correlation-based estimation of the gradient is developed and it is much more robust because it does not require any differentiation. An algorithm for tuning the stiffness using the estimated gradient for node reconfiguration is presented. The performance of the proposed algorithm is discussed with simulation results.

  10. Ratios of involved nodes in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Royce, Melanie; Verschraegen, Claire; Promish, Donald I; Cserni, Gábor; Van de Steene, Jan; Tai, Patricia; Vlastos, Georges; Voordeckers, Mia; Storme, Guy

    2004-01-01

    The number of lymph nodes found to be involved in an axillary dissection is among the most powerful prognostic factors in breast cancer, but it is confounded by the number of lymph nodes that have been examined. We investigate an idea that has surfaced recently in the literature (since 1999), namely that the proportion of node-positive lymph nodes (or a function thereof) is a much better predictor of survival than the number of excised and node-positive lymph nodes, alone or together. The data were abstracted from 83,686 cases registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of women diagnosed with nonmetastatic T1–T2 primary breast carcinoma between 1988 and 1997, in whom axillary node dissection was performed. The end-point was death from breast cancer. Cox models based on different expressions of nodal involvement were compared using the Nagelkerke R 2 index (R 2 N ). Ratios were modeled as percentage and as log odds of involved nodes. Log odds were estimated in a way that avoids singularities (zero values) by using the empirical logistic transform. In node-negative cases both the number of nodes excised and the log odds were significant, with hazard ratios of 0.991 (95% confidence interval 0.986–0.997) and 1.150 (1.058–1.249), respectively, but without improving R 2 N . In node-positive cases the hazard ratios were 1.003–1.088 for the number of involved nodes, 0.966–1.005 for the number of excised nodes, 1.015–1.017 for the percentage, and 1.344–1.381 for the log odds. R 2 N improved from 0.067 (no nodal covariate) to 0.102 (models based on counts only) and to 0.108 (models based on ratios). Ratios are simple optimal predictors, in that they provide at least the same prognostic value as the more traditional staging based on counting of involved nodes, without replacing them with a needlessly complicated alternative. They can be viewed as a per patient standardization in which the number of involved nodes is standardized

  11. Sentinel node detection in pre-operative axillary staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifirò, Giuseppe; Viale, Giuseppe; Gentilini, Oreste; Travaini, Laura Lavinia; Paganelli, Giovanni

    2004-06-01

    The concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery is based on the fact that the tumour drains in a logical way via the lymphatic system, from the first to upper levels. Since axillary node dissection does not improve the prognosis of patients with breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy might replace complete axillary dissection for staging of the axilla in clinically N0 patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy would represent a significant advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, considering that about 70% of patients are found to be free from metastatic disease, yet axillary node dissection can lead to significant morbidity. Subdermal or peritumoural injection of small aliquots (and very low activity) of radiotracer is preferred to intratumoural administration, and (99m)Tc-labelled colloids with most of the particles in the 100-200 nm size range would be ideal for radioguided sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. The success rate of radioguidance in localising the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer surgery is about 97% in institutions where a high number of procedures are performed, and the success rate of lymphoscintigraphy in sentinel node detection is about 100%. The sentinel lymph node should be processed for intraoperative frozen section examination in its entirety, based on conventional histopathology and, when necessary, immune staining with anti-cytokeratin antibody. Nowadays, lymphoscintigraphy is a useful procedure in patients with different clinical evidence of breast cancer.

  12. Clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jing-Yu; Liang, Han

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignancies in the world, frequently reveals lymph node, peritoneum, and liver metastases. Most of gastric cancer patients present with lymph node metastasis when they were initially diagnosed or underwent surgical resection, which results in poor prognosis. Both the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node involvement are considered as the most important prognostic predictors of gastric cancer. Although extended lymphadenectomy was not considered a survival benefit procedure and was reported to be associated with high mortality and morbidity in two randomized controlled European trials, it showed significant superiority in terms of lower locoregional recurrence and disease related deaths compared to limited lymphadenectomy in a 15-year follow-up study. Almost all clinical investigators have reached a consensus that the predictive efficiency of the number of metastatic lymph nodes is far better than the extent of lymph node metastasis for the prognosis of gastric cancer worldwide, but other nodal metastatic classifications of gastric cancer have been proposed as alternatives to the number of metastatic lymph nodes for improving the predictive efficiency for patient prognosis. It is still controversial over whether the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes is superior to the number of metastatic lymph nodes in prognostic evaluation of gastric cancer. Besides, the negative lymph node count has been increasingly recognized to be an important factor significantly associated with prognosis of gastric cancer. PMID:24744586

  13. Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maximize network lifetime and balance energy consumption when sink nodes can move, maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink nodes (MLMS is researched. The movement path selection method of sink nodes is proposed. Modified subtractive clustering method, k-means method, and nearest neighbor interpolation method are used to obtain the movement paths. The lifetime optimization model is established under flow constraint, energy consumption constraint, link transmission constraint, and other constraints. The model is solved from the perspective of static and mobile data gathering of sink nodes. Subgradient method is used to solve the lifetime optimization model when one sink node stays at one anchor location. Geometric method is used to evaluate the amount of gathering data when sink nodes are moving. Finally, all sensor nodes transmit data according to the optimal data transmission scheme. Sink nodes gather the data along the shortest movement paths. Simulation results show that MLMS can prolong network lifetime, balance node energy consumption, and reduce data gathering latency under appropriate parameters. Under certain conditions, it outperforms Ratio_w, TPGF, RCC, and GRND.

  14. Erasure code-based low storage blockchain node

    OpenAIRE

    Perard, Doriane; Lacan, Jérôme; Bachy, Yann; Detchart, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    The concept of a decentralized ledger usually implies that each node of a blockchain network stores the entire blockchain. However, in the case of popular blockchains, which each weigh several hundreds of GB, the large amount of data to be stored can incite new or low-capacity nodes to run lightweight clients. Such nodes do not participate to the global storage effort and can result in a centralization of the blockchain by very few nodes, which is contrary to the basic concepts of a blockchai...

  15. Sentinel Node Biopsy in Melanoma: A Short Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Gerardo; Partenzi, Antonietta; Filosa, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Several controversies are still ongoing about sentinel node biopsy in melanoma. It is basically a staging procedure for melanoma > 0.75 mm in thickness or for thinner melanoma in the presence of ulceration, high mitotic rate, and/or lymphovascular invasion. Complete lymph node dissection after a positive sentinel node can also allow a better locoregional disease control but seems not to prevent the development of distant metastases. The use of sentinel node biopsy in atypical Spitz tumors should be discouraged because of their peculiar biological properties. PMID:29719827

  16. Chemical shift effect predicting lymph node status in rectal cancer using high-resolution MR imaging with node-for-node matched histopathological validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Chongda; Ye, Feng; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Chunwu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, ChaoYang District, Beijing (China); Zheng, Zhaoxu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Colorectal Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, ChaoYang District, Beijing (China); Zou, Shuangmei [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Pathology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, ChaoYang District, Beijing (China)

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the value of the chemical shift effect (CSE) as well as other criteria for the prediction of lymph node status. Twenty-nine patients who underwent radical surgery of rectal cancers were studied with pre- and postoperative specimen MRI. Lymph nodes were harvested from transverse whole-mount specimens and compared with in vivo and ex vivo images to obtain a precise slice-for-section match. Preoperative MR characteristics including CSE, as well as other predictors, were evaluated by two readers independently between benign and metastatic nodes. A total of 255 benign and 35 metastatic nodes were obtained; 71.4% and 69.4% of benign nodes were detected with regular CSE for two readers, whereas 80.0% and 74.3% of metastatic nodes with absence of CSE. The CSE rendered areas under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.879 and 0.845 for predicting nodal status for two readers. The criteria of nodal location, border, signal intensity and minimum distance to the rectal wall were also useful but with AUCs (0.629-0.743) lower than those of CSE. CSE is a reliable predictor for differentiating benign from metastatic nodes. Additional criteria should be taken into account when it is difficult to determine the nodal status by using only a single predictor. (orig.)

  17. Node-node correlations and transport properties in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregon, Bibiana; Guzman, Lev

    2011-03-01

    We study some transport properties of complex networks. We focus our attention on transport properties of scale-free and small-world networks and compare two types of transport: Electric and max-flow cases. In particular, we construct scale-free networks, with a given degree sequence, to estimate the distribution of conductances for different values of assortative/dissortative mixing. For the electric case we find that the distributions of conductances are affect ed by the assortative mixing of the network whereas for the max-flow case, the distributions almost do not show changes when node-node correlations are altered. Finally, we compare local and global transport in terms of the average conductance for the small-world (Watts-Strogatz) model

  18. Exact asymptotic expansion for the resistance between the center node and a node on the cobweb network boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kenna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the resistance between two nodes in a cobweb network of resistors. Based on an exact expression, we derive the asymptotic expansions for the resistance between the center node and a node on the boundary of the M x N cobweb network with resistors r and s in the two spatial directions. All coefficients in this expansion are expressed through analytical functions.

  19. Subcarinal lymph node in upper lobe non-small cell lung cancer patients: is selective lymph node dissection valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aokage, Keiju; Yoshida, Junji; Ishii, Genichiro; Hishida, Tomoyuki; Nishimura, Mitsuyo; Nagai, Kanji

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about selective lymph node dissection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We sought to gain insight into subcarinal node involvement for its frequency and impact on outcome to evaluate whether it is valid to omit subcarinal lymph node dissection in upper lobe NSCLC patients. We reviewed node metastases distribution according to node region, tumor location, and histology among 1099 patients with upper lobe NSCLC. We paid special attention to subcarinal metastases patients without superior mediastinal node metastases, because their pathological stages would have been underdiagnosed if subcarinal node dissection had been omitted. We also assessed the outcome and the pattern of failure among subcarinal metastases patients. To identify subcarinal node involvement predictors, we analyzed 7 clinical factors. Subcarinal node metastases were found in 20 patients and were least frequent among squamous cell carcinoma patients (0.5%). Two of them were free from superior mediastinal metastases but died of the disease at 1 month and due to an unknown cause at 18 months, respectively. Seventeen of the 20 patients developed multi-site recurrence within 37 months. The 5-year survival rate of the 20 patients with subcarinal metastases was 9.0%, which was significantly lower than 32.0% of patients with only superior mediastinal metastases. Clinical diagnosis of node metastases was significantly predictive of subcarinal metastases. Subcarinal node metastases from upper lobe NSCLC were rare and predicted an extremely poor outcome. It appears valid to omit subcarinal node dissection in upper lobe NSCLC patients, especially in clinical N0 squamous cell carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with no preoperative evidence of lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Óscar; Zafon, Carles; Caubet, Enric; García-Burillo, Amparo; Serres, Xavier; Fort, José Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Castell, Joan; Roca, Isabel; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Iglesias, Carmela

    2017-10-01

    Lymphadenectomy is recommended during surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma when there is evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (therapeutic) or in high-risk patients (prophylactic) such as those with T3 and T4 tumors of the TNM classification. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy may improve preoperative diagnosis of nodal metastases. To analyze the results of selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in a group of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no evidence of nodal involvement before surgery. A retrospective, single-center study in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no clinical evidence of lymph node involvement who underwent surgery between 2011 and 2013. The sentinel node was identified by scintigraphy. When the sentinel node was positive, the affected compartment was removed, and when sentinel node was negative, central lymph node dissection was performed. Forty-three patients, 34 females, with a mean age of 52.3 (±17) years, were enrolled. Forty-six (27%) of the 170 SNs resected from 24 (55.8%) patients were positive for metastasis. In addition, 94 (15.6%) out of the 612 lymph nodes removed in the lymphadenectomies were positive for metastases. Twelve of the 30 (40%) low risk patients (cT1N0 and cT2N0) changed their stage to pN1, whereas 12 of 13 (92%) high risk patients (cT3N0 and cT4N0) changed to pN1 stage. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy changes the stage of more than 50% of patients from cN0 to pN1. This confirms the need for lymph node resection in T3 and T4 tumors, but reveals the presence of lymph node metastases in 40% of T1-T2 tumors. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Node-to-node field calibration of wireless distributed air pollution sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizel, Fadi; Etzion, Yael; Shafran-Nathan, Rakefet; Levy, Ilan; Fishbain, Barak; Bartonova, Alena; Broday, David M

    2018-02-01

    Low-cost air quality sensors offer high-resolution spatiotemporal measurements that can be used for air resources management and exposure estimation. Yet, such sensors require frequent calibration to provide reliable data, since even after a laboratory calibration they might not report correct values when they are deployed in the field, due to interference with other pollutants, as a result of sensitivity to environmental conditions and due to sensor aging and drift. Field calibration has been suggested as a means for overcoming these limitations, with the common strategy involving periodical collocations of the sensors at an air quality monitoring station. However, the cost and complexity involved in relocating numerous sensor nodes back and forth, and the loss of data during the repeated calibration periods make this strategy inefficient. This work examines an alternative approach, a node-to-node (N2N) calibration, where only one sensor in each chain is directly calibrated against the reference measurements and the rest of the sensors are calibrated sequentially one against the other while they are deployed and collocated in pairs. The calibration can be performed multiple times as a routine procedure. This procedure minimizes the total number of sensor relocations, and enables calibration while simultaneously collecting data at the deployment sites. We studied N2N chain calibration and the propagation of the calibration error analytically, computationally and experimentally. The in-situ N2N calibration is shown to be generic and applicable for different pollutants, sensing technologies, sensor platforms, chain lengths, and sensor order within the chain. In particular, we show that chain calibration of three nodes, each calibrated for a week, propagate calibration errors that are similar to those found in direct field calibration. Hence, N2N calibration is shown to be suitable for calibration of distributed sensor networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Nomogram for prediction of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis in proven level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Ou, Xunyan; Xu, Zhen; Ai, Liping; Sun, Lisha; Liu, Caigang

    2017-09-22

    The current management of the axilla in level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients is axillary lymph node dissection regardless of the status of the level 2 axillary lymph nodes. The goal of this study was to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis (L-2-ALNM) in patients with level 1 axillary node-positive breast cancer. We reviewed the records of 974 patients with pathology-confirmed level 1 node-positive breast cancer between 2010 and 2014 at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute. The patients were randomized 1:1 and divided into a modeling group and a validation group. Clinical and pathological features of the patients were assessed with uni- and multivariate logistic regression. A nomogram based on independent predictors for the L-2-ALNM identified by multivariate logistic regression was constructed. Independent predictors of L-2-ALNM by the multivariate logistic regression analysis included tumor size, Ki-67 status, histological grade, and number of positive level 1 axillary lymph nodes. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the modeling set and the validation set were 0.828 and 0.816, respectively. The false-negative rates of the L-2-ALNM nomogram were 1.82% and 7.41% for the predicted probability cut-off points of level 1 axillary lymph node metastasis. Patients with a low probability of L-2-ALNM could be spared level 2 axillary lymph node dissection, thereby reducing postoperative morbidity.

  3. [Anatomy and histology characteristics of lymph node in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R; Gao, B; Guo, C B

    2017-10-18

    To compare the differences of anatomical and histological characteristics of lymph nodes between BALB/c nude mice and BALB/c mice. Firstly, twenty BALB/c nude mice and twenty BALB/c mice were dissected by using a surgical microscope. Secondly, the differences of T cells and B cells at the lymph node were compared by the expressions of CD 3 and CD 20 immunohistochemistry dyes. There were, on average, 23 nodes per mouse contained within the large lymph node assembly in the BALB/c nude mouse. The anatomical features of the lymph node distribution in the nude mice were mainly found in the neck with relatively higher density. There were two lymph nodes both in the submandible lymph nodes group and in the superficial cervical lymph nodes group (the constituent ratios were 95% and 90%, respectively) in the BALB/c nude mice, but there were four lymph nodes (the constituent ratios were 95% and 90%, respectively) in the BALB/c mice. There were significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. Mostly there were two lymph nodes of deep cervical lymph nodes both in the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice (the constituent ratios were 95% and 100%, respectively). There were no significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. We confirmed that the number of CD 3 -positive T lymphocytes in lymph nodes of the nude mice decreased greatly as compared with the BALB/c mice. Expressions of CD3 in T cells were 95% and 100% in the BALB/c nude mice and in the BALB/c mice, respectively. There were significant differences between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. Expressions of CD20 in B cells were 95% and 100% in the BALB/c nude mice and in the BALB/c mice, respectively. There was no significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and BALB/c mice. The anatomical pictures of lymph node distribution in the nude mouse will be benefit to those who are interested. The anatomical features of the lymph node local higher density in neck of

  4. Lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Q.-T.; Fu, Karen K.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Terris, David J.; Fee, Willard E.; Goffinet, Don R.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and prognostic significance of lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 97 patients treated for maxillary sinus carcinoma with radiotherapy at Stanford University and at the University of California, San Francisco between 1959 and 1996. Fifty-eight patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 4 had adenocarcinoma (ADE), 16 had undifferentiated carcinoma (UC), and 19 had adenoid cystic carcinoma (AC). Eight patients had T2, 36 had T3, and 53 had T4 tumors according to the 1997 AJCC staging system. Eleven patients had nodal involvement at diagnosis: 9 with SCC, 1 with UC, and 1 with AC. The most common sites of nodal involvement were ipsilateral level 1 and 2 lymph nodes. Thirty-six patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy alone, and 61 received a combination of surgical and radiation treatment. Thirty-six patients had neck irradiation, 25 of whom received elective neck irradiation (ENI) for N0 necks. The median follow-up for alive patients was 78 months. Results: The median survival for all patients was 22 months (range: 2.4-356 months). The 5- and 10-year actuarial survivals were 34% and 31%, respectively. Ten patients relapsed in the neck, with a 5-year actuarial risk of nodal relapse of 12%. The 5-year risk of neck relapse was 14% for SCC, 25% for ADE, and 7% for both UC and ACC. The overall risk of nodal involvement at either diagnosis or on follow-up was 28% for SCC, 25% for ADE, 12% for UC, and 10% for AC. All patients with nodal involvement had T3-4, and none had T2 tumors. ENI effectively prevented nodal relapse in patients with SCC and N0 neck; the 5-year actuarial risk of nodal relapse was 20% for patients without ENI and 0% for those with elective neck therapy. There was no correlation between neck relapse and primary tumor control or tumor extension into areas containing a rich lymphatic network. The most common sites of nodal relapse were in the

  5. On Node Replication Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Qabulio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks comprise a large number of small, inexpensive, low power and memory constrained sensing devices (called sensor nodes that are densely deployed to measure a given physical phenomenon. Since WSNs are commonly deployed in a hostile and unattended environment, it is easy for an adversary to physically capture one or more legitimate sensor nodes, re-program and redeploy them in the network. As a result, the adversary becomes able to deploy several identical copies of physically captured nodes in the network in order to perform illegitimate activities. This type of attack is referred to as Node Replication Attack or Clone Node Attack. By launching node replication attack, an adversary can easily get control on the network which consequently is the biggest threat to confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and services. Thus, detection and prevention of node replication attack in WSNs has become an active area of research and to date more than two dozen schemes have been proposed, which address this issue. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review, classification and comparative analysis of twenty five of these schemes which help to detect and/or prevent node replication attack in WSNs

  6. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothing (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications

  7. On node replication attack in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qabulio, M.; Malkani, Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) comprise a large number of small, inexpensive, low power and memory constrained sensing devices (called sensor nodes) that are densely deployed to measure a given physical phenomenon. Since WSNs are commonly deployed in a hostile and unattended environment, it is easy for an adversary to physically capture one or more legitimate sensor nodes, re-program and redeploy them in the network. As a result, the adversary becomes able to deploy several identical copies of physically captured nodes in the network in order to perform illegitimate activities. This type of attack is referred to as Node Replication Attack or Clone Node Attack. By launching node replication attack, an adversary can easily get control on the network which consequently is the biggest threat to confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and services. Thus, detection and prevention of node replication attack in WSNs has become an active area of research and to date more than two dozen schemes have been proposed, which address this issue. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review, classification and comparative analysis of twenty five of these schemes which help to detect and/or prevent node replication attack in WSNs. (author)

  8. Developmental features of porcine haemal nodes: a histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result demonstrated progressive changes in the structure of porcine haemal nodes. The capsule and trabeculae of piglet haemal nodes exhibited dense irregular connective tissues with reticular cells and smooth muscle cells. The cortex was more central while the medulla was peripheral with poorly defined boundaries ...

  9. Long range node-strut analysis of trabecular bone microarchitecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmah, Tanya; Marwan, Norbert; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We present a new morphometric measure of trabecular bone microarchitecture, called mean node strength (NdStr), which is part of a newly developed approach called long range node-strut analysis. Our general aim is to describe and quantify the apparent "latticelike" microarchitecture of th...

  10. Analysis of the movement of calcified lymph nodes during breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Peter; Salmon, Clare; Mannion, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and measure the respiratory-induced movement of calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. Methods and materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for primary lung or pleural tumors were noted to have calcification within one or more mediastinal lymph nodes. The breathing motion of 27 such nodes was measured with orthogonal fluoroscopic imaging during quiet respiration. Results: All 27 nodes showed some motion synchronous with breathing. The mean respiratory movement was 6.6 mm, 2.6 mm, and 1.4 mm in the craniocaudal, dorsoventral, and mediolateral planes, respectively. There was a significant difference in the amplitude of motion in the craniocaudal plane compared with movement in the other two directions (p < 0.001). No differences were seen in the movement of lymph nodes dependent on position within the mediastinum (supracarinal vs. infracarinal or hilar vs. mediastinal). Neither size of the primary tumor nor spirometric parameters were correlated with the amplitude of lymph node movement. Conclusions: Mediastinal lymph nodes move during breathing, and this needs to be accounted for when the internal margin component of the PTV is defined. The amplitude of this movement is anisotropic and seems to be less than that reported for primary lung tumors. This should permit a modest reduction in the margin allowed for breathing movement around involved mediastinal nodes, particularly in the mediolateral and dorsoventral planes

  11. Building scalable apps with Redis and Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Johanan, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    If the phrase scalability sounds alien to you, then this is an ideal book for you. You will not need much Node.js experience as each framework is demonstrated in a way that requires no previous knowledge of the framework. You will be building scalable Node.js applications in no time! Knowledge of JavaScript is required.

  12. The Nodal Location of Metastases in Melanoma Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The design of melanoma sentinel lymph node (SLN) histologic protocols is based on the premise that most metastases are found in the central parts of the nodes, but the evidence for this belief has never been thoroughly tested. METHODS: The nodal location of melanoma metastases in 149...

  13. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer and melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doting, Meintje Hylkje Edwina

    2007-01-01

    Summary and conclusions In the introduction, a short overview of the development of the sentinel lymph node biopsy concept is presented. In addition to melanoma and breast cancer, the usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a surgical assessment method for squamous cell carcinoma of penis and

  14. Hybrid single node genetic programming for symbolic regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubalìk, Jiřì; Alibekov, Eduard; Žegklitz, Jan; Babuska, R.; Nguyen, NT; Kowalczyk, R; Filipe, J

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a first step of our research on designing an effective and efficient GP-based method for symbolic regression. First, we propose three extensions of the standard Single Node GP, namely (1) a selection strategy for choosing nodes to be mutated based on depth and performance of

  15. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Christensen, Rikke Kølby; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-01-01

    when compared with (B) step-sectioning and immunostaining of the entire sentinel lymph node at 250 microM levels. METHODS: Forty patients with T1/T2 cN0 oral cancer were enrolled. Three patients were excluded. In one patient no sentinel lymph node was identified. The remaining two had unidentified...

  16. A Gene Expression Classifier of Node-Positive Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F. Meeh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We used digital long serial analysis of gene expression to discover gene expression differences between node-negative and node-positive colorectal tumors and developed a multigene classifier able to discriminate between these two tumor types. We prepared and sequenced long serial analysis of gene expression libraries from one node-negative and one node-positive colorectal tumor, sequenced to a depth of 26,060 unique tags, and identified 262 tags significantly differentially expressed between these two tumors (P < 2 x 10-6. We confirmed the tag-to-gene assignments and differential expression of 31 genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, 12 of which were elevated in the node-positive tumor. We analyzed the expression levels of these 12 upregulated genes in a validation panel of 23 additional tumors and developed an optimized seven-gene logistic regression classifier. The classifier discriminated between node-negative and node-positive tumors with 86% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of the classifier revealed an area under the curve of 0.86. Experimental manipulation of the function of one classification gene, Fibronectin, caused profound effects on invasion and migration of colorectal cancer cells in vitro. These results suggest that the development of node-positive colorectal cancer occurs in part through elevated epithelial FN1 expression and suggest novel strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of advanced disease.

  17. Critical Issues in Modelling Lymph Node Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Grebennikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we discuss critical issues in modelling the structure and function of lymph nodes (LNs, with emphasis on how LN physiology is related to its multi-scale structural organization. In addition to macroscopic domains such as B-cell follicles and the T cell zone, there are vascular networks which play a key role in the delivery of information to the inner parts of the LN, i.e., the conduit and blood microvascular networks. We propose object-oriented computational algorithms to model the 3D geometry of the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC network and the microvasculature. Assuming that a conduit cylinder is densely packed with collagen fibers, the computational flow study predicted that the diffusion should be a dominating process in mass transport than convective flow. The geometry models are used to analyze the lymph flow properties through the conduit network in unperturbed- and damaged states of the LN. The analysis predicts that elimination of up to 60%–90% of edges is required to stop the lymph flux. This result suggests a high degree of functional robustness of the network.

  18. Temporal node centrality in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungshick; Anderson, Ross

    2012-02-01

    Many networks are dynamic in that their topology changes rapidly—on the same time scale as the communications of interest between network nodes. Examples are the human contact networks involved in the transmission of disease, ad hoc radio networks between moving vehicles, and the transactions between principals in a market. While we have good models of static networks, so far these have been lacking for the dynamic case. In this paper we present a simple but powerful model, the time-ordered graph, which reduces a dynamic network to a static network with directed flows. This enables us to extend network properties such as vertex degree, closeness, and betweenness centrality metrics in a very natural way to the dynamic case. We then demonstrate how our model applies to a number of interesting edge cases, such as where the network connectivity depends on a small number of highly mobile vertices or edges, and show that our centrality definition allows us to track the evolution of connectivity. Finally we apply our model and techniques to two real-world dynamic graphs of human contact networks and then discuss the implication of temporal centrality metrics in the real world.

  19. Breast cancer with axillary lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaid, A.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Azoury, F.; Heymann, S.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourgier, C.; Belaid, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Marsiglia, H.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in western countries. There are one million new cases per year in the world which represents 22% of all female cancers, and more than 370.000 deaths due to breast cancer per year (14% of cancer mortality). More than half of breast cancers are associated with axillary nodal involvement. Post-operative radiation therapy (XRT) is a crucial part of locoregional treatment in axillary nodal involvement breast cancer owing to a 15-years risk reduction of locoregional recurrence of 70% and to a 5.4% risk reduction of specific mortality. In 3D-conformal irradiation in such breast cancers, target volumes are chest wall when mastectomy was performed or breast and boost of tumor bed in case of breast conservative surgery, and supra-clavicular and/or axillary and/or internal mammary node areas. The main organs at risk are ipsilateral lung, heart and brachial plexus. The aim of this article is to describe epidemiologic, radio anatomic and prognostic features of axillary nodal involvement breast cancer and to propose guidelines for 3D-conformal treatment planning in locally advanced breast cancers. This review is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  20. Cognitive Scout Node for Communication in Disaster Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Sharma

    2012-01-01

    highly desired to manage unexpected situations that may happen in a disaster scenario. The scout node proposed in this paper is an extended concept based on a powerful CR node in a heterogeneous nodes environment which takes a leading role for highly flexible, fast, and robust establishment of cooperative wireless links in a disaster situation. This node should have two components: one is a passive sensor unit that collects and stores the technical knowledge about the electromagnetic environment in a data processing unit so-called “radio environment map” in the form of a dynamically updated database, and other is an active transceiver unit which can automatically be configured either as a secondary node for opportunistic communication or as a cooperative base station or access point for primary network in emergency communications. Scout solution can be viable by taking advantage of the technologies used by existing radio surveillance systems in the context of CR.

  1. Edge- and Node-Disjoint Paths in P Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Dinneen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we continue our development of algorithms used for topological network discovery. We present native P system versions of two fundamental problems in graph theory: finding the maximum number of edge- and node-disjoint paths between a source node and target node. We start from the standard depth-first-search maximum flow algorithms, but our approach is totally distributed, when initially no structural information is available and each P system cell has to even learn its immediate neighbors. For the node-disjoint version, our P system rules are designed to enforce node weight capacities (of one, in addition to edge capacities (of one, which are not readily available in the standard network flow algorithms.

  2. Uptake and retention of insufflated tantalum by lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpper, R.W.; Bianco, A.; Gibb, F.R.; Landman, S.; Morrow, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A nonsacrifice, radiographic technique is presented for evaluating the lymph node uptake of radiographically dense materials from the lungs of beagle dogs into which the material was insufflated. With tantalum as the contrast agent, lymph nodes sometimes become visible within 2 days after exposure when the insufflation resulted in radiographic ''alveolarization'' of some of the tantalum. Localization of the material within the nodes was observed in subsequent radiographs as well as persistent retention after as much as 1 year. Through the use of preinsufflation control films and tantalum foils of varying thickness, densitometric methods for determining the amount of tantalum within the lymph nodes are being investigated. Tantalum-182 is being used to follow the lung retention of the material as well as to verify estimates of burdens in harvested nodes. Preliminary lymphokinetic data are presented from experiments utilizing powders of 1 and 5 μm (mean) particle sizes

  3. Estimation of dose and exposure at sentinel node study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopljak, A.; Kucukalic-Selimovic, E.; Beslic, N.; Begic, A.; Begovic-Hadzimuratovic, S.; Drazeta, Z.; Beganovic, A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the dose end exposure in staff involved in sentinel node procedure for breast cancer patients. The Institute of Nuclear Medicine in Sarajevo uses a protocol for lymphoscintigraphy of the sentinel node whereby 13 MBq of 9 9mT c nanocoll are used. In this study, we measured radiation doses and exposure of a nuclear medicine physician and a technologist, as well as a surgeon performing sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy and biopsy. Dose and exposure were calculated using the equation in which we have gamma constant for 9 9mT c. Calculations were made for different times of exposure and distance. In Table 1. we estimated the dose and exposure during sentinel node study. Radiation levels were very low and the most exposed hospital staff performing sentinel node study were nuclear medicine physicians. The doses on the hands of surgeons were negligible 8 hours after exposure.(author)

  4. Effects of transuranics on pulmonary lymph nodes of rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Pulmonary lymph nodes have been suggested as the ''critical'' tissue for insoluble, inhaled transuranic compounds owing to the high concentration of transuranics in these lymph nodes. About 800 rats were given from 0.2 to 3600 nCi of 238 PuO 2 or 239 PuO 2 by inhalation, intratracheal instillation, intrapleural injection, or intraperitoneal injection. From about 1 to 10 percent of deposited plutonium was translocated to pulmonary lymph nodes, the amount depending on the time after deposition and the route of administration; 238 PuO 2 was cleared from pulmonary lymph nodes faster than 239 PuO 2 owing to the greater in vivo solubility of 238 PuO 2 . No primary tumors of pulmonary lymph nodes were observed, indicating that this tissue was not the critical tissue for carcinogenic induction

  5. GFT centrality: A new node importance measure for complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Chakraborty, Abhishek; Manoj, B. S.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying central nodes is very crucial to design efficient communication networks or to recognize key individuals of a social network. In this paper, we introduce Graph Fourier Transform Centrality (GFT-C), a metric that incorporates local as well as global characteristics of a node, to quantify the importance of a node in a complex network. GFT-C of a reference node in a network is estimated from the GFT coefficients derived from the importance signal of the reference node. Our study reveals the superiority of GFT-C over traditional centralities such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, eigenvector centrality, and Google PageRank centrality, in the context of various arbitrary and real-world networks with different degree-degree correlations.

  6. Spinal Schmorl's nodes: Sagittal sectional imaging and pathological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.; Opeskin, K.

    1999-01-01

    The presence, location and number of Schmorl's nodes was determined in the thoracolumbar spines of 70 motor vehicle accident victims using radiographic examination of a midline sagittal section and subsequent pathological examinations, including histology. In 28% of spines, a greater number of Schmorl's nodes were identified with radiography, while in 44%, pathological examination revealed a greater number of nodes. The visibility of Schmorl's nodes was enhanced by using a sagittal radiographic approach, and, in contrast to previous work, nodes below 0.5 cm 2 were readily detected. The results of the present study offer an additional imaging technique for postmortem analysis of the spine, and support the use of sagittal MR imaging for the evaluation of this condition. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. Assessing node risk and vulnerability in epidemics on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, T.

    2015-01-01

    Which nodes are most vulnerable to an epidemic spreading through a network, and which carry the highest risk of causing a major outbreak if they are the source of the infection? Here we show how these questions can be answered to good approximation using the cavity method. Several curious properties of node vulnerability and risk are explored: some nodes are more vulnerable than others to weaker infections, yet less vulnerable to stronger ones; a node is always more likely to be caught in an outbreak than it is to start one, except when the disease has a deterministic lifetime; the rank order of node risk depends on the details of the distribution of infectious periods.

  8. Retrospective Study on the Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis Among Patients Suspicious of Bacteremia During 2006 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Mohaghegh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococci bacteria cause different diseases, varies from mild skin infections to serious bacteremia. Also they are a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections globally. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the two important opportunistic pathogens of the staphylococci that both can cause bacteremia. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of S. aureus and S. epidermidis among blood culture of patients of Ghaem Educational, Research and Treatment Center, Mashhad, Iran, during 6 years (2006 - 2011. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, hospital medical records of 28000 patients referred to Ghaem Educational, Research and Treatment Center, Mashhad, Iran, who were suspicious of blood infections during 6 years (2005-2011, were extracted. The patient’s blood culture with staphylococcal growth and their antibiogram results during 2006 - 2011 were collected and studied. Results: Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 600 (2.14% out of 28000 blood cultures. Furthermore, 420 (70%, 170 (28.3% and 10 (1.7% out of 600 bacterial isolates identified as S. epidermidis, S. aureus and other Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefixime, ceftazidime, penicillin, oxacillin, nalidixic acid and cephepime were the most antibiotics that the isolates were resistant against. Also vancommycin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotics against S. epidermidis and S. aureus, respectively. Conclusions: Prevalence of Staphylococcal bacteremia caused by S. epidermidis is fairly high comparing to S. aureus among patients referred to Ghaem Educational, Research and Treatment Center, Mashhad, Iran. Also the resistance rate of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from blood against commonly used antibiotic is high, but there are some highly sensitive antibiotic against the infection.

  9. Multi-probe-based resonance-frequency electrical impedance spectroscopy for detection of suspicious breast lesions: improving performance using partial ROC optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Dror; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xingwei; Wang, Xiao Hui; Gur, David

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a multi-probe resonance-frequency electrical impedance spectroscope (REIS) system to detect breast abnormalities. Based on assessing asymmetry in REIS signals acquired between left and right breasts, we developed several machine learning classifiers to classify younger women (i.e., under 50YO) into two groups of having high and low risk for developing breast cancer. In this study, we investigated a new method to optimize performance based on the area under a selected partial receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve when optimizing an artificial neural network (ANN), and tested whether it could improve classification performance. From an ongoing prospective study, we selected a dataset of 174 cases for whom we have both REIS signals and diagnostic status verification. The dataset includes 66 "positive" cases recommended for biopsy due to detection of highly suspicious breast lesions and 108 "negative" cases determined by imaging based examinations. A set of REIS-based feature differences, extracted from the two breasts using a mirror-matched approach, was computed and constituted an initial feature pool. Using a leave-one-case-out cross-validation method, we applied a genetic algorithm (GA) to train the ANN with an optimal subset of features. Two optimization criteria were separately used in GA optimization, namely the area under the entire ROC curve (AUC) and the partial area under the ROC curve, up to a predetermined threshold (i.e., 90% specificity). The results showed that although the ANN optimized using the entire AUC yielded higher overall performance (AUC = 0.83 versus 0.76), the ANN optimized using the partial ROC area criterion achieved substantially higher operational performance (i.e., increasing sensitivity level from 28% to 48% at 95% specificity and/ or from 48% to 58% at 90% specificity).

  10. [Prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis by magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ishiguro, Toru; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Nakata, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Masaru; Haga, Norihiro; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2010-11-01

    Considering the advantages and disadvantages of lateral lymph node dissection in patients with advanced lower rectal cancer, it would be ideal to select candidates for lateral lymph node dissection by preoperative imaging study including magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). We have reported that the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node could be set at 6 mm for indication of lateral lymph node dissection. In the present study, we evaluated whether it would be appropriate to apply the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node in MRI. Forty-four patients with advanced lower rectal cancer underwent a curative surgery with lateral lymph node dissection or sampling from 1997 to 2009 in our institute. Among them, 25 patients received MRI preoperatively and analyzed. The images were obtained by a sagittal method that was diagonal along sacro-iliac joint with 5 mm thick sections. Lateral lymph node metastasis was detected in 5 cases, one side in 4 cases and both sides in 1 case. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, and accuracy for predicting metastasis was 50%, 90%, 42.9% and 84.8% respectively, when the cut-off value of the minimal diameter was set at 6 mm in MRI. Our results indicated that a 6 mm set as the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node was suitable for the prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis since the accuracy was relatively high (84.8%), though it was hardly to detect metastatic lymph node less than 6 mm.

  11. Prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro

    2010-01-01

    Considering the advantages and disadvantages of lateral lymph node dissection in patients with advanced lower rectal cancer, it would be ideal to select candidates for lateral lymph node dissection by preoperative imaging study including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have reported that the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node could be set at 6 mm for indication of lateral lymph node dissection. In the present study, we evaluated whether it would be appropriate to apply the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node in MRI. Forty-four patients with advanced lower rectal cancer underwent a curative surgery with lateral lymph node dissection or sampling from 1997 to 2009 in our institute. Among them, 25 patients received MRI preoperatively and analyzed. The images were obtained by a sagittal method that was diagonal along sacro-iliac joint with 5 mm thick sections. Lateral lymph node metastasis was detected in 5 cases, one side in 4 cases and both sides in 1 case. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, and accuracy for predicting metastasis was 50%, 90%, 42.9% and 84.8% respectively, when the cut-off value of the minimal diameter was set at 6 mm in MRI. Our results indicated that a 6 mm set as the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node was suitable for the prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis since the accuracy was relatively high (84.8%), though it was hardly to detect metastatic lymph node less than 6 mm. (author)

  12. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Considerable controversy exists regarding the merits of elective neck dissection in patients with early stage oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. It is highly desirable to have a method of identifying those patients who would benefit from further treatment of the neck when they are clinically node-negative. The purpose of the present study was to examine the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in identifying occult neck disease in a cohort of patients with node-negative oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: We evaluated a total of 13 patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer who were clinically and radiologically node-negative. RESULTS: A sentinel lymph node was found in all 13 patients, revealing metastatic disease in five patients, four of whom had one or more positive sentinel lymph nodes. There was one false negative result, in which the sentinel lymph node was negative for tumour whereas histological examination of the neck dissection specimen showed occult disease. CONCLUSION: In view of these findings, we would recommend the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in cases of oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, in order to aid the differentiation of those patients whose necks are harbouring occult disease and who require further treatment.

  13. Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Mundy, Michael B.

    2015-07-21

    Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application, including: identifying a subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer to execute the parallel application; selecting one compute node in the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer as a job leader compute node; initiating execution of the parallel application on the subset of compute nodes; receiving an exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes, where the exit status for each compute node includes information describing execution of some portion of the parallel application by the compute node; aggregating each exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes; and sending an aggregated exit status for the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer.

  14. Prognostic relevance of lymph node ratio and total lymph node count for small bowel adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thuy B; Qadan, Motaz; Dua, Monica M; Norton, Jeffrey A; Poultsides, George A; Visser, Brendan C

    2015-08-01

    Nodal metastasis is a known prognostic factor for small bowel adenocarcinoma. The goals of this study were to evaluate the number of lymph nodes (LNs) that should be retrieved and the impact of lymph node ratio (LNR) on survival. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results was queried to identify patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma who underwent resection from 1988 to 2010. Survival was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis identified predictors of survival. A total of 2,772 patients underwent resection with at least one node retrieved, and this sample included equal numbers of duodenal (n = 1,387) and jejunoileal (n = 1,386) adenocarcinomas. There were 1,371 patients with no nodal metastasis (N0, 49.4%), 928 N1 (33.5%), and 474 N2 (17.1%). The median numbers of LNs examined for duodenal and jejunoileal cancers were 9 and 8, respectively. Cut-point analysis demonstrated that harvesting at least 9 for jejunoileal and 5 LN for duodenal cancers resulted in the greatest survival difference. Increasing LNR at both sites was associated with decreased overall median survival (LNR = 0, 71 months; LNR 0-0.02, 35 months; LNR 0.21-0.4, 25 months; and LNR >0.4, 16 months; P < .001). Multivariate analysis confirmed number of LNs examined, T-stage, LN positivity, and LNR were independent predictors of survival. LNR has a profound impact on survival in patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma. To achieve adequate staging, we recommend retrieving a minimum of 5 LN for duodenal and 9 LN for jejunoileal adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Final report for the mobile node authentication LDRD project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, John T.; Lanzone, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    In hostile ad hoc wireless communication environments, such as battlefield networks, end-node authentication is critical. In a wired infrastructure, this authentication service is typically facilitated by a centrally-located ''authentication certificate generator'' such as a Certificate Authority (CA) server. This centralized approach is ill-suited to meet the needs of mobile ad hoc networks, such as those required by military systems, because of the unpredictable connectivity and dynamic routing. There is a need for a secure and robust approach to mobile node authentication. Current mechanisms either assign a pre-shared key (shared by all participating parties) or require that each node retain a collection of individual keys that are used to communicate with other individual nodes. Both of these approaches have scalability issues and allow a single compromised node to jeopardize the entire mobile node community. In this report, we propose replacing the centralized CA with a distributed CA whose responsibilities are shared between a set of select network nodes. To that end, we develop a protocol that relies on threshold cryptography to perform the fundamental CA duties in a distributed fashion. The protocol is meticulously defined and is implemented it in a series of detailed models. Using these models, mobile wireless scenarios were created on a communication simulator to test the protocol in an operational environment and to gather statistics on its scalability and performance.

  16. Temporal-varying failures of nodes in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Georgie; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2015-08-01

    We consider networks in which random walkers are removed because of the failure of specific nodes. We interpret the rate of loss as a measure of the importance of nodes, a notion we denote as failure centrality. We show that the degree of the node is not sufficient to determine this measure and that, in a first approximation, the shortest loops through the node have to be taken into account. We propose approximations of the failure centrality which are valid for temporal-varying failures, and we dwell on the possibility of externally changing the relative importance of nodes in a given network by exploiting the interference between the loops of a node and the cycles of the temporal pattern of failures. In the limit of long failure cycles we show analytically that the escape in a node is larger than the one estimated from a stochastic failure with the same failure probability. We test our general formalism in two real-world networks (air-transportation and e-mail users) and show how communities lead to deviations from predictions for failures in hubs.

  17. Adaptive filtering for hidden node detection and tracking in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Franz; Setzer, Beverly; Chavez, Sergio; Tran, Hien; Lloyd, Alun L

    2017-07-01

    The identification of network connectivity from noisy time series is of great interest in the study of network dynamics. This connectivity estimation problem becomes more complicated when we consider the possibility of hidden nodes within the network. These hidden nodes act as unknown drivers on our network and their presence can lead to the identification of false connections, resulting in incorrect network inference. Detecting the parts of the network they are acting on is thus critical. Here, we propose a novel method for hidden node detection based on an adaptive filtering framework with specific application to neuronal networks. We consider the hidden node as a problem of missing variables when model fitting and show that the estimated system noise covariance provided by the adaptive filter can be used to localize the influence of the hidden nodes and distinguish the effects of different hidden nodes. Additionally, we show that the sequential nature of our algorithm allows for tracking changes in the hidden node influence over time.

  18. Identifying key nodes in multilayer networks based on tensor decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingjie; Wang, Haitao; Zou, Xiufen

    2017-06-01

    The identification of essential agents in multilayer networks characterized by different types of interactions is a crucial and challenging topic, one that is essential for understanding the topological structure and dynamic processes of multilayer networks. In this paper, we use the fourth-order tensor to represent multilayer networks and propose a novel method to identify essential nodes based on CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor decomposition, referred to as the EDCPTD centrality. This method is based on the perspective of multilayer networked structures, which integrate the information of edges among nodes and links between different layers to quantify the importance of nodes in multilayer networks. Three real-world multilayer biological networks are used to evaluate the performance of the EDCPTD centrality. The bar chart and ROC curves of these multilayer networks indicate that the proposed approach is a good alternative index to identify real important nodes. Meanwhile, by comparing the behavior of both the proposed method and the aggregated single-layer methods, we demonstrate that neglecting the multiple relationships between nodes may lead to incorrect identification of the most versatile nodes. Furthermore, the Gene Ontology functional annotation demonstrates that the identified top nodes based on the proposed approach play a significant role in many vital biological processes. Finally, we have implemented many centrality methods of multilayer networks (including our method and the published methods) and created a visual software based on the MATLAB GUI, called ENMNFinder, which can be used by other researchers.

  19. Exploring the evolution of node neighborhoods in Dynamic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, Günce Keziban; Labatut, Vincent; Naskali, Ahmet Teoman

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic Networks are a popular way of modeling and studying the behavior of evolving systems. However, their analysis constitutes a relatively recent subfield of Network Science, and the number of available tools is consequently much smaller than for static networks. In this work, we propose a method specifically designed to take advantage of the longitudinal nature of dynamic networks. It characterizes each individual node by studying the evolution of its direct neighborhood, based on the assumption that the way this neighborhood changes reflects the role and position of the node in the whole network. For this purpose, we define the concept of neighborhood event, which corresponds to the various transformations such groups of nodes can undergo, and describe an algorithm for detecting such events. We demonstrate the interest of our method on three real-world networks: DBLP, LastFM and Enron. We apply frequent pattern mining to extract meaningful information from temporal sequences of neighborhood events. This results in the identification of behavioral trends emerging in the whole network, as well as the individual characterization of specific nodes. We also perform a cluster analysis, which reveals that, in all three networks, one can distinguish two types of nodes exhibiting different behaviors: a very small group of active nodes, whose neighborhood undergo diverse and frequent events, and a very large group of stable nodes.

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira, G. Jr.; Bodanese, B.; Boff, M.F.; Espindola, M.B.; Haack, R.L.; Frigeri, C.D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Locally recurrent disease in patients with melanoma is usually defined as cutaneous or subcutaneous arising within 5 cm of the primary site after complete excision of the primary lesion. It may represent residual disease not excised with the primary tumor or the outgrowth of the satellite lesions, which are common with melanoma. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is highly accurate in staging nodal basins at risk of regional metastases in primary melanoma patients and identifies those who may benefit from earlier lymphadenectomy. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy in local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma when the primary lesion was less than 1.0mm thick. Three patients with local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma underwent sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy. All patients underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy to identify the lymphatic basin and the site of the sentinel node. All patients subsequently underwent intra-operative lymphatic mapping and selective lymph node biopsy with vital blue dye and hand-held gamma probe. Excised SLN were analysed by conventional histological staining (H and E) and immunohistochemical staining. In all patients the lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy was successful. The SLN biopsy was negative in two patients and positive in one who underwent therapeutic lymph node dissection. Our results indicate that the SLN mapping and biopsy is also possible in patients having local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma. Although long-term results are not available, early results are promising. (author)

  1. Feasibility of sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy in stage I testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanis, Pieter J.; Nieweg, Omgo E. [Department of Surgery, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Horenblas, Simon [Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olmos, Renato Valdes A.; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in testicular cancer. Five patients with clinical stage I testicular cancer were prospectively included. A single dose of technetium-99m nanocolloid (mean dose 99 MBq, volume 0.2 ml) was injected into the funiculus in the first patient and into the testicular parenchyma in the following four patients. Dynamic lymphoscintigraphy was performed over 10 min, followed by early and late static images after 15 min and 2 to 24 h, respectively. Lymphoscintigraphy was followed by laparoscopic sentinel node biopsy on the same day in the last two patients using patent blue dye and an endoscopic gamma probe. The funicular administration route showed five hot spots in the right inguinal region after 2 h. Intratesticular administration resulted in sentinel node visualisation in three of the four patients. Dynamic images showed afferent lymphatic vessels to one sentinel node in the left para-aortic region in two patients and two sentinel nodes in the left para-aortic region in another patient. Sentinel nodes were intraoperatively identified in one of two patients who underwent laparoscopic exploration. It is concluded that lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification is feasible in stage I testicular cancer using intratesticular radiocolloid administration. (orig.)

  2. High risk of non-sentinel node metastases in a group of breast cancer patients with micrometastases in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Lisse, Ida Marie

    2012-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel nodes is under debate. We aimed to establish two models to predict non-sentinel node (NSN) metastases in patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel nodes, to guide the decision for ...

  3. Node-based measures of connectivity in genetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Erin L; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    At-site environmental conditions can have strong influences on genetic connectivity, and in particular on the immigration and settlement phases of dispersal. However, at-site processes are rarely explored in landscape genetic analyses. Networks can facilitate the study of at-site processes, where network nodes are used to model site-level effects. We used simulated genetic networks to compare and contrast the performance of 7 node-based (as opposed to edge-based) genetic connectivity metrics. We simulated increasing node connectivity by varying migration in two ways: we increased the number of migrants moving between a focal node and a set number of recipient nodes, and we increased the number of recipient nodes receiving a set number of migrants. We found that two metrics in particular, the average edge weight and the average inverse edge weight, varied linearly with simulated connectivity. Conversely, node degree was not a good measure of connectivity. We demonstrated the use of average inverse edge weight to describe the influence of at-site habitat characteristics on genetic connectivity of 653 American martens (Martes americana) in Ontario, Canada. We found that highly connected nodes had high habitat quality for marten (deep snow and high proportions of coniferous and mature forest) and were farther from the range edge. We recommend the use of node-based genetic connectivity metrics, in particular, average edge weight or average inverse edge weight, to model the influences of at-site habitat conditions on the immigration and settlement phases of dispersal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Protograph LDPC Codes with Node Degrees at Least 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present protograph codes with a small number of degree-3 nodes and one high degree node. The iterative decoding threshold for proposed rate 1/2 codes are lower, by about 0.2 dB, than the best known irregular LDPC codes with degree at least 3. The main motivation is to gain linear minimum distance to achieve low error floor. Also to construct rate-compatible protograph-based LDPC codes for fixed block length that simultaneously achieves low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance. We start with a rate 1/2 protograph LDPC code with degree-3 nodes and one high degree node. Higher rate codes are obtained by connecting check nodes with degree-2 non-transmitted nodes. This is equivalent to constraint combining in the protograph. The condition where all constraints are combined corresponds to the highest rate code. This constraint must be connected to nodes of degree at least three for the graph to have linear minimum distance. Thus having node degree at least 3 for rate 1/2 guarantees linear minimum distance property to be preserved for higher rates. Through examples we show that the iterative decoding threshold as low as 0.544 dB can be achieved for small protographs with node degrees at least three. A family of low- to high-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.

  5. Neuroendocrine tumor of the inguinal node: A very rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika Bisht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors are a broad family of tumors arising most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract and the bronchus pulmonary tree. The other common sounds are the parathyroid, pituitary and adrenal gland. Inguinal node as a primary presentation of a neuroendocrine tumor is an extremely rare presentation. We present the case of a 43-year-old-male who presented with the complaints of an inguinal node swelling without any other symptoms and on further evaluation was diagnosed to have a non-metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the inguinal node. He was treated with a combination of chemotherapy and surgery and is presently awaiting completion chemotherapy.

  6. On Identifying which Intermediate Nodes Should Code in Multicast Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Médard, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    the data packets. Previous work has shown that in lossless wireline networks, the performance of tree-packing mechanisms is comparable to network coding, albeit with added complexity at the time of computing the trees. This means that most nodes in the network need not code. Thus, mechanisms that identify...... intermediate nodes that do require coding is instrumental for the efficient operation of coded networks and can have a significant impact in overall energy consumption. We present a distributed, low complexity algorithm that allows every node to identify if it should code and, if so, through what output link...

  7. Sustained operation of sensor nodes with energy harvesters and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Bernd-Christian

    2013-06-01

    Sensor nodes powered by energy harvesters and supercapacitors open the door to unlimited and uninterrupted operation. This dissertation closes the persistent gap of system integration w.r.t. holistic online energy assessment, develops a new concept for harvest forecasting while assessing the behavior and quality of known approaches, and proposes a novel load adaptation scheme to achieve sustained and uniform sensor node operation with low complexity and computational overhead. For this purpose, a prototype of an energy harvester with a supercapacitor for off-the-shelf sensor nodes is developed and used for practical evaluation.

  8. Glial membranes at the node of Ranvier prevent neurite outgrowth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jeffrey K; Phillips, Greg R; Roth, Alejandro D

    2005-01-01

    of neurite outgrowth, including the oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp). In rat spinal cord, OMgp was not localized to compact myelin, as previously thought, but to oligodendroglia-like cells, whose processes converge to form a ring that completely encircles the nodes. In OMgp-null mice, CNS nodes......Nodes of Ranvier are regularly placed, nonmyelinated axon segments along myelinated nerves. Here we show that nodal membranes isolated from the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals restricted neurite outgrowth of cultured neurons. Proteomic analysis of these membranes revealed several inhibitors...

  9. Design of node record for fast active reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wenqing; Luo Mingcheng; Tang Pengyi; Liu Jiajing; Wang Jian

    2014-01-01

    Active Reflector is the one of the innovations of Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) whose performance touches on that of the overall telescope. Therefore a real time control system is needed by the Active Reflector System. In this paper, a new record type-node record is designed for EPICS-based active reflector control system of FAST, according to more than 2000 controlled node, which will be convenient for node management of IOC and prove the reusage of IOC codes. The record type is used in design of active reflector control system of FAST Miyun model. (authors)

  10. Irradiating the groin nodes without breaking a leg: A comparison of techniques for groin node irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilroy, Jeffrey S.; Amdur, Robert J.; Louis, Debbie A.; Li, Jonathan G.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal technique for delivering postoperative radiotherapy for vulvar cancer and other tumors requiring treatment of the inguinal nodes. This project compared tumor coverage and normal tissue sparing for the 5 main radiotherapy techniques that are used to treat vulvar cancer. The intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan was undesirable because it resulted in an excessive dose to portions of the central pelvic structures. The photon thunderbird with skin match was unacceptable because it underdosed a portion of the groin region. The electron thunderbird was ideal for thin patients but was not applicable for most patients because of excessive dose to the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The photon through-and-through and the photon thunderbird with deep match were acceptable in most situations. In thin patients, where the depth of the inguinal vessels is less than 3 cm, the electron thunderbird is the technique of choice. In the average-sized patient, both the photon through-and-through and the photon thunderbird with deep match are reasonable options. The available literature suggests that the risk of femoral neck fracture or necrosis of the femoral head is approximately 11% at 5 years using the photon through-and-through technique. In our opinion, this is an acceptable price to pay for reliable node coverage, setup simplicity, and zero risk of overdose at field junctions

  11. DETECTION OF OCCULT LYMPH NODE TUMOR CELLS IN NODE-NEGATIVE GASTRIC CANCER PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marina Alessandra; Ramos, Marcus Fernando Kodama Pertille; Dias, Andre Roncon; Yagi, Osmar Kenji; Faraj, Sheila Friedrich; Zilberstein, Bruno; Cecconello, Ivan; Mello, Evandro Sobroza de; Ribeiro, Ulysses

    2017-01-01

    The presence of lymph nodes metastasis is one of the most important prognostic indicators in gastric cancer. The micrometastases have been studied as prognostic factor in gastric cancer, which are related to decrease overall survival and increased risk of recurrence. However, their identification is limited by conventional methodology, since they can be overlooked after routine staining. To investigate the presence of occult tumor cells using cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3 immunostaining in gastric cancer patients histologically lymph node negative (pN0) by H&E. Forty patients (T1-T4N0) submitted to a potentially curative gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy were evaluated. The results for metastases, micrometastases and isolated tumor cells were also associated to clinicopathological characteristics and their impact on stage grouping. Tumor deposits within lymph nodes were defined according to the tumor-node-metastases guidelines (7th TNM). A total of 1439 lymph nodes were obtained (~36 per patient). Tumor cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in 24 lymph nodes from 12 patients (30%). Neoplasic cells were detected as a single or cluster tumor cells. Tumor (p=0.002), venous (p=0.016), lymphatic (p=0.006) and perineural invasions (p=0.04), as well as peritumoral lymphocytic response (p=0.012) were correlated to CK-positive immunostaining tumor cells in originally negative lymph nodes by H&E. The histologic stage of two patients was upstaged from stage IB to stage IIA. Four of the 28 CK-negative patients (14.3%) and three among 12 CK-positive patients (25%) had disease recurrence (p=0.65). The CK-immunostaining is an effective method for detecting occult tumor cells in lymph nodes and may be recommended to precisely determine tumor stage. It may be useful as supplement to H&E routine to provide better pathological staging. A presença de metástase em linfonodos é um dos indicadores prognósticos mais importantes no câncer gástrico. As micrometástases têm sido

  12. Lymph node metastasis of carcinomas of transverse colon including flexures. Consideration of the extramesocolic lymph node stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrakis, Aristotelis; Weber, Klaus; Merkel, Susanne; Matzel, Klaus; Agaimy, Abbas; Gebbert, Carol; Hohenberger, Werner

    2014-10-01

    Complete mesocolic excision (CME) is nowadays state of the art in the treatment of colon cancer. In cases of carcinoma of transverse colon and of both flexures an extramesocolic lymph node metastasis can be found in the infrapancreatic lymph node region (ILR) and across the gastroepiploic arcade (GLR). These direct metastatic routes were not previously systematically considered. In order to validate our hypothesis of these direct metastatic pathways and to obtain evidence of our approach of including dissection of these areas as part of CME, we initiated a prospective study evaluating these lymph node regions during surgery. Forty-five consecutive patients with primary tumour manifestation in transverse colon and both flexures between May 2010 and January 2013 were prospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Mode of surgery, histopathology, morbidity and mortality were evaluated. Twenty-six patients had a carcinoma of transverse colon, 16 patients one of hepatic flexure and four patients one of splenic flexure. The median lymph node yield was 40. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in ILR was registered in five patients and in GLR in four patients. The mean lymph node ratio was 0.085. Postoperative complications occurred in nine patients, and postoperative mortality was 2 %. We were able to demonstrate this novel metastatic route of carcinomas of the transverse colon and of both flexures in ILR and GLR. These could be considered as regional lymph node regions and have to be included into surgery for cancer of the transverse colon including both flexures.

  13. Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Angela; Niemierko, Andrzej; Gage, Irene; Evans, Sheila; Shaffer, Margaret; Smith, Frederick P.; Taghian, Alphonse; Magnant, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields

  14. Detection of Genetic Alterations in Breast Sentinel Lymph Node by Array-CGH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavalli, Luciane R

    2005-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first node in the mammary gland to harbor malignant cells in breast tumors with metastasis, and SLN positivity is an indication for axillary lymph node dissection...

  15. Detection of Genetic Alterations in Breast Sentinel Lymph Node by Array-CGH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavalli, Luciane R

    2006-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first node in the mammary gland to harbor malignant cells in breast tumors with metastasis, and SLN positivity is an indication for axillary lymph node dissection...

  16. Novel technology of molecular radio-guidance for lymph node dissection in recurrent prostate cancer by PSMA-ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Isabel; Horn, Thomas; Eiber, Matthias; Gschwend, Jürgen E; Maurer, Tobias

    2018-04-01

    Recently, prostate-specific membrane antigen-radioguided surgery (PSMA-RGS) has been introduced as a promising new and individual treatment concept in patients with localised recurrent prostate cancer (PC). In the following, we want to review our experience with PSMA-RGS in patients with localised biochemical recurrent PC. A non-systematic review of the literature was carried out with focus on technical and logistical aspects of PSMA-RGS. Furthermore, published data on intraoperative detection of metastatic lesions compared to preoperative PSMA-PET and postoperative histopathology, postoperative complications as well as oncological follow-up data are summarized. Finally, relevant aspects on prerequisites for PSMA-RGS, patient selection, and the potential benefit of additional salvage radiotherapy or potential future applications of robotic PSMA-RGS with drop-in γ-probes are discussed. First results show that PSMA-RGS is very sensitive and specific in tracking suspicious lesions intraoperatively. Prerequisite for patient selection and localisation of tumour recurrence is a positive Ga-HBED-CC PSMA positron-emission tomography (PET) scan with preferably only singular soft tissue or lymph node recurrence after primary treatment. Furthermore, PSMA-RGS has the potential to positively influence oncological outcome. PSMA-RGS seems to be of high value in patients with localised PC recurrence for exact localisation and resection of oftentimes small metastatic lesions using intraoperative and ex vivo γ-probe measurements. However, patient identification on the basis of Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA PET imaging as well as clinical parameters is crucial to obtain satisfactory results.

  17. A Radiation Hardened Housekeeping Slave Node (RH-HKSN) ASIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This projects seeks to continue the development of the Radiation Hardened Housekeeping Slave Node (RH-HKSN) ASIC. The effort has taken parallel paths by implementing...

  18. A local-world node deleting evolving network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yuying; Sun Jitao

    2008-01-01

    A new type network growth rule which comprises node addition with the concept of local-world connectivity and node deleting is studied. A series of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to the LWD network are conducted in this Letter. Firstly, the degree distribution p(k) of this network changes no longer pure scale free but truncates by an exponential tail and the truncation in p(k) increases as p a decreases. Secondly, the connectivity is tighter, as the local-world size M increases. Thirdly, the average path length L increases and the clustering coefficient decreases as generally node deleting increases. Finally, trends up when the local-world size M increases, so as to k max . Hence, the expanding local-world can compensate the infection of the node deleting

  19. A local-world node deleting evolving network model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Yuying [Department of Mathematics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sun Jitao [Department of Mathematics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)], E-mail: sunjt@sh163.net

    2008-06-16

    A new type network growth rule which comprises node addition with the concept of local-world connectivity and node deleting is studied. A series of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to the LWD network are conducted in this Letter. Firstly, the degree distribution p(k) of this network changes no longer pure scale free but truncates by an exponential tail and the truncation in p(k) increases as p{sub a} decreases. Secondly, the connectivity is tighter, as the local-world size M increases. Thirdly, the average path length L increases and the clustering coefficient decreases as generally node deleting increases. Finally, trends up when the local-world size M increases, so as to k{sub max}. Hence, the expanding local-world can compensate the infection of the node deleting.

  20. [Intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the scientific data was made. It was used the literature devoted to the intraoperative visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. Correct detection of such lymph nodes with following pathologic investigation allowed limiting the volume of lympho-dissection in a number of patients. There is the possibility of maximal in-depth study of the sentinel lymph nodes by purposeful application of most sensible pathologic and molecular methods for detection their micrometastatic lesions. At the same time the treatment strategy and prognosis could be determined. The authors present the results of an application of dye techniques, radioactive preparation and fluorescence imaging for sentinel lymph node detection. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are shown in the article. There are validated the prospects of technical development, study of information value of new applications and the most perspective method of fluorescence indocyanine green visualization by lymph outflow.

  1. WHOI MVCO 12m Node ADCP SOS, 2008-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wave observations from the 12m node ADCP in the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) in the northwest Atlantic in coastal waters of North America. Extensive,...

  2. Utilisation of Decision Tables for Proposal of Transfer Node Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jacura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The key issue in improving the appeal of public mass transport is the optimal arrangement of transfer nodes. The objective is to propose a comfortable, simple and safe environment for both passengers and operators, and a solution which is economical to construct and operate. Although each transfer node is unique and specific, it is beneficial to have a general idea on the layout of a project to construct or reconstruct such a transfer node. This project should, in particular, stem from the traffic intensity of single transport modes, the volume of single transfer links, and the nature and significance of traffic routes. This article presents the methodology for determining the appropriate disposition of mass public transport nodes using modified decision tables (one of the tools of systems analysis with specific data particularly applicable in the Czech Republic.

  3. 3D inkjet printed disposable environmental monitoring wireless sensor node

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    We propose a disposable, miniaturized, moveable, fully integrated 3D inkjet-printed wireless sensor node for large area environmental monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, we show the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity and H2S

  4. Flexible wearable sensor nodes with solar energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiyang Wu; Arefin, Md Shamsul; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-07-01

    Wearable sensor nodes have gained a lot of attention during the past few years as they can monitor and record people's physical parameters in real time. Wearable sensor nodes can promote healthy lifestyles and prevent the occurrence of potential illness or injuries. This paper presents a flexible wearable sensor system powered by an efficient solar energy harvesting technique. It can measure the subject's heartbeats using a photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor and perform activity monitoring using an accelerometer. The solar energy harvester adopts an output current based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, which controls the solar panel to operate within its high output power range. The power consumption of the flexible sensor nodes has been investigated under different operation conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that wearable sensor nodes can work for more than 12 hours when they are powered by the solar energy harvester for 3 hours in the bright sunlight.

  5. Two Phases Authentication Level (TPAL) protocol for nodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... node may contain sensitive informations such as military data and monitoring data. ... LLN is a kind of Internet of Things (IoT) network with limited power source ... Current authentication Internet protocols cannot be adopted directly into LLN ...

  6. ASH : Tackling node mobility in large-scale networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruteanu, A.; Dulman, S.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased adoption of technologies likewireless sensor networks by real-world applications, dynamic network topologies are becoming the rule rather than the exception. Node mobility, however, introduces a range of problems (communication interference, path uncertainty, low quality of

  7. Information loss method to measure node similarity in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongli; Luo, Peng; Wu, Chong

    2014-09-01

    Similarity measurement for the network node has been paid increasing attention in the field of statistical physics. In this paper, we propose an entropy-based information loss method to measure the node similarity. The whole model is established based on this idea that less information loss is caused by seeing two more similar nodes as the same. The proposed new method has relatively low algorithm complexity, making it less time-consuming and more efficient to deal with the large scale real-world network. In order to clarify its availability and accuracy, this new approach was compared with some other selected approaches on two artificial examples and synthetic networks. Furthermore, the proposed method is also successfully applied to predict the network evolution and predict the unknown nodes' attributions in the two application examples.

  8. Mirror node correlations tuning synchronization in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Baptista, Murilo S.; Zaikin, Alexey; Jalan, Sarika

    2017-12-01

    We show that the degree-degree correlations have a major impact on global synchronizability (GS) of multiplex networks, enabling the specification of synchronizability by only changing the degree-degree correlations of the mirror nodes while maintaining the connection architecture of the individual layer unaltered. If individual layers have nodes that are mildly correlated, the multiplex network is best synchronizable when the mirror degrees are strongly negatively correlated. If individual layers have nodes with strong degree-degree correlations, mild correlations among the degrees of mirror nodes are the best strategy for the optimization of GS. Global synchronization also depend on the density of connections, a phenomenon not observed in a single layer network. The results are crucial to understand, predict, and specify behavior of systems having multiple types of connections among the interacting units.

  9. Ultrasound elastography for evaluation of cervical lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US elastography has been introduced as a noninvasive imaging technique for evaluating cervical lymph nodes. US elastography techniques include strain elastography and shear wave-based elastography. The application of this technique is based on the fact that stiff tissues tend to deform less and show less strain than compliant tissues when the same force is applied. In general, metastatic lymph nodes demonstrate higher stiffness than benign lymph nodes. Overall, preliminary studies suggest that US elastography may be useful in differentiating benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes, thereby informing decisions to perform a biopsy and facilitating follow-up. For US elastography to be accepted into clinical practice, however, its techniques, associated diagnostic criteria, and reliability need to be further refined.

  10. Sensors for Detection of Misbehaving Nodes in MANETs

    OpenAIRE

    Klenk, Andreas; Kragl, Frank; Schlott, Stefan; Weber, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The fact that security is a critical problem when implementing mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is widely acknowledged. One of the different kinds of misbehavior a node may exhibit is selfishness. A selfish node wants to preserve its resources while using the services of others and consuming their resources. One way of preventing selfishness in a MANET is a detection and exclusion mechanism. In this paper, we focus on the detection and present different kinds of sensors that wil...

  11. Eviction of Misbehaving and Faulty Nodes in Vehicular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Raya, Maxim; Papadimitratos, Panagiotis; Aad, Imad; Jungels, Daniel; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Vehicular Networks (VNs) are emerging, among civilian applications, as a convincing instantiation of the mobile networking technology. However, security is a critical factor and a significant challenge to be met. Misbehaving or faulty network nodes have to be detected and prevented from disrupting network operation, a problem particularly hard to address in the life-critical VN environment. Existing networks rely mainly on node certificate revocation for attacker eviction, but the lack of an ...

  12. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy, step sectioning and immunohistochemistry have changed detection of tumour deposits. Isolated tumour cells (ITC) are detected more frequently than earlier because of a changed level of detection. METHODS: A total of 108 sentinel lymph nodes from 30 patients ...... with macrometastasis, five with micrometastasis and two with ITC. CONCLUSION: The ITC are probably precursors of micrometastasis waiting to grow and should be treated as such. Benign inclusions and dendritic cells did not cause problems, but can mimic ITC....

  13. Multi-Source Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Nodes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have seen an increasing interest in the development of wireless sensor networks. But the unsatisfactory or limited available energy source is one of the major bottlenecks which are limiting the wireless sensor technology from mass deployment. Ambient energy harvesting is the most promising solution towards autonomous sensor nodes by providing low cost, permanent, and maintenance-free energy source to wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, we first invested available energy s...

  14. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for metastatic sentinel nodes: test of a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, A H; Nielsen, B S; Madsen, J

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To develop a method and obtain proof-of-principle for immunolymphoscintigraphy for identification of metastatic sentinel nodes. Methods. We selected one of four tumour-specific antibodies against human breast cancer and investigated (1), in immune-deficient (nude) mice with xenograft human b...... in healthy rabbits. Results and Conclusion. Our paper suggests the theoretical possibility of a model of dual isotope immuno-lymphoscintigraphy for noninvasive, preoperative, malignant sentinel node imaging....

  15. Lymph Node Metastases Optical Molecular Diagnostic and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Pogue CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Trustees of Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755 REPORT DATE: March 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S...FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE March 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Mar 2016 - 28 Feb 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lymph...Gamma imaging of sentinel nodes is not a disease diagnostic, but rather just used to find the node and remove it for pathological inspection. As a result

  16. Monitoring Traffic Information with a Developed Acceleration Sensing Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhoujing Ye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an acceleration sensing node for pavement vibration was developed to monitor traffic information, including vehicle speed, vehicle types, and traffic flow, where a hardware design with low energy consumption and node encapsulation could be accomplished. The service performance of the sensing node was evaluated, by methods including waterproof test, compression test, sensing performance analysis, and comparison test. The results demonstrate that the sensing node is low in energy consumption, high in strength, IPX8 waterproof, and high in sensitivity and resolution. These characteristics can be applied to practical road environments. Two sensing nodes were spaced apart in the direction of travelling. In the experiment, three types of vehicles passed by the monitoring points at several different speeds and values of d (the distance between the sensor and the nearest tire center line. Based on cross-correlation with kernel pre-smoothing, a calculation method was applied to process the raw data. New algorithms for traffic flow, speed, and axle length were proposed. Finally, the effects of vehicle speed, vehicle weight, and d value on acceleration amplitude were statistically evaluated. It was found that the acceleration sensing node can be used for traffic flow, vehicle speed, and other types of monitoring.

  17. Monitoring Traffic Information with a Developed Acceleration Sensing Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhoujing; Wang, Linbing; Xu, Wen; Gao, Zhifei; Yan, Guannan

    2017-12-05

    In this paper, an acceleration sensing node for pavement vibration was developed to monitor traffic information, including vehicle speed, vehicle types, and traffic flow, where a hardware design with low energy consumption and node encapsulation could be accomplished. The service performance of the sensing node was evaluated, by methods including waterproof test, compression test, sensing performance analysis, and comparison test. The results demonstrate that the sensing node is low in energy consumption, high in strength, IPX8 waterproof, and high in sensitivity and resolution. These characteristics can be applied to practical road environments. Two sensing nodes were spaced apart in the direction of travelling. In the experiment, three types of vehicles passed by the monitoring points at several different speeds and values of d (the distance between the sensor and the nearest tire center line). Based on cross-correlation with kernel pre-smoothing, a calculation method was applied to process the raw data. New algorithms for traffic flow, speed, and axle length were proposed. Finally, the effects of vehicle speed, vehicle weight, and d value on acceleration amplitude were statistically evaluated. It was found that the acceleration sensing node can be used for traffic flow, vehicle speed, and other types of monitoring.

  18. Neural node network and model, and method of teaching same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G. (Inventor); Atiya, Amir F. (Inventor); Fernandez, Benito (Inventor); Tsai, Wei K. (Inventor); Chong, Kil T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a fully connected feed forward network that includes at least one hidden layer 16. The hidden layer 16 includes nodes 20 in which the output of the node is fed back to that node as an input with a unit delay produced by a delay device 24 occurring in the feedback path 22 (local feedback). Each node within each layer also receives a delayed output (crosstalk) produced by a delay unit 36 from all the other nodes within the same layer 16. The node performs a transfer function operation based on the inputs from the previous layer and the delayed outputs. The network can be implemented as analog or digital or within a general purpose processor. Two teaching methods can be used: (1) back propagation of weight calculation that includes the local feedback and the crosstalk or (2) more preferably a feed forward gradient decent which immediately follows the output computations and which also includes the local feedback and the crosstalk. Subsequent to the gradient propagation, the weights can be normalized, thereby preventing convergence to a local optimum. Education of the network can be incremental both on and off-line. An educated network is suitable for modeling and controlling dynamic nonlinear systems and time series systems and predicting the outputs as well as hidden states and parameters. The educated network can also be further educated during on-line processing.

  19. Mobility and Cooperation to Thwart Node Capture Attacks in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Conti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, often unattended, makes this type of networks subject to some unique security issues. In particular, one of the most vexing problem for MANETs security is the node capture attack: an adversary can capture a node from the network eventually acquiring all the cryptographic material stored in it. Further, the captured node can be reprogrammed by the adversary and redeployed in the network in order to perform malicious activities. In this paper, we address the node capture attack in MANETs. We start from the intuition that mobility, in conjunction with a reduced amount of local cooperation, helps computing effectively and with a limited resource usage network global security properties. Then, we develop this intuition and use it to design a mechanism to detect the node capture attack. We support our proposal with a wide set of experiments showing that mobile networks can leverage mobility to compute global security properties, like node capture detection, with a small overhead.

  20. Lagrangian generic second order traffic flow models for node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Khelifi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sheds light on higher order macroscopic traffic flow modeling on road networks, thanks to the generic second order models (GSOM family which embeds a myriad of traffic models. It has been demonstrated that such higher order models are easily solved in Lagrangian coordinates which are compatible with both microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The generalized GSOM model is reformulated in the Lagrangian coordinate system to develop a more efficient numerical method. The difficulty in applying this approach on networks basically resides in dealing with node dynamics. Traffic flow characteristics at node are different from that on homogeneous links. Different geometry features can lead to different critical research issues. For instance, discontinuity in traffic stream can be an important issue for traffic signal operations, while capacity drop may be crucial for lane-merges. The current paper aims to establish and analyze a new adapted node model for macroscopic traffic flow models by applying upstream and downstream boundary conditions on the Lagrangian coordinates in order to perform simulations on networks of roads, and accompanying numerical method. The internal node dynamics between upstream and downstream links are taken into account of the node model. Therefore, a numerical example is provided to underscore the efficiency of this approach. Simulations show that the discretized node model yields accurate results. Additional kinematic waves and contact discontinuities are induced by the variation of the driver attribute.

  1. Lymph node segmentation by dynamic programming and active contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yongqiang; Lu, Lin; Bonde, Apurva; Wang, Deling; Qi, Jing; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Zhao, Binsheng

    2018-03-03

    Enlarged lymph nodes are indicators of cancer staging, and the change in their size is a reflection of treatment response. Automatic lymph node segmentation is challenging, as the boundary can be unclear and the surrounding structures complex. This work communicates a new three-dimensional algorithm for the segmentation of enlarged lymph nodes. The algorithm requires a user to draw a region of interest (ROI) enclosing the lymph node. Rays are cast from the center of the ROI, and the intersections of the rays and the boundary of the lymph node form a triangle mesh. The intersection points are determined by dynamic programming. The triangle mesh initializes an active contour which evolves to low-energy boundary. Three radiologists independently delineated the contours of 54 lesions from 48 patients. Dice coefficient was used to evaluate the algorithm's performance. The mean Dice coefficient between computer and the majority vote results was 83.2%. The mean Dice coefficients between the three radiologists' manual segmentations were 84.6%, 86.2%, and 88.3%. The performance of this segmentation algorithm suggests its potential clinical value for quantifying enlarged lymph nodes. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Compressive sensing of high betweenness centrality nodes in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyar, Hamidreza; Hasheminezhad, Rouzbeh; Ghalebi K., Elahe; Nazemian, Ali; Grosu, Radu; Movaghar, Ali; Rabiee, Hamid R.

    2018-05-01

    Betweenness centrality is a prominent centrality measure expressing importance of a node within a network, in terms of the fraction of shortest paths passing through that node. Nodes with high betweenness centrality have significant impacts on the spread of influence and idea in social networks, the user activity in mobile phone networks, the contagion process in biological networks, and the bottlenecks in communication networks. Thus, identifying k-highest betweenness centrality nodes in networks will be of great interest in many applications. In this paper, we introduce CS-HiBet, a new method to efficiently detect top- k betweenness centrality nodes in networks, using compressive sensing. CS-HiBet can perform as a distributed algorithm by using only the local information at each node. Hence, it is applicable to large real-world and unknown networks in which the global approaches are usually unrealizable. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by extensive simulations on several synthetic and real-world networks. The experimental results demonstrate that CS-HiBet outperforms the best existing methods with notable improvements.

  3. A Balancing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network Based on the Assistance of Approaching Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpei Tang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensor node in wireless sensor network is a micro-embedded system with limited memory, energy and communication capabilities. Some nodes will run out of energy and exit the network earlier than other nodes because of the uneven energy consumption. This will lead to partial or complete paralysis of the whole wireless sensor network. A balancing algorithm based on the assistance of approaching nodes is proposed. Via the set theory, notes are divided into neighbor nodes set and approaching nodes set. Approaching nodes will help weaker nodes forward part of massages to balance energy consumption. Simulation result has verified the rationality and feasibility of the balancing algorithm.

  4. Information-based self-organization of sensor nodes of a sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Teresa H [Castro Valley, CA; Berry, Nina M [Tracy, CA

    2011-09-20

    A sensor node detects a plurality of information-based events. The sensor node determines whether at least one other sensor node is an information neighbor of the sensor node based on at least a portion of the plurality of information-based events. The information neighbor has an overlapping field of view with the sensor node. The sensor node sends at least one communication to the at least one other sensor node that is an information neighbor of the sensor node in response to at least one information-based event of the plurality of information-based events.

  5. Medical image archive node simulation and architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ted T.; Tang, Yau-Kuo

    1996-05-01

    access time, number of drives, number of exams per patient, number of Central Processing Units, patient grouping, and priority impacts. The MIADS, which could be a key component of a broader data repository system, will be able to communicate with and obtain data from existing hospital information systems. We will discuss the external interfaces enabling MIADS to communicate with and obtain data from existing Radiology Information Systems such as the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Our system design encompasses the broader aspects of the archive node, which could include multimedia data such as image, audio, video, and free text data. This system is designed to be integrated with current hospital PACS through a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine interface. However, the system can also be accessed through the Internet using Hypertext Transport Protocol or Simple File Transport Protocol. Our design and simulation work will be key to implementing a successful, scalable medical image archive and distribution system.

  6. A simplified CT-based definition of the lymph node levels in the node negative neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijers, O.B.; Levendag, P.C.; Tan, T.; Dieren, E.B. van; Sornsen de Koste, J. van; Est, H. van der; Senan, S.; Nowak, P.J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Using three dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy (CRT) techniques for elective neck irradiation (ENI) may allow for local disease control to be maintained while diminishing xerostomia by eliminating major salivary glands (or parts thereof) from the treatment portals. The standardization of CT based target volumes for the clinically negative (elective) neck is a prerequisite for 3DCRT. The aim of the present study was to substantially modify an existing ('original') CT-based protocol for the delineation of the neck tar-et volume, into a more practical ('simplified') protocol. This will allow for rapid contouring and the implementation of conformal ENI in routine clinical procedures. An earlier ('original') version of the CT-based definition for elective neck node re-ions 2-5 was re-evaluated, using 15 planning CT scans of previously treated patients. The contouring guidelines were simplified by (1) using a smaller number of easily identifiable soft tissue- and bony anatomical landmarks, which in turn had to be identified in only a limited number of CT slices, and (2) by subsequently interpolating the contoured lymph node regions. The adequacy of target coverage and the sparing using both 'original' and 'simplified' delineation protocols was evaluated by DVH analysis after contouring the primary tumor, the neck and the major salivary glands in a patient with supraglottic laryngeal (SGL) carcinoma who was treated using a 3DCRT technique. The BEV projections of the 'original' and the 'simplified' versions of the 3D elective neck target showed good agreement and were found to be reproducible. The DVH's of the target and parotid glands were not significantly different using both contouring protocols. The 'simplified' protocol for the delineation of the 3D elective neck target produced both comparable target coverage and sparing of the major salivary glands. When used together with an interpolation program, this 'simplified' protocol substantial reduced the contouring

  7. Wireless motion sensor network for monitoring motion in a process, wireless sensor node, reasoning node, and feedback and/or actuation node for such wireless motion sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Marin Perianu, Raluca; Marin Perianu, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Wireless motion sensor network for monitoring motion in a process comprising at least one wireless sensor node for measuring at least one physical quantity related to motion or orientation, feature extraction means for deriving a feature for the measured quantities, a wireless transmitter connected

  8. Predictive Factors for Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Positive Sentinel Lymph Nodes After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Nomogram for Predicting Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Han, Se Hwan; Jung, Yong Sik; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-11-01

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. With increasing numbers of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), issues concerning sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after NAC have emerged. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features and developed a nomogram to predict the possibility of nonsentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastases in patients with positive SLNs after NAC. A retrospective medical record review was performed of 140 patients who had had clinically positive ALNs at presentation, had a positive SLN after NAC on subsequent SLNB, and undergone axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) from 2008 to 2014. On multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, pathologic T stage, lymphovascular invasion, SLN metastasis size, and number of positive SLN metastases were independent predictors for NSLN metastases (P Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram was developed to predict the likelihood of additional positive NSLNs. The Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram could provide information to surgeons regarding whether to perform additional ALND when the permanent biopsy revealed positive findings, although the intraoperative SLNB findings were negative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Extended Lymphadenectomy to the Lower Paraortic Nodes During Radical Cystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shazli, S.; Anwar, H.; Ramzy, S.; Al-Didi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of the diagnostic, prognostic and possible therapeutic role of extended lymphadenectomy to lower para-aortic area in operable bladder cancer patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and nine patients were subjected to the procedure in the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, and in Minea Oncology Center, Ministry of Health by the same group of surgeons, during the period from September 2000 to March 2003. The lymph nodes dissected were labeled to the following groups: perivesical, lymph node of Cloquet, external iliac, internal iliac and obturator, common iliac and paraortic groups both right and left. These nodes were subjected with the primary tumor to serial sectioning for histopathologic examination. Preoperatively, all patients were subjected to routine laboratory investigations. [n addition to cystoscopy, biopsy and histopathologic examination, bone scan, chest X-Ray and computerized tomography with l. V. contrast examination for the abdomen and pelvis were done for clinical staging of the disease. 34.4% of the node positive patients have been found to harbor the disease in the para-aortic lymph nodes above the common iliac bifurcation. Obturator, external iliac, internal iliac, para-aortic, common iliac, perivesical and lymph node of Cloquet are the higher incidence groups of positive lymph nodes sequentially. The clinical and c.T. staging are inaccurate methods of diagnosis due to high overall error in up to 70.6% of patients. There is no higher incidence of morbidity, mortality, operative time or intraoperative blood loss related to the addition of lower para-aortic dissection to the routine radical cystectomy. Extension of lymphadenectomy to include the lower para-aortic area in addition to the standard pelvic lymphadenectomy during radical cystectomy for bladder cancer is a more accurate technique for diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer patients and it may help in determining the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy ± radiotherapy

  10. Role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, L; Bruschini, R; Ansarin, M; Giugliano, G; De Cicco, C; Ionna, F; Paganelli, G; Maffini, F; Werner, J A; Soutar, D

    2006-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity represents about 2% of all malignant neoplasms and 47% of those developing in the head and neck area. The tongue is the most common site involved, and this incidence is increasing mainly in young people, possibly related to human papilloma virus infections. Prognosis depends on the stage: the 5-year survival rate of tongue squamous cell carcinoma, whatever the T stage, is 73% in pN0 cases, 40% in patients with positive nodes without extracapsular spread (pNl ECS-), and 29% when nodes are metastatic with extracapsular spread (pNl ECS+: p > or = 0.0001). Nodal micrometastases (cN0 pN1) are found in up to 50% of cN0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients operated on the neck. At present, no clinical, imaging staging modalities or biological markers are available to diagnose nodal micrometastases. The sentinel node biopsy has been tested since 1996 in order to find a solution to this problem. The sentinel node is the first node reached by the lymphatic stream, assuming an orderly and sequential drainage from the tumour site, and should be predictive of the nodal stage. According to the literature, sentinel node biopsy is a reliable technique in selected cN0 cases, but the procedure is still experimental and should not be performed outside validation trials. Successful application of sentinel node biopsy in the head and neck region requires surgical experience and specific technical devices, including pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy and intra-operative gamma-probe. Moreover, dynamic lymphoscintigraphy seems to be able to show the lymphatic stream from the primary tumour and could allow a selective neck dissection to be tailored thus reducing the related morbidity.

  11. Impact of clinical pharmacy interventions on medication error nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Nibal R; Zeenny, Rony; Mansour, Hanine

    2016-12-01

    Background Pharmacists' involvement in patient care has improved the quality of care and reduced medication errors. However, this has required a lot of work that could not have been accomplished without documentation of interventions. Several means of documenting errors have been proposed in the literature but without a consistent comprehensive process. Recently, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) recognized that pharmacy practice lacks a consistent process for direct patient care and discussed several options for a pharmaceutical care plan, essentially encompassing medication therapy assessment, development and implementation of a pharmaceutical care plan and finally evaluation of the outcome. Therefore, as per the recommendations of ACCP, we sought to retrospectively analyze interventions by grouping them according to medication related problems (MRP) and their nodes such as prescribing; administering; monitoring; documenting and dispensing. Objective The aim of this study is to report interventions according to medication error (ME) nodes and show the impact of pharmacy interventions in reducing MRPs. Setting The study was conducted at the cardiology and infectious diseases services at a teaching hospital located in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Intervention documentation was completed by pharmacy students on infectious diseases and cardiology rotations then reviewed by clinical pharmacists with respective specialties. Before data analysis, a new pharmacy reporting sheet was developed in order to link interventions according to MRP. Then, MRPs were grouped in the five ME nodes. During the documentation process, whether MRP had reached the patient or not may have not been reported which prevented the classification to the corresponding medication error nodes as ME. Main outcome Reduction in medication related problems across all ME nodes. Results A total of n = 1174 interventions were documented. N = 1091 interventions were classified as MRPs

  12. Computed tomography (CT) of cervical lymph nodes in patients with oral cancer. Comparison of low-attenuation areas in lymph nodes on CT images with pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunari, Fumiko; Okamura, Kazuhiko; Yuasa, Kenji; Kagawa, Toyohiro; Zeze, Ryousuke

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the histopathological features of low-attenuation areas in computed tomography (CT) images of cervical metastatic and benign lymph nodes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). CT images of 230 lymph nodes from 37 patients with oral SCC were classified into four categories and compared with histopathological findings. Metastatic lymph nodes were evaluated in terms of focal necrosis, keratinization, fibrous tissue, and the proportion of the lymph node showing focal necrosis. Benign lymph nodes were evaluated in terms of adipose tissue, follicular hyperplasia, sinus histiocytosis, hyperemia, focal hemorrhaging, and the amount of adipose tissue. Histopathologically, all 13 metastatic lymph nodes with rim enhancement on CT images included focal necrosis. However, most of the lymph nodes showed no focal necrosis. In addition, tumor cells, keratinization, and fibrous tissue were observed in the lymph nodes. Of the 26 metastatic lymph nodes with a heterogeneous appearance on CT images, four did not show focal necrosis. These lymph nodes showed keratinization or accumulation of lymph fluid. Histopathologically, 20 of 24 benign lymph nodes with a heterogeneous appearance on CT images (83.3%) had accompanying adipose tissue. Focal necrosis was the most important factor contributing to low attenuation in metastatic lymph nodes. However, other factors, such as tumor cells, keratinization, fibrous tissue, and accumulation of lymph fluid, also contributed. In benign lymph nodes, the presence of adipose tissue was a contributing factor in low-attenuation areas, as was focal hemorrhaging. (author)

  13. Data acquisition remote node powered over the communications optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Antonio J.N.; Sousa, Jorge; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Large nuclear fusion reactors, like ITER, will have harsh electromagnetic environments nearby the machine. Foreseeing the necessity for special data acquisition remote nodes, on difficult access locations and as close as possible to the experimental devices, motivated the system design. The architecture is based on the power-over-fiber technology recent advancements and respective implementation aim is to attain a proof of concept for the fusion technology field and others, e.g., high energy physics, industry, etc. The design intends the replacement of traditional copper cables and power supplies, vulnerable to electromagnetic interference, by the communications optical fiber of the data acquisition remote node. Optical fibers provide galvanic isolation, immunity to noisy electromagnetic environments and simultaneously can supply power to the remote node electronics. System architecture uses a laser power converter (array of photovoltaic cells) to convert the laser light, from the optical fiber, into electricity. The generated electrical power is enough for powering the remote node electronics and optoelectronics, such as an ADC, a low power FPGA and an optical transmitter. The laser power converter is also used as the communications receiver and from which the acquisition clock is recovered, providing synchronism between remote data acquisition nodes. Descriptions of the system architecture, tested implementations and future improvements are presented.

  14. blastjs: a BLAST+ wrapper for Node.js.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Martin; MacLean, Dan; Schudoma, Christian

    2016-02-27

    To cope with the ever-increasing amount of sequence data generated in the field of genomics, the demand for efficient and fast database searches that drive functional and structural annotation in both large- and small-scale genome projects is on the rise. The tools of the BLAST+ suite are the most widely employed bioinformatic method for these database searches. Recent trends in bioinformatics application development show an increasing number of JavaScript apps that are based on modern frameworks such as Node.js. Until now, there is no way of using database searches with the BLAST+ suite from a Node.js codebase. We developed blastjs, a Node.js library that wraps the search tools of the BLAST+ suite and thus allows to easily add significant functionality to any Node.js-based application. blastjs is a library that allows the incorporation of BLAST+ functionality into bioinformatics applications based on JavaScript and Node.js. The library was designed to be as user-friendly as possible and therefore requires only a minimal amount of code in the client application. The library is freely available under the MIT license at https://github.com/teammaclean/blastjs.

  15. RootJS: Node.js Bindings for ROOT 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beffart, Theo; Früh, Maximilian; Haas, Christoph; Rajgopal, Sachin; Schwabe, Jonas; Wolff, Christoph; Szuba, Marek

    2017-10-01

    We present rootJS, an interface making it possible to seamlessly integrate ROOT 6 into applications written for Node.js, the JavaScript runtime platform increasingly commonly used to create high-performance Web applications. ROOT features can be called both directly from Node.js code and by JIT-compiling C++ macros. All rootJS methods are invoked asynchronously and support callback functions, allowing non-blocking operation of Node.js applications using them. Last but not least, our bindings have been designed to platform-independent and should therefore work on all systems supporting both ROOT 6 and Node.js. Thanks to rootJS it is now possible to create ROOT-aware Web applications taking full advantage of the high performance and extensive capabilities of Node.js. Examples include platforms for the quality assurance of acquired, reconstructed or simulated data, book-keeping and e-log systems, and even Web browser-based data visualisation and analysis.

  16. [The lymph nodes imprint for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Alvarado, Carolina; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Romero-Guadarrama, Mónica; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Rozen-Fuller, Etta; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfo; Collazo-Jaloma, Juan; Mendoza-García, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    lymphoma is the most frequent lymphoid neoplasm in our country. Its diagnosis is based on histopathological findings. The lymph node imprint has been used for more than 40 years. The aim was to establish the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of lymph node imprint and estimate the inter-observer rate. we did an observational, retrospective, prolective study, based on the lymph node imprint obtained by excisional biopsies over a period of 6 years. the inclusion criteria was met on 199 samples, 27.1 % were considered as reactive (n = 54), 16.1 % Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 32), 40.2 % (n = 80) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 16.6 % (n = 33) as metastatic carcinoma. Comparing with the final histopathology report, the sensitivity and specificity of lymph node imprint were 88 % (0.81-0.95) and 64 % (0.55-0.73) respectively, the positive predictive value was 67 % (0.59-0.76) and the negative predictive value was 86 % (0.79-0.94). The interobserver kappa index was 0.467. the lymph node imprint remains as a useful tool for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasm. The agreement between observers was acceptable.

  17. Optimal Node Placement in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Muhamad

    2011-10-01

    Almost 70% of planet Earth is covered by water. A large percentage of underwater environment is unexplored. In the past two decades, there has been an increase in the interest of exploring and monitoring underwater life among scientists and in industry. Underwater operations are extremely difficult due to the lack of cheap and efficient means. Recently, Wireless Sensor Networks have been introduced in underwater environment applications. However, underwater communication via acoustic waves is subject to several performance limitations, which makes the relevant research issues very different from those on land. In this thesis, we investigate node placement for building an initial Underwater Wireless Sensor Network infrastructure. Firstly, we formulated the problem into a nonlinear mathematic program with objectives of minimizing the total transmission loss under a given number of sensor nodes and targeted volume. We conducted experiments to verify the proposed formulation, which is solved using Matlab optimization tool. We represented each node with a truncated octahedron to fill out the 3D space. The truncated octahedrons are tiled in the 3D space with each node in the center where locations of the nodes are given using 3D coordinates. Results are supported using ns-3 simulator. Results from simulation are consistent with the obtained results from mathematical model with less than 10% error.

  18. Identifying Controlling Nodes in Neuronal Networks in Different Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Gao, Huijun; Zou, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have detected hubs in neuronal networks using degree, betweenness centrality, motif and synchronization and revealed the importance of hubs in their structural and functional roles. In addition, the analysis of complex networks in different scales are widely used in physics community. This can provide detailed insights into the intrinsic properties of networks. In this study, we focus on the identification of controlling regions in cortical networks of cats’ brain in microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scales, based on single-objective evolutionary computation methods. The problem is investigated by considering two measures of controllability separately. The impact of the number of driver nodes on controllability is revealed and the properties of controlling nodes are shown in a statistical way. Our results show that the statistical properties of the controlling nodes display a concave or convex shape with an increase of the allowed number of controlling nodes, revealing a transition in choosing driver nodes from the areas with a large degree to the areas with a low degree. Interestingly, the community Auditory in cats’ brain, which has sparse connections with other communities, plays an important role in controlling the neuronal networks. PMID:22848475

  19. [The validity of the sentinel node concept in gastrointestinal cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Y; Fujii, H; Mukai, M; Ando, N; Kubota, T; Ikeda, T; Ohgami, M; Watanabe, M; Otani, Y; Ozawa, S; Hasegawa, H; Furukawa, T; Nakahara, T; Kubo, A; Kumai, K; Kitajima, M

    2000-03-01

    Although the sentinel node concept has been validated and clinically applied to breast cancer and malignant melanoma, its clinical significance in other solid tumors has not been thoroughly investigated. With regard to gastrointestinal (GI) cancers in particular, our surgeons have been cautious because of the high frequency of skip metastasis and the complicated lymphatic system in the GI tract. We would like to emphasize that so-called skip metastasis has been defined according to anatomic classification of regional lymph nodes and that the lymphatic drainage route must be patient or lesion specific. To test the validity and feasibility of this concept in GI cancers, we have established a radio-guided intraoperative sentinel node navigation system using preoperative endoscopic submucosal injection of radioactive tracer followed by intra-operative gamma-probing. In 131 patients with GI cancers (esophagus: 22, stomach: 71, colorectum: 38), the detection rate of sentinel nades was 91% and overall diagnostic accuracy of lymph node metastasis by sentinel node status was 97%. Initial results suggest further investigation of this procedure as an accurate staging and a minimally invasive approach to early GI cancers.

  20. Detecting Boundary Nodes and Coverage Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of coverage holes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs means that some special events have broken out and the function of WSNs will be seriously influenced. Therefore, the issues of coverage holes have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we focus on the identification of boundary nodes and coverage holes, which is crucially important to preventing the enlargement of coverage holes and ensuring the transmission of data. We define the problem of coverage holes and propose two novel algorithms to identify the coverage holes in WSNs. The first algorithm, Distributed Sector Cover Scanning (DSCS, can be used to identify the nodes on hole borders and the outer boundary of WSNs. The second scheme, Directional Walk (DW, can locate the coverage holes based on the boundary nodes identified with DSCS. We implement the algorithms in various scenarios and fully evaluate their performance. The simulation results show that the boundary nodes can be accurately detected by DSCS and the holes enclosed by the detected boundary nodes can be identified by DW. The comparisons confirm that the proposed algorithms outperform the existing ones.

  1. Wireless sensor node for detection of freight train derailment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andrea; Milani, Damiano; Resta, Ferruccio; Tomasini, Gisella

    2016-04-01

    The target of the research activity presented in this paper is to design, to realize and to test an autonomous sensor node able to measure the accelerations in correspondence of the axle box of a freight train. The final goal of the sensor is to identify the derailment conditions by observing the variations in the spectra of the box accelerations, around the frequencies associated to the wheel revolution and its multiples. The sensor node embeds an accelerometer, a microprocessor, a transmission system, a piezoelectric bimorph energy harvester and an integrated circuit for managing the power distribution to each component of the node. In particular, a mechanical filter to be applied to the node was specifically designed to increment the energy recovered by the harvester and to filter out the high frequency components of the axle-box acceleration, allowing the use of a more sensitive accelerometer. The harvesting system was setup by means of laboratory tests carried out with an electromechanical shaker and the sensor node was finally tested through field tests on freight trains.

  2. Network structure exploration in networks with node attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Xiaolong; Bu, Junzhao; Tang, Buzhou; Xiang, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Complex networks provide a powerful way to represent complex systems and have been widely studied during the past several years. One of the most important tasks of network analysis is to detect structures (also called structural regularities) embedded in networks by determining group number and group partition. Most of network structure exploration models only consider network links. However, in real world networks, nodes may have attributes that are useful for network structure exploration. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) model to explore structural regularities in networks with node attributes, called Bayesian nonparametric attribute (BNPA) model. This model does not only take full advantage of both links between nodes and node attributes for group partition via shared hidden variables, but also determine group number automatically via the Bayesian nonparametric theory. Experiments conducted on a number of real and synthetic networks show that our BNPA model is able to automatically explore structural regularities in networks with node attributes and is competitive with other state-of-the-art models.

  3. Deployment of check-in nodes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2017-01-01

    In many real complex networks such as the city road networks and highway networks, vehicles often have to pass through some specially functioned nodes to receive check-in like services such as gas supplement at gas stations. Based on existing network structures, to guarantee every shortest path including at least a check-in node, the location selection of all check-in nodes is very essential and important to make vehicles to easily visit these check-in nodes, and it is still remains an open problem in complex network studies. In this work, we aim to find possible solutions for this problem. We first convert it into a set cover problem which is NP-complete and propose to employ the greedy algorithm to achieve an approximate result. Inspired by heuristic information of network structure, we discuss other four check-in node location deployment methods including high betweenness first (HBF), high degree first (HDF), random and low degree first (LDF). Finally, we compose extensive simulations in classical scale-free networks, random networks and real network models, and the results can well confirm the effectiveness of the greedy algorithm. This work has potential applications into many real networks.

  4. Lymph node metastasis in the biliary tract carcinoma: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Ah Ra; Kim, Kie Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1994-01-01

    The primary biliary carcinoma is usually unresectable at presentation, because of early lymphatic spread. To determine the incidence and the spread pattern of lymph node metastases according to the location of the primary tumor, we analyzed the CT scans of the patients with primary biliary adenocarcinoma. We reviewed the CT scans of 92 patients with pathologically proven primary biliary adenocacinima, including 45 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas, 22 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 18 gallbladder carcinomas, and 7 common bile duct carcinomas. Positive adenopathy was diagnosed when the node exceeded 10 mm in short axis. The overall incidence of nodal metastases was 59.8% (55/92); 66.7% in peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, 54.5% in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, 55.6% in gallbladder carcinoma, and 42.9% in common bile duct carcinoma. The most commonly involved nodal group was the lesser omentum, followed by the celiac, periaortic, and peripancreatic group. The phrenic node group was only involved in the cases with the peripheral or hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The primary biliary carcinoma has a high incidence of lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis, and shows different nodal spread pattern according to the location of the primary tumor. Involvement of the phrenic node was limited to the peripheral and hilar cholangiocarcinoma

  5. Lymph node metastasis in the biliary tract carcinoma: CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Ah Ra; Kim, Kie Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    The primary biliary carcinoma is usually unresectable at presentation, because of early lymphatic spread. To determine the incidence and the spread pattern of lymph node metastases according to the location of the primary tumor, we analyzed the CT scans of the patients with primary biliary adenocarcinoma. We reviewed the CT scans of 92 patients with pathologically proven primary biliary adenocacinima, including 45 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas, 22 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 18 gallbladder carcinomas, and 7 common bile duct carcinomas. Positive adenopathy was diagnosed when the node exceeded 10 mm in short axis. The overall incidence of nodal metastases was 59.8% (55/92); 66.7% in peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, 54.5% in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, 55.6% in gallbladder carcinoma, and 42.9% in common bile duct carcinoma. The most commonly involved nodal group was the lesser omentum, followed by the celiac, periaortic, and peripancreatic group. The phrenic node group was only involved in the cases with the peripheral or hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The primary biliary carcinoma has a high incidence of lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis, and shows different nodal spread pattern according to the location of the primary tumor. Involvement of the phrenic node was limited to the peripheral and hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  6. Completion Dissection or Observation for Sentinel-Node Metastasis in Melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faries, M. B.; Thompson, J. F.; Cochran, A. J.; Andtbacka, R. H.; Mozzillo, N; Zager, Jonathan S.; Jahkola, T.; Bowles, T. L.; Testori, Alessandro; Beitsch, P. D.; Hoekstra, H. J.; Moncrieff, M.; Ingvar, C.; Wouters, M. W. J. M.; Sabel, M. S.; Levine, E. A.; Agnese, D.; Henderson, M.; Dummer, R; Rossi, C. R.; Neves, R. I.; Trocha, S. D.; Wright, Sara F.; Byrd, D. R.; Matter, M.; Hsueh, E.; MacKenzie-Ross, A.; Johnson, B. D.; Terheyden, P.; Berger, A. C.; Huston, T. L.; Wayne, J. D.; Smithers, B. Mark; Neuman, H. B.; Schneebaum, S.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Ariyan, C. E.; Desai, D. C.; Jacobs, L.; McMasters, K. M.; Gesierich, A.; Hersey, P.; Bines, S. D.; Kane, Michael J.; Barth, R. J.; McKinnon, J. G.; Farma, J. M.; Schultz, B. E.; Vidal-Sicart, S.; Hoefer, R. A.; Lewis, David J. M.; Scheri, R.; Kelley, M. C.; Nieweg, O. E.; Noyes, R. D.; Hoon, D. S. B.; Wang, H. -J.; Elashoff, D. A.; Elashoff, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy is associated with increased melanoma-specific survival (i.e., survival until death from melanoma) among patients with node-positive intermediate-thickness melanomas (1.2 to 3.5 mm). The value of completion lymph-node dissection for patients with sentinel-node

  7. Direct Visual Editing of Node Attributes in Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eichner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many expressive visualization techniques for analyzing graphs. Yet, there is only little research on how existing visual representations can be employed to support data editing. An increasingly relevant task when working with graphs is the editing of node attributes. We propose an integrated visualize-and-edit approach to editing attribute values via direct interaction with the visual representation. The visualize part is based on node-link diagrams paired with attribute-dependent layouts. The edit part is as easy as moving nodes via drag-and-drop gestures. We present dedicated interaction techniques for editing quantitative as well as qualitative attribute data values. The benefit of our novel integrated approach is that one can directly edit the data while the visualization constantly provides feedback on the implications of the data modifications. Preliminary user feedback indicates that our integrated approach can be a useful complement to standard non-visual editing via external tools.

  8. Lymph node hemangioma in one-humped camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Aljameel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is a benign tumor of blood and lymphatic vessels. It is common in skin, mucosa and soft tissues, and its occurrence in lymph nodes is extremely rare. A 10 year-old she-camel was slaughtered at Nyala slaughterhouse, South Darfur State, Sudan. Grossly, the carcass was emaciated. The left ventral superficial cervical lymph node was enlarged, hard on palpation and protruded outside the body. Its cut surface was dark red in color and measured (18 cm in diameter. Histopathologically, the sections revealed vascular masses were composed of non-encapsulated clusters of small and medium sized with thick and thin-walled, filled with blood, separated by courageous stroma and surrounded by closely packed proliferating capillaries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of the left ventral superficial cervical lymph node hemangioma in a camel in the Sudan.

  9. Minimization of heat slab nodes with higher order boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy of a numerical solution can be limited by the numerical approximation to the boundary conditions rather than the accuracy of the equations which describe the interior. The study presented in this paper compares the results from two different numerical formulations of the convective boundary condition on the face of a heat transfer slab. The standard representation of the boundary condition in a test problem yielded an unacceptable error even when the heat transfer slab was partitioned into over 300 nodes. A higher order boundary condition representation was obtained by using a second order approximation for the first derivative at the boundary and combining it with the general equation used for inner nodes. This latter formulation produced reasonable results when as few as ten nodes were used

  10. Optimal Node Placement in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Felamban, M.

    2013-03-25

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are expected to play a vital role in the exploration and monitoring of underwater areas which are not easily reachable by humans. However, underwater communication via acoustic waves is subject to several performance limitations that are very different from those used for terresstrial networks. In this paper, we investigate node placement for building an initial underwater WSN infrastructure. We formulate this problem as a nonlinear mathematical program with the objective of minimizing the total transmission loss under a given number of sensor nodes and targeted coverage volume. The obtained solution is the location of each node represented via a truncated octahedron to fill out the 3D space. Experiments are conducted to verify the proposed formulation, which is solved using Matlab optimization tool. Simulation is also conducted using an ns-3 simulator, and the simulation results are consistent with the obtained results from mathematical model with less than 10% error.

  11. A solar charge and discharge controller for wireless sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yibo; Shen, Shu

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at the energy supply problem that restricts the life of wireless sensor nodes, a solar energy charge and discharge controller suitable for wireless sensor nodes is designed in this paper. A Microcontroller is used as the core of the solar charge and discharge controller. The software of the solar charge and discharge controller adopts the C language to realize the program of the main control module. Firstly, the function of monitoring solar panel voltage and lithium battery voltage are simulated by Protel software, and the charge time is tested in cloudy and overcast outdoor environment. The results of the experiment show that our controller meets the power supply demand of wireless sensor nodes.

  12. Angiosarcoma of the Thyroid and Regional Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Dogan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid angiosarcomas are typically infiltrative and large tumors with very similar clinical findings of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid. Early hematogenous metastasis is very frequent, but regional lymph node metastasis is quite rare. We present a case of angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland in a 68 years old man with regional lymph node metastasis. Total thyroidectomy with right modified radical neck dissection was applied. Four out of 19 lymph nodes dissected were seen to contain metastasis. Metastatic tumor was composed of sarcomatous areas containing large numbers of blood filled clefts. There after the surgery PET-CT was performed and multiple metastatic involvements were reported. Thyroid angiosarcomas are completely different tumors from angiomatoid anaplastic carcinomas. Longer survival with these tumors is only possible with agressive surgery and in case of regional LN metastasis, neck dissection should be done.

  13. XPath Node Selection over Grammar-Compressed Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Maneth

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available XML document markup is highly repetitive and therefore well compressible using grammar-based compression. Downward, navigational XPath can be executed over grammar-compressed trees in PTIME: the query is translated into an automaton which is executed in one pass over the grammar. This result is well-known and has been mentioned before. Here we present precise bounds on the time complexity of this problem, in terms of big-O notation. For a given grammar and XPath query, we consider three different tasks: (1 to count the number of nodes selected by the query, (2 to materialize the pre-order numbers of the selected nodes, and (3 to serialize the subtrees at the selected nodes.

  14. Accuracy of abdominal lymph node scintigraphy in tumor diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharczyk, D.

    1978-01-01

    In view of the diagnostical correspondence between lymph node scintigraphy and X-ray lymphograpy, this dissertation, which is based on 110 systematic comparative evaluations, examines the diagnostical weight of the scintigraphic criteria for tumor growth, discusses diagnostical discrepancies and confirms the efficacy of lymph node scintigraphy in detecting malignomas. In discussing the diagnostical results in the light of previous experience, the shortcomings of the nuclear medical method in tumor diagnostics are shown to be attributable to the uncertainty of the individual scintigraphic criteria. Owing to the variability of the lymph node system as to topography, anatomy and retention rate and the fact that it cannot morphologically be well differentiated in the scintigram, X-ray lymphography to verify the scintigraphic result and preclude misinterpretation remains an indispensable measure. (orig.) [de

  15. Lymph Node Assessment in Endometrial Cancer: Towards Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer (EC is the most common malignancy of the female reproductive tract and is increasing in incidence. Lymphovascular invasion and lymph node (LN status are strong predictive factors of recurrence. Therefore, the determination of the nodal status of patients is mandatory to optimally tailor adjuvant therapies and reduce local and distant recurrences. Imaging modalities do not yet allow accurate lymph node staging; thus pelvic and aortic lymphadenectomies remain standard staging procedures. The clinical data accumulated recently allow us to define low- and high-risk patients based on pre- or peroperative findings that will allow the clinician to stratify the patients for their need of lymphadenectomies. More recently, several groups have been introducing sentinel node mapping with promising results as an alternative to complete lymphadenectomy. Finally, the use of peroperative algorithm for risk determination could improve patient's staging with a reduction of lymphadenectomy-related morbidity.

  16. Analysis of Network Vulnerability Under Joint Node and Link Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongcheng; Liu, Shumei; Yu, Yao; Cao, Ting

    2018-03-01

    The security problem of computer network system is becoming more and more serious. The fundamental reason is that there are security vulnerabilities in the network system. Therefore, it’s very important to identify and reduce or eliminate these vulnerabilities before they are attacked. In this paper, we are interested in joint node and link attacks and propose a vulnerability evaluation method based on the overall connectivity of the network to defense this attack. Especially, we analyze the attack cost problem from the attackers’ perspective. The purpose is to find the set of least costs for joint links and nodes, and their deletion will lead to serious network connection damage. The simulation results show that the vulnerable elements obtained from the proposed method are more suitable for the attacking idea of the malicious persons in joint node and link attack. It is easy to find that the proposed method has more realistic protection significance.

  17. Importance of Metastatic Lymph Node Ratio in Non-Metastatic, Lymph Node-Invaded Colon Cancer: A Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Arda; Peker, Kemal; Firat, Deniz; Yilmaz, Bahri; Sayar, Ilyas; Idiz, Oguz; Cakir, Coskun; Demiryilmaz, Ismail; Yilmaz, Ismayil

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic importance of the metastatic lymph node ratio for stage III colon cancer patients and to find a cut-off value at which the overall survival and disease-free survival change. Material/Methods Patients with pathological stage III colon cancer were retrospectively evaluated for: age; preoperative values of Crp, Cea, Ca 19-9, and Afp; pathologic situation of vascular, perineural, lymphatic, and serosal involvement; and metastatic lymph node ratio values were calculated. Results The study included 58 stage III colon cancer patients: 20 (34.5%) females and 38 (65.5%) males were involved in the study. Multivariate analysis was applied to the following variables to evaluate significance for overall survival and disease-free survival: age, Crp, Cea, perineural invasion, and metastatic lymph node ratio. The metastatic lymph node ratio (<0.25 or ≥0.25) is the only independent variable significant for overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions Metastatic lymph node ratio is an ideal prognostic marker for stage III colon cancer patients, and 0.25 is the cut-off value for prognosis. PMID:25087904

  18. Distribution of Porcine Haemal Nodes and Morphological Variations in the Haemal Nodes of Cattle and West African Dwarf Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anietie Francis UDOUMOH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparently healthy, non-lactating, non-gravid adult large white pigs (15, adult cattle (10 and adult West African Dwarf (WAD goats of either genders were used to investigate the morphology of haemal nodes using gross anatomical and histological techniques. The results demonstrated that the haemal nodes of pigs occurred in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic regions along the course of blood vessels. The ranges of the longest diameters of the dark brown organs were 6.1 – 30.3 cm in pigs, 4.1 – 18.7 cm in cattle and 2.7 – 8.2 cm in WAD goats. Bovine haemal nodes showed cortical and medullary parenchymal areas, with the cortex demonstrating primary and secondary lymphoid follicles in a circumferential fashion. The medulla showed blood filled medullary sinusoids and medullary cords. In WAD goat, the reticular cells and smooth muscle cells of the capsule were oriented in different directions and the subcapsular, cortical and medullary sinusoids exhibited erythrocytes in pockets. In conclusion, the present study has provided information on the distribution of haemal nodes in pigs as well as other unique morphological features of cattle and WAD goat haemal nodes that could aid their identification and suggest their roles in the body.

  19. Para-aortic lymph node radiation in advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami, B.; Watring, W.G.; Tak, W.; Anderson, B.; Piro, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix and with iliac or para-aortic nodes interpreted as un-equivocally positive on lymphangiography have received radiation therapy to the para-aortic area at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology at Tufts-New England Medical Center Hospital. Of 29 patients who received para-aortic area irradiation as part of their initial treatment, local control was achieved in 18 patients (62%). Overall, four patients developed major complications requiring surgical intervention. Detailed results and our current pre-treatment evaluation policy including lymphangiography, percutaneous needle biopsy and selective extra-peritoneal lymph node biopsy will be discussed

  20. CT diagnosis of abdominal lymph node metastases in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T; Nakamura, H; Choi, S; Morimoto, K; Kawamoto, S; Hori, S; Tokunaga, K; Yoskioka, H; Kuroda, C

    1985-08-01

    CT scanning is useful for diagnosing abdominal lymph node metastasis. Using this technique, histologically confirmed abdominal lymph node metastases were detected in nine of 49 patients (33 autopsy cases and 16 laparotomy cases) with hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatoma). Among the 49 patients, three had periportal (6.1%), six peripancreatic (12.2.%) and six para-aortic adenopathies (12.2%). Two of the patients had adenopathy at all three sites. Retrospectively, CT detected two periportal, four peripancreatic and all six para-aortic adenopathies. Most of the hepatomas with adenopathy showed infiltrative growth; tumour thrombosis of the portal vein was a common complication.

  1. Influence of Elastic Anisotropy on Extended Dislocation Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, B

    1971-09-15

    The interaction forces between the partial dislocations forming an extended dislocation node are calculated using elasticity theory for anisotropic media.s are carried out for nodes of screw, edge and mixed character in Ag, which has an anisotropy ratio A equal to 3, and in a hypothetic material with A = 1 and the same shear modulus as Ag. The results are compared with three previous theories using isotropic elasticity theory. As expected, in Ag the influence of anisotropy is of the same order as the uncertainty due to the dislocation core energy

  2. Node Discovery and Interpretation in Unstructured Resource-Constrained Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gechev, Miroslav; Kasabova, Slavyana; Mihovska, Albena D.

    2014-01-01

    for the discovery, linking and interpretation of nodes in unstructured and resource-constrained network environments and their interrelated and collective use for the delivery of smart services. The model is based on a basic mathematical approach, which describes and predicts the success of human interactions...... in the context of long-term relationships and identifies several key variables in the context of communications in resource-constrained environments. The general theoretical model is described and several algorithms are proposed as part of the node discovery, identification, and linking processes in relation...

  3. Empowering smartphone users with sensor node for air quality measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oletic, Dinko; Bilas, Vedran

    2013-06-01

    We present an architecture of a sensor node developed for use with smartphones for participatory sensing of air quality in urban environments. Our solution features inexpensive metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors (MOX) for measurement of CO, O3, NO2 and VOC, along with sensors for ambient temperature and humidity. We focus on our design of sensor interface consisting of power-regulated heater temperature control, and the design of resistance sensing circuit. Accuracy of the sensor interface is characterized. Power consumption of the sensor node is analysed. Preliminary data obtained from the CO gas sensors in laboratory conditions and during the outdoor field-test is shown.

  4. Empowering smartphone users with sensor node for air quality measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oletic, Dinko; Bilas, Vedran

    2013-01-01

    We present an architecture of a sensor node developed for use with smartphones for participatory sensing of air quality in urban environments. Our solution features inexpensive metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors (MOX) for measurement of CO, O 3 , NO 2 and VOC, along with sensors for ambient temperature and humidity. We focus on our design of sensor interface consisting of power-regulated heater temperature control, and the design of resistance sensing circuit. Accuracy of the sensor interface is characterized. Power consumption of the sensor node is analysed. Preliminary data obtained from the CO gas sensors in laboratory conditions and during the outdoor field-test is shown.

  5. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Fisher, Karl A.; Wajda, Douglas A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D.

    2016-04-26

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  6. Metastasis in the subcarinal lymph node with unknown primary tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, J.; Olsen, K. E.; Petersen, H.

    2011-01-01

    -differentiated squamous cell carcinoma but no primary tumor was visible on PET-computed tomography. Because of his previous lymphoma the patient was scheduled for mediastinoscopy where the diagnosis was confirmed. Subsequent gastroscopy was normal and a right-sided thoracotomy showed no evidence of cancer elsewhere, only...... an inoperable metastasis in a subcarinal lymph node which infiltrated the trachea, esophagus and aorta. Such isolated squamous cell carcinoma in a subcarinal lymph node without a primary tumor despite invasive work-up has not been reported before....

  7. Cavitatory mesenteric lymph node syndrome: A rare entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibhuti; Vishal, Kalia; Gill, Anakhvir

    2010-01-01

    Celiac disease is a gluten sensitive enteropathy that involves an abnormal immunological response to glutens in wheat, rye etc. It predominantly involves the small intestinal mucosa, though, extra luminal manifestations can also occur. One rare extraluminal manifestation is cavitatory mesenteric lymph node syndrome. It occurs in refractory celiac disease and is associated with poor prognosis due to various complications. The diagnosis is often made on imaging when cystic mesenteric lymph nodes with fat-fluid levels are seen and this can then be confirmed by histopathological examination. We recently had a typical case where we were able to make this diagnosis

  8. Transaction processing in the common node of a distributed function laboratory computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.; Dimmler, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    A computer network architecture consisting of a common node processor for managing peripherals and files and a number of private node processors for laboratory experiment control is briefly reviewed. Central to the problem of private node-common node communication is the concept of a transaction. The collection of procedures and the data structure associated with a transaction are described. The common node properties assigned to a transaction and procedures required for its complete processing are discussed. (U.S.)

  9. The 'Sentinel Node' Concept: More Questions Raised than Answers Provided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlag

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of malignant disease is essentially determined by the metastatic potential of the primary tumor. In the past, scientific attention was chiefly directed to systemic metastasis. A multitude of biological and molecular tumor markers and mechanisms has been uncovered enabling a better contemporary understanding of the process of hematogenic metastasis. This is in contrast with our knowledge of the mechanisms and pathways of lymphatic tumor spread, which is rather limited. We do know, however, that adequate surgical clearance of the regional lymphatics improves treatment results of many tumors. How far this lymph node dissection is directly therapeutic is a source of controversy. While in some instances, a stage-adjusted survival benefit was demonstrated, this may very well be attributable at least in part to the phenomenon of stage migration (Will Rodgers phenomenon) through better staging. However, it is uncontested that an established diagnosis of regional lymphatic spread is prognostically significant and should influence the indication for additional therapy and eventually for an intensive follow-up. For many tumors, the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy depends on the nodal status. On the other hand, it is equally well known that aggressive lymphatic dissection increases perioperative morbidity and even mortality. Long-term sequellae from regional lymphatic dissection are common and the effect on the local, maybe even the systemic immunological response to the malignant disease, remains unclear. To incur such risk seems especially problematic in those patients without any lymphatic spread at the time of the pathologist's work-up. Thus, there is ongoing debate about the rationale, value, extent, advantage, or disadvantage of regional surgical lymph node dissection or even radiotherapy of the regional lymphatic drainage area for many different tumors. A considerable step forward could be made if there was any diagnostic modality enabling a reliable

  10. The sentinel lymph node spread determines quantitatively melanoma seeding to non-sentinel lymph nodes and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Anja; Dietz, Klaus; Werner-Klein, Melanie; Häfner, Hans-Martin; Schulz, Claudia; Renner, Philipp; Weber, Florian; Breuninger, Helmut; Röcken, Martin; Garbe, Claus; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; Klein, Christoph A

    2018-03-01

    Complete lymph node dissection (CLND) after a positive sentinel node (SN) biopsy provides important prognostic information in melanoma patients but has been questioned for therapeutic use recently. We explored whether quantification of the tumour spread to SNs may replace histopathology of non-sentinel nodes (NSNs) for staging purposes. We quantified melanoma spread in SNs and NSNs in 128 patients undergoing CLND for a positive SN. In addition to routine histopathology, one-half of each of all 1496 SNs and NSNs was disaggregated into a single cell suspension and stained immunocytochemically to determine the number of melanoma cells per 10 6 lymph node cells, i.e. the disseminated cancer cell density (DCCD). We uncovered melanoma spread to NSNs in the majority of patients; however, the tumour load and the proportion of positive nodes were significantly lower in NSNs than in SNs. The relation between SN and NSN spread could be described by a mathematical function with DCCD NSN  = DCCD SN c /10 1 - c (c = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.76). At a median follow-up of 67 months, multivariable Cox regression analyses revealed that DCCD SN (p = 0.02; HR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05-1.71) and the total number of pathologically positive nodes (p = 0.02; HR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.07-2.22) were significant risk factors after controlling for age, gender, thickness of melanoma and ulceration status. A prognostic model based on DCCD SN and melanoma thickness predicted outcome as accurately as a model including pathological information of both SNs and NSNs. The assessment of DCCD SN renders CLND for staging purposes unnecessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Meshfree Local Radial Basis Function Collocation Method with Image Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Minjae [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    We numerically solve two-dimensional heat diffusion problems by using a simple variant of the meshfree local radial-basis function (RBF) collocation method. The main idea is to include an additional set of sample nodes outside the problem domain, similarly to the method of images in electrostatics, to perform collocation on the domain boundaries. We can thereby take into account the temperature profile as well as its gradients specified by boundary conditions at the same time, which holds true even for a node where two or more boundaries meet with different boundary conditions. We argue that the image method is computationally efficient when combined with the local RBF collocation method, whereas the addition of image nodes becomes very costly in case of the global collocation. We apply our modified method to a benchmark test of a boundary value problem, and find that this simple modification reduces the maximum error from the analytic solution significantly. The reduction is small for an initial value problem with simpler boundary conditions. We observe increased numerical instability, which has to be compensated for by a sufficient number of sample nodes and/or more careful parameter choices for time integration.

  12. 3D inkjet printed disposable environmental monitoring wireless sensor node

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2017-10-24

    We propose a disposable, miniaturized, moveable, fully integrated 3D inkjet-printed wireless sensor node for large area environmental monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, we show the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity and H2S levels which are important for early warnings of two critical environmental conditions namely forest fires and industrial gas leaks. The temperature sensor has TCR of -0.018/°, the highest of any inkjet-printed sensor and the H2S sensor can detect as low as 3 ppm of gas. These sensors and an antenna have been realized on the walls of a 3D-printed cubic package which encloses the microelectronics developed on a 3D-printed circuit board. Hence, 3D printing and inkjet printing have been combined in order to realize a unique low-cost, fully integrated wireless sensor node. Field tests show that these sensor nodes can wirelessly communicate up to a distance of over 100m. Our proposed sensor node can be a part of internet of things with the aim of providing a better and safe living.

  13. Staging of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norling, Rikke; Buron, Birgitte Marie Due; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clinical staging of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is crucial for the choice of treatment. Computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are typically recommended and used for staging of the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). Although ultrasonography (US...

  14. Biochemical aspects of single-node cuttings of Ricinodendron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEHEMIE

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... changes, basal single-node leafy cuttings were treated with different .... with local material and providing an internal irradiance of 20 to 32%. ..... higher in rooting cutting during the initiation phase). Phenolics ... Chrysanthemum cuttings as affected by nitrogen supply and cold- storage. Ann. Bot. 85:697-701.

  15. Sentinel node biopsy for melanoma: a study of 241 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Jakobsen, Annika Loft

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique for melanoma using both radiocolloid and blue dye in 241 clinically N0 patients with melanomas >1.0 mm, or thinner lesions exhibiting regression/ulceration. We showed that an increase in injected radioactivity increased...

  16. NIM: A Node Influence Based Method for Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification of different cancer types owns great significance in the medical field. However, the great majority of existing cancer classification methods are clinical-based and have relatively weak diagnostic ability. With the rapid development of gene expression technology, it is able to classify different kinds of cancers using DNA microarray. Our main idea is to confront the problem of cancer classification using gene expression data from a graph-based view. Based on a new node influence model we proposed, this paper presents a novel high accuracy method for cancer classification, which is composed of four parts: the first is to calculate the similarity matrix of all samples, the second is to compute the node influence of training samples, the third is to obtain the similarity between every test sample and each class using weighted sum of node influence and similarity matrix, and the last is to classify each test sample based on its similarity between every class. The data sets used in our experiments are breast cancer, central nervous system, colon tumor, prostate cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and lung cancer. experimental results showed that our node influence based method (NIM is more efficient and robust than the support vector machine, K-nearest neighbor, C4.5, naive Bayes, and CART.

  17. Node Heterogeneity for Energy Efficient Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    The energy of the node in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is scare and causes the variation in the lifetime of the network. Also, the throughput and delay of the network depend on how long the network sustains i.e. energy consumption. One way to increase the sustainability of network...

  18. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  19. Web development with MongoDB and Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Krol, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This book is designed for developers of any skill level that want to get up and running using Node.js and MongoDB to build full featured web applications. A basic understanding of JavaScript and HTML is the only requirement for this book.

  20. Sentinel lymph node surgery in prostate cancer using magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Alexander; Engels, Svenja; Wawroschek, Friedhelm

    2018-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are tested to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) to exploit the advantages of targeted pelvic SLN dissection (sPLND), while circumventing the disadvantages of established radioactive labeling. Here we review recent studies about sPLND in prostate cancer (PCa), including the first results of SLN detection using intraprostatic SPION-injection. A recent systematic literature review reveals that the diagnostic accuracy of sPLND is comparable with extended PLND (ePLND). sPLND combined with ePLND achieve better node removal by increasing the number of affected nodes. The first sentinel-based nomogram predicting lymph node invasion is established. A sentinel-nomogram update provides comparative predictions relative to ePLND models. sPLND using a magnetometer and SPIONs as a tracer is successful whenever applied to PCa, and SLN identification using MRI after intraprostatic injection of SPIONs is feasible. SLNs are present in an unexpectedly high number outside the ePLND template. SLN detection outside the ePLND template and the increased diagnostic value of sPLND compared with ePLND supports the individualized extension of PLND using sPLND in PCa. SPION-MRI, combined with a hand-held magnetometer, provides a nonradioactive technique for preoperative and intraoperative SLN localization. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of sPLND on oncological outcomes.

  1. Search for an optimal colloid for sentinel node imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, S.K.; Killingsworth, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims at finding a cost-effective and stable colloid of appropriate size to replace antimony sulfide colloid which is now in routine use in Australia for sentinel lymph node (SLN) imaging. For this reason we evaluated three colloids; namely phytate, hepatate and stannous fluoride (SnF 2 ). As colloids of particle size of 100-200 nm seem to be appropriate for sentinel node imaging, the three radiolabelled colloid preparations were filtered through 0.1 and 0.22 μm filters and then studied on electron microscope. Electron microscopy showed that unlike phytate, the particle size of the hepatate and SnF 2 colloids did not increase beyond the size limit of 200 nm over a period of as long as 26 hours. Instead, they remained well within the size limits chosen. The stability of particle size is required for intra-operative gamma probe lymphatic mapping that sometimes may be performed on the following day. Hepatate and SnF 2 colloids appeared to be more suited for sentinel lymph node imaging, the latter being an inhouse product is more cost-effective. Further studies based on nodal uptake and the behavior of these two radiopharmaceuticals in animals is suggested in order to evaluate their potential for future wide-spread application in human sentinel node imaging. (author)

  2. Echo pattern of lymph nodes in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus

    1992-01-01

    Surgical specimens from 75 patients with colorectal cancer were examined within 15 min of removal with a 7.5 MHz linear-array transducer. The echo pattern of 139 lymph nodes was analysed to evaluate previous criteria of malignancy and to establish other possible criteria, which could be tested...

  3. In-node cognitive power control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chincoli, Michele; Liotta, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Reliability, interoperability and efficiency are fundamental in Wireless Sensor Network deployment. Herein we look at how transmission power control may be used to reduce interference, which is particularly problematic in high-density conditions. We adopt a distributed approach where every node has

  4. [Sentinel node in melanoma and breast cancer. Current considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Vilalta Solsona, A; Alonso Vargas, M I

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of sentinel node (SN) biopsy is to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomies and to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy and increases the occult lymphatic metastases identification rate by offering the pathologist the or those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. The SPECT/CT advantages include a better SN detection rate than planar images, the ability to detect SNs in difficult to interpret studies, better SN depiction, especially in sites closer to the injection site and better anatomic localization. These advantages may result in a change in the patient's clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer. The correct SN evaluation by pathology implies a tumoral load stratification and further prognostic implication. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows the surgeon a better surgical approach and precise SN localization. Several studies reports the added value of such devices for more sentinel nodes excision and a complete monitoring of the whole procedure. New techniques, by using fluorescent or hybrid tracers, are currently being developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. Power Aware Simulation Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks and Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The constrained resources of sensor nodes limit analytical techniques and cost-time factors limit test beds to study wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Consequently, simulation becomes an essential tool to evaluate such systems.We present the power aware wireless sensors (PAWiS simulation framework that supports design and simulation of wireless sensor networks and nodes. The framework emphasizes power consumption capturing and hence the identification of inefficiencies in various hardware and software modules of the systems. These modules include all layers of the communication system, the targeted class of application itself, the power supply and energy management, the central processing unit (CPU, and the sensor-actuator interface. The modular design makes it possible to simulate heterogeneous systems. PAWiS is an OMNeT++ based discrete event simulator written in C++. It captures the node internals (modules as well as the node surroundings (network, environment and provides specific features critical to WSNs like capturing power consumption at various levels of granularity, support for mobility, and environmental dynamics as well as the simulation of timing effects. A module library with standardized interfaces and a power analysis tool have been developed to support the design and analysis of simulation models. The performance of the PAWiS simulator is comparable with other simulation environments.

  6. A Wind Energy Powered Wireless Temperature Sensor Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally.

  7. Compact Public-Key Implementations for RFID and Sensor Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batina, Lejla; Sakiyama, Kazuo; Verbauwhede, Ingrid M. R.

    Embedded systems have become extremely important and new applications are taking a larger portion of the market every day. Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and sensor nodes are recent and challenging examples and they imply very low budgets for the number of gates, power, bandwidth, etc. while they often require security solutions.

  8. Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection in Locally Recurrent Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Charlotte Caspara; Christensen, Mette Haulund; Oldenbourg, Mette Holmqvist

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in the treatment of patients with locally recurrent breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 147 patients with locally recurrent breast cancer were included from five different breast surgery departments...

  9. Regression Nodes: Extending attack trees with data from social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Montoya, L.; Pieters, Wolter; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    In the field of security, attack trees are often used to assess security vulnerabilities probabilistically in relation to multi-step attacks. The nodes are usually connected via AND-gates, where all children must be executed, or via OR-gates, where only one action is necessary for the attack step to

  10. Thick melanoma: prognostic value of positive sentinel nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; van der Ent, Fred W. C.; Sastrowijoto, Prapto S. H.; Hulsewé, Karel W. E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is a widely accepted procedure used to accurately stage patients with melanoma. Its value in patients with thick melanoma (Breslow thickness >4 mm) is reason for discussion because of the generally poor prognosis of these patients. The purpose of this

  11. Link Prediction in Evolving Networks Based on Popularity of Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; He, Xing-Sheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Fu, Zhong-Qian

    2017-08-02

    Link prediction aims to uncover the underlying relationship behind networks, which could be utilized to predict missing edges or identify the spurious edges. The key issue of link prediction is to estimate the likelihood of potential links in networks. Most classical static-structure based methods ignore the temporal aspects of networks, limited by the time-varying features, such approaches perform poorly in evolving networks. In this paper, we propose a hypothesis that the ability of each node to attract links depends not only on its structural importance, but also on its current popularity (activeness), since active nodes have much more probability to attract future links. Then a novel approach named popularity based structural perturbation method (PBSPM) and its fast algorithm are proposed to characterize the likelihood of an edge from both existing connectivity structure and current popularity of its two endpoints. Experiments on six evolving networks show that the proposed methods outperform state-of-the-art methods in accuracy and robustness. Besides, visual results and statistical analysis reveal that the proposed methods are inclined to predict future edges between active nodes, rather than edges between inactive nodes.

  12. Autonomous solutions for powering wireless sensor nodes in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenar, E.; Maćešić, S.; Gregov, G.; Blažević, D.; Zelenika, S.; Marković, K.; Glažar, V.

    2015-05-01

    There is an evident need for monitoring pollutants and/or other conditions in river flows via wireless sensor networks. In a typical wireless sensor network topography, a series of sensor nodes is to be deployed in the environment, all wirelessly connected to each other and/or their gateways. Each sensor node is composed of active electronic devices that have to be constantly powered. In general, batteries can be used for this purpose, but problems may occur when they have to be replaced. In the case of large networks, when sensor nodes can be placed in hardly accessible locations, energy harvesting can thus be a viable powering solution. The possibility to use three different small-scale river flow energy harvesting principles is hence thoroughly studied in this work: a miniaturized underwater turbine, a so-called `piezoelectric eel' and a hybrid turbine solution coupled with a rigid piezoelectric beam. The first two concepts are then validated experimentally in laboratory as well as in real river conditions. The concept of the miniaturised hydro-generator is finally embedded into the actual wireless sensor node system and its functionality is confirmed.

  13. High field MRI of axillary lymph nodes and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis nodal characteristics have been assessed with high field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) using a clinical scanner in order to discriminate non-metastatic from metastatic nodes of breast cancer patients. The final goal is to non-invasively determine nodal and tumor stage of breast

  14. Metastatic Carcinoma Of The BreastWith Inguinal Lymph Node ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To report two cases of advanced breast carcinoma with metastases to the inguinal lymph nodes in two Nigerian women. The University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Two Nigerian women, one aged 40 years with an invasive lobular carcinoma of the right breast, and the other aged 48 yearswith ...

  15. Retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease (giant lymph node hyperplasia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques Waisberg

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Castleman's disease, or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is a rare disorder of the lymphoid tissue that causes lymph node enlargement. It is considered benign in its localized form, but aggressive in the multicentric type. The definitive diagnosis is based on postoperative pathological findings. The aim here was to describe a case of retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease in the retroperitoneum. CASE REPORT: A 61-year old white male with weight loss and listlessness presented with moderate arterial hypertension and leukopenia. Abdominal tomography revealed a 5 x 4 x 5 cm oval mass of low attenuation, with inner calcification and intense enhancement on intravenous contrast, located in the retroperitoneal region, between the left kidney and the aorta, at the renal hilus. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a non-pulsatile solid oval mass situated in the retroperitoneum, adjacent to the left renal hilus. The retroperitoneal lesion was removed in its entirety. Examination of frozen samples revealed benign lymph node tissue and histopathological examination of the surgical sample revealed hyaline-vascular giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease. The patient was discharged on the 12th day without significant events. Two months after the operation, the patient was readmitted with severe cardiac insufficiency, acute renal failure and bronchopneumonia, which progressed to acute respiratory insufficiency, sepsis and death.

  16. Peritumoural vs intratumoural injections in sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, L.; Cardaci, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Lymphoscintigraphy has emerged as a method of detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in breast cancer. Our department started performing these studies in 2001, using 99mTc-Colloidal Antimony Sulphide Injection -dose 30-50MBq. Two methods of injection were used: (a) peritumoural plus subdermal injection - 1.25ml volume (PT), or (b) direct intratumoural injection - 0.2ml volume (IT), both followed by 5-10 min of gentle massage. Patients with a non-palpable mass required a hookwire (HW) inserted at time of injection, and a hotpack was applied in lieu of massage. 125 patients were retrospectively assessed, with 45 PT, 37 IT, 38 HW, and 5 patients had cavity injections. For PT injections, 93% had axillary node drainage (AN), 27% had internal mammary node drainage (IM) and 4% had no drainage to nodes, despite delayed imaging. For IT injections, 84% had AN, 24% had IM, 11% showed no drainage. Of patients having HW, 66% had AN, 34% had IM, 26% no drainage. In our experience, PT injection has a higher yield for SLN localisation than direct IT injection. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  17. Evaluation of mesenteric lymph nodes in children with abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedrzejewski, G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes seen on pediatric abdominal ultrasound examinations performed in children with abdominal pain. Ultrasound was performed with Sonoline Elegra and Philips iU-22 units with convex-array 2-5 MHz transducer for the general abdominal examination, and in addition with convex 5-8 MHz or linear 7.5 MHz transducers specially to detect lymph nodes. Enlarged lymph nodes were found in 248 (21,2%) out of 1171 symptomatic patients. In 53 patients some other abnormalities were found. The nodes were mostly disc-like and oval in shape. They had usually a homogeneous appearance and were iso- or hypoechoic relative to the surrounding tissues and intestinal loops. Mesenteric lymphadenitis is commonly reported in children with acute, chronic or recurrent abdominal pain and no evidence of other pathologies, and has been reported as one of the most common explanation for acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain. (authors)

  18. Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Nguyen, Freddy T; Zysk, Adam M; Ralston, Tyler S; Brockenbrough, John; Marks, Daniel L; Oldenburg, Amy L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2005-10-01

    Optical diagnostic imaging techniques are increasingly being used in the clinical environment, allowing for improved screening and diagnosis while minimizing the number of invasive procedures. Diffuse optical tomography, for example, is capable of whole-breast imaging and is being developed as an alternative to traditional X-ray mammography. While this may eventually be a very effective screening method, other optical techniques are better suited for imaging on the cellular and molecular scale. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), for instance, is capable of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue morphology. In a manner analogous to ultrasound imaging except using optics, pulses of near-infrared light are sent into the tissue while coherence-gated reflections are measured interferometrically to form a cross-sectional image of tissue. In this paper we apply OCT techniques for the high-resolution three-dimensional visualization of lymph node morphology. We present the first reported OCT images showing detailed morphological structure and corresponding histological features of lymph nodes from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor model, as well as from a human lymph node containing late stage metastatic disease. The results illustrate the potential for OCT to visualize detailed lymph node structures on the scale of micrometastases and the potential for the detection of metastatic nodal disease intraoperatively.

  19. Breast and Axillary Lymph Nodes Metastasis five years after Radical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast is an uncommon and rare site for metastasis. Primary and secondary tumors of the breast need to be differentiated as management is different. We present a 67 year old female patient with two breast lumps and an axillary lymph node, 5 years after nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC). Mammogram report ...

  20. Impact of constrained rewiring on network structure and node dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattana, P.; Berthouze, L.; Kiss, I. Z.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study an adaptive spatial network. We consider a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic on the network, with a link or contact rewiring process constrained by spatial proximity. In particular, we assume that susceptible nodes break links with infected nodes independently of distance and reconnect at random to susceptible nodes available within a given radius. By systematically manipulating this radius we investigate the impact of rewiring on the structure of the network and characteristics of the epidemic. We adopt a step-by-step approach whereby we first study the impact of rewiring on the network structure in the absence of an epidemic, then with nodes assigned a disease status but without disease dynamics, and finally running network and epidemic dynamics simultaneously. In the case of no labeling and no epidemic dynamics, we provide both analytic and semianalytic formulas for the value of clustering achieved in the network. Our results also show that the rewiring radius and the network's initial structure have a pronounced effect on the endemic equilibrium, with increasingly large rewiring radiuses yielding smaller disease prevalence.

  1. Node counting in wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.H.M.; Kiss, D.; Kowalczyk, W.; Navilarekallu, T.; Renger, D.R.M.; Sella, L.; Timperio, V.; Viorel, A.; Wijk, van A.C.C.; Yzelman, A.J.; Planqué, B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Kager, W.; Rot, T.

    2012-01-01

    We study wireless ad-hoc networks consisting of small microprocessors with limited memory, where the wireless communication between the processors can be highly unreliable. For this setting, we propose a number of algorithms to estimate the number of nodes in the network, and the number of direct

  2. Quality metric for accurate overlay control in <20nm nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Cohen, Guy; Amir, Nuriel; Har-Zvi, Michael; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Pierson, Bill; Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is moving toward 20nm nodes and below. As the Overlay (OVL) budget is getting tighter at these advanced nodes, the importance in the accuracy in each nanometer of OVL error is critical. When process owners select OVL targets and methods for their process, they must do it wisely; otherwise the reported OVL could be inaccurate, resulting in yield loss. The same problem can occur when the target sampling map is chosen incorrectly, consisting of asymmetric targets that will cause biased correctable terms and a corrupted wafer. Total measurement uncertainty (TMU) is the main parameter that process owners use when choosing an OVL target per layer. Going towards the 20nm nodes and below, TMU will not be enough for accurate OVL control. KLA-Tencor has introduced a quality score named `Qmerit' for its imaging based OVL (IBO) targets, which is obtained on the-fly for each OVL measurement point in X & Y. This Qmerit score will enable the process owners to select compatible targets which provide accurate OVL values for their process and thereby improve their yield. Together with K-T Analyzer's ability to detect the symmetric targets across the wafer and within the field, the Archer tools will continue to provide an independent, reliable measurement of OVL error into the next advanced nodes, enabling fabs to manufacture devices that meet their tight OVL error budgets.

  3. [Flow cytometry in datecting lymph node micrometastasis in colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q; Ding, Y; Zhang, J

    2001-01-25

    To study the methodology and significance of flow cytometry in detecting lymph node micrometastasis of colorectal cancer. One hundred sixty-two cellular suspensions were prepared with lymph nodes which were resected radically on 25 patients with colorectal cancer and in which no cancer cells were found by HE staining. Different concentrations of cultured Lovo colorectal cancer cells were added into the celular suspension prepared from lymph node tissue of persons without colorectal cancer in order to prepare a control model. Dual staining with CK/FTTC and PI was made to the sedimetns from those 2 kinds of suspension. Flow cytometry was used to detect cancer cells. An ideal correlation was obtained between the detection value and the theoretical value of cancer cells in the specimen suspensions and control models (r = 0.097 6) with a sensitivity rate of 10/10(5). Cancer cells were detected from 7 out of the 25 patients and 30 of the 162 cellular suspensions. The detection rate was correlated with the size and infiltrating depth of the cancer. Flow cytometry is a reliable, rapid, and quantitative method for detecting lymph node micrometastasis in colorectal cancer.

  4. Uptake kinetics of relatively insoluble particles by tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Tracheobronchial lymph nodes accumulate a portion of material deposited in the deep lung following inhalation of relatively insoluble particles. Experiments involving a variety of compounds, inhaled singly or repeatedly, indicate that the kinetics of lymph node uptake are fairly independent of particle characteristics and mammalian species. The buildup per unit weight of nodal tissue compared with that of lung tissue, with time, can be represented by a linear logarithmic function. However, since the scatter in experimental points may be large at any given time after inhalation exposure, a number of different kinetic descriptions of uptake can be derived. The logarithmic pattern of accumulation can be approximated over an extended time range (several years) by use of a combination of first-order kinetics of loss from the lung and of buildup in lymph nodes, but it is recognized that the processes are much more complicated than this treatment would indicate. Clearance (loss) from the lymph nodes is not well defined, but this aspect is discussed in light of the kinetic models presented

  5. Lymph nodes tuberculosis: A retrospective study on clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymph nodes tuberculosis represents 30 percent of extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Morocco. We report here the experience of the pulmonology unit of the Avicenne Military Hospital in Marrakech for a period of 4 years. Our study interested 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) with an average age of 29 years old (10 to 62 ...

  6. Age Related Variations in The Architecture of Caprine Haemal Nodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age related variations in the architecture of caprine haemal nodes were studied in West African dwarf goats aged between 1-24 months. Variations were observed in the thickness of the capsule, the content and organization of the cortical and medullary parenchyma as well as the stroma. In young goats age between 1-4 ...

  7. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Woon Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM. The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  8. Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes of healthy cattle at slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    To more fully characterize the burden of Salmonella enterica in bovine peripheral lymph nodes (PLN), PLN (n=5,450) were collected from healthy cattle at slaughter in 12 commercial abattoirs that slaughtered feedlot-fattened (FF) cattle exclusively (n=7), cattle removed (or culled) from breeding herd...

  9. LCP nanoparticle for tumor and lymph node metastasis imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle formulation (particle diameter ˜25 nm) has previously been developed to delivery siRNA with superior efficiency. In this work, 111In was formulated into LCP nanoparticles to form 111In-LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. With necessary modifications and improvements of the LCP core-washing and surface-coating methods, 111In-LCP grafted with polyethylene glycol exhibited reduced uptake by the mononuclear phagocytic system. SPECT/CT imaging supported performed biodistribution studies, showing clear tumor images with accumulation of 8% or higher injected dose per gram tissue (ID/g) in subcutaneous, human-H460, lung-cancer xenograft and mouse-4T1, breast cancer metastasis models. Both the liver and the spleen accumulated ˜20% ID/g. Accumulation in the tumor was limited by the enhanced permeation and retention effect and was independent of the presence of a targeting ligand. A surprisingly high accumulation in the lymph nodes (˜70% ID/g) was observed. In the 4T1 lymph node metastasis model, the capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize the size-enlarged and tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated. By analyzing the SPECT/CT images taken at different time points, the PK profiles of 111In-LCP in the blood and major organs were determined. The results indicated that the decrement of 111In-LCP blood concentration was not due to excretion, but to tissue penetration, leading to lymphatic accumulation. Larger LCP (diameter ˜65 nm) nanoparticles were also prepared for the purpose of comparison. Results indicated that larger LCP achieved slightly lower accumulation in the tumor and lymph nodes, but much higher accumulation in the liver and spleen; thus, larger nanoparticles might not be favorable for imaging purposes. We also demonstrated that LCP with a diameter of ˜25 nm were better able to penetrate into tissues, travel in the lymphatic system and preferentially accumulate in the lymph nodes due to 1) small

  10. Programming Sustainable Urban Nodes for Spontaneous, Intensive Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubryt-Obrycka, Adriana

    2017-10-01

    Urban development nowadays, not only in Poland but also throughout the world, is an important issue for planners, municipal authorities and residents themselves. New structures generated in spontaneous urban and suburban areas constitute randomly scattered seeds of excessive residential and little commercial functions which therein appear more often as temporary or even ephemeral installations emerging where it is temporarily needed. The more important special services are provided rarely. Correct thinking about creating cities involves simultaneous thinking on providing different basic functions required by local communities, but at the same time recognizing temporal fluctuations and distinction on what kind of amenities have to be provided in particular area permanently (such as e.g. medical care, preventive services and schools), with others retaining its mobile, non-formal character. An even greater problem is a restoration of urban structures in the areas affected by natural disasters or leftover areas being previously war zones, where similar deficits have significantly higher impact being potential cause of higher toll in human lives, if no functional nodes providing essential functions survived. The Ariadne’s Thread is a research project which proposes infrastructure and nodes for such urban areas. It develops new framework for creating nodes not only aimed at fulfilling basic needs of people but achieving social integration and build stability for fragile communities. The aim of the paper is to describe the process of identification of a relationship between needs of the inhabitants and both programmatic and ideological approach to Ariadne’s Thread (AT) node giving ultimately its architectural interpretation. The paper will introduce the process of recognition of local needs, the interpretive and/or participatory mechanisms of establishing the node as a response to this recognition containing conceptual programming, socio-cultural programming, and

  11. Identifying Nodes of Transmission in Disease Diffusion Through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, David Sebastian

    The spread of infectious diseases can be described in terms of three interrelated components: interaction, movement, and scale. Transmission between individuals requires some form of interaction, which is dependent on the pathogen, to occur. Diseases spread through the movement of their hosts; they spread across many spatial scales from local neighborhoods to countries, or temporal scales from days to years, or periodic intervals. Prior research into the spread of disease have examined diffusion processes retrospectively at regional or country levels, or developed differential equation or simulation models of the dynamics of disease transmission. While some of the more recent models incorporate all three components, they are limited in the way they understand where interactions occur. The focus has been on home or work, including contact with family or coworkers. The models reflect a lack of knowledge about how transmissions are made at specific locations in time, so-called nodes of transmission. That is, how individuals' intersections in time and space function in disease transmission. This project sought to use the three factors of interaction, movement, and scale to better understand the spread of disease in terms of the place of interaction called the node of transmission. The overarching objective of this research was: how can nodes of transmission be identified through individual activity spaces incorporating the three factors of infectious disease spread: interaction, movement, and scale?. This objective fed into three main sub-objectives: defining nodes of transmission, developing an appropriate methodology to identifying nodes of transmission, and applying it using geotagged social media data from Twitter. To develop an appropriate framework, this research relied on time geography, and traditional disease. This particularly relied on the idea of bundling to create the nodes, and a nesting effect that integrated scale. The data source used to identify nodes

  12. Internal mammary lymph node management – further direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrana D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available D Vrana,1,2 J Gatek3,4 1Department of Oncology, 2Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, 3Department of Surgery, Atlas Hospital, 4Faculty of Humanities, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Zlín, Czech Republic We read the article titled “Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?” by Qiu et al with high interest. This was an excellent paper regarding the contemporary management of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN in early-stage breast cancer1 and we would like to take this opportunity to comment on this paper.There are several unresolved questions regarding early-stage breast management including axillary staging, clear resection margin, or IMLN.2–4 We have been focusing on the issues of IMLN for almost a decade and just recently published our data regarding IMLN management. We absolutely agree that one has to carefully balance the benefit and potential risks of biopsy or radiotherapy of IMLN.  Authors' reply Peng-Fei Qiu, Yong-Sheng WangBreast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China  We appreciate the letter from Professors Vrana and Gatek regarding our article titled “Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?”.1 We have been following their publications regarding internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN management since the publication of their article titled “Prognostic influence of internal mammary node drainage in patients with early-stage breast cancer” in December 20162 and we share their interest on this topic.  View the original paper by Qiu and colleagues.

  13. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Cambridge, MA; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  14. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda A [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-01-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  15. Implementing asyncronous collective operations in a multi-node processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-07-08

    A method, system, and computer program product are disclosed for implementing an asynchronous collective operation in a multi-node data processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises sending data to a plurality of nodes in the data processing system, broadcasting a remote get to the plurality of nodes, and using this remote get to implement asynchronous collective operations on the data by the plurality of nodes. In one embodiment, each of the nodes performs only one task in the asynchronous operations, and each nodes sets up a base address table with an entry for a base address of a memory buffer associated with said each node. In another embodiment, each of the nodes performs a plurality of tasks in said collective operations, and each task of each node sets up a base address table with an entry for a base address of a memory buffer associated with the task.

  16. Arm morbidity following sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection: a study from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Madsen A.; Haugaard, K.; Soerensen, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy was implemented in the treatment of early breast cancer with the aim of reducing shoulder and arm morbidity. Relatively few prospective studies have been published where the morbidity was assessed by clinical examination. Very few studies have examined...... lymph node biopsy with node negative patients having a lymph node dissection of levels I and II of the axilla, we found significant increase in arm volume among the patients who had an axillary dissection. Only minor, but significant, differences in shoulder mobility were observed comparing the two...... groups of node negative patients. Highly significant difference was found comparing sensibility. Comparing the morbidity in node positive patients who had a one-step axillary dissection with patients having a two-step procedure (sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by delayed axillary dissection) revealed...

  17. BRITTLE CULM16 (BRITTLE NODE) is required for the formation of secondary cell walls in rice nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; WANG Jiu-lin; GUO Xiu-ping; ZHANG Xin; LEI Cai-lin; CHENG Zhi-jun; WAN Jian-min; REN Yu-long; CHEN Sai-hua; XU Yang; ZHOU Kun-neng; ZHANG Long; MING Ming; WU Fu-qing; LIN Qi-bing

    2017-01-01

    Plant cell walls constitute the skeletal structures of plant bodies, and thus confer lodging resistance for grain crops. While the basic cell wall synthesis machinery is relatively well established now, our understanding of how the process is regulated remains limited and fragmented. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of the novel rice (Oryza sativa L.) brittle culm16 (brittle node; bc16) mutant. The brittle node phenotype of the bc16 mutant appears exclusively at nodes, and resembles the previously reported bc5 mutant. Combined histochemical staining and electron microscopy assays revealed that in the bc16 mutant, the secondary cell wall formation and thickening of node sclerenchyma tissues are seriously affected after heading. Furthermore, cell wall composition assays revealed that the bc16 mutation led to a significant reduction in cellulose and lignin contents. Using a map-based cloning approach, the bc16 locus is mapped to an approximately 1.7-Mb region of chromosome 4. Together, our findings strengthen evidence for discretely spatial differences in the secondary cell wall formation within plant bodies.

  18. The Prognostic Value of Lymph Nodes Dissection Number on Survival of Patients with Lymph Node-Negative Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study was designed to explore the prognostic value of examined lymph node (LN number on survival of gastric cancer patients without LN metastasis. Methods. Between August 1995 and January 2011, 300 patients who underwent gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for LN-negative gastric cancer were reviewed. Patients were assigned to various groups according to LN dissection number or tumor invasion depth. Some clinical outcomes, such as overall survival, operation time, length of stay, and postoperative complications, were compared among all groups. Results. The overall survival time of LN-negative GC patients was 50.2±30.5 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that LN dissection number (P30. Besides, it was not correlated with operation time, transfusion volume, length of postoperative stay, or postoperative complication incidence (P>0.05. Conclusions. The number of examined lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor of survival for patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer. Sufficient dissection of lymph nodes is recommended during surgery for such population.

  19. Abdominal lymph node metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed by computed tomography and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hironobu; Oi, Hiromichi [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Microbial Diseases; Tanaka, Takeshi; Sai, Soomi; Hori, Shinichi

    1984-04-01

    CT scans of 164 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were studied, and abdominal lymph node metastases were detected in 13 cases. Most of these lymph node metastases occured in periportal, peripancreatic and paraaortic lymph nodes. Ten instances of each these metastases were identified by CT. Six of the patients had metastases in all three sites. In 9 of 13 cases, lymph node metastases were demonstrated by angiography and various degrees of contrast material stain were seen. Lymph node metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is apt to be hypervascular. Most of hepatocellular carcinoma with lymph node metastasis showed infiltrative growth, and tumor thrombosis in the portal vein was commonly complicated.

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy from the vantage point of an oncologic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lori L

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has greatly influenced the surgical management of clinically localized primary melanoma. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy have been used for the selective management of the draining regional lymph node basin of primary cutaneous melanoma. Oncologic surgeons have adopted this procedure to selectively identify occult nodal status in melanoma patients who are at a higher risk of regional metastasis. The current standard of treatment of tumor-positive sentinel lymph node metastasis is immediate completion lymphadenectomy, but considerable debate surrounds the utility of this procedure. This contribution reviews development, technical aspects, selective management of the lymph node basin, and sentinel lymph node biopsy techniques.

  1. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Predictors of Axillary and Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Postacı

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard method for the evaluation of axillary status in patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancers. Aims: To determine the prognostic significance of primary tumour-related clinico-histopathological factors on axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Study design: Retrospective clinical study. Methods: In the present study, 157 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 151 consecutive patients with early stage breast cancer between June 2008 and December 2011. Results: Successful lymphatic mapping was obtained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%. The incidence of larger tumour size (2.543±1.21 vs. 1.974±1.04, lymphatic vessel invasion (70.6% vs. 29.4%, blood vessel invasion (84.2% vs. 15.8%, and invasive lobular carcinoma subtype (72.7% vs. 27.3% were statistically significantly higher in patients with positive SLNs. Logistic stepwise regression analysis disclosed tumour size (odds ratio: 1.51, p=0.0021 and lymphatic vessel invasion (odds ratio: 4.68, p=0.001 as significant primary tumour-related prognostic determinants of SLN metastasis. Conclusion: A close relationship was identified between tumour size and lymphatic vessel invasion of the primary tumour and axillary lymph node involvement. However, the positive predictive value of these two independent variables is low and there is no compelling evidence to recommend their use in routine clinical practice.

  2. Sentinel lymph node (Sln) detection in vulvar cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, J.; Mende, T.; Lantzsch, T.; Seliger, G.; Koelbl, H.; Buchmann, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the study is to verify the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in patients with evidence of vulva cancer. We studied 13 women with early stage (T1/T2) carcinoma of the vulva. One day before surgery a lymphoscintigraphy was done. We injected intradermally an average 76 MBq of 99m Tc-labelled human colloides (Albu-Res(r) in 0.4-0.6 ml NaCI at 4 locations round the tumor regarding the midline. Because of the large particles the colloid was filtered before to obtain the small particle fraction between 200-450 nm. Immediately alter injection a dynamic scintigraphy was performed with 28 images, 1 minute per frame. Additional we made static images, 5 minutes per image, 30 and 120 minutes after injection. The location of the SLN was marked on the skin. The SLN was intraoperatively identified using a hand-held gamma probe. In every case a complete inguino-femoral lymph node dissection was done. In all cases we could show one or more (on average 3) SLN by means of lymphoscintigraphy and in 11/13 cases we could detect SLN by using the gamma probe. Lymph channels were seen in 7/13 dynamic studies. 4/13 patients had lymph node metastasis in the SLN (3/4 cases only the SLN and in 1/4 cases the SLN and one additional lymph node were positive). We did not found any tumor-positive non-sentinel lymph node in case of tumor-negative SLN. The morbidity after operation of patients with vulva cancer is considerable and related to the groin dissection. The selective SLN-biopsy instead of radical groin dissection is feasible to reduce the morbidity without a loss of staging and prognostic factors. This method should be restricted to patients with early stage vulva cancer with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes. Further studies are needed to evaluate the accuracy and clinical validity of this procedure. (author)

  3. Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Wim; Derore, Annie; Simoens, Paul

    2006-05-30

    Murine lymph nodes are intensively studied but often assigned incorrectly in scientific papers. In BALB/cAnNCrl mice, we characterized a total of 22 different lymph nodes. Peripheral nodes were situated in the head and neck region (mandibular, accessory mandibular, superficial parotid, cranial deep cervical nodes), and at the forelimb (proper axillary, accessory axillary nodes) and hindlimb (subiliac, sciatic, popliteal nodes). Intrathoracic lymph nodes included the cranial mediastinal, tracheobronchal and caudal mediastinal nodes. Abdominal lymph nodes were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (gastric, pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, colic, caudal mesenteric nodes) or were located along the major intra-abdominal blood vessels (renal, lumbar aortic, lateral iliac, medial iliac and external iliac nodes). Comparative and nomenclative aspects of murine lymph nodes are discussed. The position of the lymph nodes of BALB/cAnNCrl mice is summarized and illustrated in an anatomical chart containing proposals for both an official nomenclature according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and English terms.

  4. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-10

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  5. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  6. Ranking stability and super-stable nodes in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-07-19

    Pagerank, a network-based diffusion algorithm, has emerged as the leading method to rank web content, ecological species and even scientists. Despite its wide use, it remains unknown how the structure of the network on which it operates affects its performance. Here we show that for random networks the ranking provided by pagerank is sensitive to perturbations in the network topology, making it unreliable for incomplete or noisy systems. In contrast, in scale-free networks we predict analytically the emergence of super-stable nodes whose ranking is exceptionally stable to perturbations. We calculate the dependence of the number of super-stable nodes on network characteristics and demonstrate their presence in real networks, in agreement with the analytical predictions. These results not only deepen our understanding of the interplay between network topology and dynamical processes but also have implications in all areas where ranking has a role, from science to marketing.

  7. Intranodal Palisaded Myofibroblastoma in a Submandibular Lymph Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bouhajja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma (IPM, also known as “intranodal hemorrhagic spindle cell tumor with amianthoid fibers,” is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor originating from smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts, often with the presence of amianthoid fibers. Usually IPM affects inguinal lymph nodes, but three cases have been described in the submandibular and cervical lymph nodes. We report a new case of a 44-year-old women with submandibular mass. Cervical ultrasound showed a suspect right submandibular adenomegaly. The patient underwent an excision of the submandibular mass. Histological features of the tumor include an encapsulated fusocellular proliferation, with nuclear palisading, amianthoid fibers, hemosiderin pigment, and extravasated erythrocytes. In the light of these results, we made the diagnosis of IPM. No recurrence was found 5 years after surgery.

  8. Thyroidectomy and Lymph Node Dissection in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary carcinoma is a prominent malignancy originating from follicular cells. This disease generally shows an indolent character, but patients demonstrating certain clinicopathological features have a dire prognosis. At present, Western countries adopted almost routine total thyroidectomy with radioactive iodine (RAI ablation, while limited thyroidectomy with extensive prophylactic lymph node dissection has traditionally been performed for most patients in Japan. Recently, accurate evaluation of carcinoma stage can be performed on preoperative imaging studies, especially on ultrasonography. It is therefore important to treat papillary carcinoma patients depending on clinicopathological features rather than in a stereotyped fashion. In this paper, appropriate extension of thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection is discussed based on Western and recently published Japanese guidelines and the experience in Kuma Hospital.

  9. Ex vivo sentinel lymph node investigation in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Hilário Alves Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, about 26,000 cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed per year. Pa- tients considered at the early stage of disease (without lymph node evolve with tumor relapse or recurrence in up to a quarter of cases, probably due to understaging. Objective: Research on ex vivo sentinel lymph node in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: We studied 37 patients who underwent curative surgical resection. The marker used to identify lymph nodes was patent blue dye injected into the peritu- moral submucosa of the open surgical specimen immediately after its removal from the abdominal cavity. Results: Ex vivo identification of sentinel lymph node with marker occurred in 13 (35.1% patients. The sensitivity was 40% and 60% false negative. The detailed histological examina- tion of sentinel lymph nodes with multilevel section and immunohistochemistry showed metastasis in one (4.3% individual, considered ultra-staging. Conclusion: The ex vivo identification of sentinel lymph node had questionable benefits, and worse results when include patients with rectal cancer. Restaging of one patient was possible after multilevel section and immunohistochemistry of the sentinel lymph node, but more research is needed to evaluate the role of micrometastases in patients with colorectal cancer. Resumo: Introdução: No Brasil, a cada ano são diagnosticados cerca de 26.000 casos de câncer colorre- tal. Pacientes com estadiamento considerado inicial, sem linfonodo metastático, evoluem com recorrência ou recidiva do tumor em até um quarto dos casos, por provável subesta- diamento. Objetivo: pesquisar sobre linfonodo-sentinela ex vivo em pacientes com adeno- carcinoma colorretal. Objetivo: Foram estudados 37 pacientes, submetidos à cirurgia oncológica com ressecção caráter curativo. O marcador de linfonodos utilizado foi o corante azul patente, injetado na submucosa peritumoral da peça cirúrgica aberta imediatamente

  10. On imperfect node protection in complex communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shi; Xiao Gaoxi

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent research on complex networks, we study enhancing complex communication networks against intentional attack which takes down network nodes in a decreasing order of their degrees. Specifically, we evaluate an effect which has been largely ignored in existing studies; many real-life systems, especially communication systems, have protection mechanisms for their important components. Due to the existence of such protection, it is generally quite difficult to totally crash a protected node, though partially paralyzing it may still be feasible. Our analytical and simulation results show that such 'imperfect' protections generally speaking still help significantly enhance network robustness. Such insight may be helpful for the future developments of efficient network attack and protection schemes.

  11. Controllability of Weighted and Directed Networks with Nonidentical Node Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linying Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of controllability from control theory is applied to weighted and directed networks with heterogenous linear or linearized node dynamics subject to exogenous inputs, where the nodes are grouped into leaders and followers. Under this framework, the controllability of the controlled network can be decomposed into two independent problems: the controllability of the isolated leader subsystem and the controllability of the extended follower subsystem. Some necessary and/or sufficient conditions for the controllability of the leader-follower network are derived based on matrix theory and graph theory. In particular, it is shown that a single-leader network is controllable if it is a directed path or cycle, but it is uncontrollable for a complete digraph or a star digraph in general. Furthermore, some approaches to improving the controllability of a heterogenous network are presented. Some simulation examples are given for illustration and verification.

  12. Ranking important nodes in complex networks by simulated annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yu; Yao Pei-Yang; Shen Jian; Zhong Yun; Wan Lu-Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, based on simulated annealing a new method to rank important nodes in complex networks is presented. First, the concept of an importance sequence (IS) to describe the relative importance of nodes in complex networks is defined. Then, a measure used to evaluate the reasonability of an IS is designed. By comparing an IS and the measure of its reasonability to a state of complex networks and the energy of the state, respectively, the method finds the ground state of complex networks by simulated annealing. In other words, the method can construct a most reasonable IS. The results of experiments on real and artificial networks show that this ranking method not only is effective but also can be applied to different kinds of complex networks. (paper)

  13. Thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Miyauchi, Akira

    2010-11-10

    Papillary carcinoma is a prominent malignancy originating from follicular cells. This disease generally shows an indolent character, but patients demonstrating certain clinicopathological features have a dire prognosis. At present, Western countries adopted almost routine total thyroidectomy with radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation, while limited thyroidectomy with extensive prophylactic lymph node dissection has traditionally been performed for most patients in Japan. Recently, accurate evaluation of carcinoma stage can be performed on preoperative imaging studies, especially on ultrasonography. It is therefore important to treat papillary carcinoma patients depending on clinicopathological features rather than in a stereotyped fashion. In this paper, appropriate extension of thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection is discussed based on Western and recently published Japanese guidelines and the experience in Kuma Hospital.

  14. The local lymph node assay and skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2010-01-01

    The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the identification and characterization of skin sensitization hazards. In this context the method can be used both to identify contact allergens, and also determine the relative skin sensitizing potency as a basis for derivation of effective risk assessments.The assay is based on measurement of proliferative responses by draining lymph node cells induced following topical exposure of mice to test chemicals. Such responses are known to be causally and quantitatively associated with the acquisition of skin sensitization and therefore provide a relevant marker for characterization of contact allergic potential.The LLNA has been the subject of exhaustive evaluation and validation exercises and has been assigned Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 429. Herein we describe the conduct and interpretation of the LLNA.

  15. Nodes in an alternatively defined order parameter in HTSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettel, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    In a previous study the BCS wave function was generalized to include the motion of the center-of-mass of Cooper pairs. It was found that the Ginsburg-Landau order parameter could be identified with a wave function describing this motion. Here attention is focussed on the effects of replacing free electron orbitals by Bloch waves. In the copper oxides, where the Fermi surface lies contiguous to the Brillouin zone boundary, and with pairs coupled by soft phonon modes, limitations on the wave vectors associated with the center-of-mass coordinates are found. These limitations lead to nodes in the Fourier transform of the Ginsburg-Landau order parameter. Possible relevance of the nodes to the more recently discovered properties of high TC superconductors is discussed.

  16. Nodes in an alternatively defined order parameter in HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettel, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study the BCS wave function was generalized to include the motion of the center-of-mass of Cooper pairs. It was found that the Ginsburg-Landau order parameter could be identified with a wave function describing this motion. Here attention is focussed on the effects of replacing free electron orbitals by Bloch waves. In the copper oxides, where the Fermi surface lies contiguous to the Brillouin zone boundary, and with pairs coupled by soft phonon modes, limitations on the wave vectors associated with the center-of-mass coordinates are found. These limitations lead to nodes in the Fourier transform of the Ginsburg-Landau order parameter. Possible relevance of the nodes to the more recently discovered properties of high T C superconductors is discussed

  17. Noninvasive diagnosis of axillary node metastases with monoclonal antibody lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fig, L.M.; Von Moll, L.; Brown, R.; Harness, J.; Appleman, H.; Stevens, R.; Johnson, J.W.; Mudgett, E.; Colcher, D.; Schlom, J.; Lichter, A.; Wicha, M.; Wahl, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether 131-I labeled B72.3 monoclonal antibody, when injected subcutaneously in patients with known breast cancer, successfully detects lymph node metastases. Eleven women with biopsy-proven B72.3 antibody-reactive breast cancer (determined by immunoperoxidase staining) received subcutaneous injections of 500 μ Ci 131-I B72.3 in ipsilateral finger web spaces (or, in three cases, intralesional injections into the site of the breast tumor). The antibody is a IgGlk reactive with a high molecular weight antigen found on most breast carcinomas. Images of the axilla were obtained immediately after injection and serially to 72 hours. Nodal uptake was scored on a 0-3+ scale in a blinded fashion and correlated with pathologic findings from lymph node dissection

  18. A coherent Ising machine for 2000-node optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Takahiro; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Igarashi, Koji; Sonobe, Tomohiro; Tamate, Shuhei; Honjo, Toshimori; Marandi, Alireza; McMahon, Peter L.; Umeki, Takeshi; Enbutsu, Koji; Tadanaga, Osamu; Takenouchi, Hirokazu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Kyo; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Takesue, Hiroki

    2016-11-01

    The analysis and optimization of complex systems can be reduced to mathematical problems collectively known as combinatorial optimization. Many such problems can be mapped onto ground-state search problems of the Ising model, and various artificial spin systems are now emerging as promising approaches. However, physical Ising machines have suffered from limited numbers of spin-spin couplings because of implementations based on localized spins, resulting in severe scalability problems. We report a 2000-spin network with all-to-all spin-spin couplings. Using a measurement and feedback scheme, we coupled time-multiplexed degenerate optical parametric oscillators to implement maximum cut problems on arbitrary graph topologies with up to 2000 nodes. Our coherent Ising machine outperformed simulated annealing in terms of accuracy and computation time for a 2000-node complete graph.

  19. Axillary web syndrome following sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves Maldonado, S M; Pubul Núñez, V; Argibay Vázquez, S; Macías Cortiñas, M; Ruibal Morell, Á

    2016-01-01

    A 49 year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma, underwent a right mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy (SLNB). The resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, with an axillary lymphadenectomy not being performed. In the early post-operative period, the patient reported an axillary skin tension sensation, associated with a painful palpable cord. These are typical manifestations of axillary web syndrome (AWS), a poorly known axillary surgery complication, from both invasive and conservative interventions. By presenting this case we want to focus the attention on a pathological condition, for which its incidence may be underestimated by not including it in SLNB studies. It is important for nuclear medicine physicians to be aware of AWS as a more common complication than infection, seroma, or lymphoedema, and to discuss this possible event with the patient who is consenting to the procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. On imperfect node protection in complex communication networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Shi [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot and School of Computer Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Xiao Gaoxi, E-mail: xiao_moon2002@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: egxxiao@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Communication Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-02-04

    Motivated by recent research on complex networks, we study enhancing complex communication networks against intentional attack which takes down network nodes in a decreasing order of their degrees. Specifically, we evaluate an effect which has been largely ignored in existing studies; many real-life systems, especially communication systems, have protection mechanisms for their important components. Due to the existence of such protection, it is generally quite difficult to totally crash a protected node, though partially paralyzing it may still be feasible. Our analytical and simulation results show that such 'imperfect' protections generally speaking still help significantly enhance network robustness. Such insight may be helpful for the future developments of efficient network attack and protection schemes.