WorldWideScience

Sample records for suspensions daily microscopic

  1. Imaging the Microscopic Structure of Shear Thinning and Thickening Colloidal Suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.

    2011-09-01

    The viscosity of colloidal suspensions varies with shear rate, an important effect encountered in many natural and industrial processes. Although this non-Newtonian behavior is believed to arise from the arrangement of suspended particles and their mutual interactions, microscopic particle dynamics are difficult to measure. By combining fast confocal microscopy with simultaneous force measurements, we systematically investigate a suspension\\'s structure as it transitions through regimes of different flow signatures. Our measurements of the microscopic single-particle dynamics show that shear thinning results from the decreased relative contribution of entropic forces and that shear thickening arises from particle clustering induced by hydrodynamic lubrication forces. This combination of techniques illustrates an approach that complements current methods for determining the microscopic origins of non-Newtonian flow behavior in complex fluids.

  2. Analysis and comparison of safety models using average daily, average hourly, and microscopic traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wang, Xuesong; Yu, Rongjie

    2018-02-01

    There have been plenty of traffic safety studies based on average daily traffic (ADT), average hourly traffic (AHT), or microscopic traffic at 5 min intervals. Nevertheless, not enough research has compared the performance of these three types of safety studies, and seldom of previous studies have intended to find whether the results of one type of study is transferable to the other two studies. First, this study built three models: a Bayesian Poisson-lognormal model to estimate the daily crash frequency using ADT, a Bayesian Poisson-lognormal model to estimate the hourly crash frequency using AHT, and a Bayesian logistic regression model for the real-time safety analysis using microscopic traffic. The model results showed that the crash contributing factors found by different models were comparable but not the same. Four variables, i.e., the logarithm of volume, the standard deviation of speed, the logarithm of segment length, and the existence of diverge segment, were positively significant in the three models. Additionally, weaving segments experienced higher daily and hourly crash frequencies than merge and basic segments. Then, each of the ADT-based, AHT-based, and real-time models was used to estimate safety conditions at different levels: daily and hourly, meanwhile, the real-time model was also used in 5 min intervals. The results uncovered that the ADT- and AHT-based safety models performed similar in predicting daily and hourly crash frequencies, and the real-time safety model was able to provide hourly crash frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Removal of a Wire Brush Bristle from the Hypopharynx Using Suspension, Microscope, and Fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Naunheim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire brush bristles are an increasingly recognized hazard that can present as a foreign body in the aerodigestive tract. Due to their small size and tendency to become embedded in surrounding tissue, these small metallic bristles present a unique operative challenge to otolaryngologists. Here we present a case of a 40-year-old woman who underwent endoscopic extraction of a wire bristle from the posterior pharyngeal wall using suspension, microscopy, and C-arm fluoroscopy. We believe this is the first published case of an endoscopic removal of a buried foreign body in the hypopharynx using these methods of localization concurrently. By leveraging multiple techniques for visualization, surgeons can avoid open exploration while ensuring complete removal of the object. Additionally, this case highlights the importance of regulatory oversight and consumer awareness of the hazards of grill brushes.

  4. A miniaturized, high frequency mechanical scanner for high speed atomic force microscope using suspension on dynamically determined points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herfst, Rodolf; Dekker, Bert; Witvoet, Gert; Crowcombe, Will; Lange, Dorus de [Department of Optomechatronics, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Sadeghian, Hamed, E-mail: hamed.sadeghianmarnani@tno.nl, E-mail: h.sadeghianmarnani@tudelft.nl [Department of Optomechatronics, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Department of Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    One of the major limitations in the speed of the atomic force microscope (AFM) is the bandwidth of the mechanical scanning stage, especially in the vertical (z) direction. According to the design principles of “light and stiff” and “static determinacy,” the bandwidth of the mechanical scanner is limited by the first eigenfrequency of the AFM head in case of tip scanning and by the sample stage in terms of sample scanning. Due to stringent requirements of the system, simply pushing the first eigenfrequency to an ever higher value has reached its limitation. We have developed a miniaturized, high speed AFM scanner in which the dynamics of the z-scanning stage are made insensitive to its surrounding dynamics via suspension of it on specific dynamically determined points. This resulted in a mechanical bandwidth as high as that of the z-actuator (50 kHz) while remaining insensitive to the dynamics of its base and surroundings. The scanner allows a practical z scan range of 2.1 μm. We have demonstrated the applicability of the scanner to the high speed scanning of nanostructures.

  5. Fusidic acid suspension twice daily: a new treatment schedule for skin and soft tissue infection in children, with improved tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Eva; Somogyi, Tihamér; Rutkai, Krisztina; Iglesias, Luis; Bielsa, Isabel

    2004-06-01

    This multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study aimed to compare a new regimen of fusidic acid suspension against a standard regimen in children with skin and soft tissue infections. Treatment groups were given either a new regimen of fusidic acid suspension (20 mg/kg divided b.i.d.) or a standard regimen (50 mg/kg divided t.i.d.), which were administered for 5 days in both groups and for a further 5 days if evidence of infection persisted. Assessment of those cured was carried out 14 days. Both regimens were effective. Cure was achieved in 194 (91.1%) of the 213 children given the new b.i.d. dosage and for 194 (89.4%) of the 217 children given the standard t.i.d. dosage (intention-to-treat population; p=0.72). Cure was maintained at the follow-up assessment for 94.8% (181 of 191) and 95.7% (180 of 188), respectively, of the children. Bacteriological cure of infections due to fusidic acid susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and/or group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, with elimination of pathogens, was achieved in all 121 (100%) children treated with the new b.i.d. regimen and in 123 (99.2%) of the 124 children treated with the standard TID regimen. The new twice-daily regimen had significantly better tolerance (p=0.025).

  6. Clinical efficacy and safety of a new 1000-mg suspension versus twice-daily 500-mg tablets of MPFF in patients with symptomatic chronic venous disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Patrick; van Bellen, Bonno; Karetova, Debora; Hanafiah, Harunarashid; Enriquez-Vega, Elizabeth; Kirienko, Alexander; Dzupina, Andrej; Sabovic, Miso; Reina Gutierrez, Lourdes; Subwongcharoen, Somboom; Tüzün, Hasan; Maggioli, Arnaud

    2017-10-01

    Chronic venous disorders (CVD) is estimated to affect 30% to 50% of women and 10% to 30% of men. The most widely prescribed treatment for CVD worldwide is micronized purified flavonoid fraction 500 mg (MPFF). The aim of this clinical trial was to develop a new once daily 1000-mg oral suspension of MPFF. In an international, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, symptomatic individuals classified CEAP C0s to C4s were randomized in either treatment arm and treated for 8 weeks. Lower limb symptoms (discomfort, pain and heaviness) were assessed using Visual Analog Scales (VAS), and quality of life (QoL) was measured with the CIVIQ-20 Questionnaire. A total of 1139 patients were included in the study. Both MPFF treatment regimens were well tolerated and associated with a significant reduction in lower limb symptoms. A non-inferiority of MPFF 1000-mg oral suspension once daily compared to MPFF 500-mg tablet twice daily (P1000 mg and -3.37 cm for MPFF 500 mg), leg pain (-3.27 cm for MPFF 1000 mg and -3.31 cm for MPFF 500 mg) and leg heaviness (-3.41 cm for MPFF 1000 mg and -3.46 cm for MPFF 500 mg). The patients' QoL was improved by about 20 points on the CIVIQ scale in both groups (19.33 points for MPFF 1000 mg and 20.28 points for MPFF 500 mg). MPFF 1000-mg oral suspension and MPFF 500-mg tablets treatments were associated with similar reductions in lower limb symptoms and QoL improvement. The new once daily MPFF1000-mg oral suspension has a similar safety profile to two tablets of MPFF 500 mg, with the advantage of one daily intake, potentially associated with improved patient adherence and easier CVD management.

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of the new autoinjected suspension of exenatide once weekly versus exenatide twice daily in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysham, Carol H; Rosenstock, Julio; Vetter, Marion L; Dong, Fang; Öhman, Peter; Iqbal, Nayyar

    2018-01-01

    To simplify administration of aqueous exenatide once weekly, which requires reconstitution, the exenatide microspheres have been reformulated in a ready-to-use autoinjector with a Miglyol diluent (exenatide QWS-AI). This study compared the efficacy and safety of exenatide QWS-AI with the first-in-class glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide twice daily (BID). This randomized, open-label, controlled study in patients with type 2 diabetes using diet and exercise or taking stable oral glucose-lowering medication randomized patients 3:2 to either exenatide QWS-AI (2 mg) or exenatide BID (10 μg) for 28 weeks. The primary outcome was the 28-week change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). A subset of patients completed a standardized meal test for postprandial and pharmacokinetic assessments. A total of 375 patients (mean HbA1c, 8.5% [69 mmol/mol]; body mass index, 33.2 kg/m 2 ; diabetes duration, 8.5 years) received either exenatide QWS-AI (n = 229) or exenatide BID (n = 146); HbA1c was reduced by -1.4% and -1.0%, respectively (least-squares mean difference, -0.37%; P = .0072). More patients achieved HbA1c <7.0% with exenatide QWS-AI (49.3%) than with exenatide BID (43.2%; P = .225). Body weight was reduced in both groups (P = .37 for difference). Gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs) were reported in 22.7% (exenatide QWS-AI) and 35.6% (exenatide BID) of patients; fewer patients in the exenatide QWS-AI group withdrew because of AEs than in the exenatide BID group. Minor hypoglycaemia occurred most often with concomitant sulfonylurea use. Exenatide QWS-AI was associated with a greater reduction in HbA1c, similar weight loss and a favorable gastrointestinal AE profile compared with exenatide BID. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Small-size low-temperature scanning tunnel microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'tfeder, I.B.; Khajkin, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A small-size scanning tunnel microscope, designed for operation in transport helium-filled Dewar flasks is described. The microscope design contains a device moving the pin to the tested sample surface and a piezoelectric fine positioning device. High vibration protection of the microscope is provided by its suspension using silk threads. The small-size scanning tunnel microscope provides for atomic resolution

  9. Microwave Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Makes ultra-high-resolution field measurements. The Microwave Microscope (MWM) has been used in support of several NRL experimental programs involving sea...

  10. Microscopic Polyangiitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body, specifically the feet, lower legs and, in bed-ridden patients, the buttocks. The skin findings of cutaneous ... that are in contact with the lungs’ microscopic air sacs – the condition may quickly pose a threat ...

  11. Use of magnetic beads for Gram staining of bacteria in aqueous suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdankhah, S P; Sørum, H; Larsen, H J; Gogstad, G

    2001-12-01

    A Gram staining technique was developed using monodisperse magnetic beads in concentrating bacteria in suspension for downstream application. The technique does not require heat fixation of organisms, electrical power, or a microscope. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were identified macroscopically based on the colour of the suspension. The bacteria concentrated on magnetic beads may also be identified microscopically.

  12. Characterization of cell suspensions from solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallavicini, M.

    1985-01-01

    The desirable features of cells in suspension will necessarily be dependent upon the use for which the cells were prepared. Adequate cell yield or recovery is defined by the measurement to be performed. Retention of cellular morphology is important for microscopic identification of cell types in a heterogenous cell suspension, and may be used to determine whether the cells in suspension are representative of those in the tumor in situ. Different dispersal protocols may yield cells with different degrees of clonogenicity, as well as altered biochemical features, such as loss of cellular proteins, surface antigens, nucleotide pools, etc. The quality of the cell suspension can be judged by the degree of cell clumping and level of cellular debris, both of which impact on flow cytometric measurements and studies in which the number of cells be known accurately. Finally, if the data measured on the cells in suspension are to be extrapolated to phenomena occurring in the tumor in situ, it is desirable that the cells in suspension are representative of those in the solid tumor in vivo. This report compares characteristics of tumor cell suspensions obtained by different types of selected disaggregation methods. 33 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Martian Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic imager (circular device in center) is in clear view above the surface at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in this approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The image was taken on the 9th sol of the rover's journey. The microscopic imager is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm. The arrow is pointing to the lens of the instrument. Note the dust cover, which flips out to the left of the lens, is open. This approximated color image was created using the camera's violet and infrared filters as blue and red.

  14. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  15. Chain Dynamics in Magnetorheological Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, A. P.; Furst, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    fluctuating chains of dipolar particles. Resolving this issue would contribute greatly to the understanding of these interesting and important materials. We have begun to test the predictions of the HT model by both examining the dynamics of individual chains and by measuring the forces between dipolar chains directly to accurately and quantitatively assess the interactions that they experience. To do so, we employ optical trapping techniques and video-microscopy to manipulate and observe our samples on the microscopic level. With these techniques, it is possible to observe chains that are fluctuating freely in three-dimensions, independent of interfacial effects. More importantly, we are able to controllably observe the interactions of two chains at various separations to measure the force-distance profile. The techniques also allow us to study the mechanical properties of individual chains and chain clusters. Our work to this point has focused on reversibly-formed dipolar chains due to field induced dipoles where the combination of this chaining, the dipolar forces, and the hydrodynamic interactions that dictate the rheology of the suspensions. One can envision, however, many situations where optical, electronic, or rheological behavior may be optimized with magneto-responsive anisotropic particles. Chains of polarizable particles may have the best properties as they can coil and flex in the absence of a field and stiffen and orient when a field is applied. We have recently demonstrated a synthesis of stable, permanent paramagnetic chains by both covalently and physically linking paramagnetic colloidal particles. The method employed allows us to create monodisperse chains of controlled length. We observed the stability, field-alignment, and rigidity of this new class of materials. The chains may exhibit unique rheological properties in an applied magnetic field over isotropic suspensions of paramagnetic particles. They are also useful rheological models as bead

  16. Suspension trauma; Le traumatisme de suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, S. [Le Centre de sante et de services sociaux du rocher Perce, Chandler, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed the precautions that should be taken to avoid falls from wind turbines or transmission towers. Suspension trauma was explained by a medical doctor in terms of physiology and the body's normal circulation and the elements that disturb normal physiology when in suspension. The trauma occurs following a fall, which carries the risk of 1or more disorders, such as massive hemorrhage, high cardiac pulse, and constriction of blood vessels. Nausea, vertigo, cardiac arrhythmia and sweating occur 15 to 20 minutes following the fall. The presentation emphasized the importance of having qualified personnel at the site and wearing proper harnesses and equipment that supports the neck. figs.

  17. Rheology of organoclay suspension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hato, MJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors have studied the rheological properties of clay suspensions in silicone oil, where clay surfaces were modified with three different types of surfactants. Dynamic oscillation measurements showed a plateau-like behavior for all...

  18. Hydropneumatic suspension systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    Hydropneumatic suspensions systems combine the excellent properties of gas springs with the favourable damping properties of hydraulic fluids. The advantages of these systems are particularly appropriate for automotive applications, such as passenger cars, trucks and agricultural equipment. In this book, Dr. Bauer provides an extensive overview of hydropneumatic suspension systems. Starting with a comparison of different types of suspension systems, the author subsequently describes the theoretical background associated with spring and damping characteristics of hydropneumatic systems and furthermore explains the design of the most important system components. Additionally he gives an overview of level control systems and various special functions. Finally the technology is illustrated by design examples and the outlook for future hydropneumatic suspensions is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suspension Trauma/Orthostatic Intolerance Safety and Health Information Bulletin SHIB 03-24-2004, updated 2011 This Safety ... the harness, the environmental conditions, and the worker's psychological state all may increase the onset and severity ...

  20. The Mystical Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Santiesteban Oliva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mistical suspension, silence, time, absolute, ontology, ineffability, aletheiaIn the mystical ecstasy there is a sensorial and intellectual suspension when contemplating the absolute, the ontological Being. Silence is not only significant: it is revealing. The greatest expression of experience inner silence . The word is insufficient when the ontological reality is revealed. Revelation or truth , the Greek concept of aletheia, takes on greater significance in that transcendental experience. It is also suspended phenomenological time and remains eternity open.

  1. Nonequilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin-film active gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Head, D.A.; Briels, Willem J.; Gompper, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of adenosine triphosphate, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modeling can help to quantify the relationship between individual

  2. Influence of crystal habit on trimethoprim suspension formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, A K; Panpalia, G M

    1999-02-01

    The role of crystal habit in influencing the physical stability and pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim suspensions was examined. Different habits for trimethoprim (TMP) were obtained by recrystallizing the commercial sample (PD) utilizing solvent-change precipitation method. Four distinct habits (microscopic observation) belonging to the same polymorphic state (DSC studies) were selected for studies. Preformulation and formulation studies were carried out on suspension dosage forms containing these crystals. The freshly prepared suspensions were also evaluated for their pharmacokinetic behaviour on healthy human volunteers using a cross over study. Variation of crystallization conditions produces different habits of TMP. Among the different crystal habits exhibiting same polymorphic state, the most anisometric crystal showed best physical stability in terms of sedimentation volume and redispersibility. However, habit did not significantly affect the extent of TMP excreted in urine. Modification of surface morphology without significantly altering the polymorphic state can be utilized for improving physical stability of TMP suspensions. However, the pharmacokinetic profile remains unaltered.

  3. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  4. Magnetic Suspension Technology Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keckler, C.R.; Groom, N.J.; Britcher, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to identify the state of magnetic suspension technology in such areas as rotating systems, pointing of experiments or subsystems, payload isolation, and superconducting materials, a workshop on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, on 2-4 Feb. 1988. The workshop included five technical sessions in which a total of 24 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of pointing, isolation, and measurement, rotating systems, modeling and control, and superconductors. A list of attendees is provided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report

  5. Transmission positron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, Masao; Kogure, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Miyoshi; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshiie, Toshimasa; Oshima, Ryuichiro; Matsuya, Miyuki

    2006-01-01

    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons

  6. Compressible Fluid Suspension Performance Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogterp, Francis

    2003-01-01

    ... compressible fluid suspension system that was designed and installed on the vehicle by DTI. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the possible performance benefits of the compressible fluid suspension system...

  7. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  8. Multiobjective suspension control problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a (controller) design problem in the field of suspension systems for transport vehicles. A ten degrees-of-freedom model for a tractor-semitrailer vehicle is presented, using parameters derived from a real vehicle, which should be used for design and verification purposes. Road

  9. Study on therapy of 188Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension in nude mice bearing human colon tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiyuan; Wu Yuanfang; Dong Mo

    2003-01-01

    The effect of therapy, tissue distribution and stability are studied in nude mice bearing human colon tumor after injections of 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension. The tissues are observed with electric microscope. The results show that 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension is stabilized in the tumor and its inhibitive effects on human colon tumor cells are obvious. 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension is a potential radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of human tumor

  10. Duties to Extraterrestrial Microscopic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C. S.

    Formulating a normative axiology for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms, should they ever be found, requires an extension of environmental ethics to beyond the Earth. Using an ethical framework for the treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms, this paper elaborates a similar ethic for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms. An ethic of `teloempathy' allows for the moral considerability of any organism that has `interests', based on rudimentary qualities of conativism, and therefore allows for an identical treatment of all life, related or not related to life on Earth. Although, according to this ethic, individual extraterrestrial microscopic organisms have a good of their own and even `rights', at this level the ethic can only be theoretical, allowing for the inevitable destruction of many individual organisms during the course of human exploratory missions, similarly to the daily destruction of microbes by humans on Earth. A holistic teloempathy, an operative ethic, not only provides a framework for human exploration, but it also has important implications for planetary protection and proposals to implement planetary-scale atmospheric alterations on other bodies. Even prior to the discovery of extraterrestrial life, or the discovery of a complete absence of such life, this exercise yields important insights into the moral philosophy that guides our treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms.

  11. Particle interactions in concentrated suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, L.A.; Graham, A.L.; Abbott, J.R.; Brenner, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of research that focuses on slow flows of suspensions in which colloidal and inertial effects are negligibly small. The authors describe nuclear magnetic resonance imaging experiments to quantitatively measure particle migration occurring in concentrated suspensions undergoing a flow with a nonuniform shear rate. These experiments address the issue of how the flow field affects the microstructure of suspensions. In order to understand the local viscosity in a suspension with such a flow-induced, spatially varying concentration, one must know how the viscosity of a homogeneous suspension depends on such variables as solids concentration and particle orientation. The authors suggest the technique of falling ball viscometry, using small balls, as a method to determine the effective viscosity of a suspension without affecting the original microstructure significantly. They also describe data from experiments in which the detailed fluctuations of a falling ball's velocity indicate the noncontinuum nature of the suspension and may lead to more insights into the effects of suspension microstructure on macroscopic properties. Finally, they briefly describe other experiments that can be performed in quiescent suspensions (in contrast to the use of conventional shear rotational viscometers) in order to learn more about boundary effects in concentrated suspensions

  12. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  13. Development of an Air Pneumatic Suspension System for Transtibial Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Pirouzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface were tested for the new APSS. More than 95% of the area between each prosthetic socket and liner was measured using a Tekscan F-Scan pressure measurement which has developed matrix-based pressure sensing systems. The variance in pressure around the stump was 8.76 kPa. APSS exhibits less pressure concentration around the stump, improved pressure distribution, easy donning and doffing, adjustability to remain fitted to the socket during daily activities, and more adaptability to the changes in stump volume. The volume changes were adjusted by utility of air pressure sensor. The vertical displacement point and reliability of suspension were assessed using a photographic method. The optimum pressure in every level of loading weight was 55 kPa, and the maximum displacement was 6 mm when 90 N of weight was loaded.

  14. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  15. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  16. Administrative license suspension: Does length of suspension matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Scherer, Michael

    2017-08-18

    Administrative license revocation (ALR) laws, which provide that the license of a driver with a blood alcohol concentration at or over the illegal limit is subject to an immediate suspension by the state department of motor vehicles, are an example of a traffic law in which the sanction rapidly follows the offense. The power of ALR laws has been attributed to how swiftly the sanction is applied, but does the length of suspension matter? Our objectives were to (a) determine the relationship of the ALR suspension length to the prevalence of drinking drivers relative to sober drivers in fatal crashes and (b) estimate the extent to which the relationship is associated to the general deterrent effect compared to the specific deterrent effect of the law. Data comparing the impact of ALR law implementation and ALR law suspension periods were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques on the ratio of drinking drivers to nondrinking drivers in fatal crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). States with an ALR law with a short suspension period (1-30 days) had a significantly lower drinking driver ratio than states with no ALR law. States with a suspension period of 91-180 days had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods, while the three states with suspension lengths of 181 days or longer had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods. The implementation of any ALR law was associated with a 13.1% decrease in the drinking/nondrinking driver fatal crash ratio but only a 1.8% decrease in the intoxicated/nonintoxicated fatal crash ratio. The ALR laws and suspension lengths had a significant general deterrent effect, but no specific deterrent effect. States might want to keep (or adopt) ALR laws for their general deterrent effects and pursue alternatives for specific deterrent effects. States with short ALR suspension periods should consider lengthening them to 91 days or longer.

  17. The Homemade Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Roger C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Directions for the building of a pocket microscope that will make visible the details of insect structure and living bacteria are described. Background information on the history of microscopes and lenses is provided. The procedures for producing various types of lenses are included. (KR)

  18. Mailing microscope slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many insects feed agriculturally important crops, trees, and ornamental plants and cause millions of dollars of damage annually. Identification for some of these require the preparation of a microscope slide for examination. There are times when a microscope slide may need to be sent away to a speci...

  19. Numerical homogenization on approach for stokesian suspensions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, B. M.; Berlyand, L. V.; Karpeev, D. A. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State Univ.)

    2012-01-20

    In this technical report we investigate efficient methods for numerical simulation of active suspensions. The prototypical system is a suspension of swimming bacteria in a Newtonian fluid. Rheological and other macroscopic properties of such suspensions can differ dramatically from the same properties of the suspending fluid alone or of suspensions of similar but inactive particles. Elongated bacteria, such as E. coli or B. subtilis, swim along their principal axis, propelling themselves with the help of flagella, attached at the anterior of the organism and pushing it forward in the manner of a propeller. They interact hydrodynamically with the surrounding fluid and, because of their asymmetrical shape, have the propensity to align with the local flow. This, along with the dipolar nature of bacteria (the two forces a bacterium exerts on a fluid - one due to self-propulsion and the other opposing drag - have equal magnitude and point in opposite directions), causes nearby bacteria to tend to align, resulting in a intermittent local ordering on the mesoscopic scale, which is between the microscopic scale of an individual bacterium and the macroscopic scale of the suspension (e.g., its container). The local ordering is sometimes called a collective mode or collective swimming. Thanks to self-propulsion, collective modes inject momentum into the fluid in a coherent way. This enhances the local strain rate without changing the macroscopic stress applied at the boundary of the container. The macroscopic effective viscosity of the suspension is defined roughly as the ratio of the applied stress to the bulk strain rate. If local alignment and therefore local strain-rate enhancement, are significant, the effective viscosity can be appreciably lower than that of the corresponding passive suspension or even of the surrounding fluid alone. Indeed, a sevenfold decrease in the effective viscosity was observed in experiments with B. subtilis. More generally, local collective

  20. Magnetorheological suspension electromagnetic brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    The magnetorheological suspension (MRS) brake is of the monoblock type. The main part of the electromagnetic brake is an electromagnet, between whose poles two MRS disks are placed. For distances between disks of 0.65x10 -3 m±10%, revolutions of the electric motor, coupled to the electromagnetic brake, ranging between 200 and 1600 rev/min and braking powers of up to 85 W, there are no differences in revolutions between the disks of the electromagnetic brake. For fixed revolutions of the electric motor, the revolution of the parallel disk can be modified continuously by means of the intensity of the magnetic field. In all cases, the quantity of MRS is of 0.35x10 -3 kg

  1. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  2. Microscopic approach to polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1981-01-01

    contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned and the electromagnetic field quantized. A simple microscopic polariton model is then derived. From this the wave function for the interacting exciton-photon complex is obtained...... of light of the crystal. The introduction of damping smears out the excitonic spectra. The wave function of the polariton, however, turns out to be very independent of damping up to large damping values. Finally, this simplified microscopic polariton model is compared with the exact solutions obtained...... for the macroscopic polariton model by Hopfield. It is seen that standing photon and exciton waves must be included in an exact microscopic polariton model. However, it is concluded that for practical purposes, only the propagating waves are of importance and the simple microscopic polariton wave function derived...

  3. Microscopic Theory of Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the microscopic method has been applied to the notoriously difficult problem of nuclear fission with unprecedented success. In this paper, we discuss some of the achievements and promise of the microscopic method, as embodied in the Hartree-Fock method using the Gogny finite-range effective interaction, and beyond-mean-field extensions to the theory. The nascent program to describe induced fission observables using this approach at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented

  4. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  5. Smartphone Magnification Attachment: Microscope or Magnifying Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergemöller, Timo; Laumann, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Today smartphones and tablets do not merely pervade our daily life, but also play a major role in STEM education in general, and in experimental investigations in particular. Enabling teachers and students to make use of these new techniques in physics lessons requires supplying capable and affordable applications. Our article presents the improvement of a low-cost technique turning smartphones into powerful magnifying glasses or microscopes. Adding only a 3D-printed clip attached to the smartphone's camera and inserting a small glass bead in this clip enables smartphones to take pictures with up to 780x magnification (see Fig. 1). In addition, the construction of the smartphone attachments helps to explain and examine the differences between magnifying glasses and microscopes, and shows that the widespread term "smartphone microscope" for this technique is inaccurate from a physics educational perspective.

  6. Controlling active cabin suspensions in commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.E.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Knaap, van der A.C.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2009-01-01

    The field of automotive suspensions is changing. Semi-active and active suspensions are starting to become viable options for vehicle designers. Suspension design for commercial vehicles is especially interesting given its potential. An active cabin suspension for a heavy-duty truck is considered,

  7. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  8. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  9. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  10. Regulation of Cytoplasmic and Vacuolar Volumes by Plant Cells in Suspension Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Poole, Ronald J

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative microscopical measurements have been made of the proportion of cell volume occupied by cytoplasm in a cell suspension culture derived from cotyledons of bush bean (cv. Contender). On a 7-day culture cycle, the content of cytoplasm varies from 25% at the time of transfer to 45% at the...

  11. Electron microscope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-01-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations

  12. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-07-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations.

  13. Microscope on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  14. The scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvan, F.

    1986-01-01

    A newly conceived microscope, based on a pure quantum phenomenon, is an ideal tool to study atom by atom the topography and properties of surfaces. Applications are presented: surface ''reconstruction'' of silicon, lamellar compound study, etc... Spectroscopy by tunnel effect will bring important information on electronic properties; it is presented with an application on silicon [fr

  15. Scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The principle underlying the design of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the design and functioning of SEM are described. Its applications in the areas of microcircuitry and materials science are outlined. The development of SEM in India is reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  16. Managing Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  17. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  18. Stability of an extemporaneously compounded minoxidil oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yunmei; Chin, Zen Whey; Ellis, David; Lwin, Ei Mon Phyo; Turner, Sean; Williams, Desmond; Garg, Sanjay

    2018-03-01

    Results of a study to determine the stability of an extemporaneously compounded minoxidil oral suspension under various temperature and stress conditions are reported. Commercially available minoxidil tablets (10 mg) were crushed to a fine powder, and predetermined amounts of 2 suspending vehicles were added to produce a 1-mg/mL suspension, which was stored in glass bottles at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C) or in a refrigerator (4 ± 2 °C). To simulate daily patient use, 5 days weekly 1 bottle of the suspension was removed from refrigerated storage and shaken and 0.5 mL of the contents discarded. At each specified time point, samples were analyzed in duplicate ( n = 6 for each test condition) using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Samples were visually observed and their pH measured at each time point. Microbiological studies were performed on day 0 and at week 24. The mean percentage of initial minoxidil concentration remaining in all refrigerated samples exceeded 90% throughout the 24-week study, with no change in appearance, pH, microbial activity, odor, or redispersibility. During storage at room temperature, the suspension exhibited a color change at week 4, with slight sedimentation after 6 weeks, although minoxidil recovery exceeded 90% for 10 weeks. An extemporaneously compounded minoxidil oral suspension was stable for 24 weeks when stored in a refrigerator. This suspension can be used for up to 3 weeks when stored at room temperature. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variable temperature superconducting microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Yeh, W. J.

    2000-03-01

    We have developed and tested a promising type of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope, which can be used to detect vortex motion and can operate in magnetic fields over a large temperature range. The system utilizes a single-loop coupling transformer, consisting of a patterned high Tc superconducting thin film. At one end of the transformer, a 20 μm diam detecting loop is placed close to the sample. At the other end, a large loop is coupled to a NbTi coil, which is connected to a low Tc SQUID sensor. Transformers in a variety of sizes have been tested and calibrated. The results show that the system is capable of detecting the motion of a single vortex. We have used the microscope to study the behavior of moving vortices at various positions in a YBa2Cu3O7 thin film bridge.

  20. Neuromorphic Data Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegle, John H.; Suppona, Roger A.; Aimone, James Bradley; James, Conrad D.; Follett, David R.; Townsend, Duncan C.M.; Follett, Pamela L.; Karpman, Gabe D.

    2017-08-01

    In 2016, Lewis Rhodes Labs, (LRL), shipped the first commercially viable Neuromorphic Processing Unit, (NPU), branded as a Neuromorphic Data Microscope (NDM). This product leverages architectural mechanisms derived from the sensory cortex of the human brain to efficiently implement pattern matching. LRL and Sandia National Labs have optimized this product for streaming analytics, and demonstrated a 1,000x power per operation reduction in an FPGA format. When reduced to an ASIC, the efficiency will improve to 1,000,000x. Additionally, the neuromorphic nature of the device gives it powerful computational attributes that are counterintuitive to those schooled in traditional von Neumann architectures. The Neuromorphic Data Microscope is the first of a broad class of brain-inspired, time domain processors that will profoundly alter the functionality and economics of data processing.

  1. Microscopic dynamical Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Reinaldo de Melo e.; Impens, François; Neto, Paulo A. Maia

    2018-03-01

    We consider an atom in its ground state undergoing a nonrelativistic oscillation in free space. The interaction with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum leads to two effects to leading order in perturbation theory. When the mechanical frequency is larger than the atomic transition frequency, the dominant effect is the motion-induced transition to an excited state with the emission of a photon carrying the excess energy. We compute the angular distribution of emitted photons and the excitation rate. On the other hand, when the mechanical frequency is smaller than the transition frequency, the leading-order effect is the parametric emission of photon pairs, which constitutes the microscopic counterpart of the dynamical Casimir effect. We discuss the properties of the microscopic dynamical Casimir effect and build a connection with the photon production by an oscillating macroscopic metallic mirror.

  2. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-07

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.

  3. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  4. Virtual pinhole confocal microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J.S.; Rector, D.M.; Ranken, D.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Biophysics Group; Peterson, B. [SciLearn Inc. (United States); Kesteron, J. [VayTech Inc. (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Scanned confocal microscopes enhance imaging capabilities, providing improved contrast and image resolution in 3-D, but existing systems have significant technical shortcomings and are expensive. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel approach--virtual pinhole confocal microscopy--that uses state of the art illumination, detection, and data processing technologies to produce an imager with a number of advantages: reduced cost, faster imaging, improved efficiency and sensitivity, improved reliability and much greater flexibility. Work at Los Alamos demonstrated proof of principle; prototype hardware and software have been used to demonstrate technical feasibility of several implementation strategies. The system uses high performance illumination, patterned in time and space. The authors have built functional confocal imagers using video display technologies (LCD or DLP) and novel scanner based on a micro-lens array. They have developed a prototype system for high performance data acquisition and processing, designed to support realtime confocal imaging. They have developed algorithms to reconstruct confocal images from a time series of spatially sub-sampled images; software development remains an area of active development. These advances allow the collection of high quality confocal images (in fluorescence, reflectance and transmission modes) with equipment that can inexpensively retrofit to existing microscopes. Planned future extensions to these technologies will significantly enhance capabilities for microscopic imaging in a variety of applications, including confocal endoscopy, and confocal spectral imaging.

  5. Thimble microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Rubinstein, Jaden; Watkins, Rachel; Cen, Zijian; Kong, Gary; Lee, W. M.

    2016-12-01

    Wearable computing devices, e.g. Google Glass, Smart watch, embodies the new human design frontier, where technology interfaces seamlessly with human gestures. During examination of any subject in the field (clinic, surgery, agriculture, field survey, water collection), our sensory peripherals (touch and vision) often go hand-in-hand. The sensitivity and maneuverability of the human fingers are guided with tight distribution of biological nerve cells, which perform fine motor manipulation over a range of complex surfaces that is often out of sight. Our sight (or naked vision), on the other hand, is generally restricted to line of sight that is ill-suited to view around corner. Hence, conventional imaging methods are often resort to complex light guide designs (periscope, endoscopes etc) to navigate over obstructed surfaces. Using modular design strategies, we constructed a prototype miniature microscope system that is incorporated onto a wearable fixture (thimble). This unique platform allows users to maneuver around a sample and take high resolution microscopic images. In this paper, we provide an exposition of methods to achieve a thimble microscopy; microscope lens fabrication, thimble design, integration of miniature camera and liquid crystal display.

  6. Computational image analysis of Suspension Plasma Sprayed YSZ coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalak Monika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the computational studies of microstructure- and topography- related features of suspension plasma sprayed (SPS coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ. The study mainly covers the porosity assessment, provided by ImageJ software analysis. The influence of boundary conditions, defined by: (i circularity and (ii size limits, on the computed values of porosity is also investigated. Additionally, the digital topography evaluation is performed: confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM and scanning electron microscope (SEM operating in Shape from Shading (SFS mode measure surface roughness of deposited coatings. Computed values of porosity and roughness are referred to the variables of the spraying process, which influence the morphology of coatings and determines the possible fields of their applications.

  7. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  8. Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    Four-wheel suspension system uses simple system of levers with no compliant components to provide three-point suspension of chassis of vehicle while maintaining four-point contact with uneven terrain. Provides stability against tipping of four-point rectangular base, without rocking contact to which rigid four-wheel frame susceptible. Similar to six-wheel suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354).

  9. Heavy vehicle pitch dynamics and suspension tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The influence of suspension tuning of passenger cars on bounce and pitch ride performance has been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for establishing similar rules for heavy vehicles. This study aims to explore pitch dynamics and suspension tunings of a two-axle heavy vehicle with unconnected suspension, which could also provide valuable information for heavy vehicles with coupled suspensions. Based on a generalised pitch-plane model of a two-axle heav...

  10. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers, describing probe measurements of deposit buildup and removal (shedding), conducted in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, firing straw and wood. Investigations of deposit buildup and shedding have been made by use of an advanced online deposit probe and a s...

  11. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is Part 1 in a series of two describing probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal (shedding) in a 350 MWth suspension boiler, firing straw and wood. The influence of fuel type (straw share in wood), probe exposure time, probe surface temperature (500, 550, and 600 °C), and flu...

  12. Nonlinear models of suspension bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 321, č. 2 (2006), s. 828-850 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : suspension bridges * principle of minimum energy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.758, year: 2006

  13. Fracture in Kaolinite clay suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgodagan Acharige, Sebastien; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Arratia, Paulo E.

    2017-11-01

    Clay minerals are involved in many natural (landslides, river channels) and industrial processes (ceramics, cosmetics, oil recovery). They are plate shaped charged colloids and exhibit different flow properties than simpler colloids when suspended in a liquid such as thixotropy and shear-banding. kaolinite platelets are non-swelling, meaning that the stacks formed by the platelets do not have water layers, and thus the suspension does not have a sol-gel transition. However, it has been shown that kaolinite suspensions possesses a non-zero yield stress even at low concentrations, indicating that the particles arrange themselves in a structure through attractive interactions. Here, we experimentally investigate the sedimentation of kaolinite suspensions in a Hele-Shaw cell. The sedimentation of these dilute suspensions can display solid behavior like fracture, revealed in cross-polarized light, which is linked to the failure of the weakly-bonded structure (typical yield stress 10-2 Pa). By changing the interaction potential of the particles (by sonication or introducing salts), we show through these sedimentation experiments, how the fracture pattern can be avoided. Research was sponsored by the Army Research Laboratory and was accomplished under Grant Number 569074.

  14. Kaolinite flocculation induced by smectite addition - a transmission X-ray microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbik, Marek S; Song, Yen-Fang; Frost, Ray L

    2010-09-01

    The influence of smectite addition on kaolinite suspensions in water was investigated by transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Sedimentation test screening was also conducted. Micrographs were processed by the STatistic IMage Analysing (STIMAN) program and structural parameters were calculated. From the results of the sedimentation tests important influences of small smectite additions to about 3wt.% on kaolinite suspension flocculation has been found. In order to determine the reason for this smectite impact on kaolinite suspension, macroscopic behaviour micro-structural examination using Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM) and SEM has been undertaken. TXM & SEM micrographs of freeze-dried kaolinite-smectite suspensions with up to 20% smectite showed a high degree of orientation of the fabric made of highly oriented particles and greatest density when 3wt.% of smectite was added to the 10wt.% dense kaolinite suspension. In contrast, suspensions containing pure kaolinite do not show such platelet mutual orientation but homogenous network of randomly oriented kaolinite platelets. This suggests that in kaolinite-smectite suspensions, smectite forms highly oriented basic framework into which kaolinite platelets may bond in face to face preferential contacts strengthening structure and allowing them to show plastic behaviour which is cause of platelets orientation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  16. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  17. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 570.8 Section 570.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Pounds or Less § 570.8 Suspension systems. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut or...

  18. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut...

  19. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  20. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  1. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz

  2. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  3. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  4. Sintering of Fine Particles in Suspension Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Latka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying is a process that enables the production of finely grained nanometric or submicrometric coatings. The suspensions are formulated with the use of fine powder particles in water or alcohol with some additives. Subsequently, the suspension is injected into plasma jet and the liquid additives evaporate. The remaining fine solids are molten and subsequently agglomerate or remain solid, depending on their trajectory in the plasma jet. The coating’s microstructure results from these two groups of particles arriving on a substrate or previously deposited coating. Previous experimental studies carried out for plasma sprayed titanium oxide and hydroxyapatite coatings enabled us to observe either a finely grained microstructure or, when a different suspension injection mode was used, to distinguish two zones in the microstructure. These two zones correspond to the dense zone formed from well molten particles, and the agglomerated zone formed from fine solid particles that arrive on the substrate in a solid state. The present paper focuses on the experimental and theoretical analysis of the formation process of the agglomerated zone. The experimental section establishes the heat flux supplied to the coating during deposition. In order to achieve this, calorimetric measurements were made by applying experimental conditions simulating the real coatings’ growth. The heat flux was measured to be in the range from 0.08 to 0.5 MW/m2,depending on the experimental conditions. The theoretical section analyzes the sintering during the coating’s growth, which concerns the fine particles arriving on the substrate in the solid state. The models of volume, grain boundary and surface diffusion were analyzed and adapted to the size and chemistry of the grains, temperature and time scales corresponding to the suspension plasma spraying conditions. The model of surface diffusion was found to best describe the sintering during suspension

  5. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  6. Microscopic Theory of Transconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Jauho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of momentum transfer between two closely spaced mesoscopic electronic systems, which couple via Coulomb interaction but where tunneling is inhibited, have proven to be a fruitful method of extracting information about interactions in mesoscopic systems. We report a fully microscopic theory for transconductivity σ12, or, equivalently, momentum transfer rate between the system constituents. Our main formal result expresses the transconductivity in terms of two fluctuation diagrams, which are topologically related, but not equivalent to, the Azlamazov-Larkin and Maki-Thompson diagrams known for superconductivity. In the present paper the magnetic field dependence of σ12 is discussed, and we find that σ12(B is strongly enhanced over its zero field value, and it displays strong features, which can be understood in terms of a competition between density-of-states and screening effects.

  7. Microscopic entropy and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, E.; Ordonets, G.; Petroskij, T.; Prigozhin, I.

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained a microscopic expression for entropy in terms of H function based on nonunitary Λ transformation which leads from the time evolution as a unitary group to a Markovian dynamics and unifies the reversible and irreversible aspects of quantum mechanics. This requires a new representation outside the Hilbert space. In terms of H, we show the entropy production and the entropy flow during the emission and absorption of radiation by an atom. Analyzing the time inversion experiment, we emphasize the importance of pre- and postcollisional correlations, which break the symmetry between incoming and outgoing waves. We consider the angle dependence of the H function in a three-dimensional situation. A model including virtual transitions is discussed in a subsequent paper

  8. Microscopic methods in analysis of submicron phospholipid dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płaczek Marcin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy belongs to the group of tests, used in pharmaceutical technology, that despite the lapse of time and the development of new analytical methods, still remain irreplaceable for the characterization of dispersed drug dosage forms (e.g., suspensions and emulsions. To obtain complete description of a specific drug formulation, such as parenteral colloidal products, a combination of different microscopic techniques is sometimes required. Electron microscopy methods are the most useful ones; however, even such basic methods as optical microscopy may be helpful for determination of some properties of a sample. The publication explicates the most popular microscopical techniques used nowadays for characterization of the morphology of nanoparticles suspended in pharmaceutical formulations; ad vantages and disadvantages of these methods are also discussed. Parenteral submicron formulations containing lecithin or a particular phospholipid were chosen as examples.

  9. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  10. Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.

  11. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  12. DailyMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...

  13. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  14. Polymorphism in Bacterial Flagella Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Walter J.

    Bacterial flagella are a type of biological polymer studied for its role in bacterial motility and the polymorphic transitions undertaken to facilitate the run and tumble behavior. The naturally rigid, helical shape of flagella gives rise to novel colloidal dynamics and material properties. This thesis studies methods in which the shape of bacterial flagella can be controlled using in vitro methods and the changes the shape of the flagella have on both single particle dynamics and bulk material properties. We observe individual flagellum in both the dilute and semidilute regimes to observe the effects of solvent condition on the shape of the filament as well as the effect the filament morphology has on reptation through a network of flagella. In addition, we present rheological measurements showing how the shape of filaments effects the bulk material properties of flagellar suspensions. We find that the individual particle dynamics in suspensions of flagella can vary with geometry from needing to reptate linearly via rotation for helical filaments to the prevention of long range diffusion for block copolymer filaments. Similarly, for bulk material properties of flagella suspensions, helical geometries show a dramatic enhancement in elasticity over straight filaments while block copolymers form an elastic gel without the aid of crosslinking agents.

  15. Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

    2013-01-01

    By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect

  16. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  18. Scanning Electron Microscope Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides the capability to examine surfaces microscopically with high resolution (5 nanometers), perform micro chemical analyses of these surfaces, and...

  19. The new Isidore microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouille, O.; Viard, J.; Menard, M.; Allegre, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the refurbishment of LECI hot laboratory in Saclay, it was decided to renew one of the two metallography lines of the building. This line is located at one end of the Isidore line of lead-shielded hot cells. The work started by the cleaning of 5 aout of 9 cells in Isidore line. Two were 2 m x 1.5 m cells, whereas the 3 others were smaller. Decontamination was difficult in both larger cells, because a lot of metallographic preparation had been performed there and because the cleaning of the lower parts of the cell, below the working area, was uneasy by remote manipulators. The refurbishment of the cells included: - Changing the windows, because old windows were made of glass panels sperated by oil, which is now prohibited by safety requirements. - Putting of a new pair of manipulators on one large cell, and adding bootings on manipulators on one large cell, and adding bootings on manipulators on both large cells. - Changing all the ventilation systems in these cells (new types of filters, new air-ducts), - Modifying and changing metallic pieces constituting the working are inside the cell - Increasing the hight of the small cells in order to add a manipulator for charging the sample on microscope or on hardness machine. - Simplifying the electrical wiring in order to decrease the fire risk in the hot cell line. - Add a better fire protection between the working area and the transfer area, i. e. between the front and the rear part of the cells. The scientific equipments fot these cells are: An Olympus microscope, modified by Optique Peter (company based in Lyons), equipped with a motorised sample holder (100 x 200 mm), maximum size of sample: O. D.=100 mm, 6 magnifications: x 12.5, x50, x100, x200, x500 and x1000, two microhardness positions: Vickers and Knoop. Polaroid image and digital camera with SIS image analysis system. A new periscope manufactured by Optique Peter. magnification x2 and x9, digital image and SIS system, and old periscope

  20. Photon scanning tunneling microscope in combination with a force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Tack, R.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1994-01-01

    The simultaneous operation of a photon scanning tunneling microscope with an atomic force microscope is presented. The use of standard atomic force silicon nitride cantilevers as near-field optical probes offers the possibility to combine the two methods. Vertical forces and torsion are detected

  1. On Determination of the Equation of State of Colloidal Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirorattanakul, Krittanon; Huang, Hao; Uhl, Christopher; Ou-Yang, Daniel

    Colloidal suspensions are the main ingredients for a variety of materials in our daily life, e.g., milk, salad dressing, skin lotions and paint for wall coatings. Material properties of these systems require an understanding of the equation of state of these materials. Our project aims to experimentally determine the equation of state of colloidal suspensions by microfluidics, dielectrophoresis (DEP) and optical imaging. We use fluorescent polystyrene latexes as a model system for this study. Placing semi-permeable membranes between microfluidics channels, which made from PDMS, we control the particle concentration and ionic strengths of the suspension. We use osmotic equilibrium equation to analyze the particle concentration distribution in a potential force field created by DEP. We use confocal optical imaging to measure the spatial distribution of the particle concentration. We compare the results of our experimental study with data obtained by computer simulation of osmotic equilibrium of interacting colloids. NSF DMR-0923299, Emulsion Polymer Institute, Department of Physics, Bioengineering Program of Lehigh University.

  2. Improving the strength of ceramics by controlling the interparticle forces and rheology of the ceramic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yi-Ping

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the modification of the interparticle forces of colloidal ceramic particles in aqueous suspensions in order to improve the microstructural homogeneity, and hence the reliability and mechanical performances, of subsequently formed ceramic compacts. A concentrated stable fine ceramic powder suspension has been shown to be able to generate a higher density of a ceramic product with better mechanical, and also electrical, electrochemical and optical, properties of the ceramic body. This is because in a colloidally stable suspension there are no aggregates and so defect formation, which is responsible for the ceramic body performance below its theoretical maximum, is reduced. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to form a well dispersed ceramic suspension by ensuring the interparticle forces between the particles are repulsive, with as a high a loading with particles as possible. By examining the rheological behaviour and the results of Atomic Force Microscope, the dispersion state of the suspensions and hence the interparticle forces can be analysed. In this study, concentrated ceramic suspensions were made from two kinds of zirconia powders, monoclinic (DK1) and yttria partially stabilised (HSY3) zirconia, in the presence of a dispersant, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid disodium salt (Tiron), in aqueous system. The optimum dispersant concentrations, where the viscosity and rheological moduli are the entire minimum, for DK1 and HSY3 suspensions, respectively, are 0.625% and 0.1%. The modifications of the interparticle forces were also achieved by pH adjustment and it was found that both of the suspensions at the optimum dispersant concentration were stable over the pH range 7 ∼ 10, which coincide with the results of the electrophoretic mobility measurements. Ceramic compacts have then been made by slip casting the suspensions of different dispersant concentration, followed by firing procedure. Mechanical properties of

  3. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  4. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  5. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  6. Attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, David B.; Fontana, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems can be used in a wide variety of applications. The decision of whether to use an attractive or repulsive suspension system for a particular application is a fundamental one which must be made during the design process. As an aid to the designer, we compare and contrast attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems and indicate whether and under what conditions one or the other system is preferred.

  7. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz Hussain; Jawaid Daudpoto; Ali Asghar Memon

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability...

  8. Time Varying Behavior of the Loudspeaker Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2007-01-01

    The suspension part of the electrodynamic loudspeaker is often modelled as a simple linear spring with viscous damping, however the dynamic behaviour of the suspension is much more complicated than predicted by such a simple model. At higher levels the compliance becomes non-linear and often chan...... changes during excitation at high levels. This paper investigates how the compliance of the suspension depends on the excitation, i.e. level and frequency content. The measurements are compared with other known measurement methods of the suspension....

  9. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  10. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are...

  11. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Atomic force microscope with integrated optical microscope for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) is capable of imaging nonconducting surfaces, the technique holds great promises for high‐resolution imaging of biological specimens. A disadvantage of most AFMs is the fact that the relatively large sample surface has to be scanned multiple times to pinpoint a specific biological object of interest. Here an AFM is presented which has an incorporated inverted optical microscope. The optical image from the optical microscope is not obscured by the cantilever...

  13. Mobile microscope complex GIB-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, A.V.; Gorbachev, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    To study microstructure in operating pipelines of power units a mobile microscope system is developed and successfully used. The system includes a portable microscope, a monitor, power supply and a portable computer. The monitor is used for surveying images from a video camera mounted on the microscope. The magnification on visual examination constitutes x 100 and x 500. Diameters of pipelines examined should not be less than 130 mm. Surface preparation for microstructural studies includes routine mechanical rough grinding and polishing with subsequent etching [ru

  14. The deuteron microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Congshan; Zhang Jingshang; Shen Qingbiao

    1991-01-01

    The two particle Green's function is introduced. When the direct interaction between two nucleons is neglected, the first and second order mass operators of two particles are the sum of those for each particle. The nucleon microscopic optical potential is calculated by applying nuclear matter approximation and effective Skyrme interaction. Then the deuteron microscopic optical potential (DMOP) is calculated by using fold formula. For improvement of the theory, the two particle polarization diagram contribution to the imaginary part of the deuteron microscopic optical potential is studied

  15. On the behaviour of gelled fibre suspensions in steady shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Bettina [Unilever Corporate Research, Bedford (United Kingdom); University of Nottingham, Division of Food Sciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom); White, Duncan; Melrose, John R.; Frith, William J. [Unilever Corporate Research, Bedford (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    The shear rheological properties of suspensions of gelled agar fibres in a low viscosity Newtonian matrix fluid were investigated. Two classes of fibres, low aspect ratio fibres and high aspect ratio fibres with an aspect ratio of the order of 10 and 100 respectively were included in the investigations. For all fibre phase volumes investigated, from as low as 0.01 upwards, the flow curves are characterised by an apparent yield stress followed by shear-thinning which was independent of the fibre aspect ratio. Based on our analysis of the flow curves, we conclude that the high aspect ratio fibres behave like flexible threads in contrast to the low aspect ratio fibres whose high shear relative viscosity is successfully described by a relation for long rigid rods. These findings are supported by flow visualisation using an optical shearing stage coupled to a light microscope. (orig.)

  16. 36 CFR 296.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.10 Suspension and revocation of... correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit. (b) Suspension or revocation for management...

  17. Design analysis of formula student race car suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, Julian Wisnu; Ubaidillah, Aditra, Rama; Alnursyah, Rafli; Rahman, Rizki Abdul; Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro

    2018-02-01

    Design analysis of suspension especially for racecar suspension is very crucial to achieve maximum performance and handling. Suspension design may vary depending on the road terrain and the vehicle purpose itself, such as high speed or off-road vehicle. This paper focused on the suspension which used for racecar vehicle. The suspension type used was unequal double wishbone. This model is used because of its stability for high-speed usage compared to another kind of suspension. The suspension parameter was calculated to achieve desired performance. The result is the motion ratio of the designed suspension geometry. The obtained value of motion ratio was 1:2 for front suspension and 1:1 for the rear suspension. These calculation result the front suspension is still too soft, which the optimal motion ratio should be kept around 1:1 for better handling. This problem caused by the lack of space for suspension linkage.

  18. 39 CFR 320.9 - Revocation or amendment of suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUSPENSION OF THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 320.9 Revocation or amendment of suspensions. These suspensions... of operations (in dollar or volume terms, whichever is larger) lower than that antedating the...

  19. Linear viscoelastic properties of aging suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnomo, E.H.; Purnomo, E.H; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the linear viscoelastic behavior of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel suspensions in order to obtain insight in the aging processes in these densely packed suspensions at various temperatures below the volume transition temperature. The system is found to display a strong

  20. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... braking system. The vehicle shall be level (not tilting to the left or right). Air leakage shall not be... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393...

  1. 41 CFR 105-74.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-74.670 Section 105-74.670 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.670 Suspension...

  2. 36 CFR 25.3 - Supervision; suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision; suspensions. 25.3 Section 25.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL MILITARY PARKS; LICENSED GUIDE SERVICE REGULATIONS § 25.3 Supervision; suspensions. (a) The guide service will operate under the direction...

  3. Advanced Microstructural Study of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesak, Harry; Pawlowski, Lech; D'Haese, Romain; Laureyns, Jacky; Lampke, Thomas; Bellayer, Severine

    2010-03-01

    Fine, home-synthesized, hydroxyapatite powder was formulated with water and alcohol to obtain a suspension used to plasma spray coatings onto a titanium substrate. The deposition process was optimized using statistical design of 2 n experiments with two variables: spray distance and electric power input to plasma. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine quantitatively the phase composition of obtained deposits. Raman microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) enabled localization of the phases in different positions of the coating cross sections. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study associated with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) enabled visualization and analysis of a two-zone microstructure. One zone contained crystals of hydroxyapatite, tetracalcium phosphate, and a phase rich in calcium oxide. This zone included lamellas, usually observed in thermally sprayed coatings. The other zone contained fine hydroxyapatite grains that correspond to nanometric and submicrometric solids from the suspension that were agglomerated and sintered in the cold regions of plasma jet and on the substrate.

  4. Microscopic Procedures for Plant Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braselton, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes laboratory techniques designed to familiarize students with meiosis and how microscopic preparations of meiosis are made. These techniques require the use of fresh or fixed flowers. Contains 18 references. (DDR)

  5. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital camera microscope unit and this hybrid instrument was named a fluorescence SEM (FL-SEM). In the labeling of FL-SEM samples, both Fluolid, which is an organic EL dye, and Alexa Fluor, were employed. We successfully demonstrated that the FL-SEM is a simple and practical tool for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  6. Electron microscopic identification of Zinga virus as a strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, O D; Baigent, C L; Mueller, G; Tomori, O; Schmitz, H

    1992-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination of a negatively stained suspension of Zinga virus showed particles 90-100 nm in diameter, enveloped with spikes 12-20 nm in length and 5 nm in diameter. Further identification of the virus by immune electron microscopy showed the reactivity of human Rift Valley fever virus-positive serum with Zinga virus. Results of this study are in agreement with earlier reports that Zinga virus is a strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

  7. Osmotic consolidation of suspensions and gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.T.; Zukoski, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    An osmotic method for the consolidation of suspensions of ceramic particles is demonstrated. Concentrated solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) are separated from a suspension of ceramic particles by a semipermeable membrane, creating a gradient in solvent chemical potential. Solvent passes from the suspension into the polymer solution, lowering its free energy and consolidating the suspension. Dispersions of stable 8-nm hydrous zirconia particles were consolidated to over 47% by volume. Suspensions of α-alumina in three states of aggregation (dispersed, weakly flocculated, and strongly flocculated) were consolidated to densities greater than or equal to those produced in conventional pressure filtration. Moreover, the as-consolidated alumina bodies were partially drained of fluid during the osmotic consolidation process, producing cohesive partially dried bodies with improved handling characteristics

  8. Microscopic modelling of doped manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, Alexander; Fehske, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Colossal magneto-resistance manganites are characterized by a complex interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom. Formulating microscopic models for these compounds aims at meeting two conflicting objectives: sufficient simplification without excessive restrictions on the phase space. We give a detailed introduction to the electronic structure of manganites and derive a microscopic model for their low-energy physics. Focusing on short-range electron-lattice and spin-orbital correlations we supplement the modelling with numerical simulations

  9. Microscopic approach to nuclear anharmonicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yoshifumi; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi

    1985-01-01

    Present status of microscopic study of nuclear anharmonicity phenomena is reviewed from the viewpoint of the time-dependent Hartree-Bogoliubov approach. Both classical- and quantum-mechanical aspects of this approach are discussed. The Bohr-Mottelson-type collective Hamiltonian for anharmonic gamma vibrations is microscopically derived by means of the self-consistent-collective-coordinate method, and applied to the problem of two-phonon states of 168 Er. (orig.)

  10. Deuteron microscopic optical model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hairui; Han Yinlu; Shen Qingbiao; Xu Yongli

    2010-01-01

    A deuteron microscopic optical model potential is obtained by the Green function method through nuclear-matter approximation and local-density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The microscopic optical model potential is used to calculate the deuteron reaction cross sections and the elastic scattering angular distributions for some target nuclei in the mass range 6≤A≤208 with incident deuteron energies up to 200 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data.

  11. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  12. STM-SQUID probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Tadayuki; Tachiki, Minoru; Itozaki, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a STM-SQUID probe microscope. A high T C SQUID probe microscope was combined with a scanning tunneling microscope for investigation of samples at room temperature in air. A high permeability probe needle was used as a magnetic flux guide to improve the spatial resolution. The probe with tip radius of less than 100 nm was prepared by microelectropolishing. The probe was also used as a scanning tunneling microscope tip. Topography of the sample surface could be measured by the scanning tunneling microscope with high spatial resolution prior to observation by SQUID microscopy. The SQUID probe microscope image could be observed while keeping the distance from the sample surface to the probe tip constant. We observed a topographic image and a magnetic image of Ni fine pattern and also a magnetically recorded hard disk. Furthermore we have investigated a sample vibration method of the static magnetic field emanating from a sample with the aim of achieving a higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio

  13. Cements and concentrated model suspensions. Flow, jamming and flocculation; Ciments et suspensions concentrees modeles. Ecoulement, encombrement et floculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lootens, D

    2004-10-15

    Here we report about the rheological behavior of very concentrated dispersions -or pastes- of granular or colloidal particles of cement or of monodisperse spherical silica particles. The model system of silica particles is used in order to control the physical chemistry properties of the suspension. Our research project is centered on two points which are focusing on the slurries properties: (i) the first one is the study of the structuring process by the coagulation at rest and its relation with setting. We use special tools (ultrasonic, confocal) to follow and understand the evolution from coagulation to the setting of cement (ii) the second is the study of the dynamic structuring phenomena, under shear, typical of the concentrated suspensions and named jamming. The flow can enter into a shear-thickening and, possibly jamming regime. The onset of this regime is shown to involve giant fluctuations of stress, assigned to the formation and breakup of direct frictional contact chains. The surface state of the particles is a determining factor in this transition. The studies of the normal stress and microscopic observation give good reasons to believe that solid friction is involved in the jamming transition. (author)

  14. Clogging in constricted suspension flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Alvaro; Lhuissier, Henri; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kähler, Christian J.

    2018-02-01

    The flow of a charged-stabilized suspension through a single constricted channel is studied experimentally by tracking the particles individually. Surprisingly, the behavior is found to be qualitatively similar to that of inertial dry granular systems: For small values of the neck-to-particle size ratio (D /d reported for granular systems and agree for moderate particle volume fraction (ϕ ≈20 % ) with a simple stochastic model for the number of particles at the neck. For larger neck sizes (D /d >3 ), even at the largest ϕ (≈60 %) achievable in the experiments, an uninterrupted particle flow is observed, which resembles that of an hourglass. This particularly small value of D /d (≃3 ) at the transition to a practically uninterrupted flow is attributed to the low effective friction between the particles, achieved by the particle's functionalization and lubrication.

  15. Next Generation Suspension Dynamics Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Higdon, Jonathon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research project has the objective to extend the range of application, improve the efficiency and conduct simulations with the Fast Lubrication Dynamics (FLD) algorithm for concentrated particle suspensions in a Newtonian fluid solvent. The research involves a combination of mathematical development, new computational algorithms, and application to processing flows of relevance in materials processing. The mathematical developments clarify the underlying theory, facilitate verification against classic monographs in the field and provide the framework for a novel parallel implementation optimized for an OpenMP shared memory environment. The project considered application to consolidation flows of major interest in high throughput materials processing and identified hitherto unforeseen challenges in the use of FLD in these applications. Extensions to the algorithm have been developed to improve its accuracy in these applications.

  16. Graphite suspension in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.

    1965-01-01

    Since 1963 the Atomic Division of SNECMA has been conducting, under a contract with the CEA, an experimental work with a two-component fluid comprised of carbon dioxide and small graphite particles. The primary purpose was the determination of basic engineering information pertaining to the stability and the flowability of the suspension. The final form of the experimental loop consists mainly of the following items: a light-phase compressor, a heavy-phase pump, an electrical-resistance type heater section, a cooling heat exchanger, a hairpin loop, a transparent test section and a separator. During the course of the testing, it was observed that the fluid could be circulated quite easily in a broad range of variation of the suspension density and velocity - density from 30 to 170 kg/m 3 and velocity from 2 to 24 m/s. The system could be restarted and circulation maintained without any difficulty, even with the heavy-phase pump alone. The graphite did not have a tendency to pack or agglomerate during operation. No graphite deposition was observed on the wall of the tubing. A long period run (250 hours) has shown the evolution of the particle dimensions. Starting with graphite of surface area around 20 m 2 /g (graphite particles about 1 μ), the powder surface area reaches an asymptotic value of 300 m 2 /g (all the particles less than 0.3 μ). Moisture effect on flow stability, flow distribution between two parallel channels, pressure drop in straight tubes, recompression ratio in diffusers were also investigated. (author) [fr

  17. Naratriptan hydrochloride in extemporaneosly compounded oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Trissel, L A; Fox, J L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmaceutical acceptability and chemical stability of naratriptan hydrochloride in three extemporaneously compounded suspension formulations. The naratriptan-hydrochloride oral suspensions were prepared from 2.5-mg commercial tablets yielding a nominal naratriptan concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The suspension vehicles selected for testing were Syrpalta, an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, and an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet SF. The tablets were crushed and thoroughly triturated to a fine powder using a porcelain mortar and pestle. The powder was incorporated into a portion of the Syrpalta or Ora-Plus suspension vehicle and mixed until homogeneous. The mixtures were then brought to volume with Syrpalta, Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF, as appropriate. The suspensions were packaged in amber, plastic, screw-cap prescription bottles and stored at 23 deg C for seven days and 4 deg C for 90 days. An adequate suspension was never achieved in Syrpalta. The crushed-tablet powder did not produce a uniformly dispersed mixture and exhibited clumping and a high rate of sedimentation. A distinct layer of the solid tablet material settled immediately after shaking. Over the next four hours, a densely packed, yellow, caked layer formed at the bottom of the containers, making resuspension difficult. During storage, the caking became worse. Chemical analysis was not performed. The Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF suspensions had a slight greenish cast and were resuspended without difficulty by shaking for approximately ten seconds, yielding easily poured and homogeneous mixtures throughout the study. Visible settling and layering did not begin for four hours with the Ora-Sweet suspension and 24 hours for the Ora-Sweet SF suspension. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis found that the naratriptan concentration in both suspension-vehicle combinations exhibited little or no loss for seven days at 23

  18. The Daily Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes....... As such, the parts, when taken as a whole, represent an evolving process through which my overall research questions are being filtered and reflected. My scholarly approach builds on the fusing of fashion and dress research and design research, in this way closing a gap between dress practice as...

  19. Radiation in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es

  20. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  1. Axiomatic electrodynamics and microscopic mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.

    1981-04-01

    A new approach to theoretical physics, along with the basic formulation of a new MICROSCOPIC MECHANICS for the motion of small charged particles is described in this set of lecture notes. Starting with the classical (Newtonian) mechanics and classical fields, the important but well known properties of Classical Electromagnetic field are discussed up to section 4. The next nection describes the usual radiation damping theory and its difficulties. It is argued that the usual treatment of radiation damping is not valid for small space and time intervals and the true description of motion requires a new type of mechanics - the MICROSCOPIC MECHANICS: Section 6 and 7 are devoted to showing that not only the new microscopic mechanics goes over to Newtonian mechanics in the proper limit, but also it is closely connected with Quantum Mechanics. All the known results of the Schroedinger theory can be reproduced by microscopic mechanics which also gives a clear physical picture. It removes Einstein's famous objections against Quantum Theory and provides a clear distinction between classical and Quantum behavior. Seven Axioms (three on Classical Mechanics, two for Maxwell's theory, one for Relativity and a new Axiom on Radiation damping) are shown to combine Classical Mechanics, Maxwellian Electrodynamics, Relativity and Schroedinger's Quantum Theory within a single theoretical framework under Microscopic Mechanics which awaits further development at the present time. (orig.)

  2. Rheological behavior and stability of ciprofloxacin suspension: Impact of structural vehicles and flocculating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone and is used against a broad spectrum of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of structural vehicles and other formulating factors on physical stability and rheological behavior of ciprofloxacin suspension. To formulate the suspensions, the effect of glycerin and polysorbate 80 as wetting agents was evaluated. Then to achieve controlled flocculation, different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride were added. After choosing suitable wetting and flocculating agents, structural vehicles such as sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (NaCMC, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC and Veegum were evaluated. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume, the degree of flocculation and the ease of redispersion of the suspensions and growth of crystals were evaluated. After incorporation of structural vehicles, the rheological properties of formulations containing were also studied to find out their rheological behavior. According to the results, suspension containing glycerin (0.2% w/v and sodium chloride (0.05% w/v as wetting agent and flocculating agent, respectively, were the most stable formulations regarding their F and N. Microscopic observations showed the growth of crystals in ciprofloxacin suspension in formulation without excipients and the minimum amount of crystal growth was seen in suspension containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v, Veegum (0.1% w/v and NaCl (0.05% w/v. Rheological studies showed that almost all of the formulations had psuedoplastic behavior with different degree of thixotropy. The formulation containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v, Veegum (0.1% w/v and NaCl (0.05% w/v was the most stable formulation. It may be concluded that by altering the amount ratios of formulation factors, the best rheological behavior and the most proper thixotropy may be achieved.

  3. Rheological behavior and stability of ciprofloxacin suspension: Impact of structural vehicles and flocculating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Rezaee, Saeed; Salimi, Anayatollah; Asadi, Elham; Handali, Somayeh

    2013-07-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone and is used against a broad spectrum of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of structural vehicles and other formulating factors on physical stability and rheological behavior of ciprofloxacin suspension. To formulate the suspensions, the effect of glycerin and polysorbate 80 as wetting agents was evaluated. Then to achieve controlled flocculation, different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride were added. After choosing suitable wetting and flocculating agents, structural vehicles such as sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (NaCMC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and Veegum were evaluated. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume, the degree of flocculation and the ease of redispersion of the suspensions and growth of crystals were evaluated. After incorporation of structural vehicles, the rheological properties of formulations containing were also studied to find out their rheological behavior. According to the results, suspension containing glycerin (0.2% w/v) and sodium chloride (0.05% w/v) as wetting agent and flocculating agent, respectively, were the most stable formulations regarding their F and N. Microscopic observations showed the growth of crystals in ciprofloxacin suspension in formulation without excipients and the minimum amount of crystal growth was seen in suspension containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v), Veegum (0.1% w/v) and NaCl (0.05% w/v). Rheological studies showed that almost all of the formulations had psuedoplastic behavior with different degree of thixotropy. The formulation containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v), Veegum (0.1% w/v) and NaCl (0.05% w/v) was the most stable formulation. It may be concluded that by altering the amount ratios of formulation factors, the best rheological behavior and the most proper thixotropy may be achieved.

  4. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  5. Suspension for the low frequency facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cella, G; Di Virgilio, A; Gaddi, A; Viceré, A

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the working principles of the VIRGO Low Frequency Facility (LFF), whose main aim is the measurement of the thermal noise in the VIRGO suspension system. We evaluate the displacement thermal noise of a mirror, which is an intermediate element of a double pendulum suspension system. This double pendulum will be suspended to the last stage of a VIRGO Super-Attenuator (SA), the prototype VIRGO suspension system being tested at the Pisa section of INFN. In the proposed configuration, we evaluate the spectrum of the thermal noise for different choices of the parameters: based on this study, we comment on the future directions to be undertaken in the LFF experiment.

  6. Microscopic collective models of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, Rezsoe

    1985-01-01

    Microscopic Rosensteel-Rowe theory of the nuclear collective motion is described. The theoretical insufficiency of the usual microscopic establishment of the collective model is pointed. The new model treating exactly the degrees of freedom separates the coordinates describing the collective motion and the internal coordinates by a consistent way. Group theoretical methods analyzing the symmetry properties of the total Hamiltonian are used defining the collective subspaces transforming as irreducible representations of the group formed by the collective operators. Recent calculations show that although the results of the usual collective model are approximately correct and similar to those of the new microscopic collective model, the underlying philosophy of the old model is essentially erroneous. (D.Gy.)

  7. Microscope and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers.

  8. Investigating high-concentration monoclonal antibody powder suspension in nonaqueous suspension vehicles for subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Mayumi; Armstrong, Nick; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2012-12-01

    Developing high-concentration monoclonal antibody (mAb) liquid formulations for subcutaneous (s.c.) administration is challenging because increased viscosity makes injection difficult. To overcome this obstacle, we investigated a nonaqueous powder suspension approach. Three IgG1 mAbs were spray dried and suspended at different concentrations in Miglyol® 840, benzyl benzoate, or ethyl lactate. Suspensions were characterized for viscosity, particle size, and syringeability; physical stability was visually inspected. Suspensions generally outperformed liquid solutions for injectability despite higher viscosity at the same mAb concentrations. Powder formulations and properties had little effect on viscosity or injectability. Ethyl lactate suspensions had lowest viscosity (Miglyol® 840 improved overall performance in high mAb concentration suspensions. This study demonstrated the viability of high mAb concentration (>300 mg/mL) in suspension formulations for s.c. administration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Atomic force microscope featuring an integrated optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to image the surface of both conductors and nonconductors. Biological specimens constitute a large group of nonconductors. A disadvantage of most AFM's is the fact that relatively large areas of the sample surface have to be scanned to pinpoint a biological

  10. New daily persistent headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New daily persistent headache (NDPH is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  11. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    elucidate aspects of urban everyday mobility that can be utilized in policy and planning perspectives. This knowledge can aid construction of generalized qualitative scenarios that together with quantitative transport models can serve as wider knowledge foundation in decision making process.......In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...

  12. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  13. A Course in Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a course focusing on fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspensions. Describes the main themes of the lectures and includes a list of course outlines. Possible textbooks and many journal articles are listed. (YP)

  14. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  15. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  16. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.; Peppin, S. S. L.

    2010-01-01

    and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model

  17. Increasing Possibilities of Nano suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutradhar, K.B.; Khatun, S.; Luna, I.P.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, a very large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble and thus poorly bioavailable. To avoid this problem, nano technology for drug delivery has gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. Nano refers to particles size range of 1-1000 nm. The reduction of drug particles into the submicron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are part of nano technology. This interacts with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular) scales with a high degree of specificity and can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions can be developed for drug delivery systems as an oral formulation and no noral administration. Here, this review describes the methods of pharmaceutical nano suspension production including advantages and disadvantages, potential benefits, characterization tests, and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery

  18. Suspension scheme for fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butts, C.E.; Gray, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is presented of a nuclear fuel pin suspension arrangement comprising, in combination, a rod; a first beam member connected to said rod at one end; a plurality of parallel-spaced slidable fuel support plates attached to said first beam member, the longitudinal axis of first beam member being perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of each of said fuel support plates, a first coupling means disposed along the length of the first beam member for permitting slidable fuel support plates parallel movement with respect to the longitudinal axis of said first beam member, a second coupling means located at one end of each of slidable fuel plates for slidably engaging first coupling means of first beam member, a second beam member connected to the other end of each of parallel-spaced slidable fuel support plates and providing an extension, second beam member being provided with a third coupling means disposed along the length of second beam member at one end thereof; and a plurality of fuel pins provided with a fourth coupling means located at one end of each fuel pin for slidably engaging third coupling means of second beam member to permit each fuel pin parallel movement with respect to the longitudinal axis of second beam member. (U.S.)

  19. Characterization of Complex Colloidal Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, J. C.; Guerin, M.; Jackson, B. P.; Ranville, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Surface chemical reactions play a major role in controlling contaminant fate and transport in the subsurface environment. Recent field and laboratory evidence suggests that mobile soil and groundwater colloids may facilitate the migration of sparingly soluble groundwater contaminants. Colloidal suspensions collected in the field or generated in laboratory column experiments tend to be fairly dilute in nature and comprised of relatively small particulates (reserved for studying ideal systems to the characterization of mobile colloids. However, many of these analytical techniques, including total/selective dissolution methods, dynamic light scattering, micro-electrophoresis, streaming potential, and even scanning electron microscopy (SEM), can be biased in of larger size fractions, and therefore, extremely sensitive to sampling, storage, and fractionation artifacts. In addition, surface modifiers such as sorbed oxides or organics can alter particulate appearance, composition, and behavior when compared to synthetic analogues or mineral standards. The current presentation will discuss the limitations and inherent biases associated with a number of analytical characterization techniques that are commonly applied to the study of mobile soil and groundwater colloids, including field flow fractionation (FFF) and acoustic based methods that have only recently become available.

  20. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Ninad Arun Malpure; Sanket Nandlal Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are co...

  1. Flow-induced structure in colloidal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermant, J [Department of Chemical Engineering, K U Leuven, W de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Solomon, M J [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 (United States)

    2005-02-02

    We review the sequences of structural states that can be induced in colloidal suspensions by the application of flow. Structure formation during flow is strongly affected by the delicate balance among interparticle forces, Brownian motion and hydrodynamic interactions. The resulting non-equilibrium microstructure is in turn a principal determinant of the suspension rheology. Colloidal suspensions with near hard-sphere interactions develop an anisotropic, amorphous structure at low dimensionless shear rates. At high rates, clustering due to strong hydrodynamic forces leads to shear thickening rheology. Application of steady-shear flow to suspensions with repulsive interactions induces a rich sequence of transitions to one-, two-and three-dimensional order. Oscillatory-shear flow generates metastable ordering in suspensions with equilibrium liquid structure. On the other hand, short-range attractive interactions can lead to a fluid-to-gel transition under quiescent suspensions. Application of flow leads to orientation, breakup, densification and spatial reorganization of aggregates. Using a non-Newtonian suspending medium leads to additional possibilities for organization. We examine the extent to which theory and simulation have yielded mechanistic understanding of the microstructural transitions that have been observed. (topical review)

  2. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  3. Microscopic description of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatov, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The genealogical series method has been extended to the continuous spectrum of the many-body systems. New nonlinear integral equations have been formulated to perform the microscopical description of the nuclear reactions with arbitrary number of particles. The way to solve them numerically is demonstrated

  4. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  5. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.; Goriely, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations.While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  6. Microscope sterility during spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; O'Neill, Kevin R; Crosby, Colin G; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2012-04-01

    Prospective study. Assess the contamination rates of sterile microscope drapes after spine surgery. The use of the operating microscope has become more prevalent in certain spine procedures, providing superior magnification, visualization, and illumination of the operative field. However, it may represent an additional source of bacterial contamination and increase the risk of developing a postoperative infection. This study included 25 surgical spine cases performed by a single spine surgeon that required the use of the operative microscope. Sterile culture swabs were used to obtain samples from 7 defined locations on the microscope drape after its use during the operation. The undraped technician's console was sampled in each case as a positive control, and an additional 25 microscope drapes were swabbed immediately after they were applied to the microscope to obtain negative controls. Swab samples were assessed for bacterial growth on 5% sheep blood Columbia agar plates using a semiquantitative technique. No growth was observed on any of the 25 negative control drapes. In contrast, 100% of preoperative and 96% of postoperative positive controls demonstrated obvious contamination. In the postoperative group, all 7 sites of evaluation were found to be contaminated with rates of 12% to 44%. Four of the 7 evaluated locations were found to have significant contamination rates compared with negative controls, including the shafts of the optic eyepieces on the main surgeon side (24%, P = 0.022), "forehead" portion on both the main surgeon (24%, P = 0.022) and assistant sides (28%, P = 0.010), and "overhead" portion of the drape (44%, P = 0.0002). Bacterial contamination of the operative microscope was found to be significant after spine surgery. Contamination was more common around the optic eyepieces, likely due to inadvertent touching of unsterile portions. Similarly, all regions above the eyepieces also have a propensity for contamination because of unknown contact

  7. Edificio Daily Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Owen

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The building has 18 levels. The Press occupies the 4 basement floors. The ground floor is taken up with the entrance hall, and an indoor carriage way. A snack bar and the telephone operators are situated on the second floor. The production department and the medical services are located on the third storey, whilst the fourth is occupied by the offices and library. The fifth floor is the beginning of the higher section of the building. This floor and up to including the 11th floor are devoted to office space, except for the 10th storey, which contains the office apartments of the directors and the Council Chamber. Equipment related to various services of the building is housed on the 12th storey. Finally, this tall building constitutes a fine landmark in the London skyline. The Daily Mirror building is outstanding for the appropriate nature, the completeness and the quality of its installations, which thus provide the most widely read paper in the world with outstandingly efficient offices.Este edificio consta de 18 plantas. El cuerpo de Prensa se aloja en los cuatro sótanos; los vestíbulos de entrada y una calzada interior para vehículos se hallan en la planta baja; la primera alberga un snack-bar y centralita telefónica; la segunda, el departamento de producción y centro de asistencia médica, y la tercera, las oficinas y biblioteca principales. La cuarta planta señala el comienzo del bloque alto; esta planta, junto con las quinta, sexta, séptima, octava y décima, están dedicadas a oficinas. La novena contiene las oficinas-apartamentos de los directores y salas de Consejo, y la undécima, la maquinaria para las diversas instalaciones del edificio. La elevada torre constituye un grandioso hito de referencia en esta zona de Londres. El «Daily Mirror» se distingue por el acierto, número y perfección de sus instalaciones, que proporcionan, al periódico de mayor actualidad mundial, las más adecuadas y amplias oficinas modernas.

  8. 21 CFR 1301.36 - Suspension or revocation of registration; suspension of registration pending final order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension or revocation of registration; suspension of registration pending final order; extension of registration pending final order. 1301.36... registration pending final order; extension of registration pending final order. (a) For any registration...

  9. Suspension, a Wake-Up Call: Rural Educators' Attitudes toward Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joan; Friedland, Billie

    Data from the West Virginia Department of Education reveals that from September 1991 to January 1992, school districts reported 18,915 out-of-school suspensions involving 12,997 students. In 1995, the West Virginia State Legislature enacted the Safe Schools Act, which specifically mandates suspension for no less than 12 consecutive months for…

  10. Differential magnetic force microscope imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zuobin; Liu, Jinyun; Hou, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging based on a two-pass scanning procedure to extract differential magnetic forces and eliminate or significantly reduce background forces with reversed tip magnetization. In the work, the difference of two scanned images with reversed tip magnetization was used to express the local magnetic forces. The magnetic sample was first scanned with a low lift distance between the MFM tip and the sample surface, and the magnetization direction of the probe was then changed after the first scan to perform the second scan. The differential magnetic force image was obtained through the subtraction of the two images from the two scans. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging is able to reduce the effect of background or environment interference forces, and offers an improved image contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR). © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Numerical study of suspensions of deformable particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Luca; Rosti, Marco Edoardo

    2017-11-01

    We consider a model non-Newtonian fluid consisting of a suspension of deformable particles in a Newtonian solvent. Einstein showed in his pioneering work that the relative increase in effective viscosity is a linear function of the particle volume fraction for dilute suspensions of rigid particles. Inertia has been shown to introduce deviations from the behaviour predicted by the different empirical fits, an effect that can be related to an increase of the effective volume fraction. We here focus on the effect of elasticity, i.e. visco-elastic deformable particles. To tackle the problem at hand, we perform three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation of a plane Couette flow with a suspension of neutrally buoyant deformable viscous hyper-elastic particles. We show that elasticity produces a shear-thinning effect in elastic suspensions (in comparison to rigid ones) and that it can be understood in terms of a reduction of the effective volume fraction of the suspension. The deformation modifies the particle motion reducing the level of mutual interaction. Normal stress differences will also be considered. European Research Council, Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG- 616186, TRITOS; SNIC (the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).

  12. Minimally invasive brow suspension for facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David H; Moche, Jason; Preminger, Aviva

    2003-01-01

    To report a new technique for unilateral brow suspension for facial paralysis that is minimally invasive, limits supraciliary scar formation, does not require specialized endoscopic equipment or expertise, and has proved to be equal to direct brow suspension in durability and symmetry. Retrospective survey of a case series of 23 patients between January 1997 and December 2000. Metropolitan tertiary care center. Patients with head and neck tumors and brow ptosis caused by facial nerve paralysis. The results of the procedure were determined using the following 3-tier rating system: outstanding (excellent elevation and symmetry); acceptable (good elevation and fair symmetry); and unacceptable (loss of elevation). The results were considered outstanding in 12 patients, acceptable in 9 patients, and unacceptable in only 1 patient. One patient developed a hematoma, and 1 patient required a secondary adjustment. The technique has proved to be superior to standard brow suspension procedures with regard to scar formation and equal with respect to facial symmetry and suspension. These results have caused us to abandon direct brow suspension and to use this minimally invasive method in all cases of brow ptosis due to facial paralysis.

  13. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  14. Daily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Hetland, Jorn; Demerouti, E.; Olsen, O.K.; Espevik, R.

    2014-01-01

    This diary study adds to the leadership literature by examining the daily influence of transformational leadership, contingent reward, and active management-by-exception (MBE active) on followers' daily work engagement. We compare the unique contribution of these leadership behaviours and focus on

  15. Modeling Suspension and Continuation of a Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on difficulties an analyst encounters when modeling suspension and continuation of a process in contemporary process modeling languages. As a basis there is introduced general lifecycle of an activity which is then compared to activity lifecycles supported by individual process modeling languages. The comparison shows that the contemporary process modeling languages cover the defined general lifecycle of an activity only partially. There are picked two popular process modeling languages and there is modeled real example, which reviews how the modeling languages can get along with their lack of native support of suspension and continuation of an activity. Upon the unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages in the modeled example, there is presented a new process modeling language which, as demonstrated, is capable of capturing suspension and continuation of an activity in much simpler and precise way.

  16. Phagocytosis in phosphate chromium (III) suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Arencibia, Jorge; Fano Machín, Yoiz; Cruz-Morales, Ahmed; Tamayo Fuente, Radamés; Morín-Zorrilla, José

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis in vivo and in vitro of a suspension of chromic phosphate (III) labeled with 51 Cr and 32 P is studied. The radioactive particles dispersed in a media of 2 % gelatin in acetate buffer pH 4-4.5 have a predominant size of 0.8 μm and 5 μm. According with biodistribution experiments in rats after 30 minutes near the 80 % of radioactivity is registered in the liver, probably associated with phagocytosis of the particles by liver Kupffer cells. Is also showed that the suspension particles are phagocytized in vitro by mouse peritoneal macrophages. This facts indicate that the studied suspension have appropriate characteristics to be used in radiosynoviorthesis according to the principal action mechanism described for this procedure, particles phagocytosis by cells present in the inflamed synovium. (author)

  17. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.

    2010-06-30

    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  18. Mechanism of diarrhea in microscopic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protic, Marijana; Jojic, Njegica; Bojic, Daniela; Milutinovic, Svetlana; Necic, Dusanka; Bojic, Bozidar; Svorcan, Petar; Krstic, Miodrag; Popovic, Obren

    2005-09-21

    To search the pathophysiological mechanism of diarrhea based on daily stool weights, fecal electrolytes, osmotic gap and pH. Seventy-six patients were included: 51 with microscopic colitis (MC) (40 with lymphocytic colitis (LC); 11 with collagenous colitis (CC)); 7 with MC without diarrhea and 18 as a control group (CG). They collected stool for 3 d. Sodium and potassium concentration were determined by flame photometry and chloride concentration by titration method of Schales. Fecal osmotic gap was calculated from the difference of osmolarity of fecal fluid and double sum of sodium and potassium concentration. Fecal fluid sodium concentration was significantly increased in LC 58.11+/-5.38 mmol/L (Pdiarrhea compared to fecal osmotic gap. Seven (13.3%) patients had osmotic diarrhea. Diarrhea in MC mostly belongs to the secretory type. The major pathophysiological mechanism in LC could be explained by a decrease of active sodium absorption. In CC, decreased Cl/HCO3 exchange rate and increased chloride secretion are coexistent pathways.

  19. Literature survey on microscopic friction modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand contact and friction conditions, experimental and theoretical studies have been performed in order to take microscopic dependencies into account. Friction is developed on microscopic level by adhesion between contacting asperities, the ploughing effect between asperities and the

  20. Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

  1. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  2. Intelligent systems of the vehicles’ suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurlin, D.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to the current condition of car’s active suspension system. It presents the tendencies in development of the active systems of suspension system, adjustable elements incorporated in them and the companies succeeded in designing such systems. It also mirrors the problem of impact of active systems on car’s safety and their importance for the driver. Advantages and disadvantages of the most common types of active elements are being described, analyzed and compared. The author concludes about the perspectives of these systems’ development.

  3. Unifying Suspension and Granular flows near Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGiuli Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of dense flows of hard particles are singular as one approaches the jamming threshold where flow ceases, both for granular flows dominated by inertia, and for over-damped suspensions. Concomitantly, the lengthscale characterizing velocity correlations appears to diverge at jamming. Here we review a theoretical framework that gives a scaling description of stationary flows of frictionless particles. Our analysis applies both to suspensions and inertial flows of hard particles. We report numerical results in support of the theory, and show the phase diagram that results when friction is added, delineating the regime of validity of the frictionless theory.

  4. Gravity Drainage Kinetics of Papermaking Fibrous Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses application possibilities of filtration and thickening models in evaluation of papermaking suspension drainage rate. The authors proposed their own method to estimate the drainage rate on the basis of an existing Ergun capillary model of liquid flow through a granular material. The proposed model was less sensitive to porosity changes than the Ergun model. An empirical verification proved robustness of the proposed approach. Taking into account discrepancies in the published data concerning how the drainage velocity of papermaking suspension is defined, this study examines which of the commonly applied models matches experimental results the best.

  5. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  6. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  7. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  8. Microscopic nuclear dissipation. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannouleas, C.; Dworzecka, M.; Griffin, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have formulated a microscopic, nonperturbative, time reversible model which exhibits a dissipative decay of collective motion for times short compared to the system's Poincare time. The model assumes an RPA approximate description of the initial collective state within a restricted subspace, then traces its time evolution when an additional subspace is coupled to the restricted subspace by certain simplified matrix elements. It invokes no statistical assumptions. The damping of the collective motion occurs via real transitions from the collective state to other more complicated nuclear states of the same energy. It corresponds therefore to the so called 'one-body' long mean free path limit of nuclear dissipation when the collective state describes a surface vibration. When the simplest RPA approximation is used, this process associates the dissipation with the escape width for direct particle emission to the continuum. When the more detailed second RPA is used, it associates the dissipation with the spreading width for transitions to the 2p-2h components of the nuclear compound states as well. The energy loss rate for sharp n-phonon initial states is proportional to the total collective energy, unlike the dissipation of a classical damped oscillator, where it is proportional to the kinetic energy only. However, for coherent, multi-phonon wave packets, which explicitly describe the time-dependent oscillations of the mean field, dissipation proportional only to the kinetic energy is obtained. Canonical coordinates for the collective degree of freedom are explicitly introduced and a nonlinear frictional hamiltonian to describe such systems is specified by the requirement that it yield the same time dependence for the collective motion as the microscopic model. Thus, for the first time a descriptive nonlinear hamiltonian is derived explicitly from the underlying microscopic model of a nuclear system. (orig.)

  9. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the 17O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles

  10. Microscopically Based Nuclear Energy Functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogner, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    A major goal of the SciDAC project 'Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional' is to develop next-generation nuclear energy density functionals that give controlled extrapolations away from stability with improved performance across the mass table. One strategy is to identify missing physics in phenomenological Skyrme functionals based on our understanding of the underlying internucleon interactions and microscopic many-body theory. In this contribution, I describe ongoing efforts to use the density matrix expansion of Negele and Vautherin to incorporate missing finite-range effects from the underlying two- and three-nucleon interactions into phenomenological Skyrme functionals.

  11. Microscopic structure for light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.

    1995-01-01

    The microscopic structure for light nuclei e.g. 4 He, 7 Li and 8 Be is considered in the frame work of the generator coordinate method (GCM). The physical interpretation of our GCM is also discussed. The GC amplitudes are used to calculate the various properties like charge and magnetic RMS radii, form factors, electromagnetic moments, astrophysical S-factor, Bremsstrahlung weighted cross sections, relative wavefunctions and vertex functions etc. All the calculated quantities agree well with the values determined experimentally. (author). 30 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Decoupling Suspension Controller Based on Magnetic Flux Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module’s antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.

  13. On the Benefits of Semi-Active Suspensions with Inerters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inerters have become a hot topic in recent years especially in vehicle, train, building suspension systems, etc. Eight different layouts of suspensions were analyzed with a quarter-car model in this paper. Dimensionless root mean square (RMS responses of the sprung mass vertical acceleration, the suspension travel, and the tire deflection are derived which were used to evaluate the performance of the quarter-car model. The behaviour of semi-active suspensions with inerters using Groundhook, Skyhook, and Hybrid control has been evaluated and compared to the performance of passive suspensions with inerters. Sensitivity analysis was applied to the development of a high performance semi-active suspension with an inerter. Numerical simulations indicate that a semi-active suspension with an inerter has much better performance than the passive suspension with an inerter, especially with the Hybrid control method, which has the best compromise between comfort and road holding quality.

  14. Decoupling suspension controller based on magnetic flux feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Cui, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module's antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.

  15. Measurements on an electromagnetic active suspension system for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysen, B.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.; Encica, L.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Jansen, J.W.; Krop, D.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract—This paper describes the specifications for active suspension systems and provides an electromagnetic solution. Electromagnetic actuation and preliminary control strategies are investigated in order to achieve a suspension system with the ability to absorb road irregularities and perform

  16. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fuzzy logic control; active vehicle suspension; suspension space. 1. ... surface unevenness, stability and directional control during handling ..... Burton A W, Truscott A J, Wellstead P E 1995 Analysis, modeling and control of an advanced.

  17. Wolter x-ray microscope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerassimenko, M.

    1986-06-01

    A 22 x Wolter microscope was calibrated after several months of operation in the Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion program. Placing a point x-ray source at the microscope focus, I recorded the image plane spectrum, as well as the direct spectrum, and from the ratio of these two spectra derived an accurate estimate of the microscope solid angle in the 1 to 4 keV range. The solid angle was also calculated using the microscope geometry and composition. Comparison of this calculated value with the solid angle that was actually measured suggests contamination of the microscope surface

  18. Wolter x-ray microscope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerassimenko, M.

    1986-01-01

    A 22 x Wolter microscope was calibrated after several months of operation in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion program. Placing a point x-ray source at the microscope focus, I recorded the image plane spectrum, as well as the direct spectrum, and from the ratio of these two spectra derived an accurate estimate of the microscope solid angle in the 1-4 keV range. The solid angle was also calculated using the microscope geometry and composition. Comparison of this calculated value with the solid angle that was actually measured suggests contamination of the microscope surface

  19. "Restorative Practices" Offer Alternatives to Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    At City Springs and many other schools across the country, restorative practices are about holding students accountable and getting them to right a wrong. The approach is getting more notice than ever as criticism grows of zero-tolerance disciplinary policies that often require out-of-school suspension and expulsion. Educators are turning to…

  20. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-01-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute

  1. 75 FR 68704 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 [Docket ID FEMA-2010-0003; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-8155] Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY: Federal.... Acadia Parish. Emerg; February 4, 1981, Reg; November 26, 2010, Susp. Iota, Town of, Acadia 220005...

  2. Suspension of Water Droplets on Individual Pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tóth, T.; Ferraro, D.; Chiarello, E.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of extensive experimental and numerical studies on the suspension of water drops deposited on cylindrical pillars having circular and square cross sections and different wettabilities. In the case of circular pillars, the drop contact line is pinned to the whole edge contour unt...

  3. ENHANCEMENT OF DURABILITY OF TRACTOR SUSPENSION AXLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Doshchechkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ‘soft’ nitriding of the suspension axle surface of the T150K tractor at the depth of 0.08 mm enables us to enhance its constructive strength, to increase its service life by 25 % and have a considerable economic effect.

  4. Pair-correlations in swimmer suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Sankalp; Subramanian, Ganesh

    2017-11-01

    Suspensions of rear-actuated swimming microorganisms, such as E.coli, exhibit several interesting phenomena including spontaneous pattern formation above a critical concentration, novel rheological properties, shear-induced concentration banding etc. Explanations based on mean-field theory are only qualitative, since interactions between swimmers are important for typical experimental concentrations. We analytically characterize the hydrodynamic pair-interactions in a quiescent suspension of slender straight swimmers. The pair-correlation, calculated at leading order by integrating the swimmer velocity disturbances along straight trajectories, decays as 1/r2 for r >> L (L being the swimmer size). This allows us to characterize both polar and nematic correlations in an interacting swimmer suspension. In the absence of correlations, the velocity covariance asymptotes from a constant for r > L, the latter being characteristic of a suspension of non-interacting point force-dipoles. On including correlations, the slow decay of the pair-orientation correlation leads to an additional contribution to the velocity covariance that diverges logarithmically with system size.

  5. Baltimore District Tackles High Suspension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how the Baltimore District tackles its high suspension rates. Driven by an increasing belief that zero-tolerance disciplinary policies are ineffective, more educators are embracing strategies that do not exclude misbehaving students from school for offenses such as insubordination, disrespect, cutting class, tardiness, and…

  6. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  7. Yield stress of alumina-zirconia suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, V.; Pradip; Malghan, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    The yield stress of concentrated suspensions of alumina, zirconia, and mixed alumina-zirconia powders was measured by the vane technique as a function of solids loading, relative amounts of alumina and zirconia, and pH. At the isoelectric point (IEP), the yield stress varied as the fourth power of the solids loading. The relative ratio of alumina and zirconia particles was important in determining the yield stress of the suspension at the IEP. The yield stress of single and mixed suspensions showed a marked variation with pH. The maximum value occurred at or near the IEP of the suspension. The effect of electrical double-layer forces on the yield stress can be described on the basis of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. A normalized yield stress--that is, the ratio of the yield stress at a given pH to the yield stress at the IEP predicted by this model--showed good correlation with experimental data

  8. Alternatives to School Disciplinary and Suspension Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Div. of Instruction.

    Policies and procedures for disciplining students should be designed to teach them responsibility, rather than simply punish them. Providing educational opportunities to behavioral deviants is a problem that does not have a simple solution. However, alternatives to suspension or expulsion must be attempted before these disciplinary actions are…

  9. Microscopical advances in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, B

    2004-01-01

    In a series of papers carried out by this laboratory it was demonstrated that the quality of sterile males sperm, assessed submicroscopically and mathematically, is closely correlated with the success of the various procedures of assisted reproduction. If we attempt to select hypothetically optimal spermatozoa destined to the ICSI by light inverted microscopy, a considerable amount of ultrastructural information is lost and our selection is merely based on the motility. In this study we apply polarization microscopy to the ICSI technique, introducing polarizing and analyzing lenses in an inverted microscope model, operating in a transparent container. The retardation of the birefringence in the various organelles is evaluated by compensators, and the images are transmitted to a video system, and stored in a computer. Spermatozoa are maintained alive and perfectly motile in this polarizing inverted microscope, and the character of the birefringence is the same as in fixed and sectioned biological material examined by polarization microscopy. The birefringence of the sperm structures allows a sperm analysis closer to TEM than to phase contrast light microscopy analysis.

  10. Visualizing 3-D microscopic specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Per-Ola; Majlof, Lars L.

    1992-06-01

    The confocal microscope can be used in a vast number of fields and applications to gather more information than is possible with a regular light microscope, in particular about depth. Compared to other three-dimensional imaging devices such as CAT, NMR, and PET, the variations of the objects studied are larger and not known from macroscopic dissections. It is therefore important to have several complementary ways of displaying the gathered information. We present a system where the user can choose display techniques such as extended focus, depth coding, solid surface modeling, maximum intensity and other techniques, some of which may be combined. A graphical user interface provides easy and direct control of all input parameters. Motion and stereo are available options. Many three- dimensional imaging devices give recordings where one dimension has different resolution and sampling than the other two which requires interpolation to obtain correct geometry. We have evaluated algorithms with interpolation in object space and in projection space. There are many ways to simplify the geometrical transformations to gain performance. We present results of some ways to simplify the calculations.

  11. Robotic autopositioning of the operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenlander, Mark E; Chowdhry, Shakeel A; Merkl, Brandon; Hattendorf, Guido M; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2014-06-01

    Use of the operating microscope has become pervasive since its introduction to the neurosurgical world. Neuronavigation fused with the operating microscope has allowed accurate correlation of the focal point of the microscope and its location on the downloaded imaging study. However, the robotic ability of the Pentero microscope has not been utilized to orient the angle of the microscope or to change its focal length to hone in on a predefined target. To report a novel technology that allows automatic positioning of the operating microscope onto a set target and utilization of a planned trajectory, either determined with the StealthStation S7 by using preoperative imaging or intraoperatively with the microscope. By utilizing the current motorized capabilities of the Zeiss OPMI Pentero microscope, a robotic autopositioning feature was developed in collaboration with Surgical Technologies, Medtronic, Inc. (StealthStation S7). The system is currently being tested at the Barrow Neurological Institute. Three options were developed for automatically positioning the microscope: AutoLock Current Point, Align Parallel to Plan, and Point to Plan Target. These options allow the microscope to pivot around the lesion, hover in a set plane parallel to the determined trajectory, or rotate and point to a set target point, respectively. Integration of automatic microscope positioning into the operative workflow has potential to increase operative efficacy and safety. This technology is best suited for precise trajectories and entry points into deep-seated lesions.

  12. Outgoing Longwave Radiation Daily Climate Data Record (OLR Daily CDR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product contains the 1-degree by 1-degree daily mean outgoing longwave radiation flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from HIRS radiance observations...

  13. Daily and Sub-daily Precipitation for the Former USSR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...

  14. Electrostratic stabilization of suspensions in non-aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van der P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated suspensions of detergent powder solids in a liquid nonionic surfactant are considered for practical application as liquid detergent products. If no precautions are taken, upon storage the viscosity of such suspensions increases and the pourability drops because the suspensions are

  15. Preview based control of suspension systems for commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijderman, J.H.E.A.; Kok, J.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Veldpaus, F.E.; van Heck, J.G.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    An active suspension with preview is developed for the rear axle of a commercial vehicle. The obtained improvements are promising and justify further investigation of the more feasible semi-active suspensions with preview. The inherent non-linearity of semi-active suspensions with switching shock

  16. Professor Jesse W. Beams and the first practical magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, P. E.; Humphris, R. R.; Lewis, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Dr. Jesse W. Beams developed the first practical magnetic suspension for high speed rotating devices. The devices included high speed rotating mirrors, ultracentrifuges, and high speed centrifugal field rotors. A brief biography of Dr. Beams is presented, and the following topics are discussed: (1) early axial magnetic suspension for ultracentrifuges; and (2) magnetic suspension for high centrifugal fields.

  17. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We design and investigate the performance of fuzzy logic-controlled (FLC) active suspensions on a nonlinear vehicle model with four degrees of freedom, without causing any degeneration in suspension working limits. Force actuators were mounted parallel to the suspensions. In this new approach, linear combinations of ...

  18. Behaviour of humic-bentonite aggregates in diluted suspensions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formation and disaggregation of micron-size aggregates in a diluted suspension made up of HSs and bentonite (B) were studied by tracing distribution of aggregate sizes and their counts in freshly prepared and aged suspensions, and at high (10 000) and low (1.0) [HS]/[B] ratios. Diluted HSB suspensions are unstable ...

  19. 15 CFR 2011.207 - Suspension of the certificate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.207 Suspension of the certificate system. (a) Suspension. The.... Notice of such suspension and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (b... such reinstatement and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (c...

  20. 13 CFR 120.660 - Suspension or revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension or revocation. 120.660 Section 120.660 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Suspension Or Revocation of Participant in Secondary Market § 120.660 Suspension or revocation. (a...

  1. 39 CFR 3001.114 - Suspension pending review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension pending review. 3001.114 Section 3001... Suspension pending review. (a) Application. Application for suspension of a determination of the Postal Service to close or consolidate any post office pending the outcome of an appeal to the Postal Regulatory...

  2. 21 CFR 520.905a - Fenbendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole suspension. 520.905a Section 520.905a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905a Fenbendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) fenbendazole. (b...

  3. Preparation and encapsulation of white/yellow dual colored suspensions for electrophoretic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingjing; Li, Xiaoxu; Feng, Yaqing; Zhang, Bao

    2014-11-01

    C.I. Pigment Yellow 181 (PY181) composite particles encapsulated by polyethylene (PE) were prepared by dispersion polymerization method, and C.I. Pigment Yellow 110 (PY110) composite particles encapsulated by polystyrene (PS) with mini-emulsion polymerization method were achieved, respectively. The modified pigments were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Compared with the PE-coated PY 181 pigments, the PS-coated PY-110 particles had a narrow particle size distribution, regular spherical and average particle size of 450 nm. Suspension 1 and suspension 3 were prepared by the two composite particles dispersed in isopar M. A chromatic electrophoretic display cell consisting of yellow particles was successfully fabricated using dispersions of yellow ink particles in a mixed dielectric solvent with white particles as contrast. The response behavior and the contrast ratio to the electric voltage were also examined. The contrast ratio of pigments modified by polystyrene was 1.48, as well as the response time was 2 s, which were better than those of pigments modified by polyethylene.

  4. A rheological and microscopical characterization of biocompatible ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J.; Wolf, D.; Odenbach, S.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles in the biomedical area. Those ferrofluids are e.g. used for magnetic resonance imaging and emerging research focuses on employing the fluids for magnetic drug targeting or magnetic particle heating as a potential treatment for cancer. For these applications the knowledge of the suspensions' thermophysical properties is of major interest to guarantee a safe and effective application. Therefore the flow behavior cannot be neglected as it might significantly influence the execution of the aforementioned applications. In this experimental study two biocompatible ferrofluids were investigated. Rheological measurements were carried out using rotational rheometry. To allow an interpretation of the fluids' behavior the microscopic make-up was investigated using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Measurements of diluted ferrofluids were carried out as a first step to simulate the rheological behavior reflecting the concentration of magnetic nanoparticles found in blood flow for most biomedical applications of such fluids. The detected strong effects show the potential to significantly influence application and handling of the biocompatible ferrofluids in the medical area and should therefore be taken into account for further research as well as for the application of such fluids. - Highlights: • The rheology of biocompatible multicore ferrofluids is influenced by magnetic fields. • The flow curves can be described by the Herschel–Bulkley model. • A connection between the magnetoviscous effect and the particle size is found. • The strong magnetoviscous effect exists even if the fluids are diluted. • The connection between the effect and the dilution is mathematically described

  5. Lightship Daily Observations - NARA Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1893 - 1943. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  6. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  7. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  8. Microstructural Dynamics and Rheology of Suspensions of Rigid Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason E.; Snook, Braden

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics and rheology of suspensions of rigid, non-Brownian fibers in Newtonian fluids are reviewed. Experiments, theories, and computer simulations are considered, with an emphasis on suspensions at semidilute and concentrated conditions. In these suspensions, interactions between the particles strongly influence the microstructure and rheological properties of the suspension. The interactions can arise from hydrodynamic disturbances, giving multibody interactions at long ranges and pairwise lubrication forces over short distances. For concentrated suspensions, additional interactions due to excluded volume (contacts) and adhesive forces are addressed. The relative importance of the various interactions as a function of fiber concentration is assessed.

  9. Relationships Among Nightly Sleep Quality, Daily Stress, and Daily Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxton, Jessica M; Bergeman, Cindy S; Whitehead, Brenda R; Braun, Marcia E; Payne, Jessic D

    2017-05-01

    We explored the prospective, microlevel relationship between nightly sleep quality (SQ) and the subsequent day's stress on positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as the moderating relationships between nightly SQ, subsequent stress, and subsequent PA on NA. We investigated whether age moderated these relationships. We collected 56 days of sleep, stress, and affect data using daily diary questionnaires (N = 552). We used multilevel modeling to assess relationships at the between- and within-person levels. Daily increases in SQ and decreases in stress interacted to predict higher daily PA and lower daily NA. Better SQ in older adults enhanced the benefits of PA on the stress-NA relationship more during times of low stress, whereas better sleep in younger adults enhanced the benefits of PA more during times of high stress. Between-person effects were stronger predictors of well-being outcomes than within-person variability. The combination of good SQ and higher PA buffered the impact of stress on NA. The moderating impact of age suggests that sleep and stress play different roles across adulthood. Targeting intervention and prevention strategies to improve SQ and enhance PA could disrupt the detrimental relationship between daily stress and NA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Study on kinematic and compliance test of suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lixin; Wu, Liguang; Li, Xuepeng; Zhang, Yu

    2017-09-01

    Chassis performance development is a major difficulty in vehicle research and development, which is the main factor restricting the independent development of vehicles in China. These years, through a large number of studies, chassis engineers have found that the suspension K&C characteristics as a quasi-static characteristic of the suspension provides a technical route for the suspension performance R&D, and the suspension K&C test has become an important means of vehicle benchmarking, optimization and verification. However, the research on suspension K&C test is less in china, and the test conditions and setting requirements vary greatly from OEM to OEM. In this paper, the influence of different settings on the characteristics of the suspension is obtained through experiments, and the causes of the differences are analyzed; in order to fully reflect the suspension characteristics, the author recommends the appropriate test case and settings.

  11. System and technique for ultrasonic characterization of settling suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Margaret S [Richland, WA; Panetta, Paul D [Richland, WA; Bamberger, Judith A [Richland, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA

    2006-11-28

    A system for determining properties of settling suspensions includes a settling container, a mixer, and devices for ultrasonic interrogation transverse to the settling direction. A computer system controls operation of the mixer and the interrogation devices and records the response to the interrogating as a function of settling time, which is then used to determine suspension properties. Attenuation versus settling time for dilute suspensions, such as dilute wood pulp suspension, exhibits a peak at different settling times for suspensions having different properties, and the location of this peak is used as one mechanism for characterizing suspensions. Alternatively or in addition, a plurality of ultrasound receivers are arranged at different angles to a common transmitter to receive scattering responses at a variety of angles during particle settling. Angular differences in scattering as a function of settling time are also used to characterize the suspension.

  12. Nonlinear Predictive Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhuang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An active suspension system is important in meeting the requirements of the ride comfort and handling stability for vehicles. In this work, a nonlinear model of active suspension system and a corresponding nonlinear robust predictive sliding mode control are established for the control problem of active suspension. Firstly, a seven-degree-of-freedom active suspension model is established considering the nonlinear effects of springs and dampers; and secondly, the dynamic model is expanded in the time domain, and the corresponding predictive sliding mode control is established. The uncertainties in the controller are approximated by the fuzzy logic system, and the adaptive controller reduces the approximation error to increase the robustness of the control system. Finally, the simulation results show that the ride comfort and handling stability performance of the active suspension system is better than that of the passive suspension system and the Skyhook active suspension. Thus, the system can obviously improve the shock absorption performance of vehicles.

  13. Design of a transmission electron positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, Masao; Inoue, M.; Kogure, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshii, T.; Kurihara, T.; Tsuno, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the plans and design of positron-electron microscopes being built at KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), Tsukuba, Japan. A used electron microscope is altered. The kinetic energies of positrons produced by accelerators or by nuclear decays are not a unique value but show a spread over in a wide range. Positron beam is guided to a transmission electron microscope (JEM100SX). Positrons are moderated by a tungsten foil, are accelerated and are focused on a nickel sheet. The monochromatic focused beam is injected into an electron microscope. The focusing and aberration of positrons are the same as electrons in a magnetic system which are used in commercial electron microscopes. Imaging plates are used to record positron images for the transmission electron microscope. (author)

  14. Time varying behaviour of the loudspeaker suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2009-01-01

    The compliance of the loudspeaker suspension is known to depend on the recent excitation level history. Previous investigations have shown that the electrical power as well as displacement and velocity plays a role. In this paper the hypothesis that the changes in compliance are caused mainly...... by how much the suspension has been stretched, i.e., the maximum displacement, is investigated. For this purpose the changes in compliance are measured when exposing the loudspeaker to different levels and types of electrical excitation signals, as well as mechanical excitation only. For sinusoidal...... excitation the change in compliance is shown to depend primarily on maximum displacement. But for square pulse excitation the duration of the excitation also plays an important role....

  15. Constraint Embedding for Vehicle Suspension Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Abhinandan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to achieve close to real-time dynamics performance for allowing auto-pilot in-the-loop testing of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV for urban as well as off-road scenarios. The overall vehicle dynamics performance is governed by the multibody dynamics model for the vehicle, the wheel/terrain interaction dynamics and the onboard control system. The topic of this paper is the development of computationally efficient and accurate dynamics model for ground vehicles with complex suspension dynamics. A challenge is that typical vehicle suspensions involve closed-chain loops which require expensive DAE integration techniques. In this paper, we illustrate the use the alternative constraint embedding technique to reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of the dynamics model for the vehicle.

  16. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-04-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions are implemented using a pseudopotential model. The Nernst-Planck equation, describing the kinetics of dissolved ion species, is solved using a finite difference discretization based on the link-flux method. The colloids are resolved on the lattice and coupled to the hydrodynamics and electrokinetics through appropriate boundary conditions. We present the first full integration of these three elements. The model is validated by comparing with known analytic solutions of ionic distributions at fluid interfaces, dielectric droplet deformations, and the electrophoretic mobility of colloidal suspensions. Its possibilities are explored by considering various physical systems, such as breakup of charged and neutral droplets and colloidal dynamics at either planar or spherical fluid interfaces.

  17. Submerged cutting characteristics of abrasive suspension jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Seiji; Peng, Guoyi; Oguma, Yasuyuki; Nishikata, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    An abrasive suspension jet (ASJ) formed by propelling abrasive suspension through a nozzle has a greater cutting capability than the conventional abrasive water jet. However the cutting capability of submerged ASJs decreases drastically with increasing the standoff distance and the pressure around the jet. A sheathed nozzle with ventilation for ASJs has been developed as a mean of extending the effective stand-off distance and improving the cutting capabilities under submerged condition. In the present investigation, cutting tests by ASJs in air and under submerged condition are conducted with specimens of aluminum alloy. Air coated ASJs are formed by using a sheathed nozzle with ventilation. The relative cutting depth is defined as the cutting depth under submerged condition divided by the cutting depth in air at the same standoff distance. The relative cutting depth is arranged effectually by the cavitation number based on the cavity pressure measured at the sheath. (author)

  18. Submerged cutting characteristics of abrasive suspension jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Seiji; Peng, Guoyi; Oguma, Yasuyuki; Nishikata, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    An abrasive suspension jet (ASJ) formed by propelling abrasive suspension through a nozzle has a greater cutting capability than the conventional abrasive water jet. However the cutting capability of submerged ASJs decreases drastically with increasing the standoff distance and the pressure around the jet. A sheathed nozzle nozzle with ventilation for ASJs has been developed as a mean of extending the effective stand-off distance and improving the cutting capabilities under submerged condition. In the present investigation, cutting tests by ASJs in air and under submerged condition are conducted with specimens of aluminum alloy. Air coated ASJs are formed by using a sheathed nozzle with ventilation. The relative cutting depth is defined as the cutting depth is arranged effectually by the cavitation number based on the cavity pressure measured at the sheath. (author)

  19. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  20. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninad Arun Malpure

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are collecting air in the cylinder and store this energy into the tank by simply driving the vehicle. This method is non-conventional as no fuel input is required and is least polluting.

  1. Characterization of alumina suspensions by electroacoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galassi, C.; Roncari, E.; Greenwood, R.; Piancastelli, A. [CNR, Faenza (Italy). Research Inst. for Ceramics Technology

    1997-12-31

    Using the acoustophoresis technique three different dispersants were selected to investigate the effect of the volume fraction of the suspension on the minimum amount of dispersant required to give the maximum zeta potential. No effect was detected over a volume fraction range 0.11 to 0.35. The acoustosizer was used to screen many dispersants for alumina in a relatively short time. From the viewpoint that the most stable suspensions are those with the greatest zeta potentials, then the following dispersants can be recommended: Reotan LA (0.25 mg/m{sup 2}) Dolapix CA (0.20 mg/m{sup 2}) and Dolapix PC33 (0.30 mg/m{sup 2}). Vanisperse and Borresperse are poor. Polyacrylic acid and polymethacrylic acid were better than some commercially available products. (orig.) 2 refs.

  2. Vibration Reduction System Using Magnetic Suspension Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spychała Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents considerations concerning the construction of vibration reduction system using magnetic suspension technology. Presents the results of simulation, numerical and experimental the bearingless electric motor, for which successfully used this type of solution. Positive results of research and testing have become the basis for the development of the concept of building this type of active vibration reduction system , at the same time acting as a support for a technical object, which is a jet engine. Bearing failures are manifested by loss or distortion of their mass, which leads to a total destruction of the roller bearing, and thus reflected in the security. The article presents the concept of building active magnetic suspension to eliminate the bearing system of classical rolling bearing and replace it with magnetic bearing.

  3. Foldscope: origami-based paper microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S Cybulski

    Full Text Available Here we describe an ultra-low-cost origami-based approach for large-scale manufacturing of microscopes, specifically demonstrating brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopes. Merging principles of optical design with origami enables high-volume fabrication of microscopes from 2D media. Flexure mechanisms created via folding enable a flat compact design. Structural loops in folded paper provide kinematic constraints as a means for passive self-alignment. This light, rugged instrument can survive harsh field conditions while providing a diversity of imaging capabilities, thus serving wide-ranging applications for cost-effective, portable microscopes in science and education.

  4. Microscopic description of magnetized plasma: quasiparticle concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    A quasiparticle concept is developed systematically, from first principles, within the context of microscopic description of magnetized plasma. It is argued that the zeroth velocity-gyroangle harmonic of the microscopic particle distribution function under the gyrokinetic change of variables can be taken as a microscopic quasi-particle density in a reduced phase space. The nature of quasiparticles is discussed and equations of their motion are derived within both exact and reduced microscopic descriptions. The reduced one employs explicitly the separation of interesting time scales. (orig.)

  5. Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten P.

    Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope......Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope...

  6. Low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sandeep; Salin, Dominique; Talon, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    The extension of a gravity current in a lock-exchange problem, proceeds as square root of time in the viscous-buoyancy phase, where there is a balance between gravitational and viscous forces. In the presence of particles however, this scenario is drastically altered, because sedimentation reduces the motive gravitational force and introduces a finite distance and time at which the gravity current halts. We investigate the spreading of low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents using a novel approach based on the Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. The suspension is modeled as a continuous medium with a concentration-dependent viscosity. The settling of particles is simulated using a drift flux function approach that enables us to capture sudden discontinuities in particle concentration that travel as kinematic shock waves. Thereafter a numerical investigation of lock-exchange flows between pure fluids of unequal viscosity, reveals the existence of wall layers which reduce the spreading rate substantially compared to the lubrication theory prediction. In suspension gravity currents, we observe that the settling of particles leads to the formation of two additional fronts: a horizontal front near the top that descends vertically and a sediment layer at the bottom which aggrandises due to deposition of particles. Three phases are identified in the spreading process: the final corresponding to the mutual approach of the two horizontal fronts while the laterally advancing front halts indicating that the suspension current stops even before all the particles have settled. The first two regimes represent a constant and a decreasing spreading rate respectively. Finally we conduct experiments to substantiate the conclusions of our numerical and theoretical investigation.

  7. The aqueous homogeneous suspension reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The power of the KSTR reactor has been increased up to 200 kW in the fourth quarter of 1974. A description is given of the behaviour of the reactor at increased power level, safety aspects concerned with this new level, the operation of the reactor, instrumental behavior and mechanical behavior. Irradiation investigation of two types of fuels are reported and results are presented. Progress made on the conceptual design of a 250 MWe suspension reactor is described

  8. A Model of Active Roll Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Čech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes active suspension with active roll for four-wheel vehicle (bus by means of an in-series pump actuator with doubled hydropneumatic springs. It also gives full control law with no sky-craping. Lateral stiffness and solid axle geometry in the mechanical model are not neglected. Responses to lateral input as well as responses to statistical unevennesses show considerable improvement of passengers comfort and safety when cornering.

  9. Magnetic suspension - Today's marvel, tomorrow's tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Langley facility has through constant advocacy of magnetic suspension systems (MSSs) for wind-tunnel model positioning obtained a technology-development status for the requisite large magnets, computers, automatic control techniques, and apparatus configurations, to contemplate the construction of MSSs for large wind tunnels. Attention is presently given to the prospects for MSSs in wind tunnels employing superfluid helium atmospheres to obtain very high Reynolds numbers, where the MSS can yield substantial enhancements of wind tunnel productivity.

  10. Geometrical analysis of suspension flows near jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyart, Matthieu

    2012-02-01

    The viscosity of suspensions was computed early on by Einstein and Batchelor in the dilute regime. At high density however, their rheology remains mystifying. As the packing fraction increases, steric hindrance becomes dominant and particles move under stress in a more and more coordinated way. Eventually, the viscosity diverges as the suspension jams into an amorphous solid. Such a jamming transition is reminiscent of critical points: the rheology displays scaling and a diverging length scale. Jamming bear similarities with the glass transition where steric hindrance is enhanced under cooling, and where the dynamics is also observed to become more and more collective as it slows down. In all these examples, understanding the nature of the collective dynamics and the associated rheology remains a challenge. Recent progress has been made however on a related problem, the unjamming transition where a solid made of repulsive soft particles is isotropically decompressed toward vanishing pressure. In this situation various properties of the amorphous solid, such as elasticity, transport or force propagation, display scaling with the distance to threshold. Theoretically these observations can be shown to stem from the presence of soft modes in the vibrational spectrum, a result that can be extended to thermal colloidal glasses as well. Here we focus on particles driven by shear at zero temperature. We show that if hydrodynamical interactions are neglected an analogy can be made between the rheology of such a suspension and the elasticity of simple networks, building a link between the jamming and the unjamming transition. This analogy enables us to unify in a common framework key aspects of the elasticity of amorphous solids with the rheology of dense suspensions, and to relate features of the latter to the geometry of configurations visited under flow.

  11. Torsional asymmetry in suspension bridge systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2015), s. 677-701 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : suspension bridge * Hamilton principle * vertical and torsional oscillation * uniqueness * existence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10492-015-0117-3

  12. Compounded Apixaban Suspensions for Enteral Feeding Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Maria L; Donmez, Seda; Nathan, Kobi; Zhao, Fang

    2017-07-01

    Objective: There is limited information on compounded apixaban formulations for administration via enteral feeding tubes. This study was designed to identify a suitable apixaban suspension formulation that is easy to prepare in a pharmacy setting, is compatible with commonly used feeding tubes, and has a beyond-use date of 7 days. Methods: Apixaban suspensions were prepared from commercially available 5-mg Eliquis tablets. Several vehicles and compounding methods were screened for ease of preparation, dosage accuracy, and tube compatibility. Two tubing types, polyurethane and polyvinyl chloride, with varying lengths and diameters, were included in the study. They were mounted on a peg board during evaluation to mimic the patient body position. A 7-day stability study of the selected formulation was also conducted. Results: Vehicles containing 40% to 60% Ora-Plus in water all exhibited satisfactory flowability through the tubes. The mortar/pestle compounding method was found to produce more accurate and consistent apixaban suspensions than the pill crusher or crushing syringe method. The selected formulation, 0.25 mg/mL apixaban in 50:50 Ora-Plus:water, was compatible with both tubing types, retaining >98% drug in posttube samples. The stability study also confirmed that this formulation was stable physically and chemically over 7 days of storage at room temperature. Conclusions: A suitable apixaban suspension formulation was identified for administration via enteral feeding tubes. The formulation consisted of 0.25 mg/mL apixaban in 50:50 Ora-Plus:water. The stability study results supported a beyond-use date of 7 days at room temperature.

  13. Spectral analysis connected with suspension bridge systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2016), s. 42-75 ISSN 0272-4960 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : suspension bridge * vertical and torsional oscillation * eigenvalue * eigenvector * flutter Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.945, year: 2016 http://imamat.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/09/16/imamat.hxv027.short?rss=1

  14. Design of a suspension system and determining suspension parameters of a medium downforce small Formula type car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Sadjyot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper is on designing a suspension system for a medium downforce small Formula type race car. The paper not only focusses on step by step design for a double wishbone type suspension but will also show the use and role of kinematics software in determining the optimized suspension of the car. The paper will also focus on the use of tire data in determining suspension parameters and the design of the double wishbone suspension. Various parameters, their design importance and the process to optimize them according to suspension design goals will be covered. The easiest and best ways to change the suspension parameters to get the best results will also be covered.

  15. A microscope for Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports on a novel quantum gas microscope to investigate many-body systems of fermionic atoms in optical lattices. Single-site resolved imaging of ultracold lattice gases has enabled powerful studies of bosonic quantum many-body systems. The extension of this capability to Fermi gases offers new prospects to studying complex phenomena of strongly correlated systems, for which numerical simulations are often out of reach. Using standard techniques of laser cooling, optical trapping, and evaporative cooling, ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li are prepared and loaded into a large-scale 2D optical lattice of flexible geometry. The atomic distribution is frozen using a second, short-scaled lattice, where we perform Raman sideband cooling to induce fluorescence on each atom while maintaining its position. Together with high-resolution imaging, the fluorescence signals allow for reconstructing the initial atom distribution with single-site sensitivity and high fidelity. Magnetically driven evaporative cooling in the plane allows for producing degenerate Fermi gases with almost unity filling in the initial lattice, allowing for the first microscopic studies of ultracold gases with clear signatures of Fermi statistics. By preparing an ensemble of spin-polarised Fermi gases, we detect a flattening of the density profile towards the centre of the cloud, which is a characteristic of a band-insulating state. In one set of experiments, we demonstrate that losses of atom pairs on a single lattice site due to light-assisted collisions are circumvented. The oversampling of the second lattice allows for deterministic separation of the atom pairs into different sites. Compressing a high-density sample in a trap before loading into the lattice leads to many double occupancies of atoms populating different bands, which we can image with no evidence for pairwise losses. We therefore gain direct access to the true number statistics on each lattice site. Using this feature, we can

  16. Assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Josef; Skočilas, Jan; Skočilasová, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    The article deals with assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics. The essential characteristics of a suspension are represented by the stiffness constants of the equivalent springs and the eigen frequencies of the oscillating movements in reference to the main central inertia axes of a vehicle. The premise of the experimental determination of these characteristic is the knowledge of the gravity center position and the knowledge of the main central inertia moments of the vehicle frame. The vehicle frame performs the general spatial movement when the vehicle moves. An analysis of the frame movement generally arises from Euler's equations which are commonly used for the description of the spherical movement. This solution is difficult and it can be simplified by applying the specific assumptions. The eigen frequencies solutions and solutions of the suspension stiffness are presented in the article. The solutions are applied on the railway and road vehicles with the simplifying conditions. A new method which assessed the characteristics is described in the article.

  17. Asystole following Reintubation during Suspension Laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl H. Glassman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient increase in heart rate and mean arterial pressure commonly occur during manipulation of the airway via direct laryngoscopy. This phenomenon is understood to be due to a sympathetic nervous system reflex causing an increase in plasma catecholamines. Rarely, severe bradycardia and possible asystole can occur following laryngoscopy. One previous report described asystole during suspension laryngoscopy after uneventful direct laryngoscopy. Here we report a case of asystole occurring at the time of reinsertion and cuff inflation of an endotracheal tube in a patient who had been hemodynamically stable during initial direct laryngoscopy and the ensuing suspension laryngoscopy. The asystole was immediately recognized and successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with the patient returning to baseline sinus rhythm. Cardiac arrest following laryngoscopy is rare. This case highlights the importance of continued vigilance even after the initial manipulations of the airway by both direct laryngoscopy and suspension laryngoscopy are to be performed. Identifying patients who may benefit from premedication with a vagolytic drug may prevent adversity. Preoperative heart rate analysis can identify patients with strong vagal tone.

  18. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  19. Physical gelation of a microfiber suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Antonio; Nunes, Janine K.; Guido, Stefano; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogels are among the most exploited materials in tissue engineering and there is growing interest in injectable hydrogels, especially as applied to surgical adhesives and bioprinting materials. Here we report a method to produce a hydrogel in a desired location by simply extruding a suspension of high aspect ratio and flexible microfibers from a syringe. The mechanism of gel formation is purely physical and based on irreversible entanglements formed by the microfibers under the action of flow. The single microfibers have been produced and finely tailored by microfluidic methods. Shear rheology has been performed in order to get insights on the entanglements, and results show that the formation of entanglements is related to a shear thickening behavior of the suspension, which in turn depends on shear rate and concentration of fibers. When shearing the suspension, highly non-linear viscoelastic behavior is observed and probed by a highly positive first normal stress difference. We also report the hydrogel swelling behavior and its linear viscoelastic properties as obtained by imposing small oscillatory stress to the material.

  20. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  1. A universal suspension test rig for electrohydraulic active and passive automotive suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Omar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully active electro-hydraulic and passive automotive quarter car suspensions with their experimental test-rigs are designed and implemented. Investigation of the active performance compared against the passive is performed experimentally and numerically utilizing SIMULINK's Simscape library. Both systems are modeled as single-degree-of-freedom in order to simplify the validation process. Economic considerations were considered during the rig's implementation. The rig consists of two identical platforms fixed side by side allowing testing two independent suspensions simultaneously. Position sensors for sprung and unsprung masses on both platforms are installed. The road input is introduced by a cam and a roller follower mechanism driven by 1.12 kW single phase induction motor with speed reduction assembly. The active hydraulic cylinder was the most viable choice due to its high power-to-weight ratio. The active control is of the proportional-integral-differential (PID type. Though this technique is quite simple and not new, yet the emphasis of this paper is the engineering, design and implementation of the experimental setup and controller. A successful validation process is performed. Ride comfort significantly improved with active suspension, as shown by the results; 24.8% sprung mass vibration attenuation is achieved. The details of the developed system with the analytical and experimental results are presented. Keywords: Active suspension, Passive suspension, Servo, Hydraulic, Control, PID

  2. Hamiltonian mechanics limits microscopic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, James; Gilz, Lukas; Thesing, Eike

    2015-05-01

    We propose a definition of fully microscopic engines (micro-engines) in terms of pure mechanics, without reference to thermodynamics, equilibrium, or cycles imposed by external control, and without invoking ergodic theory. This definition is pragmatically based on the observation that what makes engines useful is energy transport across a large ratio of dynamical time scales. We then prove that classical and quantum mechanics set non-trivial limits-of different kinds-on how much of the energy that a micro-engine extracts from its fuel can be converted into work. Our results are not merely formal; they imply manageable design constraints on micro-engines. They also suggest the novel possibility that thermodynamics does not emerge from mechanics in macroscopic regimes, but rather represents the macroscopic limit of a generalized theory, valid on all scales, which governs the important phenomenon of energy transport across large time scale ratios. We propose experimental realizations of the dynamical mechanisms we identify, with trapped ions and in Bose-Einstein condensates (``motorized bright solitons'').

  3. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential. PMID:27649932

  4. Mice embryology: a microscopic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Maria Letícia Baptista; Lessa, Thais Borges; Russo, Fabiele Baldino; Fernandes, Renata Avancini; Kfoury, José Roberto; Braga, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we studied the embryology of mice of 12, 14, and 18 days of gestation by gross observation, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Grossly, the embryos of 12 days were observed in C-shaped region of the brain, eye pigmentation of the retina, first, second, and third pharyngeal arches gill pit nasal region on the fourth ventricle brain, cervical curvature, heart, liver, limb bud thoracic, spinal cord, tail, umbilical cord, and place of the mesonephric ridge. Microscopically, the liver, cardiovascular system and spinal cord were observed. In the embryo of 14 days, we observed structures that make up the liver and heart. At 18 days of gestation fetuses, it was noted the presence of eyes, mouth, and nose in the cephalic region, chest and pelvic region with the presence of well-developed limbs, umbilical cord, and placenta. Scanning electron microscopy in 18 days of gestation fetuses evidenced head, eyes closed eyelids, nose, vibrissae, forelimb, heart, lung, kidney, liver, small bowel, diaphragm, and part of the spine. The results obtained in this work describe the internal and external morphology of mice, provided by an integration of techniques and review of the morphological knowledge of the embryonic development of this species, as this animal is of great importance to scientific studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Scanning Microscopes Using X Rays and Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2003-01-01

    Scanning microscopes that would be based on microchannel filters and advanced electronic image sensors and that utilize x-ray illumination have been proposed. Because the finest resolution attainable in a microscope is determined by the wavelength of the illumination, the xray illumination in the proposed microscopes would make it possible, in principle, to achieve resolutions of the order of nanometers about a thousand times as fine as the resolution of a visible-light microscope. Heretofore, it has been necessary to use scanning electron microscopes to obtain such fine resolution. In comparison with scanning electron microscopes, the proposed microscopes would likely be smaller, less massive, and less expensive. Moreover, unlike in scanning electron microscopes, it would not be necessary to place specimens under vacuum. The proposed microscopes are closely related to the ones described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles; namely, Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43; and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 2002) page 6a. In all of these microscopes, the basic principle of design and operation is the same: The focusing optics of a conventional visible-light microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. A microchannel plate containing parallel, microscopic-cross-section holes much longer than they are wide is placed between a specimen and an image sensor, which is typically the CCD. The microchannel plate must be made of a material that absorbs the illuminating radiation reflected or scattered from the specimen. The microchannels must be positioned and dimensioned so that each one is registered with a pixel on the image sensor. Because most of the radiation incident on the microchannel walls becomes absorbed, the radiation that reaches the

  6. A transmission positron microscope and a scanning positron microscope being built at KEK, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, M.; Inoue, M.; Kogure, Y.; Kurihara, T.; Yagishita, A.; Shidara, T.; Nakahara, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the plans of positron microscopes being built at KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), Tsukuba, Japan improving used electron microscopes. The kinetic energies of positron produced by accelerators or by nuclear decays have not a unique value but show a spread over in a wide range. Positron beam will be guided near electron microscopes, a transmission electron microscope (JEM100S) and a scanning electron microscope (JSM25S). Positrons are slowed down by a tungsten foil, accelerated and focused on a nickel sheet. The monochromatic focused beam will be injected into an electron microscope. The focusing of positrons and electrons is achieved by magnetic system of the electron microscopes. Imaging plates are used to record positron images for the transmission electron microscope. (orig.)

  7. A microscopic model of triangular arbitrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Yukihiro; Hatano, Naomichi

    2006-11-01

    We introduce a microscopic model which describes the dynamics of each dealer in multiple foreign exchange markets, taking account of the triangular arbitrage transaction. The model reproduces the interaction among the markets well. We explore the relation between the parameters of the present microscopic model and the spring constant of a macroscopic model that we proposed previously.

  8. Quantum theory and microscopic mechanics. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.

    1984-08-01

    The need for theoretical descriptions and experimental observations on 'small' individual systems is emphasized. It is shown that the mathematical basis for microscopic mechanics is very simple in one dimension. The square well problem is discussed to clarify general points about stationary states and the continuity of (p'/p) across potential boundaries in the applications of microscopic mechanics. (author)

  9. Electron Microscope Center Opens at Berkeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1981-01-01

    A 1.5-MeV High Voltage Electron Microscope has been installed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory which will help materials scientists and biologists study samples in more true-to-life situations. A 1-MeV Atomic Resolution Microscope will be installed at the same location in two years which will allow scientists to distinguish atoms. (DS)

  10. A new ion sensing deep atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Barney; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Hansma, Paul K. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new deep atomic force microscope (AFM) capable of ion sensing. A novel probe assembly incorporates a micropipette that can be used both for sensing ion currents and as the tip for AFM imaging. The key advance of this instrument over previous ion sensing AFMs is that it uses conventional micropipettes in a novel suspension system. This paper focuses on sensing the ion current passively while using force feedback for the operation of the AFM in contact mode. Two images are obtained simultaneously: (1) an AFM topography image and (2) an ion current image. As an example, two images of a MEMS device with a microchannel show peaks in the ion current as the pipette tip goes over the edges of the channel. This ion sensing AFM can also be used in other modes including tapping mode with force feedback as well as in non-contact mode by utilizing the ion current for feedback, as in scanning ion conductance microscopy. The instrument is gentle enough to be used on some biological samples such as plant leaves.

  11. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  12. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  13. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  14. Toward a general psychological model of tension and suspense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehne, Moritz; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Tension and suspense are powerful emotional experiences that occur in a wide variety of contexts (e.g., in music, film, literature, and everyday life). The omnipresence of tension and suspense suggests that they build on very basic cognitive and affective mechanisms. However, the psychological underpinnings of tension experiences remain largely unexplained, and tension and suspense are rarely discussed from a general, domain-independent perspective. In this paper, we argue that tension experiences in different contexts (e.g., musical tension or suspense in a movie) build on the same underlying psychological processes. We discuss key components of tension experiences and propose a domain-independent model of tension and suspense. According to this model, tension experiences originate from states of conflict, instability, dissonance, or uncertainty that trigger predictive processes directed at future events of emotional significance. We also discuss possible neural mechanisms underlying tension and suspense. The model provides a theoretical framework that can inform future empirical research on tension phenomena.

  15. Effective viscous flow properties for fiber suspensions under concentrated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The effective longitudinal and transverse shear viscosities are derived for an aligned fiber suspension. The solutions are valid under very concentrated conditions for a hexagonal arrangement of the single size fibers. The results compliment the classical dilute suspension forms at the other extreme of concentration. Empirical forms are constructed to cover the full range of volume fraction of the fiber phase. Also, single size spherical particle suspensions are given a similar treatment to that of the fiber case

  16. Neural control of magnetic suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, W. Steven

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to design, build and test (in cooperation with NASA personnel from the NASA Langley Research Center) neural controllers for two different small air-gap magnetic suspension systems. The general objective of the program is to study neural network architectures for the purpose of control in an experimental setting and to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. The specific objectives of the research program are: (1) to demonstrate through simulation and experimentation the feasibility of using neural controllers to stabilize a nonlinear magnetic suspension system; (2) to investigate through simulation and experimentation the performance of neural controllers designs under various types of parametric and nonparametric uncertainty; (3) to investigate through simulation and experimentation various types of neural architectures for real-time control with respect to performance and complexity; and (4) to benchmark in an experimental setting the performance of neural controllers against other types of existing linear and nonlinear compensator designs. To date, the first one-dimensional, small air-gap magnetic suspension system has been built, tested and delivered to the NASA Langley Research Center. The device is currently being stabilized with a digital linear phase-lead controller. The neural controller hardware is under construction. Two different neural network paradigms are under consideration, one based on hidden layer feedforward networks trained via back propagation and one based on using Gaussian radial basis functions trained by analytical methods related to stability conditions. Some advanced nonlinear control algorithms using feedback linearization and sliding mode control are in simulation studies.

  17. Stability of an extemporaneously prepared thalidomide suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shawna; Johnson, Cary E; Tyler, Ryan P

    2012-01-01

    The short-term physical and chemical stability of an oral suspension of thalidomide 20 mg/mL was studied. An oral suspension of thalidomide 20 mg/mL was prepared by emptying the contents of 12 100-mg thalidomide capsules into a glass mortar; 30 mL of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of Ora-Sweet were mixed and added to the thalidomide powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of the formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and stored under refrigeration (3-5 °C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the three samples with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 20 μg/mL with acetonitrile-methanol and then dilution with mobile phase, the samples were assayed in duplicate using stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was determined by evaluating the percentage of the initial concentration remaining at each time point; stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration of thalidomide. At least 92% of the initial thalidomide concentration remained throughout the 35-day study period. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, or pH and no visible microbial growth in any sample. An extemporaneously prepared suspension of thalidomide 20 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet was stable for at least 35 days when stored in 2-oz amber plastic bottles under refrigeration.

  18. Stability of an extemporaneously prepared tadalafil suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Rebecca S; Johnson, Cary E; Caruthers, Regine L

    2012-04-01

    The stability of an extemporaneously prepared tadalafil oral suspension was studied. An oral suspension of tadalafil 5 mg/mL was prepared by thoroughly grinding 15 20-mg tadalafil tablets in a glass mortar. Thirty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of Ora-Sweet were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of the formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and stored at room temperature (23-25 °C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the three bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 28, 57, and 91 days. After double dilution (1:10 and 0.1:5 v/v) to an expected concentration of 10 μg/mL with methanol and mobile phase, respectively, the samples were assayed in duplicate using stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. The samples were visually examined for any color change and evaluated for pH changes on each day of analysis. Taste evaluation was performed at the beginning and end of the study. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. At least 99% of the initial tadalafil concentration remained throughout the 91-day study period. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, and pH, and no visible microbial growth was observed in any sample. An extemporaneously prepared suspension of tadalafil 5 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet was stable for at least 91 days when stored in amber plastic bottles at room temperature.

  19. Stability of extemporaneously prepared moxifloxacin oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, David J; Johnson, Cary E; Klein, Kristin C

    2009-04-01

    The stability of extemporaneously prepared moxifloxacin oral suspensions was studied. An oral suspension of moxifloxacin 20 mg/mL was prepared by thoroughly grinding three 400-mg tablets of moxifloxacin in a glass mortar. Thirty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of each formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and were stored at room temperature (23-25 degrees C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the six bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 28, 60, and 90 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 8 microg/ mL with sample diluent, the samples were assayed in duplicate by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. At least 99% of the initial moxifloxacin remained throughout the 90-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, and pH and no visible microbial growth in any sample. Extemporaneously compounded suspensions of moxifloxacin 20 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 90 days when stored in 2-oz amber plastic bottles at room temperature.

  20. Stability of extemporaneously prepared glycopyrrolate oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cober, Mary Petrea; Johnson, Cary E; Sudekum, David; Penprase, Kimberly

    2011-05-01

    The stability of extemporaneously prepared glycopyrrolate 0.5-mg/mL suspensions was evaluated. An oral suspension of glycopyrrolate 0.5 mg/mL was prepared by thoroughly grinding 30 1-mg tablets of glycopyrrolate in a glass mortar. Thirty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of the formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and stored at room temperature (23-25 °C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the three bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days afterward. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 50 μg/mL with sample diluent, the samples were assayed in duplicate by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. The samples were visually examined for any color change and evaluated for pH on each day of analysis. Taste evaluations were performed at the beginning and end of the study. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. At least 95% of the initial glycopyrrolate remained throughout the 90-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, and pH, and no visible microbial growth was observed in any sample. Extemporaneously compounded suspensions of glycopyrrolate 0.5 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus/Ora-Sweet or Ora-Plus/Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 90 days when stored in amber plastic bottles at room temperature.

  1. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rifaximin oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cober, Mary Petrea; Johnson, Cary E; Lee, Jordan; Currie, Kenne

    2010-02-15

    The stability of extemporaneously prepared rifaximin oral suspensions was studied. An oral suspension of rifaximin 20 mg/mL was prepared by thoroughly grinding six 200-mg tablets of rifaximin in a glass mortar. Thirty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of each formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and were stored at room temperature (23-25 degrees C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the six bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 15, 30, and 60 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 20 microg/mL with mobile phase, the samples were assayed in duplicate using stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. The samples were visually examined for any color change and pH was tested on each day of analysis. Stability was determined by evaluating the percentage of the initial concentration remaining at each time point and defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration of rifaximin. At least 99% of the initial rifaximin remained throughout the 60-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, or pH and no visible microbial growth in any sample. Extemporaneously prepared suspensions of rifaximin 20 mg/mL in 1:1 mixtures of Ora-Plus with either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 60 days when stored in 2-oz amber plastic bottles at room temperature.

  2. Active Electromechanical Suspension System for Planetary Rovers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Balcones Technologies, LLC proposes to adapt actively controlled suspension technology developed by The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics...

  3. Magnetic suspension and guidance of high speed vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, I A; Clark, J M; Hayden, J T

    1972-12-01

    Technical and economical assessments of magnetic suspensions for high speed vehicles and transport systems are reported. In these suspensions the suspending magnet takes the form of a powerful superconducting electromagnet that induces currents while it moves over conducting sheets or loops. A number of vehicle track designs are evaluated for operating cost effectiveness. It is shown that propulsion systems using power collected from the track are more expensive than those using power generated onboard the vehicle, and that the conducting sheet suspension is slightly more expensive than the null flux suspension.

  4. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  5. Comparative study of image contrast in scanning electron microscope and helium ion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, R; Chen, Y; Zhang, H; Zhou, Y; Fox, D; Maguire, P; Wang, J J; Rodenburg, C

    2017-12-01

    Images of Ga + -implanted amorphous silicon layers in a 110 n-type silicon substrate have been collected by a range of detectors in a scanning electron microscope and a helium ion microscope. The effects of the implantation dose and imaging parameters (beam energy, dwell time, etc.) on the image contrast were investigated. We demonstrate a similar relationship for both the helium ion microscope Everhart-Thornley and scanning electron microscope Inlens detectors between the contrast of the images and the Ga + density and imaging parameters. These results also show that dynamic charging effects have a significant impact on the quantification of the helium ion microscope and scanning electron microscope contrast. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. A microsphere suspension model of metamaterial fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Duan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing an analogy to the liquid phase of natural materials, we theoretically propose a microsphere suspension model to realize a metamaterial fluid with artificial electromagnetic indexes. By immersing high-ε, micrometer-sized dielectric spheres in a low-ε insulating oil, the structured fluid exhibits liquid-like properties from dispersing phase as well as the isotropic negative electromagnetic parameters caused by Mie resonances from dispersed microspheres. The work presented here will benefit the development of structured fluids toward metamaterials.

  7. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rufinamide oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, David J; Liou, Yayin; Best, Robert; Zhao, Fang

    2010-03-01

    Rufinamide is an oral antiepileptic drug indicated for adjunctive therapy in treating generalized seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Currently, rufinamide is available as 200-mg and 400-mg tablets. A liquid dosage form does not exist at the present time. Lack of a suspension formulation may present an administration problem for many children and adults who are unable to swallow tablets. The availability of a liquid dosage form will provide an easy and accurate way to measure and administer the medication. To determine the stability of both sugar-containing and sugar-free rufinamide suspensions over a 90-day period. A suspension of rufinamide 40 mg/mL was prepared by grinding twelve 400-mg tablets of rufinamide tablets in a glass mortar. Sixty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 60 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF (sugar free) were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 120 mL. Three identical samples of each formulation were prepared and placed in 60-mL amber plastic bottles and were stored at room temperature. A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the 6 bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 28, 56, and 90 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 0.4 mg/mL, the samples were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. At least 90% of the initial rufinamide concentration remained throughout the 90-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, and pH and no visible microbial growth. Extemporaneously compounded suspensions of rufinamide 40 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 90 days when stored in 59-mL amber polypropylene plastic bottles at room temperature.

  8. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  9. Simulations of magnetorheological suspensions in Poiseuille flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, Yannis; Klingenberg, Daniel J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Particle-level simulations are conducted to study magnetorheological fluids in plane Poiseuille flow. The importance of the boundary conditions for the particles at the channel walls is examined by considering two extreme cases: no friction and infinite coefficient of friction. The inclusion of friction produces Bingham fluid behavior, as commonly observed experimentally for MR suspensions. Lamellar structures, similar to those reported for electrorheological fluids in shear flow, are observed in the post-yield region for both particle boundary conditions. The formation of these lamellae is accompanied by an increase in the bulk fluid velocity. The slip boundary condition produces higher fluid velocities and thicker lamellar structures. (orig.)

  10. Thermocouple pressure bushing in suspension rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasek, J.; Ondreicka, K.

    1975-01-01

    The seal is described of jacket thermocouples located in the pressure reducer in the fuel element suspension rod. The thermocouples are sealed in the pressure reducer with a silicon sealing compound. The sealing compound is compressed between the two reducers with a Bellevile spring and a pressure washer secured in position with a spring. The axial pressure of the inner parts of the reducer on the compound is adjustable by means of a thrust screw. The tightness and alignment of the thermocouples in the pressure reducer is achieved by tightening the thrust screw to the stop of the top reducer and the subsequent setting of the sealing compound. (J.B.)

  11. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  12. Development and applications of the positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Progress on the positron microscope during the past year has been steady, and we currently project that initial microscope images can be collected during mid to late summer of 1992. Work during the year has mainly been divided among four areas of effort: hardware construction; power supply and control system development; radioactive source fabrication; and planning of initial experimental projects. Details of progress in these areas will be given below. An initial optical design of the microscope was completed during 1990, but during the past year, significant improvements have been made to this design, and several limiting cases of microscope performance have been evaluated. The results of these evaluations have been extremely encouraging, giving us strong indications that the optical performance of the microscope will be better than originally anticipated. In particular, we should be able to explore ultimate performance capabilities of positron microscopy using our currently planned optical system, with improvements only in the image detector system, and the positron-source/moderator configuration. We should be able to study imaging reemission microscopy with resolutions approaching 10 Angstrom and be able to produce beam spots for rastered microscope work with diameters below the 1000 Angstrom diffusion limit. Because of these exciting new possibilities, we have decided to upgrade several microscope subsystems to levels consistent with ultimate performance earlier in our construction schedule than we had previously intended. In particular, alignment facilities in the optical system, vibration isolation, and power supply and control system flexibility have all been upgraded in their design over the past year

  13. Statistical model for suspension transport in porous media; Modelo estatistico para o transporte de suspensoes em meios porosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Adriano dos; Barros, Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    An analytical model for transport of particulate suspensions in porous medium is discussed. The model takes microscopic rock characteristics into account and considers that size exclusion is the dominant particle retention mechanism. Analytical solutions for suspended and retained particle concentrations are obtained and the inverse problem is solved, allowing the filtration coefficients determination from experiments. The filtration coefficients for the proposed and the classical deep bed filtration models are calculated from experimental data available in the literature and the results are compared. Finally, it is shown that the proposed model tends to the classical deep bed filtration model when the particle retention probability tends to zero. (author)

  14. Water desorption of cassava starch granules: A study based on thermogravimetric analysis of aqueous suspensions and humid powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Valencia, Germán; Djabourov, Madeleine; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo José

    2016-08-20

    This work reports on water desorption from cassava starch in relation with the structure and conditioning of granules in suspensions or after equilibration in desiccators. The experimental work is performed by thermogravimetric analysis with isothermal and non-isothermal protocols and interpreted to derive the activation energies and desorption frequencies according to the humidity range with no adjustable parameter. The analysis points out the different types of water interacting with the starch granules and relates the drying coefficients to their microscopic structure. The work helps clarifying contradictory and partial results from the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of suspension characteristics on in-flight particle properties and coating microstructures achieved by suspension plasma spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubignat, E.; Planche, M. P.; Allimant, A.; Billières, D.; Girardot, L.; Bailly, Y.; Montavon, G.

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of suspension properties on the manufacturing of coatings by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). For this purpose, alumina suspensions were formulated with two different liquid phases: water and ethanol. Suspensions were atomized with a twin-fluid nozzle and injected in an atmospheric plasma jet. Suspension injection was optimized thanks to shadowgraphy observations and drop size distribution measurements performed by laser diffraction. In-flight particle velocities were evaluated by particle image velocimetry. In addition, splats were collected on glass substrates, with the same conditions as the ones used during the spray process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry analyses were then performed to observe the splat morphology and thus to get information on plasma / suspension interactions, such as particle agglomeration. Finally, coatings were manufactured, characterized by SEM and compared to each other.

  16. Drug release from non-aqueous suspensions. II. The release of methylxanthines from paraffin suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaey, C.J. de; Fokkens, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The release of 3 methylxanthines, i.e. caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, from suspensions in liquid paraffin to an aqueous phase was determined in an in vitro apparatus. The release rates were determined as a function of the pH of the aqueous phase. It was proved that the release process was

  17. Study of dust re-suspension at low pressure in a dedicated wind-tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Anthony; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe; Chassefière, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The atmosphere of several telluric planets or satellites are dusty. Such is the case of Earth, Venus, Mars and Titan, each bearing different aeolian processes linked principally to the kinematic viscosity of the near-surface atmosphere. Studies of the Martian atmosphere are particularly relevant for the understanding of the dust re-suspension phenomena at low pressure (7 mbar). It turns out that operation of fusion reactors of the tokamak design produces significant amount of dust through the erosion of plasma-facing components. Such dust is a key issue, both regarding the performance and the safety of a fusion reactor such as ITER, under construction in Cadarache, France. Indeed, to evaluate the explosion risk in the ITER fusion reactor, it is essential to quantify the re-suspended dust fraction as a function of the dust inventory that can be potentially mobilized during a loss of vacuum accident (LOVA), with air or water vapour ingress. A complete accident sequence will encompass dust re-suspension from near-vacuum up to atmospheric pressure. Here, we present experimental results of particles re-suspension fractions measured at 1000, 600 and 300 mbar in the IRSN BISE (BlowIng facility for airborne releaSE) wind tunnel. Both dust monolayer deposits and multilayer deposits were investigated. In order to obtain experimental re-suspension data of dust monolayer deposits, we used an optical microscope allowing to measure the re-suspended particles fraction by size intervals of 1 µm. The deposits were made up of tungsten particles on a tungsten surface (an ubiquitous plasma facing component) and alumina particles on a glass plate, as a surrogate. A comparison of the results with the so-called Rock'nRoll dust re-suspension model (Reeks and Hall, 2001) is presented and discussed. The multilayer deposits were made in a vacuum sedimentation chamber allowing to obtain uniform deposits in terms of thickness. The re-suspension experimental data of such deposits were obtained

  18. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  19. Boundary Effects and Shear Thickening of Colloidal Suspensions: A study based on measurement of Suspension Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, M. Tharanga D.

    Microstructure is key to understanding rheological behaviors of flowing particulate suspensions. During the past decade, Stokesian Dynamics simulations have been the dominant method of determining suspension microstructure. Structure results obtained numerically reveal that an anisotropic structure is formed under high Peclet (Pe) number conditions. Researchers have used various experimental techniques such as small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and light scattering methods to validate microstructure. This work outlines an experimental technique based on confocal microscopy to study microstructure of a colloidal suspension in an index-matched fluid flowing in a microchannel. High resolution scans determining individual particle locations in suspensions 30-50 vol % yield quantitative results of the local microstructure in the form of the pair distribution function, g(r). From these experimentally determined g(r), the effect of shear rate, quantified by the Peclet number as a ratio of shear and Brownian stress, on the suspension viscosity and normal stress follow that seen in macroscopic rheological measurements and simulations. It is generally believed that shear thickening behavior of colloidal suspensions is driven by the formation of hydroclusters. From measurements of particle locations, hydroclusters are identified. The number of hydroclusters grows exponentially with increasing Pe, and the onset of shear thickening is driven by the increase in formation of clusters having 5-8 particles. At higher Pe, we notice the emergence of 12 or more particle clusters. The internal structure of these hydroclusters has been investigated, and there is some evidence that particles internal to hydroclusters preferentially align along the 45° and 135° axis. Beyond observations of bulk suspension behavior, the influence of boundaries on suspension microstructure is also investigated. Experiments were performed for suspensions flowing over smooth walls, made of glass

  20. Towards vortex imaging with scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Dan T.

    1994-02-01

    A low temperature, Besocke beetle type scanning tunneling microscope, with a scan range of 10 by 10 microns was built. The scanning tunneling microscope was calibrates for various temperatures and tested on several samples. Gold monolayers evaporated at 400 deg C were resolved and their dynamic behavior observed. Atomic resolution images of graphite were obtained. The scanning tunneling microscope was designed for future applications of vortex imaging in superconductors. The special design considerations for this application are discussed and the physics underlying it reviewed. (author)

  1. Confocal scanning microscope for nuclear photoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Kovalev, Yu.S.; Soroko, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the confocal scanning microscope to the objects in the nuclear photoemulsion is described. An array of 27 microtomograms of single silver grain is shown. The cross sections of the same particle track of diameter 1 μm, detected by means of the confocal scanning microscope with open and annular apertures, are presented. It was shown that the confocal scanning microscope opens indeed new opportunities for the nuclear photoemulsion technique to get previously inaccessible information for physics of the short-living particles

  2. Dayak and Their Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Darmadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article titled "Dayak and Daily Life" This paper aims to reveal the Dayak and in their daily life. Dayak is a native of Borneo has its own characteristics. Dayak, divided into 405 sub-sub clans [1]. Each sub Dayak both Indonesia and Malaysia are identical. Dayak customs and culture comes from the word "Power" which means upstream, to refer to people who live in inland areas or in the interior of Borneo. In the arsenal of art and culture, Dayak has many similarities such as; saber, chopsticks, beliong, betang, cupai, renjung, empajang and others. Dayak indigenous religion is Kaharingan which is the original religion born of the cultural ancestors of the Dayaks. Most of the Dayak people still adhere to the belief of the existence of unseen objects in certain places such as rocks, large trees, planting gardens in the forest, lakes, pools, and others are believed to have "magical powers". Daily life of the Dayaks in general farming, farming. When will open farming land, farming they held ritual.

  3. Adaptive suspension strategy for a double wishbone suspension through camber and toe optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kavitha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A suspension system is responsible for the safety of vehicle during its manoeuvre. It serves the dual purpose of providing stability to the vehicle while providing a comfortable ride quality to the occupants. Recent trends in suspension system have focused on improving comfort and handling of vehicles while keeping the cost, space and feasibility of manufacturing in the constraint. This paper proposes a method for improving handling characteristics of a vehicle by controlling camber and toe angle using variable length arms in an adaptive manner. In order to study the effect of dynamic characteristics of the suspension system, a simulation study has been done in this work. A quarter car physical model with double wishbone suspension geometry is modelled in SolidWorks. It is then imported and simulated using SimMechanics platform in MATLAB. The output characteristics of the passive system (without variable length arms were validated on MSC ADAMS software. The adaptive system intends to improve vehicle handling characteristics by controlling the camber and toe angles. This is accomplished by two telescopic arms with an actuator which changes the camber and toe angle of the wheel dynamically to deliver best possible traction and manoeuvrability. Two PID controllers are employed to trigger the actuators based on the camber and toe angle from the sensors for reducing the error existing between the actual and desired value. The arms are driven by actuators in a closed loop feedback manner with help of a separate control system. Comparison between active and passive systems is carried out by analysing graphs of various parameters obtained from MATLAB simulation. From the results, it is observed that there is a reduction of 58% in the camber and 96% in toe gain. Hence, the system provides the scope of considerable adaptive strategy in controlling dynamic characteristics of the suspension system.

  4. Thermal transport phenomena in nanoparticle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Bozorg Bigdeli, Masoud; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have received great attention, as they may offer an approach to enhance thermophysical properties of base fluids. A good variety of applications in engineering and biomedicine has been investigated with the aim of exploiting the above potential. However, the multiscale nature of nanosuspensions raises several issues in defining a comprehensive modelling framework, incorporating relevant molecular details and much larger scale phenomena, such as particle aggregation and their dynamics. The objectives of the present topical review is to report and discuss the main heat and mass transport phenomena ruling macroscopic behaviour of nanosuspensions, arising from molecular details. Relevant experimental results are included and properly put in the context of recent observations and theoretical studies, which solved long-standing debates about thermophysical properties enhancement. Major transport phenomena are discussed and in-depth analysis is carried out for highlighting the role of geometrical (nanoparticle shape, size, aggregation, concentration), chemical (pH, surfactants, functionalization) and physical parameters (temperature, density). We finally overview several computational techniques available at different scales with the aim of drawing the attention on the need for truly multiscale predictive models. This may help the development of next-generation nanoparticle suspensions and their rational use in thermal applications. (topical review)

  5. Magnetic separation from superparamagnetic particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Ashok; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the magnetophoretic separation of magnetic microparticles from a non-dilute flow in a microfluidic channel and their subsequent field-induced aggregation under the influence of an externally applied magnetic force. This force induces dipolar interactions between the particles that aid in their separation from the flow. Existing analytical models for dilute suspensions cannot be extended to non-dilute suspensions in which interparticle magnetic interactions play an important role. We therefore conduct a parametric investigation of the mechanics of this problem in a microcapillary flow through simulations and experimental visualization. When a magnetic field is applied, the magnetic microparticles form an aggregate on the channel wall that is influenced by the competition between the holding magnetic force and the aggregate-depleting flow shear force. Microparticle collection in the aggregate increases linearly with increasing magnetic field strength and is characterized by distinct buildup and washaway phases. The collected microparticle volume fraction in an aggregate is found to depend on a single dimensional group that depends upon characteristic system parameters.

  6. Standardisation of magnetic nanoparticles in liquid suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James; Kazakova, Olga; Posth, Oliver; Steinhoff, Uwe; Petronis, Sarunas; Bogart, Lara K.; Southern, Paul; Pankhurst, Quentin; Johansson, Christer

    2017-09-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles offer diverse opportunities for technology innovation, spanning a large number of industry sectors from imaging and actuation based applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, through large-scale environmental remediation uses such as water purification, to engineering-based applications such as position-controlled lubricants and soaps. Continuous advances in their manufacture have produced an ever-growing range of products, each with their own unique properties. At the same time, the characterisation of magnetic nanoparticles is often complex, and expert knowledge is needed to correctly interpret the measurement data. In many cases, the stringent requirements of the end-user technologies dictate that magnetic nanoparticle products should be clearly defined, well characterised, consistent and safe; or to put it another way—standardised. The aims of this document are to outline the concepts and terminology necessary for discussion of magnetic nanoparticles, to examine the current state-of-the-art in characterisation methods necessary for the most prominent applications of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, to suggest a possible structure for the future development of standardisation within the field, and to identify areas and topics which deserve to be the focus of future work items. We discuss potential roadmaps for the future standardisation of this developing industry, and the likely challenges to be encountered along the way.

  7. Energy-harvesting potential of automobile suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múčka, Peter

    2016-12-01

    This study is aimed quantify dissipated power in a damper of automobile suspension to predict energy harvesting potential of a passenger car more accurately. Field measurements of power dissipation in a regenerative damper are still rare. The novelty is in using the broad database of real road profiles, a 9 degrees-of-freedom full-car model with real parameters, and a tyre-enveloping contact model. Results were presented as a function of road surface type, velocity and road roughness characterised by International Roughness Index. Results were calculated for 1600 test sections of a total length about 253.5 km. Root mean square of a dissipated power was calculated from 19 to 46 W for all four suspension dampers and velocity 60 km/h and from 24 to 58 W for velocity 90 km/h. Results were compared for a full-car model with a tyre-enveloping road contact, full-car and quarter-car models with a tyre-road point contact. Mean difference among three models in calculated power was a few per cent.

  8. Quadruple suspension design for Advanced LIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, N A; Cagnoli, G; Crooks, D R M; Elliffe, E; Faller, J E; Fritschel, P; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Heptonstall, A; Hough, J; Lueck, H; Mittleman, R; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Plissi, M V; Rowan, S; Shoemaker, D H; Sneddon, P H; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H; Willems, P

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the conceptual design for the suspension system for the test masses for Advanced LIGO, the planned upgrade to LIGO, the US laser interferometric gravitational-wave observatory. The design is based on the triple pendulum design developed for GEO 600 - the German/UK interferometric gravitational wave detector. The GEO design incorporates fused silica fibres of circular cross-section attached to the fused silica mirror (test mass) in the lowest pendulum stage, in order to minimize the thermal noise from the pendulum modes. The damping of the low-frequency modes of the triple pendulum is achieved by using co-located sensors and actuators at the highest mass of the triple pendulum. Another feature of the design is that global control forces acting on the mirrors, used to maintain the output of the interferometer on a dark fringe, are applied via a triple reaction pendulum, so that these forces can be implemented via a seismically isolated platform. These techniques have been extended to meet the more stringent noise levels planned for in Advanced LIGO. In particular, the Advanced LIGO baseline design requires a quadruple pendulum with a final stage consisting of a 40 kg sapphire mirror, suspended on fused silica ribbons or fibres. The design is chosen to aim to reach a target noise contribution from the suspension corresponding to a displacement sensitivity of 10 -19 m Hz -1/2 at 10 Hz at each of the test masses

  9. Standardisation of magnetic nanoparticles in liquid suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, James; Kazakova, Olga; Posth, Oliver; Steinhoff, Uwe; Petronis, Sarunas; Bogart, Lara K; Southern, Paul; Pankhurst, Quentin; Johansson, Christer

    2017-01-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles offer diverse opportunities for technology innovation, spanning a large number of industry sectors from imaging and actuation based applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, through large-scale environmental remediation uses such as water purification, to engineering-based applications such as position-controlled lubricants and soaps. Continuous advances in their manufacture have produced an ever-growing range of products, each with their own unique properties. At the same time, the characterisation of magnetic nanoparticles is often complex, and expert knowledge is needed to correctly interpret the measurement data. In many cases, the stringent requirements of the end-user technologies dictate that magnetic nanoparticle products should be clearly defined, well characterised, consistent and safe; or to put it another way—standardised. The aims of this document are to outline the concepts and terminology necessary for discussion of magnetic nanoparticles, to examine the current state-of-the-art in characterisation methods necessary for the most prominent applications of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, to suggest a possible structure for the future development of standardisation within the field, and to identify areas and topics which deserve to be the focus of future work items. We discuss potential roadmaps for the future standardisation of this developing industry, and the likely challenges to be encountered along the way. (topical review)

  10. Hydrodynamic dispersion of microswimmers in suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthieu; Rafaï, Salima; Peyla, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In our laboratory, we study hydrodynamics of suspensions of micro-swimmers. These micro-organisms are unicellular algae Chlamydomonas Rheinhardii which are able to swim by using their flagella. The swimming dynamics of these micro-swimmers can be seen as a random walk, in absence of any kind of interaction. In addition, these algae have the property of being phototactic, i.e. they swim towards the light. Combining this property with a hydrodynamic flow, we were able to reversibly separate algae from the rest of the fluid. But for sufficiently high volume fraction, these active particles interact with each other. We are now interested in how the coupling of hydrodynamic interactions between swimmers and phototaxis can modify the swimming dynamics at the scale of the suspension. To this aim, we conduct experiments in microfluidic devices to study the dispersion of the micro-organisms in a the liquid phase as a function of the volume fraction. We show that the dispersion of an assembly of puller type microswimmers is quantitatively affected by hydrodynamics interactions. Phd student.

  11. A comparison between the use of intravenous bags and the Heelift suspension boot to prevent pressure ulcers in orthopedic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    The heel is the second most common area where patients develop pressure ulcers (PrUs). Some of the interventions commonly used today to prevent PrUs have not been empirically tested, whereas other interventions have been studied and shown to prevent heel PrUs. Currently, there are no specific studies comparing a pressure-relieving suspension boot with the use of intravenous bags. This quasi-experimental study compared the use of these interventions to determine which intervention was more effective for heel-pressure relief. The target population consisted of a convenience sample of 30 patients admitted to the hospital for hip or knee surgery. Subjects were randomized to intravenous bags or pressure-relieving suspension boots. Daily pressure assessment of heels and the Achilles area was completed using validated pressure scales. Data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical program and were then used to determine the extent to which signs and symptoms of pressure were associated with each intervention. The results demonstrated a significant difference between the pressure-relieving suspension boot and the intravenous bag as heel-pressure-relief methods. Based on the statistical results of this study, the pressure-relieving suspension boot (Heelift; DM Systems Inc, Evanston, Illinois) was the better clinical intervention for patients with decreased mobility.

  12. phytochemical and microscopical evaluation of desmodium velutinum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... and observed under the compound microscope for the presence of cell inclusions such as cellulose, starch, oil ... opportunity of providing useful medicinal compounds. (Gill, 1992). ..... Medical Properties of African. Plants of.

  13. Understanding and caring for an operating microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An operating or surgical microscope is an optical instrument that provides the surgeon with a stereoscopic, high quality magnified and illuminated image of the small structures in the surgical area.

  14. A pragmatic guide to multiphoton microscope design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael D.; Field, Jeffrey J.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Bartels, Randy A.; Squier, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged as a ubiquitous tool for studying microscopic structure and function across a broad range of disciplines. As such, the intent of this paper is to present a comprehensive resource for the construction and performance evaluation of a multiphoton microscope that will be understandable to the broad range of scientific fields that presently exploit, or wish to begin exploiting, this powerful technology. With this in mind, we have developed a guide to aid in the design of a multiphoton microscope. We discuss source selection, optical management of dispersion, image-relay systems with scan optics, objective-lens selection, single-element light-collection theory, photon-counting detection, image rendering, and finally, an illustrated guide for building an example microscope. PMID:27182429

  15. Multi-compartment microscopic diffusion imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kaden, Enrico; Kelm, Nathaniel D.; Carson, Robert P.; Does, Mark D.; Alexander, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-compartment model for microscopic diffusion anisotropy imaging. The aim is to estimate microscopic features specific to the intra- and extra-neurite compartments in nervous tissue unconfounded by the effects of fibre crossings and orientation dispersion, which are ubiquitous in the brain. The proposed MRI method is based on the Spherical Mean Technique (SMT), which factors out the neurite orientation distribution and thus provides direct estimates of the microsco...

  16. Microscopic and macroscopic models for pedestrian crowds

    OpenAIRE

    Makmul, Juntima

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with microscopic and macroscopic models for pedes- trian crowds. In the first chapter, we consider pedestrians exit choices and model human behaviour in an evacuation process. Two microscopic models, discrete and continuous, are studied in this chapter. The former is a cellular automaton model and the latter is a social force model. Different numerical test cases are investigated and their results are compared. In chapter 2, a hierarchy of models for...

  17. Gummic acid stabilized γ-Fe2O3 aqueous suspensions for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaefthymiou, G. C.; Rabias, I.; Fardis, M.; Devlin, E.; Boukos, N.; Tsitrouli, D.; Papavassiliou, G.

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles depend critically on their preparation as aqueous colloidal suspensions, or ferrofluids, with long term stability under physiological conditions. Dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles is generally achieved by the use of protein cages, polysaccharide, polypeptide and charged macromolecular coatings, which minimize interparticle magnetic interactions, particle agglomeration and precipitation. The synthesis and characterization of gummic-acid stabilized maghemite ferrofluids is reported. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering measurements give a γ-Fe 2 O 3 magnetic core diameter of 8 nm and a nanocomposite particle hydrodynamic diameter of 50 nm. Moessbauer and magnetization measurements indicate the presence of isolated, sterically stabilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles resistant to aging, and thus, promising agents for the production of novel magneto-pharmaceuticals.

  18. Production of Monascus pigments as extracellular crystals by cell suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fengling; Liu, Lujie; Huang, Yaolin; Zhang, Xuehong; Wang, Zhilong

    2018-01-01

    It is generally accepted that Monascus pigments are predominantly cell-bound, including both intracellular and surface-bound pigments. This long-term misconception was corrected in the present work. Production of extracellular crystal pigments by submerged culture of Monascus sp. was confirmed by microscopic observation and collection of Monascus pigments from extracellular broth by direct membrane filtration. Following up the new fact, the bioactivity of mycelia as whole-cell biocatalyst for biosynthesis and biodegradation of Monascus pigments had been detailedly examined in both an aqueous solution and a nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution. Based on those experimental results, cell suspension culture in an aqueous medium was developed as a novel strategy for accumulation of high concentration of Monascus pigments. Thus, glucose feeding during submerged culture in the aqueous medium was carried out successfully and high orange Monascus pigments concentration of near 4 g/L was achieved.

  19. Microscopic dynamics of binary mixtures and quasi-colloidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorenburg, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    In the study on the title subject two questions are addressed. One is whether the microscopic dynamics of binary mixtures and quasi-colloidal systems can be understood theoretically with kinetic theories for equivalent hard sphere mixtures. The other question that arises is whether the similarity in the dynamics of dense simple fluids and concentrated colloidal suspensions also holds for binary mixtures and quasi-colloidal systems. To answer these questions, we have investigated a number of binary gas mixtures and quasi-colloidal system with different diameter ratios and concentrations. We obtain the experimental dynamic structure factors S expt (κ,ω) of the samples from inelastic neutron scattering. We compare S expt (κ,ω) with the dynamic structure S HS (κ,ω) of an equivalent hard sphere fluid, that we calculate with the Enskog theory. In chapter 2, 3 and 4 we study dense He-Ar gas mixtures (diameter ratio R=1.4, and mass ratio M=10) at low and high Ar concentrations. Experiment and kinetic theory are in good agreement. In chapter 5 we study dilute quasi-colloidal suspensions of fullerene C60 molecules dissolved in liquid CS2. The diameter ratio R=2.2 is larger than in previous experiments while the mass ratio M=9.5 is more or less the same. We obtain the self diffusion coefficient D S of one C60 molecule in CS2 and find D s ≤D SE ≤D E , with D E obtained from kinetic theory and D SE from the Stokes-Einstein description. It appears that both descriptions are relevant but not so accurate. In chapter 6 we study three dense mixtures of neopentane in 40 Ar (diameter ratio R=1.7, mass ratio M=2) at low and high neopentane concentrations. At low concentration, we find a diffusion coefficient of neopentane in Ar, which is in good agreement with kinetic theory and in moderate agreement with the Stokes-Einstein description. At high concentration the collective translational dynamics of neopentane shows a similar behaviour as in dense colloids and simple fluids

  20. IMIS: An intelligence microscope imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Michael; Hunter, Norwood; Taylor, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Until recently microscope users in space relied on traditional microscopy techniques that required manual operation of the microscope and recording of observations in the form of written notes, drawings, or photographs. This method was time consuming and required the return of film and drawings from space for analysis. No real-time data analysis was possible. Advances in digital and video technologies along with recent developments in article intelligence will allow future space microscopists to have a choice of three additional modes of microscopy: remote coaching, remote control, and automation. Remote coaching requires manual operations of the microscope with instructions given by two-way audio/video transmission during critical phases of the experiment. When using the remote mode of microscopy, the Principal Investigator controls the microscope from the ground. The automated mode employs artificial intelligence to control microscope functions and is the only mode that can be operated in the other three modes as well. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the four modes of of microscopy and how the IMIS, a proposed intelligent microscope imaging system, can be used as a model for developing and testing concepts, operating procedures, and equipment design of specifications required to provide a comprehensive microscopy/imaging capability onboard Space Station Freedom.

  1. Uptake, accumulation, and biotransformation of metal oxide nanoparticles by a marine suspension-feeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Milka O.; Hanna, Shannon K.; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Keller, Arturo A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Suspension-feeding by mussels can greatly alter mobility and fate of metal oxide nanoparticles. ► Bioprocessing of metal oxide nanoparticles by mussels removes large fraction from water column. ► Mussels repackage metal oxide nanoparticles in highly concentrated pseudofeces. ► Novel biological pathway between major compartments in marine systems. ► Very different outcome for ZnO and CeO 2 nanoparticles based on their solubility. - Abstract: A growing body of evidence indicates that some engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are toxic to organisms that perform important ecosystem services in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, toxicity can be influenced by the biotransformation of contaminants, including ENPs, as it may alter the fate and transport of these substances. In turn, fate and transport can influence their bioavailability. To understand how biotransformation influences the fate and transport of ENPs in marine ecosystems, we exposed suspension-feeding mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to two common nano-metal oxides, CeO 2 and ZnO, over a range of concentrations from 1 mg L −1 to 10 mg L −1 , in a laboratory experiment. Mussels exposed to 10 mg L −1 accumulated 62 μg g −1 of Ce and 880 μg g −1 of Zn on a dry tissue basis but rejected 21,000 μg g −1 for Ce and 63,000 μg g −1 for Zn in pseudofeces. Scanning electron microscope evidence indicates CeO 2 remained as ENPs but ZnO did not after being rejected by the mussels. Mussels filtered most of the CeO 2 from the aqueous media, while a significant fraction of Zn remained in solution. Differences in ENP solubility affect ENP uptake, excretion, and accumulation in mussels. Our study highlights the potential role of marine suspension feeders in biotransformation of ENPs.

  2. Angled telescopic surgery, an approach for laryngeal diagnosis and surgery without suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Ferreira Morgado

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many methods have been used successfully for the diagnosis and treatment of laryngeal diseases. Microscopic and, recently, telescopic surgery represent the state of the art in endoscopic laryngeal surgery but drawbacks are possible during their application. To keep the suspension apparatus adequately positioned, excessive force is sometimes placed on the upper teeth and tongue with the laryngoscope tube causing damage. Complications in relation to the pharynx, larynx and cardiovascular system have also been reported. OBJECTIVE: In order to reduce complications resulting from the manipulation or stimulation of the upper aerodigestive tract and from torque forces on the upper teeth. We present a method of larynx surgery in which laryngeal suspension is not required. DESIGN: Technical report. TECHNIQUES: We have devised a fiber-optic telescope with its 40mm distal portion deviated 60 degrees from the direction of the proximal portion. This angle was taken by measuring patients immediately before standard microlaryngeal surgery was performed. The surgical instruments have the same angle as the telescope, in order to work on the larynx. This technique provides an image that is not limited by the distal aperture of the laryngoscope and has an advantage in that magnification and illumination may be provided by changing the distance of the lesion from the tip of the instrument. we have operated on four patients with laryngeal diseases and have had no complications as a result of this approach. We feel that this technique gives us the freedom to view the lesions better and helps to minimize the drawbacks caused by laryngeal suspension.

  3. Momentum balance and stresses in a suspension of spherical particles in a plane Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mona; Hammouti, Abdelkader; Wachs, Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Non-Brownian suspension of monodisperse spherical particles, with volume fractions ranging between ϕ = 0.05 and 0.38 and particle Reynolds numbers ranging between Rep = 0.002 and 20, in plane Couette shear flows is investigated using three-dimensional particle-resolved numerical simulations. We examine the effects of volume fraction and particle Reynolds number on the macroscopic and microscopic stresses in the fluid phase. The effective viscosity of the suspension is in a good agreement with the previous empirical and experimental studies. At Rep = 20, however, the effective viscosity increases significantly compared to the lower particle Reynolds number simulations in the Stokes flow regime. Examining the stresses over the depth of the Couette gap reveals that this increase in wall shear stresses at high particle Reynolds numbers is mainly due to the significantly higher particle phase stress contributions. Next, we examine the momentum balance in the fluid and particle phase for different regimes to assess the significance of particle/particle interaction and fluid and particle inertia. At the highest particle Reynolds number and volume fraction, the particle inertia plays a dominant role in the momentum balance and the fluid inertia is non-negligible, while the short-lived contact forces are negligible compared to these effects. For all other regimes, the fluid inertia is negligible, but the particle inertia and contact forces are important in the momentum balance. Reynolds stresses originated from velocity fluctuations do not contribute significantly to the suspension stresses in any of the regimes we have studied, while the reduction in the shear-induced particle rotation can be a reason for higher wall shear stress at Rep = 20. Finally, we study the kinematics of particles, including their velocity fluctuations, rotation, and diffusion over the depth of the Couette gap. The particle diffusion coefficients in the cross flow direction exhibit an abrupt

  4. 17 CFR 32.11 - Suspension of commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of commodity option... REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.11 Suspension of commodity option transactions. (a... accept money, securities or property in connection with, the purchase or sale of any commodity option, or...

  5. 15 CFR 14.13 - Debarment and suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debarment and suspension. 14.13 Section 14.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... shall comply with the nonprocurement debarment and suspension common rule implementing E.O.s 12549 and...

  6. 12 CFR 19.244 - Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment. 19.244 Section 19.244 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES... Services § 19.244 Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment. (a) An independent public accountant or...

  7. 12 CFR 19.243 - Removal, suspension, or debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal, suspension, or debarment. 19.243 Section 19.243 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services § 19...

  8. The Evolution of Discipline: Alternative to Suspension Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streva, Michael A.

    Historically, the chosen method of discipline in United States schools has gone from corporal punishment to an emphasis on suspension. Recently, as principals have become less certain about the extent of their authority to suspend students, many inschool programs have been developed as alternatives to suspension. Among the advantages of such…

  9. In-School Suspension Practices and the Prison Hospital Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, David K.; Rockoff, Edward

    1977-01-01

    Explores the legal implications of in-school suspension practices through consideration of individual versus institutional rights within a special punitive-rehabilitative setting. Argues that the prison hospital model is applicable to in-school suspension programs and discusses a number of legal questions raised by the prison hospital model.…

  10. 12 CFR 513.4 - Suspension and debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension and debarment. 513.4 Section 513.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRACTICE BEFORE THE OFFICE § 513.4 Suspension and debarment. (a) The Office may censure any person practicing before it or may deny...

  11. Magnetic suspension of a rotating system. Application to inertial flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarquand, Guy

    1984-01-01

    The various possible magnetic suspension configurations compatible with rotating mechanical systems are defined from studies of the characteristics of different types of magnetic bearings. The results obtained are used in the design and realization of a magnetic suspension for an inertial flywheel. (author) [fr

  12. 45 CFR 99.4 - Suspension of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of rules. 99.4 Section 99.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS FOR THE CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND General § 99.4 Suspension of rules. With notice to all parties, the...

  13. 2 CFR 180.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 180.740 Section 180.740 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS... suspension decision. (b) You as a respondent or your representative must submit any documentary evidence you...

  14. 78 FR 15402 - Xytos, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [ File No. 500-1] Xytos, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading... financial conditions and business operations, and because of potentially manipulative conduct in the trading... investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is...

  15. 75 FR 68636 - 8000, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] 8000, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading... and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of 8000, Inc. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in...

  16. 77 FR 16113 - Asiamart, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Asiamart, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading... and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed... trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for the period from 9:30 a.m. EDT on...

  17. 78 FR 44185 - RVPlus, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] RVPlus, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading... and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed... trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for the period from 9:30 a.m. EDT, on...

  18. 15 CFR 2011.110 - Suspension of certificate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Certificate of Quota Eligibility § 2011.110 Suspension of certificate system. (a... of such suspension and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (b... such reinstatement and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (c...

  19. 19 CFR 210.23 - Suspension of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of investigation. 210.23 Section 210.23 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.23 Suspension of investigation. Any party may move to...

  20. 3 CFR - Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem Embassy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem... June 5, 2009 Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem Embassy Act Memorandum for the Secretary of... States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I...

  1. Non-homogeneous flow profiles in sheared bacterial suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Devranjan; Cheng, Xiang

    Bacterial suspensions under shear exhibit interesting rheological behaviors including the remarkable ``superfluidic'' state with vanishing viscosity at low shear rates. Theoretical studies have shown that such ``superfluidic'' state is linked with non-homogeneous shear flows, which are induced by coupling between nematic order of active fluids and hydrodynamics of shear flows. However, although bulk rheology of bacterial suspensions has been experimentally studied, shear profiles within bacterial suspensions have not been explored so far. Here, we experimentally investigate the flow behaviors of E. coli suspensions under planar oscillatory shear. Using confocal microscopy and PIV, we measure velocity profiles across gap between two shear plates. We find that with increasing shear rates, high-concentration bacterial suspensions exhibit an array of non-homogeneous flow behaviors like yield-stress flows and shear banding. We show that these non-homogeneous flows are due to collective motion of bacterial suspensions. The phase diagram of sheared bacterial suspensions is systematically mapped as functions of shear rates an bacterial concentrations. Our experiments provide new insights into rheology of bacterial suspensions and shed light on shear induced dynamics of active fluids. Chemical Engineering and Material Science department.

  2. Both Suspension and Alternatives Work, Depending on One's Aim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.

    2012-01-01

    In this commentary on the special series, I argue that whereas a zero-tolerance approach to school discipline is "something stupid" (Kauffman & Brigham, 2000) the use of suspension might not be. Despite its limitations, suspension and other forms of punishment serve as effective deterrents of behavior problems for most children, especially when…

  3. Network synthesis and parameter optimization for vehicle suspension with inerter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to design a comfortable-oriented vehicle suspension structure, the network synthesis method was utilized to transfer the problem into solving a timing robust control problem and determine the structure of “inerter–spring–damper” suspension. Bilinear Matrix Inequality was utilized to obtain the timing transfer function. Then, the transfer function of suspension system can be physically implemented by passive elements such as spring, damper, and inerter. By analyzing the sensitivity and quantum genetic algorithm, the optimized parameters of inerter–spring–damper suspension were determined. A quarter-car model was established. The performance of the inerter–spring–damper suspension was verified under random input. The simulation results manifested that the dynamic performance of the proposed suspension was enhanced in contrast with traditional suspension. The root mean square of vehicle body acceleration decreases by 18.9%. The inerter–spring–damper suspension can inhibit the vertical vibration within the frequency of 1–3 Hz effectively and enhance the performance of ride comfort significantly.

  4. Tuning a Le Mans Car Suspension in ADAMS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berman, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An ADAMS model of South Africa’s first ever Le Mans car was developed and used to tune the suspension parameters. Validation of the model is to be done by comparing simulation results to those obtained in track testing. The suspension parameters...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6503(g)-1 - Suspension pending correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension pending correction. 301.6503(g)-1 Section 301.6503(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Collection § 301.6503(g)-1 Suspension pending correction. The running of the periods of limitations provided...

  6. 21 CFR 1314.155 - Suspension pending final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension pending final order. 1314.155 Section 1314.155 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.155 Suspension pending final order. (a) The...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1182 - Iron dextran suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron dextran suspension. 520.1182 Section 520.1182... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1182 Iron dextran suspension... hydroxide in complex with a low molecular weight dextran. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of...

  8. Degradability of aged aquatic suspensions of C60 nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Buendia, Inmaculada M.; Bak, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, aged aqueous suspensions of C(60) (nC(60)) were investigated in the respirometric OECD test for ready biodegradability. Two suspensions of nC(60) were prepared by stirring and aged under indirect exposure to sunlight for 36 months. ATR-FTIR analyses confirmed the presence of C(60)-...

  9. Radiation resistivity of frozen insulin solutions and suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboleva, N N; Ivanova, A I; Talrose, V L; Trofimov, V I; Fedotov, V P [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii; Research Institute for Biological Testing of Chemicals, Moscow (USSR); Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Hormon Chemistry, Moscow (USSR))

    1981-10-01

    The effect of great increase in radiation resistance of insulin solutions and suspensions after irradiation at low temperatures in the frozen state was observed by absorption spectrophotometry, paper chromatography and biological analysis. The data obtained suggest irradiation of frozen insulin solutions and suspensions as a method for its sterilization.

  10. 38 CFR 21.3043 - Suspension of program; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension of program; child. 21.3043 Section 21.3043 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... 38 U.S.C. Chapter 35 Eligibility and Entitlement § 21.3043 Suspension of program; child. For an...

  11. Research on Dynamic Optimization for Road-friendly Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yongjie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The heavy vehicle brings large dynamic loads to the road surface, which would reduce vehicle ride comfort and shorten road service life. The structure characteristic of heavy vehicle suspension has a significant impact on vehicle performance. Based on the D'Alembert principle, the dynamics models of independent and integral balanced suspension are proposed considering mass and inertia of balancing rod. The sprung mass acceleration and the tire dynamic force for two kinds of balanced suspension and the traditional quarter vehicle model are compared in frequency-domain and time-domain respectively. It is concluded that a quarter vehicle model simplified for balanced suspension could be used to evaluate the ride comfort of vehicle well, but it has some limitations in assessing the vehicle road-friendliness. Then, the sprung mass acceleration and the road damage coefficients are also analyzed under different vehicle design and running parameters at detail. Some conclusions are obtained: low suspension stiffness, high suspension damping and low tire stiffness are all favorable to improve vehicle performance; there is a saturation range of suspension damping enhancing vehicle performance; improving the road surface roughness and avoiding the no-load running are two effective methods to accomplish the better ride comfort and road-friendliness. The suspension stiffness and damping parameters are chosen for optimal parameters matching of road friendliness based on the approximation optimization method.

  12. Chronic and Daily Stressors Along With Negative Affect Interact to Predict Daily Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Elizabeth N; Neupert, Shevaun D

    2017-11-01

    The present study examines the within-person relationship of daily stressors and tiredness and whether this depends on daily negative affect and individual differences in chronic stress. One hundred sixteen older adult participants were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk for a 9-day daily diary study. Daily tiredness, daily stressors, and negative affect were measured each day, and chronic stress was measured at baseline. Daily stressors, daily negative affect, and chronic stress interacted to predict daily tiredness. People with high chronic stress who experienced an increase in daily negative affect were the most reactive to daily stressors in terms of experiencing an increase in daily tiredness. We also found that people with low levels of chronic stress were the most reactive to daily stressors when they experienced low levels of daily negative affect. Our results highlight the need for individualized and contextualized approaches to combating daily tiredness in older adults.

  13. Failure Analysis of Multilayered Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Rocchio-Heller, R.; Liu, J.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-02-01

    Improvement in the performance of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is one of the key objectives for further development of gas turbine applications. The material most commonly used as TBC topcoat is yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). However, the usage of YSZ is limited by the operating temperature range which in turn restricts the engine efficiency. Materials such as pyrochlores, perovskites, rare earth garnets are suitable candidates which could replace YSZ as they exhibit lower thermal conductivity and higher phase stability at elevated temperatures. The objective of this work was to investigate different multilayered TBCs consisting of advanced topcoat materials fabricated by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). The investigated topcoat materials were YSZ, dysprosia-stabilized zirconia, gadolinium zirconate, and ceria-yttria-stabilized zirconia. All topcoats were deposited by TriplexPro-210TM plasma spray gun and radial injection of suspension. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue and thermal shock testing. Microstructure analysis of as-sprayed and failed specimens was performed with scanning electron microscope. The failure mechanisms in each case have been discussed in this article. The results show that SPS could be a promising route to produce multilayered TBCs for high-temperature applications.

  14. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader...... day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We...

  15. Vaginal vault suspension during hysterectomy for benign indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth; Noer, Mette Calundann; Møller, Lars Alling

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis: Several suspension methods are used to try to prevent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) after hysterectomy. We aimed to evaluate agreement on terminology and surgical procedure of these methods. Methods: We randomly chose 532 medical records of women with a history......: Regarding medical records, agreement on terminology was good among patients undergoing pooled suspension in cases of hysterectomy via the abdominal and vaginal route (agreement 78.7, 92.3%). Regarding videos, agreement on surgical procedure was good among pooled suspension patients in cases of hysterectomy...... via the abdominal, laparoscopic, and vaginal routes (agreement 88.9, 97.8, 100%). Agreement on individual suspension methods differed regarding both medical records (agreement 0–90.1%) and videos (agreement 0–100%). Conclusions: Agreement on terminology and surgical procedure regarding suspension...

  16. Preparation of conjugated polymer suspensions by using ultrasonic atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Kazuya, E-mail: tada@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    2010-11-30

    The electrophoretic deposition is a method useful to prepare conjugated polymer films for electronic devices. This method provides high material recovery rate on the substrate from the suspension, in contrast to the conventional spin-coating in which most of the material placed on the substrate is blown away. Although manual reprecipitation technique successfully yields suspensions of various conjugated polymers including polyfluorene derivatives, it is favorable to control the preparation process of suspensions. In this context, this paper reports preliminary results on the preparation of suspension of conjugated polymer by using an ultrasonic atomizer. While the resultant films do not show particular difference due to the preparation methods of the suspension, the electric current profiles during the electrophoretic deposition suggests that the ultrasonic atomization of polymer solution prior to be mixed with poor solvent results in smaller and less uniform colloidal particles than the conventional manual pouring method.

  17. The analysis of silica suspensions atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochowiak, M., E-mail: Marek.Ochowiak@put.poznan.pl [Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Equipment, Poznan (Poland); Broniarz-Press, L.; Woziwodzki, S. [Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Equipment, Poznan (Poland)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The correlation equation for discharge coefficient has been proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spray angle increases with increase in GLR until a maximum value is attained at GLR value of 0.07. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The equation for SMD has been proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The C{sub D} and SMD are decreasing rapidly as GLR is increased to around 0.07 and thereafter decreasing at a slower rate. - Abstract: The paper contains the results of experimental investigation of air-water and air-silica suspension atomization process in effervescent nozzles with internal mixing obtained by the use of the digital microphotography method. In experiments the different aqueous solutions of silica Aerosil 300 of different concentration have been used. The suspensions containing up to 0.04 (kg solid particles/kg solution) have Newtonian rheological properties. The observations were carried out at liquid flow rates changed from 0.0014 to 0.011 (kg/s) and gas flow rates from 0.00015 to 0.0065 (kg/s). It corresponded to gas to liquid mass ratios (GLR) values from 0.014 to 0.46. The analysis of photos shows that the droplets which have been formed during the liquid atomization have very different sizes. The differences between characteristics of effervescent atomization for water and suspensions used have not been observed. The present study confirmed the previous reports which suggested that the small particles added to solution do not change spray characteristics. The experimental results show that C{sub D} and SMD are non-linear functions of GLR. Their values are decreasing rapidly as GLR is increased from zero to around 0.07 and thereafter decreasing at a slower rate with further increase in GLR. In the same point (GLR = 0.07) the value of {alpha} is maximal. The first regime is characteristic for bubbly flow. The second is typical of annular flow regime. Boundary between bubbly and annular flow regime is observed

  18. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  19. The benefit of daily photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, Sophie; Fourtanier, Anny M A

    2008-05-01

    It is now recognized that both ultraviolet (UV)-A and UVB wavelengths participate in the generation of photodamaged human skin during sun exposure. During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular, and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. This study was designed to evaluate in human beings the protection afforded by a day cream containing a photostable combination of UVB and UVA filters and thus protect against the UV-induced skin alterations. In solar-simulated radiation exposed and unprotected skin sites we observed melanization. The epidermis revealed a significant increase in stratum corneum and stratum granulosum thickness. In the dermis, an enhanced expression of tenascin and a reduced expression of type I procollagen were evidenced just below the dermoepidermal junction. Although no change in elastic fibers in exposed buttock skin was seen, a slightly increased deposit of lysozyme and alpha-1 antitrypsin on elastin fibers was observed using immunofluorescence techniques. A day cream with photoprotection properties was shown to prevent all of the above-described alterations. This study was performed on a limited number of patients (n = 12) with specific characteristics (20-35 years old and skin type II and III). Two dermal alterations were evaluated by visual assessment and not by computer-assisted image analysis quantification. Our in vivo results demonstrate the benefits of daily photoprotection using a day cream containing appropriate broad-spectrum sunscreens, which prevent solar UV-induced skin damages.

  20. Development of the Nissan hydraulic active suspension. Nissan yuatsu active suspension no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawarasaki, y.; Fukunaga, Y.; Hasegawa, S.; Okuyama, Y.; Omura, I.; Takahashi, K.; Abe, S.; Tsuruta, E. (Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-12-25

    A hydraulic active suspension system, Nissan original product, was developed and mass produced for the first time in the world. The system incorporates a sufficient power source, a high accuracy sensor and a high response device for continuous and intended vehicle control and at the same time delivers high levels of ride comfort and driving performance. The suspension system has four innovative features: skyhook damping, active roll and pitching control, a frequency-dependent damping mechanism, and active steering characteristics control. Under all road and operating conditions, the system actively suppresses vehicle attitude changes and unnecessary movement, and also gently absorbs inputs from the road. This epoch-making system provides a dramatic improvement in vehicle performance, and has been adopted in the Infiniti Q45 luxury sedan. 2 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Designs for a quantum electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruit, P; Hobbs, R G; Kim, C-S; Yang, Y; Manfrinato, V R; Hammer, J; Thomas, S; Weber, P; Klopfer, B; Kohstall, C; Juffmann, T; Kasevich, M A; Hommelhoff, P; Berggren, K K

    2016-05-01

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This 'quantum weirdness' could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or "quantum electron microscope". A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Defect Proliferation in Active Nematic Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant; Bowick, Mark J.; Giomi, Luca; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2014-03-01

    The rich structure of equilibrium nematic suspensions, with their characteristic disclination defects, is modified when active forces come into play. The uniform nematic state is known to be unstable to splay (extensile) or bend (contractile) deformations above a critical activity. At even higher activity the flow becomes oscillatory and eventually turbulent. Using hydrodynamics, we classify the active flow regimes as functions of activity and order parameter friction for both contractile and extensile systems. The turbulent regime is marked by a non-zero steady state density of mobile defect pairs. The defect density itself scales with an ``active Ericksen number,'' defined as the ratio of the rate at which activity is injected into the system to the relaxation rate of orientational deformations. The work at Syracuse University was supported by the NSF on grant DMR-1004789 and by the Syracuse Soft Matter Program.

  3. Flight suspension for the relativity gyro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patten, R.A. van

    1983-01-01

    A suspension system for levitation and precision positioning of the niobium coated spherical quartz gyro rotor during orbital flight has been simulated. The system employs multiple controllers and estimators with microprocessor (Z80) controlled range switching. The resulting system handles external accelerations up to 1 g in the highest range yet in the lowest range, below 10 -6 g the sensor noise power spectral density produces only 10 -10 g rms in the rotor. The system is capable of automatic emergency switch up within 100 μsec. Switch down is automatic to expected flight levels of ± 5 x 10 -8 g. Positioning accuracy in all ranges including emergency switch up is ± 5 μin. static, and ± 50 μin. dynamic. The average acceleration during the mission should be 10 -10 g to attain the science data accuracy goal. (Auth.)

  4. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Takamori, A; Bertolini, A; Cella, G; DeSalvo, R; Fukushima, M; Iida, Y; Jacquier, F; Kawamura, S; Marka, S; Nishi, Y; Numata, K; Sannibale, V; Somiya, K; Takahashi, R; Tariq, H; Tsubono, K; Ugas, J; Viboud, N; Yamamoto, H; Yoda, T; Wang Chen Yang

    2002-01-01

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SU...

  5. Aeroelastic Stability of Suspension Bridges using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jesper Winther; Sørensen, Niels; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2007-01-01

    using CFD models and the aeroelastic stability boundary has been successfully determined when comparing two-dimensional flow situations using wind tunnel test data and CFD methods for the flow solution and two-degrees-of-freedom structural models in translation perpendicular to the flow direction......In recent years large span suspension bridges with very thin and slender profiles have been built without proportional increasing torsional and bending stiffness. As a consequence large deformations at the mid-span can occur with risk of aeroelastic instability and structural failure. Analysis...... of aeroelastic stability also named flutter stability is mostly based on semi-empirical engineering models, where model specific parameters, the so-called flutter derivatives, need calibration from wind tunnel tests or numerical methods. Several papers have been written about calibration of flutter derivatives...

  6. Assessment of drug salt release from solutions, suspensions and in situ suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla; Liljefors, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    buffer is used as release media. Generally, the initial release of the drug salt from in situ suspensions occurred faster as compared to conventional suspensions, probably due to incomplete precipitation of the drug salt, and hence formation of supersaturated solutions where the rate of release......A rotating dialysis cell consisting of a small (10 ml) and a large compartment (1000 ml) was used to study the release of drug salt (bupivacaine 9-anthracene carboxylate) from (i). solutions, (ii). suspensions and (iii). in situ formed suspensions. Initial release experiments from suspensions...... indicated that the release of drug salt in deionized water was predominantly limited by the diffusion across the membrane whereas it is essentially dissolution rate controlled in 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.40). Thus, the in vitro model appears to have a potential in formulation screening when phosphate...

  7. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  8. A frameless stereotaxic operating microscope for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friets, E.M.; Strohbehn, J.W.; Hatch, J.F.; Roberts, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new system, which we call the frameless stereotaxic operating microscope, is discussed. Its purpose is to display CT or other image data in the operating microscope in the correct scale, orientation, and position without the use of a stereotaxic frame. A nonimaging ultrasonic rangefinder allows the position of the operating microscope and the position of the patient to be determined. Discrete fiducial points on the patient's external anatomy are located in both image space and operating room space, linking the image data and the operating room. Physician-selected image information, e.g., tumor contours or guidance to predetermined targets, is projected through the optics of the operating microscope using a miniature cathode ray tube and a beam splitter. Projected images superpose the surgical field, reconstructed from image data to match the focal plane of the operating microscope. The algorithms on which the system is based are described, and the sources and effects of errors are discussed. The system's performance is simulated, providing an estimate of accuracy. Two phantoms are used to measure accuracy experimentally. Clinical results and observations are given

  9. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Defect free masks remain one of the most significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Progress on this front requires high-performance wavelength-specific metrology of EUV masks, including high-resolution and aerial-image microscopy performed near the 13.5 nm wavelength. Arguably the most cost-effective and rapid path to proliferating this capability is through the development of Fresnel zoneplate-based microscopes. Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized to deal with them and their imaging properties are poorly understood. Here we present a modeling methodology to analyze zoneplate microscopes based on commercially available optical modeling software and use the technique to investigate the imaging performance of an off-axis EUV microscope design. The modeling predicts that superior performance can be achieved by tilting the zoneplate, making it perpendicular to the chief ray at the center of the field, while designing the zoneplate to explicitly work in that tilted plane. Although the examples presented here are in the realm of EUV mask inspection, the methods described and analysis results are broadly applicable to zoneplate microscopes in general, including full-field soft-x-ray microscopes routinely used in the synchrotron community.

  10. Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kunal K.; Burns, Laurie D.; Cocker, Eric D.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Ziv, Yaniv; Gamal, Abbas El; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals towards relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated fluorescence microscope made from mass-producible parts, including semiconductor light source and sensor. This device enables high-speed cellular-level imaging across ∼0.5 mm2 areas in active mice. This capability allowed concurrent tracking of Ca2+ spiking in >200 Purkinje neurons across nine cerebellar microzones. During mouse locomotion, individual microzones exhibited large-scale, synchronized Ca2+ spiking. This is a mesoscopic neural dynamic missed by prior techniques for studying the brain at other length scales. Overall, the integrated microscope is a potentially transformative technology that permits distribution to many animals and enables diverse usages, such as portable diagnostics or microscope arrays for large-scale screens. PMID:21909102

  11. The optics of microscope image formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David E

    2013-01-01

    Although geometric optics gives a good understanding of how the microscope works, it fails in one critical area, which is explaining the origin of microscope resolution. To accomplish this, one must consider the microscope from the viewpoint of physical optics. This chapter describes the theory of the microscope-relating resolution to the highest spatial frequency that a microscope can collect. The chapter illustrates how Huygens' principle or construction can be used to explain the propagation of a plane wave. It is shown that this limit increases with increasing numerical aperture (NA). As a corollary to this, resolution increases with decreasing wavelength because of how NA depends on wavelength. The resolution is higher for blue light than red light. Resolution is dependent on contrast, and the higher the contrast, the higher the resolution. This last point relates to issues of signal-to-noise and dynamic range. The use of video and new digital cameras has necessitated redefining classical limits such as those of Rayleigh's criterion. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A frameless stereotaxic operating microscope for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friets, E M; Strohbehn, J W; Hatch, J F; Roberts, D W

    1989-06-01

    A new system, which we call the frameless stereotaxic operating microscope, is discussed. Its purpose is to display CT or other image data in the operating microscope in the correct scale, orientation, and position without the use of a stereotaxic frame. A nonimaging ultrasonic rangefinder allows the position of the operating microscope and the position of the patient to be determined. Discrete fiducial points on the patient's external anatomy are located in both image space and operating room space, linking the image data and the operating room. Physician-selected image information, e.g., tumor contours or guidance to predetermined targets, is projected through the optics of the operating microscope using a miniature cathode ray tube and a beam splitter. Projected images superpose the surgical field, reconstructed from image data to match the focal plane of the operating microscope. The algorithms on which the system is based are described, and the sources and effects of errors are discussed. The system's performance is simulated, providing an estimate of accuracy. Two phantoms are used to measure accuracy experimentally. Clinical results and observations are given.

  13. Efficacy of oral meloxicam suspension for prevention of pain and inflammation following band and surgical castration in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M E; Ralston, Brenda; Burwash, Les; Matheson-Bird, Heather; Allan, Nick D

    2016-06-13

    Castration is one of the most common procedures performed on beef and dairy cattle. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of meloxicam oral suspension in reducing pain and inflammation in calves following band or surgical castration. Two identical trials with the exception of the method of castration (Band Castration Study 1 and Surgical Castration Study 2) were conducted. Sixty (60) healthy Holstein calves 4 to 5 months of age (138-202 Kg) were used. Animals received either Meloxicam Oral Suspension at a dose of 1 mg/kg BW (n = 15 Study 1 and 15 Study 2) or Saline (n = 15 Study 1 and 15 Study 2) 2 h before castration. Physiological (Heart Rate, Plasma Cortisol and Plasma Substance P) and Behavioral (Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Accelerometers and tail Pedometers) evaluations were conducted before (day -1) and after Castration (Day 0, 1, 2, 3). Inflammation was evaluated daily by providing an individual animal score (Study1) or with a measurement of scrotal thickness (Study 2). Heart rates were significantly greater in control animals following band and surgical castration. Plasma cortisol and substance P were significantly reduced in animals receiving Meloxicam Oral Suspension. Control animals had significantly greater VAS scores. Accelerometers showed that meloxicam treated animals had a significantly greater motion index and number of steps as well as less % time lying and number of lying bouts. The scrotal inflammation (based on scrotal swelling) was significantly decreased in the meloxicam treated animals compared to the control animals on day 1, day 2 and 3. Meloxicam Oral Suspension was able to significantly reduce the display of painful behaviors and physiological responses to pain in band castrated and surgical castrated calves for up to 72 h following a single oral treatment of 1 mg/kg body weight. Meloxicam Oral Suspension was able to significantly reduce scrotal inflammation in band castrated and surgical castrated calves.

  14. Recreating Daily life in Pompeii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose an integrated Mixed Reality methodology for recreating ancient daily life that features realistic simulations of animated virtual human actors (clothes, body, skin, face who augment real environments and re-enact staged storytelling dramas. We aim to go further from traditional concepts of static cultural artifacts or rigid geometrical and 2D textual augmentations and allow for 3D, interactive, augmented historical character-based event representations in a mobile and wearable setup. This is the main contribution of the described work as well as the proposed extensions to AR Enabling technologies: a VR/AR character simulation kernel framework with real-time, clothed virtual humans that are dynamically superimposed on live camera input, animated and acting based on a predefined, historically correct scenario. We demonstrate such a real-time case study on the actual site of ancient Pompeii.

  15. Study on Dynamic Behaviour of Wishbone Suspension System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M; Rahman, M M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristic model of the wishbone suspension system using the quarter car model approach. Suspension system in an automobile provides vehicle control and passenger comfort by providing isolation from road disturbances. This makes it essential that the detailed behavior of suspension should be known to optimize the performance. A kinetic study is performed using multi body system (MBS) analysis. The dirt road profile is considered as an applied loading. The spring constant, damping coefficient and sprung mass are studied on the performance of the suspension system. It can be observed that the spring constant is inversely related with time required to return to initial position and the amount of deformations. The damping ratio affects the suppression of spring oscillations, beyond a certain limit damping ration has the negligible effect. Sprung mass effected the equilibrium position of the suspension system with a small effect on its oscillation behavior. It is shown that the spring constant, damping ratio and sprung mass are significant parameters to design the suspension system. This study is essential for complete understanding of working of the suspension system and a future study with real geometries.

  16. Determination of the parameters of a microscopic object from a complex response of a differential microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, D V; Egorov, Alexander A; Zolotov, Evgenii M; Svidzinsky, K K

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the amplitude and phase of a complex response of a heterodyne differential microscope was used to demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of determination of the parameters of a composite microscopic object representing a combination of a step with a groove. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. On the microscopic foundation of scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, T.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to give a contribution to the microscopic foundation of scattering theory, i. e. to show, how the asymptotic formalism of scattering theory with objects like the S-matrix as well the initial and final asymptotics ψ in and ψ out can be derived from a microscopic description of the basic system. First the final statistics from a N-particle system through farly distant surfaces is derived. Thereafter we confine us to the 1-particle scattering and apply the final statistics in order to derive the scattering cross section from a microscopical description of the scattering situation. The basing dynamics are Bohm's mechanics, a theory on the motion of point particles, which reproduces all results of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics

  18. Microscopic hydrodynamics study with nuclear track membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilun Guo; Yuhua Zhao; Yulan Wang; Hiuhong Hao; Brandt, R.; Vater, P.

    1988-01-01

    Microscopic hydrodynamics has been studied using different liquids and nuclear track membranes with pores perpendicularly piercing through them. The flow rate of water and alcohol has been studied with polycarbonate track membranes with pore diameters 1.48 micrometres and 1.08 micrometres. It has been shown that the flow rate both for water and alcohol on a microscopic scale can be determined by the Poiseuille law which characterizes macroscopic laminar flow. The Reynolds number used in macroscopic fluid flow has been calculated from the flow rate and parameters of the liquids and the geometry of the pores. It has been shown that this Reynolds number can also be used to characterize microscopic flow. Based on the above results, the filtration capacity (or limit) of polycarbonate track microfilters for water had been calculated. Some possible limits on the application of the calculation are pointed out and discussed. (author)

  19. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  20. Handy Microscopic Close-Range Videogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, F.; Ebadi, H.

    2017-09-01

    The modeling of small-scale objects is used in different applications such as medicine, industry, and cultural heritage. The capability of modeling small-scale objects using imaging with the help of hand USB digital microscopes and use of videogrammetry techniques has been implemented and evaluated in this paper. Use of this equipment and convergent imaging of the environment for modeling, provides an appropriate set of images for generation of three-dimensional models. The results of the measurements made with the help of a microscope micrometer calibration ruler have demonstrated that self-calibration of a hand camera-microscope set can help obtain a three-dimensional detail extraction precision of about 0.1 millimeters on small-scale environments.

  1. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-10-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  2. Environmental TEM in an Aberration Corrected Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    ‐resolution imaging. A gaseous atmosphere in the pole‐piece gap of the objective lens of the microscope alters both the incoming electron wave prior to interaction with the sample and the outgoing wave below the sample. Whereas conventional TEM samples are usually thin (below 10‐20 nm), the gas in the environmental...... the microscope column. The effects of gas on the electron wave in the objective lens are not well understood and needs further attention. Imaging samples with a simple geometry, such as gold particles on a flat graphene substrate and analyzing the variations in contrast, provides a means for understanding...... results from imaging in various elemental as well as di‐molecular gases and their effect on imaging and spectroscopy in the environmental transmission electron microscope....

  3. Image processing for HTS SQUID probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Koetitz, R.; Itozaki, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawabe, U.

    2005-01-01

    An HTS SQUID probe microscope has been developed using a high-permeability needle to enable high spatial resolution measurement of samples in air even at room temperature. Image processing techniques have also been developed to improve the magnetic field images obtained from the microscope. Artifacts in the data occur due to electromagnetic interference from electric power lines, line drift and flux trapping. The electromagnetic interference could successfully be removed by eliminating the noise peaks from the power spectrum of fast Fourier transforms of line scans of the image. The drift between lines was removed by interpolating the mean field value of each scan line. Artifacts in line scans occurring due to flux trapping or unexpected noise were removed by the detection of a sharp drift and interpolation using the line data of neighboring lines. Highly detailed magnetic field images were obtained from the HTS SQUID probe microscope by the application of these image processing techniques

  4. Neutron relativistic phenomenological and microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qing-biao; Feng Da-chun; Zhuo Yi-zhong

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, both the phenomenological and microscopic neutron relativistic optical potentials are presented. The global neutron relativistic phenomenological optical potential (RPOP) based on the available experimental data for various nuclei ranging from C to U with incident energies E n =20--1000 MeV has been obtained through an automatic search of the best parameters by computer. Then the nucleon relativistic microscopic optical potential (RMOP) is studied by utilizing the effective Lagrangian based on the popular Walecka model. Through comparison between the theoretical results and experimental data we shed some insight into both the RMOP and RPOP. Further improvement concerning how to combine the phenomenological potential with the microscopic one in order to reduce the number of free parameters appearing in the RPOP is suggested

  5. Microscopic saw mark analysis: an empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Peters, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic saw mark analysis is a well published and generally accepted qualitative analytical method. However, little research has focused on identifying and mitigating potential sources of error associated with the method. The presented study proposes the use of classification trees and random forest classifiers as an optimal, statistically sound approach to mitigate the potential for error of variability and outcome error in microscopic saw mark analysis. The statistical model was applied to 58 experimental saw marks created with four types of saws. The saw marks were made in fresh human femurs obtained through anatomical gift and were analyzed using a Keyence digital microscope. The statistical approach weighed the variables based on discriminatory value and produced decision trees with an associated outcome error rate of 8.62-17.82%. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  7. Global Daily Climatology Network: Kazakhstan subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily meteorological observations for Kazakhstan within the framework of joint efforts to create Global Daily Climatology...

  8. NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) is an analysis constructed by combining observations from different platforms...

  9. Bidisperse and polydisperse suspension rheology at large solid fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pednekar, Sidhant [Benjamin Levich Institute and Department of Chemical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031; Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352; Morris, Jeffrey F. [Benjamin Levich Institute and Department of Chemical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031

    2018-03-01

    At the same solid volume fraction, bidisperse and polydisperse suspensions display lower viscosities, and weaker normal stress response, compared to monodisperse suspensions. The reduction of viscosity associated with size distribution can be explained by an increase of the maximum flowable, or jamming, solid fraction. In this work, concentrated or "dense" suspensions are simulated under strong shearing, where thermal motion and repulsive forces are negligible, but we allow for particle contact with a mild frictional interaction with interparticle friction coefficient of 0.2. Aspects of bidisperse suspension rheology are first revisited to establish that the approach reproduces established trends; the study of bidisperse suspensions at size ratios of large to small particle radii (2 to 4) shows that a minimum in the viscosity occurs for zeta slightly above 0.5, where zeta=phi_{large}/phi is the fraction of the total solid volume occupied by the large particles. The simple shear flows of polydisperse suspensions with truncated normal and log normal size distributions, and bidisperse suspensions which are statistically equivalent with these polydisperse cases up to third moment of the size distribution, are simulated and the rheologies are extracted. Prior work shows that such distributions with equivalent low-order moments have similar phi_{m}, and the rheological behaviors of normal, log normal and bidisperse cases are shown to be in close agreement for a wide range of standard deviation in particle size, with standard correlations which are functionally dependent on phi/phi_{m} providing excellent agreement with the rheology found in simulation. The close agreement of both viscosity and normal stress response between bi- and polydisperse suspensions demonstrates the controlling in influence of the maximum packing fraction in noncolloidal suspensions. Microstructural investigations and the stress distribution according to particle size are also presented.

  10. Development of an ultrasound microscope combined with optical microscope for multiparametric characterization of a single cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Mototaka; Shikama, Joe; Yoshida, Koki; Nagaoka, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2015-09-01

    Biomechanics of the cell has been gathering much attention because it affects the pathological status in atherosclerosis and cancer. In the present study, an ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope for characterization of a single cell with multiple ultrasound parameters was developed. The central frequency of the transducer was 375 MHz and the scan area was 80 × 80 μm with up to 200 × 200 sampling points. An inverted optical microscope was incorporated in the design of the system, allowing for simultaneous optical observations of cultured cells. Two-dimensional mapping of multiple ultrasound parameters, such as sound speed, attenuation, and acoustic impedance, as well as the thickness, density, and bulk modulus of specimen/cell under investigation, etc., was realized by the system. Sound speed and thickness of a 3T3-L1 fibroblast cell were successfully obtained by the system. The ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope further enhances our understanding of cellular biomechanics.

  11. Modelling approaches to the dewetting of evaporating thin films of nanoparticle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, U; Vancea, I; Archer, A J; Robbins, M J; Frastia, L; Stannard, A; Pauliac-Vaujour, E; Martin, C P; Blunt, M O; Moriarty, P J

    2009-01-01

    We review recent experiments on dewetting thin films of evaporating colloidal nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids) and discuss several theoretical approaches to describe the ongoing processes including coupled transport and phase changes. These approaches range from microscopic discrete stochastic theories to mesoscopic continuous deterministic descriptions. In particular, we describe (i) a microscopic kinetic Monte Carlo model, (ii) a dynamical density functional theory and (iii) a hydrodynamic thin film model. Models (i) and (ii) are employed to discuss the formation of polygonal networks, spinodal and branched structures resulting from the dewetting of an ultrathin 'postcursor film' that remains behind a mesoscopic dewetting front. We highlight, in particular, the presence of a transverse instability in the evaporative dewetting front, which results in highly branched fingering structures. The subtle interplay of decomposition in the film and contact line motion is discussed. Finally, we discuss a simple thin film model (iii) of the hydrodynamics on the mesoscale. We employ coupled evolution equations for the film thickness profile and mean particle concentration. The model is used to discuss the self-pinning and depinning of a contact line related to the 'coffee-stain' effect. In the course of the review we discuss the advantages and limitations of the different theories, as well as possible future developments and extensions.

  12. Expectations for neutrons as microscopic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, M.

    1993-01-01

    Neutrons have been used as microscopic probes to study structural and dynamical properties of various materials. In this paper I shall give a comparative study of the neutron research in the condensed matter physics with other typical microscopic methods such as X-rays, laser optics, magnetic resonances, Moessbauer effect and μSR. It is emphasized that the neutron study will extensively be important in future beyond the condensed matter physics. Chemistry, biology, earth sciences, material engineerings and medical sciences will become new frontiers for neutron study. (author)

  13. An innovative approach in microscopic endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Sharma, Jyotika; Mittal, Shifali

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the dental operating microscope was a turning point in the history of dentistry. It triggered a rapid transition from the conventional world of macro-dentistry to the precise, detailed world of micro-dentistry. However, working at these higher-power magnifications brings the clinician into the realm where even slight hand movements are disruptive. Physiologic hand tremor is a problem resulting in difficulty in mouth mirror placement. Hence, in this paper, a new instrument was designed to overcome the drawback of hand tremors during microscopic endodontics. PMID:24944459

  14. Microscopic tunneling theory of long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Hattel, Søren A.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate that the detai......We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate...

  15. Scanning microscopic four-point conductivity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Hansen, Torben Mikael; Bøggild, Peter

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating microscopic four-point probes is presented. The method uses silicon-based microfabrication technology involving only two patterning steps. The last step in the fabrication process is an unmasked deposition of the conducting probe material, and it is thus possible to select...... the conducting material either for a silicon wafer or a single probe unit. Using shadow masking photolithography an electrode spacing (pitch) down to 1.1 mum was obtained, with cantilever separation down to 200 run. Characterisation measurements have shown the microscopic probes to be mechanically very flexible...

  16. A novel magnetic lead screw active suspension system for vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses a detailed study of the redesign of a novel Magnetic Lead Screw (MLS) active suspension system for possible regeneration of the energy dispatched in the suspension system and active control of vehicle body movement. The MLS converts a low speed high force linear motion...... of a translator into a high speed low torque rotational motion of a rotor through helically shaped magnets. The paper describes the drawback of the first MLS prototype v1.0 developed for active suspension system, which lead to a new design of the MLS prototype named v1.5. Furthermore the paper introduces detailed...

  17. Modelling nonlinear viscoelastic behaviours of loudspeaker suspensions-like structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillou, Balbine; Lotton, Pierrick; Novak, Antonin; Simon, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical properties of an electrodynamic loudspeaker are mainly determined by its suspensions (surround and spider) that behave nonlinearly and typically exhibit frequency dependent viscoelastic properties such as creep effect. The paper aims at characterizing the mechanical behaviour of electrodynamic loudspeaker suspensions at low frequencies using nonlinear identification techniques developed in recent years. A Generalized Hammerstein based model can take into account both frequency dependency and nonlinear properties. As shown in the paper, the model generalizes existing nonlinear or viscoelastic models commonly used for loudspeaker modelling. It is further experimentally shown that a possible input-dependent law may play a key role in suspension characterization.

  18. Correlated particle dynamics in concentrated quasi-two-dimensional suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamant, H; Cui, B; Lin, B; Rice, S A

    2005-01-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally how the hydrodynamically correlated lateral motion of particles in a suspension confined between two surfaces is affected by the suspension concentration. Despite the long range of the correlations (decaying as 1/r 2 with the inter-particle distance r), the concentration effect is present only at short inter-particle distances for which the static pair correlation is nonuniform. This is in sharp contrast with the effect of hydrodynamic screening in unconfined suspensions, where increasing the concentration changes the prefactor of the large-distance correlation

  19. A Kinematic, Kevlar(registered) Suspension System for an ADR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael L.; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2003-01-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their bolometer detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar@ suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists or two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill. The resulting assembly constrains each degree of freedom only once, yielding a kinematic, tensile structure.

  20. On reactive suspension plasma spraying of calcium titanate

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlan, J. (Jiří); Pala, Z. (Zdeněk); Mušálek, R. (Radek); Ctibor, P. (Pavel)

    2016-01-01

    This study shows possibility of preparation of calcium titanate powder and coatings by reactive suspension plasma spraying. Suspension of mixture of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders in ethanol was fed into hybrid plasma torch with a DC-arc stabilized by a water–argon mixture (WSP-H 500). Various feeding distances and angles were used in order to optimize suspension feeding conditions. In the next step, the coatings were deposited on stainless steel substrates and ...

  1. Science 101: How Does an Electron Microscope Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, electron microscopes are not used to look at electrons. They are used to look for structure in things that are too small to observe with an optical microscope, or to obtain images that are magnified much more than is obtainable with an optical microscope. To understand how electron microscopes work, it will help to go…

  2. Microscopic nuclear structure with sub-nucleonic degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, P.U.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews microscopic theories of nuclear structure. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: microscopic nuclear structure with nucleons only; microscopic nuclear structure with nucleons, isobars and mesons; and microscopic nuclear structure with nucleons, mesons and dibaryons. (U.K.)

  3. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  4. Microscopic polyangeitis, report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagon, Patricia; Suarez, Martha Lucia

    1998-01-01

    Polyarteritis or microscopic polyangeitis is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis associated with the lung-kidney syndrome. It presents with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with multisystem involvement. A case is presented of a 50 years old male with its clinical and imaging findings

  5. MACROSCOPICAL AND MICROSCOPICAL STUDIES ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpinia crista leaves are bipinnate of about six pairs with alternate leaflets while the stem us fibrous, cylindrical hollow and prickly. Microscopical examination revealed the presence of strained cuticle, straight-walled epidermal cells, paracytic stomata, unicellular covering trichomes, fibres, prisms as well as cluster of ...

  6. Microscopic Cluster Theory for Exotic Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaselli, M; Kuehl, T; Ursescu, D; Fritzsche, S

    2006-01-01

    For a better understanding of the dynamics of complex exotic nuclei it is of crucial importance to develop a practical microscopic theory easy to be applied to a wide range of masses. In this paper we propose to calculate the structure of neutron-rich nuclei within a dynamic model based on the EoM theory

  7. Study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A.J.; Pancarobo, M.; Denisenko, N.; Aguilar, M.; Rejon, V.; Pena, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics is made. The knowledge of its behaviour allows us to determine accurately the region where the unstable operation could effect the measurements, and also to set the optimal working parameters. Each feedback circuitry compound is discussed as well as their mutual interaction. Different working conditions analysis and results are presented. (Author) 12 refs

  8. Microscopic Description of Le Chatelier's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Igor

    2005-01-01

    A simple approach that "demystifies" Le Chatelier's principle (LCP) and simulates students to think about fundamental physical background behind the well-known principles is presented. The approach uses microscopic descriptors of matter like energy levels and populations and does not require any assumption about the fixed amount of substance being…

  9. Remote Controlling and Monitoring of Microscopic Slides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, G.; Qadri, M.T.; Daraz, U.

    2016-01-01

    Remotely controlled microscopic slide was designed using especial Graphical User Interface (GUI) which interfaces the user at remote location with the real microscope using site and the user can easily view and control the slide present on the microscope's stage. Precise motors have been used to allow the movement in all the three dimensions required by a pathologist. The pathologist can easily access these slides from any remote location and so the physical presence of the pathologist is now made easy. This invention would increase the health care efficiency by reducing the time and cost of diagnosis, making it very easy to get the expert's opinion and supporting the pathologist to relocate himself for his work. The microscope is controlled with computer with an attractive Graphical User Interface (GUI), through which a pathologist can easily monitor, control and record the image of the slide. The pathologist can now do his work regardless of his location, time, cost and physically presence of lab equipment. The technology will help the specialist in viewing the patients slide from any location in the world. He would be able to monitor and control the stage. This will also help the pathological laboratories in getting opinion from senior pathologist who are present at any far location in the world. This system also reduces the life risks of the patients. (author)

  10. The Titan Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Jinschek, Jörg R.

    2009-01-01

    University of Denmark (DTU) provides a unique combination of techniques for studying materials of interest to the catalytic as well as the electronics and other communities [5]. DTU’s ETEM is based on the FEI Titan platform providing ultrahigh microscope stability pushing the imaging resolution into the sub...

  11. Mesooptical microscope as a tomographical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that there are at least four regions which are common for the mesooptical microscopes, on the one hand, and for the reconstructed tomography, on the other hand. The following characteristics of the mesooptical microscope show the tomographical properties: the structure of the output data concerning the orientation and the position in space of the straight-line objects going at small angles with the perpendicular to the given tomographic plane, the behaviour of the two-dimensional fourier-transform of the straight-line object in the course of the rotation of this object with respect to the specified axis in space, the scanning algorithm of the nuclear emulsion volume by the fence-like illuminated region in the mesooptical microscope for searching for particle tracks going parallel to the optical axis of the microscope, and, finally, the fact that the mesooptical images of the straight-line particle tracks with a common vertex in the nuclear emulsion lie on the sinogram. 12 refs.; 16 figs

  12. Exploring the environmental transmission electron microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob B.; Cavalca, Filippo; Damsgaard, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    of the opportunities that the environmental TEM (ETEM) offers when combined with other in situ techniques will be explored, directly in the microscope, by combining electron-based and photon-based techniques and phenomena. In addition, application of adjacent setups using sophisticated transfer methods...

  13. Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Lovejoy, Tracy C; Dellby, Niklas; Aoki, Toshihiro; Carpenter, R W; Rez, Peter; Soignard, Emmanuel; Zhu, Jiangtao; Batson, Philip E; Lagos, Maureen J; Egerton, Ray F; Crozier, Peter A

    2014-10-09

    Vibrational spectroscopies using infrared radiation, Raman scattering, neutrons, low-energy electrons and inelastic electron tunnelling are powerful techniques that can analyse bonding arrangements, identify chemical compounds and probe many other important properties of materials. The spatial resolution of these spectroscopies is typically one micrometre or more, although it can reach a few tens of nanometres or even a few ångströms when enhanced by the presence of a sharp metallic tip. If vibrational spectroscopy could be combined with the spatial resolution and flexibility of the transmission electron microscope, it would open up the study of vibrational modes in many different types of nanostructures. Unfortunately, the energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy performed in the electron microscope has until now been too poor to allow such a combination. Recent developments that have improved the attainable energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope to around ten millielectronvolts now allow vibrational spectroscopy to be carried out in the electron microscope. Here we describe the innovations responsible for the progress, and present examples of applications in inorganic and organic materials, including the detection of hydrogen. We also demonstrate that the vibrational signal has both high- and low-spatial-resolution components, that the first component can be used to map vibrational features at nanometre-level resolution, and that the second component can be used for analysis carried out with the beam positioned just outside the sample--that is, for 'aloof' spectroscopy that largely avoids radiation damage.

  14. Microscopic approaches to quantum nonequilibriumthermodynamics and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-09

    perspective on quantum thermalization for Science [8]. Wrote a joint experiment- theory paper on studying connections between quantum and classical chaos in...on the random matrix theory (eigenstate thermalization) and macroscopic phenomena (both equilibrium and non-equilibrium). Understanding thermodynamics...information. Specific questions to be addressed: connections of microscopic description of quantum chaotic systems based on the random matrix theory

  15. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges...

  16. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  17. FORGING DEFECTS ANALYSIS IN SUSPENSION ARMAND FLASH CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Mr Jadhav Vijay B. , Prof. Mundhe V.L. , Dr. Narve N.G.

    2018-01-01

    The suspension arms in the process of fogging are made by different material and in that processes get various problems are found. In that paper list out that problem and solving flash wastage problem.

  18. Study of shear thickening behavior in colloidal suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maleki Jirsaraee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the shear thickening behavior of the nano silica suspension (silica nanoparticles 12 nm in size suspended in ethylene glycol under steady shear. The critical shear rate for transition into shear thickening phase was determined at different concentrations and temperatures. The effect of temperature and concentration was studied on the shear thickening behavior. In silica suspension, it was observed that all the samples had a transition into shear thickening phase and also by increasing the temperature, critical shear rate increased and viscosity decreased. Our observations showed that movement in silica suspension was Brownian and temperature could cause a delay in transition into shear thickening phase. Yet, we observed that increasing the concentration would decrease critical shear rate and increase viscosity. Increasing temperature increased Brownian forces and increasing concentration increased hydrodynamic forces, confirming the contrast between these two forces for transition into shear thickening phase for the suspensions containing nano particles

  19. Degradability of aged aquatic suspensions of C60 nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B.; Buendia, Inmaculada M.; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    While studies of the potential human and environmental effects of C60 and its derivatives are emerging in the scientific literature, the environmental fate of C60 is still largely unknown. In this study, aged aqueous suspensions of C60 (nC60) were investigated in the respirometric OECD test...... for ready biodegradability. Two suspensions of nC60 were prepared by stirring and aged under indirect exposure to sunlight for 36 months, which resulted in relatively stable suspensions with a dark-brown colour. The suspended nC60 could not be extracted into toluene and indicating that the particles were...... no longer present as underivatised nC60 but had undergone a transformation. TEM images and particle tracking analysis showed that the suspension consisted of particle aggregates with a size of 156 nm (SD=54nm) and 139nm (Sd=49), respectively, but also contained smaller aggregates. Samples of the nC60...

  20. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Agrawal, Akanksha; Kim, Sung A; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains

  1. Improved production of chlorogenic acid from cell suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorogenic acid is a free radical scavenger, antibacterial, anti- inflammatory, antiviral, hypoglycemic, and in addition to ... experiments, the effect of various strengths of B5 medium (1/4 .... Growth kinetics of L. macranthoides cell suspension ...

  2. Solution or suspension - Does it matter for lipid based systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A T; Holm, R; Müllertz, A

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the potential of co-administering an aqueous suspension with a placebo lipid vehicle, i.e. chase dosing, was investigated in rats relative to the aqueous suspension alone or a solution of the drug in the lipid vehicle. The lipid investigated in the present study was Labrafil M2125CS...... and three evaluated poorly soluble model compounds, danazol, cinnarizine and halofantrine. For cinnarizine and danazol the oral bioavailability in rats after chase dosing or dosing the compound dissolved in Labrafil M21515CS was similar and significantly higher than for the aqueous suspension....... For halofantrine the chase dosed group had a tendency towards a low bioavailability relative to the Labrafil M2125CS solution, but still a significant higher bioavailability relative to the aqueous suspension. This could be due to factors such as a slower dissolution rate in the intestinal phase of halofantrine...

  3. A simple route to prepare stable hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yingchao; Wang Xinyu; Li Shipu

    2009-01-01

    A simple ultrasound assisted precipitation method with addition of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is proposed to prepare stable hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles suspension from the mixture of Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 solution and Ca(OH) 2 solution. The product was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, HRTEM and particle size, and zeta potential analyzer. TEM observation shows that the suspension is composed of 10-20 nm x 20-50 nm short rod-like and 10-30 nm similar spherical HAP nanoparticles. The number-averaged particle size of stable suspension is about 30 nm between 11.6 and 110.5 nm and the zeta potential is -60.9 mV. The increase of stability of HAP nanoparticles suspension mainly depends on the electrostatic effect and steric effect of GAGs. The HAP nanoparticles can be easily transported into the cancer cells and exhibit good potential as gene or drug carrier system.

  4. In vitro production of azadirachtin from cell suspension cultures of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    proven effective in the control of agricultural pests in an environmentally ..... Prakash G and Srivastava A K 2005 Statistical media optimization for cell growth and ... Juss. suspension cultures; Process Biochemistry 40 3795–3800. Prakash G ...

  5. Weakly sheared active suspensions: hydrodynamics, stability, and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenlu

    2011-03-01

    We present a kinetic model for flowing active suspensions and analyze the behavior of a suspension subjected to a weak steady shear. Asymptotic solutions are sought in Deborah number expansions. At the leading order, we explore the steady states and perform their stability analysis. We predict the rheology of active systems including an activity thickening or thinning behavior of the apparent viscosity and a negative apparent viscosity depending on the particle type, flow alignment, and the anchoring conditions, which can be tested on bacterial suspensions. We find remarkable dualities that show that flow-aligning rodlike contractile (extensile) particles are dynamically and rheologically equivalent to flow-aligning discoid extensile (contractile) particles for both tangential and homeotropic anchoring conditions. Another key prediction of this work is the role of the concentration of active suspensions in controlling the rheological behavior: the apparent viscosity may decrease with the increase of the concentration.

  6. Large Scale Brownian Dynamics of Confined Suspensions of Rigid Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, Aleksandar; Sprinkle, Brennan; Balboa, Florencio; Patankar, Neelesh

    2017-11-01

    We introduce new numerical methods for simulating the dynamics of passive and active Brownian colloidal suspensions of particles of arbitrary shape sedimented near a bottom wall. The methods also apply for periodic (bulk) suspensions. Our methods scale linearly in the number of particles, and enable previously unprecedented simulations of tens to hundreds of thousands of particles. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our methods on a suspension of boomerang-shaped colloids. We also model recent experiments on active dynamics of uniform suspensions of spherical microrollers. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under award DMS-1418706, and by the U.S. Department of Energy under award DE-SC0008271.

  7. Optimal Vibration Control for Tracked Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of optimal vibration control with exponential decay rate and simulation for vehicle active suspension systems is developed. Mechanical model and dynamic system for a class of tracked vehicle suspension vibration control is established and the corresponding system of state space form is described. In order to prolong the working life of suspension system and improve ride comfort, based on the active suspension vibration control devices and using optimal control approach, an optimal vibration controller with exponential decay rate is designed. Numerical simulations are carried out, and the control effects of the ordinary optimal controller and the proposed controller are compared. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  8. Establishment of the callus and cell suspension culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Establishment of the callus ... study provided an efficient way for E. angustifolia cell suspension culture to produce secondary metabolite. .... was also observed that in these treatments the stem.

  9. Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyla, Philippe; Priem, Stephane; Vincent, Doyeux; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad

    2014-11-01

    We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. For instance, we examine the role of particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in determining the rheology of confined sheared suspensions. In addition we evaluate the intrinsic viscosity as well as the contribution of hydrodynamic interactions to the dissipation as a function of a wide range of confinements. Thanks to the direct visualisation of the whole 2D Stokes flow, we are able to give a clear interpretation about the rheology of semi-dilute confined suspensions.

  10. Effect of the crone suspension control system on braking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, X.; Oustaloup, A. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (France). Lab. d' Automatique et de Productique; Nouillant, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (France). Lab. d' Automatique et de Productique]|[DRIA-PSA Peugeot Citroen, Velizy - Villacoublay (France)

    2001-07-01

    Semi-active or active suspensions not only increase driving comfort, but also permit the control system to be switched over if required in order to improve the transmission of forces at the points of contact between tire and road surface by minimizing the dynamic wheel loads. It may also be possible to use these systems to control wheel load distribution and, thus, influence braking or steering performance by changing the distribution of normal forces between the front and rear axles. This article examines the effect of the CRONE suspension control system on braking. The central idea is to use continuously variable dampers and fast load levelling devices to distribute the normal forces of tire between the front and rear axles. The basis principle is explained using known dynamic properties of active suspension, vehicles and tires. The effect of active suspension on vehicle response during braking is then evaluated using computer simulations from a two-wheel vehicle model. (orig.)

  11. Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Additionally, sorghum cell suspension cultures have been initiated from the friable ... proteomics technologies. The field of proteomics is .... air dried at room temperature and resuspended in 2 ml of urea buffer [9 M urea, 2 M ...

  12. Structure and rheology of nanoparticle–polymer suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Shin, Jung Hwan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    separation and aggregation than expected from theory for interacting brushes. SAXS and rheology measurements also reveal that at high particle loadings, the stabilizing oligomer brush is significantly compressed and produces jamming in the suspensions

  13. Rheological studies of aqueous stabilised nano-zirconia particle suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Ullah Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation aqueous suspensions of nano- and colloidal range particles are stabilised by changing the ambient pH. Rheology is used to establish the stability of the suspensions and it is found that the rheology of the suspensions is strongly dependent on the pH values. The viscosity is highest close to the iso-electric point of the powders. At the iso-electric point the net surface charge on the powder particles is zero and is the cause of the high viscosity. Away from the iso-electric point, the particles are charged, giving rise to a double layer phenomenon and causing the reduction in viscosity. It is also found that increasing the solid contents of the suspensions reduces the pH region of low viscosity.

  14. Well-dispersed gold nanowire suspension for assembly application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cailing; Zhang Li; Zhang Haoli; Li Hulin

    2005-01-01

    A method for fabricating well-dispersed nanowire suspension has been demonstrated in the paper. Thin gold nanowires were prepared by template synthesis, and then functionalized with sulphonate group-terminated thiols before suspended in different solvents. The degree of aggregation of the obtained suspension was evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the degree of aggregation was predominated by the solvents, and the best degree of dispersion was obtained when isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was used as the solvent. The gold nanowires from the suspension can be selectively assembled onto chemically patterned substrates. This well-dispersed nanowire suspension is potentially useful for fabricating novel nanodevices

  15. Sugar transport by maize endosperm suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Goodwin, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the mechanism of sugar uptake by suspension cultures derived from developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm, incorporation of radioactivity from 14 C-sugars by the tissue in the mid-log phase of growth was examined. Among the sugars tested was l'-deoxy-l'-fluorosucrose (FS), a derivative not hydrolyzed by invertase but recognized by sucrose carriers in other systems. At 40 mM, uptake of label from FS was 23% of that from sucrose, while uptake of label from L-glucose (used as a control for medium carry-over and adsorption) was 16% of that from sucrose. Uptake of label from sucrose did not increase at concentrations above 50 mM, possibly due to a rate-limiting requirement for extracellular hydrolysis. Kinetic analysis revealed both saturable and linear components of uptake for glucose and fructose. The rate of fructose uptake exceeded that of glucose at all concentrations. Fructose uptake at 20 mM was inhibited by NaN 3 , HgCl 2 , dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. Results suggest that sucrose is hydrolyzed prior to uptake, and that fructose is transported preferentially by a carrier sensitive to an external sulfhydryl group inhibitor. Metabolic activity is required for sugar uptake. The specificity of the hexose transporter is currently being investigated

  16. Acoustic manipulation of bacteria cells suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    GutiéRrez-Ramos, Salomé; Hoyos, Mauricio; Aider, Jean Luc; Ruiz, Carlos; Acoustofluidics Team Team; Soft; Bio Group Collaboration

    An acoustic contacless manipulation gives advantages in the exploration of the complex dynamics enviroment that active matter exhibits. Our works reports the control confinement and dispersion of Escherichia coliRP437-pZA3R-YFP suspensions (M9Glu-Ca) via acoustic levitation.The manipulation of the bacteria bath in a parallel plate resonator is achieved using the acoustic radiation force and the secondary radiation force. The primary radiation force generates levitation of the bacteria cells at the nodal plane of the ultrasonic standing wave generated inside the resonator. On the other side, secondary forces leads to the consolidation of stable aggregates. All the experiments were performed in the acoustic trap described, where we excite the emission plate with a continuous sinusoidal signal at a frequency in the order of MHz and a quartz slide as the reflector plate. In a typical experiment we observed that, before the input of the signal, the bacteria cells exhibit their typical run and tumble behavior and after the sound is turned on all of them displace towards the nodal plane, and instantaneously the aggregation begins in this region. CNRS French National Space Studies, CONACYT Mexico.

  17. Survey of potential applications of superconducting suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.K.; Bupara, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to survey the recent developments in applying the bulk superconductors to mechanical applications. These applications, called superconducting suspensions, can be broadly divided into three groups - Passive Magnetic Bearings, Passive Superconducting Dampers and Active Superconducting Bearings. Basically, passive magnetic bearings utilize bulk superconductors to support a rotating shaft without contact while active superconducting bearings employ superconducting wires. Passive superconducting dampers, on the other hand, dissipate energy from a vibrating component. Over the past one year, dramatic improvements have been made in processing large-size specimens made of high grade bulk superconductors. As a result, they can meet the size requirements and load capacity requirements of many applications. With this size-scale up, one can utilize them in a wider number of applications than what was possible a few years back. At present several organizations have demonstrated the capability of passive magnetic bearings. The targeted applications include miniature cryoturboexpanders, cryoturbopumps, energy storage wheels and turbomolecular pumps. These demonstrations indicate that the passive magnetic bearings are closer to technology maturity. (orig.)

  18. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Akiteru; Ando, Masaki; Bertolini, Alessandro; Cella, Giancarlo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Iida, Yukiyoshi; Jacquier, Florian; Kawamura, Seiji; Marka, Szabolcs; Nishi, Yuhiko; Numata, Kenji; Sannibale, Virginio; Somiya, Kentaro; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Tariq, Hareem; Tsubono, Kimio; Ugas, Jose; Viboud, Nicolas; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Yoda, Tatsuo; Wang Chenyang

    2002-01-01

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SUS is equipped with a totally passive magnetic damper to suppress internal resonances without degrading the thermal noise performance. In this paper we discuss the SUS details and present prototype results

  19. Magnetic suspension characteristics of electromagnetic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dantam K.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1993-01-01

    Electromagnetic actuators that use a current-carrying coil (which is placed in a magnetic field) to generate mechanical force are conceptually attractive components for active control of rotating shafts. In one concept that is being tested in the laboratory, the control forces from such actuators are applied on the flexibly supported bearing housings of the rotor. Development of this concept into a practical reality requires a clear and thorough understanding of the role of electromechanical parameters of these actuators in delivering the right amount of control force at the right phase into the rotor. The electromechanical parameters of the actuators investigated are the mass of the armature, stiffness of its suspension, electrical resistance, and inductance of the coils. Improper selection of these parameters can result in degradation in their performance, leading to mistuning between the actuator and the rotor. Through a simple analysis, it is shown that use of such mistuned actuators could result in sharp fluctuations in the phase of the control force delivered into the rotor around the critical speeds. These sharp fluctuations in phase, called 'Phase Glitches', are undesirable. Hence, future designs of controllers should take into account the undesirable mistuning effects between the actuator and the rotor caused by the phase glitches.

  20. Equation of state of charged latex suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, Valerie

    1995-01-01

    We measured the osmotic pressure of charged bromo-polystyrene particles suspensions in the dilute System (0,01-10% in volume fraction). The typical range of differences in water heights varies from one millimeter to a few centimeters. When particles are polydisperse, samples remain always sols but if particles are monodisperse, they can form supramolecular crystals stabilized by electrostatic repulsions. These crystals exist only when the ionic force is very low, about one μmole/l. We determined the structure of these assemblies by light and X-ray scattering as function of the volume fraction. At low volume fractions, crystals adopt a body centered cubic structure; when the concentration increases, they become more compact and we observe face centered cubic structures. After shearing, defects may appear and two dimensional hexagonal structures can be found. This type of study of the osmotic pressure versus distance (in the range 300 nm) is equivalent to a highly precise atomic force measurement, since it allows detection of forces as small as 10 -11 -10 -12 N. (author) [fr

  1. Sedimentation of athermal particles in clay suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotet, Xavier; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2015-03-01

    We discuss sedimentation of athermal particles in dense clay suspensions which appear liquid-like to glass-like. These studies are motivated by the physics important to a diverse range of problems including remediation of oil sands after the extraction of hydrocarbons, and formation of filter cakes in bore wells. We approach this problem by first considering collective sedimentation of athermal spherical particles in a viscous liquid in quasi-two dimensional and three dimensional containers. We examine the system using optical and x-ray tomography techniques which gives particle level information besides global information on the evolution of the volume fraction. Unlike sediments in the dilute limit - which can be modeled as isolated particles that sediment with a constant velocity and slow down exponentially as they approach the bottom of the container - we find interaction between the particles through the viscous fluids leads to qualitatively differences. We find significant avalanching behavior and cooperative motion as the grains collectively settle, and non-exponential increase in settling time. We discuss the effect of stirring caused by the sedimenting particles on their viscosity and consequently the sedimentation rates as a function of particle concentration. Supported by Petroleum Research Fund Grant PRF # 54045-ND9.

  2. Seamless stitching of tile scan microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, F B; Chernavskaia, O; Heuke, S; Bocklitz, T; Meyer, T; Popp, J; Heintzmann, R

    2015-06-01

    For diagnostic purposes, optical imaging techniques need to obtain high-resolution images of extended biological specimens in reasonable time. The field of view of an objective lens, however, is often smaller than the sample size. To image the whole sample, laser scanning microscopes acquire tile scans that are stitched into larger mosaics. The appearance of such image mosaics is affected by visible edge artefacts that arise from various optical aberrations which manifest in grey level jumps across tile boundaries. In this contribution, a technique for stitching tiles into a seamless mosaic is presented. The stitching algorithm operates by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at corners to a common value. The corrected image mosaics appear to be free from stitching artefacts and are, therefore, suited for further image analysis procedures. The contribution presents a novel method to seamlessly stitch tiles captured by a laser scanning microscope into a large mosaic. The motivation for the work is the failure of currently existing methods for stitching nonlinear, multimodal images captured by our microscopic setups. Our method eliminates the visible edge artefacts that appear between neighbouring tiles by taking into account the overall illumination differences among tiles in such mosaics. The algorithm first corrects the nonuniform brightness that exists within each of the tiles. It then compensates for grey level differences across tile boundaries by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at the corners to a common value. After these artefacts have been removed further image analysis procedures can be applied on the microscopic images. Even though the solution presented here is tailored for the aforementioned specific case, it could be easily adapted to other contexts where image tiles are assembled into mosaics such as in astronomical or satellite photos. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal

  3. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Guazzelli , Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liq...

  4. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Guazzelli Élisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical co...

  5. On reactive suspension plasma spraying of calcium titanate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlan, Jiří; Pala, Zdeněk; Mušálek, Radek; Ctibor, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2016), s. 4607-4615 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12145S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Suspensions * X-raymethods * Perovskites * Substrates * Suspension plasma spraying Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272884215022646

  6. Theory of superconducting magnet suspension: main results survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voevodskii, K.E.; Kochetkov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is given of theoretical achievements on electro-dynamic suspension of high speed ground vehicles with superconducting magnets. The problems discussed, are calculation of lift and drag forces acting on a superconducting magnet, the latter moving above a guideway structure which may be of two different types (either conducting sheet or a series of discrete loops); influence of irregularities of the guideway structure; vertical and longitudinal stability of suspension. (author)

  7. Stability Prediction of Polymeric Suspensions of some Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Subhashree Sahoo; Chandra Kanti Chakraborti; Pradipta Kumar Behera

    2014-01-01

    Considering the importance of physical stability, zeta potential values, percentage volume of sedimentation and redispersibility of polymeric suspensions of some fluoroquinolones like Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) and Ofloxacin (Oflox) were measured. These formulations were prepared using two grades of Carbopol polymer such as C934 and C940; and Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Above mentioned values of each suspension was determined by following standard methods. The results of those experiment...

  8. Viscosity, thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number of nanoparticle suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Buxuan; ZHOU Leping; PENG Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    Using our reported experimental data of effective thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and viscosity for CuO nanoparticle suspensions, the corresponding thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number are calculated. With the hard sphere model and considering effects of particle clustering and surface adsorption, the increase of viscosity for nanoparticle suspension observed is explained. It is shown that the effective thermal conductivity will be strongly affected by the formation and correlated spatial distribution of nanoparticle clusters when compared to viscosity in hosting liquid.

  9. Stability of allopurinol and of five antineoplastics in suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressman, J B; Poust, R I

    1983-04-01

    The stability of allopurinol, azathioprine, chlorambucil, melphalan, mercaptopurine, and thioguanine each in an extemporaneously prepared suspension was studied. Tablets of each drug were crushed, mixed with a suspending agent, and brought to a final volume of 10, 15, or 20 ml with a 2:1 mixture of simple syrup and wild cherry syrup. Suspensions were prepared in the following concentrations: allopurinol (20 mg/ml), azathioprine (50 mg/ml), chlorambucil (2 mg/ml), melphalan (2 mg/ml), mercaptopurine (50 mg/ml), and thioguanine (40 mg/ml). Using high-performance liquid chromatography or ultraviolet scans, duplicate assays were performed on each suspension periodically during storage for up to 84 days at ambient room temperature or 5 degrees C. The time required for the suspensions to drop below 90% of labeled strength was used as an indicator of drug stability. Allopurinol and azathioprine were stable for at least 56 days at room temperature and at 5 degrees C. Chlorambucil decomposed rapidly at room temperature but was stable for seven days when stored at 5 degrees C. Melphalan suspensions did not meet the stated criteria for stability even at the time of initial assay. Mercaptopurine and thioguanine were stable for 14 and 84 days, respectively, at room temperature; at 5 degrees C, assay values dropped below those obtained at room temperature. In the suspension formulation tested, allopurinol, azathioprine, mercaptopurine, and thioguanine are stable for at least 14 days at room temperature; chlorambucil suspensions should be refrigerated and discarded after seven days. Melphalan decomposes too rapidly to make this suspension formulation feasible for extemporaneous compounding.

  10. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  11. A magneto rheological hybrid damper for railway vehicles suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe GHITA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High speed railway vehicles features a specific lateral oscillation resulting from the coupled lateral displacement and yaw of the wheelset which leads to a sinusoid movement of the wheelset along the track, transferred to the entire vehicle. The amplitude of this oscillation is strongly dependant on vehicle’s velocity. Over a certain value, namely the critical speed, the instability phenomenon so-called hunting occurs. To raise the vehicle’s critical speed different designs of the suspension all leading to a much stiffer vehicle can be envisaged. Different simulations prove that a stiffer central suspension will decrease the passenger’s comfort in terms of lateral accelerations of the carboy. The authors propose a semi-active magneto rheological suspension to improve the vehicle’s comfort at high speeds. The suspension has as executive elements hybrid magneto rheological dampers operating under sequential control strategy type balance logic. Using an original mathematical model for the lateral dynamics of the vehicle the responses of the system with passive and semi-active suspensions are simulated. It is shown that the semi-active suspension can improve the vehicle performances.

  12. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Measurements of Suspension-Feeding Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Clos, K.; Jones, I. T.; Carrier, T. J.; Jumars, P. A.

    2016-02-01

    Active suspension feeders, such as bivalves and tunicates, connect benthic and pelagic ecosystems by packaging suspended matter into larger fecal and pseudofecal particles, greatly enhancing the flux of carbon and nutrients from the water column to the benthos. The volume of water processed by a population of suspension feeders is commonly estimated by scaling up results from experiments that measure the clearance rate (the volume of water cleared of particles per time) of one or a few individual suspension feeders. Clearance rates vary, however, between species, within a species, and over time for a single individual; and the velocity fields produced by suspension feeders are likely to interact in complex ways. We measured the water velocity fields produced by two species of bivalve, Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, using particle image velocimetry (PIV). We used these measurements to calculate flow rates and Reynolds numbers of inhalant and exhalant siphons. We also observed strong entrainment of water by M. arenaria's exhalant siphon jet that may help to explain how the clam avoids depleting the water around it of particles and oxygen as it feeds. We are using these measurements to inform computational fluid mechanics (CFD) models of suspension feeding, allowing us to examine the interactions of flow fields produced by multiple suspension feeders and other effects not quantified by clearance-rate measurements.

  13. Effect of suspension kinematic on 14 DOF vehicle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpattananukul, T.; Chantharasenawong, C.

    2017-12-01

    Computer simulations play a major role in shaping modern science and engineering. They reduce time and resource consumption in new studies and designs. Vehicle simulations have been studied extensively to achieve a vehicle model used in minimum lap time solution. Simulation result accuracy depends on the abilities of these models to represent real phenomenon. Vehicles models with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF), 10 DOF and 14 DOF are normally used in optimal control to solve for minimum lap time. However, suspension kinematics are always neglected on these models. Suspension kinematics are defined as wheel movements with respect to the vehicle body. Tire forces are expressed as a function of wheel slip and wheel position. Therefore, the suspension kinematic relation is appended to the 14 DOF vehicle model to investigate its effects on the accuracy of simulate trajectory. Classical 14 DOF vehicle model is chosen as baseline model. Experiment data is collected from formula student style car test runs as baseline data for simulation and comparison between baseline model and model with suspension kinematic. Results show that in a single long turn there is an accumulated trajectory error in baseline model compared to model with suspension kinematic. While in short alternate turns, the trajectory error is much smaller. These results show that suspension kinematic had an effect on the trajectory simulation of vehicle. Which optimal control that use baseline model will result in inaccuracy control scheme.

  14. Evaluating Suspension Formulations of Theophylline Cocrystals With Artificial Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitipamula, Srinivasulu; Wong, Annie B H; Kanaujia, Parijat

    2018-02-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals have garnered significant interest as potential solids to address issues associated with formulation development of drug substances. However, studies concerning the understanding of formulation behavior of cocrystals are still at the nascent stage. We present results of our attempts to evaluate suspension formulations of cocrystals of an antiasthmatic drug, theophylline, with 2 artificial sweeteners. Stability, solubility, drug release, and taste of the suspension formulations were evaluated. Suspension that contained cocrystal with acesulfame showed higher drug release rate, while a cocrystal with saccharin showed a significant reduction in drug release rate. The cocrystal with saccharin was found stable in suspension for over 9 weeks at accelerated test condition; in contrast, the cocrystal with acesulfame was found unstable. Taste analysis using an electronic taste-sensing system revealed improved sweetness of the suspension formulations with cocrystals. Theophylline has a narrow therapeutic index with a short half-life which necessitates frequent dosing. This adversely impacts patient compliance and enhances risk of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse effects. The greater thermodynamic stability, sweetness, and sustained drug release of the suspension formulation of theophylline-saccharin could offer an alternative solution to the short half-life of theophylline and make it a promising formulation for treating asthmatic pediatric and geriatric patients. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzelli, Élisabeth

    2017-06-01

    Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical contact. These systems thus belong to an intermediate regime between pure suspensions and granular flows. We show that we can unify suspension and granular rheology under a common framework by transferring the frictional approach of dry granular media to wet suspensions of spherical particles. We also discuss non-Newtonian behavior such as normal-stress differences and shear-induced migration. Beyond the classical problem of dense suspension of hard spheres which is far from being completely resolved, there are also entirely novel avenues of study concerning more complex mixtures of particles and fluids such as those involving other types of particles (e.g. fibers) or non-Newtonian fluids that we will also address.

  16. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guazzelli Élisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava. Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical contact. These systems thus belong to an intermediate regime between pure suspensions and granular flows. We show that we can unify suspension and granular rheology under a common framework by transferring the frictional approach of dry granular media to wet suspensions of spherical particles. We also discuss non-Newtonian behavior such as normal-stress differences and shear-induced migration. Beyond the classical problem of dense suspension of hard spheres which is far from being completely resolved, there are also entirely novel avenues of study concerning more complex mixtures of particles and fluids such as those involving other types of particles (e.g. fibers or non-Newtonian fluids that we will also address.

  17. Robustness analysis of bogie suspension components Pareto optimised values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi Bideleh, Seyed Milad

    2017-08-01

    Bogie suspension system of high speed trains can significantly affect vehicle performance. Multiobjective optimisation problems are often formulated and solved to find the Pareto optimised values of the suspension components and improve cost efficiency in railway operations from different perspectives. Uncertainties in the design parameters of suspension system can negatively influence the dynamics behaviour of railway vehicles. In this regard, robustness analysis of a bogie dynamics response with respect to uncertainties in the suspension design parameters is considered. A one-car railway vehicle model with 50 degrees of freedom and wear/comfort Pareto optimised values of bogie suspension components is chosen for the analysis. Longitudinal and lateral primary stiffnesses, longitudinal and vertical secondary stiffnesses, as well as yaw damping are considered as five design parameters. The effects of parameter uncertainties on wear, ride comfort, track shift force, stability, and risk of derailment are studied by varying the design parameters around their respective Pareto optimised values according to a lognormal distribution with different coefficient of variations (COVs). The robustness analysis is carried out based on the maximum entropy concept. The multiplicative dimensional reduction method is utilised to simplify the calculation of fractional moments and improve the computational efficiency. The results showed that the dynamics response of the vehicle with wear/comfort Pareto optimised values of bogie suspension is robust against uncertainties in the design parameters and the probability of failure is small for parameter uncertainties with COV up to 0.1.

  18. Development of A New Automotive Active Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef Abdulhammed, Eng.; Eng. Hisham Elsherif, Dr, Prof.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective was to develop a smart new vehicle suspension system that minimizes the road irregularities impact on the driver, also to increase performance and stability of the vehicle at high speeds. The central idea is based on modifying the normal passive suspension system into a computer controller hydraulic actuated active suspension system simply by adding a new component such as a hydraulic cylinder on a normal passive system. The new suspension system is economical to be wildly used in consumer’s cars with low prices. The new added components was analytically tested and modeled according to different parameters. A new test rig was implemented to simulate a real quarter suspension system. The new suspension model was controlled by feedback controller according to the road conditions; the controller output controls the cylinder actuator to compensate the road oscillations and increases the vehicle stability for the passenger. Finally, to maximize the aerodynamics coefficients of the vehicle during high speeds by controlling the vehicle clearance level from the ground to achieve full stability, steering and fuel economy.

  19. Analysis of Train Suspension System Using MR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    RamaSastry, DVA; Ramana, K. V.; Mohan Rao, N.; Siva Kumar, SVR; Priyanka, T. G. L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with introducing MR dampers to the Train Suspension System for improving the ride comfort of the passengers. This type of suspension system comes under Semi-active suspension system which utilizes the properties of MR fluid to damp the vibrations. In case of high speed trains, the coach body is subjected to vibrations due to vertical displacement, yaw and pitch movements. When the body receives these disturbances from the ground,the transmission of vibrations to the passenger increases which affect the ride comfort. In this work, the equations of motion of suspension system are developed for both conventional passive system and semi-active system and are modelled in Matlab/Simulink and analysis has been carried out. The passive suspension system analysis shows that it is taking more time to damp the vibrations and at the same time the transmissibility of vibrations is more.Introducing MR dampers,vertical and angular displacements of the body are computed and compared. The results show that the introduction of MR dampers into the train suspension system improves ride comfort.

  20. Clay-cement suspensions - rheological and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, L.; Izak, P.; Mastalska-Poplawska, J.; Gajek, M.

    2017-01-01

    The piping erosion in soil is highly unexpected in civil engineering. Elimination of such damages is difficult, expensive and time-consuming. One of the possibility is the grouting method. This method is still developed into direction of process automation as well as other useful properties of suspensions. Main way of modernization of the grouting method is connected it with rheology of injection and eventuality of fitting them to specific problems conditions. Very popular and useful became binders based on modified clays (clay-cement suspensions). Important principle of efficiency of the grouting method is using of time-dependent pseudothixotropic properties of the clay-cement suspensions. The pseudo-rheounstability aspect of the suspensions properties should be dedicated and fitted to dynamic changes of soil conditions destructions. Whole process of the modification of the suspension rheology is stimulated by the specific agents. This article contains a description of practical aspects of the rheological parameters managing of the clay-cement suspensions, dedicated to the building damages, hydrotechnic constructions etc.

  1. Ensemble-average versus suspension-scale Cauchy continuum-mechanical definitions of stress in polarized suspensions: Global homogenization of a dilute suspension of dipolar spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almog, Y.; Brenner, H.

    1999-01-01

    The macroscale rheological properties of a dilute suspension exposed to a uniform external field and composed of identical, rigid, inhomogeneous, dipolar, spherical particles dispersed in an incompressible Newtonian fluid and possessing the same mean density as the latter fluid are derived from knowledge of its microscale properties by applying a global ensemble-averaging technique. Each dipole, which is permanently embedded in the particle, is assumed to be generated by the presence of an inhomogeneous external body-force field in the particle interior resulting from the action of the uniform external field on an inhomogeneous distribution of interior matter. It is shown that although the ensemble-average stress tensor is symmetric, the suspension nevertheless behaves macroscopically as if it possessed an asymmetric stress tensor. This seeming contradiction can be traced to the fact that the average body force acting on the contents of any arbitrarily drawn volume lying in the interior of the suspension does not vanish despite the fact that each particle is 'neutrally buoyant'. That this force is not zero stems from the fact that some particles necessarily straddle the closed surface bounding that volume, and that the distribution of external body forces over the interiors of these particles is nonuniform. As such, that portion of the spherical particle lying outside of the surface enclosing the domain exerts a force on the remaining portion of the sphere lying within that domain. We then demonstrate that the natural macroscopic model, which is derived by equating the divergence of the suspension-scale stress appearing in that model to the ensemble-average external body-force field, and which predicts a symmetric stress tensor, is macroscopically deficient with respect to the more intuitive asymmetric stress model usually proposed by continuum mechanicians for such a suspension. It is shown that the latter, continuum-mechanical model recovers all the physically

  2. 3D modeling design and engineering analysis of automotive suspension beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Zhi Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automotive suspension is an important device for transmission and torque. The main parameters and dimensions of 40 tons of heavy duty truck spring suspension system are designed in the paper. According to the data, the 3D modeling and virtual assembly of the leaf spring suspension are carried out by using parametric design. Structural stress of spring suspension is analyzed which can provide a guide and basis for the design of the leaf spring suspension.

  3. On the detection of early osteoarthritis by quantitative microscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstaedt, Daniel John

    Articular cartilage is a thin layer of connective tissue that protects the ends of bones in diarthroidal joints. Cartilage distributes mechanical forces during daily movement throughout its unique depth-dependent structure. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage primarily contains water, collagen, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The collagen fibers are intertwined with negatively charged GAG and surround the cells (i.e. chondrocytes) in cartilage. Degradation to the ECM reduces the load bearing properties of cartilage which can be initiated by injury (e.g. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture) or disease (e.g. osteoarthritis (OA)). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and x-ray computed tomography (CT) are noninvasive imaging techniques that are increasingly being used in the clinical detection of cartilage degradation. The aim of the first project in this dissertation was to quantify and compare the depth-dependent GAG concentration from healthy and biochemically degraded humeral ex vivo articular cartilage using quantitative contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography (qCECT) at high resolution. The second project in this dissertation was aimed to measure the topographical and depth-dependent GAG concentration using qCECT and delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) from the medial tibia cartilage three weeks after unilateral ACL transection which is an animal model of OA (i.e. modified Pond-Nuki model). These GAG measurements were correlated with a biochemical method, inductively couple plasma optical emission spectrometry, to compare the degradation on the medial tibia between the OA and contralateral cartilage. The third project in this dissertation used the same cartilage specimens as in project two to investigate the change in T2 due to OA and the effect on T2 from a contrast agent. Furthermore, the change in T2 relaxation was investigated from static unconfined compression with correlations by biomechanical

  4. Designs for a quantum electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruit, P.; Hobbs, R.G.; Kim, C-S.; Yang, Y.; Manfrinato, V.R.; Hammer, J.; Thomas, S.; Weber, P.; Klopfer, B.; Kohstall, C.; Juffmann, T.; Kasevich, M.A.; Hommelhoff, P.; Berggren, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This ‘quantum weirdness’ could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or “quantum electron microscope”. A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. - Highlights: • Quantum electron microscopy has the potential of reducing radiation damage. • QEM requires a fraction of the electron wave to pass through the sample

  5. Designs for a quantum electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruit, P., E-mail: p.kruit@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Hobbs, R.G.; Kim, C-S.; Yang, Y.; Manfrinato, V.R. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hammer, J.; Thomas, S.; Weber, P. [Department of Physics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstrasse 1, d-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Klopfer, B.; Kohstall, C.; Juffmann, T.; Kasevich, M.A. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hommelhoff, P. [Department of Physics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstrasse 1, d-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Berggren, K.K. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This ‘quantum weirdness’ could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or “quantum electron microscope”. A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. - Highlights: • Quantum electron microscopy has the potential of reducing radiation damage. • QEM requires a fraction of the electron wave to pass through the sample

  6. Virtual reality microscope versus conventional microscope regarding time to diagnosis: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Rebecca; Ruddle, Roy A; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Thomas, Rhys G; Quirke, Phil; Treanor, Darren

    2013-01-01

      To create and evaluate a virtual reality (VR) microscope that is as efficient as the conventional microscope, seeking to support the introduction of digital slides into routine practice.   A VR microscope was designed and implemented by combining ultra-high-resolution displays with VR technology, techniques for fast interaction, and high usability. It was evaluated using a mixed factorial experimental design with technology and task as within-participant variables and grade of histopathologist as a between-participant variable. Time to diagnosis was similar for the conventional and VR microscopes. However, there was a significant difference in the mean magnification used between the two technologies, with participants working at a higher level of magnification on the VR microscope.   The results suggest that, with the right technology, efficient use of digital pathology for routine practice is a realistic possibility. Further work is required to explore what magnification is required on the VR microscope for histopathologists to identify diagnostic features, and the effect on this of the digital slide production process. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  7. Portable smartphone based quantitative phase microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin; Tian, Xiaolin; Yu, Wei; Kong, Yan; Jiang, Zhilong; Liu, Fei; Xue, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu

    2018-01-01

    To realize portable device with high contrast imaging capability, we designed a quantitative phase microscope using transport of intensity equation method based on a smartphone. The whole system employs an objective and an eyepiece as imaging system and a cost-effective LED as illumination source. A 3-D printed cradle is used to align these components. Images of different focal planes are captured by manual focusing, followed by calculation of sample phase via a self-developed Android application. To validate its accuracy, we first tested the device by measuring a random phase plate with known phases, and then red blood cell smear, Pap smear, broad bean epidermis sections and monocot root were also measured to show its performance. Owing to its advantages as accuracy, high-contrast, cost-effective and portability, the portable smartphone based quantitative phase microscope is a promising tool which can be future adopted in remote healthcare and medical diagnosis.

  8. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  9. Electron microscopic radioautography of the cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisov, D.S.; Pal'tsyn, A.A.; Vtyurin, B.V.

    1980-01-01

    This monograph is the first one in the world literature that gives th generalised experience in application of the up-to-date method of structural and functional analysis, i.e. of electron-microscopic autography to study the dynamics of intracellular processes under normal conditions as well as under some pathogenic effects. Given herein are the data on synthesis of DNA and RNA in various structures of the nucleus, particularly in nucleoli, the regularities of the synthesis processes in the organellae of the same name are discussed; illustrated are the possibilities of structure analysis of biosynthesis intensity variations in the nucleus and cytoplasma in cells of liver miocardium, granulation tissue at different stages of morphological process; the results of electron-microscopic radioautography application in study of clinical biopsy material are given and the data obtained are discussed in the light of general pathology problems

  10. Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płocinniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz

    2016-04-20

    This paper presents an analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope. In this microscope the Gaussian beam with an embedded optical vortex is focused into the sample plane. Additionally, the optical vortex can be moved inside the beam, which allows fine scanning of the sample. We provide an analytical solution of the whole path of the beam in the system (within paraxial approximation)-from the vortex lens to the observation plane situated on the CCD camera. The calculations are performed step by step from one optical element to the next. We show that at each step, the expression for light complex amplitude has the same form with only four coefficients modified. We also derive a simple expression for the vortex trajectory of small vortex displacements.

  11. Isotope analysis in the transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Toma; Hofer, Christoph; Argentero, Giacomo; Leuthner, Gregor T; Pennycook, Timothy J; Mangler, Clemens; Meyer, Jannik C; Kotakoski, Jani

    2016-10-10

    The Ångström-sized probe of the scanning transmission electron microscope can visualize and collect spectra from single atoms. This can unambiguously resolve the chemical structure of materials, but not their isotopic composition. Here we differentiate between two isotopes of the same element by quantifying how likely the energetic imaging electrons are to eject atoms. First, we measure the displacement probability in graphene grown from either 12 C or 13 C and describe the process using a quantum mechanical model of lattice vibrations coupled with density functional theory simulations. We then test our spatial resolution in a mixed sample by ejecting individual atoms from nanoscale areas spanning an interface region that is far from atomically sharp, mapping the isotope concentration with a precision better than 20%. Although we use a scanning instrument, our method may be applicable to any atomic resolution transmission electron microscope and to other low-dimensional materials.

  12. Development of a transmission positron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuya, M., E-mail: matsuya@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 1-2 Musashino, 3-Chome, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Jinno, S. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chiba University, Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, Chiba 263-8552 (Japan); Ootsuka, T.; Inoue, M. [JEOL Ltd., 1-2 Musashino, 3-Chome, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Kurihara, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Doyama, M.; Inoue, M. [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0913 (Japan); Fujinami, M. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chiba University, Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, Chiba 263-8552 (Japan)

    2011-07-21

    A practical transmission positron microscope (TPM) JEM-1011B has been developed to survey differences in the interaction of positron and electron beams with materials, and is installed in the Slow Positron Facility of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The TPM can share positron and electron beams, and can also be used as a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Positron transmission images up to magnification 10,000x (resolution: 50 nm) and positron diffraction patterns up to 044 family were successfully obtained by the TPM comparing them with those of electrons. The differences in material transmittances for both beams have been measured, and can be explained by the calculated results of the Monte Carlo simulation code PENELOPE-2008.

  13. Design and development of compact multiphoton microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehravar, SeyedSoroush

    A compact multi-photon microscope (MPM) was designed and developed with the use of low-cost mode-locked fiber lasers operating at 1040nm and 1560nm. The MPM was assembled in-house and the system aberration was investigated using the optical design software: Zemax. A novel characterization methodology based on 'nonlinear knife-edge' technique was also introduced to measure the axial, lateral resolution, and the field curvature of the multi-photon microscope's image plane. The field curvature was then post-corrected using data processing in MATLAB. A customized laser scanning software based on LabVIEW was developed for data acquisition, image display and controlling peripheral electronics. Finally, different modalities of multi-photon excitation such as second- and third harmonic generation, two- and three-photon fluorescence were utilized to study a wide variety of samples from cancerous cells to 2D-layered materials.

  14. EXTRACELLULAR CELLULOLYTIC COMPLEXES PRODUCTION BY MICROSCOPIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Syrchin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to screen and to study the effect of inducers on the synthesis of the cellulolytic enzyme complexes by microscopic fungi. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities were determined by reducing sugar with DNS reagent, and β-glucosidase activity by pNPG hydrolysis. The enzyme preparations were obtained by ammonium sulphate precipitation. Among 32 studied strains of microscopic fungi 14 produced cellulo- and xylanolytic enzyme complexes. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 demonstrated the highest levels of all studied enzyme activities. Enzyme preparations with high endo-, exoglucanase, xylanase and β-glucosidase activities were obtained from these strains. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 were active producers of cellulase enzyme complexes during growth on natural substrates. It was shown that inductors of cellulolytic enzymes in Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 differed from the ones in Trichoderma reesei.

  15. Polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Chien; Lyu, C.-W.; Peng, L.-C.

    2001-01-01

    A polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope, which combines a polarized optical heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a differential amplifier to scan the topographic image of a surface, is proposed. In the experiment the differential amplifier, which acts as a PM-AM converter, in the experiment, converting phase modulation (PM) into amplitude modulation (AM). Then a novel, to our knowledge, phase demodulator was proposed and implemented for the differential-phase laser scanning microscope. An optical grating (1800 lp/mm) was imaged. The lateral and the depth resolutions of the imaging system were 0.5 μm and 1 nm, respectively. The detection accuracy, which was limited by the reflectivity variation of the test surface, is discussed

  16. Development of Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscope Capability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Kimberlee Chiyoko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Talin, Albert Alec [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Michael, Joseph R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Modern semiconductor devices rely on the transport of minority charge carriers. Direct examination of minority carrier lifetimes in real devices with nanometer-scale features requires a measurement method with simultaneously high spatial and temporal resolutions. Achieving nanometer spatial resolutions at sub-nanosecond temporal resolution is possible with pump-probe methods that utilize electrons as probes. Recently, a stroboscopic scanning electron microscope was developed at Caltech, and used to study carrier transport across a Si p-n junction [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] . In this report, we detail our development of a prototype scanning ultrafast electron microscope system at Sandia National Laboratories based on the original Caltech design. This effort represents Sandia's first exploration into ultrafast electron microscopy.

  17. Triple Giant Resonance Excitations: A Microscopic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, E.G.; Andres, M.V.; Catara, F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Fallot, M.; Scarpaci, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present, for the first time, microscopic calculations of inelastic cross sections of the triple excitation of giant resonances induced by heavy ion probes. We start from a microscopic approach based on RPA. The mixing of three-phonon states among themselves and with two- and one-phonon states is considered within a boson expansion with Pauli corrections. In this way we go beyond the standard harmonic approximations and get anharmonic excitation spectra. At the same time we also introduce non-linearities in the external field. The calculations are done by solving semiclassical coupled channel equations, the channels being superpositions of one-, two- and three-phonon states. Previous calculations for the Double Giant Resonance excitation show good agreement with experimental cross sections. The inclusion of the three phonon components confirms the previous results for the DGR and produces a strong increase in the Triple GR energy region

  18. Realistic microscopic level densities for spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear level densities play an important role in nuclear reactions such as the formation of the compound nucleus. We develop a microscopic calculation of the level density based on a combinatorial evaluation from a realistic single-particle level scheme. This calculation makes use of a fast Monte Carlo algorithm allowing us to consider large shell model spaces which could not be treated previously in combinatorial approaches. Since our model relies on a microscopic basis, it can be applied to exotic nuclei with more confidence than the commonly used semiphenomenological formuals. An exhaustive comparison of our predicted neutron s-wave resonance spacings with experimental data for a wide range of nuclei is presented

  19. The clinical microscope and direct composite veneer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pascotto, Renata C; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the advantages and limitations related to the use of a clinical microscope in restorative dentistry, and it demonstrates the aid of magnification during preparation and restoration of a direct composite veneer. Good illumination and visibility is important to adequately viewin...... the adjacent dental tissues so that the resin composite buildup can mimic natural teeth. The reproduction of details results in a naturally esthetic direct veneer....

  20. Theoretical approach to the scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, C.

    1990-01-01

    Within a one-electron approach, based on a Green's-function formalism, a nonperturbative expression for the tunneling current is obtained and used to discuss which spectroscopic information may be deduced from a scanning-tunneling-microscope experiment. It is shown up to which limits the voltage dependence of the tunneling current reproduces the local density of states at the surface, and how the reflection coefficients of the electronic waves at the surface may modify it

  1. Digital management of an electron microscope unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elea, N.; Dickson, M.; Munroe, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Electron microscope units, especially those such as ours, which operate as a central infrastructural facility are increasingly asked to provide more service, over more instruments with decreasing, or limited, financial resources. We believe that staff time is best used performing electron microscopy, assisting users and maintaining instrumentation rather than in the pursuit of red tape. One solution to this problem has been the creation of a control system which performs all routine acts of data management, such as the archiving and accessing of digital data, providing access to bookings, and most importantly in the era of user pays services, logging time and billing users. The system we have created, developed and expanded allows the users themselves to access our server through any web-browser and make their own bookings or access and manipulate their data. Users themselves must log on to a microscope through swipecard readers before it can be used and log-off after use. Their time is logged precisely and an exquisitely fair user pays systems can be operated by transferring logged usage time to spreadsheets to calculate charges. Furthermore, this system acts as a method of user authentication and can be used to bar incompetent or unauthorised users. The system has recently been upgraded to increase its utility to include sensors that monitor the electron microscope operating environment, such as magnetic field, room temperature, water flow etc, so that if these parameters depart significantly from optimum levels electron microscope unit staff may be alerted. In this presentation the structure of our system will be described and the advantages and disadvantages of such a system will be discussed. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  2. Active Mask Segmentation of Fluorescence Microscope Images

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C.; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D.; Kovačević, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the “contour” to that of “inside and outside”, or, masks, allowing for easy mul...

  3. Microscopic foundation of the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Akito

    1994-01-01

    A microscopic foundation of the interacting boson model is described. The importance of monopole and quadrupole pairs of nucleons is emphasized. Those pairs are mapped onto the s and d bosons. It is shown that this mapping provides a good approximation in vibrational and transitional nuclei. In appendix, it is shown that the monopole pair of electrons plays possibly an important role in metal clusters. (orig.)

  4. Microscopic theory of particle-vibration coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colo, Gianluca; Bortignon, Pier Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sez. di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Sagawa, Hiroyuki [Center for Mathematics and Physics, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8560 (Japan); Moghrabi, Kassem; Grasso, Marcella; Giai, Nguyen Van, E-mail: colo@mi.infn.it [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2011-09-16

    Some recent microscopic implementations of the particle-vibration coupling (PVC) theory for atomic nuclei are briefly reviewed. Within the nonrelativistic framework, the results seem to point to the necessity of fitting new effective interactions that can work beyond mean field. In keeping with this, the divergences which arise must be cured. A method is proposed, and the future perspectives that are opened are addressed.

  5. Microscopic theory of particle-vibration coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colo, Gianluca; Bortignon, Pier Francesco; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Moghrabi, Kassem; Grasso, Marcella; Giai, Nguyen Van

    2011-01-01

    Some recent microscopic implementations of the particle-vibration coupling (PVC) theory for atomic nuclei are briefly reviewed. Within the nonrelativistic framework, the results seem to point to the necessity of fitting new effective interactions that can work beyond mean field. In keeping with this, the divergences which arise must be cured. A method is proposed, and the future perspectives that are opened are addressed.

  6. The Mathematical Microscope - Making the inaccessible accessible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2011-01-01

      In this chapter we introduce a new term, the "Mathematical Microscope", as a method of using mathematics in accessing information about reality when this information is otherwise inaccessible. Furthermore, we discuss how models and experiments are related: none of which are important without th...... of mathematical modeling is discussed for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, depression, cardiovascular diseases and the interactions between the combinations of these, the so-called gray triangle in the metabolic syndrome....

  7. Experimental demonstration of microscopic process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, R.D.; Hurrell, S.J.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.; Crawford, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    Microscopic process monitoring (MPM) is a material control strategy designed to use standard process control data to provide expanded safeguards protection of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The MPM methodology identifies process events by recognizing significant patterns of changes in on-line measurements. The goals of MPM are to detect diversions of nuclear material and to provide information on process status useful to other facility safeguards operations

  8. Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickols, W.; Tinoco, I.; Katz, J.E.; Maestre, M.F.; Bustamante, C.

    1985-01-01

    A differential polarization microscope forms two images: one of the transmitted intensity and the other due to the change in intensity between images formed when different polarizations of light are used. The interpretation of these images for linear dichroism and circular dichroism are described. The design constraints on the data acquisition systems and the polarization modulation are described. The advantage of imaging several biological systems which contain optically anisotropic structures are described

  9. On microscopic structure of the QCD vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, D. G.; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Kim, Youngman; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new class of regular stationary axially symmetric solutions in a pure QCD which correspond to monopole-antimonopole pairs at macroscopic scale. The solutions represent vacuum field configurations which are locally stable against quantum gluon fluctuations in any small space-time vicinity. This implies that the monopole-antimonopole pair can serve as a structural element in microscopic description of QCD vacuum formation.

  10. Atomic Force Microscope for Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, W. T.; Hecht, M. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Akiyama, T.; Gautsch, S.; deRooij, N. F.; Staufer, U.; Niedermann, Ph.; Howald, L.; Mueller, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed, built, and tested an atomic force microscope (AFM) for extraterrestrial applications incorporating a micromachined tip array to allow for probe replacement. It is part of a microscopy station originally intended for NASA's 2001 Mars lander to identify the size, distribution, and shape of Martian dust and soil particles. As well as imaging topographically down to nanometer resolution, this instrument can be used to reveal chemical information and perform infrared and Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution.

  11. Daily Water Requirements when Wearing Body Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, Scott

    2000-01-01

    .... This report presents the results of model simulations predicting the individual daily water requirements under a broad range of energy expenditures and weather conditions when wearing battle dress...

  12. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  13. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) Time Problem ...

  14. Atmospheric scanning electron microscope for correlative microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ian E G; Dennison, Clare L; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo; Sato, Chikara; Yarwood, Andrew; O'Toole, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The JEOL ClairScope is the first truly correlative scanning electron and optical microscope. An inverted scanning electron microscope (SEM) column allows electron images of wet samples to be obtained in ambient conditions in a biological culture dish, via a silicon nitride film window in the base. A standard inverted optical microscope positioned above the dish holder can be used to take reflected light and epifluorescence images of the same sample, under atmospheric conditions that permit biochemical modifications. For SEM, the open dish allows successive staining operations to be performed without moving the holder. The standard optical color camera used for fluorescence imaging can be exchanged for a high-sensitivity monochrome camera to detect low-intensity fluorescence signals, and also cathodoluminescence emission from nanophosphor particles. If these particles are applied to the sample at a suitable density, they can greatly assist the task of perfecting the correlation between the optical and electron images. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Microscopic optical potential at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malecki, A.

    1979-01-01

    The problems concerning a microscopic optical model for the elastic nuclear collisions at medium energies are discussed. We describe the method for constructing the optical potential which makes use of the particular properties of quantum scattering in the eikonal limit. The resulting potential is expressed in terms of the nuclear wave functions and the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes. This potential has a dynamic character since by including the effects of multiple scattering it allows for the possibility of intermediate excitations of the projectile and target nuclei. The use of the potential in the exact wave equation accounts for the most important mechanisms present in the collisions between composite particles. The microscopic optical model was successfully applied in the analysis of elastic scattering of protons and α-particles on atomic nuclei in the energy range of 300-1000 MeV/nucleon. The dynamic optical potential in this case represents a considerable improvement over the eikonal Glauber model and the static optical potential of Watson. The possibilities to extend the microscopic description of the proton-nucleus interaction by considering the spin dependence of the elementary amplitude and the Majorana exchange effects were investigated. (author)

  16. First Sample Delivery to Mars Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Robotic Arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander has just delivered the first sample of dug-up soil to the spacecraft's microscope station in this image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager during the mission's Sol 17 (June 12), or 17th Martian day after landing. The scoop is positioned above the box containing key parts of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA, instrument suite. It has sprinkled a small amount of soil into a notch in the MECA box where the microscope's sample wheel is exposed. The wheel turns to present sample particles on various substrates to the Optical Microscope for viewing. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) wide. The top of the MECA box is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) wide. This image has been lightened to make details more visible. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Tribology of swollen starch granule suspensions from maize and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Selway, Nichola; Shelat, Kinnari J; Dhital, Sushil; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-01-02

    The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water. Microscopy analysis of the samples following tribological testing suggests that this is due to the rapid break-up of potato ghosts under the shear and rolling conditions within the tribological contact. A reduction in the small deformation moduli (associated with a weak gel structure) is also observed when the potato ghost suspensions are subjected to steady shear using parallel plate rheometry; both microscopy and particle size analysis show that this is accompanied by the partial shear-induced breakage of ghost particles. This interplay between particle microstructure and the resultant rheological and lubrication dynamics of starch ghost suspensions contributes to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of textural and other functional properties of cooked starches in food and other applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Qualification criteria verification for aisi-4340 steel suspension lug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, M.A.; Alam, M.

    2005-01-01

    All external loads carried underneath an aircraft are mounted onto it through mechanism generally known as suspension system. The externally mounted attachments like bombs, missiles and fuel tanks etc. experience enormous aerodynamic and inertial forces in the flights. These forces are transferred to the interface point of suspension system, known as 'Suspension Lug'. Thus lugs are considered critical component and have extremely stringent qualification criteria standards used in the aviation industry in USA, Europe, Russia, etc. Different standards prevail in different parts of the world about qualification and testing of these lugs. As Pakistan is entering into aviation industry, therefore there is a need to fulfill the requirements of these standards, to suit Pakistani environment. The suspension lug under study is 2000 Ibs. load class made from AISI-4340 Steel having good mechanical properties as per required standard. The manufacturing processes included forging, machining and vacuum heat treatment. The prototypes of suspension lugs were manufactured in the local industry and subjected to the required mechanical tests such as tensile testing at 5 to 35 degree angles. Impact testing at cryogenic temperatures of -50 to -70 degree C, and breaking load testing were performed. The acceptable results were obtained and mechanical testing for qualification of lugs was finalized and standardized. The options were compared with practical viability, utilization of product and cost effectiveness. (author)

  19. Shear-induced changes of electrical conductivity in suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, John; Meeten, Gerald [Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    The effect of shear on electrical conductivity (rheo-conduction) is studied to give information about particle behaviour in suspensions. Past work is reviewed, and expressions are derived for the rheo-conduction of a suspension of nonconducting spheroids in a conducting matrix for current flow, parallel and normal to the suspension flow direction. A simple apparatus to study rheo-conduction in pipe flow is described, and measurements of steady and time-dependent effects are reported for various suspensions of colloidal particles. Suspensions of anisometric rod- and platelike particles at low concentrations showed rheo-conductive changes of sign, magnitude and relaxation that were consistent with the particle shape, concentration and interactions. The rheo-conductive response decreased with increasing volume fraction for platelike kaolinite particles, attributed to orientational jamming. Spherical latex particles gave unexpected rheo-conductive changes consistent with shear disruption of a conductive network of particles. It is concluded that rheo-conduction measurements are a useful adjunct to conventional rheometry. (orig.)

  20. Multiphase modeling of settling and suspension in anaerobic digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Liang; Ma, Jingwei; Frear, Craig; Zhao, Quanbao; Dillon, Robert; Li, Xiujin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop biowaste fluid dynamics for collision, aggregation and breakup of clusters. • Explore the mechanisms of settling and suspension in anaerobic digester. • Biowaste particles tended to have fluid properties. • Aided with CFD simulation, the scale-up effect was reduced. - Abstract: Effective suspension and settling are critical for controlling biomass retention in a bioreactor. In this paper, a multi-fluid model with kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) was established to describe these phenomena in the biowaste particles flow in anaerobic digesters. Solid retention time (SRT) was added as a parameter into anaerobic digestion No.1 (ADM1) model to evaluate its effect on the biogas productivity. The model was experimentally validated in a liquid–gas–solid column reactor with gas and solid volume fraction and granular temperature as the major variables. The wastewater residence time distribution was also determined through modeling and measurement to evaluate the mixing pattern in the pilot column reactor. The effect of restitution coefficient on flow behavior of biowaste particles, particles settling and suspension were predicted. Settling and suspension processes of anaerobic digesters were simulated for lab and pilot-scale reactors with comparisons made for reactor configuration and geometry model, respectively. This study demonstrated that the multi-fluid model with KTGF could provide better understanding of impact of suspension and settling upon retaining biomass particles in the anaerobic digesters