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Sample records for suspension-cultured soybean glycine

  1. Regeneration of soybean via embryogenic suspension culture

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    Droste Annette

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to establish an alternative plant regeneration system for soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] cultivars used in Brazilian breeding programs, ten genotypes were tested for their embryogenic potential. Cotyledons were removed as explants from immature seeds harvested from field-grown plants. After 45 days on induction medium, the number of responding cotyledons and the number of somatic embryos per immature cotyledon were evaluated. The percentage of explants that produced somatic embryos varied from 1 to 70% among cultivars. The average number of somatic embryos produced per cotyledon pair ranged from 0.01 to 10.3 with a mean of 3.4. Suspension cultures were initiated with three Agrobacterium tumefaciens susceptible cultivars. Suspensions were successfully developed from Bragg and IAS5 cultivars. The packed cell volume, in one-month growth, increased 8.1 fold for Bragg and 3.5 fold for IAS5 and the fresh weight increased 6.6 and 2.8 fold, respectively. The cultivars differed for the analysed parameters. All tissue from each cultivar was transferred to the maturation medium and subsequently to the germination medium. The germination frequency was 45.7 and 54.9% for Bragg and IAS5, respectively. Plants were gradually exposed to ambient humidity over one week and then planted in soil. All plants yielded seeds in the greenhouse.

  2. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

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    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  3. Reduction in the level of intracellular myo-inositol in cultured soybean (Glycine max) cells inhibits cell division.

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    Biffen, M; Hanke, D E

    1990-01-01

    Although myo-inositol is included in media for the successful growth of plant tissues, the actual requirement of most tissues, including soybean (Glycine max) callus in suspension culture, for myo-inositol has not been demonstrated. We have made use of deoxyglucose to reduce intracellular levels of myo-inositol. Deoxyglucose is phosphorylated to deoxyglucose 6-phosphate, which inhibits L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase, an important enzyme in the synthesis of myo-inositol. Addition of deoxy...

  4. [Endophytic bacterial diversity of wild soybean (Glycine soja) varieties with different resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)].

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    Wu, Yunpeng; Shi, Fengyu; Hamid, M Imran; Zhu, Yingbo

    2014-08-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate endophytic bacterial diversity of wild soybean varieties with different resistance to soybean cyst nematode(Heterodera glycines) , for deciphering the interactions of soybean cyst nematode with endophytic bacteria. After screening wild soybean varieties against race 3 of H. glycines, we investigated endophytic bacterial diversity in root tissues of wild soybean varieties with different resistance to H. glycines using 16S rDNA cloning library and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Endophytic bacteria of wild soybean root belonged to 6 bacterial groups, the clones belonging to group Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the endophyte dominants in wild soybean with 46.8% and 13.6% of total clones, respectively. Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Deincoccus-Thermus and Archaea were less represented. 18.8% of clone sequences were similar to those of uncultured bacteria in the environment. The bacterial diversity was higher in H. glycines-Resistant than -Susceptible wild soybean varieties, and the dominant group was different between H. glycines-Resistant and -Susceptible wild soybean varieties. Mesorhizobium tamadayense, Enterobacter ludwigii and Bacillus megaterium were the main bacterial groups in special operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of H. glycines-Resistant wild soybean variety. By 16S rDNA cloning library and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, the diversity of dominant group of endophytic bacteria in root tissues has difference among H. glycines-Resistant and -Susceptible wild soybean varieties.

  5. Purification to homogeneity and properties of glucosidase II from mung bean seedlings and suspension-cultured soybean cells.

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    Kaushal, G P; Pastuszak, I; Hatanaka, K; Elbein, A D

    1990-09-25

    Glucosidase II was purified approximately 1700-fold to homogeneity from Triton X-100 extracts of mung bean microsomes. A single band with a molecular mass of 110 kDa was seen on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. This band was susceptible to digestion by endoglucosaminidase H or peptide glycosidase F, and the change in mobility of the treated protein indicated the loss of one or two oligosaccharide chains. By gel filtration, the native enzyme was estimated to have a molecular mass of about 220 kDa, suggesting it was composed of two identical subunits. Glucosidase II showed a broad pH optima between 6.8 and 7.5 with reasonable activity even at 8.5, but there was almost no activity below pH 6.0. The purified enzyme could use p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside as a substrate but was also active with a number of glucose-containing high-mannose oligosaccharides. Glc2Man9GlcNAc was the best substrate while activity was significantly reduced when several mannose residues were removed, i.e. Glc2Man7-GlcNAc. The rate of activity was lowest with Glc1Man9GlcNAc, demonstrating that the innermost glucose is released the slowest. Evidence that the enzyme is specific for alpha 1,3-glucosidic linkages is shown by the fact that its activity on Glc2Man9GlcNAc was inhibited by nigerose, an alpha 1,3-linked glucose disaccharide, but not by alpha 1,2 (kojibiose)-, alpha 1,4(maltose)-, or alpha 1,6 (isomaltose)-linked glucose disaccharides. Glucosidase II was strongly inhibited by the glucosidase processing inhibitors deoxynojirimycin and 2,6-dideoxy-2,6-imino-7-O-(beta-D- glucopyranosyl)-D-glycero-L-guloheptitol, but less strongly by castanospermine and not at all by australine. Polyclonal antibodies prepared against the mung bean glucosidase II reacted with a 95-kDa protein from suspension-cultured soybean cells that also showed glucosidase II activity. Soybean cells were labeled with either [2-3H]mannose or [6-3H]galactose, and the glucosidase II was isolated by immunoprecipitation

  6. Uptake and metabolism of clomazone in tolerant-soybean and susceptible-cotton photomixotrophic cell suspension cultures

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    Norman, M.A.; Liebl, R.A.; Widholm, J.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the uptake and metabolism of the pigment synthesis inhibiting herbicide clomazone in tolerant-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Corsoy) and susceptible-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum (L.) cv Stoneville 825) photomixotrophic cell suspensions. Soybean and cotton on a whole plant level are tolerant and susceptible to clomazone, respectively. Preliminary studies indicated that I{sub 50} values for growth, chlorophyll (Chl), {beta}-carotene, and lutein were, respectively, >22, 14, 19, and 23 times greater for the soybean cell line (SB-M) 8 days after treatment (DAT) compared to the cotton cell line (COT-M) 16 DAT. Differences in ({sup 14}C)clomazone uptake cannot account for selectivity since there were significantly greater levels of domazone absorbed by the SB-M cells compared to the COT-M cells for each treatment. The percentage of absorbed clomazone converted to more polar metabolite(s) was significantly greater by the SB-M cells relative to COT-M cells at 6 and 24 hours after treatment, however, only small differences existed between the cell lines by 48 hours after treatment. Nearly identical levels of parental clomazone was recovered from both cell lines for all treatments. A pooled metabolite fraction isolated from SB-M cells had no effect on the leaf pigment content of susceptible velvetleaf or soybean seedlings. Conversely, a pooled metabolite fraction from COT-M cells reduced the leaf Chl content of velvetleaf. Soybean tolerance to clomazone appears to be due to differential metabolism (bioactivation) and/or differences at the site of action.

  7. Genome Duplication in Soybean (Glycine Subgenus Soja)

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    Shoemaker, R. C.; Polzin, K.; Labate, J.; Specht, J.; Brummer, E. C.; Olson, T.; Young, N.; Concibido, V.; Wilcox, J.; Tamulonis, J. P.; Kochert, G.; Boerma, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping data from nine populations (Glycine max X G. soja and G. max X G. max) of the Glycine subgenus soja genome led to the identification of many duplicated segments of the genome. Linkage groups contained up to 33 markers that were duplicated on other linkage groups. The size of homoeologous regions ranged from 1.5 to 106.4 cM, with an average size of 45.3 cM. We observed segments in the soybean genome that were present in as many as six copies with an average of 2.55 duplications per segment. The presence of nested duplications suggests that at least one of the original genomes may have undergone an additional round of tetraploidization. Tetraploidization, along with large internal duplications, accounts for the highly duplicated nature of the genome of the subgenus. Quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil showed correspondence across homoeologous regions, suggesting that the genes or gene families contributing to seed composition have retained similar functions throughout the evolution of the chromosomes. PMID:8878696

  8. Genetic architecture of wild soybean (Glycine soja) response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).

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    Zhang, Hengyou; Song, Qijian; Griffin, Joshua D; Song, Bao-Hua

    2017-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Host-plant resistance is an environmentally friendly method to mitigate SCN damage. To date, the resistant soybean cultivars harbor limited genetic variation, and some are losing resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of the SCN resistance, as well as developing diverse resistant soybean cultivars, is urgently needed. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 1032 wild soybean (Glycine soja) accessions with over 42,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to understand the genetic architecture of G. soja resistance to SCN race 1. Ten SNPs were significantly associated with the response to race 1. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 were localized within the previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and two of which were localized within a strong linkage disequilibrium block encompassing a nucleotide-binding (NB)-ARC disease resistance gene (Glyma.18G102600). Genes encoding methyltransferases, the calcium-dependent signaling protein, the leucine-rich repeat kinase family protein, and the NB-ARC disease resistance protein, were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes can not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying SCN resistance, but also can facilitate soybean improvement employing wild genetic resources.

  9. Identificatoin and confirmation of resistance against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) in eight wild soybean lines

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    The development and use of aphid-resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars has been complicated by the presence of multiple virulent biotypes of the soybean aphid (SA, Aphis glycines Matsumura). Ultimately, a variety of unique resistance sources may be needed to develop cultivars with a broad spectr...

  10. Screening Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril) lines for morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23 Screening Soybean (Glycine mtLr: (L) Merril) lines for morphological resistance to the southern green stink bug,. Nezara viridu!a (L) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Table 1. Summary of the A NOVA table for the selected soybean morphological characteristics. (a) Season1 {97a). Plant. Abaxial height trichome density.

  11. Soybean ( Glycine max ) as a versatile biocatalyst for organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean ( Glycine max ) as a versatile biocatalyst for organic synthesis. ... Most of the obtained alcohols have commercial value as cosmetic fragrances. Although, the enzymes present in soybean (reductase/lipase) has not been defined, the reaction is an important route for the preparation of pure alcohols and carboxylic ...

  12. Soybean performance ( Glycine max (L) Merr ) on tropical soils with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean performance ( Glycine max (L) Merr ) on tropical soils with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization. ... Abstract. Pot trial was conducted to investigate the effects of soil types, nitrogen and phosphorus application on the yield, and nodulation and nutrient uptake of soybean grown on tropical soils. Results showed that ...

  13. Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the transformation efficiency and proof the capability of whisker supersonic (WSS) method as an alternative option for soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill) transformation. We compared soybean transformation efficiency obtained by WSS-mediated with that of particle bombardment ...

  14. Newly identified resistance to soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) in soybean plant introduction lines

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    Host-plant resistance is potentially efficacious in managing the soybean aphid (SA, Aphis glycines Matsumura), a major invasive pest in northern soybean-production regions of North America. However, development of aphid-resistant soybean has been complicated by the presence of virulent SA biotypes,...

  15. Development of Heterodera glycines on Soybean Damaged by Soybean Looper and Stem Canker.

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    Russin, J S; Layton, M B; Boethel, D J; McGawley, E C; Snow, J P; Berggren, G T

    1989-01-01

    Short-term greenhouse studies with soybean (Glycine max cv. Bragg) were used to examine interactions between the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) and two other common pests of soybean, the stem canker fungus (Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora) and the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens), a lepidopterous defoliator. Numbers of cyst nematode juveniles in roots and numbers of cysts in soil and roots were reduced on plants with stem cankers. Defoliation by soybean looper larvae had the opposite effect; defoliation levels of 22 and 64% caused stepwise increases in numbers of juveniles and cysts in both roots and soil, whereas numbers of females in roots decreased. In two experiments, stem canker length was reduced 40 and 45% when root systems were colonized by the soybean cyst nematode. The absence of significant interactions among these pests indicates that the effects of soybean cyst nematode, stem canker, and soybean looper on plant growth and each other primarily were additive.

  16. Intercrop performance of different varieties of soybean ( Glycine Max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments to investigate intercrop performance of different varieties of soybean (Glycine Max. (L.) Merril) in a cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) based cropping system within the derived savannah zone were conducted at Nsukka Utisol in Southeast Nigeria ecological. Two varieties of cassava and six varieties of ...

  17. The transcriptomic changes of Huipizhi Heidou (Glycine max), a nematode-resistant black soybean during Heterodera glycines race 3 infection.

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    Li, Shuang; Chen, Yu; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuanyuan; Jung, Ki-Hong; Chen, Lijie; Xuan, Yuanhu; Duan, Yuxi

    2017-11-14

    Glycine max (soybean) is an extremely important crop, representing a major source of oil and protein for human beings. Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode, SCN) infection severely reduces soybean production; therefore, protecting soybean from SCN has become an issue for breeders. Black soybean has exhibited a different grade of resistance to SCN. However, the underlying mechanism of Huipizhi Heidou resistance against SCN remains elusive. The Huipizhi Heidou (ZDD2315) and race 3 of Heterodera glycines were chosen to study the mechanism of resistance via examination of transcriptomic changes. After 5, 10, and 15days of SCN infection, whole roots were sampled for RNA extraction, and uninfected samples were simultaneously collected as a control. 740, 1413, and 4925 genes were isolated by padj (p-value adjusted)soybean and cyst-nematode interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.

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    Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean. © ISBR, EDP Sciences.

  19. Identification of microRNAs in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

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    Chen, Rui; Hu, Zheng; Zhang, Hui

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality, in which 1 347 were 19-24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.

  20. Environmental adaptation in wild soybeans (Glycine soja) across their native geographic range in northeast Asia

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    Understanding the genetic basis of adaptive variation and the forces that shape this diversity in natural populations are long-standing goals in evolutionary biology. The wild soybean (Glycine soja), from which domesticated soybeans (Glycine max) were derived, is widely distributed throughout a dive...

  1. Comparative analysis of complete plastid genomes from wild soybean (Glycine soja) and nine other Glycine species.

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    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Aaqil Khan, Muhammad; Muhammad Imran, Qari; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Hosni, Khdija; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Ko Eun; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The plastid genomes of different plant species exhibit significant variation, thereby providing valuable markers for exploring evolutionary relationships and population genetics. Glycine soja (wild soybean) is recognized as the wild ancestor of cultivated soybean (G. max), representing a valuable genetic resource for soybean breeding programmes. In the present study, the complete plastid genome of G. soja was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing and then compared it for the first time with previously reported plastid genome sequences from nine other Glycine species. The G. soja plastid genome was 152,224 bp in length and possessed a typical quadripartite structure, consisting of a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 25,574 bp) separated by small (178,963 bp) and large (83,181 bp) single-copy regions, with a 51-kb inversion in the large single-copy region. The genome encoded 134 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 39 transfer RNA genes, and possessed 204 randomly distributed microsatellites, including 15 forward, 25 tandem, and 34 palindromic repeats. Whole-plastid genome comparisons revealed an overall high degree of sequence similarity between G. max and G. gracilis and some divergence in the intergenic spacers of other species. Greater numbers of indels and SNP substitutions were observed compared with G. cyrtoloba. The sequence of the accD gene from G. soja was highly divergent from those of the other species except for G. max and G. gracilis. Phylogenomic analyses of the complete plastid genomes and 76 shared genes yielded an identical topology and indicated that G. soja is closely related to G. max and G. gracilis. The complete G. soja genome sequenced in the present study is a valuable resource for investigating the population and evolutionary genetics of Glycine species and can be used to identify related species.

  2. RNA-seq data comparisons of wild soybean genotypes in response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines

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    Hengyou Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans. G. soja is a soybean wild progenitor with much higher levels of genetic diversity compared to cultivated soybeans. In this study, transcriptomes of the resistant and susceptible genotypes of the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc, were sequenced to examine the genetic basis of SCN resistance. Seedling roots were treated with infective second-stage juveniles (J2s of the soybean cyst nematode (HG type 2.5.7 for 3, 5, 8 days and pooled for library construction and RNA sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing generated approximately 245 million (M high quality (Q > 30 raw sequence reads (125 bp in length for twelve libraries. The raw sequence reads were deposited in NCBI sequence read archive (SRA database, with the accession numbers SRR5227314-25. Further analysis of this data would be helpful to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of soybean-SCN interaction and facilitate the development of diverse SCN resistance cultivars.

  3. Metabolic and Transcriptional Reprogramming in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

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    Ruth Grene

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max seeds are an important source of seed storage compounds, including protein, oil, and sugar used for food, feed, chemical, and biofuel production. We assessed detailed temporal transcriptional and metabolic changes in developing soybean embryos to gain a systems biology view of developmental and metabolic changes and to identify potential targets for metabolic engineering. Two major developmental and metabolic transitions were captured enabling identification of potential metabolic engineering targets specific to seed filling and to desiccation. The first transition involved a switch between different types of metabolism in dividing and elongating cells. The second transition involved the onset of maturation and desiccation tolerance during seed filling and a switch from photoheterotrophic to heterotrophic metabolism. Clustering analyses of metabolite and transcript data revealed clusters of functionally related metabolites and transcripts active in these different developmental and metabolic programs. The gene clusters provide a resource to generate predictions about the associations and interactions of unknown regulators with their targets based on “guilt-by-association” relationships. The inferred regulators also represent potential targets for future metabolic engineering of relevant pathways and steps in central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in soybean embryos and drought and desiccation tolerance in plants.

  4. Chemical and Mechanical Control of Soybean (Glycin max L. Weeds

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    Ebrahim Gholamalipour Alamdari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate effects of the various concentrations of two herbicides of the trifluralin and Imazethapyr and weeding on weeds control, yield and yield components of soybean (Glycin max L., an experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agriculture Land of Ghravolhaji Village in Kallale district of Golestan province in 2014. Treatments consisted of planting soybean under weeding, without weeding and application of trifluralin and Imazethapyr as 100% trifluralin, 75% trifluralin + 25% Imazethapyr, 50% trifluralin + 50% Imazethapyr, 25% trifluralin + 75% Imazethapyr, 100% pursuit, 100% Imazethapyr + 25% trifluralin, 25% Imazethapyr + 100% trifluralin, 100% Imazethapyr + 50% trifluralin and 50% Imazethapyr + 100% trifluralin. density of each weed, their total density and inhibition percentage were measured. Results showed that the effect of chemical weed control on all traits measured, except seed number per pot, 1000 seed weight, content of chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, were significant. The highest leaf area, plant height, number of pods per plant, aerial plant dry weight, seed number per plant and seed weight per plant were observed in the treatment of the 100% Imazethapyr (238.67 cm2, weeding (57.69 cm, both treatments of weeding (33.10 and 25% Imazethapyr +100% trifluralin (28.3, both treatment of weeding (163.92 g and 100%  Imazethapyr (163.70 g, weeding (67.10 seed per plant, both treatment of weeding and 100%  Imazethapyr + 50% trifluralin (10.27 seed per plant respectively. The highest seed yield was obtained from weeding treatment (2383 kg/h. Based on the results, the highest content of protein and chlorophyll b in soybean were obtained from weeding treatment. The highest inhibition percentage of weeds was found in the additional treatment of 50% Imazethapyr + 100% trifluralin (75.19 and 100% Imazethapyr + 25% trifluralin (72.86. The lowest and highest total phenols content and

  5. Population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean (Glycine soja) based on microsatellite variation.

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    Kuroda, Y; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Vaughan, D A

    2006-04-01

    The research objectives were to determine aspects of the population dynamics relevant to effective monitoring of gene flow in the soybean crop complex in Japan. Using 20 microsatellite primers, 616 individuals from 77 wild soybean (Glycine soja) populations were analysed. All samples were of small seed size ( 10 km) events among populations, and spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed that populations within a radius of 100 km showed a close genetic relationship to one another. When analysis of graphical ordination was applied to compare the microsatellite variation of wild soybean with that of 53 widely grown Japanese varieties of cultivated soybean (Glycine max), the primary factor of genetic differentiation was based on differences between wild and cultivated soybeans and the secondary factor was geographical differentiation of wild soybean populations. Admixture analysis revealed that 6.8% of individuals appear to show introgression from cultivated soybeans. These results indicated that population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean is (i) strongly affected by the founder effect due to seed dispersal and inbreeding strategy, (ii) generally well differentiated from cultivated soybean, but (iii) introgression from cultivated soybean occurs. The implications of the results for the release of transgenic soybeans where wild soybeans grow are discussed.

  6. Nutrient Management practices for enhancing Soybean (Glycine max L. production

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    FARID A. HELLAL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available percent protein and 19 percent oil in the seeds. The magnitude of soybean yield losses due to nutrient deficiency also varies among the nutrients. Deficiencies of N, P, Fe, B and S nutrients may cause yield losses up to 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % and 16-30 %, respectively, in soybean depending on soil fertility, climate and plant factors. Soil salinity is one of the major limiting factors of soybean production in semiarid regions, and chloride salinity has a more depressive effect on yield than sulphate salinity. The goal of nutrient management is to maximize soybean productivity while minimizing environmental consequences. Balanced and timely nutrient management practices applied for soybean contributes to sustainable growth of yield and quality, influences plant health and reduces environmental risks. Balanced nutrition with mineral fertilizers can assist in integrated pest management to reduce damage from infestations of pests and diseases and save inputs required to control them. Balanced fertilization generates higher profits for the farmers, not necessarily through reduced inputs. The role of education and extension in delivering the upto-date knowledge on nutrient management is crucial, challenging, and continuous. La soya (Glycine max L., es el cultivo de legumbres más importante en el mundo. La magnitud de las pérdidas en el rendimientode la soya debido a deficiencias varía dependiendo de los nutrientes. Las deficiencias de N, P, Fe, B y S pueden causar pérdidas en rendimiento de hasta 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % y 16-30 %, respectivamente, en la soya dependiendo de la fertilidad del suelo, clima y factores intrínsecos a las plantas. La textura de los suelos utilizados en el cultivo de soya varía entre arenosa y arcillosa. La salinidad del suelo es uno de los mayores factores limitantes en la producción del cultivo en regiones semiáridas, y la salinidad por cloro tiene un mayor efecto en la disminución del

  7. Economic Injury Levels for Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on the Soybean Aphid Tolerant KS4202 Soybean.

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    Marchi-Werle, Lia; Baldin, Edson L L; Fischer, Hillary D; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Hunt, Thomas E

    2017-10-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an invasive species from Asia that has been the major economic insect pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, since 2000. While use of soybeans expressing antibiosis and antixenosis is a well-studied strategy to manage this pest, aphid-tolerant soybeans remain underexplored. This study examined the relationship between cumulative aphid-days (CAD) and yield loss in the tolerant soybean KS4202 during two growing seasons to determine the economic injury levels (EILs) for soybean aphids on KS4202. Soybean aphid infestations were initiated during the soybean reproductive stages. A range of CAD treatments (3,000-45,000 CADs) were applied during the growing seasons. Aphid populations reached 45,000 CAD in 2011 and 38,000 CAD in 2013 in plots that were not treated with insecticides. It was estimated that the population doubling time was 9.4 d. In infested plots, soybean yield was reduced by 1.4-13.3%, equivalent to a 3.1% yield loss for every 10,000 CAD. Overall, most CAD treatments did not affect yield parameters, although CAD > 39,000 caused a significant reduction in most yield parameters. The EILs calculated for KS4202 ranged from 526 to 2,050 aphids/plant, which were approximately 2.5-fold higher when compared to EILs previously calculated for susceptible soybean. The adoption of soybean aphid tolerant soybean with higher EILs may help mitigate treatment delay problems by lengthening the treatment lead-time and possibly reduce the number of insecticide applications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sublethal and hormesis effects of imidacloprid on the soybean aphid Aphis glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanyan; Xiao, Da; Li, Jinyu; Chen, Zhou; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xiwu; Song, Dunlun

    2015-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major pest in soybean crop. Current management of this pest relies mainly on insecticides applications, and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid has been proposed as an effective insecticide to control A. glycines in soybean field. Imidacloprid at lethal concentrations not only exerts acute toxicity to A. glycines, but also cause various biological changes when aphids are chronically exposed to lower concentrations. In this study, we assessed the effects of a low-lethal (0.20 mg L(-1)) and two sublethal (0.05 and 0.10 mg L(-1)) imidacloprid concentrations on various A. glycines life history traits. Aphid exposure to 0.20 mg L(-1) imidacloprid caused slower juvenile development, shorter reproductive period, and reduced adult longevity, fecundity and total lifespan. Stimulatory effects, i.e. hormesis, on reproduction and immature development duration were observed in aphids exposed to the lower sublethal imidacloprid concentrations. Consequently, the net reproduction rate (R 0) was significantly higher than in the control aphids. These findings stress the importance of the actual imidacloprid concentration in its toxicological properties on A. glycines. Therefore, our results would be useful for assessing the overall effects of imidacloprid on A. glycines and for optimizing integrated pest management programs targeting this pest.

  9. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Cupin Gene Family in Soybean (Glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haowei; Gao, Yali; Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Wenming; Qiu, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cupin superfamily of proteins, including germin and germin-like proteins (GLPs) from higher plants, is known to play crucial roles in plant development and defense. To date, no systematic analysis has been conducted in soybean (Glycine max) incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression compendium. In this study, 69 putative Cupin genes were identified from the whole-genome of soybean, which were non-randomly distributed on 17 of the 20 chromosomes. These Gmcupin proteins were ...

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5, a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30 were identified, with ten SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  12. Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... time, cost and transformation efficiency. Consequently, the recovery of fertile soybean plants has proved to be more difficult and reports on successful genetic transformation remain scarce, and spontaneous rather than routine. Therefore, there is a great need to develop new efficient technique for soybean ...

  13. Genetic variability in soybean ( Glycine max L.) for low soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the genetic variability of soybean genotypes under low soil phosphorus (P) conditions provides an understanding of the genetic potential of the genotypes to improve the crop for low P tolerance. The study was designed objectively to estimate the extent of genetic variability of soybean genotypes for low P ...

  14. Complete nucleotide sequences of seven soybean mosaic viruses (SMV), isolated from wild soybeans (Glycine soja) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Xia; Wu, Mian; Ma, Fang-Fang; Chen, Jian-Qun; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a devastating plant virus classified in the family Potyviridae, and known to infect cultivated soybeans (Glycine max). In this study, seven new SMVs were isolated from wild soybean samples and analyzed by whole-genome sequencing. An updated SMV phylogeny was built with the seven new and 83 known SMV genomic sequences. Results showed that three northeastern SMV isolates were distributed in clade III and IV, while four southern SMVs were grouped together in clade II and all contained a recombinant BCMV fragment (~900 bp) in the upstream part of the genome. This work revealed that wild soybeans in China also act as important SMV hosts and play a role in the transmission and diversity of SMVs.

  15. Quality and yield response of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merrill) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality and yield response of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) to drought stress in sub–humid environment. Çigdem Demirtas, Senih Yazgan, Burak Nazmi Candogan, Mehmet Sincik, Hakan Büyükcangaz, Abdurrahim Tanju Göksoy ...

  16. The whole genome sequence assembly of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphids are emerging as model organisms for both basic and applied research. Of the 5,000 estimated species, only two aphids have published whole genome sequences: the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia. The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) is an extreme special...

  17. Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

  18. Replenishment of Cultivated Soybean Varietes Market (Glycine hispida Maxim, Moench..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Безручко

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There provided ways of using valuable protein crop, soybean, as well as its production worldwide growth rates during recent years, possibility and necessity of attaching to the crop a strategic importance in our State and the tasks and outlooks of soybeanrecourses generation. A complete description of new soybean varieties listed in the Register of Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine has also been provided.

  19. Genomic expression profiling of mature soybean (Glycine max pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Mohan B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen, the male partner in the reproduction of flowering plants, comprises either two or three cells at maturity. The current knowledge of the pollen transcriptome is limited to the model plant systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa which have tri-cellular pollen grains at maturity. Comparative studies on pollen of other genera, particularly crop plants, are needed to understand the pollen gene networks that are subject to functional and evolutionary conservation. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip® to perform transcriptional profiling on mature bi-cellular soybean pollen. Results Compared to the sporophyte transcriptome, the soybean pollen transcriptome revealed a restricted and unique repertoire of genes, with a significantly greater proportion of specifically expressed genes than is found in the sporophyte tissue. Comparative analysis shows that, among the 37,500 soybean transcripts addressed in this study, 10,299 transcripts (27.46% are expressed in pollen. Of the pollen-expressed sequences, about 9,489 (92.13% are also expressed in sporophytic tissues, and 810 (7.87% are selectively expressed in pollen. Overall, the soybean pollen transcriptome shows an enrichment of transcription factors (mostly zinc finger family proteins, signal recognition receptors, transporters, heat shock-related proteins and members of the ubiquitin proteasome proteolytic pathway. Conclusion This is the first report of a soybean pollen transcriptional profile. These data extend our current knowledge regarding regulatory pathways that govern the gene regulation and development of pollen. A comparison between transcription factors up-regulated in soybean and those in Arabidopsis revealed some divergence in the numbers and kinds of regulatory proteins expressed in both species.

  20. Molecular analysis and physicochemical properties of electrophoretic variants of wild soybean Glycine soja storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takako; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Kanazawa, Akira; Abe, Jun; Shimamoto, Yoshiya; Hiemori, Miki; Tsuji, Hideaki; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Utsumi, Shigeru

    2005-05-04

    Cultivated soybeans (Glycine max) are derived from wild soybeans (Glycine soja) and can be crossed with them to produce fertile offspring. The latter exhibit greater genetic variation than the former, suggesting a possibility that wild soybeans contain storage proteins with properties different from and better than those of cultivated soybeans. To identify a wild soybean suitable for breeding a new soybean cultivar, we analyzed seed proteins from 390 lines of wild soybeans by electrophoresis. We found some lines containing electrophoretic variants of glycinin and beta-conglycinin subunits: one line containing a small alpha' subunit of beta-conglycinin and two and five lines containing small A3 and large A4 polypeptides of glycinin, respectively. Beta-Conglycinin and glycinin containing such variant subunits exhibited solubility and emulsifying ability similar to those of the predominant types of wild and cultivated soybeans. Glycinins containing small A3 and large A4 gave a shoulder derived from the start of denaturation at a temperature 4 degrees C lower than that of glycinin from the predominant types of wild and cultivated soybeans, although their thermal denaturation midpoint temperatures were very similar to each other. Cloning and sequencing of the predominant and variant subunit cDNAs revealed that the small alpha' and the small A3 lacked 24 amino acid residues in the extension region and four amino acid residues in the hypervariable region, respectively, and that the large A4 did not have an insert corresponding to the difference in the electrophoretic mobility but Arg279 and Gln305 were replaced by glutamine and histidine, respectively, in the hypervariable region. These suggest that small differences even in the hypervariable region can affect the thermal stability, as well as the electrophoretic mobilities, of the proteins.

  1. Identification of a major QTL allele from wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) for increasing alkaline salt tolerance in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, D D; Lal, S K; Xu, D H

    2010-07-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories, sodic (alkaline) and saline. Our previous studies showed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 (Glycine soja) from the Kinki area of Japan was tolerant to NaCl salt, and the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for NaCl salt tolerance was located on soybean linkage group N (chromosome 3). Further investigation revealed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 also had a higher tolerance to alkaline salt stress. In the present study, an F(6) recombinant inbred line mapping population (n = 112) and an F(2) population (n = 149) derived from crosses between a cultivated soybean cultivar Jackson and JWS156-1 were used to identify QTL for alkaline salt tolerance in soybean. Evaluation of soybean alkaline salt tolerance was carried out based on salt tolerance rating (STR) and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) after treatment with 180 mM NaHCO(3) for about 3 weeks under greenhouse conditions. In both populations, a significant QTL for alkaline salt tolerance was detected on the molecular linkage group D2 (chromosome 17), which accounted for 50.2 and 13.0% of the total variation for STR in the F(6) and the F(2) populations, respectively. The wild soybean contributed to the tolerance allele in the progenies. Our results suggest that QTL for alkaline salt tolerance is different from the QTL for NaCl salt tolerance found previously in this wild soybean genotype. The DNA markers closely associated with the QTLs might be useful for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both alkaline and saline stresses.

  2. Nodulin gene expression during soybean (Glycine max) nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloudemans, T.; Vries, de S.; Bussink, H.J.; Malik, N.S.A.; Franssen, H.; Louwerse, J.; Bisseling, T.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro translation products of total RNA isolated from soybean nodules at successive stages of nodule development were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In that way the occurrence of over 20 mRNAs specifically transcribed from nodulin genes was detected. The nodulin genes could be

  3. Genetic Variability in Soybean (Glycine max L.) for Low Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abush Tesfaye

    1Jimma Research Center, P.O.Box 192, Jimma, Ethiopia, 2Jomo Kenyatta University of and Technology,. Department of Horticulture ... Assessment of the genetic variability of soybean genotypes under low soil phosphorus (P) .... coefficient of variations, broad sense heritability, genetic advance were analyzed using. Genes ...

  4. Screening Soybean ( Glycine max (L) Merril) lines for morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out during the first and second seasonsofl997 at Namnlonge Agricultural and Animal Production Research Institute {NAAR I) to determine whether there were some soybean varieties in the NAARI germplasm which were resistant to the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula and to establish the basis ...

  5. Population structure of the wild soybean (Glycine soja) in China: implications from microsatellite analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Liu, Yifei; Wang, Yunsheng; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yinghui; Huang, Hongwen; Qiu, Lijuan; Wang, Ying

    2012-09-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja), a native species of East Asia, is the closest wild relative of the cultivated soybean (G. max) and supplies valuable genetic resources for cultivar breeding. Analyses of the genetic variation and population structure of wild soybean are fundamental for effective conservation studies and utilization of this valuable genetic resource. In this study, 40 wild soybean populations from China were genotyped with 20 microsatellites to investigate the natural population structure and genetic diversity. These results were integrated with previous microsatellite analyses for 231 representative individuals from East Asia to investigate the genetic relationships of wild soybeans from China. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 43·92 % of the molecular variance occurred within populations, although relatively low genetic diversity was detected for natural wild soybean populations. Most of the populations exhibited significant effects of a genetic bottleneck. Principal co-ordinate analysis, construction of a Neighbor-Joining tree and Bayesian clustering indicated two main genotypic clusters of wild soybean from China. The wild soybean populations, which are distributed in north-east and south China, separated by the Huang-Huai Valley, displayed similar genotypes, whereas those populations from the Huang-Huai Valley were different. The previously unknown population structure of the natural populations of wild soybean distributed throughout China was determined. Two evolutionarily significant units were defined and further analysed by combining genetic diversity and structure analyses from Chinese populations with representative samples from Eastern Asia. The study suggests that during the glacial period there may have been an expansion route between south-east and north-east China, via the temperate forests in the East China Sea Land Bridge, which resulted in similar genotypes of wild soybean populations from these regions. Genetic

  6. A comprehensive analysis of the Cupin gene family in soybean (Glycine max.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Wang

    Full Text Available Cupin superfamily of proteins, including germin and germin-like proteins (GLPs from higher plants, is known to play crucial roles in plant development and defense. To date, no systematic analysis has been conducted in soybean (Glycine max incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression compendium. In this study, 69 putative Cupin genes were identified from the whole-genome of soybean, which were non-randomly distributed on 17 of the 20 chromosomes. These Gmcupin proteins were phylogenetically clustered into ten distinct subgroups among which the gene structures were highly conserved. Eighteen pairs (52.2% of duplicate paralogous genes were preferentially retained in duplicated regions of the soybean genome. The distributions of GmCupin genes implied that long segmental duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of the GmCupin gene family. According to the RNA-seq data analysis, most of the Gmcupins were differentially expressed in tissue-specific expression pattern and the expression of some duplicate genes were partially redundant while others showed functional diversity, suggesting the Gmcupins have been retained by substantial subfunctionalization during soybean evolutionary processes. Selective analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in cultivated and wild soybeans revealed sixteen Gmcupins had selected site(s, with all SNPs in Gmcupin10.3 and Gmcupin07.2 genes were selected sites, which implied these genes may have undergone strong selection effects during soybean domestication. Taken together, our results contribute to the functional characterization of Gmcupin genes in soybean.

  7. A comprehensive analysis of the Cupin gene family in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haowei; Gao, Yali; Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Wenming; Qiu, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cupin superfamily of proteins, including germin and germin-like proteins (GLPs) from higher plants, is known to play crucial roles in plant development and defense. To date, no systematic analysis has been conducted in soybean (Glycine max) incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression compendium. In this study, 69 putative Cupin genes were identified from the whole-genome of soybean, which were non-randomly distributed on 17 of the 20 chromosomes. These Gmcupin proteins were phylogenetically clustered into ten distinct subgroups among which the gene structures were highly conserved. Eighteen pairs (52.2%) of duplicate paralogous genes were preferentially retained in duplicated regions of the soybean genome. The distributions of GmCupin genes implied that long segmental duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of the GmCupin gene family. According to the RNA-seq data analysis, most of the Gmcupins were differentially expressed in tissue-specific expression pattern and the expression of some duplicate genes were partially redundant while others showed functional diversity, suggesting the Gmcupins have been retained by substantial subfunctionalization during soybean evolutionary processes. Selective analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cultivated and wild soybeans revealed sixteen Gmcupins had selected site(s), with all SNPs in Gmcupin10.3 and Gmcupin07.2 genes were selected sites, which implied these genes may have undergone strong selection effects during soybean domestication. Taken together, our results contribute to the functional characterization of Gmcupin genes in soybean.

  8. Phylogeny, gene structures, and expression patterns of the ERF gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaiyun; Chen, Ming; Chen, Xueping; Xu, Zhaoshi; Guan, Shan; Li, Lian-Cheng; Li, Aili; Guo, Jiaming; Mao, Long; Ma, Youzhi

    2008-01-01

    Members of the ERF transcription factor family play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In soybean (Glycine max L.), however, only a few ERF genes have been studied so far. In this study, 98 unigenes that contained a complete AP2/ERF domain were identified from 63,676 unique sequences in the DFCI Soybean Gene Index database. The phylogeny, gene structures, and putative conserved motifs in soybean ERF proteins were analysed, and compared with those of Arabidopsis and rice. The members of the soybean ERF family were divided into 12 subgroups, similar to the case for Arabidopsis. AP2/ERF domains were conserved among soybean, Arabidopsis, and rice. Outside the AP2/ERF domain, many soybean-specific conserved motifs were detected. Expression analysis showed that nine unigenes belonging to six ERF family subgroups were induced by both biotic/abiotic stresses and hormone treatment, suggesting that they were involved in cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stress-responsive signalling pathways. Overexpression of two full-length genes from two different subgroups enhanced the tolerances to drought, salt stresses, and/or pathogen infection of the tobacco plants. These results will be useful for elucidating ERF gene-associated stress response signalling pathways in soybean.

  9. Changes in RNA Splicing in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delasa Aghamirzaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing soybean seeds accumulate oils, proteins, and carbohydrates that are used as oxidizable substrates providing metabolic precursors and energy during seed germination. The accumulation of these storage compounds in developing seeds is highly regulated at multiple levels, including at transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. RNA sequencing was used to provide comprehensive information about transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that take place in developing soybean embryos. Bioinformatics analyses lead to the identification of different classes of alternatively spliced isoforms and corresponding changes in their levels on a global scale during soybean embryo development. Alternative splicing was associated with transcripts involved in various metabolic and developmental processes, including central carbon and nitrogen metabolism, induction of maturation and dormancy, and splicing itself. Detailed examination of selected RNA isoforms revealed alterations in individual domains that could result in changes in subcellular localization of the resulting proteins, protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions, and regulation of protein activities. Different isoforms may play an important role in regulating developmental and metabolic processes occurring at different stages in developing oilseed embryos.

  10. QTL associated with horizontal resistance to soybean cyst nematode in Glycine soja PI464925B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Shawn M J; Shelp, Barry J; Anderson, Terry R; Welacky, Tom W; Rajcan, Istvan

    2007-02-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe; SCN) is the primary disease responsible for yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Resistant cultivars are an effective management tool; however, the sources currently available have common resistant genes. Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc., the wild ancestor of domesticated soybean, represents a diverse germplasm pool with known SCN resistance. The objectives of this research were to: (1) determine the genetic variation and inheritance of SCN resistance in a G. max ('S08-80') x G. soja (PI464925B) F (4:5) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population; and (2) identify and evaluate quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SCN resistance. Transgressive segregation for resistance was observed, although neither parent was resistant to the Chatham and Ruthven SCN isolates. Broad sense heritability was 0.81 for the Ruthven and 0.91 for the Chatham isolate. Root dry weight was a significant covariate that influenced cyst counts. One RIL [female index (FI) = 5.2 +/- 1.11] was identified as resistant to the Chatham isolate (FI soja, were identified on linkage groups I, K, and O, and individually explained 8, 7 and 5% (LOD = 2.1-2.7) of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. Significant epistatic interactions were found between pairs of SSR markers that individually may or may not have been associated with SCN resistance, which explained between 10 and 15% of the total phenotypic variation. Best-fit regression models explained 21 and 31% of the total phenotypic variation in the RIL population to the Chatham and Ruthven isolates, respectively. The results of this study help to improve the understanding of the genetic control of SCN resistance in soybean caused by minor genes resulting in horizontal resistance. The incorporation of the novel resistance QTL from G. soja could increase the durability of SCN-resistance in soybean cultivars, especially if major gene resistance breaks down.

  11. Soyasaponin Bh, a Triterpene Saponin Containing a Unique Hemiacetal-Functional Five-Membered Ring from Glycine max (Soybeans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merill) and soy-based food products are major dietary sources of saponins. An oleanane triterpenoid saponin, soyasaponin Bh (1) containing a unique five-membered ring with a hemiacetal functionality together with seven known saponins were isolated from soybeans. Their struct...

  12. Fine mapping of the soybean aphid resistance genes Rag6 and Rag3c from glycine soja 85-32

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, an invasive species, has significantly threatened soybean production in North America since 2001. Host-plant resistance is known as an ideal management of aphids. Two novel aphid-resistant loci, Rag6 and Rag3c, from the Glycine soja accession 85-32, were previously detected in a 1...

  13. Chemical and mechanical weed control in soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Jonas Felix

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the possibility of chemical and mechanical weed control strategies in soybean. Soybean field experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014 in Southern Germany. Five treatments including common herbicide mixtures and four mechanical weed control treatments, implementing a harrow and a hoe, were tested at different locations. In the herbicide experiments two treatments were applied by PRE emergence herbicides (metribuzin, clomazone, dimethenamid and metribuzin, flufenacet, clomazone and another two treatments were sprayed with a combination of PRE + POST emergence herbicides (metribuzin, flufenacet, thifensulfuron and pendimethalin, thifensulfuron, bentazone, cycloxydim. Furthermore, a POST herbicide treatment was implemented (thifensulfuron, bentazone, thifensulfuron and fluazifop-P-butyl. In the mechanical weed control experiments, treatments were: three times hoeing, PRE emergence harrowing plus three times hoeing, hoeing and harrowing in rotation or three times harrowing. In both experiments an untreated control was included. A 90% weed control efficacy and 23% yield increase was observed in the POST herbicide treatment. PRE + POST treatments resulted in 92% to 99% weed control efficiency and 15% yield increase compared to the untreated control. In the mechanical weed control experiments the combination of PRE emergence harrowing and POST emergence hoeing resulted in 82% weed control efficiency and 34% higher yield compared to the untreated control. Less weed control efficiency (72% was observed in the harrow treatment, leading to 20% higher yield compared to the control. The suitability of both strategies for implementation in “Integrated Weed Management” has been investigated.

  14. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  15. A Technique for Evaluating Heterodera glycines Development in Susceptible and Resistant Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbrendt, J M; Lewis, S A; Shipe, E R

    1992-03-01

    A technique was developed to evaluate Heterodera glycines development in susceptible and resistant soybean. Roots of 3-day-old soybean were exposed to infective juveniles of H. glyci.nes in sand for 8 hours followed by washing and transfer to hydroponic culture. The cotyledons and apical meristem were removed and plants were maintained under constant light, which resulted in a dwarfed plant system. After 15 or 20 days at 27 C, nematodes were rated for development. Emerged males were sieved from the culture water and females were counted directly from the roots. Nematodes remaining in the roots were rated for development after staining and clearing the tissues. The proportion of nematodes at each stage of development and the frequency of completed molts for each stage were calculated from these data. This technique showed that resistance to H. glycines was stage related and did not affect males and females equally in all resistant hosts. The resistance of plant introduction PI 209332 primarily affected development of third and fourth-stage juveniles; 'Pickett' mainly affected second and third-stage juveniles, whereas PI 89772 affected all stages. Male development was markedly affected in PI 89772 and 'Pickett' but not in PI 209332.

  16. HERITABILITAS, NISBAH POTENSI, DAN HETEROSIS KETAHANAN KEDELAI (Glycine max [L.] Merrill TERHADAP SOYBEAN MOSAIC VIRUS

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    Nyimas Sa’diyah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heritability, potential ratio, and heterosis of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill resistance to soybean mosaic virus. The use of soybean cultivars with resistance to SMV is a way for controlling soybean mosaic disease. The objective of this research was to estimate the disease severity, the narrow sense heritability, potential ratio and heterosis of resistance character and number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant of ten F1 populations of soybean crossing result to SMV infection. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in two replications. Observed characters were disease severity, number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant. The result of this research showed that 1 the crossing combinations those which were resistant to SMV (lower disease severity were Yellow Bean x Tanggamus, Tanggamus x Orba, and Tanggamus x Taichung, 2 the narrow sense heritability of disease severity was included in medium criteria, 3 number of pithy pods belonged to high criteria, and 4 number of healthy seeds and healthy seeds weight per plant were included in low criteria. The crossing combinations that had low estimation value of heterosis and heterobeltiosis of resistance to SMV infection were Yellow Bean x Taichung, Bean x Tanggamus and Tanggamus x B3570. Disease severity or resistance to SMV is influenced by genetic and environmental factors.

  17. NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR ENHANCING SOYBEAN (Glycine max L. PRODUCTION

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    FARID A. HELLAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La soya (Glycine max L., es el cultivo de legumbres más importante en el mundo. La magnitud de las pérdidas en el rendimiento de la soya debido a deficiencias varía dependiendo de los nutrientes. Las deficiencias de N, P, Fe, B y S pueden causar pérdidas en rendimiento de hasta 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % y 16-30 %, respectivamente, en la soya dependiendo de la fertilidad del suelo, clima y factores intrínsecos a las plantas. La textura de los suelos utilizados en el cultivo de soya varía entre arenosa y arcillosa. La salinidad del suelo es uno de los mayores factores limitantes en la producción del cultivo en regiones semiáridas, y la salinidad por cloro tiene un mayor efecto en la disminución del rendimiento que la salinidad por sulfatos. Los granos de soya son una gran fuente de energía que contienen 40 % de proteína y 19 % de aceite. El éxito del manejo de nutrientes es maximizar la productividad del cultivo mientras se minimizan los impactos ambientales. Las prácticas de manejo de nutrientes balan- ceadas y reguladas en el tiempo contribuyen a un crecimiento sostenido del rendimiento y la calidad, influencian la salud de las plantas y reducen los riesgos ambientales. Una nutrición balanceada con fertilizantes minerales puede ayudar en el manejo integrado de plagas para reducir los daños causados por las infestaciones de pestes y enfermedades y reducir los insumos requeridos para su control. Una fertilización balanceada genera mayores ganancias para los agricultores, no necesariamente por reducción de los insumos. El papel de la educación y la extensión en la difusión del conocimiento actual sobre manejo de nutrientes es crucial, desafiante y continuo.

  18. A genome-wide association study of seed composition traits in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Larry J; Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Changbao; Chen, Charles Y; Song, Bao-Hua

    2017-01-05

    Cultivated soybean (Glycine max) is a major agricultural crop that provides a crucial source of edible protein and oil. Decreased amounts of saturated palmitic acid and increased amounts of unsaturated oleic acid in soybean oil are considered optimal for human cardiovascular health and therefore there has considerable interest by breeders in discovering genes affecting the relative concentrations of these fatty acids. Using a genome-wide association (GWA) approach with nearly 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we investigated the genetic basis of protein, oil and all five fatty acid levels in seeds from a sample of 570 wild soybeans (Glycine soja), the progenitor of domesticated soybean, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting these seed composition traits. We discovered 29 SNPs located on ten different chromosomes that are significantly associated with the seven seed composition traits in our wild soybean sample. Eight SNPs co-localized with QTLs previously uncovered in linkage or association mapping studies conducted with cultivated soybean samples, while the remaining SNPs appeared to be in novel locations. Twenty-four of the SNPs significantly associated with fatty acid variation, with the majority located on chromosomes 14 (6 SNPs) and seven (8 SNPs). Two SNPs were common for two or more fatty acids, suggesting loci with pleiotropic effects. We also identified some candidate genes that are involved in fatty acid metabolism and regulation. For each of the seven traits, most of the SNPs produced differences between the average phenotypic values of the two homozygotes of about one-half standard deviation and contributed over 3% of their total variability. This is the first GWA study conducted on seed composition traits solely in wild soybean populations, and a number of QTLs were found that have not been previously discovered. Some of these may be useful to breeders who select for increased protein/oil content or altered fatty acid ratios

  19. A Global Analysis of the Polygalacturonase Gene Family in Soybean (Glycine max.

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    Feifei Wang

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase is one of the pectin hydrolytic enzymes involved in various developmental and physiological processes such as seed germination, organ abscission, pod and anther dehiscence, and xylem cell formation. To date, no systematic analysis of polygalacturonase incorporating genome organization, gene structure, and expression profiling has been conducted in soybean (Glycine max var. Williams 82. In this study, we identified 112 GmPG genes from the soybean Wm82.a2v1 genome. These genes were classified into three groups, group I (105 genes, group II (5 genes, and group III (2 genes. Fifty-four pairs of duplicate paralogous genes were preferentially identified from duplicated regions of the soybean genome, which implied that long segmental duplications significantly contributed to the expansion of the GmPG gene family. Moreover, GmPG transcripts were analyzed in various tissues using RNA-seq data. The results showed the differential expression of 64 GmPGs in the tissue and partially redundant expression of some duplicate genes, while others showed functional diversity. These findings suggested that the GmPGs were retained by substantial subfunctionalization during the soybean evolutionary processes. Finally, evolutionary analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in wild and cultivated soybeans revealed that 107 GmPGs had selected site(s, which indicated that these genes may have undergone strong selection during soybean domestication. Among them, one non-synonymous SNP of GmPG031 affected floral development during selection, which was consistent with the results of RNA-seq and evolutionary analyses. Thus, our results contribute to the functional characterization of GmPG genes in soybean.

  20. THE EFFECT OF SOME RHIZOBACTERIAN STRAINS ON SOLUBLE PROTEINS CONTENT IN SOYBEANS (GLYCINE MAX L. MERR.

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    Marius Stefan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Now it is an accepted fact that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR can increase the productivity of several crops. The main objective of the present study was to find if there are any differences in protein content in the seeds of soybean (Glycine max L. MERR.. Using spectrophotometric methods for analyzing the protein contents and electrophoretic methods for qualitative analysis it was observed that no major modifications occur in protein spectrum. Looking at the quantitative side there was a small improvement in protein quantity.

  1. Effect of methanol spraying on yield and yield components of soybean (Glycine max L.

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    M. Mirakhori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the application of methanol on yield and yield components of soybean (Glycine max L., var. L 17 in field conditions, experiments were conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Field Research from Faculty of Agricultural of Islamic Azad University Karaj, Iran, during 2008. Sprayed aqueous solutions were zero (control, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35% (v/v methanol by there times during growth season of soybean with 15 days intervals on shoot of soybean. In this study soybean grain yield, biomass HI, 1000 grain weigh, height plants, number of branch, diameter of stem, number of pod on plant, number of hollow pod were measured. Results of the experiment indicated that there are significant differences (p>0.05 between sprayed of solution methanol on all parameters. Results also showed the effect of aqueous solution 14, 21 and 28% (v/v methanol on measured parameters was greater than other treatments. Foliar application of 14% and 21%, (v/v methanol increased leaf area index, crop growth rate, pod growth rate, leaf area duration, pod yield, seed yield, weight of 1000 kernel, mature pods per plants. The lowest grain yield obtained in control plots and 35% (v/v methanol treatments.

  2. Genome-scale identification of MLO domain-containing genes in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Zhao, Jinming; Du, Caifu; Xiang, Yang; Cao, Jinxuan; Qin, Xinrong

    2012-01-01

    In plants, powdery-mildew-resistance locus o (Mlo) genes encode proteins that are calmodulin-binding proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. However, systematic characterization of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) has not been yet reported. In this study, we identified MLO domain-contained members in soybean and examined their expression under phytohormone treatment and abiotic stress conditions. A total of 20 soybean Mlo genes were identified (GmMlo1-20), which are distributed on 13 chromosomes, and display diverse exon-intron structures. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Mlo family can be classified into four subfamilies. Sequence comparison was used to reveal the conserved calmodulin-binding domain (CaMBD) in GmMLO proteins. The expression of GmMlo genes was influenced by various phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses, suggesting that these Mlo genes have various roles in the response of soybean to environmental stimuli. Promoter sequence analysis revealed an overabundance of stress and/or phytohormone-related cis-elements in GmMlo genes. These data provide important clues for elucidating the functions of genes of the Mlo gene family.

  3. Comparative analysis of soybean genotype resistance to Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne species via resistance gene analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, P M H; Arêdes, F A S; Ferreira, A; Ferreira, M F S

    2016-09-02

    Nematodes are important pests of soybean throughout the world and cause high yield losses. As a control strategy, the identification of resistance genes is an important aim of breeding studies. Plants possess resistance genes (R), which are responsible for the recognition of pathogens and activation of the defense system. R genes and resistance gene analogs (RGAs) possess conserved domains, from which nucleotide-binding site is the most common. Using degenerate primers originating from these domains, it is possible to identify and isolate sequences of R and RGA genes. In this study, soybean genotypes resistant to the nematodes Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. enterolobii were compared by the use of RGAs and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Forty-six soybean genotypes were studied, including plant introductions (PIs), commercial crops, and source of resistance genotypes. Thirteen combinations of RGA primers and different SSRs linked to QTLs were used to confirm resistance to soybean cyst nematodes (SCN). Fragments associated with resistance to the studied nematodes were amplified in the source of resistance and PI genotypes. RGA markers were efficient at distinguishing groups of genotypes that were resistant and susceptible to Meloidogyne spp and SCN. Combinations of specific primers were identified through their ability to amplify nucleotide sequences from possible resistance candidate genes. SSR markers contributed to the analysis of SCN race specificity, showing that the QTLs identified by these markers are distinct from those identified by RGA markers.

  4. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2%) caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible.

  5. Mapping novel aphid resistance QTL from wild soybean, Glycine soja 85-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichen; Zhang, Zhongnan; Bales, Carmille; Gu, Cuihua; DiFonzo, Chris; Li, Ming; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry; Yang, Zhenyu; Wang, Dechun

    2017-09-01

    Two novel QTLs conferring aphid resistance were mapped and validated on soybean chromosomes 8 and 16, respectively. Closely linked markers were developed to assist breeding for aphid resistance. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a highly destructive pest for soybean production. E08934, a soybean advanced breeding line derived from the wild soybean Glycine soja 85-32, has shown strong resistance to aphids. To dissect the genetic basis of aphid resistance in E08934, a mapping population (070020) consisting of 140 F3-derived lines was developed by crossing E08934 with an aphid-susceptible line E00003. This mapping population was evaluated for aphid resistance in a greenhouse trial in 2010 and three field trials in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The broad-sense heritability across the field trials was 0.84. In the mapping population 070020, two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected as significantly associated with aphid resistance, and designated as Rag6 and Rag3c, respectively. Rag6 was mapped to a 10.5 centiMorgan (cM) interval between markers MSUSNP08-2 and Satt209 on chromosome 8, explaining 19.5-46.4% of the phenotypic variance in different trials. Rag3c was located at a 7.5 cM interval between markers MSUSNP16-10 and Sat_370 on chromosome 16, explaining 12.5-22.9% of the phenotypic variance in different trials. Rag3c had less resistance effect than Rag6 across all the trials. Furthermore, Rag6 and Rag3c were confirmed in two validation populations with different genetic backgrounds. No significant interaction was detected between Rag6 and Rag3c in either the mapping population or the validation populations. Both Rag6 and Rag3c were indicated as conferring antibiosis resistance to aphids by a no-choice test. The new aphid-resistance gene(s) derived from the wild germplasm G. soja 85-32 are valuable in improving soybeans for aphid resistance.

  6. Inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) accession PI483463.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Vuong, Tri D; Nguyen, Henry T

    2009-01-01

    Tolerant soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cultivars aid in reducing salt damage in problem fields. New genes are important to reduce losses from salt injury. Objectives of this study were to determine inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) PI483463 and to test allelism of tolerance genes from genotypes PI483463 and S-100, a common ancestor of southern in US cultivars. Tolerant (T) PI483463 was crossed to sensitive (S) cultivar Hutcheson to study inheritance. PI483463 (T) was crossed with S-100 (T) to test for allelism. Parents, F(1) plants, F(2) populations, and F(2:3) lines were assayed in a 100 mM salt solution to determine tolerance. F(2) from T x S cross segregated 3(T):1 (S) and the F(2:3) lines responded 1 (T): 2 (segregating):1 (S). F(2) plants from PI483463 (T) x S-100 (T) segregated 15 (T):1 (S) indicating different genes from the 2 sources. Results showed that G. soja line PI483463 had a single dominant gene for salt tolerance, which was different than the gene in G. max line S-100. The symbol, Ncl2, was designated for this new salt tolerance allele.

  7. Soybean Glycine Max L Merill Promiscuity Reaction To Indigenous Bradyrhizobia inoculation In Some Ghanaian Soils

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    Phanuel Y. Klogo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For many tropical countries particularly in Africa Biological Nitrogen Fixation BNF continues to be the most promising alternative or supplement to the use of chemical Nitrogen fertilizers for sustainable Agriculture. In contrast to cowpea that nodulate profusely in tropical soilswith the naturally occurring bradyrhizobia nodulation and nitrogen fixation in the American-type soybean in similar environments has largely depended on inoculating bradyrhizobia into the soil. The development of the Tropical Glycine Cross TGx soybean varieties by IITA has made it possible for these promiscuous varieties to nodulate with the naturally occurring strains belonging to the cowpea Bradyrhizobiumspp. The Most Probable Number MPN technique was used to determine the bradyrhizobial population in these soils. Eighty four Bradyrhizobium isolates obtained from randomly selected nodules on soybean were assessed for effectiveness in nitrogen fixation. Three of the most effective isolates were used in inoculation studies carried out in the greenhouse atthe University of Ghana-Legonon three promiscuous soybean varieties Anidaso TGx 813-6D TGx 1903-8F and TGx 1448-2E and a non- promiscuous genotype Davis in three Ghanaian soil series Toje Chromic cambisols Chichiwere Dystricfluvisol and Bekwai Ferric acrisols. There were tremendous inoculation responses in these soils for both the promiscuous and non-promiscuous cultivars with even the promiscuous ones responding better to inoculation than the non-promiscuous Davis. Inoculation gave rise to significant increases in nodule number nodule dry weight shoot dry weight and total nitrogen accumulation compared to the uninoculated control even intheChichiwere soil series which harboured the highestpopulation of indigenous bradyrhizobia suggesting that the populations of the naturally occurring bradyrhizobia in these soils were either not highly competitive or sufficient for optimum nodulation and nitrogen fixation. For

  8. Glycine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, John R.; Oddershede, Jens; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    various aspects of the theoretical evaluation of the properties of energy deposition associated with the collision of fast ions with glycine and its zwitterions, including differences due to molecular conformation and orientation with respect to the ion beam direction as well as due to the effect...... of surrounding water molecules and the state of target aggregation.    Quantum mechanical calculations, which yield the dipole oscillator strength distribution of glycine are reported. The ease with which energy is absorbed from a fast ion, described by the mean excitation energy and stopping power of glycine...

  9. Ecological aspects study of replacement intercropping patterns of Soybean (Glycine max L. and Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudarz Ahmadvand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping is considered for increasing and stability of yield in per unit. In order to study the effects of soybean (Glycine max L. and millet (Panicum miliaceum L. replacement intercropping on agronomic traits, diversity of weeds and soil biological activity, an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Agricultural Faculty, of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2014. The experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The replacement intercropping series consisted of monoculture of soybean, monoculture of millet, 75% soybean+ 25% millet, 50% soybean+ 50% millet and 25% soybean+ 75% millet. The results showed that the highest seed yield of 219.8 and 171.9 gm-2 belonged to monoculture of soybean and monoculture of millet, respectively. Intercropping reduced maximum leaf area index of soybean and millet but leaf chlorophyll content of soybean and millet were increased. The highest number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant in soybean and panicle number per plant in millet were obtained in 50S:50M ratio. Mean soil respiration rate in intercropping treatments was 4 and 8 % higher than the monoculture of soybean and millet, respectively. Intercropping patterns of 50S:50M and 25S:75M were successful in reducing weed plant density and diversity in comparison with soybean monoculture. Results showed that in all intercropping treatments, land equivalent ratio was more than one. Maximum value of land equivalent ratio (2.20 was achieved in 50S:50M treatment. Soybean and millet intercropping at different levels of replacement, didn’t have actual yield loss. Calculating the aggressivity showed that millet was more dominate than soybean. The maximum relative crowding coefficient of soybean was observed in 75S:25M, however that of millet was obtained in 25S:75M and 50S:50M intercroppings indicating that millet is more competitor than soybean.

  10. Introgression of a quantitative trait locus for yield from Glycine soja into commercial soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concibido, V C; La Vallee, B; McLaird, P; Pineda, N; Meyer, J; Hummel, L; Yang, J; Wu, K; Delannay, X

    2003-02-01

    The value of exotic germplasm in broadening the genetic base of most crops has been demonstrated many times. However, the difficulties involved in working with exotic germplasm have limited their utility in plant breeding. Unwanted linkages often thwart the successful incorporation of beneficial exotic genes into commercial lines. Thus, the use of exotics in traditional breeding makes the process of crop improvement a tedious, time-consuming and expensive endeavor. The availability of molecular markers makes it possible to isolate specific genomic regions and transfer them into commercial varieties with minimal linkage drag. We found a yield-enhancing quantitative trait locus (QTL) from Glycine soja (Siebold and Zucc.) by evaluating a population of 265 BC(2) individuals from a cross between HS-1 and PI 407305. The yield QTL was located on linkage group B2(U26) of the soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genetic linkage map. In a 2-year, multi-location study, individuals carrying the PI 407305 haplotype at the QTL locus demonstrated a 9.4% yield advantage over individuals that did not contain the exotic haplotype. When tested in a more uniform "HS-1-like" background in two locations, we observed an 8% yield advantage for lines that carry the PI 407305 haplotype. We further assessed the QTL effect in various elite soybean genetic backgrounds. The yield effect was consistently observed in only two of six genetic backgrounds. Individuals carrying the PI 407305 haplotype at the QTL locus had a 9% yield advantage in yield trials across locations. Despite the limited adaptability of this yield-QTL across genetic backgrounds, this study demonstrates the potential of exotic germplasm for yield enhancement in soybean.

  11. Global transcriptome profiling of wild soybean (Glycine soja) roots under NaHCO3 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying; Li, Yong; Zhu, Yan-Ming; Bai, Xi; Lv, De-Kang; Guo, Dianjing; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua

    2010-07-26

    Plant roots are the primary site of perception and injury for saline-alkaline stress. The current knowledge of saline-alkaline stress transcriptome is mostly focused on saline (NaCl) stress and only limited information on alkaline (NaHCO3) stress is available. Using Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip, we conducted transcriptional profiling on Glycine soja roots subjected to 50 mmol/L NaHCO3 treatment. In a total of 7088 probe sets, 3307 were up-regulated and 5720 were down-regulated at various time points. The number of significantly stress regulated genes increased dramatically after 3 h stress treatment and peaked at 6 h. GO enrichment test revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in signal transduction, energy, transcription, secondary metabolism, transporter, disease and defence response. We also detected 11 microRNAs regulated by NaHCO3 stress. This is the first comprehensive wild soybean root transcriptome analysis under alkaline stress. These analyses have identified an inventory of genes with altered expression regulated by alkaline stress. The data extend the current understanding of wild soybean alkali stress response by providing a set of robustly selected, differentially expressed genes for further investigation.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana and soybean (glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana and soybean flour (Glycine max were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range between 0.0 and 0.4 M, but it is reduced afterwards with the higher concentration of NaCl. Foaming stability varied with the concentration of flour solution reaching maximum values of 39 and 33% for vitabosa and soybean, respectively at 10% flour concentration.Vitabosa had the best foaming capacity (56% to 0.6 M compared with soybeans (47% to 0.4 M. Maximum capacity of gelation was observed in vitabosa at 10% flour concentration. Increases in ionic strength of the flour solution, at low salt concentrations (<0.4 M, improved the gelation of flours.

  13. Vitamin E levels in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) expressing a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate gene from oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Catherine M; Launis, Karen L; Traber, Maret G; Ward, Dennis P

    2014-04-16

    The enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is ubiquitous in plants and functions in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, resulting in the formation of homogentisate. Homogentisate is the aromatic precursor of all plastoquinones and tocochromanols, including tocopherols and tocotrienols. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been genetically modified to express the gene avhppd-03 that encodes the protein AvHPPD-03 derived from oat (Avena sativa L.). The AvHPPD-03 isozyme has an inherent reduced binding affinity for mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits the wild-type soybean HPPD enzyme. Expression of avhppd-03 in soybean plants confers a mesotrione-tolerant phenotype. Seeds from three different avhppd-03-expressing soybean events were quantitatively assessed for content of eight vitamin E isoforms. Although increased levels of two tocopherol isoforms were identified for each of the three soybean events, they were within, or not substantially different from, the ranges of these isoforms found in nontransgenic soybean varieties. The increases of these tocopherols in the avhppd-03-expressing soybean events may have a slight benefit with regard to vitamin E nutrition but, given the commercial processing of soybeans, are unlikely to have a material impact on human nutrition with regard to vitamin E concentrations in soybean oil.

  14. Genetic variants in root architecture-related genes in a Glycine soja accession, a potential resource to improve cultivated soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Silvas J; Song, Li; Qiu, Dan; Maldonado Dos Santos, Joao V; Chai, Chenglin; Joshi, Trupti; Patil, Gunvant; Valliyodan, Babu; Vuong, Tri D; Murphy, Mackensie; Krampis, Konstantinos; Tucker, Dominic M; Biyashev, Ruslan; Dorrance, Anne E; Maroof, M A Saghai; Xu, Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-02-25

    Root system architecture is important for water acquisition and nutrient acquisition for all crops. In soybean breeding programs, wild soybean alleles have been used successfully to enhance yield and seed composition traits, but have never been investigated to improve root system architecture. Therefore, in this study, high-density single-feature polymorphic markers and simple sequence repeats were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing root system architecture in an inter-specific soybean mapping population developed from a cross between Glycine max and Glycine soja. Wild and cultivated soybean both contributed alleles towards significant additive large effect QTLs on chromosome 6 and 7 for a longer total root length and root distribution, respectively. Epistatic effect QTLs were also identified for taproot length, average diameter, and root distribution. These root traits will influence the water and nutrient uptake in soybean. Two cell division-related genes (D type cyclin and auxin efflux carrier protein) with insertion/deletion variations might contribute to the shorter root phenotypes observed in G. soja compared with cultivated soybean. Based on the location of the QTLs and sequence information from a second G. soja accession, three genes (slow anion channel associated 1 like, Auxin responsive NEDD8-activating complex and peroxidase), each with a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism mutation were identified, which may also contribute to changes in root architecture in the cultivated soybean. In addition, Apoptosis inhibitor 5-like on chromosome 7 and slow anion channel associated 1-like on chromosome 15 had epistatic interactions for taproot length QTLs in soybean. Rare alleles from a G. soja accession are expected to enhance our understanding of the genetic components involved in root architecture traits, and could be combined to improve root system and drought adaptation in soybean.

  15. Ethylene response pathway modulates attractiveness of plant roots to soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanfeng; You, Jia; Li, Chunjie; Williamson, Valerie M.; Wang, Congli

    2017-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes respond to root exudates to locate their host roots. In our studies second stage juveniles of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), quickly migrated to soybean roots in Pluronic F-127 gel. Roots of soybean and non-host Arabidopsis treated with the ethylene (ET)-synthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) were more attractive to SCN than untreated roots, and significantly more nematodes penetrated into roots. Moreover, Arabidopsis ET insensitive mutants (ein2, ein2-1, ein2-5, ein3-1, ein5-1, and ein6) were more attractive than wild-type plants. Conversely, the constitutive triple-response mutant ctr1-1, was less attractive to SCN. While ET receptor gain-of-function mutant ein4-1 attracted more SCN than the wild-type, there were no significant differences in attractiveness between another gain-of-function ET receptor mutant, etr1-3, or the loss-of-function mutants etr1-7 and ers1-3 and the wild type. Expression of the reporter construct EBS: β-glucuronidase (GUS) was detected in Arabidopsis root tips as early as 6 h post infection, indicating that ET signaling was activated in Arabidopsis early by SCN infection. These results suggest that an active ET signaling pathway reduces root attractiveness to SCN in a way similar to that reported for root-knot nematodes, but opposite to that suggested for the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. PMID:28112257

  16. Effects of glyphosate on the mineral content of glyphosate-resistant soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Reddy, Krishna N; Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V

    2012-07-11

    There are conflicting claims as to whether treatment with glyphosate adversely affects mineral nutrition of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops. Those who have made claims of adverse effects have argued links between reduced Mn and diseases in these crops. This article describes experiments designed to determine the effects of a recommended rate (0.86 kg ha(-1)) of glyphosate applied once or twice on the mineral content of young and mature leaves, as well as in seeds produced by GR soybeans (Glycine max) in both the greenhouse and field using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the greenhouse, there were no effects of either one application (at 3 weeks after planting, WAP) or two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves sampled at 6, 9, and 12 WAP and in harvested seed. Se concentrations were too low for accurate detection in leaves, but there was also no effect of glyphosate applications on Se in the seeds. In the field study, there were no effects of two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves at either 9 or 12 WAP. There was also no effect on Se in the seeds. There was no difference in yield between control and glyphosate-treated GR soybeans in the field. The results indicate that glyphosate does not influence mineral nutrition of GR soybean at recommended rates for weed management in the field. Furthermore, the field studies confirm the results of greenhouse studies.

  17. Genome-wide association study of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) HG type 2.5.7 (race 1) resistance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Thus far, most of the commercial SCN-resistant soybean cultivars have been developed from very limited resistant germplasm resources. Overuse of these limited resistant sources has resulted in SCN race ...

  18. Reduced Fitness of Virulent Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes May Influence the Longevity of Resistance Genes in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, Adam J.; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable use of insect resistance in crops require insect resistance management plans that may include a refuge to limit the spread of virulence to this resistance. However, without a loss of fitness associated with virulence, a refuge may not prevent virulence from becoming fixed within a population of parthenogenetically reproducing insects like aphids. Aphid-resistance in soybeans (i.e., Rag genes) prevent outbreaks of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), yet four biotypes defined by their capacity to survive on aphid-resistant soybeans (e.g., biotype-2 survives on Rag1 soybean) are found in North America. Although fitness costs are reported for biotype-3 on aphid susceptible and Rag1 soybean, it is not clear if virulence to aphid resistance in general is associated with a decrease in fitness on aphid susceptible soybeans. In laboratory assays, we measured fitness costs for biotype 2, 3 and 4 on an aphid-susceptible soybean cultivar. In addition, we also observed negative cross-resistance for biotype-2 on Rag3, and biotype-3 on Rag1 soybean. We utilized a simple deterministic, single-locus, four compartment genetic model to account for the impact of these findings on the frequency of virulence alleles. When a refuge of aphid susceptible was included within this model, fitness costs and negative cross-resistance delayed the increase of virulence alleles when virulence was inherited recessively or additively. If virulence were inherited additively, fitness costs decreased the frequency of virulence. Combined, these results suggest that a refuge may prevent virulent A. glycines biotypes from overcoming Rag genes if this aphid-resistance were used commercially in North America. PMID:26372106

  19. Pharmaceutical Wastewater Effluent-Source of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Phytotoxicity of Metronidazole to Soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Okhumode H

    2017-04-02

    Industrial discharge of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into the environment in some middle- and low-income countries is not sufficiently regulated. The phytotoxicity of metronidazole (FLAGYL)-one of the most commonly used over the counter (OTC) antibiotics, to soybean ( Glycine max ) is investigated. Relative growth rate (RGR) expressed in gram per gram per day (gg -1 d -1 ) was applied to plants destructively harvested at maturity (42 d), to determine the toxicological impact. Differences between mean RGR of the three groups were performed at 0.05 significance level. Multiple comparisons suggest that there was a statistical significant difference among mean RGR for all treatment groups. Metronidazole is toxic to soybean plants ( Glycine max ) based on dose-response criterion. There is a need to enforce treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent by Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Companies (PMCs) before discharge into the environment.

  20. Pharmaceutical Wastewater Effluent—Source of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Phytotoxicity of Metronidazole to Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhumode H. Yakubu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial discharge of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs into the environment in some middle- and low-income countries is not sufficiently regulated. The phytotoxicity of metronidazole (FLAGYL—one of the most commonly used over the counter (OTC antibiotics, to soybean (Glycine max is investigated. Relative growth rate (RGR expressed in gram per gram per day (gg−1d−1 was applied to plants destructively harvested at maturity (42 d, to determine the toxicological impact. Differences between mean RGR of the three groups were performed at 0.05 significance level. Multiple comparisons suggest that there was a statistical significant difference among mean RGR for all treatment groups. Metronidazole is toxic to soybean plants (Glycine max based on dose-response criterion. There is a need to enforce treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent by Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Companies (PMCs before discharge into the environment.

  1. Effect of fungicides and bioagents on number of microorganisms in soil and yield of soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAURAV MISHRA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mishra G, Kumar N, Giri K, Pandey S, Kumar R. 2014. Effect of fungicides and bioagents on number of microorganisms in soil and yield of soybean (Glycine max. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 45-48. In field experiments, the effect of selected fungicides and bioagents on number of soil microorganisms and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merill was investigated. The results showed that some of the crop protections preparations applied in the experiment (as seed dressing increased the populations of the examined microorganisms after the harvest of crops. Maximum counts of bacteria were recorded with Thiomethaxam at 3 g kg-1 while Pseudomonas at 3 g kg-1 showed the highest population of fungi, Actinomycetes, B. japonicum, PSB and Pseudomonas. The highest straw and grain yields of 3241.6 and 1439.4 kg ha-1, respectively, were recorded with Pseudomonas at 3 g kg-1.

  2. The Effects of Phosphate Solubilizing Rhizobacteria on Soybean (Glycine max. L.) Plants Grown under Insoluble Phosphate Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Rotaru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the comparative efficacy of two phosphorus solubilizing rhizobacteria namely Burkholderia cepacia B36 and Enterobacter radicincitans D5/23T combined with insoluble phosphates in soybean (Glycine max. L.). Inoculated plants were grown in sand culture under controlled greenhouse conditions. All the inoculated treatments showed better plant growth and nutrient uptake when compared to uninoculated control. The inoculation with B. cepacia performed better than w...

  3. Pharmaceutical Wastewater Effluent—Source of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Phytotoxicity of Metronidazole to Soybean (Glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    Yakubu, Okhumode H.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial discharge of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into the environment in some middle- and low-income countries is not sufficiently regulated. The phytotoxicity of metronidazole (FLAGYL)—one of the most commonly used over the counter (OTC) antibiotics, to soybean (Glycine max) is investigated. Relative growth rate (RGR) expressed in gram per gram per day (gg−1d−1) was applied to plants destructively harvested at maturity (42 d), to determine the toxicological impact. Difference...

  4. Historical gains in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) seed yield are driven by linear increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world’s most widely grown leguminous crop and an important source of protein and oil for food and feed. Soybean yields have increased substantially throughout the past century with yield gains widely attributed to genetic advances and improved cultivars, as well as...

  5. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing at various reproductive stages on growth, N-2 fixation and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, YB; Stulen, [No Value; van Keulen, H; Kuiper, PJC

    2003-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is one of the most important food and cash crops in China and a key protein source for the farmers in northern China. Previous experiments in both the field and greenhouse have shown that N-2 fixation alone cannot meet the N requirement for maximizing soybean yield,

  6. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing at various reproductive stages on growth, N2 fixation and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, Y.B.; Stulen, I.; Kuiper, P.J.C.; Keulen, van H.

    2003-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is one of the most important food and cash crops in China and a key protein source for the farmers in northern China. Previous experiments in both the field and greenhouse have shown that N2 fixation alone cannot meet the N requirement for maximizing soybean yield,

  7. Genetic diversity in domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor (Glycine soja) for simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Hui; Li, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Yang, Liang; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Gaut, Brandon S; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2010-10-01

    • The study of genetic diversity between a crop and its wild relatives may yield fundamental insights into evolutionary history and the process of domestication. • In this study, we genotyped a sample of 303 accessions of domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor Glycine soja with 99 microsatellite markers and 554 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. • The simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci averaged 21.5 alleles per locus and overall Nei's gene diversity of 0.77. The SNPs had substantially lower genetic diversity (0.35) than SSRs. A SSR analyses indicated that G. soja exhibited higher diversity than G. max, but SNPs provided a slightly different snapshot of diversity between the two taxa. For both marker types, the primary division of genetic diversity was between the wild and domesticated accessions. Within taxa, G. max consisted of four geographic regions in China. G. soja formed six subgroups. Genealogical analyses indicated that cultivated soybean tended to form a monophyletic clade with respect to G. soja. • G. soja and G. max represent distinct germplasm pools. Limited evidence of admixture was discovered between these two species. Overall, our analyses are consistent with the origin of G. max from regions along the Yellow River of China.

  8. Factors underlying genotypic differences in the induction of photosynthesis in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleh, Mochamad Arief; Tanaka, Yu; Nomoto, Yuko; Iwahashi, Yu; Nakashima, Keiichiro; Fukuda, Yasuko; Long, Stephen P; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Crop leaves are subject to continually changing light levels in the field. Photosynthetic efficiency of a crop canopy and productivity will depend significantly on how quickly a leaf can acclimate to a change. One measure of speed of response is the rate of photosynthesis increase toward its steady state on transition from low to high light. This rate was measured for seven genotypes of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. After 10 min of illumination, cultivar 'UA4805' (UA) had achieved a leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn ) of 23.2 μmol · m(-2)  · s(-1) , close to its steady-state rate, while the slowest cultivar 'Tachinagaha' (Tc) had only reached 13.0 μmol · m(-2)  · s(-1) and was still many minutes from obtaining steady state. This difference was further investigated by examining induction at a range of carbon dioxide concentrations. Applying a biochemical model of limitations to photosynthesis to the responses of Pn to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci ), it was found that the speed of apparent in vivo activation of ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was responsible for this difference. Sequence analysis of the Rubisco activase gene revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that could relate to this difference. The results show a potential route for selection of cultivars with increased photosynthetic efficiency in fluctuating light. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of Hypergravity and Phytohormones on Isoflavonoid Accumulation in Soybean ( Glycine max. L.) Callus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Peter J.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Musgrave, Mary E.; McKeon-Bennett, Michelle; Moane, Siobhán

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential interaction between gravity and growth hormones on isoflavonoid accumulation. Soybean callus ( Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. `Acme') was grown in the dark for 16 days at 22 °C in a growth medium supplemented with four different combinations of phytohormones and subjected to 4- g and 8- g forces simulated in a centrifuge and 1- g in an adjacent stationary control. Isoflavonoid aglycones and their glycoside concentrations (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, 6″-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl daidzein, genistin, 6″-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl genistein) were determined in the resulting tissues. Although gravity had no significant impact on callus growth, increasing gravity reduced isoflavonoid accumulation in three out of the four phytohormone-supplemented culture media. The ratio of the auxin naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) to the cytokinin benzylaminopurine (BAP) was found to have profound effect on both callus growth and isoflavonoid accumulation. The cytokinin BAP promoted callus tissue growth, but reduced callus isoflavonoid suggesting the isoflavonoid accumulation was not keeping pace with the cell growth in the elevated concentration of BAP. On the other hand, NAA had little or no effect on callus growth, but greatly enhanced isoflavonoid accumulation. Interactive effects of gravity and hormone on isoflavonoid accumulation were evident and its implication to the mechanism by which gravity exerts the effect on plant secondary metabolites is discussed.

  10. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Z; Firouzi, Saeed; Aminpanah, Hashem; Sadeghnejhad, Hamid R

    2016-03-01

    Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.). The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1) were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1) also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1).

  11. Comparative phytochemical profiling of different soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr genotypes using GC–MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem S. Alghamdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the proximate, phenolic and flavonoids contents and phytochemicals present in seeds of twenty four soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merr genotypes to explore their nutritional and medicinal values. Crude protein composition ranged between 35.63 and 43.13% in Argentinian and USA (Clark genotypes, respectively. Total phenolic content varied from 1.15 to 1.77 mg GAE/g, whereas flavonoids varied from 0.68 to 2.13 mg QE/g. The GC–MS analysis resulted identification of 88 compounds categorized into aldehydes (5, ketones (13, alcohols (5, carboxylic acids (7, esters (13, alkanes (2, heterocyclic compounds (19, phenolic compound (9, sugar moiety (7 ether (4 and amide (3, one Alkene and one fatty acid ester. Indonesian genotypes (Ijen and Indo-1 had the highest phenolic compounds than others genotype having antioxidant activities, while the Australian genotype contains the maximum in esters compounds. The major phytocompounds identified in majority of genotypes were Phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy-, 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 3,5-Dimethoxyacetophenone, 1,2-cyclopentanedione and Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester. The presence of phytochemicals with strong pharmacological actions like antimicrobial and antioxidants activities could be considered as sources of quality raw materials for food and pharmaceutical industries. This study further set a platform for isolating and understanding the characteristics of each compound for it pharmacological properties.

  12. Determination of the variations in levels of phenolic compounds in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) sprouts infected by anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Han; Jeong, Sung Woo; Cho, Young Ah; Park, Semin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Bae, Dong Won; Chung, Jong Il; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Park, Soo-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han; Jin, Jong Sung; Shin, Sung Chul

    2013-09-01

    Soybean sprouts (Kongnamool) are one of the most popular and nutritive traditional vegetables in East Asia. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious diseases of soybean sprouts. In order to obtain basic information for breeding and/or selecting soybean genotypes with increased natural defense against anthracnose, phenolic compounds were profiled for healthy and infected soybean (Glycine max Merr.) sprouts by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Tryptophan and eight phenolic compounds (daidzin, genistin, malonyldaidzin, malonylgenistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein and coumestrol) were determined from healthy and inoculated sprouts. Total identified phenolic content was 40.02 ± 0.03 mg kg⁻¹, 99.4% of which was isoflavones. The monitoring suggested that de novo induced glycitein appeared to act as a phytoalexin in the defence mechanism of the soybean sprouts against C. gloeosporioides, and constitutively formed seven phenolic components that functioned as phytoanticipins in the diseased soybean sprouts. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Evaluation of Probiotic Diversity from Soybean (Glycine max) Seeds and Sprouts Using Illumina-Based Sequencing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yali; Zhang, Miaomiao; Deng, Zujun; Cao, Lixiang

    2017-07-24

    There is increasing interest in the use of plant probiotics as environmental-friendly and healthy biofertilizers. The study aimed at selecting for novel probiotic candidates of soybean (Glycine max). The bacteriome and mycobiome of soybean sprouts and seeds were analyzed by Illumina-based sequencing. Seeds contained more diverse bacteria than those in sprouts. The seeds contained similar fungal diversity with sprouts. Total 15 bacterial OTUs and 4 fungal OTUs were detected in seeds and sprouts simultaneously, suggesting that the sprouts contained bacterial and fungal taxa transmitted from seeds. The Halothiobacillus was the most dominant bacterial genus observed and coexisted in seeds and sprouts. The OTUs belonged to Ascomycota were the most dominant fungal taxa observed in seeds and sprouts. Halothiobacillus was firstly identified as endophytic probiotics of soybean. The results suggested that sprouts might contain diverse plant probiotics of mature plants and Illumina-based sequencing can be used to screen for probiotic candidates.

  14. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek)

    OpenAIRE

    Landete, José María; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, S.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Rivas, Blanca de las; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as >green soybeans>, showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increa...

  15. Effect of Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean (Glycine max) genotypes in gray terrace soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Faridul; Bhuiyan, M A H; Alam, Sadia Sabrina; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Kim, Pil Joo; Lee, Yong Bok

    2015-01-01

    Soybean plants require high amounts of nitrogen, which are mainly obtained from biological nitrogen fixation. A field experiment was conducted by soybean (Glycine max) genotypes, growing two varieties (Shohag and BARI Soybean6) and two advanced lines (MTD10 and BGM02026) of soybean with or without Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation. Soybean plants of all genotypes inoculated with Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 produced greater nodule numbers, nodule weight, shoot and root biomass, and plant height than non-inoculated plants. Similarly, inoculated plants showed enhanced activity of nitrogenase (NA) enzyme, contributing to higher nitrogen fixation and assimilation, compared to non-inoculated soybean plants in both years. Plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 also showed higher pod, stover, and seed yield than non-inoculated plants. Therefore, Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 established an effective symbiotic relationship with a range of soybean genotypes and thus increased the nodulation, growth, and yield of soybean grown in gray terrace soils in Bangladesh.

  16. Interaksi Galur × Lingkungan, Potensi Hasil Dan Stabilitas Hasil Galur Harapan Kedelai {Glycine Max (L.) Merr.} Hitam* [Genotype × Environment Interactions, Yield Potential and Stability of Black Soybean {Glycine Max (L.) Merr.} Promising Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Adie, M. Muchlish; Krisnawati, Ayda; Susanto, GWA

    2013-01-01

    Recent demand of black soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.} seed has been rising for industrial raw material. A total of five promising lines of black soybean (9837/K-D-8-185, 9837/K-D-3-185-195, W/9837-D-6-220, 9837/K-D-3-185-82 and 9837/W-D-5-211) were evaluated for the potential yield at 18 soybean production centrals in West Java, East Java, Bali and West Nusa Tenggara, from 2004 until 2006..Variety of Cikuray (black soybean), Wilis (famous variety with high yield) and Burangrang (large seed ...

  17. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  18. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Sun

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Tang, Yao; Xiao, Yao; Wan, Sen

    2012-08-01

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation.

  20. Implementing an evolutionary framework for understanding genetic relationships of phenotypically defined insect biotypes in the invasive soybean aphid (Aphis glycines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jacob A; Michel, Andy P

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive evolution of pest insects in response to the introduction of resistant cultivars is well documented and commonly results in virulent (i.e., capable of feeding upon resistant cultivars) insect populations being labeled as distinct biotypes. Phenotypically defined, biotypes frequently remain evolutionarily indistinct, resulting in ineffective application of virulence control measures and shorter durability of resistant cultivars. Here, we utilize an evolutionary framework to discern the genetic relationship between biotypes of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines, Matsumura). The soybean aphid is invasive in North America and is among the most destructive pests of commercial soybean on the continent. Attempts to breed host-plant-resistant soybean have been hampered by the emergence of virulent aphid biotypes that are unaffected by the plant's resistance mechanism(s). Comparative population genetic analysis of virulent and avirulent (i.e., unable to feed on resistant cultivars) biotypes found populations to be genetically indistinguishable across biotype and geographic distance, with high rates of interpopulation immigration and admixture. The lack of genetic distinction between biotypes coupled with elevated genotypic diversity within all populations suggested virulence has a nongenetic-based or includes a gene complex that is widely distributed throughout soybean aphid populations, which undergo regular dispersal and unimpeded sexual recombination. PMID:24187586

  1. Vermiculite's strong buffer capacity renders it unsuitable for studies of acidity on soybean (Glycine max L.) nodulation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-11-14

    Vermiculite is the most common soil-free growing substrate used for plants in horticultural and scientific studies due to its high water holding capacity. However, some studies are not suitable to be conducted in it. The described experiments aimed to test the suitability of vermiculite to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.). Two different nutrient solutions (Broughton & Dilworth, and modified Herridge nutrient solutions) with or without MES buffer addition were used to irrigate soybean grown on vermiculite growth substrates. The pH of nutrient solutions was adjusted to either pH 4.0 or 7.0 prior its use. The nodulation and vegetative growth of soybean plants were assessed at 3 and 4 weeks after inoculation. The unsuitability of presumably inert vermiculite as a physical plant growth substrate for studying the effects of acidity on soybean nodulation and plant growth was illustrated. Nodulation and growth of soybean grown in vermiculite were not affected by irrigation with pH-adjusted nutrient solution either at pH 4.0 or 7.0. This was reasonably caused by the ability of vermiculite to neutralise (buffer) the pH of the supplied nutrient solution (pH 2.0-7.0). Due to its buffering capacity, vermiculite cannot be used as growth support to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and plant growth.

  2. Physiological responses of three soybean species (Glycine soja, G. gracilis, and G. max cv. Melrose) to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Song, Jinhui; Dong, Lijun; Wang, Di; Zhang, Shuling; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the mechanism for salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) can help researchers improve that trait in cultivated soybean lines. We analyzed the effects of excess NaCl on the growth, physiology, and ion distribution in three soybean species: wild G. soja (W8), semi-wild G. gracilis (SW18), and the cultivated salt-sensitive G. max (cv. Melrose). These comparisons revealed that, under salt stress, shoot and root lengths and biomass (either shoot or root dry weights) were significantly higher for the W8 genotype than for the other two. Most of the morphological parameters for roots from the W8 plants were also increased, including total length, specific root length, and surface area. However, the average root diameter for W8 was significantly lower than that of either SW18 or 'Melrose' soybeans. In response to salinity, photosynthesis was suppressed to a greater extent in 'Melrose' than in W8. The relatively higher tolerance shown by W8 plants was also associated with lower levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and relative electrical conductivity, but higher activities by superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, as well as more free proline and glycine betaine. In addition, the W8 plants contained less Na + and Cl - , but more K + , and they had a higher K + /Na + ratio in their leaves and roots when compared with either SW18 or 'Melrose' plants. Therefore, the W8 genotype performs better in terms of seedling growth, photosynthetic characteristics, and physiological indexes. These findings provide guidance for developing new soybean cultivars with improved tolerance to salt stress. Our data also contribute to the knowledge base for plant salt tolerance as a tool for increasing the yields of other crops in high-salinity soils.

  3. Environmental versus geographical effects on genomic variation in wild soybean (Glycine soja) across its native range in northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Larry J; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Song, Qijian; Mujacic, Ibro; Luo, Yan; Chen, Charles Y; Li, Changbao; Kjemtrup, Susanne; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how various evolutionary factors interact to affect the population structure of diverse species, especially those of ecological and/or agricultural importance such as wild soybean (Glycine soja). G. soja, from which domesticated soybeans (Glycine max) were derived, is widely distributed throughout diverse habitats in East Asia (Russia, Japan, Korea, and China). Here, we utilize over 39,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 99 ecotypes of wild soybean sampled across their native geographic range in northeast Asia, to understand population structure and the relative contribution of environment versus geography to population differentiation in this species. A STRUCTURE analysis identified four genetic groups that largely corresponded to the geographic regions of central China, northern China, Korea, and Japan, with high levels of admixture between genetic groups. A canonical correlation and redundancy analysis showed that environmental factors contributed 23.6% to population differentiation, much more than that for geographic factors (6.6%). Precipitation variables largely explained divergence of the groups along longitudinal axes, whereas temperature variables contributed more to latitudinal divergence. This study provides a foundation for further understanding of the genetic basis of climatic adaptation in this ecologically and agriculturally important species.

  4. Soybean Yield and Heterodera glycines Responses to Liquid Swine Manure in Nematode Suppressive Soil and Conducive Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yong; Chen, Senyu; Vetsch, Jeffery; Randall, Gyles

    2013-03-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major factor limiting soybean yield. Experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 to determine the effects of liquid swine manure and chemical fertilizer PK on soybean and corn yields, and on SCN population in an SCN-suppressive field (S-Site) and an SCN-conducive field (C-Site) in Minnesota. The experiment was a split-plot design with crop sequences as main plots and fertilizer treatments as subplots. The 2-yr crop sequences were Sus-Sus, Res-Sus, and Corn-Sus, where Sus was SCN-susceptible soybean, and Res was SCN-resistant soybean. The fertilizer treatments were manure, PK, and a nonfertilizer as control. Manure did not reduce SCN egg population density but resulted in 31% lower SCN second-stage juvenile (J2) population density at the S-Site at 45 d after planting (DAP) in 2009. Manure also reduced spiral nematode (Helicotylenchus spp.) population density by 52% compared with PK and nonfertilizer treatments at S-Site at 45 DAP in 2009. The crop sequence of Corn-Sus and Res-Sus reduced the SCN egg and J2 but increased spiral nematode population density at both sites. An increase of 1.4 Mg/ha and 0.5 Mg/ha in yield of susceptible soybean was observed in manure and PK treatments, respectively, at the C-Site in 2009. Corn yield was 2.8 Mg/ha and 5.0 Mg/ha greater when treated with manure than nonfertilizer at the S-Site and C-Site, respectively. This study suggests that soil fertility management may be a useful strategy to alleviate the SCN damage to soybean.

  5. The Effects of Phosphate Solubilizing Rhizobacteria on Soybean (Glycine max. L. Plants Grown under Insoluble Phosphate Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rotaru

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the comparative efficacy of two phosphorus solubilizing rhizobacteria namely Burkholderia cepacia B36 and Enterobacter radicincitans D5/23T combined with insoluble phosphates in soybean (Glycine max. L.. Inoculated plants were grown in sand culture under controlled greenhouse conditions. All the inoculated treatments showed better plant growth and nutrient uptake when compared to uninoculated control. The inoculation with B. cepacia performed better than with E. radicincitans. Phosphorus concentrations in shoots and roots did not change significantly at the early stage of plant growth. However, the bacterial inoculation had better stimulatory effect on phosphorus uptake by soybean fertilized with insoluble phosphates, in particular in treatment with combined application of both bacteria strains.

  6. Integration of the draft sequence and physical map as a framework for genomic research in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is a model for the legume research community due to its importance as a crop, a well populated genetic map, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole genome shotgun sequence and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution chromosome-b...

  7. Soybean (Glycine max) SWEET gene family: insights through comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling and whole genome re-sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Prince, Silvas; Nicander, Bjorn; Zhao, Mingzhe; Sonah, Humira; Song, Li; Lin, Li; Chaudhary, Juhi; Liu, Yang; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-07-11

    SWEET (MtN3_saliva) domain proteins, a recently identified group of efflux transporters, play an indispensable role in sugar efflux, phloem loading, plant-pathogen interaction and reproductive tissue development. The SWEET gene family is predominantly studied in Arabidopsis and members of the family are being investigated in rice. To date, no transcriptome or genomics analysis of soybean SWEET genes has been reported. In the present investigation, we explored the evolutionary aspect of the SWEET gene family in diverse plant species including primitive single cell algae to angiosperms with a major emphasis on Glycine max. Evolutionary features showed expansion and duplication of the SWEET gene family in land plants. Homology searches with BLAST tools and Hidden Markov Model-directed sequence alignments identified 52 SWEET genes that were mapped to 15 chromosomes in the soybean genome as tandem duplication events. Soybean SWEET (GmSWEET) genes showed a wide range of expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages. Analysis of public transcriptome data and expression profiling using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that a majority of the GmSWEET genes were confined to reproductive tissue development. Several natural genetic variants (non-synonymous SNPs, premature stop codons and haplotype) were identified in the GmSWEET genes using whole genome re-sequencing data analysis of 106 soybean genotypes. A significant association was observed between SNP-haplogroup and seed sucrose content in three gene clusters on chromosome 6. Present investigation utilized comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling and whole genome re-sequencing approaches and provided a systematic description of soybean SWEET genes and identified putative candidates with probable roles in the reproductive tissue development. Gene expression profiling at different developmental stages and genomic variation data will aid as an important resource for the soybean research

  8. Effects of inoculation with organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria on soybean (Glycine max) growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Yang; Duan, Man-Li

    2017-05-01

    Three different organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) strains were inoculated to soil planted with soybean (Glycine max), and their effects on soybean growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity were investigated. Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens Z4-1 and Brevibacillus agri L7-1 increased organic phosphorus degradation by 22% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control at the mature stage. Strains P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 significantly improved the soil alkaline phosphatase activity, average well color development, and the soybean root activity. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could persist in the soil at relative abundances of 2.0%-6.4% throughout soybean growth. Thus, P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could potentially be used in organic-phosphorus-mineralizing biofertilizers. OPMB inoculation altered the genetic structure of the soil bacterial communities but had no apparent influence on the carbon source utilization profiles of the soil bacterial communities. Principal components analysis showed that the changes in the carbon source utilization profiles of bacterial community depended mainly on the plant growth stages rather than inoculation with OPMB. The results help to understand the evolution of the soil bacterial community after OPMB inoculation.

  9. Soybean (Glycine max L.) Response to Fungicides in the Absence of Disease Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    W. James Grichar

    2013-01-01

    Field studies were conducted during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons along the Texas Upper Gulf Coast region to study the effects of fungicides on soybean disease development and to evaluate the response of four soybean cultivars to prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin and pyraclostrobin. In neither year did any soybean diseases develop enough to be an issue. Only NKS 51-T8 responded to a fungicide treatment in 2010 while HBK 5025 responded in 2011. Prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin incre...

  10. Atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica e Heterodera glycines em raízes excisadas de soja Attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica and Heterodera glycines in excised soybean roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Diniz Campos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Com vista ao estudo de atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood e Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe em soja (Glycine max L., desenvolveu-se uma técnica empregando-se segmento de raiz com 2cm de comprimento. Nos segmentos de raiz de soja infectados, observou-se que a penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de M. javanica ocorre pela coifa seguida de migração entre os feixes vasculares do cilindro central. Juvenis de H. glycines penetraram, aproximadamente, 15mm da coifa. A região seccionada da raiz de soja atraiu três vezes mais J2 de M. javanica do que a região da coifa, mas esta não foi tão atrativa para J2 de H. glycines. A obstrução conjunta da coifa e do local seccionado reduziu (83% a penetração de J2, tanto de M. javanica quanto de H. glycines. Quando apenas um desses locais foi obstruído, a outra extremidade livre compensou o processo atrativo. Portanto, as substâncias atrativas são liberadas por essas extremidades. A penetração de J2 de M. javanica foi maior no segmento de raiz quando comparada com a plântula intacta de soja. Entretanto, os J2 de H. glycines penetraram menos em segmentos de raiz e em plântulas sem folhas, quando comparados com plântulas intactas e com as seccionadas no colo. Portanto, na cultivar de soja "Embrapa 20", a atração e os locais de penetração de J2 de H. glycines e M. javanica são diferenciados. Esta técnica poderá ser útil nos estudos de atração e penetração de outros nematoides endoparasitas.To study the attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood and Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe in soybean (Glycine max L., a technique using 2-cm long root segments was developed. In infected soybean root segments penetration of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. javanica occured through the root cap following migration between the vascular bundles of the central cylinder. Juveniles of H. glycines penetrated about 15mm from the root cap. The cut

  11. Floral biology and behavior of Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera in soybean (Glycine max L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainer César Chiari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the pollination by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera, the floral biology and to observe the hoarding behavior in the soybean flowers (Glycine max Merril, var. BRS-133. The treatments were constituted of demarcated areas for free visitation of insects, covered areas by cages with a honeybee colony (A. mellifera and also covered areas by cage without insects visitation. All areas had 24 m² (4m x 6m. The soybean flowers stayed open for a larger time (82.82 ± 3.48 hours in covered area without honeybees. The stigma of the flowers was also more receptive (P=0.0021 in covered area without honeybees (87.3 ± 33.0% and at 10:42 o'clock was the schedule of greater receptivity. The pollen stayed viable in all treatments, the average was 99.60 ± 0.02%, which did not present differences among treatments. The percentage of abortion of the flowers was 82.91% in covered area without honeybees, this result was superior (P=0.0002 to the 52.66% and 53.95% of the treatments uncovered and covered with honeybees, respectively. Honeybees were responsible for 87.7% of the pollination accomplished by the insects. The medium amounts of total sugar and glucose measured in the nectar of the flowers were, 14.33 ± 0.96 mg/flower and 3.61 ± 0.36 mg/ flower, respectively, not showing differences (PEste experimento teve como objetivos avaliar a polinização realizada por abelhas Apis mellifera, estudar a biologia floral e observar o comportamento de coleta nas flores de soja (Glycine max L. Merril, variedade BRS-133 plantadas na região de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram de áreas demarcadas de livre visitação por insetos, áreas cobertas por gaiolas, com uma colônia de abelhas (A. mellifera no seu interior e plantas também cobertas por gaiola que impedia a visitação por insetos. Todas as áreas possuíam 24 m² (4 m x 6 m. As flores de soja permaneceram abertas por um tempo maior (82,82 ± 3,48 horas no

  12. Identification of wild soybean (Glycine soja) TIFY family genes and their expression profiling analysis under bicarbonate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Luo, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-02-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja L. G07256) exhibits a greater adaptability to soil bicarbonate stress than cultivated soybean, and recent discoveries show that TIFY family genes are involved in the response to several abiotic stresses. A genomic and transcriptomic analysis of all TIFY genes in G. soja, compared with G. max, will provide insight into the function of this gene family in plant bicarbonate stress response. This article identified and characterized 34 TIFY genes in G. soja. Sequence analyses indicated that most GsTIFY proteins had two conserved domains: TIFY and Jas. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that these GsTIFY genes could be classified into two groups. A clustering analysis of all GsTIFY transcript expression profiles from bicarbonate stress treated G. soja showed that there were five different transcript patterns in leaves and six different transcript patterns in roots when the GsTIFY family responds to bicarbonate stress. Moreover, the expression level changes of all TIFY genes in cultivated soybean, treated with bicarbonate stress, were also verified. The expression comparison analysis of TIFYs between wild and cultivated soybeans confirmed that, different from the cultivated soybean, GsTIFY (10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f, 11a, and 11b) were dramatically up-regulated at the early stage of stress, while GsTIFY 1c and 2b were significantly up-regulated at the later period of stress. The frequently stress responsive and diverse expression profiles of the GsTIFY gene family suggests that this family may play important roles in plant environmental stress responses and adaptation.

  13. Evaluation of replacement intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. under weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bagheri Shirvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. JK with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. with weed interference, an experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications at a field located 10 km of Shirvan during year of 2011. The treatments were included 75% soybean: 25%sweet basil, 50%soybean: 50% sweet basil, 25% soybean: 75% sweet basil, 75% soybean: 25% borage, 50% soybean: 50% borage and 25% soybean: 75% borage under weed infestation, in addition sole cropping of plants under weed control and weed interference. Intercropped plants had more success in reduction of weed density and biomass compared to monoculture. Soybean50: sweet basil50, reduced the weed density by 47.95% and 52.9%, and reduced the weed biomass by 68.91% and 61.87% more than sweet basil and soybean pure stand, respectively. Investigation of dry matter accumulation showed that increasing of plant proportion in intercropping caused increasing of plant dry matter. The height of soybean and borage was increased in intercropping and weed interference, while the highest height of sweet basil was observed in monoculture at second harvest. Biological and economical yield of soybean in intercropping with sweet basil was higher than intercropping with borage. The highest harvest index was related to 50:50 soybean: sweet basil ratio. In this ratio, the harvest index increased 4.9% compared to soybean monoculture. Yield of sweet basil and borage decreased with increasing of soybean rows in intercropping. Based on area-time equivalent ratio, soybean 75% with sweet basil and borage 25% (based on borage seed yield had 3% and 4% advantage compared to monoculture.

  14. Effects of long-term storage on the quality of soybean, Glycine max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of some storage containers on the deterioration of soybean seeds. Results indicate that polythene bag and metal tin were better storage containers than the bamboo bin and clay pot. Soybean stored in polythene bag and metal tin maintained 58.7 – 86.0% germination means ...

  15. Early Identification of Herbicide Stress in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Pei; Weber, Jonas Felix; Gerhards, Roland

    2017-12-22

    Herbicides may damage soybean in conventional production systems. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology has been applied to identify herbicide stress in weed species a few days after application. In this study, greenhouse experiments followed by field experiments at five sites were conducted to investigate if the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging is capable of identifying herbicide stress in soybean shortly after application. Measurements were carried out from emergence until the three-to-four-leaf stage of the soybean plants. Results showed that maximal photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield and shoot dry biomass was significantly reduced in soybean by herbicides compared to the untreated control plants. The stress of PS II inhibiting herbicides occurred on the cotyledons of soybean and plants recovered after one week. The stress induced by DOXP synthase-, microtubule assembly-, or cell division-inhibitors was measured from the two-leaf stage until four-leaf stage of soybean. We could demonstrate that the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology is capable for detecting herbicide stress in soybean. The system can be applied under both greenhouse and field conditions. This helps farmers to select weed control strategies with less phytotoxicity in soybean and avoid yield losses due to herbicide stress.

  16. Development of a highly efficient, repetitive system of organogenesis in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Zhihui; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Tzitzikas, E.; Ma, Zhengqiang; Visser, R.G.F.

    2005-01-01

    A highly efficient, repetitive system of organogenesis was developed in soybean. Seeds of soybean cv. White hilum pretreated with TDZ formed multiple bud tissue(s) (MBT) at the cotyledonary nodes. MBT initiation occurred only if the axillary buds were not removed from the cotyledonary node. The best

  17. Meta-Analyses of QTLs Associated with Protein and Oil Contents and Compositions in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Kyujung; McHale, Leah K

    2017-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Numerous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed composition traits, but validation of these QTLs has rarely been carried out. In this study, we have collected information, including genetic location and additive effects, on each QTL for seed contents of protein and oil, as well as amino acid and fatty acid compositions from over 80 studies. Using BioMercator V. 4.2, a meta-QTL analysis was performed with genetic information comprised of 175 QTLs for protein, 205 QTLs for oil, 156 QTLs for amino acids, and 113 QTLs for fatty acids. A total of 55 meta-QTL for seed composition were detected on 6 out of 20 chromosomes. Meta-QTL possessed narrower confidence intervals than the original QTL and candidate genes were identified within each meta-QTL. These candidate genes elucidate potential natural genetic variation in genes contributing to protein and oil biosynthesis and accumulation, providing meaningful information to further soybean breeding programs.

  18. Cytotoxic and molecular impacts of allelopathic effects of leaf residues of Eucalyptus globulus on soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Abdelmigid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus trees litter plays a crucial role in structuring plant populations and regulating crop quality. To help characterize the allelopathic impact of Eucalyptus plantations and understand the interactions between tree litter and understorey plant populations, we performed two different genomic approaches to determine soybean (Glycine max crop plant response to biotic stress induced by leaf residues of Eucalyptus globulus trees. For assessing cell death, a qualitative method of DNA fragmentation test (comet assay was employed to detect cleavage of the genomic DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments and help to characterize the apoptotic event among the experimental samples. In addition, quantitative method of genome analysis at the transcriptional level also was conducted to investigate the expression responses of soybean genome to allelochemicals. Expression of specific genes, which are responsible for the breakdown of proteins during programmed cell death PCD (cysteine proteases and their inhibitors, was examined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqPCR. Results of both conducted analyses proved significant genetic effects of Eucalyptus leaf residues on soybean crop genome, revealed by steady increase in DNA damage as well as variation in the transcript levels of cysteine proteases and inhibitors. Further detailed studies using more sensitive methods are necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus plantations on crops.

  19. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Echazarreta-González, C; Roubik, D W; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B

    2014-02-07

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011-2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas.

  20. Confidence interval estimation for an empirical model quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, we address uncertainty analysis for a model, presented in a companion paper, quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance. To achieve this we present several methods for confidence interval estimation. Estimation ...

  1. Fumonisins and fungi in dry soybeans (Glycine Max L.) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Laura P; Savi, Geovana D; Santos, Karolina; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-06-01

    This survey reports the occurrence of fumonisins (FBs) and fungi in dry soybeans sold for human consumption. The variation levels were 138-1495 µg kg(-1) and 178-552 µg kg(-1) for FB1 and FB2, respectively. In addition, potentially toxigenic fungi as Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium genera were isolated in the samples. These can be considered as indicator-toxin and can produce considerable amounts of mycotoxins. Despite FB presence in the soybeans for human consumption, there is no legal regulation. Therefore, it is important to emphasise the need for frequent monitoring of these contaminants in soybeans.

  2. Physiological and transcriptomic responses in the seed coat of field-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Yendrek, Craig R; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-12

    Understanding how intensification of abiotic stress due to global climate change affects crop yields is important for continued agricultural productivity. Coupling genomic technologies with physiological crop responses in a dynamic field environment is an effective approach to dissect the mechanisms underpinning crop responses to abiotic stress. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Pioneer 93B15) was grown in natural production environments with projected changes to environmental conditions predicted for the end of the century, including decreased precipitation, increased tropospheric ozone concentrations ([O3]), or increased temperature. All three environmental stresses significantly decreased leaf-level photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, leading to significant losses in seed yield. This was driven by a significant decrease in the number of pods per node for all abiotic stress treatments. To understand the underlying transcriptomic response involved in the yield response to environmental stress, RNA-Sequencing analysis was performed on the soybean seed coat, a tissue that plays an essential role in regulating carbon and nitrogen transport to developing seeds. Gene expression analysis revealed 49, 148 and 1,576 differentially expressed genes in the soybean seed coat in response to drought, elevated [O3] and elevated temperature, respectively. Elevated [O3] and drought did not elicit substantive transcriptional changes in the soybean seed coat. However, this may be due to the timing of sampling and does not preclude impacts of those stresses on different tissues or different stages in seed coat development. Expression of genes involved in DNA replication and metabolic processes were enriched in the seed coat under high temperate stress, suggesting that the timing of events that are important for cell division and proper seed development were altered in a stressful growth environment.

  3. Effect of mycorrhizae, Thiobacillus and sulfur nutrition on the chemical composition of soybean [Glycine max (L.)] Merr. seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavian, S R; Pirdashti, H; Ramzanpour, M R; Andarkhor, A A; Shahsavari, A

    2008-03-15

    A field experiment carried out in a calcareous soil with a low available phosphorus to evaluate effectiveness of biofertilizers, mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) and Thiobacillus sp. inoculation individually or in combination on seed yield, oil, protein and some elements (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) concentration in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. The applied treatments were different fertilizers with 6 levels (including: NP (control, 12 kg N ha(-1) as urea, 46 kg P2O5 ha(-1) as triple super phosphate); NPK (NP + 75 kg K2O ha(-1) as potassium sulphate); NPKS [NPK+ S (100 kg S ha(-1))]; NPKST (NPKS + seed inoculation with Thiobacillus bacteria); NPKM (NPK + Seed inoculation with mycorrhizae fungi) and NPKSTM (NPKS + seed inoculation with Thiobacillus and mycorrhizae) and two cultivars (JK and 032). Before planting, soybean seeds were inoculated by Bradyrhizobium japonicum in all treatments. Results showed that combined inoculation of biofertilizers increased yield, however the highest yield was observed in treatment NPKST. Increasing oil content (percentage) was more pronounced in treatments NPKM, while most protein content (percentage) increasing was observed in NPKS and NPKM. Fe and Zn concentrations were unaffected significantly by fertilizer treatments, but NPKSTM showed significantly higher value of seed's Mn concentration compared to treatments NP and NPK. Although no significant difference was observed in terms ofP concentration of 032 line among fertilizer treatments, JK cultivar and NPKSTM caused a significant increasing in P concentration compared to NP, NPKS and NPKM. Present results suggested that applying biofertilizers i.e., mycorrhizae and Thiobacillus increased soybean yield compared to control (NP). Overall, this study demonstrated that soybean seed yield and its chemical composition could be affected by biofertilizer inoculation.

  4. Systemic uptake of /sup 14/C - metalaxyl in soybean (Glycine max (L. ) Merril)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musumeci, M.R.; Ruegg, E.F. (Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radioisotopos); Campacci, C.A. (Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Secao de Fungicidas)

    1982-06-01

    The uptake and translocation of metalaxyl in soybean was studied using /sup 14/C-labelled metalaxyl. The fungicide is absorbed by roots of soybean seedlings and moves into all aboveground tissues. The accumulation of metalaxyl in tissue was enhanced by increasing the exposure time. /sup 14/C-metalaxyl accounted for 41 to 78% of the radiocarbon in the plant; two degradation products were detected by thin-layer chromatography.

  5. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  6. Environmental Association Analyses Identify Candidates for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Glycine soja, the Wild Progenitor of Cultivated Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Justin E; Kono, Thomas J Y; Stupar, Robert M; Kantar, Michael B; Morrell, Peter L

    2016-04-07

    Natural populations across a species range demonstrate population structure owing to neutral processes such as localized origins of mutations and migration limitations. Selection also acts on a subset of loci, contributing to local adaptation. An understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation to local environmental conditions is a fundamental goal in basic biological research. When applied to crop wild relatives, this same research provides the opportunity to identify adaptive genetic variation that may be used to breed for crops better adapted to novel or changing environments. The present study explores an ex situ conservation collection, the USDA germplasm collection, genotyped at 32,416 SNPs to identify population structure and test for associations with bioclimatic and biophysical variables in Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of Glycine max (soybean). Candidate loci were detected that putatively contribute to adaptation to abiotic stresses. The identification of potentially adaptive variants in this ex situ collection may permit a more targeted use of germplasm collections. Copyright © 2016 Anderson et al.

  7. Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of oleosomes from soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapchie, Virginie N; Wei, Daijing; Hauck, Catherine; Murphy, Patricia A

    2008-03-12

    Oleosomes, with their unique structural proteins, the oleosins, are known to be useful in cosmetics and other emulsion applications. A procedure to fractionate intact oleosomes to produce soybean oil without the use of organic solvents was investigated. Process parameters, enzyme treatment, filtration, cell lysis, and centrifugation, were studied. Successive extractions of the residue, eliminating the filtration step, pressurization, or ultrasonication of soybean flour prior to enzyme treatment and enzyme treatment on the residue, were the key steps. A mixture of Multifect Pectinase FE, Cellulase A, and Multifect CX 13L in equal proportion gave 36.42-63.23% of the total soybean oil from oleosomes, respectively, for 45 and 180 s of blending time, compared to the conventional method with lower yields (34.24 and 28.65%, respectively, for 45 and 180 s of blending time). Three successive extractions of the residue increased the oil yield to a maximum of 84.65% of the total soybean oil recovered in intact oleosomes. The percentage of lipid in the supernatant fraction decreased to a minimum value of 0.33% with the use of the enzymes at a 3% dosage. The results are considered to be useful for developing large-scale and efficient extraction of oleosomes from soybean.

  8. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties of Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Malenčić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The contents and antioxidant ability of various classes of phenolic compounds present in the seeds of twenty soybean hybrids were evaluated. Total phenolics, tannins and proanthocyanidins were determined spectrophotometrically, after extraction of seeds with 70% aqueous acetone. In addition, the flavonoid contents were determined. The antioxidant activity of aqueous acetone extracts was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. The highest contents of total phenolics were found in Serbian cultivar 1511 and Chinese cultivar LN92-7369, which also displayed the highest total antioxidant activity. Conversely, genotypes poor in phenolics also showed low levels of DPPH-radical scavenging activity. The results suggested that besides protein and oil contents, the phenolic contents should be also considered as an important characteristic feature of soybean seeds, and as a potential selection criterion for antioxidant activity in soybean.

  9. Phenolic content and antioxidant properties of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malencić, Djordje; Popović, Milan; Miladinović, Jegor

    2007-03-21

    The contents and antioxidant ability of various classes of phenolic compounds present in the seeds of twenty soybean hybrids were evaluated. Total phenolics, tannins and proanthocyanidins were determined spectrophotometrically, after extraction of seeds with 70% aqueous acetone. In addition, the flavonoid contents were determined. The antioxidant activity of aqueous acetone extracts was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay. The highest contents of total phenolics were found in Serbian cultivar 1511 and Chinese cultivar LN92-7369, which also displayed the highest total antioxidant activity. Conversely, genotypes poor in phenolics also showed low levels of DPPH-radical scavenging activity. The results suggested that besides protein and oil contents, the phenolic contents should be also considered as an important characteristic feature of soybean seeds, and as a potential selection criterion for antioxidant activity in soybean.

  10. Nutrients Limiting Soybean (glycine max l Growth in Acrisols and Ferralsols of Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludy Keino

    Full Text Available Low soybean yields in western Kenya have been attributed to low soil fertility despite much work done on nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P nutrition leading to suspicion of other nutrient limitations. To investigate this, a nutrient omission trial was set up in the greenhouse at the University of Eldoret-Kenya to diagnose the nutrients limiting soybean production in Acrisols from Masaba central and Butere sub-Counties, and Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu and Khwisero sub-locations and Butula sub-Counties and to assess the effect of liming on soil pH and soybean growth. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with ten treatments viz; positive control (complete, negative control (distilled water, complete with lime, complete with N, minus macronutrients P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and sulphur (S and with, micro-nutrients boron (B, molybdenum (Mo, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn omitted. Visual deficiency symptoms observed included interveinal leaf yellowing in Mg omission and N addition and dark green leaves in P omission. Nutrients omission resulted in their significantly low concentration in plant tissues than the complete treatment. Significantly (P≤ 0.05 lower shoot dry weights (SDWs than the complete treatment were obtained in different treatments; omission of K and Mg in Masaba and Shikhulu, Mg in Khwisero, K in Butere and, P, Mg and K in Butula. Nitrogen significantly improved SDWs in soils from Kakamega and Butula. Liming significantly raised soil pH by 9, 13 and 11% from 4.65, 4.91 and 4.99 in soils from Masaba, Butere and Butula respectively and soybean SDWs in soils from Butere. The results show that, poor soybean growth was due to K, Mg and P limitation and low pH in some soils. The results also signify necessity of application of small quantities of N for initial soybean use.

  11. Nutrients Limiting Soybean (glycine max l) Growth in Acrisols and Ferralsols of Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keino, Ludy; Baijukya, Frederick; Ng'etich, Wilson; Otinga, Abigael N; Okalebo, John R; Njoroge, Ruth; Mukalama, John

    2015-01-01

    Low soybean yields in western Kenya have been attributed to low soil fertility despite much work done on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) nutrition leading to suspicion of other nutrient limitations. To investigate this, a nutrient omission trial was set up in the greenhouse at the University of Eldoret-Kenya to diagnose the nutrients limiting soybean production in Acrisols from Masaba central and Butere sub-Counties, and Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu and Khwisero sub-locations) and Butula sub-Counties and to assess the effect of liming on soil pH and soybean growth. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with ten treatments viz; positive control (complete), negative control (distilled water), complete with lime, complete with N, minus macronutrients P, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S) and with, micro-nutrients boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) omitted. Visual deficiency symptoms observed included interveinal leaf yellowing in Mg omission and N addition and dark green leaves in P omission. Nutrients omission resulted in their significantly low concentration in plant tissues than the complete treatment. Significantly (P≤ 0.05) lower shoot dry weights (SDWs) than the complete treatment were obtained in different treatments; omission of K and Mg in Masaba and Shikhulu, Mg in Khwisero, K in Butere and, P, Mg and K in Butula. Nitrogen significantly improved SDWs in soils from Kakamega and Butula. Liming significantly raised soil pH by 9, 13 and 11% from 4.65, 4.91 and 4.99 in soils from Masaba, Butere and Butula respectively and soybean SDWs in soils from Butere. The results show that, poor soybean growth was due to K, Mg and P limitation and low pH in some soils. The results also signify necessity of application of small quantities of N for initial soybean use.

  12. Historical gains in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) seed yield are driven by linear increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Robert P; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Cary, Troy R; Diers, Brian W; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown leguminous crop and an important source of protein and oil for food and feed. Soybean yields have increased substantially throughout the past century, with yield gains widely attributed to genetic advances and improved cultivars as well as advances in farming technology and practice. Yet, the physiological mechanisms underlying the historical improvements in soybean yield have not been studied rigorously. In this 2-year experiment, 24 soybean cultivars released between 1923 and 2007 were grown in field trials. Physiological improvements in the efficiencies by which soybean canopies intercepted light (εi), converted light energy into biomass (εc), and partitioned biomass into seed (εp) were examined. Seed yield increased by 26.5kg ha(-1) year(-1), and the increase in seed yield was driven by improvements in all three efficiencies. Although the time to canopy closure did not change in historical soybean cultivars, extended growing seasons and decreased lodging in more modern lines drove improvements in εi. Greater biomass production per unit of absorbed light resulted in improvements in εc. Over 84 years of breeding, soybean seed biomass increased at a rate greater than total aboveground biomass, resulting in an increase in εp. A better understanding of the physiological basis for yield gains will help to identify targets for soybean improvement in the future. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Changes in the physiological activity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. under the influence of exogenous growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nowak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year pot experiment (2008–2009 conducted at the Vegetation Hall, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, we investigated the influence of exogenous growth regulators, i.e. indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and their mixture, on the activity of gas exchange and selected physiological features of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.. The experimental factors included the following Polish soybean cultivars: ‘Aldana’, ‘Progres’ and ‘Jutro’. During plant growth, CO2 assimilation (A, transpiration rate (E, stomatal conductance (gs, and substomatal CO2 concentration (ci were determined. Two soybean cultivars, i.e. ‘Jutro’ and ‘Progres’, showed a significant increase in the intensity of assimilation and transpiration after using all kinds of growth regulators as compared with the control plants. It was found that the ‘Jutro’ cultivar, after using a mixture of growth regulators (IBA + BAP, was characterized by the significantly highest CO2 assimilation (A and transpiration (E as well as the highest stomatal conductance (gs. The ‘Aldana’ cultivar, on the other hand, responded by a significant reduction in the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and subsomatal CO2 concentration. The spraying of the plants with exogenous growth regulators had a significant influence on the increase in the number of stomata and stomatal pore length, mostly on the lower epidermis of the lamina. It was also found that plants from the ‘Jutro’ and ‘Aldana’ cultivars sprayed with IBA and IBA + BAP were characterized by the highest yield, as compared with the control plants. In the case of the ‘Jutro’ cultivar, after using the growth regulators, a positive correlation was observed between the assimilation and transpiration rates and the length of stomata, which in consequence produced increased yields.

  14. Whole-genome sequencing and intensive analysis of the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Sunghoon; Van, Kyujung; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Jeong, Soon-Chun; Choi, Ik-Young; Kim, Dae-Soo; Lee, Yong-Seok; Park, Daeui; Ma, Jianxin; Kim, Woo-Yeon; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Kyung-A; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Kil Hyun; Shin, Jin Hee; Jang, Young Eun; Kim, Kyung Do; Liu, Wei Xian; Chaisan, Tanapon; Kang, Yang Jae; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jackson, Scott A; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2010-12-21

    The genome of soybean (Glycine max), a commercially important crop, has recently been sequenced and is one of six crop species to have been sequenced. Here we report the genome sequence of G. soja, the undomesticated ancestor of G. max (in particular, G. soja var. IT182932). The 48.8-Gb Illumina Genome Analyzer (Illumina-GA) short DNA reads were aligned to the G. max reference genome and a consensus was determined for G. soja. This consensus sequence spanned 915.4 Mb, representing a coverage of 97.65% of the G. max published genome sequence and an average mapping depth of 43-fold. The nucleotide sequence of the G. soja genome, which contains 2.5 Mb of substituted bases and 406 kb of small insertions/deletions relative to G. max, is ∼0.31% different from that of G. max. In addition to the mapped 915.4-Mb consensus sequence, 32.4 Mb of large deletions and 8.3 Mb of novel sequence contigs in the G. soja genome were also detected. Nucleotide variants of G. soja versus G. max confirmed by Roche Genome Sequencer FLX sequencing showed a 99.99% concordance in single-nucleotide polymorphism and a 98.82% agreement in insertion/deletion calls on Illumina-GA reads. Data presented in this study suggest that the G. soja/G. max complex may be at least 0.27 million y old, appearing before the relatively recent event of domestication (6,000∼9,000 y ago). This suggests that soybean domestication is complicated and that more in-depth study of population genetics is needed. In any case, genome comparison of domesticated and undomesticated forms of soybean can facilitate its improvement.

  15. Transient Nod factor-dependent gene expression in the nodulation-competent zone of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satomi; Reid, Dugald E; Lorenc, Michał T; Stiller, Jiri; Edwards, David; Gresshoff, Peter M; Ferguson, Brett J

    2012-10-01

    All lateral organ development in plants, such as nodulation in legumes, requires the temporal and spatial regulation of genes and gene networks. A total mRNA profiling approach using RNA-seq to target the specific soybean (Glycine max) root tissues responding to compatible rhizobia [i.e. the Zone Of Nodulation (ZON)] revealed a large number of novel, often transient, mRNA changes occurring during the early stages of nodulation. Focusing on the ZON enabled us to discard the majority of root tissues and their developmentally diverse gene transcripts, thereby highlighting the lowly and transiently expressed nodulation-specific genes. It also enabled us to concentrate on a precise moment in early nodule development at each sampling time. We focused on discovering genes regulated specifically by the Bradyrhizobium-produced Nod factor signal, by inoculating roots with either a competent wild-type or incompetent mutant (nodC(-) ) strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Collectively, 2915 genes were identified as being differentially expressed, including many known soybean nodulation genes. A number of unknown nodulation gene candidates and soybean orthologues of nodulation genes previously reported in other legume species were also identified. The differential expression of several candidates was confirmed and further characterized via inoculation time-course studies and qRT-PCR. The expression of many genes, including an endo-1,4-β-glucanase, a cytochrome P450 and a TIR-LRR-NBS receptor kinase, was transient, peaking quickly during the initiation of nodule ontogeny. Additional genes were found to be down-regulated. Significantly, a set of differentially regulated genes acting in the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis pathway was discovered, suggesting a novel role of GAs in nodulation. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Variation in quality of individual seeds within a seed lot of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illipronti, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed at increasing insight into the sources of variation in quality attributes of individual seeds within a soybean seed lot, into the relations between physical attributes and performance of seeds in seed tests and in controlled seed production

  17. Wind tunnel and field assessment of pollen dispersal in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) soybean has never been cultivated commercially in Japan, it is essential to set up the isolation distance required to prevent out-crossing between GM and conventional soybean in preparation for any future possibility of pollen transfer. The airborne soybean pollen was sampled using some Durham pollen samplers located in the range of 20 m from the field edge. In addition, the dispersal distance was assessed in a wind tunnel under constant air flow and then it was compared with the anticipated distances based on the pollen diameter. In the field, the maximum pollen density per day observed was 1.235 grains cm(-2) day(-1) at three observation points within 2.5 m from the field and inside the field the mean density did not reach the rate of 1 grain cm(-2 )day(-1) during 19 flowering days. The results of the wind tunnel experiment also showed that the plants had almost no airborne release of pollen and the dispersal distance was shorter than theoretical value due to clustered dispersal. This study showed little airborne pollen in and around the soybean field and the dispersal is restricted to a small area. Therefore, wind-mediated pollination appears to be negligible.

  18. Environmental assessment of organic soybean (Glycine max.) imported from China to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Yu-Hui, Qiao; Halberg, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Growing global trade with organic products has increased the demand for environmental impact assessments during both production and transport. Environmental hotspots of organic soybeans produced in China and imported to Denmark were identified in a case study using a life cycle assessment approach...

  19. Soybean (Glycine max L. Response to Fungicides in the Absence of Disease Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Grichar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons along the Texas Upper Gulf Coast region to study the effects of fungicides on soybean disease development and to evaluate the response of four soybean cultivars to prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin and pyraclostrobin. In neither year did any soybean diseases develop enough to be an issue. Only NKS 51-T8 responded to a fungicide treatment in 2010 while HBK 5025 responded in 2011. Prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin increased NKS 51-T8 yield by 23% in 2010 while in 2011 the yield of HBK 5025 was increased 14% over the unsprayed check. No yield response was noted with pyraclostrobin on any soybean cultivar. Only prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin applied to either NKS 51-T8 or DP5335 in 2010 resulted in a net increase in dollars per hectare over the unsprayed check of the respective cultivar. In 2011, under extremely dry conditions, all fungicides with the exception of prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin applied to HBK 5025 resulted in a net decrease in returns over the unsprayed check.

  20. Effect of cadmium on soybean ( Glycine max L) growth and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , an experiment was performed in sand culture using Hoagland nutrient solution. At the time of sowing, different cadmium level that is 0, 4, 8 and 16 mg kg-1 sand was created using Cd (NO3)2. Soybean shoots and root lengths shoot and root ...

  1. Allelic differentiation of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K J; Takahata, Y; Kono, Y; Kaizuma, N

    2008-08-01

    Soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) has several polymorphic types, which are controlled by co-dominant multiple alleles at a single locus. Of these types, Tia and Tib are predominant types, and there are nine differences in amino acids between Tia and Tib. Recently, an intermediate transitional type (Tibi5) between them was detected. However, other transitional types have not been detected despite surveys of many cultivated and wild soybeans. One of the reasons why other transitional variants have not been found is inferred to be due to the difficulty of the detection of SKTI protein variants by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To detect novel variants of SKTI, nucleotide sequence analysis in addition to PAGE was carried out. Four new variants were found from many Japanese wild soybeans. Of these variants, three (designated as Tiaa1, Tiaa2, Tiab1) were detected through gene sequence analysis on wild soybeans having the same electrophoretic mobility as Tia, and one (Tig) was detected through PAGE. The Tig variant showed a slightly lower electrophoretic mobility than Tic. The nucleotide sequences of Tig were identical to those of Tib except for one T-->C transitional mutation at position +340. The sequences of Tiaa1 and Tiaa2 genes were identical to those of Tia with the exception of a G-->A mutation at position +376 and a T-->C mutation at +404, respectively. The sequence of Tiab1 differed from Tia by three nucleotides: C-->A at position +331, T-->C at +459 and A-->G at +484. Of the three nucleotide changes, two were common to Tiab1, Tibi5 and Tib, suggesting that Tiab1 is an intermediate transitional type between Tia and Tib. Our results suggest that Tib type has been differentiated through a series of mutations from Tia before the domestication of cultivated soybean.

  2. SEED VIGOR TESTING OF SOME DOMESTIC SOYBEAN CULTIVARS (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Andrić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed ageing is an important cause of low vigor and bad field emergence, especially in adverse seedbed conditions. Therefore, in this investigation, soybean seed vigor was tested by four laboratory tests (germination energy GE, standard germination SG, cold test CT, electrical conductivity EC and in field trial, as well (early planting dates Epd and optimal planting dates Opd. The soybean seed of 5 cultivars from Agricultural Institute Osijek, produced in the 3 years (1999., 2000., 2001. was used in the investigation. The seed was stored in a warehouse conditions for 6, 18 or 30 months prior to testing. Tested soybean seed showed significant differences in seed vigor influenced by seed age, seed treatment with fungicide (Vitavax 200 FF, cultivar and planting date. High quality seed with GE and SG over 85%,performed quite well in both planting dates, as well as seeds with the CT over 70% or with EC under 42 μScm-1g-1. On the contrary, considering seed with reduced vigor there is a very great possibility of reduced FE especially in Epd. However, seed treatment with fungicide and sowing in optimal seedbed conditions can significantly contribute to improvement of soybean seed performance and stand establishment. Correlation analyses showed that all tested seed vigor parameters were significantly connected (sign. level 99%. At early planting, the strongest correlation was established between the field emergence and CT (untreated seed, r=0.949** and for treated seed r=0.951** whereas in optimal planting date was between the field emergence and SG (for untreated seed r=0. 938** and for treated seed r=0.942**. Laboratory seed health testing showed significant differences in fungal disease intensity influenced by fungicide seed treatment, cultivar and seed age. Total seed infection and infection with Fusarium spp. was adversely correlated with all vigor parameters. All tested vigor parameters of soybean seed had influence on grain yield indirectly by

  3. Effects of different boiling time of soybean ( Glycine max (L) merril ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish fed diet T4 had the highest MWG (2.40g); SGR (0.63% day-1); PER (1.76) and conversely the lowest FCR (0.41). While fish fed diet T1 had the lowest MWG (0.32g) SGR (0.14% day-1); PER (0.25) and highest FCR (2.39). Therefore fish fed raw soybean had the lowest growth and least utilized the diet. Keywords: boiling ...

  4. Leaf movement, photosynthesis and resource use efficiency responses to multiple environmental stress in Glycine max (soybean)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, may cause a significant increase in temperature, with implications for general wind patterns and precipitation. Reductions in stratospheric ozone will result in increased levels of UV-B reaching earth's surface. During their lifetime plants must deal with a variety of co-occurring environmental stresses. Accordingly, studies into plant responses to multiple environmental factors is important to our understanding of limits to their growth, productivity, and distribution. Heliotropic leaf movements are a generalized plant response to environmental stresses, and the pattern of these movements can be altered by resource availability (e.g., water, and nitrogen). Previous greenhouse and field studies have demonstrated damaging effects of UV-B radiation in crop species, including soybean. Documented in this paper are Leaf movement and gas exchange responses of four soybean cultivars with different sensitivity to UV-B radiation to enhanced levels of UV-B, and modifications of these responses caused by water stress and nitrogen fertilization. UV-B radiation had no effect on the patterns of leaf orientation in soybean; however, a ranking of the cultivars based on midday leaf angles was the same as the ranking of these cultivars based on their sensitivity to UV-B radiation. Water and nitrogen altered the leaf movement patterns of soybeans. Gas exchange parameters in all four cultivars responded in a similar fashion to changes in leaf water potential. Reductions in water availability resulted in lower discrimination. Nitrogen fertilization in cv Forrest, also resulted in lower discrimination, especially under low water regimes, indicating a higher water use efficiency for fertilized plants. UV-B radiation resulted in lower discrimination in the UV-B sensitive CNS cultivar, indicating a stronger stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under increased UV-B levels.

  5. Selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI PURWANINGSIH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in green house. The aim of the experiment the selection and potency of the Rhizobium strain to increase the growth of soybean. The experiment was carried out in green house condition in Microbiology Division, Research Center for Biology-LIPI with sterile sand medium. The research design was Completely Randomized Design with three replications for each treatment. The Rhizobium strains used were 1 W (isolated from bean, Vigna radiata, 2 W (isolated from soybean, 3 W (isolated from bean, 4 W (isolated from soybean, 5 W (isolated from soybean, 6 W (isolated from peanut, Arachis hypogaea, 7 W (isolated from peanut, 8 W (isolated from peanut, the controls were uninoculated with Rhizobium strain and without urea fertilizer (K1, uninoculated and with urea fertilizer equal 100 kg/ha (K2. The plants were harvested after 50 days, the variable of investigation were the dry weight of canopy, roots, nodules root, total plants, number of nodules and ‘symbiotic capacity”. The results showed that all of experiment plant which be inoculated with Rhizobium able to form nodule. Strain of 2 W (isolated from soybean has given the best effects on the growth of soybean.

  6. Selecting soybean resistant to the cyst nematode Heterodera glycines using simple sequence repeat (microssatellite) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, S M C G; Hamawaki, O T; Oliveira, A P; Hamawaki, C D L; Hamawaki, R L; Takahashi, L M

    2016-03-11

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a major cause of soybean yield reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of marker-assisted selection to identify genotypes resistant to SCN race 3 infection, using Sat_168 and Sat-141 resistance quantitative trait loci. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, using soybean populations originated from crosses between susceptible and resistant parent stock: CD-201 (susceptible) and Foster IAC (resistant), Conquista (susceptible) and S83-30 (resistant), La-Suprema (susceptible) and S57-11 (resistant), and Parecis (susceptible) and S65-50 (resistant). Plants were inoculated with SCN and evaluated according to the female index (FI), those with FI < 10% were classified as resistant to nematode infection. Plants were genotyped for SCN resistance using microsatellite markers Sat-141 and Sat_168. Marker selection efficiency was analyzed by a contingency table, taking into account genotypic versus phenotypic evaluations for each line. These markers were shown to be useful tool for selection of SCN race 3.

  7. Biochemical Responses of Two Soybean (Glycine max Varieties to Aluminum Stress in Nutrient Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Davarpanah Moghadam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum toxicity is the most widespread form of metal toxicity to plants in soil acids, initially causing inhibition of root elongation and blocks absorption of water and nutrients. According to this fact that soybean has been widely used in industry, this study investigated the effects of aluminum toxicity on biochemical factors in two varieties of Williams and Katoul of soybean plant. The study was carried out in a randomized design with aluminium (0, 200, 500, 700 µM treatments and four replications in hydroponic culture. Results of biochemical tests showed that aluminum reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and reduced sugars in both cultivars of soybean. The proline content decreased with increasing aluminum in var. williams, but at var. katoul increased. It seems that G. max var. katoul suffers less than var. Williams. As regards, proline accumulation under Al stress to be generally higher in G. max var. katoul; hence, these results suggest that var. katoul is more resistant than var. Williams.

  8. Ciclo de vida de Heterodera glycines raça 9 em soja no Estado do Maranhão Life cycle of the Heterodera glycines race 9 on soybean in Maranhão State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pereira Cunha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O nematóide de cisto da soja, Heterodera glycines, causa consideráveis reduções de produtividade à cultura da soja. Ocorrem 11 raças do NCS no Brasil e, no Maranhão, há registro somente da raça 9. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer o ciclo de vida de uma população de H. glycines raça 9, em soja, sob condições de clima tropical. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação telada, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Soja, em Balsas, Maranhão. As médias de temperaturas neste período foram de 28,7 °C no solo e 31,7 °C no ar e a média da umidade relativa do ar foi de 49,8 %. Plântulas de soja BRS Sambaíba foram transplantadas para vasos contendo solo areno-argiloso infestado com 4000 ovos de H. glycines raça 9. Foram avaliados os números de fêmeas e de cistos por sistema radicular aos 17, 20, 23, 26, 29 e 32 dias após a infestação. O número médio de fêmeas por sistema radicular de soja aumentou significativamente entre o 17º e o 29º dia após a infestação do solo, diminuindo no 32º dia, quando começaram a surgir os primeiros cistos. Nas condições testadas, H. glycines raça 9 completou o ciclo de vida em 29 dias após a infestação do solo. Desta forma, é possível a ocorrência de 3 a 4 gerações do nematóide durante o ciclo da soja em Balsas, Maranhão.The soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines causes great yield losses to soybean in Brazil. There are 11 races occurring in Brazil and, in the Maranhão State, only the race 9 was reported. The objective of this work was to establish the life cycle of a H. glycines race 9 population, on soybean, under tropical weather conditions. The experiment was carried out on a wired greenhouse at Embrapa Soybean - Balsas Experimental Station, Maranhão, Brazil. The average temperature was 28,7 ºC in the soil and 31,7 ºC in the air, and the relative humidity of the air was 49,8 %. Seedlings of soybean cultivar BRS Sambaíba were transferred to pots containing

  9. Whole-genome gene expression profiling revealed genes and pathways potentially involved in regulating interactions of soybean with cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinrong; Vuong, Tri; Jiao, Yongqing; Joshi, Trupti; Zhang, Hongxin; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-03-04

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is the most devastating pathogen of soybean. Many gene expression profiling studies have been conducted to investigate the responses of soybean to the infection by this pathogen using primarily the first-generation soybean genome array that covered approximately 37,500 soybean transcripts. However, no study has been reported yet using the second-generation Affymetrix soybean whole-genome transcript array (Soybean WT array) that represents approximately 66,000 predicted soybean transcripts. In the present work, the gene expression profiles of two soybean plant introductions (PIs) PI 437654 and PI 567516C (both resistant to multiple SCN HG Types) and cultivar Magellan (susceptible to SCN) were compared in the presence or absence of the SCN inoculum at 3 and 8 days post-inoculation using the Soybean WT array. Data analysis revealed that the two resistant soybean lines showed distinctive gene expression profiles from each other and from Magellan not only in response to the SCN inoculation, but also in the absence of SCN. Overall, 1,413 genes and many pathways were revealed to be differentially regulated. Among them, 297 genes were constitutively regulated in the two resistant lines (compared with Magellan) and 1,146 genes were responsive to the SCN inoculation in the three lines, with 30 genes regulated both constitutively and by SCN. In addition to the findings similar to those in the published work, many genes involved in ethylene, protein degradation, and phenylpropanoid pathways were also revealed differentially regulated in the present study. GC-rich elements (e.g., GCATGC) were found over-represented in the promoter regions of certain groups of genes. These have not been observed before, and could be new defense-responsive regulatory elements. Different soybean lines showed different gene expression profiles in the presence and absence of the SCN inoculum. Both inducible and constitutive gene expression

  10. Hydrothermal treatments in the development of isoflavone aglycones in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes C. Carrão-Panizzi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to enhance the development of isoflavone aglycones in soybean. Grains of two soybean cultivars, BR 36 and IAS 5, 115 and 278 mg/100g of total isoflavone, respectively, were treated hydrothermalyl at 45, 60 and 85° C for 5, 30 and 60 minutes. Pre-treatments of grains at 60° C for 60 minutes allowed a considerable increase of the isoflavone aglycones. Non-treated grains of BR 36 and IAS 5 showed 1.2 mg/100g of genistein, after hydrothermal treatments,which increased to 12 and 53 mg/100g, in each variety, respectively. At higher temperature (85 ° C there was a decrease of the aglycones due to inactivation of beta-glycosidases. Malonyl compounds were also reduced at higher temperatures. In processing functional soybean foods, hydrothermal treatments of the soybean grains, as well as high isoflavone content soybean cultivars will enhance development of aglycone forms.Estudos foram conduzidos para aumentar isoflavonas agliconas (compostos mais biodisponíveis e mais efetivos na prevenção de doenças crônicas em grãos de soja. Pré-tratamentos hidrotérmicos dos grãos foram conduzidos a 45, 60 e 85 ºC por 5, 30, e 60 minutos. Duas cultivares de soja BR 36 e IAS 5 (115, e 278 mg/100g de isoflavonas totais, respectivamente, foram usadas nos experimentos. Pré-tratamentos dos grãos a 60 ºC por 60 minutos permitiram um considerável aumento das isoflavonas agliconas. Grãos não tratados de BR 36 e IAS 5 apresentaram 1,2 mg/100g de genisteína. Depois dos tratamentos hidrotérmicos, este composto aumentou para 12 e 53 mg/100g, em cada variedade, respectivamente. Em altas temperatures (85 ºC houve diminuição das agliconas devido a inativação das enzimas beta-glicosidases. Os compostos malonil (térmicamente instáveis, também foram reduzidos sob altas temperaturas. No processamento de alimentos funcionais de soja, pré-tratamentos hidrotérmicos dos grãos, bem como a utilização de cultivares com alto teor de

  11. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Jiang, Hongwei; Hu, Zhenbang; Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean.

  12. Identification and mapping of resistance genes to Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean (Glycine max L.) accession PI 594767-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, G A F; Alves, D P; Oliveira, J C; Brommonschenke, S H

    2016-08-05

    The goal of this study was to study resistance inheritance in the soybean (Glycine max L.) accession PI 594767-A to the Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolate PPUFV02, and map the resistance gene(s) identified using microsatellite markers. Crosses between PI 594767-A and the susceptible cultivar 'Conquista' gave rise to the segregating subpopulations 26C-2 and 26C-5, which in the F2 generation were evaluated for their reactions to PPUFV02. In addition, analyses with microsatellite markers linked to the Rpp1-Rpp5 loci were also performed. The segregation pattern obtained in 26C-2 revealed that resistance was governed by a recessive gene; a 1:2:1 segregation pattern was observed in 26C-5, indicating control by a gene with partial dominance. This variability may have been caused because environmental conditions, particularly temperature, when 26C-5 was assessed were unfavorable for pathogen development, allowing the phenotypic expression of heterozygous alleles in PI 594767-A. A resistance gene was located in the soybean linkage group G, in the genomic region between Sct_187r2 and Sat_064 that contains the Rpp1 locus. Resistance in PI 594767-A is probably conferred by a new Rpp1 gene allele, because this accession has a haplotype for Sct_187r2 and Sat_064, which differs from haplotypes of accessions that also contain resistance alleles that map the Rpp1 locus. The use of Sct_187r2 and Sat_064 will facilitate the introgression of the resistance allele from PI 594767-A and its pyramiding with other resistance genes into genotypes with superior agronomic characteristics, in order to obtain cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance to P. pachyrhizi.

  13. Elicited soybean (Glycine max L.) extract improves regulatory T cell activity in high fat-fructose diet mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atho'illah, Mochammad Fitri; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder characterized by the central distribution of abdominal fat, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. A high-fat diet can lead to overnutrition and directly trigger inflammation in adipose tissue. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential negative regulators of inflammation. Soybean (Glycine max L.) has a variety of beneficial health. It contains isoflavones, particularly daidzein and genistein which can be transformed using microbial and physical stimuli to enhance bioactivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of elicited soybean extract (ESE) on Treg activity in high fat-fructose (HFFD) mice. Twenty-eight female Balb/C mice were divided into seven groups: normal diet (ND) only, ND + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, HFFD only, HFFD + Simvastatin 2.8 mg/kg, HFFD + ESE 78 mg/kg BW, HFFD + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, and HFFD + ESE 130 mg/kg BW. The high fat-fructose diet was given over a period of 20 weeks, and ESE was administered orally per day after 20 weeks for four weeks. At week 24, the animals were sacrificed and the spleen was collected. Tregs were labeled as CD4+CD25+CD62L+ and the relative Treg number was measured using flow cytometry. The HFFD treatment significantly decreased Treg number (p < 0.05) compared to a normal diet. The ESE treatment in HFFD mice could improve Treg numbers compared to HFFD mice. Our results suggest that ESE has potential to be used as a supplement to suppress chronic inflammation via increased Treg number.

  14. Transpiration response of 'slow-wilting' and commercial soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes to three aquaporin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Walid; Sinclair, Thomas R

    2010-03-01

    The slow-wilting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotype, PI 416937, exhibits a limiting leaf hydraulic conductance for transpiration rate (TR) under high vapour pressure deficit (VPD). This genotype has a constant TR at VPD greater than 2 kPa, which may be responsible for its drought tolerance as a result of soil water conservation. However, the exact source of the hydraulic limitation between symplastic and apoplastic water flow in the leaf under high VPD conditions are not known for PI 416937. A comparison was made in the TR response to aquaporin (AQP) inhibitors between PI 416937 and N01-11136, a commercial genotype that has a linear TR response to VPD in the 1-3.5 kPa range. Three AQP inhibitors were tested: cycloheximide (CHX, a de novo synthesis inhibitor), HgCl(2), and AgNO(3). Dose-response curves for the decrease in TR following exposure to each inhibitor were developed. Decreases in TR of N01-11136 following treatment with inhibitors were up to 60% for CHX, 82% for HgCl(2), and 42% for AgNO(3). These results indicate that the symplastic pathway terminating in the guard cells of these soybean leaves may be at least as important as the apoplastic pathway for water flow in the leaf under high VPD. While the decrease in TR for PI 416937 was similar to that of N01-11136 following exposure to CHX and HgCl(2), TR of PI 416937 was insensitive to AgNO(3) exposure. These results indicate the possibility of a lack of a Ag-sensitive leaf AQP population in the slow-wilting line, PI 416937, and the presence of such a population in the commercial line, N01-11136.

  15. Salt Stess On Soybean Glycine Max L Merr Improving Salt Stress Tolerance Through Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Suryaman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seeds rapidly deteriorate or loss of viability and vigor especially in stress conditions including by saline. This study was aimed to obtain the best seed viability and vigor of soybean treated by seed priming under salt stress. This study used a randomized completely block design with factorial pattern. First factor was the saline stress of NaCl concentration C which consisted of three levels c0 0 0.5 c1 c2 1.Second factor was the treatment of seed priming P that consisted of 4 levels p0 hydropriming p1 osmopriming p2 matripriming p3 vitamin priming. The experiment was repeated three times. Data collected consisted of germination capacity germination rate hypocotyl and epicotyl length the weight of seedling and the electrical conductivity. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by Duncans multiple range test at 5 percent. The results showed that osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming improved total germination and germination rate of soybean seeds under salinity stress while seed priming with hydropriming caused significantly the reduction of germination total and germination rate in salinity stress of 1 percent. Increased salinity stress from 0 to 1 percent caused a reduction in hypocotyl and epicotyl length different with osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming that produced hypocotyl and epicotyl longer than hydropriming. In all seed primings increased salinity stress from 0 to 1 percent lowered the weight of seedlings and most drastic reduction of seedling weight occurred in seeds treated with hydropriming. Among seed priming treatments osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming were more able to reduce membrane leakage compared to hydropriming as indicated by lower electrical conductivity rates contributing the increase in tolerance to salt stress and high in seed viability and vigor.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Roots Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strain CPAC 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Adalgisa R; Rodrigues, Elisete P; Batista, Jesiane Ss; Gomes, Douglas F; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-01-01

    This research intended to analyze the expression pattern of proteins in roots of the Brazilian soybean cultivar Conquista when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15, a strain broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil. At ten days after bacterial inoculation, whole-cell proteins were extracted from roots and separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Comparative analysis revealed significant changes in the intensity of 37 spots due to the inoculation (17 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated proteins), identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF. Identified proteins were associated with COG functional categories of information storage and processing, cellular processes and signaling, metabolism, and also in the "poorly characterized" and "not in COG" categories. Among the up-regulated proteins, we identified sucrose synthase (nodulin-100), β-tubulin, rubisco activase, glutathione-S-transferase, a putative heat-shock 70-kDa protein, pyridine nucleotide-disulphideoxidoreductase and a putative transposase. Proteomic analysis allowed for the identification of some putative symbiotic functions and confirmed the main biological processes triggered in the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with soybean.

  17. Effects of proton beam irradiation on seed germination and growth of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Juhyun; Kim, Woon Ji; Kim, Sang Hun; Ha, Bo-Keun

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the morphological effects of proton beam irradiation on the seed germination, seedling survival, and plant growth of soybean. Seeds of three Korean elite cultivars (Kwangankong, Daepungkong, and Pungsannamulkong) were irradiated with a 57-MeV proton beam in the range of 50 - 400 Gy. The germination rates of all the varieties increased to > 95%; however, the survival rates were significantly reduced. At doses of > 300 Gy irradiation, the Daepungkong, Kwangankong, and Pungsannamulkong cultivars exhibited 39, 75, and 71% survival rates, respectively. In addition, plant height and the fresh weight of shoots and roots were significantly decreased by doses of > 100 Gy irradiation, as were the dry weights of the shoots and roots. However, SPAD values increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Abnormal plants with atypically branched stems, modified leaves, and chlorophyll mutations were observed. Based on the survival rate, plant growth inhibition, and mutation frequency, it appears that the optimum dosage of proton beam irradiation for soybean mutation breeding is between 250 and 300 Gy.

  18. Large Homogeneous Genome Regions (Isochores in Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Lynn Woody

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of plant genomes, while slowly being characterized and defined, is still composed primarily of regions of undefined function. Many eukaryotic genomes contain isochore regions, mosaics of homogeneous GC content that can abruptly change from one neighboring isochore to the next. Isochores are broken into families which are characterized by their GC levels. We identified 4,339 compositionally distinct domains and 331 of these were identified as Long Homogeneous Genome Regions (LHGRs. We assigned these to four families based on finite mixture models of GC content. We then characterized each family with respect to exon length, gene content, and transposeable elements. The LHGR pattern of soybeans is unique in that while the majority of the genes within LHGRs are found within a single LHGR family with a narrow GC-range (Family B, that family is not the highest in GC content as seen in vertebrates and invertebrates. Instead Family B has a mean GC content of 35%. The range of GC content for all LHGRs is 16-59% GC which is a larger range than what is typical of vertebrates. This is the first study in which LHGRs have been identified in soybeans and the functions of the genes within the LHGRs have been analyzed.

  19. Fine-scale phylogenetic structure and major events in the history of the current wild soybean (Glycine soja) and taxonomic assignment of semi-wild type (Glycine gracilis Skvortz.) within the Chinese subgenus Soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Jing; Li, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Wild and cultivated species of soybeans have coexisted for 5000 years in China. Despite this long history, there is very little information on the genetic relationship of Glycine soja and G. max. To gain insight into the major events in the history of the subgenus Soja, we examined 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of a large number of accessions (910). The results showed no significant differences between wild and semi-wild soybeans in genetic diversity but significant differences between G. soja and G. max. Ancestry and cluster analyses revealed that semi-wild soybeans should belong to the wild category and not to G. max. Our results also showed that differentiation had occurred not only among G. soja, G. gracilis, and G. max but also within G. soja and within G. gracilis. Glycine soja had 3 clear genetic categories: typical small-seeded (≤2.0 g 100-seed weight), dual-origin middle-seeded (2.0-2.5 g), and large-seeded plants (2.51-3.0 g). These last were genetically close to G. gracilis, their defining some traits having been acquired mainly by introgression from soybeans. Small-seeded G. gracilis (3.01-3.5 g) were genetically different from larger seeded ones (from 3.51 to 4.0 to over 10 g). Seed size predominated over seed coat color in evolutionary degree. Typical and large-seeded G. soja were found to have 0.7% and 12% introgressive cultivar genes, respectively. The genetic boundary of G. gracilis was at the range of 2.51-3.0 g of G. soja. In the great majority of wild accessions, traits such as white flowers, gray pubescences, no-seed bloom, and colored seed coats were likely introgressive from domesticated soybeans.

  20. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    of growth regulators were observed to be 3 × 10−6M indoleacetic acid (JAA) combined with 3 × 10−6M benzylaminopurin (BAP) or 10−6M 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) alone. IAA + BAP caused a 100 fold increase in fresh weight over 4 weeks at 25°C. Addition of casein hydrolysate increased growth further....... Cell suspension cultures worked best in media containing 2,4-D in which they had a doubling time of about 2 days. Filtered suspensions were successfully plated on agar in petri dishes, but division was never observed in single cells. The cultures initiated roots at higher concentrations of IAA or NAA...

  1. Phosphatidylinositol species of suspension cultured plant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heim, S.; Wagner, K.G.

    Suspension cultured Nicotiana tabacum and Catharanthus roseus cells were labeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol, the phospholipid fraction extracted and separated by thin layer chromatography. Three different solvent systems and reference compounds were used to assign the different /sup 3/H-labeled species by autoradiography. The ratio of (/sup 3/H)inositol incorporation into PI, PIP and PIP/sub 2/ was found to be 95:4:1; with some preparations a lyso-PI band was obtained which incorporated about a tenth of the label of the PIP band. With Catharanthus roseus cells a very faint band between PI and lyso-PI was detected which could not be assigned to a reference compound.

  2. Evaluating effect of biofertilizer on nodulation and soybean (Glycine max L plants growth characteristics under water deficit stress of seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tajik Khaveh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer on soybean (Glycine max L. seed vigor that produced under water deficit condition and related traits, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based of complete randomized block design with four replications at the research greenhouse of Aboureihan campus- Tehran University, Iran. Experimental treatments were include biofertilizer (seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae, Cultivar (Zalta Zalha and Clark×Hobbit line and water deficit stress [irrigation plants after 50 (normal irrigation, 100 (medium stress, 150 (sever stress mm evaporation from pan class A, in parents field]. Results showed that the water deficit stress had negative effects on seed quality and seedling emergence percentage, mean daily seedling emergence, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of nodule were decreased. ZaltaZalha cultivar had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaf compared with other cultivars. Applications of biofertilzer was effective on stem diameter, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of leaf and nodule and those attributes increased by co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae. Also, use of biofertilizer in stress levels was effective on stem dry weight. Stem dry weight was increased by Co-inoculation of cultivar seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae.

  3. Demand and supply of N in seed production of soybean (Glycine max) at different N fertilization levels after flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Toshihiko; Sato, Takashi; Oikawa, Shimpei; Hirose, Tadaki

    2012-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) has been suggested as a determinant of seed production especially in species with high seed N content. Assuming that seed yield was determined as the balance between N demand and supply for seed production, we studied the effect of N fertilization after flowering on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) yield. Seed N concentration was nearly constant irrespective of N fertilization, indicating that seed production was proportional to the amount of N available for seed growth. N demand for seed production was analyzed as the product of seed number, the rate of N filling in individual seeds, and the length of the reproductive period. N fertilization increased seed number and the reproductive period, but did not influence the N filling rate. Seed number was positively correlated with dry mass productivity after flowering. Three N sources were distinguished: mineral N uptake, symbiotic N(2) fixation and N remobilization from vegetative body. N fertilization increased N uptake and N remobilization, but lowered N(2) fixation. We concluded that N availability in the reproductive period determined seed yield directly through increasing N supply for seed growth and indirectly through increasing seed N demand with enhanced plant dry mass productivity.

  4. Characterization of an Acidic Chitinase from Seeds of Black Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr Tainan No. 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Min; Chen, Li-Chun; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Chui-Liang; Chang, Chen-Tien; Chung, Yun-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Using 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N′,N″-triacetylchitotrioside (4-MU-GlcNAc3) as a substrate, an acidic chitinase was purified from seeds of black soybean (Glycine max Tainan no. 3) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and three successive steps of column chromatography. The purified chitinase was a monomeric enzyme with molecular mass of 20.1 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.34. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides with chain length from 3 to 5 (GlcNAcn, n = 3-5), and pNp-GlcNAc4 was the most degradable substrate. Using pNp-GlcNAc4 as a substrate, the optimal pH for the enzyme reaction was 4.0; kinetic parameters Km and kcat were 245 µM and 10.31 min−1, respectively. This enzyme also showed activity toward CM-chitin-RBV, a polymer form of chitin, and N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides, an oligomer form of chitin. The smallest oligomer substrate was an N-acetylglucosamine tetramer. These results suggested that this enzyme was an endo-splitting chitinase with short substrate cleavage activity and useful for biotechnological applications, in particular for the production of N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides. PMID:25437446

  5. Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... This study describes the establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for use in proteomics studies. ... Key words: Sorghum, proteomics, callus, cell suspension cultures, total soluble protein, secretome. INTRODUCTION ..... system, are dynamic and heterogeneous, being com- posed of a ...

  6. Genetic analysis of soybean resistance to Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanoli Fronza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the genetic control of soybean resistance to sudden death syndrome (SDS, a 5 x 5 diallel with the F2 generation, without the reciprocals, was carried out in a greenhouse. The following parents were used: Forrest, MG/BR-46 (Conquista, IAC-4, FT-Cristalina, and FT-Estrela. The first two cultivars are more resistant to SDS than IAC-4, which is considered to be moderately resistant to SDS, and the last two cultivars are highly susceptible. The fungus was inoculated with three colonized sorghum grains placed at the bottom of the holes with two soybean seeds. Single plants were evaluated between 14 and 37 days after emergency based on foliar severity symptoms (1-5 of SDS. The disease incidence and a disease index were also calculated for each plot (clay pots with five plants each. The analysis for severity and disease index was performed only with the data of the 37th day after emergence. Additive and dominant genetic effects were detected by Jinks-Hayman's analysis, but the dominant genetic effects were higher. The genetic parameters estimated indicated that the average degree of dominance showed the presence of overdominance; at least three loci or genic blocks that exhibited dominance were responsible for the genetic control of SDS resistance; the estimates of narrow-sense heritabilities were moderate (0.48 to 0.62, but in the broad-sense they were higher (0.90 to 0.95, thus reinforcing the presence of dominance effects; and the resistance to SDS was controlled mostly by dominant alleles. Five microsatellite markers (Satt163, Satt309, Satt354, Satt371 and Satt570, reported as linked to five QRLs of the SDS, were used to genotype the parents and showed the possibility of occurrence of multiallelism in those loci, but this evidence did not invalidate the fitting of the data to the Jinks-Hayman's model.

  7. Soybean (Glycine max L.) N-Turnover Effects on Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    A lysimeter N-experiment was carried out over a period of three years (1986-1988) in Hungary on a slightly calcareous Ramann sandy-loam brown forest soil. In a trial without seed inoculation, the effect of N-fertiliser was studied on yield and N-uptake and the mineral (NO3+ NO2 ) N-content of 0-90 cm soil-layer of soybean. On the given soil with regulated optimal water supply the highest quantity of 200 kg/ha N-dose seemed to give alredy over-fertilization and lowered in its tendency the grain and pod yield. About one third of the dry matter production without roots and foliage at harvest was given by the grain yield, which ranged between 1.8-5.4 t/ha, depending on the treatment applied and on years. The N-content was accumulated chiefly in the grain, its concentration exceeded about 7-10 times the N-content of roots and stalk. The half of the total N-uptake, on an average 102-256 kg/ha, was built in the grain. The highest N-yield = 631 kg/ha was achieved in 1988 by 150 kg/ha N-fertilization per year. In the first years the N-uptake of the plants agreed with the total supply (mineral reserve of soil + given in the form of fertilizer + precipitation N), while in the 3th year a double amount was recorded. The mineral reserve of N in the soil did not decrease at the end of the trial. Presumably, the soil of soybean in monoculture lost gradually its "Rhisobium japonicum sterility", the biological N-fixation increased with the time. In the first years without seed inoculation however, soybean may be in need of N-fertilization. Key Words: soybean, nitrogen, sustainable agriculture Introduction Soya is an important crop and is now grown all over the world (Márton et al. 1998, Márton et al. 1998, Kádár and Márton 1999, Márton and Kádár 1999, Márton and Kádár 1998). This crop originated in the Far East and has been grown in China for more than four thousand years. It has for long been regarded as one of the five sacred grains with rice, wheat, barley and millet

  8. Silicon addition to soybean (Glycine max L.) plants alleviate zinc deficiency.

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    Pascual, Ma Blanca; Echevarria, Virginia; Gonzalo, Ma José; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2016-11-01

    It is well established the beneficial role of silicon (Si) in alleviating abiotic stress. However, it remains poorly understood the mechanisms of the Si-mediated protection against metal deficiency, especially the zinc (Zn) one. Recently, it has been proposed that Si may act by an interaction with this biometal in the root apoplast contributing to its movement through the plant, as in the case of Fe deficiency. In the present work, the effect of initial or continuous Si doses in soybean Zn deficient plants has been studied. For that purpose, plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM) under Zn limiting conditions. SPAD index in leaves, several growth parameters, mineral content in the whole plant and the formation of Zn pools in roots were determined. An initial addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution led to an enhancement of plants growth, Zn and Si content in leaves, and a higher storage of Zn in the root apoplast. The results suggest that this treatment enhanced Zn accumulation on roots and its movement to shoots when needed, mitigating Zn deficiency symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Fungi and bacteria inventory on soybean (Glycine max (L.) merill) planting media applied by local microorganisms

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    Akhsan, Ni'matuljannah; Vionita

    2017-02-01

    An experiment aimed to determine the effect of application of several types of local microorganisms (MOL) and the number of doses to the development of fungi and bacteria on soybean planting media, have been conducted in Samarinda for 3 (three) months. Factorial experiment arranged in a completely randomized design and repeated three times, was used in this experiment. The first factor was the type of MOL consisted of cow dung (m1), snails (m2), banana peel (m3) and bamboo roots (m4), and the second factor was the dose MOL zero mL (d0), 100 mL (d1), 200 mL (d2), 300 mL (d3), 400 mL (d4) analyzed with Anova and Least Significance Difference (LSD) at 5%. Fungi and bacteria contained in the local microorganisms (cow dung, snails, banana peel and bamboo root) are: fungus Aspergillus sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., cellulotic and lignolitic bacteria. An increase in the type and amount of fungus is happened for some genus. The dominant bacteria in the planting medium is a gram-negative bacteria. Cow dung seemed the best source at the dosages level of 400 ml.

  10. Role of physiological mechanisms and EPSPS gene expression in glyphosate resistance in wild soybeans (Glycine soja).

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    Gao, Yue; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Lijuan; Jin, Longguo; Wu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    The physiological mechanisms underlying glyphosate resistance in wild soybean germplasm and relevant EPSPS gene expression were evaluated. These germplasms were selected by gradually increasing glyphosate selection pressure started from 2010. As indicated by a whole-plant dose response bioassay, ZYD-254 plants were resistant to glyphosate at concentrations of 1230gaeha(-1), but the susceptible plants (ZYD-16) were unable to survive in the presence of 300gaeha(-1) glyphosate. The ED50 values of resistant germplasm were approximately 8.8 times of the susceptible germplasm. Chlorophyll content was significantly decreased in ZYD-16 plants in comparison with ZYD-254 plants. ZYD-16 plants accumulated 10.1 times more shikimate in leaves at 5days after glyphosate treatment at 1230gaeha(-1) than ZYD-254 did. GST activity differed between ZYD-254 and ZYD-16 in three tissues. It was highest in leaves. There were no significant differences in EPSPS1 or EPSPS3 expression between two germplasms before exposure to glyphosate treatment. After glyphosate treatment, there was a 2- to 4-fold increase in EPSPS1 mRNA levels in ZYD-254, but there was no change in EPSPS3 mRNA levels in ZYD-254 or ZYD-16. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution and diversity of rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Fan, Miaochun; Zhang, Dehui; Yang, Ruiping; Zhang, Feilong; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xiuli; Shen, Yaoyao; Wei, Gehong

    2014-09-01

    A total of 155 nodule isolates that originated from seven sites in Northwest China were characterized by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene and sequence analysis of multiple core genes (16S rRNA, recA, atpD, and glnII) in order to investigate the diversity and biogeography of Glycine soja-nodulating rhizobia. Among the isolates, 80 were Ensifer fredii, 19 were Ensifer morelense, 49 were Rhizobium radiobacter, and 7 were putative novel Rhizobium species. The phylogenies of E. fredii and E. morelense isolates in a concatenate tree (assembly of all housekeeping genes) were generally consistent with those in individual gene trees. However, incongruence was found in the phylogenies of the different genes of Rhizobium isolates, indicating that lateral transfer or recombination possibly occurred in these gene loci. Despite their species identity, all the isolates in this study formed a single lineage related to E. fredii in nodAand nifH gene phylogenies, which also indicated that the symbiotic genes were laterally transferred between different species. Biogeographic patterns were found at the species and strain genomic type levels, as revealed by BOXA1R fingerprinting, demonstrating that the evolution of rhizobial populations in different geographic locations was related to soil types, altitude and spatial effects. This study is the first to report that E. morelense, R. radiobacter, and Rhizobium sp. are microsymbionts of G. soja, as well as showing that the diversity of G. soja rhizobia is enhanced and new rhizobia have evolved in Northwest China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure: Implications for Conservation of Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellite Variation

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    Tingshuang Yi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC and north China (NC, and the other including northeastern China (NEC, Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC and southwestern China (SWC. Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure: implications for conservation of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuilian; Wang, Yunsheng; Volis, Sergei; Li, Dezhu; Yi, Tingshuang

    2012-10-03

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs) and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY) was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC) and north China (NC), and the other including northeastern China (NEC), Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC). Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  14. Evaluation of Selected Soybean Genotypes (GLYCINE MAX L. by Physiological Responses during Water Deficit

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    Eleonora KRIVOSUDSKA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the experiments were monitored the following varieties: Impala (South African Republic, Maverick (USA, Rankoshi No.1h (Japan and their reactions to the water supply at the beginning of the growth stage R1 and R2 blooming in an interaction with the Nitrazon inoculation of the seeds before a sowing. Mentioned genetic resources were provided for our research purposes by the Plant Production Research Center PRRC Piesany, Gene Bank of the Slovak Republic. Seeding of the particular soy genotypes was made into the containers whilst 50% of seed corn from each genotype was before the sowing inoculated by the usage of Nitrazon inoculant (supplier: Agrokomp, spol. s.r.o., Modra. Water stress was secured by an irrigation interruption for a 7-day period in the mentioned growth stage. This stress had a negative impact on the relative water content in RWC plants, proline content, osmotic potential, SPAD, stress index as well as an amount of nodules on the roots by the all monitored varieties. According to an evaluation of the mentioned indicators more significant proline accumulation was confirmed by the genotype Maverick especially by the variant exposed to water deficit 3,25 micro mol g 1 FW according to the calculations on 100 percent RWC without the inoculant Nitrazon use and inoculating variant 2.99 micro mol g 1 FW according to calculations on 100 percent RWC. Variety MAVERICK had got the best reaction to water stress and even more noticeable resistance to the stress was monitored in the variant with Nitrazon application in the foregoing seed treatment of soybean seeds. The opposite response to the inoculation was monitored by IMPALA genotype when RWC had dropped to 41.77% in the comparison with the variant without inoculation where RWC had dropped to 61.86%.

  15. Multi-Population Selective Genotyping to Identify Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] Seed Protein and Oil QTLs

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    Piyaporn Phansak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders continually generate ever-higher yielding cultivars, but also want to improve seed constituent value, which is mainly protein and oil, in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. Identification of genetic loci governing those two traits would facilitate that effort. Though genome-wide association offers one such approach, selective genotyping of multiple biparental populations offers a complementary alternative, and was evaluated here, using 48 F2:3 populations (n = ∼224 plants created by mating 48 high protein germplasm accessions to cultivars of similar maturity, but with normal seed protein content. All F2:3 progeny were phenotyped for seed protein and oil, but only 22 high and 22 low extreme progeny in each F2:3 phenotypic distribution were genotyped with a 1536-SNP chip (ca. 450 bimorphic SNPs detected per mating. A significant quantitative trait locus (QTL on one or more chromosomes was detected for protein in 35 (73%, and for oil in 25 (52%, of the 48 matings, and these QTL exhibited additive effects of ≥ 4 g kg–1 and R2 values of 0.07 or more. These results demonstrated that a multiple-population selective genotyping strategy, when focused on matings between parental phenotype extremes, can be used successfully to identify germplasm accessions possessing large-effect QTL alleles. Such accessions would be of interest to breeders to serve as parental donors of those alleles in cultivar development programs, though 17 of the 48 accessions were not unique in terms of SNP genotype, indicating that diversity among high protein accessions in the germplasm collection is less than what might ordinarily be assumed.

  16. Photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. Strain ORS285 Is Capable of Forming Nitrogen-Fixing Root Nodules on Soybeans (Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Eric; Xu, Lei; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gargani, Daniel; Gully, Djamel

    2013-01-01

    The ability of photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium strains ORS285 and ORS278 to nodulate soybeans was investigated. While the nod gene-deficient ORS278 strain induced bumps only on soybean roots, the nod gene-containing ORS285 strain formed nitrogen-fixing nodules. However, symbiotic efficiencies differed drastically depending on both the soybean genotype used and the culture conditions tested. PMID:23354704

  17. Physiological mechanisms for high salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) from Yellow River Delta, China: photosynthesis, osmotic regulation, ion flux and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Kun; Shao, Hongbo; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Glycine soja (BB52) is a wild soybean cultivar grown in coastal saline land in Yellow River Delta, China. In order to reveal the physiological mechanisms adapting to salinity, we examined photosynthesis, ion flux, antioxidant system and water status in Glycine soja under NaCl treatments, taking a cultivated soybean, ZH13, as control. Upon NaCl exposure, higher relative water content and water potential were maintained in the leaf of BB52 than ZH13, which might depend on the more accumulation of osmotic substances such as glycinebetaine and proline. Compared with ZH13, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and contents of ascorbate, glutathione and phenolics were enhanced to a higher level in BB52 leaf under NaCl stress, which could mitigate the salt-induced oxidative damage in BB52. Consistently, lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde content was lower in BB52 leaf. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was decreased by NaCl stress in BB52 and ZH13, and the decrease was greater in ZH13. The decreased Pn in BB52 was mainly due to stomatal limitation. The inhibited activation of rubisco enzyme in ZH13 due to the decrease of rubisco activase content became an important limiting factor of Pn, when NaCl concentration increased to 200 mM. Rubisco activase in BB52 was not affected by NaCl stress. Less negative impact in BB52 derived from lower contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the tissues, and non-invasive micro-test technique revealed that BB52 roots had higher ability to extrude Na(+) and Cl(-). Wild soybean is a valuable genetic resource, and our study may provide a reference for molecular biologist to improve the salt tolerance of cultivated soybean in face of farmland salinity.

  18. Induced defense-related proteins in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) plants by Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 upon challenge inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shekhar; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze induced expression of defense-related proteins in the soybean plants by rhizobacterial stain Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 upon challenge inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum. Determination of the enzymatic activity of the different defense-related enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), lipoxygenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was performed in the major parts of Glycine max L. Merrill using spectrophotometric method. Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the POD and PPO was employed followed by activity staining to find out the isoforms of respective enzymes. Activities of the PAL, LOX, POD and PPO were found to be highest in the bacterized root tissue of the soybean plants challenged with F. oxysporum. Isoform analysis revealed that PPO1, PPO4 and POD2 isoforms were expressed at higher levels in bacterized soybean root tissues challenge inoculated with the pathogen. Conclusively it was found that bacterial strain Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 protect soybean plants from wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum by elicitation of the defense-related enzymes.

  19. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

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    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  20. Efeito da temperatura do solo na infectividade e reprodução det Meloidogyne javanica e Heterodera glycines em cultivares de soja Effect of soil temperature on infectivity and reprodution of Meloidogyne javanica and Heterodera glycines in soybean cultivars

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    Hercules Diniz Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A infectividade e a reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Heterodera glycines, em cultivar suscetível e resistente de soja, diferiram, de acordo com a temperatura do solo. A 28ºC o número de massas de ovos, total de ovos, de fêmeas e a porcentagem de sucesso de parasitismo dos juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 em cada cultivar (suscetível e resistentes de soja infestada com M. javanica foram, significativamente maiores, comparados com as demais temperaturas (32º C, 26º C, 24º C e 20º C. Entretanto, a soma de juvenis do terceiro e quarto estádios (J3 e J4 foi maior em todas as cultivares, quando a temperatura submetida às plantas inoculadas com M. javanica foi de 20º C comparada com as demais temperaturas. A capacidade reprodutiva da fêmea (ovos por fêmea de M. javanica foi sempre maior na cultivar suscetível em cada temperatura testada, porém, significativamente maior na cultivar suscetível colocada a 32º C comparada com as demais temperaturas. Nas relações H. glycines e soja, as temperaturas testadas proporcionaram valores semelhantes para a população total (fêmeas e cistos na cultivar resistente. Na cultivar suscetível, a temperatura de 28º C aumentou significativamente o número de fêmeas, total de fêmeas e cistos e a porcentagem de parasitismo de J2 de H. glycines, comparada com todas as demais temperaturas.The infectivity and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and Heterodera glycines in susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars differs according to soil temperatures. At 28ºC the egg-mass number, total eggs, and females, and percentage of parasitism success of second stage juveniles (J2 in each cultivar (susceptible and resistants of infested soybean with M. javanica were significantly greater when compared to other temperatures (32º C, 26º C, 24º C and 20º C. However, the sum of third and fourth juvenile stages (J3 and J4 was greater in all cultivars when M. javanica inoculated plants were submitted to

  1. Mapping QTLs for 100-seed weight in an interspecific soybean cross of Williams 82 (Glycine max) x PI 366121 (Glycine soja)

    Science.gov (United States)

    100-seed weight is a critical component for soybean quality and yield. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 100-seed weight using 169 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Williams 82 x PI 366121. The parental lines and RILs were g...

  2. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Benjamin F; Beard, Hunter; Brewer, Eric; Kabir, Sara; MacDonald, Margaret H; Youssef, Reham M

    2014-04-16

    Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives are critical to the defense response against necrotrophic pathogens. Several reports demonstrate that SA limits nematode reproduction. Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN: Heterodera glycines) are investigated. We demonstrate that overexpression of three of thirty-one Arabidoposis genes in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants decreased the number of cysts formed by SCN to less than 50% of those found on control roots, namely AtNPR1(33%), AtTGA2 (38%), and AtPR-5 (38%). Three additional Arabidopsis genes decreased the number of SCN cysts by 40% or more: AtACBP3 (53% of the control value), AtACD2 (55%), and AtCM-3 (57%). Other genes having less or no effect included AtEDS5 (77%), AtNDR1 (82%), AtEDS1 (107%), and AtPR-1 (80%), as compared to control. Overexpression of AtDND1 greatly increased susceptibility as indicated by a large increase in the number of SCN cysts (175% of control). Knowledge of the pathogen defense system gained from studies of the model system, Arabidopsis, can be directly translated to soybean through direct overexpression of Arabidopsis genes. When the genes, AtNPR1, AtGA2, and AtPR-5, encoding specific components involved in SA regulation, synthesis, and signaling, are overexpressed in soybean roots, resistance to SCN is enhanced. This demonstrates functional compatibility of some Arabidopsis genes with soybean and identifies genes that may be used to engineer resistance to nematodes.

  3. High level transgenic expression of soybean (Glycine max GmERF and Gmubi gene promoters isolated by a novel promoter analysis pipeline

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    Jones Michelle L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although numerous factors can influence gene expression, promoters are perhaps the most important component of the regulatory control process. Promoter regions are often defined as a region upstream of the transcriptional start. They contain regulatory elements that interact with regulatory proteins to modulate gene expression. Most genes possess their own unique promoter and large numbers of promoters are therefore available for study. Unfortunately, relatively few promoters have been isolated and characterized; particularly from soybean (Glycine max. Results In this research, a bioinformatics approach was first performed to identify members of the Gmubi (G.max ubiquitin and the GmERF (G. max Ethylene Response Factor gene families of soybean. Ten Gmubi and ten GmERF promoters from selected genes were cloned upstream of the gfp gene and successfully characterized using rapid validation tools developed for both transient and stable expression. Quantification of promoter strength using transient expression in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus cotyledonary tissue and stable expression in soybean hairy roots showed that the intensity of gfp gene expression was mostly conserved across the two expression systems. Seven of the ten Gmubi promoters yielded from 2- to 7-fold higher expression than a standard CaMV35S promoter while four of the ten GmERF promoters showed from 1.5- to 2.2-times higher GFP levels compared to the CaMV35S promoter. Quantification of GFP expression in stably-transformed hairy roots of soybean was variable among roots derived from different transformation events but consistent among secondary roots, derived from the same primary transformation events. Molecular analysis of hairy root events revealed a direct relationship between copy number and expression intensity; higher copy number events displayed higher GFP expression. Conclusion In this study, we present expression intensity data on 20 novel soybean promoters

  4. Cooking methods affect phytochemical composition and anti-obesity potential of soybean (Glycine max seeds in Wistar rats

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    Cerile Ypolyte Woumbo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at investigating the effects of three domestic cooking methods (roasting, sprouting and boiling on phytochemical contents (phenolic content, flavonoid, fibre, and anti-obesity (weight loss, hypoglycemic effect, serum lipids potential of soybean seeds in obese male rats. Ten different forms were implemented, combining hulled/unhulled and raw/cooked soybean seeds using a basal and a hypercaloric diet as controls. Unhulled Roasted Soybean (URS exhibited the highest phenolic content and a greater antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay than BHT at certain concentrations. Hulled boiled Soybean (HBS showed the highest flavonoid content while Hulled Germinated Soybean (HGS presented the lowest fibre content (P < 0.05. Unhulled Boiled Soybean (UBS induced the best reduction in food intake while Unhulled Soybean Extract (USE exhibited the greatest slimming effect. HBS exhibited the best cholesterol lowering ability; URS and Unhulled germinated Soybean (UGS respectively induced the highest increase in HDL cholesterol levels and reduction in triglyceride levels. UBS demonstrated the highest ability to lower LDL cholesterol. UGS exhibited the highest ability to lower the postprandial blood glucose. Culinary treatments affect phytochemical content and anti-obesity potential of soybean seeds.

  5. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is

  6. Manganese (Mn) stress toward hyperaccumulators plants combination (HPC) using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition on soybean (Glycine max) seedling stage

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    Darmawan, Tania Sylviana; Zahroh, Tata Taqiyyatuz; Merindasya, Mirza; Masfaridah, Ririn; Hartanti, Dyah Ayu Sri; Arum, Sekar; Nurhatika, Sri; Muhibuddin, Anton; Surtiningsih, Tini; Arifiyanto, Achmad

    2017-06-01

    Heavy metals were a metal bracket which had a specific gravity greater than 5 g / cm3. Manganese was one of them because it has a specific gravity of 7.4 g / cm3. Together with widespread cases of soil contamination caused by heavy metals as well as increased development of the science of breeding ground rapidly, then the alternative rehabilitation techniques were relatively cheap and effective it needs to be developed and even some cases of contaminated management soil using a combination of plants with microorganisms to be more effective. Thus it was necessary to develop research on plants that were able to accumulate heavy metals and other toxic materials, such as Mn so that the land becomes safe for health and the environment. Based on above reason this research aimed to see the influence of hyperaccumulators combination of plants using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition to stressed by manganese (Mn) on soybean (Glycine max). Observations of growth, chlorophyll content and heavy metals analysis performed on nine treatments (P1-P9) and one control (P0). The results showed a combination of hyperaccumulators under mychorrizal helped overcome the stress of manganese (Mn) in the leaves of soybean (G. max). It gave an influence on the number of leaves and chlorophyll content of soybean (G. max), but no effect performed on the height and the roots of soybean (G. max). The use of plants in small amounts hyperaccumulators (P1;1 jatropha and 1 lamtoro) was sufficient to cope with stress of Mn in the leaves of soybean (G. max).

  7. Assessment of land suitability and the possibility and performance of a canola (Brassica napus L. – soybean (Glycine max L. rotation in four basins of Golestan province, Iran

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    Behnam Kamkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A Geographical Information System (GIS-based plan was used to assess the possibility and performance of a canola (Brassica napus L. – soybean (Glycine max L. rotation in Golestan province, one of the most important agricultural production regions of Iran. For this purpose, all needed raster layers, including climatic (precipitation, temperature, topographic (aspects and slope and soil-related (texture, pH, EC layers, were provided by interpolation, surface analysis and other related techniques in GIS. Overlaid layers were used to judge the capacity of agricultural lands to rotate a canola–soybean system in the study area, which included four important basins. Based on defined scenarios and pre-determined ecological requirements of the two studied crops, five suitability classes were detected and mapped. Our results indicate that just 11.82% of total lands are very suitable to rotate soybean after canola while most agricultural lands in the study area fell into the moderate and low suitability classes. The consistency of results adopted from final overlaid maps with real statistics in the study region show that GIS as a systemic approach can play a vital role in saving time and reducing research costs. These results could help policy makers to design proper cropping patterns, particularly rotation systems.

  8. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the PIN auxin transporter gene family in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqin; Chai, Chenglin; Valliyodan, Babu; Maupin, Christine; Annen, Brad; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-11-16

    The plant phytohormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development, which largely depends on its uneven distribution in plant tissues. Transmembrane proteins of the PIN family are auxin efflux facilitators. They play a key role in polar auxin transport and are associated with auxin asymmetrical distribution in plants. PIN genes have been characterized in several plant species, while comprehensive analysis of this gene family in soybean has not been reported yet. In this study, twenty-three members of the PIN gene family were identified in the soybean genome through homology searches. Analysis of chromosome distribution and phylogenetic relationships of the soybean PIN genes indicated nine pairs of duplicated genes and a legume specific subfamily. Organ/tissue expression patterns and promoter activity assays of the soybean PINs suggested redundant functions for most duplicated genes and complementary and tissue-specific functions during development for non-duplicated genes. The soybean PIN genes were differentially regulated by various abiotic stresses and phytohormone stimuli, implying crosstalk between auxin and abiotic stress signaling pathways. This was further supported by the altered auxin distribution under these conditions as revealed by DR5::GUS transgenic soybean hairy root. Our data indicates that GmPIN9, a legume-specific PIN gene, which was responsive to several abiotic stresses, might play a role in auxin re-distribution in soybean root under abiotic stress conditions. This study provided the first comprehensive analysis of the soybean PIN gene family. Information on phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, protein profiles and expression profiles of the soybean PIN genes in different tissues and under various abiotic stress treatments helps to identity candidates with potential roles in specific developmental processes and/or environmental stress conditions. Our study advances our understanding of plant responses to abiotic stresses

  9. Environmental and Historical Determinants of Patterns of Genetic Differentiation in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shui-Lian; Wang, Yun-Sheng; Li, De-Zhu; Yi, Ting-Shuang

    2016-03-08

    Wild soybean, the direct progenitor of cultivated soybean, inhabits a wide distribution range across the mainland of East Asia and the Japanese archipelago. A multidisciplinary approach combining analyses of population genetics based on 20 nuclear microsatellites and one plastid locus were applied to reveal the genetic variation of wild soybean, and the contributions of geographical, environmental factors and historic climatic change on its patterns of genetic differentiation. High genetic diversity and significant genetic differentiation were revealed in wild soybean. Wild soybean was inferred to be limited to southern and central China during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and experienced large-scale post-LGM range expansion into northern East Asia. A substantial northward range shift has been predicted to occur by the 2080s. A stronger effect of isolation by environment (IBE) versus isolation by geographical distance (IBD) was found for genetic differentiation in wild soybean, which suggested that environmental factors were responsible for the adaptive eco-geographical differentiation. This study indicated that IBE and historical climatic change together shaped patterns of genetic variation and differentiation of wild soybean. Different conservation measures should be implemented on different populations according to their adaptive potential to future changes in climate and human-induced environmental changes.

  10. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: soybean [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available soybean Glycine max Glycine_max_L.png Glycine_max_NL.png Glycine_max_S.png Glycine_max..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=NS ...

  12. Growth and Plating of Cell Suspension Cultures of Datura Innoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1974-01-01

    Suspension cultures of Datura innoxia Mill, were successfully grown on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium with 2,4–D, NAA or BAP as growth substances, provided the micronutrient levels were reduced to 1/10. Normal amounts of micronutrients were toxic. Attempts to identify the toxic elements did...... malate) or on NO3−-N alone. Dry weight yield was proportional to the amount of nitrate-N added (47 mg/mg N). Filtered suspension cultures containing single cells (plating cultures) could be grown in agar in petri dishes when NAA or 2,4-D were used as growth substances. Cells grew at densities above 500...

  13. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana and soybean (glycine max Características físico-químicas e propriedades funcionais de vitabosa(Mucuna deeringiana e soja (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana and soybean flour (Glycine max were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range between 0.0 and 0.4 M, but it is reduced afterwards with the higher concentration of NaCl. Foaming stability varied with the concentration of flour solution reaching maximum values of 39 and 33% for vitabosa and soybean, respectively at 10% flour concentration.Vitabosa had the best foaming capacity (56% to 0.6 M compared with soybeans (47% to 0.4 M. Maximum capacity of gelation was observed in vitabosa at 10% flour concentration. Increases in ionic strength of the flour solution, at low salt concentrations (Varias características físico-químicas e funcionais para farinha de vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana e soja (Glycine max foram avaliadas. A vitabosa apresentou maior capacidade de absorção de óleo enquanto a soja mostrou maior capacidade de absorção de água, sendo esta última altamente dependente das mudanças na força iônica do meio. A Atividade Emulsificante (AE diminuiu com o aumento da concentração de farinha, enquanto que a estabilidade de emulsão (ES aumentou. Tanto para a farinha de vitabosa quanto a de soja, os valores de AE e ES incrementaram no intervalo 0,0-0,4 M. Com relação à estabilidade da espuma, esta propriedade variou com a concentração da farinha, atingindo valores máximos de 39% (vitabosa e 33% (soja para uma concentração de 10%. A farinha de vitabosa teve a melhor capacidade espumante (56% para 0,6 M em comparação com a de soja (47% a 0,4 M. A maior capacidade de gelificação foi observada em farinha de vitabosa para

  14. Identification of large variation in the photosynthetic induction response among 37 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes that is not correlated with steady-state photosynthetic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleh, M A; Tanaka, Y; Kim, S Y; Huber, S C; Sakoda, K; Shiraiwa, T

    2017-03-01

    Irradiance continuously fluctuates during the day in the field. The speed of the induction response of photosynthesis in high light affects the cumulative carbon gain of the plant and could impact growth and yield. The photosynthetic induction response and its relationship with the photosynthetic capacity under steady-state conditions (P max) were evaluated in 37 diverse soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes. The induction response of leaf photosynthesis showed large variation among the soybean genotypes. After 5 min illumination with strong light, genotype NAM23 had the highest leaf photosynthetic rate of 33.8 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1, while genotype NAM12 showed the lowest rate at 4.7 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Cumulative CO2 fixation (CCF) during the first 5 min of high light exposure ranged from 5.5 mmol CO2 m-2 for NAM23 to 0.81 mmol CO2 m-2 for NAM12. The difference in the induction response among genotypes was consistent throughout the growth season. However, there was no significant correlation between CCF and P max among genotypes suggesting that different mechanisms regulate P max and the induction response. The observed variation in the induction response was mainly attributed to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activation, but soybean lines differing in the induction response did not differ in the leaf content of Rubisco activase α- and β-proteins. Future studies will be focused on identifying molecular determinants of the photosynthetic induction response and determining whether this trait could be an important breeding target to achieve improved growth of soybeans in the field.

  15. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Biological Activities of the Essential Oil and Extract of the Seeds of Glycine max (Soybean) from North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Baharfar, Robabeh

    2017-04-01

    Glycine max (L.) Merrill (soybean) is a major leguminous crop, cultivated globally as well as in Iran. This study examines the chemical composition of soybean essential oil, and evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seeds on various plant pathogens that commonly cause irreparable damages to agricultural crops. The essential oil of soybean seeds was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 microorganisms, including three gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria, and six fungi, using disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration technique. The soybean seeds were also subjected to screening for possible antioxidant activity by using catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Forty components were identified, representing 96.68% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were carvacrol (13.44%), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (9.15%), p-allylanisole (5.65%), p-cymene (4.87%), and limonene (4.75%). The oil showed significant activity against Pseudomonas syringae subsp. syringae, Rathayibacter toxicus with MIC = 25 µg/mL, and Pyricularia oryzae with MIC = 12.5 µg/mL. In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil was determined with an IC50 value of 162.35 µg/mL. Our results suggest that this plant may be a potential source of biocide, for economical and environmentally friendly disease control strategies. It may also be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  16. Effects of light quality on pod elongation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Seiya; Ario, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Andressa Camila Seiko; Tomita, Yuki; Murayama, Naoki; Taniguchi, Takatoshi; Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2017-06-03

    Soybean pods are located at the nodes, where they are in the shadow, whereas cowpea pods are located outside of the leaves and are exposed to sunlight. To compare the effects of light quality on pod growth in soybean and cowpea, we measured the length of pods treated with white, blue, red or far-red light. In both species, pods elongated faster during the dark period than during the light period in all light treatments except red light treatment in cowpea. Red light significantly suppressed pod elongation in soybean during the dark and light periods. On the other hand, the elongation of cowpea pods treated with red light markedly promoted during the light period. These results suggested that the difference in the pod set sites between soybean and cowpea might account for the difference in their red light responses for pod growth.

  17. Over-expression of a glutathione S-transferase gene, GsGST, from wild soybean (Glycine soja) enhances drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming; Li, Yong; Yang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaowen; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi

    2010-08-01

    Glycine soja is a species of soybean that survives in adverse environments including high salt and drought conditions. We constructed a cDNA library from G. soja seedlings treated with NaCl and isolated a glutathione S-transferase gene (GsGST: GQ265911) from the library. The cDNA encoding GsGST contains an open reading frame of 660 bp and the predicted protein belongs to the tau class of GST family proteins. Tobacco plants over-expressing the GsGST gene showed sixfold higher GST activity than wild-type plants. Transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced dehydration tolerance. T(2) transgenic tobacco plants showed higher tolerance at the seedling stage than wild-type plants to salt and mannitol as demonstrated by longer root length and less growth retardation.

  18. Dicamba-Tolerant Soybeans (Glycine max L.) MON 87708 and MON 87708 × MON 89788 Are Compositionally Equivalent to Conventional Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary; Bickel, Anna; Mannion, Rhonda; Bell, Erin; Harrigan, George G

    2017-09-13

    Herbicide-tolerant crops can expand both tools for and timing of weed control strategies. MON 87708 soybean has been developed through genetic modification and confers tolerance to the dicamba herbicide. As part of the safety assessment conducted for new genetically modified (GM) crop varieties, a compositional assessment of MON 87708 was performed. Levels of key soybean nutrients and anti-nutrients in harvested MON 87708 were compared to levels of those components in a closely related non-GM variety as well as to levels measured in other conventional soybean varieties. From this analysis, MON 87708 was shown to be compositionally equivalent to its comparator. A similar analysis conducted for a stacked trait product produced by conventional breeding, MON 87708 × MON 89788, which confers tolerance to both dicamba and glyphosate herbicides, reached the same conclusion. These results are consistent with other results that demonstrate no compositional impact of genetic modification, except in those cases where an impact was an intended outcome.

  19. Composition of grain, forage, and processed fractions from second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean, MON 89788, is equivalent to that of conventional soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundry, Denise R; Ridley, William P; Meyer, Jiaying J; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Sorbet, Roy

    2008-06-25

    Developments in biotechnology and molecular-assisted breeding have led to the development of a second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean product, MON 89788. The MON 89788 event was produced by direct transformation of a cp4 epsps (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene cassette derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 into an elite soybean germplasm known for its superior agronomic characteristics and high yielding property. The purpose of this work was to assess whether the nutrient and antinutrient levels in seed and forage tissues of MON 89788 are comparable to those in the conventional soybean variety, A3244, which has background genetics similar to MON 89788 but does not contain the cp4 epsps gene cassette. Additional conventional soybean varieties currently in the marketplace were also included in the analysis to establish a range of natural variability for each analyte, where the range of variability is defined by a 99% tolerance interval for that particular analyte. Compositional analyses were conducted on forage, seed and four processed fractions from soybeans grown in ten sites across both the United States and Argentina during the 2004-2005 growing seasons. Forage samples were analyzed for levels of proximates (ash, fat, moisture, and protein) and fiber. Seed samples were analyzed for proximates, fiber, antinutrients, and vitamin E. Defatted, toasted (DT) meal was analyzed for proximates, fiber, amino acids, and antinutrients. Refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) oil was analyzed for fatty acids and vitamin E. Protein isolate was analyzed for amino acids and moisture. Crude Lecithin was analyzed for phosphatides. Results of the comparisons indicate that MON 89788 is compositionally and nutritionally equivalent to conventional soybean varieties currently in commerce.

  20. Composição química e conteúdo de ferro solúvel em soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] Chemical composition and soluble iron content in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Tamie Paiva Yamada

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A soja é um grão que possui um dos maiores teores de proteína e ferro entre os alimentos de origem vegetal e teve a sua utilização muito aumentada nos últimos anos, principalmente por lactentes que têm problemas de intolerância ao leite de vaca em todo mundo. Em razão da sua grande quantidade de ferro, a soja tem sido investigada quanto à sua capacidade de recuperação de indivíduos anêmicos. No passado, a investigação baseou-se somente na sua quantidade de ferro total, não considerando as frações solúveis (mais biodisponíveis das insolúveis (que são mais dificilmente absorvidas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar análises químicas em quatro cultivares de soja Glycine max (L. Merrill (IAC PL-1; IAC 22; IAC 8-2 E IAC 15-2, bem como os seus respectivos conteúdos de ferro solúvel. Os teores de proteína nos grãos, que foram em média de 34,46%, foram estatisticamente iguais; o de lipídeos foi maior para a cultivar IAC PL-1, com 20,07% (PSoybean is a grain which possesses one of the highest contents of protein and iron among the foods of plant origin and had its use greatly increased in the latest years, in the eastern countries mainly by lactents who have problems of intolerance to bovine's milk. Due to its great concentration of iron, soybean has been investigated as to its capacity of recovering anemic individuals. In the past, the investigation was based only on its concentration of total iron, not taking into account the soluble fractions (greater bioavailability from the insoluble (which are less bioavailable. This work was designed to accomplish chemical analyses on four soybean cultivars Glycine max (L. Merrill (IAC PL-1; IAC 22; IAC 8-2 and IAC 15-2, as well as their respective contents of soluble iron. Protein contents in the grains, that were on average 34,46% were statistically similar; oil content was greater for the cultivar IAC PL-1, with 20,07% (P<0,01, the same cultivar which presented the lower

  1. Biotransformation of Dydrogesterone by Cell Suspension Cultures of Azadirachta indica

    OpenAIRE

    KHAN, Saifullah; CHOUDHARY, Muhammad Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    Biotransformation of dydrogesterone (1) by using cell suspension cultures of Azadirachta indica yielded a metabolite 20R-hydroxy-9b ,10a-pregna-4,6-diene-3-one (2). The structure of this compound was deduced on the basis of various spectroscopic techniques.

  2. Establishment and characterization of American elm cell suspension cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven M. Eshita; Joseph C. Kamalay; Vicki M. Gingas; Daniel A. Yaussy

    2000-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Dutch elm disease (DED)-tolerant and DED-susceptible American elms clones have been established and characterized as prerequisites for contrasts of cellular responses to pathogen-derived elicitors. Characteristics of cultured elm cell growth were monitored by A700 and media conductivity. Combined cell growth data for all experiments within a...

  3. SUSPENSION CULTURE AND PLANT REGENERATION OF TYPHA LATIFOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study is the first reported attempt to generate a growth curve from Typha latifolia L. (broadleaf cattail) callus cells in suspension culture. Several media and hormone combinations were tested for their capacity to induce callus cell formation from T. latifolia leaf section...

  4. Stimulation of taxane production in suspension cultures of Taxus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... biosynthesis in transformed root cultures of Datura stramonium. Phytochemistry 50: 53-56. Zhang CH, Fevereiro PS, He G, Chen Z (2007). Enhanced paclitaxel productivity and release capacity of Taxus chinensis cell suspension cultures adapted to chitosan. Plant Sci. 172: 158-163. Zhang CH, Wu JY, He ...

  5. Regeneration from embryogenic callus and suspension cultures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from both callus and suspension cultures of the wild medicinal plant Cymbopogon schoenanthus subsp. proximus has been achieved. The species is rare and confined in its distribution to Africa. A range (0.5 to 8 mg/l) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for the induction ...

  6. Establishment of the callus and cell suspension culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... plant growth regulators on the callus induction and accumulation of condensed tannins, and (iii) determine the optimum medium and the hormone combination for cell suspension culture of E. angustifolia. This paper presents the feasibility of condensed tannins production in callus and cell culture of E.

  7. Establishment of the callus and cell suspension culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was the optimization of the conditions of callus and cell suspension culture of Elaeagnus angustifolia for the production of condensed tannins. The effects of different conditions on the callus growth and the production of condensed tannins were researched. The leaf tissue part of E. angustifolia was ...

  8. In vitro production of azadirachtin from cell suspension cultures of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    In vitro production of azadirachtin from cell suspension cultures of Azadirachta indica. 113. J. Biosci. 33(1), March 2008. 1. Introduction. Chemical pesticides, once considered a boon for increasing the yield of food crops, have now become a bane owing to the numerous cases of pesticide poisoning. Alternative pesticides ...

  9. In vitro plant regeneration from embryogenic cell suspension culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... In vitro plant regeneration was achieved from embryogenic cell suspension culture of Astragalus chrysochlorus. When 30-day-old aseptically ... previous study, cytotoxic activities of stem and root ex-. *Corresponding author. E-mail: ... For callus induction, 30-day-old mesocotyl parts of seedlings were used.

  10. The large soybean (Glycine max) WRKY TF family expanded by segmental duplication events and subsequent divergent selection among subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guangjun; Xu, Hongliang; Xiao, Shuyang; Qin, Yajuan; Li, Yaxuan; Yan, Yueming; Hu, Yingkao

    2013-10-03

    WRKY genes encode one of the most abundant groups of transcription factors in higher plants, and its members regulate important biological process such as growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the soybean genome sequence has been published, functional studies on soybean genes still lag behind those of other species. We identified a total of 133 WRKY members in the soybean genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins and to the phylogenetic tree, the soybean WRKY family could be classified into three groups (groups I, II, and III). A majority of WRKY genes (76.7%; 102 of 133) were segmentally duplicated and 13.5% (18 of 133) of the genes were tandemly duplicated. This pattern was not apparent in Arabidopsis or rice. The transcriptome atlas revealed notable differential expression in either transcript abundance or in expression patterns under normal growth conditions, which indicated wide functional divergence in this family. Furthermore, some critical amino acids were detected using DIVERGE v2.0 in specific comparisons, suggesting that these sites have contributed to functional divergence among groups or subgroups. In addition, site model and branch-site model analyses of positive Darwinian selection (PDS) showed that different selection regimes could have affected the evolution of these groups. Sites with high probabilities of having been under PDS were found in groups I, II c, II e, and III. Together, these results contribute to a detailed understanding of the molecular evolution of the WRKY gene family in soybean. In this work, all the WRKY genes, which were generated mainly through segmental duplication, were identified in the soybean genome. Moreover, differential expression and functional divergence of the duplicated WRKY genes were two major features of this family throughout their evolutionary history. Positive selection analysis revealed that the different groups have different evolutionary rates

  11. Influences of Soaking Temperature and Storage Conditions on Hardening of Soybeans (Glycine max) and Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Takako; Sato, Yoko; Iijima, Kumiko; Kasai, Midori

    2017-07-01

    The influences of soaking treatment and storage conditions on the softening of cooked beans, namely, soybeans and red kidney beans, were investigated. It was revealed that the softening of fresh soybeans and fresh red kidney beans was suppressed during subsequent boiling after soaking treatment at 50 and 60 °C. Furthermore, in treated aged soybeans and red kidney beans that were subjected to storage at 30 °C/75% relative humidity for 6 mo and soaking treatment at 50 to 60 °C, the hardness during cooking was further amplified. This suggested that the mechanism of softening suppression differs depending on the influences of soaking and storage. Analysis of the pectin fraction in alcohol insoluble solid showed insolubilization of metal ions upon storage at high temperature and high humidity in both soybeans and red kidney beans, which suggests interaction between Ca ions and hemicellulose or cellulose as cell wall polysaccharides. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that aged soybeans exhibited a shift in the thermal transition temperature of glycinin-based protein to a higher temperature compared with fresh soybeans. From the results of DSC and scanning electron microscopy for aged red kidney beans, damaged starch is not conspicuous in the raw state after storage but is abundant upon soaking treatment. As for the influence of soaking at 60 °C, it can be suggested that its influence on cell wall crosslinking was large in soybeans and red kidney beans in both a fresh state and an aged state. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. The large soybean (Glycine max) WRKY TF family expanded by segmental duplication events and subsequent divergent selection among subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background WRKY genes encode one of the most abundant groups of transcription factors in higher plants, and its members regulate important biological process such as growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the soybean genome sequence has been published, functional studies on soybean genes still lag behind those of other species. Results We identified a total of 133 WRKY members in the soybean genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins and to the phylogenetic tree, the soybean WRKY family could be classified into three groups (groups I, II, and III). A majority of WRKY genes (76.7%; 102 of 133) were segmentally duplicated and 13.5% (18 of 133) of the genes were tandemly duplicated. This pattern was not apparent in Arabidopsis or rice. The transcriptome atlas revealed notable differential expression in either transcript abundance or in expression patterns under normal growth conditions, which indicated wide functional divergence in this family. Furthermore, some critical amino acids were detected using DIVERGE v2.0 in specific comparisons, suggesting that these sites have contributed to functional divergence among groups or subgroups. In addition, site model and branch-site model analyses of positive Darwinian selection (PDS) showed that different selection regimes could have affected the evolution of these groups. Sites with high probabilities of having been under PDS were found in groups I, II c, II e, and III. Together, these results contribute to a detailed understanding of the molecular evolution of the WRKY gene family in soybean. Conclusions In this work, all the WRKY genes, which were generated mainly through segmental duplication, were identified in the soybean genome. Moreover, differential expression and functional divergence of the duplicated WRKY genes were two major features of this family throughout their evolutionary history. Positive selection analysis revealed that the different groups have

  13. Genetic diversity of nodulating and non-nodulating rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in different ecoregions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li Juan; Wang, Hai Qing; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Tian, Chang Fu

    2011-06-01

    A total of 99 bacterial isolates that originated from root nodules of Glycine soja were characterized with restriction analyses of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacers (ITS), and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB, atpD, recA and nodC genes. When tested for nodulation of G. soja, 72 of the isolates were effective symbionts, and these belonged to five species: Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and Sinorhizobium fredii. All of these, except some B. yuanmingense strains, also formed effective nodules on the domesticated soybean Glycine max. The remaining 27 isolates did not nodulate either host, but were identified as Rhizobium. Phylogeny nodC in the G. soja symbionts suggested that this symbiosis gene was mainly maintained by vertical gene transfer. Different nodC sublineages and rrs-ITS clusters reflected the geographic origins of isolates in this study. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ON NODULE PRIMORDIA OF SOYBEAN (Glycine max Merrill IN ACID SOILS IN RHIZOTRON EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiyo Hadi Waluyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To clarify whether P had a direct or indirect effect on the nodulation  process of soybean grown in acid soils from Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia, a series of rhizotron experiments, with special attention given to formation of nodule primordia, was conducted at Laboratory of  Microbiology, Wageningen University in 1998-2000. It was shown that Ca and P were essential nutrients for root growth, nodule formation, and growth of soybean in the acid soils (Oxisols. Ca increased root growth, number of nodule primordia, nodules, and growth of the soybean plant. This positive effect of Ca was increased considerably by the application of P. Ca and P have a synergistic effect on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF of soybean in acid soils. Ca is important for the establishment of nodules, whilst P is essential for the development and function of the formed nodules. P increased number of nodule primordia, thus it also has an important role in the initiation of nodule formation. From this study, it can be concluded that Ca and P are the most limiting nutrients for BNF of soybean in the acid soils of Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia.

  15. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives are critical to the defense response against necrotrophic pathogens. Several reports demonstrate that SA limits nematode reproduction. Results Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN: Heterodera glycines) are investigated. We demonstrate that overexpression of three of thirty-one Arabidoposis genes in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants decreased the number of cysts formed by SCN to less than 50% of those found on control roots, namely AtNPR1(33%), AtTGA2 (38%), and AtPR-5 (38%). Three additional Arabidopsis genes decreased the number of SCN cysts by 40% or more: AtACBP3 (53% of the control value), AtACD2 (55%), and AtCM-3 (57%). Other genes having less or no effect included AtEDS5 (77%), AtNDR1 (82%), AtEDS1 (107%), and AtPR-1 (80%), as compared to control. Overexpression of AtDND1 greatly increased susceptibility as indicated by a large increase in the number of SCN cysts (175% of control). Conclusions Knowledge of the pathogen defense system gained from studies of the model system, Arabidopsis, can be directly translated to soybean through direct overexpression of Arabidopsis genes. When the genes, AtNPR1, AtGA2, and AtPR-5, encoding specific components involved in SA regulation, synthesis, and signaling, are overexpressed in soybean roots, resistance to SCN is enhanced. This demonstrates functional compatibility of some Arabidopsis genes with soybean and identifies genes that may be used to engineer resistance to nematodes. PMID:24739302

  16. Establishment of in vitro soybean aphids, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a tool to facilitate studies of aphid symbionts, plant-insect interactions and insecticide efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunadi, Andika; Bansal, Raman; Finer, John J; Michel, Andy

    2017-06-01

    Studies on plant-insect interactions of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura), can be influenced by environmental fluctuations, status of the host plant and variability in microbial populations. Maintenance of aphids on in vitro-grown plants minimizes environmental fluctuations, provides uniform host materials and permits the selective elimination of aphid-associated microbes for more standardized controls in aphid research. Aphids were reared on sterile, in vitro-grown soybean seedlings germinated on plant tissue culture media amended with a mixture of antimicrobials. For initiation and maintenance of in vitro aphid colonies, single aphids were inoculated onto single in vitro seedlings. After three rounds of transfer of 'clean' aphids to fresh in vitro seedlings, contamination was no longer observed, and aphids performed equally well when compared with those reared on detached leaves. The addition of the insecticides thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole to the culture medium confirmed uptake and caused significant mortality to the in vitro aphids. The use of the antimicrobial mixture removed the associated bacteria Arsenophonus but retained Buchnera and Wolbachia within the in vitro aphids. The in vitro aphid system is a novel and highly useful tool to understand insecticidal efficacy and expand our knowledge of tritrophic interactions among plants, insects and symbionts. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.

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    Wei Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD. Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  18. Resistance to Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in transgenic soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill Fabales, Fabaceae cultivar IAS5 expressing a modified Cry1Ac endotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Schenkel Homrich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryos of the commercial soybean (Glycine max cultivar IAS5 were co-transformed using particle bombardment with a synthetic form of the Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin crystal protein gene cry1Ac, the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene gusA and the hygromycin resistance gene hpt. Hygromycin-resistant tissues were proliferated individually to give rise to nine sets of clones corresponding to independent transformation events. The co-bombardment resulted in a co-transformation efficiency of 44%. Many histodifferentiated embryos and 30 well-developed plants were obtained. Twenty of these plants flowered and fourteen set seeds. The integration and expression of the cry1Ac, gusA and hpt transgenes into the genomes of a sample of transformed embryos and all T0, T1, T2 and T3 plants were confirmed by Gus activity, PCR, Southern and western blot, and ELISA techniques. Two T0 plants out of the seven co-transformed plants produced seeds and were analyzed for patterns of integration and inheritance until the T3 generation. Bioassays indicated that the transgenic plants were highly toxic to the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis, thus offering a potential for effective insect resistance in soybean.

  19. Nitrate Reductases from Wild-Type and nr(1)-Mutant Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) Leaves : I. Purification, Kinetics, and Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, L; Nelson, R S; Harper, J E

    1985-05-01

    NADH:nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) and NAD(P)H:nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.2) were purified from wild-type soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., cv Williams) and nr(1)-mutant soybean plants. Purification included Blue Sepharose- and hydroxylapatite-column chromatography using acetone powders from fully expanded unifoliolate leaves as the enzyme source.Two forms of constitutive nitrate reductase were sequentially eluted with NADPH and NADH from Blue Sepharose loaded with extract from wild-type plants grown on urea as sole nitrogen source. The form eluted with NADPH was designated c(1)NR, and the form eluted with NADH was designated c(2)NR. Nitrate-grown nr(1) mutant soybean plants yielded a NADH:nitrate reductase (designated iNR) when Blue Sepharose columns were eluted with NADH; NADPH failed to elute any NR form from Blue Sepharose loaded with this extract. Both c(1)NR and c(2)NR had similar pH optima of 6.5, sedimentation behavior (s(20,w) of 5.5-6.0), and electrophoretic mobility. However, c(1)NR was more active with NADPH than with NADH, while c(2)NR preferred NADH as electron donor. Apparent Michaelis constants for nitrate were 5 millimolar (c(1)NR) and 0.19 millimolar (c(2)NR). The iNR from the mutant had a pH optimum of 7.5, s(20,w) of 7.6, and was less mobile on polyacrylamide gels than c(1)NR and c(2)NR. The iNR preferred NADH over NADPH and had an apparent Michaelis constant of 0.13 millimolar for nitrate.Thus, wild-type soybean contains two forms of constitutive nitrate reductase, both differing in their physical properties from nitrate reductases common in higher plants. The inducible nitrate reductase form present in soybeans, however, appears to be similar to most substrateinduced nitrate reductases found in higher plants.

  20. Efeito do metribuzin sobre a fotossíntese e a tolerância em plantas de soja (Glycine max (L. merrill Effects of metribuzin on photosynthesis and tolerance of soybean (Glycine max (L. merill plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes doses de metribuzin na taxa fotossintética líquida e na tolerância de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L. Merill, 'Uberaba' e 'Alvorada ', foi conduzido um experimento, em casa de vegetação, no Centro de Pesquisa do Cacau (CEPEC, Ilhéus, BA. Não se constataram diferenças significativas para o efeito das varie dades e para a inter ação variedades x doses, para todos os da dos analisados. Os valores médios da taxa fotossintética líquida foram 22,92; 19,87 e 18,20 mg CO2.dm-2.h-1, para as variedades 'Uberaba ' e 'Alvorada ' submetida s as doses de 0,0; 0,4 e 0,8 kg i.a. ha-1 de metri buzin, respectivamente. O efeito do metri buzin sobre a taxa fotossintética liquida foi evidenciado somente nas plant as submetidas a dose de 0,8 kg i.a. ha-1. O herbi cida não influenciou a abertura estomátic a nem a taxa transpiratória. Com o aumento das doses de metribuzin, ocorreu redução no peso médio da matéria seca da parte aérea, da raiz e da área foliar media das plantas de soja. Destes da dos analisados, verificou-se que o herbicida em menor dose causou mais redução no peso da matéria seca da raiz do que da parte aérea. Doses subletais do metribuzin causaram efeito estimulante na matéria seca relativa da parte aérea, da raiz e da área foliar, nas plantas da variedade 'Uberaba'. Na determinação da inibição de 50 (I50 dos valores acima, verificou se que o metribuzin exerceu maior efeito fitotóxico nas raízes das plantas da variedade 'Alvorada', mostrando ter esta variedade menor capacidade para metabolizar o metribuzin em compostos não-fitotóxicos do que a 'Uberaba'.The effects of different doses of metribuzin on net photosynthetic rates and tolerance of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill, 'Alvorada' e Uberaba' pla nta was studiet in glasshouse conditions at Centro de Pesquisa do Cacau (CE-PEC, Ilhéus, BA. No significant differences were observed either among the varieties or the

  1. SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DO SOLO: SOJA [Glycine max (L.] CONSORCIADA COM Brachiaria decumbens (STAPF SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: SOYBEAN [Glycine max (L.] INTERCROPPED WITH Brachiaria decumbens (STAPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel da Silva Barros

    2011-01-01

    vagem, número de grãos por planta, massa de 1.000 grãos e produtividade; e 2 B. decumbens: composição química das plantas, além do acúmulo de matéria seca, em cinco épocas de amostragens. Os sistemas de manejo do solo influenciaram o estande de plantas e a concentração de P, Cu, Fe e Zn, na soja, além do S, na Brachiaria decumbens. O sistema plantio direto apresentou maior produtividade de grãos e produção de fitomassa de B. decumbens, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Largo (AL.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Plantio direto; integração lavoura-pecuária; cultivo mínimo.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different soil management systems on the soybean yield components intercropped or not with Metabolism variation and better storability of dark- versus light-coloured soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Qin, Wen-Ting; Wu, Hai-Jun; Yang, Cai-Qiong; Deng, Jun-Cai; Iqbal, Nasir; Liu, Wei-Guo; Du, Jun-Bo; Shu, Kai; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2017-05-15

    The effects of storage duration on the seed germination and metabolite profiling of soybean seeds with five different coloured coats were studied. Their germination, constituents and transcript expressions of isoflavones and free fatty acids (FFAs) were compared using chromatographic metabolomic profiling and transcriptome sequencing. The seed water content was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed that dark-coloured seeds were less inactivated than light-coloured seeds. The aglycone and β-glucoside concentrations of upstream constituents increased significantly, whereas the acetylglucosides and malonylglucosides of downstream constituents decreased with an increase in the storage period. FFAs increased considerably in the soybean seeds as a result of storage. These results indicate that dark-coloured soybean seeds have better storability than light-coloured seeds, and seed water content plays a role in seed inactivation. It was concluded that there are certain metabolic regularities that are associated with different coloured seed coats of soybeans under storage conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolomic Profiling of Soybeans (Glycine Max L.) Reveals Importance of Sugar and Nitogen Metabolisms under Drought and Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean, an important legume crop, is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially drought and heat stress. At molecular levels, reduced yields due to drought and heat stress can be seen in the alterations of metabolic homeostasis of vegetative tissues. A global metabolomics approach can b...

  3. Complexation of bovine beta-lactoglobulin with 11S protein fractions of soybean (Glycine max) and sesame (Sesamum indicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, S N; Prakash, V

    2009-01-01

    Beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) comprises 50% of the whey component of bovine milk. Protein-protein interactions between bovine beta-Lg and 11S protein fractions of soybean and sesame were investigated by turbidity, solubility behaviour and by evaluation of functional properties in the mixed systems. In this work, the aggregation behaviour of soybean and the whey protein (beta-Lg) showed the formation of soluble complexes. Turbidity and solubility studies showed that the proteins interacted at temperatures between 60 and 90+/-5 degrees C. Heating a mixture of beta-Lg and 11S proteins of soybean at higher temperatures formed soluble complexes with beta-Lg. It also reduced the self aggregation behaviour, especially that of 11S protein fraction of soybean. This reduced the precipitation of soybean proteins at higher temperature. The complex formed was resolved by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Upon heating beta-Lg at neutral pH, native dimer starts to dissociate into monomers leading to the exposure of previously buried hydrophobic amino acids and the free thiol group. The soluble complex is formed by the exposed thiol groups. But interaction of beta-Lg with sesame 11S protein fractions did not form any soluble complexes. The mechanism of interaction indicates that hydrophobic interactions were preferred over disulfide linkages at the high salt concentrations of the buffer used. During thermal treatment the molecules are unfolded, leading to an exposure of the hydrophobic groups that further enhance the protein-protein interactions that are entropically driven hydrophobic interactions.

  4. Stability of soybean aphid resistance in soybean across different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is the most important insect pest posing a threat to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., grain production in the United States. Soybean cultivars with resistance are currently being deployed to aid in management of the pest. Temperature has been reported to ...

  5. Resposta da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill à ação de bioestimulante = Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill response to biostimulant action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestina Alflen Klahold

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar o efeito do bioestimulante, Stimulate®, aplicado via semente e pulverização foliar, na cultura da soja, conduziu-se um experimento sob ambiente protegido, em vasos. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de doses de bioestimulate, aplicadas via semente (0, 3 e 5 mL kg-1 de sementes na semeadura e via foliar (0,0; 0,075; 0,150 e 0,225 mL L-1, aos 58 dias após a emergência (DAE. Realizaram-se coletas de plantas aos 73 e 129 DAE.Para algumas das variáveis estudadas, nas doses utilizadas, houve efeito negativo na resposta à aplicação de bioestimulante, para algumas doses testadas. Respostas positivas foram verificadas para massa seca de flores, raízes, razão raiz/parte aérea, número de flores, vagens e grãos e produção por planta. Destacaram-se positivamente os tratamentos: 0,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,150 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,0 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS+ 0,225 mL L-1 (APF e 5,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,075 mL L-1 (APF.Aiming to verify the effect of the bioestimulant, Stimulate®, applied saw by seed and leaf pulverization, in the culture of the soybean. It behaved an experiment under greenhouse, in vases. Randomized block experimental design was used, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the combination of bioestimulant doses: seed application (SA (0; 3; and 5 mL kg-1 of seeds in the sowing and leaf spray (LS (0.0; 0.075; 0.150; and 0.225 mL L- 1, to the 58 days after the emergency (DAE. Collections of plants were accomplished to the 73 and 129 DAE. For some of the studied variables, in the used doses, there was negative effect in the response of the biostimulant application, for some tested doses. Positives responses were verified for flowers and roots dry mass; root/shoot relation; flowers; beans and grains number; and yield for plant. They stood out the treatments: 0,0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.150 mL L-1 (LS; 3.0 mL 0.5 kg

  6. Introgression of null allele of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor through marker-assisted backcross breeding in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranna, Shivakumar; Verma, Khushbu; Talukdar, Akshay; Lal, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Anil; Mukherjee, Keya

    2016-07-12

    Presence of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) in soybean seeds necessitates pre-heat treatment of the soy-flour for its inactivation before using it in food and feed products. The heat treatment not only enhances processing costs of the soy-based foods and feeds but also affects seed-protein quality and solubility. Genetic elimination of KTI is an important and effective approach. Therefore, molecular marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB) approach was adopted for genetic elimination of KTI from two popular soybean genotypes, DS9712 and DS9814. PI542044, an exotic germplasm line was used as donor of the kti allele which inhibits functional KTI peptide production. Foreground selection for the kti allele was performed with three closely linked SSR markers while background selection was done with 93 polymorphic SSR markers. Plants in the BC1F1 generation were found to recover 70.4-87.63 % and 60.26-73.78 % of the recurrent parent genome (RPG) of DS9712 and DS9814, respectively. Similarly, selected plants in the BC2F1 generation had 93.01-98.92 % and 83.3-91.67 % recovery of their respective RPGs. Recombinant selection was performed so as to identify plants with minimal linkage drag. Biochemical analysis of the seeds of the selected plants (ktikti) confirmed absence of KTI peptides in the seeds. Phenotypically, the selected plants were comparable to the respective recurrent parent in yield and other traits. MABB approach helped in speedy development of 6 KTI free breeding lines of soybean. Such lines will be suitable for the farmers and the soybean industries to use in production of soy-based foods and feeds without pre-heat treatment of the soy-flour. It would contribute towards wider acceptability of soy-based foods and feeds.

  7. Seed-borne fungi of soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr) in the guinea savannah agroecology of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Oladimeji; Balogun Olusegun S.; Fawole Oluyemisi B.; Fabiyi Oluwatoyin A.; Hussein Aliyu T.; Kassoum Kassoum O.

    2016-01-01

    Seed health testing of fifteen soybean cultivars obtained from five locations in the Guinea Savannah agro-ecology of Nigeria was carried out using two main seed health testing methods described by the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA); the standard blotter and two variants of agar plate incubation method (Potato Dextrose Agar and Czapeck Dox Agar plate methods) to determine the seed infection by fungi. Seed component plating was also carried out...

  8. Functional analysis of duplicated Symbiosis Receptor Kinase (SymRK) genes during nodulation and mycorrhizal infection in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Wilde, Julia; Hayashi, Satomi; Li, Dongxue; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2015-03-15

    Association between legumes and rhizobia results in the formation of root nodules, where symbiotic nitrogen fixation occurs. The early stages of this association involve a complex of signalling events between the host and microsymbiont. Several genes dealing with early signal transduction have been cloned, and one of them encodes the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinase (SymRK; also termed NORK). The Symbiosis Receptor Kinase gene is required by legumes to establish a root endosymbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria as well as mycorrhizal fungi. Using degenerate primer and BAC sequencing, we cloned duplicated SymRK homeologues in soybean called GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ. These duplicated genes have high similarity of nucleotide (96%) and amino acid sequence (95%). Sequence analysis predicted a malectin-like domain within the extracellular domain of both genes. Several putative cis-acting elements were found in promoter regions of GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ, suggesting a participation in lateral root development, cell division and peribacteroid membrane formation. The mutant of SymRK genes is not available in soybean; therefore, to know the functions of these genes, RNA interference (RNAi) of these duplicated genes was performed. For this purpose, RNAi construct of each gene was generated and introduced into the soybean genome by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation. RNAi of GmSymRKβ gene resulted in an increased reduction of nodulation and mycorrhizal infection than RNAi of GmSymRKα, suggesting it has the major activity of the duplicated gene pair. The results from the important crop legume soybean confirm the joint phenotypic action of GmSymRK genes in both mycorrhizal and rhizobial infection seen in model legumes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of using Quail Litter Biochar on Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Production Efecto del uso de Biocarbón de Lecho de Codorniz en la Producción de Soya (Glycine max L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawadchai Suppadit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochars can be used as soil amendments for improving soil properties and crop yield. The objective of this research was to study the plant growth, yield, yield components, and seed quality, including nutrients and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg, in the soybean plant (Glycine max L. Merr. and soil. The experiment was conducted from September 2010 to January 2011 in a greenhouse located in the Dan Khun Thot District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The research comprised six treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. Quail litter biochar (QLB at rates of 0, 24.6, 49.2, 73.8, 98.4 and 123 g per pot mixture were provided to soybean cv. Chiang Mai 60. The results showed that QLB could be used as a soil fertility improvement and amendment for soybean production with an optimum rate of 98.4 g per pot mixture, which gave the best performance in terms of the number of nodes, height, DM accumulation, total yield, and seed quality. After the experiment, the nutrient contents in the soil increased as the QLB content increased, but the heavy metal residues in the leaves and seeds did not change. However, QLB at levels higher than 98.4 g per pot mixture is not advisable because QLB is alkaline in nature, which may affect soil pH.El biocarbón puede usarse como enmienda para mejorar las propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento del cultivo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue el estudio del crecimiento de la planta, rendimiento y sus características, así como la calidad de semilla, incluyéndose el estudio de nutrientes y metales pesados (Pb, Cd y Hg en la planta de soya (Glycine max L. Merr. y el suelo. La experimentación se realizó en condiciones de invernadero en el distrito de Dan Khun Thot, provincia de Nakhon Ratchasima, Tailandia, entre septiembre del 2010 y enero del 2011. La investigación constó de seis tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones en un diseño completamente al azar. Se administró biocarbón de lecho de

  10. Compositional variability in conventional and glyphosate-tolerant soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties grown in different regions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Berman, Kristina H; Breeze, Matthew L; Nemeth, Margaret A; Oliveira, Wladecir S; Braga, Daniella P V; Berger, Geraldo U; Harrigan, George G

    2011-11-09

    The compositions of a diverse range of commercially available conventional and genetically modified (GM; glyphosate-tolerant) soybean varieties from maturity groups 8 and 5, respectively, grown in the northern and southern soybean regions of Brazil during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 growing seasons were compared. Compositional analyses included measurement of essential macro- and micronutrients, antinutrients, and selected secondary metabolites in harvested seed as well as measurement of proximates in both forage and harvested seed. Statistical comparisons utilized a mixed analysis of variance model to evaluate the relative contributions of growing season, soybean growing region, production site, phenotype (GM or conventional), and variety. The study highlighted extensive variability in the overall data set particularly for components such as fatty acids, vitamin E, and isoflavones. There were few differences between the GM and non-GM populations, and most of the variability in the data set could be attributed to regional and variety differences. Overall, the results were consistent with the expanding literature on the lack of any meaningful impact of transgene insertion on crop composition.

  11. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  12. Putting the spotlight back on plant suspension cultures

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    Rita B. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell suspension cultures have several advantages that make them suitable for the production of recombinant proteins. They can be cultivated under aseptic conditions using classical fermentation technology, they are easy to scale-up for manufacturing, and the regulatory requirements are similar to those established for well-characterized production systems based on microbial and mammalian cells. It is therefore no surprise that taliglucerase alfa (Elelyso® – the first licensed recombinant pharmaceutical protein derived from plants – is produced in plant cell suspension cultures. But despite this breakthrough, plant cells are still largely neglected compared to transgenic plants and the more recent plant-based transient expression systems. Here, we revisit plant cell suspension cultures and highlight recent developments in the field that show how the rise of plants cells parallels that of Chinese hamster ovary cells, currently the most widespread and successful manufacturing platform for biologics. These developments include medium optimization, process engineering, statistical experimental designs, scale-up/scale-down models and process analytical technologies. Significant yield increases for diverse target proteins will encourage a gold rush to adopt plant cells as a platform technology, and the first indications of this breakthrough are already on the horizon.

  13. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Dubouzet, Joseph G; Matsumura, Hisakazu; Yasuda, Kentaro; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2010-07-28

    Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be a useful tool for studies of

  14. The essence of NAC gene family to the cultivation of drought-resistant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Reem M; Ali, Mohammed; Feng, Xing; Li, Xia

    2017-02-28

    The NAC gene family is notable due to its large size, as well as its relevance in crop cultivation - particularly in terms of enhancing stress tolerance of plants. These plant-specific proteins contain NAC domain(s) that are named after Petunia NAM and Arabidopsis ATAF1/2 and CUC2 transcription factors based on the consensus sequence they have. Despite the knowledge available regarding NAC protein function, an extensive study on the possible use of GmNACs in developing soybean cultivars with superior drought tolerance is yet to be done. In response to this, our study was carried out, mainly through means of phylogenetic analysis (rice and Arabidopsis NAC genes served as seeding sequences). Through this, 139 GmNAC genes were identified and later grouped into 17 clusters. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR was carried out on drought-stressed and unstressed leaf tissues of both sensitive (B217 and H228) and tolerant (Jindou 74 and 78) cultivars. This was done to analyze the gene expression of 28 dehydration-responsive GmNAC genes. Upon completing the analysis, it was found that GmNAC gene expression is actually dependent on genotype. Eight of the 28 selected genes (GmNAC004, GmNAC021, GmNAC065, GmNAC066, GmNAC073, GmNAC082, GmNAC083 and GmNAC087) were discovered to have high expression levels in the drought-resistant soybean varieties tested. This holds true for both extreme and standard drought conditions. Alternatively, the drought-sensitive cultivars exhibited lower GmNAC expression levels in comparison to their tolerant counterparts. The study allowed for the identification of eight GmNAC genes that could be focused upon in future attempts to develop superior soybean varieties, particularly in terms of drought resistance. This study revealed that there were more dehydration-responsive GmNAC genes as (GmNAC004, GmNAC005, GmNAC020 and GmNAC021) in addition to what were reported in earlier inquiries. It is important to note though, that discovering such

  15. Evaluation of Clethodim Herbicide Efficiency in Comparison to other Graminicides for Weedy Grasses Control in Soybean (Glycin max L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S Mousavi; P Sabeti; N Bagherani

    2013-01-01

    Field studies were conducted at Lorestan, Kermanshah and Golestan provinces in 2006 to separately evaluation of Clethodim herbicide for weedy grass control in soybean. All experiments were designed as randomized complete blocks with four replicates. Treatments included: clethodim at 0.6, 0.8, 1, and 1.2 L/ha; cycloxydim at 3 L/ha; Haloxyfop-R-methyl at 0.75 L/ha; Quizalofop-P-ethyl at 2 L/ha; and weeding control. In Lorestan postemergence application of clethodim at 1.2 L/ha reduced grass wee...

  16. Tolerância do tamanho da semente de soja (Glycine max (L. Merr. ao metribuzin Tolerance of soybeans (Glycine max (L. merr. seeds of different sizes to metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ferreira da Silva

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi instalado em casa-de-vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar a tolerância de três tamanhos de sementes de soja (Glycine max (L. Merr., cv. UFV-1 classificadas nas peneiras de 10/64" x 3/4", 13/64" x 3/4" e 15/64 x 3/4", a diferentes doses de metribuzin (4-amino-6-tertbutil-3-(metiltio-as-triazina-5(4H ona . As doses de 0, 300, 600, 900 e 1.200g do i.a./ha foram aplicadas nos materiais do solo de Ponta Nova-MG classificado como franco-argilo-arenoso, e as doses de 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 e 600g do i.a./ha em areia lavada. Nos materiais de solo de Ponte Nova, a inibição de 50% do crescimento (I50 das plantas de soja correspondeu à aplicação de 600, 1050 e 1150 g/ha de metribuzin, enquanto em areia lavada os I-,,, foram de 150, 210 e 265g/ha de metribuzin para as sementes retidas nas peneiras 10/64" x 3/4", 13/64" x 3/4" e 15/64" x 3/4", respectivamente. O aumento do tamanho da semente aumentou a toleráncia da soja ao metribuzin.The tolerance of soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merr. seeds of three different sizes to the herbicide metribuzin (4-amino-6-tert-butil-3-(metiltio-astriazina-5(4Hona was examined in greenhouse. Seeds were separated on 10/64" x 3/4", 13/64" x x 3/4" and 15/64" x 3/4" sieves. Herbicide doses equivalent to 0, 300, 600, 900 and 1.200g a.i./ha were applied to a sandy loam Ponte Nova (M.G. soil and 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 to 600g a.i./ha to washed sand. The growth of seeds of size 10, 13 and 15 were 50% inhibited (I50 at levels of 600, 1050 and 1150g of metribuzin in the soil and 150, 210 and 265g/ha in the sand. Thus larger seeds showed greater tolerance.

  17. Effect of silicon addition on soybean (Glycine max) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants grown under iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, María José; Lucena, Juan J; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    Silicon is considered an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, the role of Si in the alleviation of iron deficiency symptoms and in the Fe distribution in iron deficient plants has been studied. Thus, soybean and cucumber plants grown in hydroponic culture under iron limiting conditions were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM). The use of a strong chelating agent such as HBED avoided Fe co-precipitation in the nutrient solution and allowed for the first time the analysis of Si effect in iron nutrition without the interference of the iron rhizospheric precipitation. SPAD index, plant growth parameters and mineral content in plant organs were determined. For soybean, the addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution without iron, initially or continuously during the experiment, prevented the chlorophyll degradation, slowed down the growth decrease due to the iron deficiency and maintained the Fe content in leaves. In cucumber, Si addition delayed the decrease of stem dry weight, stem length, node number and iron content in stems and roots independently of the dose, but no-effect was observed in chlorosis symptoms alleviation in leaves. The observed response to Si addition in iron deficiency was plant-specific, probably related with the different Fe efficiency strategies developed by these two species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. ANALYSIS AND EXPRESSION OF AL-TOLERANT GENES FROM SOYBEAN [Glycine max (L. Merryl] ON FORAGE CROPS AND Escherichia coli

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    S. Anwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available n order to analyze and to study expressions of the Al-tolerant genes, we have examined five clone genes that were isolated from soybean cv. Lumut. Soybean cv. Lumut and Slamet, Centrocema pubescens, Pennisetum purpureum and Escherichia coli were selected for futher analysis. Based on the DNA sequencing, searching enzyme restriction sites and searching DNA homology with the genebank database; the clones encoding: (1 Catalase (gmali12, that function as an antioxidant, (2 Proliferating cell nuclear antigen like protein/PCNALP (gmali15, that involved as one of transcriptional regulator in the eucaryotic cell cycle, (3 Growth hormone (gmali22, this gene may play a role on stimulation of cell growth/development, (4 Amine oxidase (gmAO, genebank accession number AF313622, a gene that function as amine oxidation and/or antioxidant, and (5 Aminoacyl peptidase (gmAP, genebank accession number AF091304, a serine protease gene. Expressions of the clone genes either on forage crops or Escherichia coli indicated that all of the clones are basic genes, but its expression increased with aluminium induction (Al-induced genes and involved in detoxification to Al stress. From this research, we also found similar responses between oxidative stress and Al stress to gene responses.

  19. Evaluation of Clethodim Herbicide Efficiency in Comparison to other Graminicides for Weedy Grasses Control in Soybean (Glycin max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mousavi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted at Lorestan, Kermanshah and Golestan provinces in 2006 to separately evaluation of Clethodim herbicide for weedy grass control in soybean. All experiments were designed as randomized complete blocks with four replicates. Treatments included: clethodim at 0.6, 0.8, 1, and 1.2 L/ha; cycloxydim at 3 L/ha; Haloxyfop-R-methyl at 0.75 L/ha; Quizalofop-P-ethyl at 2 L/ha; and weeding control. In Lorestan postemergence application of clethodim at 1.2 L/ha reduced grass weed biomass by 74%. In Kermanshah, postemergence application of clethodim at 1.2 L/ha reduced grass weed density by 78%. In Golestan, post emergence application of clethodim at 1, and 1.2 L/ha reduced barnyarad grass density 75% and 80% respectively. Accordingly, use of clethodim for grass weed control in soybean, because of high-performance and lower consumption in comparison with some common herbicides is recommended.

  1. Comparison of saponin composition and content in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) before and after germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Panneerselvam; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Takahashi, Yuya; Hongo, Yuji; Singh, Ram J; Lee, Jeong Dong; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2014-01-01

    Eight wild soybean accessions with different saponin phenotypes were used to examine saponin composition and relative saponin quantity in various tissues of mature seeds and two-week-old seedlings by LC-PDA/MS/MS. Saponin composition and content were varied according to tissues and accessions. The average total saponin concentration in 1 g mature dry seeds of wild soybean was 16.08 ± 3.13 μmol. In two-week-old seedlings, produced from 1 g mature seeds, it was 27.94 ± 6.52 μmol. Group A saponins were highly concentrated in seed hypocotyl (4.04 ± 0.71 μmol). High concentration of DDMP saponins (7.37 ± 5.22 μmol) and Sg-6 saponins (2.19 ± 0.59 μmol) was found in cotyledonary leaf. In seedlings, the amounts of group A and Sg-6 saponins reduced 2.3- and 1.3-folds, respectively, while DDMP + B + E saponins increased 2.5-fold than those of mature seeds. Our findings show that the group A and Sg-6 saponins in mature seeds were degraded and/or translocated by germination whereas DDMP saponins were newly synthesized.

  2. Isolation and Cloning of cDNA of Gene Encoding for Metallothionein Type 2 from Soybean [Glycine max (L. (Merrill] cv. Slamet

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    UTUT WIDYASTUTI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Metallothionein has an important role in the detoxification of metal ions. It has a low molecular weight and contains cysteine-rich residue. The objective of this research is to isolate and clone the cDNA of gene encoding for metallothionein from soybean [Glycine max (L. (Merrill] cv Slamet (GmMt2. We had successfully isolated total RNA by reverse transcription and synthesized total cDNA from total RNA as template. cDNA of GmMt2 had been isolated from total cDNA by PCR. It was successfully inserted into pGEM-T Easy plasmid, and the recombinant plasmids were introduced into Escherichia coli strain DH5α. Sequence analysis by using T7 and SP6 primers showed that the length of PCR-isolated fragment is 257 bp containing 246 bp completed sequence of Mt2 cDNA encoding for 81 amino acids. Enzyme restriction analysis showed that GmMt2 does not contain any restriction sites found in the multi cloning sites of pGEM-T easy. Nucleotide and amino acid alignment analysis using BLAST program showed that GmMt2 is similar with completed cDNA of AtMt2A from Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that the motifs of Cys sequence of GmMT2 are Cys-Cys, Cys-X-Cys, and Cys-X-X-Cys.

  3. Desempenho de genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L. Merril] em diferentes densidades Performance of genotypes of early-cycle vegetable soybeans [Glycine max (L. Merril] in different densities

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    Hamilton César de O. Charlo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar o desempenho de dois genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L. Merril], em diferentes densidades, foi instalado um ensaio, em área experimental do Setor de Olericultura e Plantas Aromático-Medicinais, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal, nas dependências da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV-UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de parcelas subdivididas, adotando-se nas parcelas os genótipos e nas subparcelas as densidades, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Cada parcela experimental foi constituída por quatro linhas de 4,5m de plantio, com densidades de 20, 10 e 7 plantas por metro e 0,60m nas entrelinhas, sendo consideradas para avaliação 20 plantas por parcela, das duas linhas centrais. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células, contendo substrato Plantmax Hortaliças®. O transplantio ocorreu dez dias após a semeadura, em solo devidamente preparado, conforme recomendações para a cultura. A colheita foi realizada quando os legumes estavam em estádio reprodutivo R6. Avaliaram-se os genótipos JLM010 e CNPSOI quanto às características: número médio de legumes por planta, número médio de sementes por legume, massa fresca de 100 sementes e produtividade estimada de grãos imaturos. Com base nos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o genótipo JLM010 é o mais recomendado e deve ser plantado na densidade de 7 plantas por metro.With the aim of evaluating the performance of two genotypes of early-cycle soybeans [Glycine max (L. Merril] in different spacings, a study was carried out in the experimental area of the Sector of Vegetable Crops and Aromatic Medicinal Plants, belonging to the Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences (FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus-SP. The experimental design used was the one of subdivided parcels, each parcel representing

  4. Responses of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities to tillage and fertilization systems in soybean (Glycine max L. production

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    Gholamreza Heidari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tillage operation and fertilizer type play important roles in soil properties as far as soil microbial condition is concerned. Information regarding the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of long-term tillage and fertilization on the soil microbial traits of soybean farms is not available. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that, the microbial biomass and enzyme activity, more often than not, respond quickly to changes in soil tillage and fertilization. Therefore, the experiments were aimed at analyzing the responses of soil microbial traits to tillage and fertilization in a soybean field in Kurdistan University, Iran. The field soil is categorized into coarse Loamy, mixed, superactive, calcareous, and mesic Typic Xerorthents. The experiments were arranged in split plot, based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots consisted of long-term (since 2002 tillage systems including conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no-tillage (NT. Eight fertilization methods were employed in the sub-plots, including (F1: farmyard manure (FYM; (F2: compost; (F3: chemical fertilizers; (F4: FYM + compost; (F5: FYM + chemical fertilizers; (F6: compost + chemical fertilizers; (F7: FYM + compost + chemical fertilizers and (F8: Control (without fertilizer. The highest microbial biomass carbon (385.1 μg was observed in NT-F4 treatment. The NT treatment comparatively recorded higher values of acid phosphatase (189.1 μg PNP g-1 h-1, alkaline phosphatase (2879.6 μg PNP g-1 h-1 and dehydrogenase activity (68.1 μg PNP g-1 h-1. The soil treated with a mixture of compost and FYM inputs had the maximum urease activity of all tillage treatments. Organically manured treatment (F4 showed more activity in dehydrogenase (85.7 μg PNP g-1 h-1, acid phosphatase (199.1 µg PNP g-1 h-1 and alkaline phosphatase (3183.6 µg PNP g-1 h-1 compared to those treated with chemical fertilizers. In NT-F4 treatment, using on-farm inputs is most

  5. Genetic background and environmental conditions drive metabolic variation in wild type and transgenic soybean (Glycine max) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagai; Shir, Ofer M; Yu, Yang; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Han, Tianfu; Amir, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic profiles and composition of storage reserves of agricultural crop seeds are strongly regulated by heritable and environmental factors. Yet, very little is known about the genetic and environmental determinants of adaptive metabolic variation amongst wild type as well as transgenic seed populations derived from the same genetic background, grown under natural field conditions. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of natural environmental conditions on wild type and transgenic soybean seeds expressing a feedback-insensitive form of cystathionine γ-synthase, a methionine main regulatory enzyme. The seeds were grown in four geographically distinct habitats in China and then assayed for primary metabolic profiles using gas chromatography mass spectrometry, morphological traits and storage reserve accumulation. The analyses revealed changes in the levels of primary metabolites which evidently exhibited high correlation to methionine regardless of changes in environmental conditions. The environment, however, constituted a major determinant of metabolic profiles amongst seeds, as much more metabolites were observed to be affected by this variable, particularly along the north-to-south latitudinal gradient. The observations suggest that metabolic variation amongst seeds grown under natural field conditions depends upon the complex relationships existing amongst their genetic background and the environmental conditions characterizing their cultivation areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of inoculation and time of application of microbes on growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill

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    S Muslikah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of inorganic fertilizers continuously can result in hardening of soil, narrowing of soil pores, thus the roots will have difficulty in penetrating soil. Biological properties of soil that decreases could lead to disruption of microorganism activity, so that the decomposition of organic matter of soil become obstructedand soil fertility decline. Therefore, it is advisable to use an alternative to application of microbes, i.e. Rhizobium and effective microorganisms 4 (EM4 that will enhance the availability of nutrients for plants. This study was aimed to determine the effect of inoculation and time of application of the microbes on the growth and yield of soybean. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse located 500 m above sea level. The design used for the experiment was a completely randomized design with three replications. Observations of non-destructive and destructive data were analyzed by analysis of variance (F test at 5% level and continued with LSD at 5% level. The results showed significant effect treatments applied on the growth and yield components. Treatment i6 (EM4 applied at 1 week after planting was the best treatment, as shown by the increased number of pods by 95.94%,  dry weight of pods by 38.25%, total dry matter, seed by 24.61%, and 68.40% weight of 100 seeds.

  7. Redox markers for drought-induced nodule senescence, a process occurring after drought-induced senescence of the lowest leaves in soybean (Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Garcia, Belén; Shaw, Daniel; Cooper, James William; Karpinska, Barbara; Quain, Marian Dorcas; Makgopa, Eugene Matome; Kunert, Karl; Foyer, Christine Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Water is an increasingly scarce resource that limits crop productivity in many parts of the world, and the frequency and severity of drought are predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Improving tolerance to drought stress is therefore important for maximizing future crop yields. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of drought on soybean (Glycine max) leaves and nodules in order to define phenotypic markers and changes in cellular redox state that characterize the stress response in different organs, and to characterize the relationships between leaf and nodule senescence during drought. Methods Leaf and crown nodule metabolite pools were measured together with leaf and soil water contents, and leaf chlorophyll, total protein contents and chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching parameters in nodulated soybeans that were grown under either well-watered conditions or deprived of water for up to 21 d. Key Results Ureides, ascorbate, protein, chlorophyll and the ratios of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv′) to maximal chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fm′) fell to levels below detection in the oldest leaves after 21 d of drought. While these drought-induced responses were not observed in the youngest leaf ranks, the Fv′/Fm′ ratios, pyridine nucleotide levels and the reduction state of the ascorbate pool were lower in all leaf ranks after 21 d of drought. In contrast to leaves, total nodule protein, pyridine nucleotides, ureides, ascorbate and glutathione contents increased as a result of the drought treatment. However, the nodule ascorbate pool was significantly less reduced as a result of drought. Higher levels of transcripts encoding two peroxiredoxins were detected in nodules exposed to drought stress but senescence-associated transcripts and other mRNAs encoding redox-related proteins were similar under both conditions. Conclusions While the physiological impact of the drought was perceived throughout the

  8. Fine mapping of the soybean aphid-resistance genes Rag6 and Rag3c from Glycine soja 85-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichen; Zhang, Zhongnan; Wen, Zixiang; Gu, Cuihua; An, Yong-Qiang Charles; Bales, Carmille; DiFonzo, Chris; Song, Qijian; Wang, Dechun

    2017-12-01

    Rag6 and Rag3c were delimited to a 49-kb interval on chromosome 8 and a 150-kb interval on chromosome 16, respectively. Structural variants in the exons of candidate genes were identified. The soybean aphid, an invasive species, has significantly threatened soybean production in North America since 2000. Host-plant resistance is known as an ideal management strategy for aphids. Two novel aphid-resistance loci, Rag6 and Rag3c, from Glycine soja 85-32, were previously detected in a 10.5-cM interval on chromosome 8 and a 7.5-cM interval on chromosome 16, respectively. Defining the exact genomic position of these two genes is critical for improving the effectiveness of marker-assisted selection for aphid resistance and for identification of the functional genes. To pinpoint the locations of Rag6 and Rag3c, four populations segregating for Rag6 and Rag3c were used to fine map these two genes. The availability of the Illumina Infinium SoySNP50K/8K iSelect BeadChip, combined with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers discovered through the whole-genome re-sequencing of E12901, facilitated the fine mapping process. Rag6 was refined to a 49-kb interval on chromosome 8 with four candidate genes, including three clustered nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes and an amine oxidase encoding gene. Rag3c was refined to a 150-kb interval on chromosome 16 with 11 candidate genes, two of which are a LRR gene and a lipase gene. Moreover, by sequencing the whole-genome exome-capture of the resistant source (E12901), structural variants were identified in the exons of the candidate genes of Rag6 and Rag3c. The closely linked SNP markers and the candidate gene information presented in this study will be significant resources for integrating Rag6 and Rag3c into elite cultivars and for future functional genetics studies.

  9. The effects of nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density on yield, yield components and oil and protein content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomandan, P; Khoramivafa, M; Haghi, Y; Ebrahimi, A

    2009-02-15

    Effects of nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density on yield and oil and protein content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) are not well understood, because nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density has been tested separately. Two years field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of these factors on yield, yield components, oil and protein content in 2006 and 2007 in Kermanshah, Iran. The experiment was conducted on soybean (var. Williams) as a split-plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Nitrogen starter fertilizer treatments were arranged in three rates (0, 40, 80 kg ha(-1)) as main plots and plant density as sub plots arranged with three levels (15, 30, 45 plant m(-2)). Based on similarity treatments and experimental designs, the results of analysis of combined variance and mean comparisons showed significant (528.4 kg ha(-1) yield increase as density increased from 30 to 45 plant m(-2) and nitrogen starter fertilizer increased from 0 to 40 kg ha(-1) in two years. Analysis of correlation showed a positive significant correlation between yield and number of seed per plant (r = 0.724), number of pods and yield (r = 0.463), thousand seed weight and yield (r = 0.437). A linear regression was found between yield and number of seed per plant, number of pods and thousand seed weight (yield = 37.58 + 0.73x1-0.14x2 + 0.7x3; r2 = 0.56); p < 0.01). Seed protein was unaffected by plant densities, but nitrogen application changed it. Dissimilarly, oil content has a diverse respond to treatments. This experiment showed density of 45 plant m(-2) and application of nitrogen starter fertilizer 40 kg ha(-1) are optimum and increase grain yield under condition of our experiment. We suggest to conduct some experiments for understanding of linear relationship for number of pod for understanding of linear relationship for number of pod for levels of nitrogen starter and quadratic relationship for number of seed for levels of density.

  10. Evaluation of constitutive iron reductase (AtFRO2 expression on mineral accumulation and distribution in soybean (Glycine max. L

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    Marta Wilton Vasconcelos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an important micronutrient in human and plant nutrition. Adequate iron nutrition during crop production is central for assuring appropriate iron concentrations in the harvestable organs, for human food or animal feed. The whole-plant movement of iron involves several processes, including the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron at several locations throughout the plant, prior to transmembrane trafficking of ferrous iron. In this study, soybean plants that constitutively expressed the AtFRO2 iron reductase gene were analyzed for leaf iron reductase activity, as well as the effect of this transgene's expression on root, leaf, pod wall, and seed mineral concentrations. High Fe supply, in combination with the constitutive expression of AtFRO2, resulted in significantly higher concentrations of different minerals in roots (K, P, Zn, Ca, Ni, Mg and Mo, pod walls (Fe, K, P, Cu and Ni, leaves (Fe, P, Cu, Ca, Ni and Mg and seeds (Fe, Zn, Cu and Ni. Leaf and pod wall iron concentrations increased as much as 500% in transgenic plants, while seed iron concentrations only increased by 10%, suggesting that factors other than leaf and pod wall reductase activity were limiting the translocation of iron to seeds. Protoplasts isolated from transgenic leaves had three-fold higher reductase activity than controls. Expression levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, were higher in the transgenic leaves than in wild-type, suggesting that the excess iron may be stored as ferritin in the leaves and therefore unavailable for phloem loading and delivery to the seeds. Also, citrate and malate levels in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type, suggesting that organic acid production could be related to the increased accumulation of minerals in roots, leaves and pod walls, but not in the seeds. All together, these results suggest a more ubiquitous role for the iron reductase in whole-plant mineral accumulation and

  11. Chemopreventive effect of raw and cooked lentils (Lens culinaris L) and soybeans (Glycine max) against azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam E; Takruri, Hamed R; Shomaf, Maha S; Bustanji, Yasser K

    2009-05-01

    Although lentils (Lens culinaris L) contain several bioactive compounds that have been linked to the prevention of cancer, the in vivo chemopreventive ability of lentils against chemically induced colorectal cancer has not been examined. Our present study examined the hypothesis that lentils could suppress the early carcinogenesis in vivo by virtue of their bioactive micro- and macroconstituents and that culinary thermal treatment could affect their chemopreventive potential. To accomplish this goal, we used raw whole lentils (RWL), raw split lentils (RSL), cooked whole lentils (CWL), and cooked split lentils (CSL). Raw soybeans (RSB; Glycine max) were used for the purpose of comparison with a well-studied chemopreventive agent. Sixty weanling Fischer 344 male rats, 4 to 5 weeks of age, were randomly assigned to 6 groups (10 rats/group): the control group (C) received AIN-93G diet, and treatment leguminous groups of RWL, CWL, RSL, CSL, and RSB received the treatment diets containing AIN-93G+5% of the above-mentioned legumes. After acclimatization for 1 week (at 5th to 6th week of age), all animals were put on the control and treatment diets separately for 5 weeks (from 6th to 11th week of age). At the end of the 5th week of feeding (end of 11th week of age), all rats received 2 subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane carcinogen at 15 mg/kg rat body weight per dose once a week for 2 consecutive weeks. After 17 weeks of the last azoxymethane injection (from 12th to 29th week of age), all rats were euthanized. Chemopreventive ability was assessed using colonic aberrant crypt foci and activity of hepatic glutathione-S-transferases. Significant reductions (P lentils might be protective against colon carcinogenesis and that hydrothermal treatment resulted in an improvement in the chemopreventive potential for the whole lentils.

  12. Host specificity of Aphelinus species collected from soybean aphid in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is native to Asia where it is an occasional pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.). Aphis glycines was found during 2000 in North America and since then has spread throughout much of the area where soybean is grown. In Asia, A. glycines ...

  13. Gas phase composition effects on suspension cultures of Taxus cuspidata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjalili, N.; Linden, J.C. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Bioresources Engineering

    1995-10-20

    The effect of different concentrations and combinations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ethylene on cell growth and taxol production in suspension cultures of Taxus cuspidata was investigated using several factorial design experiments. Low head space oxygen concentration (10% v/v) promoted early production of taxol. High carbon dioxide concentration (10% v/v) inhibited taxol production.The most effective gas mixture composition in terms of taxol production was 10% (v/v) oxygen, 0.5% (v/v) carbon dioxide, and 5 ppm ethylene. Cultures grown under ambient concentration of oxygen had a delayed uptake of glucose and fructose compared to cultures grown under 10% (v/v) oxygen. Average calcium uptake rates into the cultured cells decreased and average phosphate uptake rates increased as ethylene was increased from 0 to 10 ppm. These results may indicate that gas composition alters partitioning of nutrients, which in turn affects secondary metabolite production.

  14. FUNGICIDES EFFICIENCY TO SOYBEAN SEEDS TREATMENT EFICIÊNCIA DE FUNGICIDAS PARA O TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE SOJA (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Siqueira de Azevedo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out at Escola de Agronomia - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia - GO, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the following fungicides to soybean seeds treatment: 1 thiabendazole + thiram (17 + 70 g.a.i./100kg; 2 benomyl + thiram (g.a.i./100kg; 3 difenoconazole (5,0 g.a.i./100kg; 4 difenoconazole + thiram (5,0 + 70 g.a.i./100kg; 5 difenoconazole + captan (5,0 + 90 g.a.i./100kg; 6 carbendazin + thiram (30 + 70 g.a.i./100kg; 7 control. All fungicides reduced Fusarium semitectum and Colletotríchum truncatum incidence. Benomyl + thiram presented the highest efficiency in the control of these patogens. Difenoconazole didn’t present reasonable results, but difenoconazole + thiram was similar to thiabenazole + thiram. In field conditions, there was a meaningful increase in plant population as well as in productivity due to the fungicides treatment. Difenoconazole + thiram and carbendazin + thiram treatments provided higher stand at 12, 18 and 26 days after planting.

    KEY-WORDS: Fusarium semitectum; Colletotrichun truncatum; chemical control.

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de fungicidas para o tratamento de sementes de soja, foram conduzidos ensaios em laboratório e no campo (Escola de Agronomia - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia - GO, testando os seguintes tratamentos: 1 thiabendazole + thiram (17 + 70 g i.a./100 kg; 2 benomyl + thiram (30 + 70 g i.a./100 kg; 3 difenoconazole (5,0 g i.a./100 kg; 4 difenoconazole + thiram (5,0 + 70 g i.a./100 kg; 5 difenoconazole + captan (5,0 + 90 g i.a./100 kg; 6 carbendazin + thiram (30 + 70 g i.a./100 kg; 7 testemunha. Todos os fungicidas reduziram a incidência de Fusarium semitectum e Colletotrichum

  15. EFEITO DO ACIBENZOLAR-S-METHYL (BENZOTHIADIAZOLE, COMO INDUTOR DE RESISTÊNCIA SISTÊMICA EM SOJA (Glycine max cv. FTCRISTALINA, SOBRE Heterodera glycines EFFECT OF ACIBENZOLAR-S-METHYL (BENZOTHIADIAZOLE, AS A SOYBEAN SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE INDUCTOR, ON Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Martini

    2007-09-01

    ="justify">The systemic acquired resistance is an important self defense mechanism of plants against diseases and it can occur naturally or be induced with chemical products. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl (benzothiadiazole on the induction of resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, at Escola de Agronomia, Universidade Federal de Goias, in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 6 replications. Inoculum consisted of race 4 of H. glycines naturally infested soil, from Chapadão do Céu county. The soybean cv. FT-Cristalina was used for all experiment. Treatments were as follows: 1 control; 2 acibenzolar-S-methyl 0.15 g/l foliar spray; 3 acibenzolar-S-methyl 0.30 g/l foliar spray; 4 acibenzolar-S-methyl 0.15 g/l soil drench; 5 acibenzolar-Smethyl 0.30 g/l soil drench. Treatments were applied 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing. At the end of the crop cycle, evaluations were made on number of H. glycines females on roots, number of cysts per 100 cm3 of soil, and number of eggs per cyst. Significatly differences were not observed between treatments although fewer females occurred when the product was applied as a soil drench and, when it was applied as a soil drench at the higher concentration, on viable cysts in soil.

    KEY-WORDS: Systemic acquired resistance; benzothiadiazole; soybean cyst nematode.

  16. Soybean (Glycine max) allergy in Europe: Gly m 5 (beta-conglycinin) and Gly m 6 (glycinin) are potential diagnostic markers for severe allergic reactions to soy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Wackermann, Olga; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soybean is considered an important allergenic food, but published data on soybean allergens are controversial. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify relevant soybean allergens and correlate the IgE-binding pattern to clinical characteristics in European patients with confirmed soy allergy....

  17. Physiological responses of suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus to aluminum: changes in polyamines and inorganic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinhua Zhou; Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha

    1995-01-01

    The effects of aluminum (Al) treatment on polyamines were studied using suspension cultures of Madagascar periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don]. The addition of A1 (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mM) to the suspension cultures caused a significant increase in putrescine within 24h only in freshly transferred cells. By contrast, Al treatment reduced putrescine...

  18. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Benjamin F; Beard, Hunter; Brewer, Eric; Kabir, Sara; MacDonald, Margaret H; Youssef, Reham M

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN...

  19. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is a severe foliar disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that occurs throughout most soybean producing regions of the world. Soybean rust may be managed with fungicides, but the utilization of soybean cultivars that are resistant to the path...

  20. Characterization and genetics of multiple soybean aphid biotype resistance in five soybean plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest in the USA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the resistance expressed in the five plant introductions (PIs) to four soybean aphid biotypes, determine the mode of resistance in...

  1. [Study of genetic diversity and spatial structure of the wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) population from the Ekaterinovka in the south of Primorskii krai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A V; Nedoluzhko, A V; Martynov, V V; Dorokhov, D B

    2011-03-01

    Data are presented on the genetic diversity and spatial structure of the natural wild soybean population from the neighborhood of the settlement of Ekaterinovka in Primorskii krai and on the relationship between the genetic structure of this population and its spatial organization. These data are discussed in comparison with the results of studies of wild soybean populations in the Far East region of the Russian Federation and China. Recommendations are given concerning the collection of genetic wild soybean resources.

  2. Diacylglycerol Kinase from Suspension Cultured Plant Cells 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissing, Josef B.; Wagner, Karl G.

    1992-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinase (adenosine 5′-triphosphate:1,2-diacylglycerol 3-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.107), purified from suspension cultured Catharanthus roseus cells (J Wissing, S Heim, KG Wagner [1989] Plant Physiol 90: 1546-1551), was further characterized and its subcellular location was investigated. The enzyme revealed a complex dependency on lipids and surfactants; its activity was stimulated by certain phospholipids, with phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol as the most effective species, and by deoxycholate. In the presence of Triton X-100, used for its purification, a biphasic dependency upon diacylglycerol was observed and the apparent Michaelis constant values for diacylglycerol decreased with decreasing Triton concentration. The enzyme accepted both adenosine 5′-triphosphate and guanosine 5′-triphosphate as substrate and showed rather low apparent inhibition constant values for all nucleoside diphosphates tested. Diacylglycerol kinase is an intrinsic membrane protein and no activity was found in the cytosol. An investigation of different cellular membrane fractions confirmed its location in the plasma membrane. PMID:16668739

  3. Study on enzymatic browning in suspension cultures of licorice cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic browning is one of the main obstacles encountered in the establishment of suspension systems of licorice cells. Browning of cells may result in decreased viability, poor growth and even death. The present study investigated the mechanism of browning reactions and the effective controlling methods. The results showed that the cell viability and membrane permeabilization obviously changed when the cells were transferred to liquid medium. The transformation caused rapid increase in the levels of polyphenol oxidase activity and in the production of polyphenols. Osmotic and hydrodynamic stresses arising from liquid culture were regarded as the major causes of enzymatic browning. Ascorbic acid and L-cysteine were found to be the most significant anti-browning agents that could decrease the degree of browning with 55.8% and 52.2%, respectively, at the end of the suspension culture's lag phase. When cultured with a cycle of 21 days, the maximum biomass of the cells cultured with ascorbic acid and L-cysteine increased with 31.1% and 26.5%, respectively, when compared to the control. These findings may be essential for the development of licorice cell cultures devoted to browning prevention and cell viability maintaining.

  4. Metabolism of strobilurins by wheat cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Kyung; Williams, Daniel A; Xiong, Quanbo; Thornburgh, Scott

    2013-01-09

    Strobilurin fungicides are a leading class of antifungal chemicals used today in agricultural applications. Although degradation of some strobilurin fungicides has been assessed in plant residues, little information has appeared in the literature concerning the rates of metabolism of these fungicides in plants. In this study, we explored plant metabolism of three strobilurin fungicides, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, and trifloxystrobin, using wheat cell suspension cultures. Trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl were completely metabolized within 24 h, whereas the metabolism of azoxystrobin was relatively slow with half-lives up to 48 h depending on specific experimental conditions. Metabolic rates of these fungicides were affected by the amounts of compound and cells added to the media. Structural analysis of metabolites of trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) indicated that trifloxystrobin was first demethylated followed by subsequent hydroxylation, whereas kresoxim-methyl was largely demethylated. In contrast, a number of minor metabolites of azoxystrobin were present suggesting a differential metabolism of strobilurins by wheat cells.

  5. Effects of Boron foliar-fertilization on irrigated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mississippi River Valley Delta of the midsouth, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigated soybeans in the Mississippi Delta have been reported to with increased seed yields when fertilized with a boron (B). Furrow irrigated soybean cultivars were foliar fertilized with a B solution at growth stages R3 and/or R5. No consistent trends in yield or seed weight were noted. No phy...

  6. Nitrogen rhizodeposition from soybean (Glycine max) and its impact on nutrient budgets in two contrasting environments of the Guinean savannah zone of Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laberge, G.; Franke, A. C.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by grain legumes such as soybean is potentially a large but neglected source of N in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. Field studies were conducted to measure soybean N rhizodeposition in two environments of the Guinean savannah of Nigeria using 15N leaf labelli...

  7. A phytochemical study of lignans in whole plants and cell suspension cultures of Anthriscus sylvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Kubbinga, M.E.; Batterman, S; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Pras, N.; Woolley, J.G.; Quax, Wim

    2003-01-01

    In the roots of Anthriscus sylvestris 12 different lignans were detected. Arctigenin, dimethylmatairesinol, dimethylthujaplicatin, podophyllotoxin, 7-hydroxyyatein and 7-hydroxyanhydropodorhizol have not been previously reported to be present in A. sylvestris. In the cell suspension cultures, which

  8. Effect of Cover Crops on Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Soybean (Glycine max L. in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh samaneh hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amount and vertical distribution of leaf area are essential for estimating interception and utilization of solar radiation of crop canopies and, consequently dry matter accumulation (Valentinuz & Tollenaar, 2006. Vertical distribution of leaf area is leaf areas per horizontal layers, based on height (Boedhram et al., 2001. Above-ground biomass is one of the central traits in functional plant ecology and growth analysis. It is a key parameter in many allometric relationships (Niklas & Enquist, 2002. The vertical biomass distribution is considered to be the main determinant of competitive strength in plant species. The presence of weeds intensifies competition for light, with the effect being determined by plant height, position of the branches, and location of the maximum leaf area. So, this experiment was conducted to study the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of soybean canopy in competition with weeds and cover crops. Materials and methods This experiment was performed based on complete randomized block design with 3 replications in center of Agriculture of Joybar in 2013. Soybean was considered as main crop and soybean and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L., fenugreek (Trigonella foenum–graecum L., chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus L. and winter vetch (Vicia sativa L. were the cover crops. Treatments were included cover crops (Persian clover, fenugreek, chickling pea and winter vetch aDid you mean: nd cover crop planting times (simultaneous planting of soybean with cover crops and planting cover crops three weeks after planting of soybeans and also monoculture of soybeans both in weedy and weed free conditions were considered as controls. Soybean planted in 50 cm row spacing with 5 cm between plants in the same row. Each plot was included 5 rows soybeans. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Crops were planted on 19 May 2013 for simultaneous planting of soybean. The dominant weed species

  9. Deficiency in the amino aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by GmAMADH2, the homologue of rice Os2AP, enhances 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in soybeans (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikit, Siwaret; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Wanchana, Samart; Uyen, Tran T; Huong, Nguyen T T; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Vanavichit, Apichart

    2011-01-01

    2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), the volatile compound that provides the 'popcorn-like' aroma in a large variety of cereal and food products, is widely found in nature. Deficiency in amino aldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) was previously shown to be the likely cause of 2AP biosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, the validity of this mechanism was investigated in soybeans (Glycine max L.). An assay of AMADH activity in soybeans revealed that the aromatic soybean, which contains 2AP, also lacked AMADH enzyme activity. Two genes, GmAMADH1 and GmAMADH2, which are homologous to the rice Os2AP gene that encodes AMADH, were characterized. The transcription level of GmAMADH2 was lower in aromatic varieties than in nonaromatic varieties, whereas the expression of GmAMADH1 did not differ. A double nucleotide (TT) deletion was found in exon 10 of GmAMADH2 in all aromatic varieties. This variation caused a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. Suppression of GmAMADH2 by introduction of a GmAMADH2-RNAi construct into the calli of the two nonaromatic wild-type varieties inhibited the synthesis of AMADH and induced the biosynthesis of 2AP. These results suggest that deficiency in the GmAMADH2 product, AMADH, plays a similar role in soybean as in rice, which is to promote 2AP biosynthesis. This phenomenon might be a conserved mechanism among plant species. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant Glycine lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the Mid South. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen....

  11. Soybean (Glycine max) allergy in Europe: Gly m 5 (beta-conglycinin) and Gly m 6 (glycinin) are potential diagnostic markers for severe allergic reactions to soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Wackermann, Olga; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Scibilia, Joseph; Perono-Garoffo, Lorenza; Utsumi, Shigeru; Poulsen, Lars K; Vieths, Stefan

    2009-02-01

    Soybean is considered an important allergenic food, but published data on soybean allergens are controversial. We sought to identify relevant soybean allergens and correlate the IgE-binding pattern to clinical characteristics in European patients with confirmed soy allergy. IgE-reactive proteins were identified from a soybean cDNA expression library, purified from natural soybean source, or expressed in Escherichia coli. The IgE reactivity in 30 sera from subjects with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled soybean challenge (n = 25) or a convincing history of anaphylaxis to soy (n = 5) was analyzed by ELISA or CAP-FEIA. All subunits of Gly m 5 (beta-conglycinin) and Gly m 6 (glycinin) were IgE-reactive: 53% (16/30) of the study subjects had specific IgE to at least 1 major storage protein, 43% (13/30) to Gly m 5 , and 36% (11/30) to Gly m 6. Gly m 5 was IgE-reactive in 5 of 5 and Gly m 6 in 3 of 5 children. IgE-binding to Gly m 5 or Gly m 6 was found in 86% (6/7) subjects with anaphylaxis to soy and in 55% (6/11) of subjects with moderate but only 33% (4/12) of subjects with mild soy-related symptoms. The odds ratio (P allergens Gly m 5 or Gly m 6 is potentially indicative for severe allergic reactions to soy.

  12. Nitration of plant apoplastic proteins from cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuba, Agnieszka; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Wojtaszek, Przemysław

    2015-04-29

    Nitric oxide causes numerous protein modifications including nitration of tyrosine residues. This modification, though one of the greatest biological importance, is poorly recognized in plants and is usually associated with stress conditions. In this study we analyzed nitrotyrosines from suspension cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum, treated with NO modulators and exposed to osmotic stress, as well as of BY2 cells long-term adapted to osmotic stress conditions. Using confocal microscopy, we showed that the cell wall area is one of the compartments most enriched in nitrotyrosines within a plant cell. Subsequently, we analyzed nitration of ionically-bound cell-wall proteins and identified selected proteins with MALDI-TOF spectrometry. Proteomic analysis indicated that there was no significant increase in the amount of nitrated proteins under the influence of NO modulators, among them 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), considered a donor of nitrating agent, peroxynitrite. Moreover, osmotic stress conditions did not increase the level of nitration in cell wall proteins isolated from suspension cells, and in cultures long-term adapted to stress conditions; that level was even reduced in comparison with control samples. Among identified nitrotyrosine-containing proteins dominated the ones associated with carbon circulation as well as the numerous proteins responding to stress conditions, mainly peroxidases. High concentrations of nitric oxide found in the cell wall and the ability to produce large amounts of ROS make the apoplast a site highly enriched in nitrotyrosines, as presented in this paper. Analysis of ionically bound fraction of the cell wall proteins indicating generally unchanged amounts of nitrotyrosines under influence of NO modulators and osmotic stress, is noticeably different from literature data concerning, however, the total plant proteins analysis. This observation is supplemented by further nitroproteome analysis, for cells long

  13. The Seed Biotinylated Protein of Soybean (Glycine max): A Boiling-Resistant New Allergen (Gly m 7) with the Capacity To Induce IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, John J; Weissinger, Sandra M; Weissinger, Arthur K; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Pons, Laurent

    2016-05-18

    Soybean is a common allergenic food; thus, a comprehensive characterization of all the proteins that cause allergy is crucial to the development of effective diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies. A cDNA library was constructed from seven stages of developing soybean seeds to investigate candidate allergens. We searched the library for cDNAs encoding a seed-specific biotinylated protein (SBP) based on its allergenicity in boiled lentils. A full-length cDNA clone was retrieved and expressed as a 75.6-kDa His-tagged recombinant protein (rSBP) in Escherichia coli. Western immunoblotting of boiled bacterial extracts demonstrated specific IgE binding to rSBP, which was further purified by metal affinity and anion exchange chromatographies. Of the 23 allergic sera screened by ELISA, 12 contained IgEs specific to the purified rSBP. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a predominantly unordered structure consistent with SBP's heat stability. The natural homologues (nSBP) were the main proteins isolated from soybean and peanut embryos after streptavidin affinity purification, yet they remained low-abundance proteins in the seed as confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Using capture ELISAs, the soybean and peanut nSBPs were bound by IgEs in 78 and 87% of the allergic sera tested. The soybean nSBP was purified to homogeneity and treatments with different denaturing agents before immunoblotting highlighted the diversity of its IgE epitopes. In vitro activation of basophils was assessed by flow cytometry in a cohort of peanut-allergic children sensitized to soybean. Stronger and more frequent (38%) activations were induced by nSBP-soy compared to the major soybean allergen, Gly m 5. SBPs may represent a novel class of biologically active legume allergens with the structural resilience to withstand many food-manufacturing processes.

  14. [Study of interaction of wild soybean subpopulations (Glycine soja) in the valley of the Tsukanovka river in the south of Far East of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A V; Martynov, V V; Dorokhov, D B

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of the genetic structure of natural and anthropogenic populations of G. soja gives significant information about formation of different populations, and allows developing measures for preservation of unique natural gene bank of wild soybean, the species closely related to cultivated soybean. In this study, ISSR markers were used to carry out a comparative analysis of genetic structure of natural and anthropogenic subpopulations of G. soja for studying possible mutual influence of subpopulations of anthropogenic and natural phytocenosis on the formation of their genetic diversity and to study genetic structure of natural subpopulations of wild soybean in the contact places between the two types ofcenoses. As a result, the characteristics that describe the genetic diversity of studied populations have been identified and the important role of an interaction between subpopulations of different phytocenoses on formation of the spatial genetic structure of population in the valley of Tsukanovka river has been demonstrated.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on lipoxygenases, trypsin inhibitor, raffinose family oligosaccharides and nutritional factors of different seed coat colored soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Dixit, Amit [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita [National Research Centre for Soybean, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Manjaya, J.G. [Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Bhatnagar, Deepak, E-mail: bhatnagarbio@yahoo.co [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Three soybean genotypes Kalitur, Hara soya and NRC37 with black, green and yellow seed coat color, respectively, were gamma irradiated at 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 kGy and tested for antinutritional and nutritional factors. Gamma irradiation at all doses reduced the level of lipoxygenase isomers, trypsin inhibitor (TI) and ascorbic acid in all the 3 soybean genotypes as compared to the unirradiated control. However, irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy increased the sucrose content of the soybean genotypes. No significant change was observed in oil, protein fatty acids and total tocopherol content of the 3 genotypes at any irradiation dose. It is suggested that inhibition of lipoxygenase, reduction in TI and ascorbic acid may be due to the breakage or oxidation of protein structure by the gamma irradiation. Similarly, gamma irradiation at higher doses may break glycosidic linkages in oligosaccharides to produce more sucrose and decrease the content of flatulence causing oligosaccharides.

  16. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Maria Julieta [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen, E-mail: jrodriguez@com.uncor.edu [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Nieto, Gaston Leonardo; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  17. A Novel Pathogenesis-Related Class 10 Protein Gly m 4l, Increases Resistance upon Phytophthora sojae Infection in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wu, Junjiang; Dong, Lidong; Cheng, Qun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae (P. sojae), is a destructive disease in many soybean planting regions worldwide. In a previous study, an expressed sequence tag (EST) homolog of the major allergen Pru ar 1 in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) was identified up-regulated in the highly resistant soybean 'Suinong 10' infected with P. sojae. Here, the full length of the EST was isolated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It showed the highest homology of 53.46% with Gly m 4 after comparison with the eight soybean allergen families reported and was named Gly m 4-like (Gly m 4l, GenBank accession no. HQ913577.1). The cDNA full length of Gly m 4l was 707 bp containing a 474 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 157 amino acids. Sequence analysis suggests that Gly m 4l contains a conserved 'P-loop' (phosphate-binding loop) motif at residues 47-55 aa and a Bet v 1 domain at residues 87-120 aa. The transcript abundance of Gly m 4l was significantly induced by P. sojae, salicylic acid (SA), NaCl, and also responded to methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) and ethylene (ET). The recombinant Gly m 4l protein showed RNase activity and displayed directly antimicrobial activity that inhibited hyphal growth and reduced zoospore release in P. sojae. Further analyses showed that the RNase activity of the recombinant protein to degrading tRNA was significantly affected in the presence of zeatin. Over-expression of Gly m 4l in susceptible 'Dongnong 50' soybean showed enhanced resistance to P. sojae. These results indicated that Gly m 4l protein played an important role in the defense of soybean against P. sojae infection.

  18. Loci and candidate gene identification for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) via association and linkage maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Dongyuan; Sun, Mingming; Zhao, Yue; Lv, Chunmei; Li, Dongmei; Yang, Zhijiang; Huang, Long; Teng, Weili; Qiu, Lijuan; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Wenbin

    2015-04-01

    Soybean white mold (SWM), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ((Lib.) W. Phillips), is currently considered to be the second most important cause of soybean yield loss due to disease. Research is needed to identify SWM-resistant germplasm and gain a better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of SWM resistance in soybean. Stem pigmentation after treatment with oxaloacetic acid is an effective indicator of resistance to SWM. A total of 128 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of 'Maple Arrow' (partial resistant to SWM) and 'Hefeng 25' (susceptible) and 330 diverse soybean cultivars were screened for the soluble pigment concentration of their stems, which were treated with oxalic acid. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying soluble pigment concentration were detected by linkage mapping of the RILs. Three hundred and thirty soybean cultivars were sequenced using the whole-genome encompassing approach and 25 179 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected for the fine mapping of SWM resistance genes by genome-wide association studies. Three out of five SNP markers representing a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block and a single locus on chromosome 13 (Gm13) were significantly associated with the soluble pigment content of stems. Three more SNPs that represented three minor QTLs for the soluble pigment content of stems were identified on another three chromosomes by association mapping. A major locus with the largest effect on Gm13 was found both by linkage and association mapping. Four potential candidate genes involved in disease response or the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were identified at the locus near the significant SNPs (<60 kbp). The beneficial allele and candidate genes should be useful in soybean breeding for improving resistance to SWM. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    by soybean grains to supply mainly the dietary energy did not show an adverse effect of the diet on these variables. However, the variety of maize affected significantly the feed cost and the economic feed efficiency at starter phase. It can be concluded that under the particular conditions...... of this experiment, the environmental factors did not change significantly the nutritional value of soybean grains in chickens' diets. The grain of local variety of white maize were suitable at all ages, whereas the grains of DMR-ESRW were more economic in grower than starter broiler chickens feeding....

  20. Supressividade dos nematóides Meloydogine javanica e Heterodera glycines em soja por adição de lodo de esgoto ao solo Supressiveness of nematodes Meloydogine javanica e Heterodera glycines in soybean by sewage sludge incorporated in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Fernando de Araújo

    2005-08-01

    soilborne plant pathogens and resistance to foliar diseases. However, it may influence negatively the biological and chemical balance in the soil, due to the presence of considerable amounts of available N, soluble salts and heavy metals. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge incorporation to the soil and the suppressiveness induction of nematodes (Meloydogine javanica (Treub Chitwood and Heterodera glycines Ichinoe in soybean (Glycine max L.. Experiments were performed in laboratory and in a greenhouse using collected soil in an experimental area of the Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Jaguariúna, SP. This area received successive applications of sewage sludge, originary from the sewage treatment of Barueri and Franca, in São Paulo State, Brazil, during five years (1998-2002. In relation to the suppressiveness induction of nematodes, the sludge did not affect significantly the development of H. glycines in the soil, but reduced the M. javanica reproduction, in the soybean root.

  1. Differential gene expression and mitotic cell analysis of the drought tolerant soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill Fabales, Fabaceae cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista under two water deficit induction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana K. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought cause serious yield losses in soybean (Glycine max, roots being the first plant organ to detect the water-stress signals triggering defense mechanisms. We used two drought induction systems to identify genes differentially expressed in the roots of the drought-tolerant soybean cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista and characterize their expression levels during water deficit. Soybean plants grown in nutrient solution hydroponically and in sand-pots were submitted to water stress and gene expression analysis was conducted using the differential display (DD and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Three differentially expressed mRNA transcripts showed homology to the Antirrhinum majus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH, the Arabidopsis thaliana phosphatidylinositol transfer protein PITP and the auxin-independent growth regulator 1 (axi 1. The hydroponic experiments showed that after 100 min outside the nutrient solution photosynthesis completely stopped, stomata closed and leaf temperature rose. Both stress induction treatments produced significant decrease in the mitotic indices of root cells. Axi 1, PITP and bHLH were not only differentially expressed during dehydration in the hydroponics experiments but also during induced drought in the pot experiments. Although, there were differences between the two sets of experiments in the time at which up or down regulation occurred, the expression pattern of all three transcripts was related. Similar gene expression and cytological analysis results occurred in both systems, suggesting that hydroponics could be used to simulate drought detection by roots growing in soil and thus facilitate rapid and easy root sampling.

  2. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study is the first field based experiment that uses IR heaters to study the effects of a regionally defined heat wave on soybean physiology and productivity. The heating technology was successful and all of the heat waves were maintained at the target temperature for the three day duration of t...

  3. Functional studies of soybean (Glycine max L.) seed LEA proteins GmPM6, GmPM11, and GmPM30 by CD and FTIR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    The protein and mRNA levels of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes may be linked to osmotic stresses. Here, we characterized three soybean hydrophilic LEA proteins – GmPM11 (LEA I), GmPM6 (LEA II), and GmPM30 (LEA III) – by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  4. UTILIZATION OF BIOMOL AND TEA COMPOST SOLUTION FERMENTED BY THE FUNGUS Trichoderma spp. ON THE GROWTH OF SOYBEAN (Glycine Max (L. Merr. IN DRY LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurriyatun Solihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to know whether the use of Biomol and Tea Compost solution fermented by Trichoderma spp. can increase the growth and development of soybean plants in dry land. The experiment was conducted in the field and was arranged according to a Split Plot Design with the main plot is Tea Compost Solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. at the rate of 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot and the subplot is Biomol solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot. The treatments were repeated three times. The results showed that the use of the Biomol at the rate of 15 liters/plot and Tea Compost at the of 15 liters/plot can increase the growth and development of soybean plants mainly on plant height. In addition, Biomol and Tea Compost solution applied to soybean can  increase the weight of the wet and the dry berangkasan Keywords: Biomol, Tea Compost, Soybean, Trichoderma spp.

  5. Allelopathic effects on the germination of soybean seeds (Glycine max L.Merrill/ Efeitos alelopáticos sobre a germinação de sementes de soja (Glycine max L.Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the effect of natural substances found in root exsudates of other crops on the gemination of soybean seeds. Two experiments were accomplished. For the first experiment wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum, cale (Triticum sp., corn (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, and black oat (Avena strigosa, that were placed to germinate, in paper rolls, in BOD at 25°C. These seeds were discarded and the papers were reused for germination of soybean seeds, using as solution-test root exsudates, and as control distilled water to humidify the paper. For the second experiment, aqueous extract of above-ground part of black oat (Avena strigosa was used to humidify the paper where the soy seeds were placed to germinate, in BOD at 25oC. Allelopatic effects alelopáticos of the root exsudates were verified on the percentage of germination of the soybean seeds, but it was not verified effect on the time and medium speed of germination. It was observed negative interference of black oat extract on the time and medium speed of soybean seeds germination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito de substâncias naturais encontrados em exsudados radiculares de outras culturas, sobre a geminação da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos: no primeiro, sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum, triticale (Triticum sp., milho (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, e aveia preta (Avena strigosa, foram colocadas para germinar, em rolos de papel, em BOD a 25°C. Estas sementes foram descartadas e os papéis reutilizados para germinação de sementes de soja, utilizando como solução-teste exsudados radiculares, e como controle apenas água destilada para umedecer os papéis. Para o segundo experimento, foi utilizado extrato aquoso da parte área de aveia preta (Avena strigosa, como umidificante do papel, onde posteriormente as sementes de soja foram colocadas para germinar, em BOD a 25oC. Constataram-se efeitos alelopáticos dos exudados

  6. The interactive effects of glycine, total sulfur amino acids, and lysine supplementation to corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance and serum uric acid and urea concentrations in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2009-07-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the interactive effects of Gly, TSAA, and Lys in corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance of broilers. All experiments were conducted with female Ross x Ross 308 or 708 broilers in brooder batteries from 0 to 18 d posthatching. Treatments had 5 to 8 replications with 5 or 6 broilers per replicate pen. Diets in all experiments were fed without or with Gly (2.32% total Gly + Ser). All diets contained 0.25% l-Lys.HCl except in experiment 1, where no crystalline Lys was added. In experiment 1, the total dietary Lys level was 1.26% with TSAA:Lys of 0.72 and 0.76. Increasing TSAA:Lys increased (P urea N concentrations. Also, increasing TSAA:Lys linearly and quadratically (P < 0.02) increased ADG, ADFI, and G:F. In experiment 4, broilers were fed 2 levels of total dietary Lys (1.26 and 1.35%), 3 levels of TSAA:Lys (0.72, 0.76, and 0.80), and without or with Gly supplementation up to a total of 2.32% Gly + Ser. Glycine addition increased ADG (P < 0.02) and G:F (P < 0.01). The increase in G:F with Gly was not the same for all TSAA:Lys (Gly x TSAA:Lys, P < 0.07). Increasing Lys increased (P < 0.01 to 0.10) ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Glycine addition increased ADG and ADFI more in broilers fed 1.35% Lys than in those fed 1.26% Lys (Lys x Gly, P < 0.09). Glycine addition increased SUA in broilers fed 1.26% Lys but decreased SUA in broilers fed 1.35% Lys (P < 0.01). Glycine addition decreased SUA in broilers fed the TSAA:Lys of 0.80 but not at the other TSAA:Lys (P < 0.08). These data indicate that Gly increased G:F and decreased SUA in diets with 1.35% Lys and excess TSAA.

  7. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm panel from maturity groups IV and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Song, Qijian; Shi, Ainong; Li, Song; Zhang, Mengchen; Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean, causes stem and root rot, resulting in annual economic loss up to $2 billion worldwide. Varieties with P. sojae resistance are environmental friendly to effectively reduce disease damages. In order to improve the resistance of P. sojae and broaden the genetic diversity in Southern soybean cultivars and germplasm in the U.S., we established a P. sojae resistance gene pool that has high genetic diversity, and explored genomic regions underlying the host resistance to P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25. A soybean germplasm panel from maturity groups (MGs) IV and V including 189 accessions originated from 10 countries were used in this study. The panel had a high genetic diversity compared to the 6,749 accessions from MGs IV and V in USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. Based on disease evaluation dataset of these accessions inoculated with P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25, which are publically available, five accessions in this panel were resistant to all races. Genome-wide association analysis identified a total of 32 significant SNPs, which were clustered in resistance-associated genomic regions, among those, ss715619920 was only 3kb away from the gene Glyma.14g087500, a subtilisin protease. Gene expression analysis showed that the gene was down-regulated more than 4 fold (log2 fold > 2.2) in response to P. sojae infection. The identified molecular markers and genomic regions that are associated with the disease resistance in this gene pool will greatly assist the U.S. Southern soybean breeders in developing elite varieties with broad genetic background and P. sojae resistance.

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line NJCMS1A and Its Maintainer NJCMS1B in Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Li

    Full Text Available The utilization of soybean heterosis is probably one of the potential approaches in future yield breakthrough as was the situation in rice breeding in China. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS plays an important role in the production of hybrid seeds. However, the molecular mechanism of CMS in soybean remains unclear.The comparative transcriptome analysis between cytoplasmic male sterile line NJCMS1A and its near-isogenic maintainer NJCMS1B in soybean was conducted using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 88,643 transcripts were produced in Illumina sequencing. Then 56,044 genes were obtained matching soybean reference genome. Three hundred and sixty five differentially expressed genes (DEGs between NJCMS1A and NJCMS1B were screened by threshold, among which, 339 down-regulated and 26 up-regulated in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B. Gene Ontology (GO annotation showed that 242 DEGs were annotated to 19 functional categories. Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG annotation showed that 265 DEGs were classified into 19 categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that 46 DEGs were assigned to 33 metabolic pathways. According to functional and metabolic pathway analysis combined with reported literatures, the relations between some key DEGs and the male sterility of NJCMS1A were discussed. qRT-PCR analysis validated that the gene expression pattern in RNA-Seq was reliable. Finally, enzyme activity assay showed that energy supply was decreased in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B.We concluded that the male sterility of NJCMS1A might be related to the disturbed functions and metabolism pathways of some key DEGs, such as DEGs involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription factors, regulation of pollen development, elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS, cellular signal transduction, and programmed cell death (PCD etc. Future research will focus on cloning and transgenic function validation of

  9. Overexpression of AtDREB1A causes a severe dwarf phenotype by decreasing endogenous gibberellin levels in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haicui Suo

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acids (GAs are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that three key enzymes of GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox are involved in GA biosynthesis. In this study, the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into soybean plants by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results showed that the transgenic soybean plants exhibited a typical phenotype of GA-deficient mutants, such as severe dwarfism, small and dark-green leaves, and late flowering compared to those of the non-transgenic plants. The dwarfism phenotype was rescued by the application of exogenous GA(3 once a week for three weeks with the concentrations of 144 µM or three times in one week with the concentrations of 60 µM. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the GA synthase genes were higher in the transgenic soybean plants than those in controls, whereas GA-deactivated genes except GmGA2ox4 showed lower levels of expression. The transcript level of GmGA2ox4 encoding the only deactivation enzyme using C(20-GAs as the substrates in soybean was dramatically enhanced in transgenic plants compared to that of wide type. Furthermore, the contents of endogenous bioactive GAs were significantly decreased in transgenic plants than those of wide type. The results suggested that AtDREB1A could cause dwarfism mediated by GA biosynthesis pathway in soybean.

  10. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh [Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray {sup 60}Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55))]. Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect-orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  11. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] germplasm panel from maturity groups IV and V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qin

    Full Text Available Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean, causes stem and root rot, resulting in annual economic loss up to $2 billion worldwide. Varieties with P. sojae resistance are environmental friendly to effectively reduce disease damages. In order to improve the resistance of P. sojae and broaden the genetic diversity in Southern soybean cultivars and germplasm in the U.S., we established a P. sojae resistance gene pool that has high genetic diversity, and explored genomic regions underlying the host resistance to P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25. A soybean germplasm panel from maturity groups (MGs IV and V including 189 accessions originated from 10 countries were used in this study. The panel had a high genetic diversity compared to the 6,749 accessions from MGs IV and V in USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. Based on disease evaluation dataset of these accessions inoculated with P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25, which are publically available, five accessions in this panel were resistant to all races. Genome-wide association analysis identified a total of 32 significant SNPs, which were clustered in resistance-associated genomic regions, among those, ss715619920 was only 3kb away from the gene Glyma.14g087500, a subtilisin protease. Gene expression analysis showed that the gene was down-regulated more than 4 fold (log2 fold > 2.2 in response to P. sojae infection. The identified molecular markers and genomic regions that are associated with the disease resistance in this gene pool will greatly assist the U.S. Southern soybean breeders in developing elite varieties with broad genetic background and P. sojae resistance.

  12. Development of friable embryogenic callus and embryogenic suspension culture systems in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N J; Edwards, M; Kiernan, R J; Davey, C D; Blakesley, D; Henshaw, G G

    1996-06-01

    Procedures for the production of a new and highly prolific embryogenic culture system have been developed in cassava. The importance of the basal salts and type of auxin in controlling the development of cassava embryogenic tissues has been demonstrated, with culture on Gresshoff and Doy basal medium in the presence of 4-amino-3,5,6,trichloro-picolinic acid (picloram) inducing the formation of friable embryogenic callus from which highly totipotent embryogenic suspension cultures could be established. Plants have been regenerated from these cultures. The availability of embryogenic suspension cultures is considered to have important implications for the application of genetic transformation and other biotechnologies in the agronomic improvement of cassava.

  13. Ultrastructure of paraquat-treated pine cells (Pinus elliottii Engelm. ) in suspension culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchem, R.; Henk, W.G.; Brown, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    The ultrastructure of liquid suspension cultures of Pinus elliottii was studied, noting characteristics of dividing and senescent cells. The cultures were treated with 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg 1/sup -1/ paraquat, an herbicide which stimulates oleoresin synthesis and resinosis in the xylem of treated pine trees. The ultrastructural effects of the toxin were studied at each paraquat concentration over a period of 24 days. The ultrastructural observations are correlated with physiological studies in suspension culture and in living trees.

  14. Infestation ratings database for soybean aphid on early-maturity wild soybean lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura; SA) is a major invasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in northern production regions of North America. Although insecticides are currently the main method for controlling this pest, SA-resistant cultivars are being developed to sustainably manage ...

  15. Endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown in an agricultural area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María L; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Vianna, María F; Scorsetti, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos (Argentina) two areas were selected for sampling corn and four for soybean. Leaf, stem and root samples were surface-sterilized, cut into 1cm(2) pieces using a sterile scalpel and aseptically transferred to plates containing potato dextrose agar plus antibiotics. The species were identified using both morphological and molecular data. Fungal endophyte colonization in soybean plants was influenced by tissue type and varieties whereas in corn plants only by tissue type. A greater number of endophytes were isolated from stem tissues than from leaves and root tissues in both species of plants. The most frequently isolated species in all soybean cultivars was Fusarium graminearum and the least isolated one was Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, the most frequently isolated species in corn plants was Aspergillus terreus whereas the least isolated one was Aspergillus flavus. These results could be relevant in the search for endophytic fungi isolates that could be of interest in the control of agricultural pests. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Comportamento de cultivares de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] em resposta ao metribuzin aplicado em diferentes doses Response of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] cultivars to rates of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.R.O. Velloso

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o ano agrícola de 1978/79, foi realizado um experimento a campo, na re gião da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de conhecer o comportamento das cultivares de soja BR1, Bragg, Davis, IAS4, IAS5, Paraná e Planalto em relação ao metribuzin aplicado em pré-emergência nas doses de 0, 490 e 980 g/ha. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram estimados através de avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade, contagem da população de plantas, determinações do peso seco da parte aérea e do número de grãos e obtenção do rendimento de grãos. Para a maioria das variáveis em estudo, constatou-se que ocorreram reduções proporcionais aos acréscimos das doses do herbicida. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostraram que houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos de doses, tendo as cultivares Bragg e Davis demonstrado o menor efeito fito-tóxico, enquanto BR1 foi a que apresentou maior grau de injúria. Quanto ao rendimento de grãos alcançado pelas cultivares, foi constatado que Bragg comportou-se como altamente tolerante; BR1 e Davis como moderadamente tolerantes; IAS5 como intermediária e Paraná, Planalto e IAS4 como moderadamente suscetíveis.A field experiment was conducted during the 1978/79 growing season at the Central Depression Region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to evaluate the response soybean cultivars BR1, Bragg, Davis, IAS4, IAS5, Paraná, and Planalto to metribuzin applied in pre-emergence at rates of 0, 490 and 980 g/ha. The effects of the treatments were evaluated through visual rating of phytotoxicity, counting of soybean population, and determinations of dry weight of soybean stems, number of grains per unit area and grain yield. For most of the variables measured there were reductions proportional to increasing rates of metribuzin appl ied. Results of visual evaluation of soybean injury showed statistical differences among rates of the herbicide, being Bragg and

  17. Evaluation of the use of waste of soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) combined with wood waste in making briquet; Avaliacao da utilizacao de residuo de soja (Glycine max (L.)) combinado com residuo de madeira de confeccao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travessini, Rosana; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Scherpinski, Neusa Idick [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: rosana_travessini@yahoo.com.br, fabianaschutz@gmail.com, mhanami@gmail.com, neusascherpinski@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The agricultural industry produces a large amount of which use biomass is an alternative energy economically viable through the compression portion of ligno-cellulose as raw material to replace the wood with an equivalent product, by briquetting. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of manufacturing fuel briquettes made from soybean residues combined with waste wood. The making of briquettes was performed in the laboratory of Electromechanics of UTFPR campus Medianeira PR. For this analysis, we assessed the content of moisture, ash, fixed carbon content of porosity and higher calorific value. From the results we can conclude that the manufacture of briquettes from lignocellulosic raw materials is an extremely viable energy flashlight for the region of the Bacia do Rio Parana III. (author)

  18. Influence of initial seed moisture and temperature conditions during germination and emergence on seedling survival and yields of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Markowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Injury to soybean seedlings caused by low temperature (5°C at the beginning of germination was greatly reduced when instead of chilling (10°C a higher temperature (20°C was applied at the end of germination and during emergence. A new interpretation of the physiological mechanism involved in this reversibility of chilling injury was proposed. Hydration in water vapour of soybean seeds with initial moisture content of from 5 to 10% to a level of 30%, dry weight basis, increased seedling survival under controlled conditions of germination and emergence at respectively 5°C and l0°C as well as under natural soil conditions in field experiments both after early and late planting dates. A modified method of seed hydration in water vapour (i.e. conditioning or hardening of seeds against cold was developed for practical application. In field experiments conditioning of seeds increased seedling survival and thus also yields per unit area of plot but had no significant effect on yield per plant. Seed conditioning may have practical significance in soybean growing and for breeding purposes when equalizing the number of plants per plot is important for comparing new varieties and breeding forms.

  19. Potential for phytoextraction of copper, lead, and zinc by rice (Oryza sativa L.), soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), and maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masaharu; Ae, Noriharu

    2009-03-15

    Phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators has been proposed for decreasing toxic-metal concentrations of contaminated soils. However, hyperaccumulators have several shortcomings to introduce these species into Asian Monsoon's agricultural fields contaminated with low to moderate toxic-metals. To evaluate the phytoextraction potential, maize (Gold Dent), soybean (Enrei and Suzuyutaka), and rice (Nipponbare and Milyang 23) were pot-grown under aerobic soil conditions for 60d on the Andosol or Fluvisol with low to moderate copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contamination. After 2 months cultivation, the Gold Dent maize and Milyang 23 rice shoots took up 20.2-29.5% and 18.5-20.2% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Cu, 10.0-37.3% and 8.5-34.3% of the DTPA-extractable Cu, and 2.4-6.5% and 2.1-5.9% of the total Cu, respectively, in the two soils. Suzuyutaka soybean shoot took up 23.0-29.4% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Zn, 35.1-52.6% of the DTPA-extractable Zn, and 3.8-5.3% of the total Zn in the two soils. Therefore, there is a great potential for Cu phytoextraction by the Gold Dent maize and the Milyang 23 rice and for Zn phytoextraction by the Suzuyutaka soybean from paddy soils with low to moderate contamination under aerobic soil conditions.

  20. SCREENING SOYBEAN GENOTYPES FOR PROMISCUOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-25

    Feb 25, 2016 ... The current low soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) yields in Sub-Saharan Africa can be alleviated by developing promiscuous genotypes. The research trend in Africa is towards developing promiscuous varieties for less labour and high yields in soybean production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted ...

  1. Ação do Agrostemin sobre a altura e o número de folhas de plantas de soja (Glycine max L. MERRILL cv. IAC-8 Effects of Agrostemmin on number of leaves and height of soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.H. Fernandes

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por finalidade avaliar o efeito de um estimulante vegetal, o Agrostemin, sobre a altura e o número de folhas das plantas de soja (Glycine max L. MERRILL cv. IAC-8. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação. Foram estudados seis tratamentos, correspondentes as seguintes dosagens, épocas e formas de aplicação: testemunha (T1; 0,125g Agrostemin/l00g sementes (T2; 0,125g Agrostemin/100g semente e pulverização foliar à 333 ppm (T3; 0,125g Agrostemin/l00g sementes e pulverização foliar à 500 ppm (T4; pulverização foliar à 333 ppm (T5 e pulverização foliar à 500 ppm (T6. Realizaram-se três coletas de plantas, com intervalo de 14 dias. O experimento foi em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se duas análises de variância com desdobramento em efeitos de regressão. Através dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o Agrostemin quando aplicado via semente (T2 ou via foliar à 500 ppm (T6, aumentou a altura e o número de folhas. Ao aplicar o produto via semente mais via foliar à 500 ppm (T4, estas medidas diminuiram.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Agrostemmin (plant stimulant on height and number of leaves of soybean plants (Glycine max L Merril cv. IAC-8. Six treatments were studied: check (T1; 0,125g Agrostemmin/l00g seed (T2; 0,125g Agrostemmin/100 seed and foliar spraying 333 ppm (T3; 0,125g Agrostemmin/l00g seed and foliar spraying 500 ppm (T4; foliar spraying 333 ppm (T5 and foliar spraying 500 ppm (T6. Three samplings were made at 14 day intervals. The experimental layout was completely randomized, using two variance, testing regression effects. Agrostemmin applied to the seed (T2 or sprayed on the leaves at the rate of 500 ppm (T6 increased height and number of leaves of soybean, whereas the combination of Agrostemmin applied to the seeds and sprayed at 500 ppm (T4 decreased those values.

  2. Extraction and Estimation of Secondary Metabolites from Date Palm Cell Suspension Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Poornananda M; Al-Khayri, Jameel M

    2017-01-01

    The health benefits of dates arise from their content of phytochemicals, known for having pharmacological properties, including flavonoids, carotenoids, phenolic acids, sterols, procyanidins, and anthocyanins. In vitro cell culture technology has become an attractive means for the production of biomass and bioactive compounds. This chapter describes step-by-step procedures for the induction and proliferation of callus from date palm offshoots on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with plant growth regulators. Subsequently cell suspension cultures are established for optimum biomass accumulation, based on the growth curve developed by packed cell volume as well as fresh and dry weights. The highest production of biomass occurs at the 11th week after culturing. Moreover, this chapter describes methodologies for the extraction and analysis of secondary metabolites of date palm cell suspension cultures using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimum level of catechin, caffeic acid, apigenin, and kaempferol from the cell suspension cultures establishes after the 11th and 12th weeks of culture. This protocol is useful for scale-up production of secondary metabolites from date palm cell suspension cultures.

  3. Surfactant-induced non-lethal release of anthraquinones from suspension culture of Morinda citrifolia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassetti, L.; Hagendoorn, M.J.M.; Tramper, J.

    1995-01-01

    A new approach based on the use of the surfactant Pluronic F-68 to obtain non-lethal release of plant cell intracellular products was investigated. Suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae), producing anthraquinones as secondary metabolites, were selected as model system. By

  4. The use of morphogenic suspension cultures for the development of a protoplast regeneration system in lily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Famelaer, L.; Bordas, M.; Baliu', E.; Ennik, E.; Meijer, H.; Tuyl, van J.M.; Creemers-Molenaar, J.

    1997-01-01

    The present study reports data on the development of a protoplast regeneration procedure in lily. Established morphogenic suspension cultures were obtained from callus cultures induced on mature embryos from crosses between cultivars of L. longiflorum. The effect on the frequency of protoplast

  5. Structure and organ specificity of an anionic peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, L; Abelskov, A K; Mattsson, O

    1996-01-01

    The predominant peroxidase (pI 3.5) (E.C. 1.11.1.7) of an Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was purified and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotides were designed and a specific probe was obtained. A cDNA clone was isolated from an Arabidopsis cell suspension cDNA library and completely...

  6. Growth characteristics and nutrient depletion of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus' suspension cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted

    1998-01-01

    The growth characteristics and nutrient depletion in suspension cultures of Miscanthus ogiformis Honda ‘Giganteus' grown in media containing either Murashige and Skoog or N6 basal nutrient salts were studied during a culture period of 15 days. Proline was added to both media in concentrations from...

  7. Production of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina by Camellia sinensis L suspension culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutini, Sodiq, Mochamad; Muslihatin, Wirdhatul; Indra, Mochamad Rasjad

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive trimethyl xanthina can be obtained from the plant Camellia sinensis L. To obtain bioactive plant of which there are several hurdles for instance to wait up to five years to be harvested, also it needs land at a certain height from the sea level. Therefore, the production of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina need to be developed with suspense culture techniques. The purpose of this study obtained the production of bioactive trimethyl xanthina way culturally suspense in large scale with a relatively short time, potentially as anti-oxidants. Research methods include: (1) initiation of callus from pieces of leaves, shoots the youngest of the plant Camellia sinensis L in the media MS with the optimization of the addition of growth regulators, (2) the subculture of callus on media and plant growth regulator that is equal to the stage of initiation, (3) initiation of suspension culture using explants of callus Camellia sinensis L, (4) Analysis of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina growth in suspension culture, (5) the isolation and identification of trimethyl xanthina qualitatively and quantitatively using thin layer chromatography/high performance chromatography column. The results of the study suspension cultures containing bioactive trimethyl xanthina candidates that can be used as an antioxidant.

  8. Regulation of DNA synthesis and cell division by polyamines in Catharanthus roseus suspension cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Minocha; S.C. Minocha; A. Komamine; W.C. Shortle

    1991-01-01

    Various inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis were used to study the role of polyamines in DNA synthesis and cell division in suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L) G. Don. Arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.19) was the major enzyme responsible for putrescine production. DL α-difluoromethylarginine inhibited ADC activity, cellular...

  9. Cytological changes associated with induction of anthraquinone synthesis in photoautotrophic cell suspension cultures of Morinda lucida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Tabata, M; Leistner, E

    1987-06-01

    Differences in subcellular structures between anthraquinone-producing and non-producing cells were investigated using photoautotrophic and photoheterotrophic cell suspension cultures of Morinda lucida. Irregular or distorted plastids containing starch grains were observed in the anthraquinone-producing cells, together with a highly elongated rough endoplasmic reticulum. The possible participation of plastids and rough endoplasmic reticulum in the anthraquinone biosynthesis is discussed.

  10. Germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill sob cobertura vegetal = Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seed germination and plantlet growth under vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pereira Nóbrega

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência do sistema de rotação de cultura requer, entre outrostratamentos, a escolha adequada das espécies a serem instaladas. Culturas vegetais podem apresentar compostos aleloquímicos, os quais são liberados por meio de pelos radiculares, sementes, raízes, colmos e folhas, em quantidades variáveis, capazes de interferir nas culturas subsequentes, comprometendo a produção. Assim, este estudoanalisou o potencial alelopático de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb (AP, nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. (NF, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. (ER, azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (AZ e consórcio (CO - AP+ER+NF na germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja. O experimento foi em laboratório, com substrato deareia, onde foram cultivadas plantas de cobertura, por 30 dias, mantendo os restos radiculares das plantas com e sem restos de parte aérea. Observou-se redução na emergência de plântulas de soja sob CO, AZ e AP. O índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, a porcentagem de emergência em areia (EA e a massa fresca de hipocótilo (MFH foram afetados negativamente pelas plantas de cobertura.In order to be efficient, the crop rotation system requires, among other factors, an adequate choice of species to be installed. Vegetalcultures can feature allelochemical compounds, released by root hairs, roots, stems and leaves in variable amounts, which are able to interfere on subsequent cultures, as well as cause a delay in their production. Thus, this study analyzed the allelopathic potentialof black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. (FT, vetch (Vicia sativa L. (V, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (RG and consortium (CO - BO+V+FT on soybean seed germination and plantlet growth. This trial was carried out in a laboratory, with sand substrate, where coverage plants were grown, during 30 days. The remaining root portions of plants were kept with and without the remaining aerial part portions

  11. Effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and Seed Inoculation by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Filling Period of Soybean (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seyed Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Utilizing biological fertilizer is a proper and cheap method for crop production. Potentially, soybean can be used as biological fertilizers and seed inoculation. Zinc is an essential element that have positive effects on plant growth and its development. Canola, sunflower, soybean and safflower are the main cultivated oilseeds in Iran. Soybean production in Iran is very low as compared to other countries. One of the most effective factor in increasing the soybean yield is seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and application of Zinc fertilizer. Some of the benefits provided by PGPR are the ability to produce gibberellic acid, cytokinins and ethylene, N2 fixation, solubilization of mineral phosphates and other nutrients (56. Numerous studies have shown a substantial increase in dry matter accumulation and seed yield following inoculation with PGPR. Seyed Sharifi (45 reported that seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5 increased all of the growth indices such as total dry matter, crop growth rate and relative growth rate. Increasing and extending the role of biofertilizers such as Rhizobium can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and decrease adverse environmental effects. Therefore, in the development and implementation of sustainable agricultural techniques, biofertilization has great importance in alleviating environmental pollution and deterioration of the nature. As a legume, soybean can obtain a significant portion (4-85% of its nitrogen requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation when grown in association with effective and compatible Rhizobium strains. Since there is little available information on nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on yield in the agro-ecological growing zones of Ardabil province of Iran. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate the effects of nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation with plant growth

  12. Emisiones de óxido nitroso en un cultivo de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill]: efecto de la inoculación y de la fertilización nitrógenada Nitrous oxide emission during a soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril] culture: inoculation and nitrogen fertilization effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio A Ciampitti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El óxido nitroso absorbe radiación infrarroja contribuyendo al efecto invernadero; este gas es producido principalmente en el suelo, mediante los procesos de nitrificación y denitrificación. En un estudio a campo, sobre un suelo Argiudol típico, se evaluó el efecto de la fertilización y la inoculación con Bradyrhizobium japonicum en un cultivo de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill], sobre las emisiones de óxido nitroso. Los gases se extrajeron de cilindros de PVC y la lectura se realizó con cromatografía gaseosa. Las emisiones presentaron valores crecientes desde la siembra hacia madurez fisiológica del cultivo, para todos los tratamientos; este comportamiento fue concomitante con la evolución presentada por la humedad edáfica. La fertilización nitrogenada aumentó significativamente (PNitrous oxide gas absorbs infrared radiation contributing to the greenhouse effect; this gas is produced mainly in soil, by means of the processes of nitrification and denitrification. In a field study at the FAUBA on a typic Argiudol, we evaluated the effect of fertilization and inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum during a soybean culture [Glycine max (L. Merrill], on nitrous oxide emisión. Gases were sampled with PVC cylinders and were read with gaseous chromatography. Emissions presented increasing values from seeding towards physiological maturity for all treatments; this behavior was similar to the evolution presented by nitrate level and soil moisture. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased (P<0.05 nitrous oxide emissions and inoculation only had a significant effect with the highest level of fertilization (P=0.09. Plots fertilized at highest dose and inoculated gave the greatest nitrous oxide emissions. The variable that better explains the emissions is the nitrate level (r² = 0.1899; P=0.0231.

  13. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not pass...

  14. Influence of Agricultural Practices on Biotic Production Potential and Climate Regulation Potential. A Case Study for Life Cycle Assessment of Soybean (Glycine max in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Piastrellini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the impact potential of land use on biotic production and climate regulation in the agricultural phase of a product, taking into account the varied soil and crop management. Land occupation and transformation impacts of soybean production in Argentina for different agricultural systems are evaluated. The results indicate that the magnitude of occupation and transformation impacts is considerably reduced by implementing no-tillage instead of conventional tillage. Nevertheless, the methodologies adopted are unable to show any of the expected differences between rainfed or irrigation systems, crop sequences and delays in seed-planting, due to failures in the specific characterization factors. On the other hand, an uncertainty is demonstrated by the results associated with the choice of regeneration time corresponding to the different ecoregions over which soybean cultivation extends across the country. One of the recommendations that comes to the fore is to consider in the characterization factors increments in the soil organic carbon stock and in the mineralization rates, associated with the presence of the preceding crop and the greater availability of water in the soil of irrigated systems.

  15. Elicited soybean (Glycine max) extract effect on improving levels of Ter-119+Cd59+ in a mouse model fed a high fat-fructose diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Yunita Diyah; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    People who have unbalanced lifestyles and habits such as consuming high fat and sugar foods, as well as the lack of physical activity, have an increased risk of obesity and related metabolic diseases. The condition of obesity occurs due to an excess of nutrients which leads to low-grade inflammation. Inflammation induced by obesity causes unstable bone marrow homeostasis which is associated with proliferation and differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs). This study aimed to observe the erythroid progenitor (TER-119) and complement regulator (CD59) on bone marrow cells in mouse models fed a high fat-fructose diet (HFFD). This research was conducted by modeling obese mice using high fat and fructose food for 20 weeks, and then treating them with elicited soybean extract (ESE) for four weeks with several doses: low dose (78 mg/kgBB), moderate dose (104 mg/kgBB) and high dose (130 mg/kgBB). Cell TER119+CD59+ expression decreased in the HFFD group compared to the normal group. In the low, moderate and high dose group, TER119+CD59+ expression significantly increased compared to the HFFD group. These results demonstrate that soybean elicited extract can improve the hematopoietic system by increasing TER119+CD59+ expression in a high fat and fructose diet mouse model.

  16. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL TREATMENT ON EMERGENCE OF SOYBEANS SEEDS (Glycine max L. (Merril EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO QUÍMICO DE SEMENTES DE SOJA (Glycine Max L. (Merril SOBRE SUA EMERGÊNCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valácia Lemes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Aiming to test the effect of different fungicides on emergence and productivity of soybeans, were used chemical products captan, dichlofluanide and thiram at different dosages. The experiment was made in the experimental fields of Agronomy School-UFG, using variety EMGOPA 301 with high level of infection by fungi (Colletotrichum dematium var. truncata, Phomopsis sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium semitectum. The results indicated that all fungicides used at different dosages were efficient in levels statistically significant relatively to testimony. Among the fungicides was not observed the same fact, the best results attained with crescent dosages of the products utilized.

    Com o objetivo de testar o efeito de diferentes fungicidas na emergência e produtividade da soja, os produtos químicos captan, dichlofluanid e thiram foram utilizados em diferentes dosagens. O experimento foi desenvolvido nos campos experimentais da Escola de Agronomia/UFG, utilizando a variedade EMGOPA 301 com alto nível de infecção pelos fungos Colletotrichum dematium var. truncata, Phomopsis sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus flavus e Fusarium semitectum. Os resultados indicaram que todos os fungicidas, utilizados nas diferentes dosagens, foram eficientes em níveis estatisticamente significativos em relação à testemunha. Fato idêntico não ocorreu entre os tratamentos com fungicidas. Os melhores resultados foram auferidos quando utilizou-se as maiores concentrações dos produtos químicos.

  17. Differential reactions of soybean isolines with combinations of aphid resistance genes Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 to four soybean aphid biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the discovery of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) as a devastating insect pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the United States, host resistance was recognized as an important management option. However, the identification of soybean aphid isolates exhibiting strong virulenc...

  18. The Effect of Vermicompost and Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Grain Yield and some Physiological Characteristics of Soybean (Glycine max L. under Water Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jahangiri nia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Moisture limitation is considered as one of the important limiting factors in soybean growth. Drought stress affects different aspects of soybean growth through making anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes (Tarumingkeng & Coto, 2003. Under dry tension condition, there will be a disturbance in transmitting nutrients, but some useful soil fungi such as mycorrhiza improve production of crops under stress through forming colonies in the root and boosting water and nutrient absorption (Al-Karaki et al., 2004. Using vermicompost in sustainable agriculture strengthens support and activities of beneficial soil microorganisms (such as mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in order to provide nutrients required by plants like nitrogen, phosphorus and soluble potassium as well as improving the growth and performance of the crops (Arancon et al., 2004. Materials and methods In order to investigate the effects of vermicompost and mycorrhiza fertilizers on grain yield and some physiological characteristics of soybean under water stress condition an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Khorramabad during 2013. The field experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete blocks design arranged in split-plot with four replications. The experiment treatments including irrigation in three levels (after 60, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from pan class A pan, nutrient management in six levels (non-use of vermicompost and mycorhiza fertilizer, inoculated with mycorrhiza fertilizer, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost with mycorrhiza were respectively as the main plots and sub. In current study, RWC, LAI, SPAD were measured during 59 days after planting at the beginning of podding of the control treatment. The temperature of plant leaves were measured by the thermometer (model TM-958 LUTRON infrared Thermometers. To analyze the growth of

  19. NADPH oxidase is involved in regulation of gene expression and ROS overproduction in soybean (Glycine max L. seedlings exposed to cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagna Chmielowska-Bąk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium-induced oxidative burst is partially mediated by NADPH oxidase. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase in soybeans’ response to short-term cadmium stress. The application of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI, affected expression of two Cd-inducible genes, encoding DOF1 and MYBZ2 transcription factors. This effect was observed after 3 h of treatment. Interestingly, Cd-dependent increases in NADPH oxidase activity occurred only after a period of time ranging from 6 and 24 h of stress. Stimulation of the enzyme correlated in time with a significant accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Further analysis revealed that pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity during 24 h of Cd stress does not affect Cd uptake, seedling growth, or the level of lipid peroxidation. The role of NADPH oxidase in the response of soybean seedlings to short-term Cd exposure is discussed.

  20. Mind your elders: wild soybean’s contribution to soybean aphid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, biotype 4 soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura, SBA) is the most virulent SBA biotype. Overcoming the most aphid resistant genes, SBA biotype 4 has become the greatest challenge in utilizing plant resistance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Soybean’s wild ancestor Glycine soja (Sie...

  1. No choice but to find resistance to soybean aphid biotype 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] utilizes its natural defenses to limit soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura, SBA) injury, reducing insecticide reliance. Specific genes called Rag or Resistance to Aphis glycines are unfavorable to SBA and may suppress their development and...

  2. Newly developed conventional soybean JTN-5110 has resistance to multiple pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, combined yield losses in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] caused by soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) and fungal diseases: stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionalis), Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS; caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines), and ...

  3. Carboidratos das fibras de cotilédones e proteínas de produtos derivados de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril Carbohydrates from cotyledon fibers and proteins of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Fátima Seibel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibras alimentares obtidas de cotilédones de soja original (FAO e micronizada (FAM foram fracionadas e avaliadas quanto a polissacarídeos e monossacarídeos constituintes. O componente majoritário foi a hemicelulose, totalizando 59% em FAO e 51% na FAM, a pectina representou em média 14% e a celulose 8,5%. As duas amostras de fibras apresentaram 17 mg.g-1 de ácidos urônicos e a mesma composição de monossacarídeos, sendo galactose, glicose e arabinose/ramnose os principais componentes. As proteínas de concentrado protéico, farinha desengordurada e fibras alimentares (FAO e FAM foram avaliadas quanto à solubilidade em diferentes solventes (NaCl, água, etanol e NaOH e quanto ao peso molecular. A farinha desengordurada de soja teve a maior parte das proteínas passível de extração com solução salina, e o concentrado protéico e as fibras de cotilédones com solução alcalina. A fração protéica que não foi extraída com nenhum dos quatro solventes utilizados permaneceu no resíduo, o maior percentual estava no concentrado, seguido pela fibra alimentar micronizada e a farinha, já a menor quantidade estava na fibra alimentar original. A eletroforese das proteínas dos quatro ingredientes alimentares mostrou as subunidades que constituem as frações β-conglicinina e glicinina. Bandas com peso molecular próximo aos 30 kDa foram reveladas nas proteínas extraídas das fibras de cotilédones de soja, sendo provavelmente glicoproteínas de parede celular, ricas em hidroxiprolina.Dietary fibers from soybean cotyledons classified as original (ODF and milled (MDF were fractionated and evaluated as to fractions and monosaccharide composition. The major constituent was hemicellulose, 59% in ODF and 51% MDF, pectin was in average 14% and cellulose, 8.5%. Both samples had 17 mg.g-1 uronic acids and the same composition in monosaccharides: galactose, glucose and arabinose/rhamnose, after hydrolysis. Protein fractions extracted from

  4. Comportamento de cultivares de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] em resposta a diferentes épocas de aplicação do metribuzin Behaviour of soybean (Glycine max (L.( Merrill cultivars in response to different application times of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.R.O. Velloso

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi conduzido em área da Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Guaíba, RS, durante o ano agrícola de 1978/79, com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de soja em resposta a épocas de aplicação do herbicida metribuzin. As cultivares foram submetidas ás épocas de aplicação em pré-semeadura incorporada ao solo (PSI, pré-emergência (PRÉ e pós -emergência (PÓS, tendo sido utilizada a dose de 490 g/ha de metribuzin. Para avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade, constatou-se que o tratamento em PSI foi o que ocasionou maior efeito fitotóxico, enquanto que os em PRE e POS apresentaram menor grau de injúria. Com relação a população de plantas as cultivares Planalto, Paraná e IAS5 demonstraram diferenciação na população para as épocas de aplicação testadas, sendo que as demais cultivares não apresentaram variações para este parâmetro. O número de grãos foi o principal componente responsável pelas diferenças verificadas no rendimento de grãos. Para as médias de rendimento de grãos obtidas, constatou-se ter havido significância para o efeito épocas de aplicação, tendo os tratamentos aplicados em PRE e PSI, sido inferiores em 10 e 21%, respectivamente, ao utilizado em PÓS, que alcançou 2.300 kg/ha.In order to evaluate the behaviour of seven soybean cultivars in response to application times of the herbicide metribuzin, an experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Experimental Station of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, located in Guaíba, RS, Brazil, during the 1978/1979 growing season. The cultivars were tested under three application times pre-sowing soil incorporated (PSI, pre-emergence (PRÉ and postemergence (POS, using 490 g/ha of metribuzin. For visual evaluation of plant toxic ity it was observed that the treatment in PSI caused the greate st phyto toxic effect, while the treatments in PRE and PÓS showed the lowest level of damage. For

  5. [Effects of fungal elicitor on inophyllums production in suspension cultured cells of Calophyllum inophyllum L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huan-liang; Guo, Yong; Cui, Tang-bing; Dai, Jian-guo; Zhang, Jun-song; Xu, Bai-qiu

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the effects of fungal elicitors on inophyllums production in suspension cultured cell of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. The pathogen of leaf spot disease of C. inophyllum L. was isolated and prepared as fungal elicitor. The fungal elicitor was added to the medium with different concentrations and culture period. Their effects on biomass and inophyllums content of the suspension of cultured cells were studied. The optimum effects of S-I fungal elicitor concentrations on inophyllums content was 60 mg GE x L(-1). Adding the fungi elicitor into the cell suspension culture system at stationary phase (being cultured for 18 days) resulted in a highest inophyllum content of 59.174 mg x L(-1) at the 3rd day with 27% higher than control. Fungal elicitor treatment promoted the inophyllums accumulation in medium. Adding the Stagonospora curtisii (Berk.) Sacc. to the medium was effective approaches to enhance inophyllums yield in the suspension of C. inophyllum L culture cell.

  6. Effects of Selected Physicochemical Parameters on Zerumbone Production of Zingiber zerumbet Smith Cell Suspension Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahanom Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber zerumbet Smith is an important herb that contains bioactive phytomedicinal compound, zerumbone. To enhance cell growth and production of this useful compound, we investigated the growth conditions of cell suspension culture. Embryogenic callus generated from shoot bud was used to initiate cell suspension culture. The highest specific growth rate of cells was recorded when it was cultured in liquid Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing 3% sucrose with pH 5.7 and incubated under continuous shaking condition of 70 rpm for 16 h light and 8 h dark cycle at 24°C. Our results also revealed that the type of carbohydrate substrate, light regime, agitation speed, and incubation temperature could affect the production of zerumbone. Although the zerumbone produced in this study was not abundant compared to rhizome of Z. zerumbet, the possibility of producing zerumbone during early stage could serve as a model for subsequent improvement.

  7. Controle das plantas daninhas em cultura de soja (Glycine Max L. Merril com misturas de herbicidas Soybean weed control with mixtures of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. P. Cruz

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaio de campo, onde as principais plantas daninhas eram representadas por duas gramíneas e seis ervas de folhas largas, foi comparada a ação de misturas de trifluralin, pendimethalin, dinitramine e alachlor com metribuzin e de alachlor com linuron, no seu controle. Os resultados mostraram que as misturas de alachlor a 2,00 kg/ha e metribuzin a 0,35 kg/ha, e desses mesmos herbicidas a 3,00 kg/ha e 0,50 kg/ha, feitas no tanque, aplicadas em pré-emergência, seguidas da mistura de trifluralin a 1,00 kg/ha, aplicado em pré-plantio incorporado, com metribuzin a 0,50 kg/ha, aplicado em pré-emergência, foram as mais eficientes. Acanthospermum australe foi a planta daninha de mais difícil controle. Somente a mistura de tanque de alachlor a 2,00 kg/ha e linuron a 0,75 kg/ha foi eficiente no seu controle. As misturas de pendimenthalin a 1,30 kg/ha e de dinitramine a 0,50 kg/ha, ambos com metribuzin a 0,50 kg/ha, retardaram o crescimento inicial da soja, porém sem prejudicar o stand e a produção. Os demais tratamentos também não foram prejudiciais à produção dessa leguminosa.Different mixtures of metribuzin with trifluralin, prendimetalin, dinitramine or alachlor were compared in order to evaluate weed control efficiency on soybean crop. Tank mixtures of 2,00 Kg/ha of alachlor and 0.35 Kg/ha of metribuzin, or 3,00 Kg/ha of alachlor and 0,50 Kg/ha of metribuzin, and 1,00 Kg/ha of trifluralin and 0,50 Kg/ha of metribuzin were the most efficient in controlling grasses and dicotyledons. Acanthospermum au strale was the most difficult weed to be controled. Only alachlor at 2,00 Kg/ha plus linuron at 0,75 Kg/ha gave satisfactory results. The mixtures of pendimethalin at 1,30 K/ha or dinitramine at 0,50 Kg/ha plus metribuzin at 0,50 Kg/ha were fitotoxic at the initial growth stage of soybeans, but did not affect stand or yield. The other mixtures did not show any fitotoxicity and did not affect stand or yield either.

  8. Fetal calf serum-free suspension culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells employing fish serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masashi; Aizu, Yu; Shioya, Itaru; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2010-03-01

    The effects of heat treatment and concentration of fish serum (FS) on cell growth in a suspension culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) 1-15(500) (ATCC CRL-9606) cells were investigated. An increase in FS concentration from 1% to 4% markedly increased cell density. On the other hand, heat treatment of FS showed nearly no effect on cell density. Copyright 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genotype X environment interactions and stability of soybean for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is the world's leading source of oil and protein. It has the highest protein content of all food crops and is second only to groundnut in terms of oil content among food legumes. Study on genotype x enviroment interaction (GE) and stability of twenty soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genotypes ...

  10. Changes in auxin level in the course of growth of a sunflower crown-gall suspension culture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zofia Chirek

    2014-01-01

    The auxin level in the cell mass and culture medium was determined by means of the Avena straight caleoptile test in various periods of the suspension culture cycle of the sunflower crown-gall tumour...

  11. Feeding behavior of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotype 2 on soybean PI 243540, the source of Rag2 resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance to the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is an effective means of controlling populations of this introduced pest species in the U.S. Rag (Resistance to Aphis glycines) genes identified in soybean germplasm have been incorporated into commercial cultivars, but differenti...

  12. Effect of Organic Growth Stimulants and Magnetic Water on Oil Harvest Index and Protein Yield of Soybean (Glycine max L. at Different Harvest Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tousi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of organic growth stimulant and harvest time of soybean cultivar Williams on oil harvest index and protein yield, factorial experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design with 15 treatment and three replications of Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht in 2012-2013 year. The experiment Treatments were including Kadostim (50.00, Aminol forte (20.00, organic manure (cow,10 ton.ha-1, magnetic water (20 lit.m-2 plus the control (no spray and three harvest time 1. the first harvest when seed pods in main stem had 25-20% moisture, 2. the second harvest when in pods maturity (yellowing of more than 95% of pods and seeds per pod in the main stem had 15-14% moisture, 3. the third harvest when the main stem had less than 14% moisture. Results showed that significant differences exist between the spray application and harvest time in oil harvest index and protein yields. spray application with kadostim had the maximum oil harvest index (8.7% and biological yield (5933 kg.ha-1. Mean comparison of the interaction showed that spray application of kadostim at the second harvest produced highest grain yield (2853 kg.ha-1, oil yield (664 kg.ha-1 and protein yield (1019 kg.ha-1. The results of this experiment, it seems that Kadostim and organic manure spray application at the second harvest to help increase production, and a step towards reducing environmental pollution and sustainable agriculture is.

  13. The effects of cadmium chloride on secondary metabolite production in Vitis vinifera cv. cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Emine Sema; Babalik, Zehra; Hallac-Turk, Filiz; Gokturk-Baydar, Nilgun

    2014-09-23

    Plant secondary metabolites are possess several biological activities such as anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, etc. Cell suspension culture is one of the most effective systems to produce secondary metabolites. It is possible to increase the phenolic compounds and tocopherols by using cell suspensions. Studies on tocopherols production by cell suspension cultures are seldom and generally focused on seed oil plants. Although fresh grape, grape seed, pomace and grape seed oil had tocopherols, with our best knowledge, there is no research on tocopherol accumulation in the grape cell suspension cultures. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cadmium chloride treatments on secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures of grapevine. Cell suspensions initiated from callus belonging to petiole tissue was used as a plant material. Cadmium chloride was applied to cell suspension cultures in different concentration (1.0 mM and 1.5 mM) to enhance secondary metabolite (total phenolics, total flavanols, total flavonols, trans-resveratrol, and α-, β-, γ- δ-tocopherols) production. Cells were harvested at two days intervals until the 6th day of cultures. Amounts of total phenolics, total flavanols and total flavonols; trans-resveratrol and tocopherols (α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols) and dry cell weights were determined in the harvested cells. Phenolic contents were significantly affected by the sampling time and cadmium concentrations. The highest values of total phenolic (168.82 mg/100 g), total flavanol (15.94 mg/100 g), total flavonol (14.73 mg/100 g) and trans-resveratrol (490.76 μg/100 g) were found in cells treated with 1.0 mM CdCl2 and harvested at day 2. Contents of tocopherols in the cells cultured in the presence of 1.0 mM CdCl2 gradually increased during the culture period and the highest values of α, β and γ tocopherols (145.61, 25.52 and 18.56 μg/100 g) were detected in the cell cultures collected at day 6

  14. The effects of cadmium chloride on secondary metabolite production in Vitis vinifera cv. cell suspension cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sema Cetin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant secondary metabolites are possess several biological activities such as anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, etc. Cell suspension culture is one of the most effective systems to produce secondary metabolites. It is possible to increase the phenolic compounds and tocopherols by using cell suspensions. Studies on tocopherols production by cell suspension cultures are seldom and generally focused on seed oil plants. Although fresh grape, grape seed, pomace and grape seed oil had tocopherols, with our best knowledge, there is no research on tocopherol accumulation in the grape cell suspension cultures. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cadmium chloride treatments on secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures of grapevine. Cell suspensions initiated from callus belonging to petiole tissue was used as a plant material. Cadmium chloride was applied to cell suspension cultures in different concentration (1.0 mM and 1.5 mM to enhance secondary metabolite (total phenolics, total flavanols, total flavonols, trans-resveratrol, and α-, β-, γ- δ-tocopherols production. Cells were harvested at two days intervals until the 6th day of cultures. Amounts of total phenolics, total flavanols and total flavonols; trans-resveratrol and tocopherols (α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols and dry cell weights were determined in the harvested cells. RESULTS: Phenolic contents were significantly affected by the sampling time and cadmium concentrations. The highest values of total phenolic (168.82 mg/100 g, total flavanol (15.94 mg/100 g, total flavonol (14.73 mg/100 g and trans-resveratrol (490.76 µg/100 g were found in cells treated with 1.0 mM CdCl2 and harvested at day 2. Contents of tocopherols in the cells cultured in the presence of 1.0 mM CdCl2 gradually increased during the culture period and the highest values of α, β and γ tocopherols (145.61, 25.52 and 18.56 µg/100 g were detected in the cell

  15. Efeito de doses de metribuzin no crescimento e na conversão da energia solar em plantas de soja (Glycine max (L . merrill Effect of metribuzin doses on the growth and solar energy conversion in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento e a eficiência na conversão da energia solar foram estudados em soja (Glycine max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivada em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin (0, 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1. O valor máximo da conversão da energia solar foi de 0,75%, para as plantas cultiva das na maior dose do herbicida. Os valores da conversão da energia solar média durante o ciclo da cultura foram 0,32 ; 0,31 ; 0,32 e 0,33%. em ordem crescente de dose do metribuzin. De modo geral, na fase vegetativa as plantas controle apresentaram valores inferiores em todos os valores de crescimento determinados, superando as tratadas com metribuzin somente na fase reprodutiva, mostrando que no período crítico de competição o dano causado pelas plantas daninhas é maior que a possível fitotoxicida de causada pelo metribuzin.Growth analysis and evaluation of solar energy conversion in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill, Uberaba unver field conditions and four doses of metribuzin (0,0;0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were performed in this study. Maximum solar energy conversion was 0,75% for pla nts tre ate d wit h 1,05 kg i.a.ha -1 metribuzin. The aver age of solar energy conversion throughout the entire crop cycle were 0,32, 0,31 , 0,32 and 0,33% for the increasing metribuzin doses. In general, the control showed lower figures for all growth values studied than the treated during the vegetative phase. During the reproductive phase, however, they surpassed those tre ated with metribuzin, showing that in the critical period of competition weeds were more harmful than the phytotoxicity produced by metribuzin.

  16. Effect of magnetic nanoparticles on tobacco BY-2 cell suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Babula, Petr; Kudrle, Vit; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-12-20

    Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles), electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level) and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases) or imaging (contrast agents). Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis - total protein content, thiols - reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension culture. The

  17. Effect of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Tobacco BY-2 Cell Suspension Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles, electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases or imaging (contrast agents. Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis — total protein content, thiols — reduced (GSH and oxidized (GSSG glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension

  18. Establishment of cell suspension cultures of two Costa Rican Jatropha species (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yesenia Solís-Ramos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available J. curcas has been studied in different countries and some interesting agronomic, pharmacological and industrial properties have been reported. More recently, it has been considered an important alternative source for biofuel production. The objective of this study was to establish a long-term method for the maintenance of calli and cell suspension cultures of the local species J. curcas and J. gossypifolia, in order to allow future studies for novel compounds with pharmaceutical or industrial applications. For this, friable calli were successfully induced from hypocotyl segments of J. curcas and J. gossypifolia that were cultured in semisolid MS media supplemented with 1.5mg/L, and 0.5mg/L of 2,4-D, respectively. Cell suspension cultures of J. curcas were established using 1g of 35 and 60-day calli, in 50mL of liquid MS media supplied with 1.5mg/L of 2,4-D; sucrose and maltose were additionally evaluated as carbon sources. After 35 days, cell suspension cultures initiated with 35-day calli, showed greater cell growth with a maximum biomass of 194.9g/L fresh weight, 6.59g/L dry weight and 17.3% packed volume. The exponential phase ended at day 35 for cultures initiated with 35-day calli, and at day 21 for cultures initiated with 60-day calli. Higher biomass production was obtained with sucrose. Cell cultures were established with 35-day calli in MS media with the same 2,4-D concentration used for calli induction and 30g/L sucrose. This medium was considered optimum for the maintenance and growth of cell suspensions for both species, with sub-cultures every 20 days. The biotechnological potential for the production of bioactive compounds in these species for pharmacological, agricultural and industrial applications is being evaluated.

  19. Effect of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Tobacco BY-2 Cell Suspension Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Babula, Petr; Kudrle, Vit; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles), electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level) and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases) or imaging (contrast agents). Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis—total protein content, thiols—reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension culture. The

  20. Characterization of transmembrane auxin transport in Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifertová, Daniela; Skůpa, Petr; Rychtář, Jan; Laňková, Martina; Pařezová, Markéta; Dobrev, Petre I; Hoyerová, Klára; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2014-03-15

    Polar auxin transport is a crucial process for control and coordination of plant development. Studies of auxin transport through plant tissues and organs showed that auxin is transported by a combination of phloem flow and the active, carrier-mediated cell-to-cell transport. Since plant organs and even tissues are too complex for determination of the kinetics of carrier-mediated auxin uptake and efflux on the cellular level, simplified models of cell suspension cultures are often used, and several tobacco cell lines have been established for auxin transport assays. However, there are very few data available on the specificity and kinetics of auxin transport across the plasma membrane for Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells. In this report, the characteristics of carrier-mediated uptake (influx) and efflux for the native auxin indole-3-acetic acid and synthetic auxins, naphthalene-1-acetic and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acids (NAA and 2,4-D, respectively) in A. thaliana ecotype Landsberg erecta suspension-cultured cells (LE line) are provided. By auxin competition assays and inhibitor treatments, we show that, similarly to tobacco cells, uptake carriers have high affinity towards 2,4-D and that NAA is a good tool for studies of auxin efflux in LE cells. In contrast to tobacco cells, metabolic profiling showed that only a small proportion of NAA is metabolized in LE cells. These results show that the LE cell line is a useful experimental system for measurements of kinetics of auxin carriers on the cellular level that is complementary to tobacco cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Qualidade da aplicação aérea líquida com uma aeronave agrícola experimental na cultura da soja (Glycine Max L. Liquid aerial pesticide application quality with an experimental agricultural aircraft in soybean crop (Glycine Max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton F. dos Reis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Os avanços da tecnologia de aplicação aérea de agroquímicos têm-se dado na direção de redução do volume de calda, o que pode ocasionar má distribuição e consequente deposição irregular. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da aplicação de calda de pulverização em aplicação aérea, na cultura da soja (Glycine Max L.. Para a aplicação, foi utilizada uma aeronave agrícola experimental, aplicando um volume de calda de 20 L ha-1 . Para a determinação dos volumes depositados nas folhas do terço superior, médio e inferior das plantas de soja, foi utilizado corante alimentício azul brilhante adicionado à calda de pulverização. Estas folhas foram lavadas, e o volume determinado por espectrofotometria. Para a obtenção do espectro de gotas, foram utilizados alvos artificiais constituídos por papel hidrossensível, distribuídos no terço superior e médio das plantas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância de fator único, considerando as diferentes posições na planta, e cartas de controle foram feitas a partir dos limites inferior e superior de controle. A aplicação aérea de calda de pulverização na cultura da soja apresentou menores valores de diâmetro da mediana volumétrica, amplitude relativa e cobertura no terço médio em relação ao terço superior da cultura da soja. Houve menor deposição da calda de pulverização no terço inferior. Os indicadores de cobertura da calda de pulverização demonstraram que a aplicação aérea com a aeronave agrícola experimental avaliada não se encontra sob controle estatístico de processo, ou seja, fora do padrão de qualidade.Advances in aerial pesticide application technology of chemicals have been given in the direction of reducing the syrup volume, which can cause poor distribution and consequent irregular deposition. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the syrup spray on aerial application in soybean crop (Glycine Max

  2. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  3. Changes in cellulase and polygalacturonase activity in Rosa glauca suspension cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseleau, J.P.; Chambat, G.

    The levels of cellulase and polygalacturonase activities in Rosa glauca suspension cultures were measured at 6, 10, 14 and 28 days of growth. Cellulase and polygalacturonase showed the highest activity in the 14-day-old cells. The changes in the activities followed closely the changes in the corresponding levels of cellulose and galacturonic acid-containing polysaccharides in the cell wall. The maximum in both activities coincided with the end of the exponential growth of the cells. These hydrolases are believed to play a role in the cell expansion and the polysaccharides synthesis.

  4. Production of Lentiviral Vectors Encoding Recombinant Factor VIII Expression in Serum-Free Suspension Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Luis Caron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer offers several advantages over other gene delivery vectors when considering gene and cell therapy applications. However, using these therapies in clinical applications involves large-scale vector production in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Here we describe a high yield production of a lentivirus encoding recombinant factor VIII in a scalable and GMP-compliant culture system, based on serum free suspension cultures and transient transfection with an inexpensive reagent, polyethylenimine (PEI, reaching a total viral yield of 2.48x108 particles.

  5. Genetic analysis of resistance to soybean rust disease | Kiryowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow.) causes the most damage of all the pathogens known to attack soybean (Glycine max. Merril). A study was conducted in Uganda to estimate the magnitude of genetic parameters controlling soybean rust resistance and to estimate narrow sense heritability of the resistance.

  6. Screening soybean genotypes for promiscuous symbiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current low soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) yields in Sub-Saharan Africa can be alleviated by developing promiscuous genotypes. The research trend in Africa is towards developing promiscuous varieties for less labour and high yields in soybean production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Makerere ...

  7. [The production of gastrodin through biotransformation of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde by cell suspension culture of Datura stramonium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jia-Shun; Ma, Wei-Peng; Pu, Jun-Xue; Xu, Shu-Guan; Zheng, Shuang-Qing; Xiao, Chun-Jie

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the production of p-hydroxymethylphenol-beta-D-glucoside (gastrodin) through biotransformation by plant cell suspension cultures. Using cell suspension cultures of Datura stramonium to convert the exogenous p-hydroxybenzaldehyde into gastrodin was conducted and the converted compounds were separated with a combination of multi-chromatography. Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical evidence. The conversion procedure of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde into gastrodin by Datura stramonium cell suspension cultures was established. The synthesized gastrodin (II) was isolated from the fermental liquor and identified by spectral analysis. At the same time, the p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (I) converted through biotransformation of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde by cell suspension cultures of Datura stramonium was also isolated and identified. Two compounds were also isolated from the cell cultures and they were identified as beta-D-furanoallulose (III) and n-butyloxystyryl-beta-D-pyranoallulose (IV). Datura stramonium grown in suspension cultures can convert exogenous p-hydroxybenzaldehyde into the corresponding gastrodin.

  8. Growth and accumulation of flavan-3-ol in Camellia sinensis through callus culture and suspension culture method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutini Sutini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess flavan-3-ol biomass in C. sinensis through callus cultures and suspension cultures derived from leaf explants. Callus initiation of both cultures were using Murashige and Skoog medium were enriched with plant growth regulators Naphtha-lene Acetic Acid 3.0 mg/L and kinetin 2.0 mg/L. The procedures in this study were: (1 callus initiation by cutting the leaves of C. sinen-sis shoots then planted on Murashige and Skoog medium that were enriched with plant growth regulators, (2 sub callus culture on fresh medium that enriched with the same growth regulators, (3 suspension culture initiation of liquid callus, (4 growth examination of callus and suspension cultures in week 12, (5 examination of qualitative-quantitative content of flavan-3-olin suspension cultures at week 4. The results show that suspension cultures contain biomass flavan-3-ol that increase in the same manner of the increase of callus age and weight

  9. Teste de lixiviação de potássio para avaliação do vigor de sementes de soja [Glycine max (L.Merril] Potassium leaching test for the evaluation of soybean seed vigour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.F.S. Dias

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal investigar a possibilidade de se obter indicações rápidas sobre a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja através do teste de lixiviação de potássio, cuja eficiência foi avaliada comparativamente as informações fornecidas por outros métodos considerados adequados para a determinação do vigor. Para tanto, utilizou-se quatro lotes de sementes de soja dos cultivares IAC-8 e IAC-15 que foram submetidos aos testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, envelhecimento artificial, condutividade elétrica e determinação do grau de umidade. Além destes foram conduzidos estudos de lixiviação de potássio utilizando-se amostras de sementes não danificadas e de sementes fisicamente puras. A quantidade de potássio lixiviado foi avaliada em fotômetro de chama após 60, 90, 120 e 150 minutos de embebição a 30ºC. As avaliações feitas aos 60, 90 e 120 minutos mostraram-se adequadas para a identificação de lotes com diferentes níveis de vigor, constituindo-se em um método simples e rápido para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes.This work was performed to investigate the possibilities of providing rapid indications on the physiological quality of seeds through the potassium leaching test. Four lots of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill seeds, cultivars IAC-8 and IAC-15 were submitted to germination, first count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and seed moisture tests. In addition, studies on potassium leaching were conducted with samples of selected non damaged seeds and with pure seeds. The amount of leached potassium was evaluated in a flame photometer after a 60, 90, 120 and 150 minute imbibition at 30°C. The evaluations after 60, 90 and 120 minutes were suitable for the identification of lots with different levels of vigour, thus proving to be a simple and rapid method for seed vigour evaluation.

  10. Suspension culture of pluripotent stem cells: effect of shear on stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kevin C; Rodrigues, Beatriz; zur Nieden, Nicole I

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant promise, the routine usage of suspension cell culture to manufacture stem cell-derived differentiated cells has progressed slowly. Suspension culture is an innovative way of either expanding or differentiating cells and sometimes both are combined into a single bioprocess. Its advantages over static 2D culturing include a homogeneous and controllable culture environment and producing a large quantity of cells in a fraction of time. This feature makes suspension cell culture ideal for use in stem cell research and eventually ideal in the large-scale production of differentiated cells for regenerative medicine. Because of their tremendous differentiation capacities and unlimited growth properties, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in particular are considered potential sources for future cell-replacement therapies. Currently, expansion of PSCs is accomplished in 2D, which only permits a limited amount of cell growth per culture flask before cells need to be passaged. However, before stem cells can be applied clinically, several aspects of their expansion, such as directed growth, but also differentiation, need to be better controlled. This review will summarize recent advantages in suspension culture of PSCs, while at the same time highlighting current challenges.

  11. Five 2-(2-Phenylethylchromones from Sodium Chloride-Elicited Aquilaria sinensis Cell Suspension Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxiu Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Five 2-(2-phenylethylchromones including a new one, (5S,6R,7S,8R-5,8-dichloro-6,7-dihydroxy-2-phenylethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromen-4-one (1, and four known ones (2–5, were isolated from 150 mM NaCl-elicited Aquilaria sinensis cell suspension cultures. In addition, three feruloyl amides (6–8, six nucleosides (9–14, (+-syringaresinol (15, indole-3-carboxaldehyde (16, and two glycosides (17–18 were also obtained. The structures were unambiguously identified by analysis of their UV, IR, NMR, and HRESIMS data. The absolute configuration of the new 2-(2-phenylethylchromone (1 was established by a dimolybdenum tetraacetate-induced circular dichroism experiment. Compared to un-elicited cell lines, the appearance of 2-(2-phenylethylchromones in NaCl-treated cells occurred on the 3rd and 5th days of their treatment. 2-(2-Phenylethylchromones, feruloyl amides, nucleosides, and lignins have been reported to be closely related to plant defense; therefore, the identification of these compounds from NaCl-elicited A. sinensis cell suspension cultures would be useful for further exploring the mechanism of agarwood formation.

  12. Comparison of Cuminaldehyde Contents from Cell Suspension Cultures and Seeds of [Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch.

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    Sara KHOSRAVINIA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The cell suspension culture and seed samples of Bunium persicum were extracted by supercritical fluid, hydrodistillation and solvent methods and analyzed by Gas Chromatography. In this study to compare the different methods of extractions, cuminaldehyde was targeted as one of the Black zira essential oil constitute. For callus induction the germinated seeds were cultured as explants on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l kinetin (treatment A as well as 2 mg/l ?-naphthalene acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l 6-benzyl aminopurine (treatment B and followed by cells suspension cultures establishment for the first time. The results of cell culture showed that cells from treatment B have a growth rate higher than A. All extracts were dissolved in 1 ml hexane and analyzed by Gas Chromatography. According to the Gas Chromatography analysis, cuminaldehyde was not detected in the supercritical fluid samples, while it was present in hydrodistillation and solvent extract. Cuminaldehyde percentage in cell and seed solvent extracts was 4.65% and 18.61% respectively. Gas Chromatography results also showed that no cuminaldehyde is present in media extracts, means no cuminaldehyde has been secreted into the medium.

  13. Enhanced camptothecin production by ethanol addition in the suspension culture of the endophyte, Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Aarthi; Srivastava, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of a non-camptothecin producing plant, Catharanthus roseus when added in the suspension culture of the endophyte Fusarium solani known to produce camptothecin, resulted in enhanced production of camptothecin by 10.6-fold in comparison to that in control (2.8 μg/L). Interestingly, addition of pure ethanol (up to 5% v/v) in the suspension culture of F. solani resulted in maximum enhancement in camptothecin production (up to 15.5-fold) from that obtained in control. In the presence of ethanol, a reduced glucose uptake (by ∼ 40%) and simultaneous ethanol consumption (up to 9.43 g/L) was observed during the cultivation period (14 days). Also, the total NAD level and the protein content in the biomass increased by 3.7- and 1.9-fold, respectively, in comparison to that in control. The study indicates a dual role of ethanol, presumably as an elicitor and also as a carbon/energy source, leading to enhanced biomass and camptothecin production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression changes during rotating wall vessel suspension culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Kelly; Allen, Patricia L.; Lewis, Fawn; Cubano, Luis A.; Hyman, Linda E.; Hammond, Timothy G.

    2002-01-01

    This study utilizes Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study genetic responses to suspension culture. The suspension culture system used in this study is the high-aspect-ratio vessel, one type of the rotating wall vessel, that provides a high rate of gas exchange necessary for rapidly dividing cells. Cells were grown in the high-aspect-ratio vessel, and DNA microarray and metabolic analyses were used to determine the resulting changes in yeast gene expression. A significant number of genes were found to be up- or downregulated by at least twofold as a result of rotational growth. By using Gibbs promoter alignment, clusters of genes were examined for promoter elements mediating these genetic changes. Candidate binding motifs similar to the Rap1p binding site and the stress-responsive element were identified in the promoter regions of differentially regulated genes. This study shows that, as in higher order organisms, S. cerevisiae changes gene expression in response to rotational culture and also provides clues for investigations into the signaling pathways involved in gravitational response.

  15. The Utilization of Soybean Wild Relatives: How Can It Be Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. & Zucc.) is the progenitor of soybean and is native to China, Taiwan, Japan, eastern Russia and the Korean peninsula. Research has repeatedly demonstrated that wild soybean is more genetically diverse than the cultivated soybean. There are 26 perennial Glycine species tha...

  16. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  17. Desenvolvimento, partição de assimilados e produção de matéria seca de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L. merrill submetidas a quatro doses de metribuzin Development,assimilate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants treated with four doses of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento, a partição e a produção de matéria seca, foram estudados em soja (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivadas em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin - (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. ha-1. O metri buzin não reduziu a população e nem alterou significativamente a razão parte aérea/sistema radicular. A altura média das plantas aumentou significativamente com o incremento das doses de metribuzin, sendo que as alturas máximas das plantas foram 761, 784, 815 e 812 mm, em ordem crescente de dose de metribuzin. As variações das taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram nitida mente seqüenciais em todos os tratamentos, ocorrendo mudanças do dreno metabólico preferencial de um órgão para outro, de acordo com as transformações morfológicas das plantas, ressaltando-se que o metribuzin não alterou esse comportamento. Os tratamentos não influencia ramo acumulo de matéria seca das vagens (Wv, no entanto, a partir do inicio da maturação, as plantas-controle apres entaram maiores Wv, provavelmente, devido a maior taxa assi milatória líquida verificada a partir da floração plena. A matéria seca acumulada nos pericarpos (Wp diminuiu, a partir das sementes completamente desenvolvid os, para todos os tratamentos com exceção de Wp das plantas tratadas com 0,7 kg i.a. ha-1 de metribuzin que, manteve-se estável. Por outro lado, a matéria seca nas sementes (Ws aumentou de forma acentuada, desde o seu aparecimento até a colheita final , em todas as doses do herbicida.Development, assimlate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. Uberaba plants treat ed with four metri buzin doses (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were studied in a field experiment. Metribuzin did not reduce the stand or alter ed significantly shoot /root ratio. Plants height average incre ased as the doses of metribuzin increased; maximum heights were 761, 784, 815 and 812 mm, for

  18. Comparative study of phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and fatty acids compositional profiles in black seed-coated soybeans (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill) depending on pickling period in brewed vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Oh, Jin-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2017-07-18

    Pickled soybeans or vinegar beans have long been used as a folk remedy and also a supplemental nutritional source in Korea. In general the pickling process in vinegar improves the digestibility of soybeans as well as increases the availability of various (non-)nutrients in soybeans. However, detailed information about the changes in functional substances such as (poly)phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and fatty acids (FAs) in soybeans during the pickling process is quite limited. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the changes in the selected phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and FAs in soybeans as a function of the pickling time. The sum of the total phenolics in both the pickled soybeans and the pickling solutions increased by as much as 47% after pickling. Naringenin, vanillin, and catechin were the major phenolics observed in the pickled soybeans and pickling solutions. The total vitamin E content in the pickled soybeans decreased by 23% after pickling, although no vitamin E molecules were found in the pickling solution. γ-Tocopherol was abundant in the untreated soybeans, but decreased by ~29% after pickling. Both the total and major FA contents varied by less than 1% during the pickling period. In this study, a 10-20 day pickling period may be considered suitable in terms of retention of functional substances in the pickled soybeans, such as selected phenolics, vitamin E, and FAs. Our findings provide basic information and insight into the production of functional compounds in soybeans upon immersing in brewed vinegar, and also may be helpful toward improving the health-functionality of soybean-based foods in the food industry. Graphical abstract How to change bioactive compounds during the pickling process?

  19. Enhanced Production of Anthraquinones and Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activities in the Cell Suspension Cultures of Polygonum multiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Thiruvengadam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones (AQs and phenolic compounds are important phytochemicals that are biosynthesized in cell suspension cultures of Polygonum multiflorum. We wanted to optimize the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs, media, sucrose, l-glutamine, jasmonic acid (JA, and salicylic acid (SA for the production of phytochemicals and biomass accumulation in a cell suspension culture of P. multiflorum. The medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS salts and 4% sucrose supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L thidiazuron, and 100 µM l-glutamine at 28 days of cell suspension culture was suitable for biomass accumulation and AQ production. Maximum biomass accumulation (12.5 and 12.35 g fresh mass (FM; 3 and 2.93 g dry mass (DM and AQ production (emodin 295.20 and 282 mg/g DM; physcion 421.55 and 410.25 mg/g DM were observed using 100 µM JA and SA, respectively. JA- and SA-elicited cell cultures showed several-fold higher biomass accumulation and AQ production than the control cell cultures. Furthermore, the cell suspension cultures effectively produced 23 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols and hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures produced a higher amount of AQs and phenolic compounds. Because of these metabolic changes, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities were high in the PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures. The results showed that the elicitors (JA and SA induced the enhancement of biomass accumulation and phytochemical (AQs and phenolic compounds production as well as biological activities in the cell suspension cultures of P. multiflorum. This optimized protocol can be developed for large-scale biomass accumulation and production of phytochemicals (AQs and phenolic compounds from cell suspension cultures, and the phytochemicals can be used for various biological activities.

  20. Enhanced Production of Anthraquinones and Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activities in the Cell Suspension Cultures of Polygonum multiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Lee, Taek-Jun; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min

    2016-11-16

    Anthraquinones (AQs) and phenolic compounds are important phytochemicals that are biosynthesized in cell suspension cultures of Polygonum multiflorum . We wanted to optimize the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs), media, sucrose, l-glutamine, jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) for the production of phytochemicals and biomass accumulation in a cell suspension culture of P. multiflorum . The medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and 4% sucrose supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L thidiazuron, and 100 µM l-glutamine at 28 days of cell suspension culture was suitable for biomass accumulation and AQ production. Maximum biomass accumulation (12.5 and 12.35 g fresh mass (FM); 3 and 2.93 g dry mass (DM)) and AQ production (emodin 295.20 and 282 mg/g DM; physcion 421.55 and 410.25 mg/g DM) were observed using 100 µM JA and SA, respectively. JA- and SA-elicited cell cultures showed several-fold higher biomass accumulation and AQ production than the control cell cultures. Furthermore, the cell suspension cultures effectively produced 23 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols and hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures produced a higher amount of AQs and phenolic compounds. Because of these metabolic changes, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities were high in the PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures. The results showed that the elicitors (JA and SA) induced the enhancement of biomass accumulation and phytochemical (AQs and phenolic compounds) production as well as biological activities in the cell suspension cultures of P. multiflorum . This optimized protocol can be developed for large-scale biomass accumulation and production of phytochemicals (AQs and phenolic compounds) from cell suspension cultures, and the phytochemicals can be used for various biological activities.

  1. Enhanced Production of Anthraquinones and Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activities in the Cell Suspension Cultures of Polygonum multiflorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Lee, Taek-Jun; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinones (AQs) and phenolic compounds are important phytochemicals that are biosynthesized in cell suspension cultures of Polygonum multiflorum. We wanted to optimize the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs), media, sucrose, l-glutamine, jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) for the production of phytochemicals and biomass accumulation in a cell suspension culture of P. multiflorum. The medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and 4% sucrose supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L thidiazuron, and 100 µM l-glutamine at 28 days of cell suspension culture was suitable for biomass accumulation and AQ production. Maximum biomass accumulation (12.5 and 12.35 g fresh mass (FM); 3 and 2.93 g dry mass (DM)) and AQ production (emodin 295.20 and 282 mg/g DM; physcion 421.55 and 410.25 mg/g DM) were observed using 100 µM JA and SA, respectively. JA- and SA-elicited cell cultures showed several-fold higher biomass accumulation and AQ production than the control cell cultures. Furthermore, the cell suspension cultures effectively produced 23 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols and hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures produced a higher amount of AQs and phenolic compounds. Because of these metabolic changes, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities were high in the PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures. The results showed that the elicitors (JA and SA) induced the enhancement of biomass accumulation and phytochemical (AQs and phenolic compounds) production as well as biological activities in the cell suspension cultures of P. multiflorum. This optimized protocol can be developed for large-scale biomass accumulation and production of phytochemicals (AQs and phenolic compounds) from cell suspension cultures, and the phytochemicals can be used for various biological activities. PMID:27854330

  2. Cell line selection combined with jasmonic acid elicitation enhance camptothecin production in cell suspension cultures of Ophiorrhiza mungos L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, S; Satheeshkumar, K

    2017-01-01

    Ophiorrhiza mungos is a herbaceous medicinal plant which contains a quinoline alkaloid, camptothecin (CPT), an anticancer compound. A high-yielding cell line, O. mungos cell line-3 (OMC3) was selected from cell suspension cultures of O. mungos using cell aggregate cloning method and established cell suspension culture. OMC3 cell suspension produced significantly high biomass (9.25 ± 1.3 g/flask fresh weight (FW)) and CPT yield (0.095 ± 0.002 mg g(-1) dry weight (DW)) compared with the original cell suspension. Inoculum size of OMC3 cell suspension culture was optimised as 14 g L(-1). Media optimisation has shown that 5 % (w/v) sucrose and an increased ammonium/nitrate concentration of 40/20 mM favoured CPT production, whereas 3 % (w/v) sucrose, an ammonium/nitrate concentration of 20/40 mM and 1.25 mM of phosphate favoured biomass accumulation. Jasmonic acid, chitin and salicylic acid was used to elicit CPT production in the original cell suspension culture and achieved significantly high CPT production with jasmonic acid (JA) elicitation. Further, OMC3 cell suspension culture was elicited with JA (50 μM) and obtained 1.12 ± 0.08 mg g(-1) DW CPT and 9.52 ± 1.4 g/flask FW (190.4 g L(-1) FW). The combination of cell line selection and elicitation has produced 18.66-fold increases in CPT production together with significantly high biomass yield. The study is helpful in the scale-up studies of O. mungos cell suspension culture in suitable bioreactor systems for the production of CPT.

  3. Influência de abelhas africanizadas na concentração de açúcares no néctar de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill var. Coodetec 207 = Influence of africanized honeybees on sugar concentration in the nectar of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill var. Coodetec 207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi Machado Alves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a concentração de açúcares no néctar de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill em áreas com ou sem a presença de abelhas Apis mellifera L. Foi utilizada a variedade Coodetec 207 em quatro tratamentos: área de 24 m2 coberta com colônia de abelhas africanizadas em seu interior; área semicoberta com livre acesso para insetos visitantes; área livre e área coberta sem abelhas. As flores foram coletadas durante três dias, a cada 2h. e a concentração dos açúcares totais por flor foi determinada por espectrofotometria. A área coberta com abelha apresentou maior concentração de açúcares totais em relação à área coberta sem abelhas e livre, contudo, aconcentração de açúcares totais na área livre não diferiu da concentração observada na área coberta sem abelhas. Houve redução na concentração média de sacarose na área livre, diferindo das concentrações nas demais áreas. A concentração média de glicose não diferiu entre os tratamentos, enquanto que a de frutose não apresentou diferença entre as áreas cobertas com abelhas, semicoberta e livre. A variedade Coodetec 207 da soja apresentou maior concentração total de açúcares e de frutose nas áreas cobertas com abelhas. Contudo, a presença de Apis mellifera não interferiu nesta concentração de açúcares no néctar das flores de soja desta variedade.This research was carried out to evaluate the sugar concentration in soybean nectar in areas with Africanized honeybee colonies. The var. Coodetec 207 was used in four treatments: 24 m2 covered area with Africanized honeybee colony inside, semi-covered area for free insect visitation, uncovered area, and covered area without insect visitation. Flowers were harvested for three days at two-hour intervals, and the total sugar concentration per flower was determined by spectrophotometry. The covered area with Africanized honeybee colony presented higher sugar concentration than the covered area

  4. Synchronization of Somatic Embryogenesis in Date Palm Suspension Culture Using Abscisic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwael, Hussain A; Naik, Poornananda M; Al-Khayri, Jameel M

    2017-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is considered the most effective method for commercial propagation of date palm. However, the limitation of obtaining synchronized development of somatic embryos remains an impediment. The synchronization of somatic embryo development is ideal for the applications to produce artificial seeds. Abscisic acid (ABA) is associated with stress response and influences in vitro growth and development. This chapter describes an effective method to achieve synchronized development of somatic embryos in date palm cell suspension culture. Among the ABA concentrations tested (0, 1, 10, 50, 100 μM), the best synchronized growth was obtained in response to 50-100 μM. Here we provide a comprehensive protocol for in vitro plant regeneration of date palm starting with shoot-tip explant, callus initiation and growth, cell suspension establishment, embryogenesis synchronization with ABA treatment, somatic embryo germination, and rooting as well as acclimatized plantlet establishment.

  5. Optimizing Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Expansion in Stirred Suspension Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guoliang; Liu, Shiying; Poon, Anna; Rancourt, Derrick Emile

    2017-10-10

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold great hopes for application in regenerative medicine due to their inherent capacity to self-renew and differentiate into cells from the three embryonic germ layers. For clinical applications, a large quantity of hiPSCs produced in standardized and scalable culture processes is required. Several groups including ours have developed methodologies for scaled-up hiPSC production in stirred bioreactors in chemically defined medium. Here, we optimized the critical steps and factors that affect hiPSC expansion and yield in stirred suspension cultures including inoculation conditions, seeding density, aggregate size, agitation rate, and cell passaging method. After multiple passages in stirred suspension bioreactors, hiPSCs remained pluripotent, karyotypically normal, and capable of differentiating into all three germ layers.

  6. Uptake and metabolism of sugars by suspension-cultured catharanthus roseus cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Sagishima, Kyoko; Kubota, Kaoru (Ochanomizu Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    The Uptake and metabolism of sugars by suspension-cultured Catharanthus roseus cells were investigated. Substantially all the sucrose in the culture medium was hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose before being taken up by the cells. The activity of invertase bound to cell walls, determined in situ, was high at the early stage of culture. Glucose was more easily taken up by the cells than was fructose. Tracer experiments using (U-{sup 14}C)glucose and (U-{sup 14}C)fructose indicated that glucose is a better precursor for respiration than fructose, while fructose is preferentially utilized for the synthesis of sucrose, especially in the early phase of cell growth. These results suggest that fructose is utilized for the synthesis of sucrose via the reaction catalyzed by sucrose synthase, prior to the phosphorylation by hexokinase or fructokinase.

  7. CALLUS INDUCTION AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Cannabis sativa CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Raharjo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Callus of Cannabis sativa has been successfully induced from C. sativa explants and seedings. It seems that flowers are the best explant for callus induction and induction under light also give better results than induction in dark. Four cell culture lines were established from flower induced callus. Phytochemical profiles of C. sativa suspension cell cultures were investigated using HPLC and 1H-NMR. Cannabinoids and phenolic compounds related to cannabinoids such as flavonoids could not be found in the cell suspension cultures and there is no major chemical difference between the cell lines though they can visually be distinguished by their colors. Only in one cell line some aromatic compounds in the water/methanol extract could be observed in the 1H-NMR. Further investigations showed that none of these compounds are flavonoids. It seems that lack of cannabinoids in the cell cultures is related to lack of polyketide synthase activity.   Keywords: Callus, Cannabis, phytochemical

  8. Histology of embryoid development in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. cell suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songrat Tinnongjig

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. variety tenera were cultured on Eeuwens or Y3 (1976; 1978 medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D. Calluses were initiated from these embryos. The eight-weekold calluses derived from embryos were transferred to modified Y3 liquid medium devoid of 2,4-D and supplemented with NAA, BA and coconut water to establish cell suspension culture. After a period of culture,these cells were then subcultured to the same medium without plant growth regulators to induce embryoid formation. The calluses and embryoids were harvested at various times, fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically. Histological study revealed that embryoid occurred from meristematic cells with dense cytoplasm along the callus clumps.

  9. Quantitative proteome changes in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells in response to plant natriuretic peptides

    KAUST Repository

    Turek, Ilona

    2015-06-30

    Proteome changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells in response to the A. thaliana plant natriuretic peptide (PNP), AtPNP-A (At2g18660) were assessed using quantitative proteomics employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). In this study, we characterized temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM AtPNP-A at 0, 10 and 30 min post-treatment. Both concentrations we found to yield a distinct differential proteome signature. The data shown in this article are associated with the article “Plant natriuretic peptides induce a specific set of proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to abiotic stress” by Turek et al. (Front. Plant Sci. 5 (2014) 661) and have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001386.

  10. Regulation of Cytoplasmic and Vacuolar Volumes by Plant Cells in Suspension Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Poole, Ronald J

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative microscopical measurements have been made of the proportion of cell volume occupied by cytoplasm in a cell suspension culture derived from cotyledons of bush bean (cv. Contender). On a 7-day culture cycle, the content of cytoplasm varies from 25% at the time of transfer to 45......% at the start of the phase of rapid cell division. If the culture is continued beyond 7 days, the vacuole volume reaches 90% of cell volume by day 12.Attempts to measure relative cytoplasmic volumes by compartmental analysis of nonelectrolyte efflux were unsuccessful. The proportion of cell volume occupied...... by cytoplasm is roughly correlated with protein content, but shows no correlation with cell size or with intracellular concentrations of K or Na. The most striking observation is that the growth of cytoplasmic volume for the culture as a whole appears to be constant throughout the culture cycle, despite...

  11. Production and elicitation of benzalacetone and the raspberry ketone in cell suspension cultures of Rubus idaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedapudi, S; Chin, C K; Pedersen, H

    2000-01-01

    Production levels of p-coumaric acid (p-CA), p-hydroxyphenylbut-3-ene-2-one (benzalacetone), and p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butanone (raspberry ketone) were measured in raspberry cell suspension cultures to investigate metabolite dynamics in a short (two-step) pathway. Intracellular concentrations of benzalacetone and the raspberry ketone fluctuated during the time course of a normal batch culture cycle but showed higher levels during periods of rapid growth. Cells elicited with the signal coupler methyl jasmonate yielded a 2- to 3-fold increase in metabolite concentrations after 24 h. The results suggest that raspberry ketone production is rapidly inducible during periods of high carbohydrate utilization. It is not an end product, however, and undergoes conversion to subsequent metabolites.

  12. Improvement of catechin productivity in suspension cultures of tea callus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Takeishi, Junna; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2003-01-01

    In the suspension cultures of tea callus cells, C.sinensis cv. Yabukita, the effects of the culture conditions, such as culture period and light irradiation, on cell growth and catechin production were investigated. The production of flavonoids (catechins + proanthocyanidins) was promoted by inoculating the cells into the fresh medium at the culture period giving the maximum flavonoid content in the cells. The cultivation under light irradiation was repeated several times by inoculating the cells with the maximum flavonoid content. The flavonoid production was significantly increased without inhibiting the cell growth. We obtained the maximum flavonoid production, 1.5 g/dm(3) medium, and the maximum content, 150 mg/(g of dry cell weight (DCW)). The latter value was larger than that in the leaves of the tea plant.

  13. OCCURRENCE OF SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE (Heterodera glvcines IN VIANÓPOLIS AND IN RIO VERDE (GO OCORRÊNCIA DO NEMATÓIDE DE CISTO DA SOJA (Heterodera glycines NOS MUNICÍPIOS DE VIANÓPOLIS E RIO VERDE (GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmarcos de Carvalho Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines was found in Goiás State in Chapadão do Céu in 1991-1992. Until 1996-1997, this nematode had spread all over six towns of Goiás State. Samples of soil were collected in Vianópolis and Rio Verde in 1997-1998. Samples from Vianópolis were collected in seed production fields and analised in the Laboratory of Phytopathology of Escola de Agronomia — Universidade Federal de Goiás. Samples collected in Rio Verde were analised in the Laboratory of Phytopathology of ESUCRV - FESURV where the race 3 of H. glycines was identified. Up to now there are eight towns in Goiás State with H. glycines occurrence.

    KEY-WORDS: Glycine max; Heterodera glycines.

    O nematóide de cisto da soja (Heterodera glycines foi encontrado no Estado de Goiás, em Chapadão do Céu, em 1991-1992. Até 1996-1997, este nematóide encontrava-se espalhado por seis cidades do Estado de Goiás. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em Vianópolis e Rio Verde, em 1997-1998. As amostras de Vianópolis foram coletadas em campos de produção de sementes e

  14. Impact of fluidic agitation on human pluripotent stem cells in stirred suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampe, Daniel; Joshi, Ronak; Keller, Kevin; Zur Nieden, Nicole I; Tsutsui, Hideaki

    2017-09-01

    The success of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) as a source of future cell therapies hinges, in part, on the availability of a robust and scalable culture system that can readily produce a clinically relevant number of cells and their derivatives. Stirred suspension culture has been identified as one such promising platform due to its ease of use, scalability, and widespread use in the pharmaceutical industry (e.g., CHO cell-based production of therapeutic proteins) among others. However, culture of undifferentiated hPSCs in stirred suspension is a relatively new development within the past several years, and little is known beyond empirically optimized culture parameters. In particular, detailed characterizations of different agitation rates and their influence on the propagation of hPSCs are often not reported in the literature. In the current study, we systematically investigated various agitation rates to characterize their impact on cell yield, viability, and the maintenance of pluripotency. Additionally, we closely examined the distribution of cell aggregates and how the observed culture outcomes are attributed to their size distribution. Overall, our results showed that moderate agitation maximized the propagation of hPSCs to approximately 38-fold over 7 days by keeping the cell aggregates below the critical size, beyond which the cells are impacted by the diffusion limit, while limiting cell death caused by excessive fluidic forces. Furthermore, we observed that fluidic agitation could regulate not only cell aggregation, but also expression of some key signaling proteins in hPSCs. This indicates a new possibility to guide stem cell fate determination by fluidic agitation in stirred suspension cultures. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2109-2120. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Respons Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Beberapa Varietas Kedelai Hitam (Glycine Max L.) Berdasarkan Ukuran Biji

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Lumbantobing, Esra Lumbantobing; Kardhinata, Emmy Harso; Rosmayati, Rosmayati

    2013-01-01

    Growth Respons and Production of Black Soybean Varieties (Glycine max L.) based on Seed Size.Use of yellow soybeans increases as the limited supply of black soybeans. Farmers to plant turnyellow soybean seed in higher production and larger in size than black soybean seed generally small.Size seed effect toward the utilization of soybean. The large seed size tends to be use as industrial rawmaterials while the size of small seeds use as a seed plant back. The aim of this research is toselectio...

  16. Guggulsterone production in cell suspension cultures of the guggul tree, Commiphora wightii, grown in shake-flasks and bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Meeta; Ramawat, K G

    2007-06-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Commiphora wightii, grown in modified MS medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (0.5 mg l(-1)) and kinetin (0.25 mg l(-1)), produced approximately 5 microg guggulsterone g(-1) dry wt. In a 2 l stirred tank bioreactor, the biomass was 5.5 g l(-1) and total guggulsterone was 36 microg l(-1).

  17. Increased podophyllotoxin production in Podophyllum hexandrum cell suspension cultures after feeding coniferyl alcohol as a β-cyclodextrin complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H J; van Uden, W; Frijlink, H W; Lerk, C F; Pras, N; Malingré, T M

    Cell suspension cultures, derived from roots of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), accumulate podophyllotoxin. In this study the use of β-cyclodextrin in feeding the poorly water-soluble precursor coniferyl alcohol to these cultures is described. By complexation with β-cyclodextrin, a

  18. Induction of linalool as a pharmaceutical and medicinal metabolite via cell suspension culture of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, N; Kahrizi, D; Mansouri, M; Karim, H; Vaziri, S; Zargooshi, J; Khanahmadi, M; Shokrinia, M; Mohammadi, N

    2016-05-30

    Cumin is an important medicinal plant in Iran. Plant cell suspension culture is a method for the production of medicinal and secondary metabolites. The linalool is a plant secondary metabolite that has been recognized as a neuroprotective agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of salicylic acid elicitor on induction of linalool in cell suspension culture of cumin. For this purpose, the cumin seeds were prepared, to obtain sterile seedling, were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and alcohol, and were cultured on MS basal medium. This research was conducted in two separate experiments including callus induction and suspension cultures. Leaf explants were prepared from sterile seedlings and used to produce callus on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BAP. In order to establish suspension culture, the appropriate calli were transferred to liquid medium. Then cell cultures were treated with elicitors. The effects of elicitor on the production of linalool secondary metabolite and cell viability were assessed by GC-Mass and tetrazolium test respectively. For this purpose, the salicylic acid (at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/l) was used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The results of cell culture and GC-Mass analysis showed that salicylic acid had significant effects on the linalool production (cumin. It is necessary to determine the best combination of medium and elicitor.

  19. Evaluation of Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Biochemical Characterization from Static and Suspension Culture of Withania somnifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajit Kanungo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (L. Dunal, is an erect evergreen shrub commonly known as Ashwagandha. It is widely used in Ayurvedic and in the traditional pharmacopeia system of India. It is one of the major ingredients in many formulations prescribed for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions including arthritis and rheumatism. In the present study the variation in quality and quantity of protein and antioxidant enzymes were evaluated biochemically and enzymatically from the static and suspension cultures. The nodal segments had provided maximum callusing of 90.25±0.06 % with (1mg/l of BAP and Kn with (2mg/l of 2, 4-D. The static and suspension cultures were taken for the analysis of total soluble protein and screened for antioxidant enzyme activity [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX]. The protein content (1.2016 µg/µl was found to be higher in static culture samples (0.870 µg/µl than the protein obtained from the suspension culture. The antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT, SOD and GPX was higher in static culture samples (301.01± 0.42, 198.92 ± 0.29, 103.75 ± 0.11 nkat/ mg of protein than that of suspension culture. Specific activity staining of isozyme pattern exhibited three isoforms (CAT 1, CAT 2 and CAT 3 in static culture samples but CAT 1 was absent in the sample extracted from suspension cultures.  In case of SOD, four bands (SOD 1, SOD 2, SOD 3 and SOD 4 were found in both the samples whereas intensity of GPX activity was found to be more in static culture but both the samples exhibited three isoforms such as  (GPX 1, GPX 2 and GPX 3. The supplementation of required nutrients along with the phytohormones under in vitro condition might be an enhancing factor to yield antioxidant enzymes in the static culture samples. 

  20. A reliable method for spectrophotometric determination of glycine betaine in cell suspension and other systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Bustos, Ma Guadalupe; Aguado-Santacruz, Gerardo Armando; Tiessen-Favier, Axel; Robledo-Paz, Alejandrina; Muñoz-Orozco, Abel; Rascón-Cruz, Quintin; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio

    2016-04-01

    Glycine betaine is a quaternary ammonium compound that accumulates in a large variety of species in response to different types of stress. Glycine betaine counteracts adverse effects caused by abiotic factors, preventing the denaturation and inactivation of proteins. Thus, its determination is important, particularly for scientists focused on relating structural, biochemical, physiological, and/or molecular responses to plant water status. In the current work, we optimized the periodide technique for the determination of glycine betaine levels. This modification permitted large numbers of samples taken from a chlorophyllic cell line of the grass Bouteloua gracilis to be analyzed. Growth kinetics were assessed using the chlorophyllic suspension to determine glycine betaine levels in control (no stress) cells and cells osmotically stressed with 14 or 21% polyethylene glycol 8000. After glycine extraction, different wavelengths and reading times were evaluated in a spectrophotometer to determine the optimal quantification conditions for this osmolyte. Optimal results were obtained when readings were taken at a wavelength of 290 nm at 48 h after dissolving glycine betaine crystals in dichloroethane. We expect this modification to provide a simple, rapid, reliable, and cheap method for glycine betaine determination in plant samples and cell suspension cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling distribution and abundance of soybean aphid in soybean fields using measurements from the surrounding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlai, C A; Sikkema, S; Hallett, R H; Newman, J; Schaafsma, A W

    2010-02-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a severe pest of soybean in central North America. Outbreaks of the aphid in Ontario are often spotty in distribution, with some geographical areas affected severely and others with few or no aphid populations occurring in soybean for the duration of the season. A. glycines spend summers on soybean and overwinter on buckthorn, a shrub that is widespread in southern Ontario and is commonly found in agricultural hedgerows and at the margins of woodlots. A. glycines likely use both short distance migratory flights from buckthorn and longer distance dispersal flights in the search for acceptable summer hosts. This study aims to model colonization of soybean fields by A. glycines engaged in early-season migration from overwintering hosts. Akaike's information criterion (AIC) was used to rank numerous competing linear and probit models using field parameters to predict aphid presence, colonization, and density. The variable that best modeled aphid density in soybean fields in the early season was the ratio of buckthorn density to field area, although dramatic differences in relationships between the parameters were observed between study years. This study has important applications in predicting areas that are at elevated risk of developing economically damaging populations of soybean aphid and which may act as sources for further infestation.

  2. Organ-Specific Differential NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] Fruit Reveals the Metabolic Shifts and Potential Protection Mechanisms Involved in Field Mold Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yu Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged, continuous rainfall is the main climatic characteristic of autumn in Southwest China, and it has been found to cause mildew outbreaks in pre-harvest soybean fields. Low temperature and humidity (LTH stress during soybean maturation in the field promotes pre-harvest mildew, resulting in damage to different organs of soybean fruits to different extents, but relatively little information on the resistance mechanisms in these fruits is available. Therefore, to understand the metabolic responses of soybean fruits to field mold (FM, the metabonomic variations induced by LTH were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR, and the primary metabolites from the pod, seed coat and cotyledon of pre-harvest soybean were quantified. Analysis of FM-damaged soybean germplasms with different degrees of resistance to FM showed that extracts were dominated by 66 primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids and sugars. Each tissue had a characteristic metabolic profile, indicating that the metabolism of proline in the cotyledon, lysine in the seed coat, and sulfur in the pod play important roles in FM resistance. The primary-secondary metabolism interface and its potential contribution to FM resistance was investigated by targeted analyses of secondary metabolites. Both the seed coat and the pod have distinct but nonexclusive metabolic responses to FM, and these are functionally integrated into FM resistance mechanisms.

  3. Organ-Specific Differential NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Fruit Reveals the Metabolic Shifts and Potential Protection Mechanisms Involved in Field Mold Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jun-Cai; Yang, Cai-Qiong; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Feng; Yang, Wen-Yu; Liu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged, continuous rainfall is the main climatic characteristic of autumn in Southwest China, and it has been found to cause mildew outbreaks in pre-harvest soybean fields. Low temperature and humidity (LTH) stress during soybean maturation in the field promotes pre-harvest mildew, resulting in damage to different organs of soybean fruits to different extents, but relatively little information on the resistance mechanisms in these fruits is available. Therefore, to understand the metabolic responses of soybean fruits to field mold (FM), the metabonomic variations induced by LTH were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR), and the primary metabolites from the pod, seed coat and cotyledon of pre-harvest soybean were quantified. Analysis of FM-damaged soybean germplasms with different degrees of resistance to FM showed that extracts were dominated by 66 primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids and sugars. Each tissue had a characteristic metabolic profile, indicating that the metabolism of proline in the cotyledon, lysine in the seed coat, and sulfur in the pod play important roles in FM resistance. The primary-secondary metabolism interface and its potential contribution to FM resistance was investigated by targeted analyses of secondary metabolites. Both the seed coat and the pod have distinct but nonexclusive metabolic responses to FM, and these are functionally integrated into FM resistance mechanisms.

  4. Biochemical precursor effects on the fatty acid production in cell suspension cultures of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, O; Gallego, A M; Urrea, A; Rojas, L F; Correa, C; Atehortúa, L

    2017-02-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) is composed of 96% palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids that are responsible for the hardness, texture and fusion properties of chocolate. Through in vitro plant cell culture it is possible to modify CB lipid profiles and to study the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway on a subcellular level, evaluating fundamental aspects to enhance in vitro fatty acid production in a specific and controlled way. In this research, culture media was supplemented with acetate, biotin, pyruvate, bicarbonate and glycerol at three different concentrations and the effects on the biomass production (g/L), cell viability, and fatty acids profile and production was evaluated in in vitro cell suspensions culture. It was found that biotin stimulated fatty acid synthesis without altering cell viability and cell growth. It was also evident a change in the lipid profile of cell suspensions, increasing middle and long chain fatty acids proportion, which are unusual to those reported in seeds; thus implying that it is possible to modify lipid profiles according to the treatment used. According to the results of sucrose gradients and enzyme assays performed, it is proposed that cacao cells probably use the pentose phosphate pathway, mitochondria being the key organelle in the carbon flux for the synthesis of reductant power and fatty acid precursors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of boron deficiency in cell suspension cultures of Populus alba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakegawa, Koichi; Ishii, Tadashi; Matsunaga, Toshiro

    2005-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Populus alba L. (original cells) require at least 10 microM boron for appropriate growth. Using original cells we established a cell line, T-5B, which can grow in a medium containing low levels of boron (5 microM). The level of boron localized in the cell walls of T-5B cells was one-half that found in the cell walls of original cells maintained in medium containing 100 microM boron, and the level of the rhamnogalacturonan II dimer, cross-linked by a borate ester, also decreased in the former. The sugar composition of whole cell walls of the T-5B cell line was similar that of the original cells, however pectic polysaccharides composed of arabinose or galacturonic acid were easily extracted from T-5B cell walls with 50 mM trans-1,2-cyclohexanediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. Our results suggest that boron deficiency causes a weakening of the interaction among pectic polysaccharides due to a decrease in boron-rhamnogalacturonanII cross-linkage.

  6. Flow cytometry and phytochemical analysis of a sunflower cell suspension culture in a 5-L bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Christiane; Weber, Jost; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Deponte, Sandra; Bley, Thomas; Georgiev, Milen

    2008-01-01

    A cell suspension culture of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), a producer of immunologically active polysaccharides, was cultivated in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor, operated in batch mode. After some changes in the internal bioreactor design a stable growth of Helianthus cells was achieved and the accumulated biomass reached 15.2 g/L (only approximately 5% lower compared to the accumulated biomass in shake-flasks). Flow cytometry used for measuring the cell cycle parameters of suspended Helianthus cells did not reveal significant differences between shake-flasks and bioreactor cultivation modes. For both cultivation methods significant enhancement of the percentage of S-phase cells was observed at the beginning of the cultivation process. Concerning the metabolite production the maximum in exopolysaccharides was reached at day 9 of the cultivation period (1.9 g/L), while the highest amounts of alpha-tocopherol were accumulated at the beginning of the cultivation process (day 2 of the cultivation). These finding were related to the respective stress levels caused by the inoculation procedure. The kinetic parameters of growth and polysaccharide production as well as the time course of carbon source utilization were monitored and discussed.

  7. Dynamics of indole-3-acetic acid oxidase activity in suspension culture of sunflower crown-gall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Chirek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IAA oxidase activity was determined in several growth phases of a suspension culture of sunflower crown-gall. During the short phase of intensive growth (zero passage - PO a negative correlation was noted between enzymatic activity and the rate of growth. IAA oxidase activity increased to a certain level is not a factor limiting cell division. For protraction of the phase of intensive growth (first passage - P1, however, a decrease in the activity of this enzyme seems indispensable. IAA oxidase activity in the tested culture is under the control of inhibitors present in the cells and medium. High enzyme inhibition was observed in PO cells during the phase, of intensive growth and in P1 at the beginning and in the middle part of this phase. These results suggest' that the -auxin level determined in earlier studies in sunflower crown-gall culture is controlled by the IAA oxidase set. During the long phase of intensive growth (P1 this control is of negative feedback type.

  8. Treatment strategies for high resveratrol induction in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu V. Vuong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioprocesses capable of producing large scales of resveratrol at nutraceutical grade are in demand. This study herein investigated treatment strategies to induce the production of resveratrol in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures. Among seven investigated elicitors, jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid, β-glucan (GLU, and chitosan enhanced the production of intracellular resveratrol manyfold. The combined treatment of JA and GLU increased extracellular resveratrol production by up to tenfold. The application of Amberlite XAD-7 resin for in situ removal and artificial storage of secreted resveratrol further increased resveratrol production by up to four orders of magnitude. The level of resveratrol produced in response to the combined treatment with 200 g/L XAD-7, 10 μM JA and 1 mg/mL GLU was approximately 2400 mg/L, allowing the production of resveratrol at an industrial scale. The high yield of resveratrol is due to the involvement of a number of mechanisms working in concert.

  9. Anaerobic bacteria grow within Candida albicans biofilms and induce biofilm formation in suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily P; Cowley, Elise S; Nobile, Clarissa J; Hartooni, Nairi; Newman, Dianne K; Johnson, Alexander D

    2014-10-20

    The human microbiome contains diverse microorganisms, which share and compete for the same environmental niches. A major microbial growth form in the human body is the biofilm state, where tightly packed bacterial, archaeal, and fungal cells must cooperate and/or compete for resources in order to survive. We examined mixed biofilms composed of the major fungal species of the gut microbiome, Candida albicans, and each of five prevalent bacterial gastrointestinal inhabitants: Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. We observed that biofilms formed by C. albicans provide a hypoxic microenvironment that supports the growth of two anaerobic bacteria, even when cultured in ambient oxic conditions that are normally toxic to the bacteria. We also found that coculture with bacteria in biofilms induces massive gene expression changes in C. albicans, including upregulation of WOR1, which encodes a transcription regulator that controls a phenotypic switch in C. albicans, from the "white" cell type to the "opaque" cell type. Finally, we observed that in suspension cultures, C. perfringens induces aggregation of C. albicans into "mini-biofilms," which allow C. perfringens cells to survive in a normally toxic environment. This work indicates that bacteria and C. albicans interactions modulate the local chemistry of their environment in multiple ways to create niches favorable to their growth and survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Controlling Expansion and Cardiomyogenic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Scalable Suspension Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Kempf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To harness the potential of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs, an abundant supply of their progenies is required. Here, hPSC expansion as matrix-independent aggregates in suspension culture was combined with cardiomyogenic differentiation using chemical Wnt pathway modulators. A multiwell screen was scaled up to stirred Erlenmeyer flasks and subsequently to tank bioreactors, applying controlled feeding strategies (batch and cyclic perfusion. Cardiomyogenesis was sensitive to the GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021 concentration, whereas the aggregate size was no prevailing factor across culture platforms. However, in bioreactors, the pattern of aggregate formation in the expansion phase dominated subsequent differentiation. Global profiling revealed a culture-dependent expression of BMP agonists/antagonists, suggesting their decisive role in cell-fate determination. Furthermore, metallothionein was discovered as a potentially stress-related marker in hPSCs. In 100 ml bioreactors, the production of 40 million predominantly ventricular-like cardiomyocytes (up to 85% purity was enabled that were directly applicable to bioartificial cardiac tissue formation.

  11. Growth arrest of vascular smooth muscle cells in suspension culture using low-acyl gellan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natori, Tomomi; Fujiyoshi, Masachika; Uchida, Masashi; Abe, Natsuki; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Ishii, Itsuko

    2017-03-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) causes restenosis in biomaterial vascular grafts. The purposes of this study were to establish a suspension culture system for SMCs by using a novel substrate, low-acyl gellan gum (GG) and to maintain SMCs in a state of growth inhibition. When SMCs were cultured in suspension with GG, their proliferation was inhibited. Their viability was 70% at day 2, which was maintained at more than 50% until day 5. In contrast, the viability of cells cultured in suspension without GG was 5.6% at day 2. By cell cycle analysis, the ratio of SMCs in the S phase when cultured in suspension with GG was lower than when cultured on plastic plates. In SMCs cultured in suspension with GG, the ratio of phosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb) protein to Rb protein was decreased and p27Kip1 expression was unchanged in comparison with SMCs cultured on plastic plates. In addition, SMCs could be induced to proliferate again by changing the culture condition from suspension with GG to plastic plates. These results suggest that our established culturing method for SMCs is useful to maintain SMCs in a state of growth inhibition with high viability.

  12. High level of expression of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in transgenic rice cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Yun-Ji; Hong, Shin-Young; Kwon, Tae-Ho

    2003-01-01

    this problem, we sought an expression system in which heterologous gene expression could be induced at high levels. We selected a rice amylase expression system in which the promoter Ramy3D is induced to express recombinant protein by sucrose starvation. This induction system was found to give good yield......Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) has been previously produced in tobacco cell suspension cultures. However, the amount of hGM-CSF accumulated in the culture medium dropped quickly from its maximum of 150 microg/L at 5 d after incubation. To overcome...... of recombinant hGM-CSF in transgenic rice cell suspension culture and protease activity of this culture medium was low compared to that of tobacco culture system....

  13. A novel terpenoid indole alkaloid derived from catharanthine via biotransformation by suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuijie; Zhu, Jianhua; Zi, Jiachen; Zhou, Pengfei; Liang, Jincai; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-12-01

    Although catharanthine (1) is well known as a biosynthetic precursor of the anticancer alkaloid, vinblastine, its alternative metabolic pathways are unclear. Biotransformation of 1 by suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus gave a new oxidative-cleavage product (2). The structure of 2 was determined as 3-hydroxy-4-imino-catharanthine by spectroscopic methods. Maximum conversion (9.75 %) of 2 was observed after 120 h adding 6 mg of 1/100 ml to 12-day-old suspension-cultured cells of C. roseus. Furthermore, qRT-PCR experiment was performed to reveal the effect of 1 on the expression of the genes in the biosynthetic pathway of TIA 1 up-regulated the transcript level of D4H whilst down-regulating the transcript levels of G10H, LAMT, GES, and IRS. A new metabolite of catharanthine, 3-hydroxy-4-imino-catharanthine, is reported.

  14. Abscisic acid is involved in brassinosteroids-induced chilling tolerance in the suspension cultured cells from Chorispora bungeana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajie; Jiang, Haifeng; Zhao, Zhiguang; An, Lizhe

    2011-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether abscisic acid (ABA), a second messenger in chilling stress responses, is involved in brassinosteroids (BRs)-induced chilling tolerance in suspension cultured cells from Chorispora bungeana. The suspension cells were treated with 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), ABA, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone (Flu) and EBR in combination with Flu. Their effects on chilling tolerance, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and antioxidant defense system were analyzed. The results showed that EBR treatment markedly alleviated the decrease of cell viability and the increases of ion leakage and lipid peroxidation induced by chilling stress, suggesting that application of EBR could improve the chilling tolerance of C. bungeana suspension cultures. In addition, similar results were observed when exogenous ABA was applied. Treatment with Flu alone and in combination with EBR significantly suppressed cell viability and increased ion leakage and lipid peroxidation under low temperature conditions, indicating that the inhibition of ABA biosynthesis could decrease the chilling tolerance of C. bungeana suspension cultures and the EBR-enhanced chilling tolerance. Further analyses showed that EBR and ABA enhanced antioxidant defense and slowed down the accumulation of ROS caused by chilling. However, Flu application differentially blocked these protective effects of EBR. Moreover, EBR was able to mimic the effect of ABA by markedly increasing ABA content in the suspension cells under chilling conditions, whereas the EBR-induced ABA accumulation was inhibited by the addition of Flu. Taken together, these results demonstrate that EBR may confer chilling tolerance to C. bungeana suspension cultured cells by enhancing the antioxidant defense system, which is partially mediated by ABA, resulting in preventing the overproduction of ROS to alleviate oxidative injury induced by chilling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomass Yield and Steviol Glycoside Production in Callus and Suspension Culture of Stevia rebaudiana Treated with Proline and Polyethylene Glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratibha; Sharma, Satyawati; Saxena, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Enhanced production of steviol glycosides (SGs) was observed in callus and suspension culture of Stevia rebaudiana treated with proline and polyethylene glycol (PEG). To study their effect, yellow-green and compact calli obtained from in vitro raised Stevia leaves were sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l(-1) NAA and different concentrations of proline (2.5-10 mM) and PEG (2.5-10 %) for 2 weeks, and incubated at 24 ± 1 °C and 22.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity provided by white fluorescent tubes for 16 h. Callus and suspension culture biomass (i.e. both fresh and dry weight content) was increased with 5 mM proline and 5 % PEG, while at further higher concentrations, they got reduced. Further, quantification of SGs content in callus (collected at 15th day) and suspension culture (collected at 10th and 15th day) treated with and without elicitors was analysed by HPLC. It was observed that chemical stress enhanced the production of SGs significantly. In callus, the content of SGs increased from 0.27 (control) to 1.09 and 1.83 % with 7.5 mM proline and 5 % PEG, respectively, which was about 4.0 and 7.0 times higher than control. However, in the case of suspension culture, the same concentrations of proline and polyethylene glycol enhanced the SG content from 1.36 (control) to 5.03 and 6.38 %, respectively, on 10th day which were 3.7 times and 4.7 times higher than control.

  16. Design of serum-free medium for suspension culture of CHO cells on the basis of general commercial media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Hideo; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2015-08-01

    The design of serum-free media for suspension culture of genetically engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using general commercial media as a basis was investigated. Subcultivation using a commercial serum-free medium containing insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 with or without FCS necessitated additives other than IGF-1 to compensate for the lack of FCS and improve cell growth. Suspension culture with media containing several combinations of growth factors suggested the effectiveness of addition of both IGF-1 and the lipid signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) for promoting cell growth. Subcultivation of CHO cells in suspension culture using the commercial serum-free medium EX-CELL™302, which contained an IGF-1 analog, supplemented with LPA resulted in gradually increasing specific growth rate comparable to the serum-containing medium and in almost the same high antibody production regardless of the number of generations. The culture with EX-CELL™302 supplemented with LPA in a jar fermentor with pH control at 6.9 showed an apparently higher cell growth rate than the cultures without pH control and with pH control at 6.8. The cell growth in the medium supplemented with aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), which was much cheaper than IGF-1, in combination with LPA was synergistically promoted similarly to that in the medium supplemented with IGF-1 and LPA. In conclusion, the serum-free medium designed on the basis of general commercial media could support the growth of CHO cells and antibody production comparable to serum-containing medium in suspension culture. Moreover, the possibility of cost reduction by the substitution of IGF-1 with ATA was also shown.

  17. UV-B-induced signaling events leading to enhanced-production of catharanthine in Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelliah Jayabaskaran

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elicitations are considered to be an important strategy towards improved in vitro production of secondary metabolites. In cell cultures, biotic and abiotic elicitors have effectively stimulated the production of plant secondary metabolites. However, molecular basis of elicitor-signaling cascades leading to increased production of secondary metabolites of plant cell is largely unknown. Exposure of Catharanthus roseus cell suspension culture to low dose of UV-B irradiation was found to increase the amount of catharanthine and transcription of genes encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (Tdc and strictosidine synthase (Str. In the present study, the signaling pathway mediating UV-B-induced catharanthine accumulation in C. roseus suspension cultures were investigated. Results Here, we investigate whether cell surface receptors, medium alkalinization, Ca2+ influx, H2O2, CDPK and MAPK play required roles in UV-B signaling leading to enhanced production of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. C. roseus cells were pretreated with various agonists and inhibitors of known signaling components and their effects on the accumulation of Tdc and Str transcripts as well as amount of catharanthine production were investigated by various molecular biology techniques. It has been found that the catharanthine accumulation and transcription of Tdc and Str were inhibited by 3–4 fold upon pretreatment of various inhibitors like suramin, N-acetyl cysteine, inhibitors of calcium fluxes, staurosporine etc. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that cell surface receptor(s, Ca2+ influx, medium alkalinization, CDPK, H2O2 and MAPK play significant roles in UV-B signaling leading to stimulation of Tdc and Str genes and the accumulation of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. Based on these findings, a model for signal transduction cascade has been proposed.

  18. UV-B-induced signaling events leading to enhanced-production of catharanthine in Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Shilpa; Chelliah, Jayabaskaran

    2007-01-01

    Background Elicitations are considered to be an important strategy towards improved in vitro production of secondary metabolites. In cell cultures, biotic and abiotic elicitors have effectively stimulated the production of plant secondary metabolites. However, molecular basis of elicitor-signaling cascades leading to increased production of secondary metabolites of plant cell is largely unknown. Exposure of Catharanthus roseus cell suspension culture to low dose of UV-B irradiation was found to increase the amount of catharanthine and transcription of genes encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (Tdc) and strictosidine synthase (Str). In the present study, the signaling pathway mediating UV-B-induced catharanthine accumulation in C. roseus suspension cultures were investigated. Results Here, we investigate whether cell surface receptors, medium alkalinization, Ca2+ influx, H2O2, CDPK and MAPK play required roles in UV-B signaling leading to enhanced production of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. C. roseus cells were pretreated with various agonists and inhibitors of known signaling components and their effects on the accumulation of Tdc and Str transcripts as well as amount of catharanthine production were investigated by various molecular biology techniques. It has been found that the catharanthine accumulation and transcription of Tdc and Str were inhibited by 3–4 fold upon pretreatment of various inhibitors like suramin, N-acetyl cysteine, inhibitors of calcium fluxes, staurosporine etc. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that cell surface receptor(s), Ca2+ influx, medium alkalinization, CDPK, H2O2 and MAPK play significant roles in UV-B signaling leading to stimulation of Tdc and Str genes and the accumulation of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. Based on these findings, a model for signal transduction cascade has been proposed. PMID:17988378

  19. Influence of NaCl on Growth, Proline, and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Levels in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Suspension Cultures 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John C.; De Armond, Richard L.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1992-01-01

    The facultative halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum responds to salt stress by increasing the levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) and other enzymes associated with Crassulacean acid metabolism. A more common response to salt stress in sensitive and tolerant species, including M. crystallinum, is the accumulation of proline. We have established M. crystallinum suspension cultures to investigate whether both these salt-induced responses occur at the cellular level. Leaf-and root-derived cultures maintain 5% of the total soluble amino acids as proline. Cell culture growth slows upon addition of 400 millimolar NaCl, and proline levels increase to 40% of the total soluble amino acids. These results suggest a functional salt-stress and response program in Mesembryanthemum cells. Suspension cultures grown with or without 400 millimolar NaCl have PEPCase levels that compare with those from roots and unstressed leaves. The predominant protein cross-reacting with an anti-PEPCase antibody corresponds to 105 kilodaltons (apparent molecular mass), whereas a second species of approximately 110 kilodaltons is present at low levels. In salt-stressed leaves, the 110 kilodalton protein is more prevalent. Levels of mRNA for both ppc1 (salt stress induced in leaves) and ppc2 (constitutive) genes in salt-treated suspensions cultures are equal to unstressed leaves, and only twice the levels found in untreated suspension cultures. Whereas cells accumulate proline in response to NaCl, PEPCase protein amounts remain similar in salt-treated and untreated cultures. The induction upon salt stress of the 110 kilodalton PEPCase protein and other Crassulacean acid metabolism enzymes in organized tissues is not observed in cell culture and may depend on tissue-dependent or photoautotrophy-dependent programs. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668687

  20. Culture medium refinement by dialysis for the expansion of human induced pluripotent stem cells in suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Suman Chandra; Nagamori, Eiji; Horie, Masanobu; Kino-Oka, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) secrete essential autocrine factors that are removed along with toxic metabolites when the growth medium is exchanged daily. In this study, after determining the minimum inhibitory level of lactic acid for hiPSCs, a medium refining system was constructed by which toxic metabolites were removed from used culture medium and autocrine factors as well as other growth factors were recycled. Specifically, about 87 % of the basic fibroblast growth factor and 80 % of transforming growth factor beta 1 were retained in the refined medium after dialysis. The refined medium efficiently potentiated the proliferation of hiPS cells in adherent culture. When the refining system was used to refresh medium in suspension culture, a final cell density of (1.1 ± 0.1) × 106 cells mL-1 was obtained, with 99.5 ± 0.2 % OCT 3/4 and 78.3 ± 1.1 % TRA-1-60 expression, on day 4 of culture. These levels of expression were similar to those observed in the conventional suspension culture. With this method, culture medium refinement by dialysis was established to remove toxic metabolites, recycle autocrine factors as well as other growth factors, and reduce the use of macromolecules for the expansion of hiPSCs in suspension culture.

  1. Alternative formation of anthraquinones and lipoquinones in heterotrophic and photoautotrophic cell suspension cultures of Morinda lucida Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbavboa, U; Sieweke, H J; Leistner, E; Röwer, I; Hüsemann, W; Barz, W

    1985-12-01

    Photoheterotrophic and photoautotrophic cell suspension cultures were raised from a callus tissue derived from a Morinda lucida Benth. plant (Rubiaceae). The cultures were characterized with regard to fresh weight, dry weight, cell number, pH, chlorophyll and quinoid natural products. The amount of lipoquinones (phylloquinone, α-tocopherol, plastoquinone, ubiquinone) isolated from the photoautotrophic cultures matched the amount detected in an intact leaf. Anthraquinone glycosides which are found in the roots of Morinda plants were not present in the photoautotrophic culture. The photoheterotrophic culture contained only trace amounts of these pigments. Abundant anthraquinone synthesis was observed when photoautotrophic and photoheterotrophic suspension cultures were transferred into darkness, provided sucrose was present in the medium. Induction of synthesis of anthraquinone pigments coincided with a rapid disappearance of lipoquinones from the culture. Thus, in the suspension culture, photoautotrophy correlates with lipoquinone synthesis and heterotrophy correlates with anthraquinone synthesis. This reflects the situation in the intact plants where lipoquinones are chloroplast-associated whereas anthraquinones occur in the roots.

  2. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-09-11

    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans.

  3. QTL that underlie seed protein, oil, fatty and amino acids content in the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recombinant inbred line population of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving seed composition and quality, including protein, oil, fatty acids, and amino acids content is an important goal of soybean farmers and breeders. Our previous research identified novel QTLs associated with seed isoflavones. The aim of this study was to use the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recomb...

  4. Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora stem and root rot disease, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and has been increasing in several soybean-producing areas around the world. This disease induces serious limitations on soybean production, with yield l...

  5. 77 FR 41356 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered for Herbicide Tolerance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... determination of nonregulated status of soybean designated as MON 87708, which has been genetically engineered... of soybean (Glycine max) designated as event MON 87708, which has been genetically engineered for...

  6. Molecular mapping and genomics of soybean seed protein: A review and perspective for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meal protein derived from soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] seed is the primary source of protein in poultry and livestock feed. Protein is a key factor that determines the nutritional and economical value of soybean. Genetic improvement of soybean seed protein content is highly desirable, and major q...

  7. A Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization System for Karyotyping Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of a universal soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cytogenetic map that associates classical genetic linkage groups, molecular linkage groups and a sequence-based physical map with the karyotype has been impeded due to the soybean chromosomes themselves, which are tiny and morphological...

  8. Soybean response to nitrogen fertilizer under water deficit conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... In order to determine the effect of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizer application on growth indices, yield and yield component of three soybean (Glycine Max L. Merr) genotypes a split plot factorial experiment based on randomized complete block with three replications was carried out. Soybean genotypes ...

  9. Soybean response to nitrogen fertilizer under water deficit conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine the effect of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizer application on growth indices, yield and yield component of three soybean (Glycine Max L. Merr) genotypes a split plot factorial experiment based on randomized complete block with three replications was carried out. Soybean genotypes (Williams, K1410 ...

  10. Up-scaling single cell-inoculated suspension culture of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmeet; Mok, Pamela; Balakrishnan, Thavamalar; Rahmat, Siti Norfiza Binte; Zweigerdt, Robert

    2010-05-01

    We have systematically developed single cell-inoculated suspension cultures of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) in defined media. Cell survival was dependent on hESC re-aggregation. In the presence of the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (Ri) only approximately 44% of the seeded cells were rescued, but an optimized heat shock treatment combined with Ri significantly increased cell survival to approximately 60%. Mechanistically, our data suggest that E-cadherin plays a role in hESC aggregation and that dissociation and re-aggregation upon passaging functions as a purification step towards a pluripotency markers-enriched population. Mass expansion of hESC was readily achieved by up-scaling 2 ml cultures to serial passaging in 50 ml spinner flasks. A media comparison revealed that mTeSR was superior to KnockOut-SR in supporting cell proliferation and pluripotency. Persistent expression of pluripotency markers was achieved for two lines (hES2, hES3) that were used at higher passages (>86). In contrast, rapid down regulation of Oct4, Tra-1-60, and SSEA4 was observed for ESI049, a clinically compliant line, used at passages 20-36. The up-scaling strategy has significant potential to provide pluripotent cells on a clinical scale. Nevertheless, our data also highlights a significant line-to-line variability and the need for a critical assessment of novel methods with numerous relevant cell lines. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Affinity Purification and Characterization of Functional Tubulin from Cell Suspension Cultures of Arabidopsis and Tobacco1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Satoshi; Uchimura, Seiichi; Noguchi, Masahiro; Demura, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules assemble into several distinct arrays that play important roles in cell division and cell morphogenesis. To decipher the mechanisms that regulate the dynamics and organization of this versatile cytoskeletal component, it is essential to establish in vitro assays that use functional tubulin. Although plant tubulin has been purified previously from protoplasts by reversible taxol-induced polymerization, a simple and efficient purification method has yet to be developed. Here, we used a Tumor Overexpressed Gene (TOG) column, in which the tubulin-binding domains of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) TOG homolog are immobilized on resin, to isolate functional plant tubulin. We found that several hundred micrograms of pure tubulin can readily be purified from cell suspension cultures of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The tubulin purified by the TOG column showed high assembly competence, partly because of low levels of polymerization-inhibitory phosphorylation of α-tubulin. Compared with porcine brain tubulin, Arabidopsis tubulin is highly dynamic in vitro at both the plus and minus ends, exhibiting faster shrinkage rates and more frequent catastrophe events, and exhibits frequent spontaneous nucleation. Furthermore, our study shows that an internal histidine tag in α-tubulin can be used to prepare particular isotypes and specifically engineered versions of α-tubulin. In contrast to previous studies of plant tubulin, our mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses failed to detect posttranslational modification of the isolated Arabidopsis tubulin or detected only low levels of posttranslational modification. This novel technology can be used to prepare assembly-competent, highly dynamic pure tubulin from plant cell cultures. PMID:26747285

  12. Proteins differentially expressed in elicited cell suspension culture of Podophyllum hexandrum with enhanced podophyllotoxin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Dipto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podophyllotoxin (PTOX, the precursor for semi-synthesis of cancer therapeutics like etoposide, teniposide and etophos, is primarily obtained from an endangered medicinal herb, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. PTOX, a lignan is biosynthetically derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in the P. hexandrum cell proteome potentially related to PTOX accumulation in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA elicitation. High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE followed by colloidal Coomassie staining and mass spectrometric analysis was used to detect statistically significant changes in cell’s proteome. Result The HPLC analysis showed approximately 7–8 fold change in accumulation of PTOX, in the 12day old cell suspension culture (i.e. after 9days of elicitation elicited with 100 μM MeJA as compared to the control. Using 2-DE a total of 233 spots was detected, out of which 105 spots were identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS/MS. Data were subjected to functional annotation from a biological point of view through KEGG. The phenylpropanoid and monolignol pathway enzymes were identified, amongst these, chalcone synthase, polyphenol oxidase, caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferases, caffeic acid-O-methyl transferase etc. are noted as important. The relation of other differentially accumulated proteins with varied effects caused by elicitors on P. hexandrum cells namely stress and defense related protein, transcription and DNA replication and signaling are also discussed. Conclusions Elicitor-induced PTOX accumulation in P. hexandrum cell cultures provides a responsive model system to profile modulations in proteins related to phenylpropanoid/monolignol biosynthesis and other defense responses. Present findings form a baseline for future investigation on a non-sequenced medicinal herb P. hexandrum at molecular level.

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hera Chaudhry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ, thymohydroquinone (THQ, and thymol (THY. Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2 elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35±0.8, 2.4±0.2, and 2.46±0.5, resp.. Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production.

  14. Isolation and culture of protoplasts of Ma-phut (Garcinia dulcis derived from cell suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Friable callus induced from young leaves of Ma-phut on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 3% sucrose,1 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine (BA and 500 mg/l polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, was cultured in liquid medium with the same components. Various ages of cell suspension at weekly intervals were then incubated in various kinds and concentrations of cell wall digestion enzymes combined with 1% macerozyme R-10 on a rotary shaker at 100 rpm under 1500 lux illumination at 26±4oC. Purified protoplasts were cultured at various densities in MS medium (adjusted osmoticum to 0.4 M by mannitol supplemented with 3% sucrose and two types of auxin, 2,4-D and NAA at four concentrations (1, 2, 3 and 4 mg/l together with 1 mg/l BA. The results revealed that a four-day old cell suspension culture incubated in 2% cellulase Onozuka R-10 (CR10 in combination with 1% macerozyme R-10 gave an optimum result in both yield and viability of protoplasts at 5.7x106/1 ml PCV and 80%, respectively. Embedding protoplasts at a density of 2.5x105/ml in 0.2% phytagel containing MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l BA promoted the most effective division of the protoplasts (20%. The first division of the protoplasts was obtained after 2 days of culture and further divisions to form micro- and macro-colonies could be observed after 7-10 days of culture. However, callusformation and plantlet regeneration was not obtained.

  15. Effects of mercury (II) species on cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, L. (Hangzhou Univ. (China)); Cullen, W.R. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada))

    1994-11-01

    Mercury has received considerable attention because of its high toxicity. Widespread contamination with mercury poses severe environmental problems despite our extensive knowledge of its toxicity in living systems. It is generally accepted that the toxicity of mercury is related to its oxidation states and species, the organic forms being more toxic than the inorganic forms. In the aquatic environment, the toxicity of mercury depends on the aqueous speciation of the mercuric ion (Hg[sup 2+]). Because of the complex coordination chemistry of mercury in aqueous systems, the nature of the Hg[sup 2+] species present in aquatic environments is influenced greatly by water chemistry (e. g, pH, inorganic ion composition, and dissolved organics). Consequently, the influence of environmental factors on the aqueous speciation of mercury has been the focus of much attention. However, there is very little information available regarding the effects of the species and speciation on Hg (II) toxicity in plant-tissue cultures. Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus), commonly called the Madagascar Periwinkle, is a member of the alkaloid rich family Apocynaceae. The present investigation was concerned with the toxicity of mercury on the growth of C. roseus cell suspension cultures as influenced by mercury (II) species and speciation. The specific objectives of the study were to (a) study the effects of mercury species on the growth of C. roseus cultures from the point of view of environmental biology and toxicology; (b) evaluate the effects of selenate, selenite and selected ligands such as chloride, 1-cysteine in the media on the acute toxicity of mercuric oxide; (c) determine the impact of the initial pH of the culture media on the toxicities of mercuric compounds; (d) discuss the dependence of the toxicity on the chemical species and speciation of Hg (II). 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Dt2 is a gain-of-function MADS-Domain factor gene that controls semi-determinacy in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similar to Arabidopsis, the wild soybean (Glycine soja) and many soybean (Glycine max) cultivars exhibit indeterminate stem growth controlled by a gene Dt1 – the functional counterpart of the Arabidopsis TFL1. Mutations in TFL1 and Dt1 both result in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) switching from ve...

  17. High yield derivation of enriched glutamatergic neurons from suspension-cultured mouse ESCs for neurotoxicology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbard Kyle S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there has been a strong emphasis on identifying an in vitro model for neurotoxicity research that combines the biological relevance of primary neurons with the scalability, reproducibility and genetic tractability of continuous cell lines. Derived neurons should be homotypic, exhibit neuron-specific gene expression and morphology, form functioning synapses and consistently respond to neurotoxins in a fashion indistinguishable from primary neurons. However, efficient methods to produce neuronal populations that are suitable alternatives to primary neurons have not been available. Methods With the objective of developing a more facile, robust and efficient method to generate enriched glutamatergic neuronal cultures, we evaluated the neurogenic capacity of three mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC lines (R1, C57BL/6 and D3 adapted to feeder-independent suspension culture. Neurogenesis and neuronal maturation were characterized as a function of time in culture using immunological, genomic, morphological and functional metrics. The functional responses of ESNs to neurotropic toxins with distinctly different targets and mechanisms of toxicity, such as glutamate, α-latrotoxin (LTX, and botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT, were also evaluated. Results Suspension-adapted ESCs expressed markers of pluripotency through at least 30 passages, and differentiation produced 97×106 neural progenitor cells (NPCs per 10-cm dish. Greater than 99% of embryonic stem cell-derived neurons (ESNs expressed neuron-specific markers by 96 h after plating and rapidly developed complex axodendritic arbors and appropriate compartmentalization of neurotypic proteins. Expression profiling demonstrated the presence of transcripts necessary for neuronal function and confirmed that ESN populations were predominantly glutamatergic. Furthermore, ESNs were functionally receptive to all toxins with sensitivities and responses consistent with primary neurons

  18. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  19. Proper selection of 1 g controls in simulated microgravity research as illustrated with clinorotated plant cell suspension cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Khaled Y.; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Medina, F. Javier; Herranz, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the physical and biological effects of the absence of gravity is necessary to conduct operations on space environments. It has been previously shown that the microgravity environment induces the dissociation of cell proliferation from cell growth in young seedling root meristems, but this source material is limited to few cells in each row of meristematic layers. Plant cell cultures, composed by a large and homogeneous population of proliferating cells, are an ideal model to study the effects of altered gravity on cellular mechanisms regulating cell proliferation and associated cell growth. Cell suspension cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana cell line (MM2d) were exposed to 2D-clinorotation in a pipette clinostat for 3.5 or 14 h, respectively, and were then processed either by quick freezing, to be used in flow cytometry, or by chemical fixation, for microscopy techniques. After long-term clinorotation, the proportion of cells in G1 phase was increased and the nucleolus area, as revealed by immunofluorescence staining with anti-nucleolin, was decreased. Despite the compatibility of these results with those obtained in real microgravity on seedling meristems, we provide a technical discussion in the context of clinorotation and proper 1 g controls with respect to suspension cultures. Standard 1 g procedure of sustaining the cell suspension is achieved by continuously shaking. Thus, we compare the mechanical forces acting on cells in clinorotated samples, in a control static sample and in the standard 1 g conditions of suspension cultures in order to define the conditions of a complete and reliable experiment in simulated microgravity with corresponding 1 g controls.

  20. [Adherent and single-cell suspension culture of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in serum-free medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding; Zhao, Liang; Tan, Wensong

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, there are tremendous economic and social losses across the world because of virus-related diseases. It is well known that Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells are easily handled, quickly amplified and efficiently infected with influenza virus. Therefore, they are considered as one of the most important cell lines for the production of influenza vaccine. In this work, we first developed a serum-free adherent culture process for MDCK cells with an in-house prepared serum-free medium MDCK-SFM. Next, we derived a cell line named ssf-MDCK, which was amenable for single-cell suspension culture in the serum-free medium. We found that during serum-free batch culture of MDCK cells, the peak viable cell density and maximum specific growth rate were 3.81 x 10(6) cells/mL and 0.056 h(-1), respectively; 3.6- and 1.6-fold increase compared with those in serum-containing adherent batch culture. In addition, we compared growth and metabolic characteristics of MDCK cells in serum-containing adherent culture, serum-free adherent culture and serum-free single-cell suspension culture. We found that less metabolic by-products were produced in both serum-free cultures. In serum-free single-cell suspension batch culture, the viable cell density was highest. These results are critical for establishing large-scale suspension culture of MDCK cells as subsequent well as large-scale influenza vaccine production.

  1. The natural plant stress elicitor cis-jasmone causes cultivar-dependent reduction in growth of the stink bug, Euschistus heros and associated changes in flavonoid concentrations in soybean, Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Graça, José P; Ueda, Tatiana E; Janegitz, Tatiani; Vieira, Simone S; Salvador, Mariana C; de Oliveira, Maria C N; Zingaretti, Sonia M; Powers, Stephen J; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B

    2016-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the plant stress related elicitor cis-jasmone (cJ) provides protection in soybean pods against the seed-sucking stink bug pest, Euschistus heros, the growth of E. heros on cJ-treated pods was investigated using three soybean cultivars differing in insect susceptibility, i.e. BRS 134 (susceptible), IAC 100 (resistant) and Dowling (resistant). E. heros showed reduced weight gain when fed cJ-treated Dowling, whereas no effect on weight gain was observed when fed other treated cultivars. Using analysis of variance, a three factor (cultivar x treatment x time) interaction was observed with concentrations of the flavonoid glycosides daidzin and genistin, and their corresponding aglycones, daidzein and genistein. There were increases in genistein and genistin concentrations in cJ-treated Dowling at 144 and 120 h post treatment, respectively. Higher concentrations of malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin in Dowling, compared to BRS 134 and IAC 100, were observed independently of time, the highest concentrations being observed in cJ-treated seeds. Levels of glycitin and malonylglycitin were higher in BRS 134 and IAC 100 compared to Dowling. Canonical variate analysis indicated daidzein (in the first two canonical variates) and genistein (in the first only) as important discriminatory variables. These results suggest that cJ treatment leads to an increase in the levels of potentially defensive isoflavonoids in immature soybean seeds, but the negative effect upon E. heros performance is cultivar-dependent. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of nano-TiO2 particles on the bioaccumulation of Cd in soybean plants (Glycine max): A possible mechanism for the removal of Cd from the contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Phytoremediation is a highly efficient technique for the elimination of trace elements from contaminated soils through the shoots and roots of plants. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) on Cd uptake by soybean plants. The objective of the present research was to examine the potential to improve the phytoextraction of Cd by the application of nano-TiO2 particles. The results showed that an addition of Cd to the soil significantly decreased plant growth and the biomass, pigment and protein contents. Increases in the proline content and malondialdehyde (MDA) indicate that Cd toxicity stresses the plants. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine variations in functional groups due to the Cd taken up into the shoot and root tissues of plants. An application of nano-TiO2 particles restricts Cd toxicity by increasing the photosynthetic rate and growth parameters of the plants. The uptake of Cd was also increased from 128.5 to 507.6 μg/plant with an increase in the nano-TiO2 concentration from 100 to 300 mg/kg in the soil. The application of nano-TiO2 significantly enhanced Cd uptake in the plants. The results of this study thus demonstrate that an application of nano-TiO2 can increase Cd uptake and minimize Cd stress in soybean plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential Overwintering Locations of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Colonizing Soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael S; Hogg, David B

    2015-04-01

    Soybean aphids, Aphis glycines Matsumura, depend on long-distance, wind-aided dispersal to complete their life cycle. Despite our general understanding of soybean aphid biology, little is explicitly known about dispersal of soybean aphids between winter and summer hosts in North America. This study compared genotypic diversity of soybean aphids sampled from several overwintering locations in the Midwest and soybean fields in Ohio and Wisconsin to test the hypothesis that these overwintering locations are sources of the soybean colonists. In addition, air parcel trajectory analyses were used to demonstrate the potential for long-distance dispersal events to occur to or from these overwintering locations. Results suggest that soybean aphids from overwintering locations along the Illinois-Iowa border and northern Indiana-Ohio are potential colonists of soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin, but that Ohio is also colonized by soybean aphids from other unknown overwintering locations. Soybean aphids in Ohio and Wisconsin exhibit a small degree of population structure that is not associated with the locations of soybean fields in which they occur, but that may be related to specific overwintering environments, multiple introductions to North America, or spatial variation in aphid phenology. There may be a limited range of suitable habitat for soybean aphid overwintering, in which case management of soybean aphids may be more effective at their overwintering sites. Further research efforts should focus on discovering more overwintering locations of soybean aphid in North America, and the relative impact of short- and long-distance dispersal events on soybean aphid population dynamics. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effect of heavy metal treatments on metallothionein expression profiles in white poplar (Populus alba L. cell suspension cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MACOVEI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Populus species and hybrids are intensively cultivated as sources of woody biomass and are good candidates for phytoremediation because of their rapid growth rate, extensive root system and ease of propagation and transformation. To date, the molecular mechanisms that regulate heavy metal tolerance have not been fully investigated. In the present work, white poplar (Populus alba L. cell suspension cultures were used as model system to investigate the response to heavy metal treatments. The VFMT2 cDNA, encoding a type 2 metallothionein from P. alba, was isolated by RT-PCR approach. The expression profiles of the VFMT2 gene were then investigated by Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR under oxidative stress conditions. The latter were induced by exposing the cell suspension cultures to different doses of cadmium (75 and 150 μM CdSO4, copper (50 and 100 μM CuCl2 and zinc (1 and 2 mM ZnSO4. Cell death was evidenced by Evans blue staining. The VFMT2 gene was up-regulated in response to heavy metal treatments and the highest mRNA level (up to 5-fold was observed 4 h following exposure to 100 μM CuCl2.

  5. Immune suppression of human lymphoid tissues and cells in rotating suspension culture and onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Wendy; Chen, Silvia; Walz, Carl; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Margolis, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    The immune responses of human lymphoid tissue explants or cells isolated from this tissue were studied quantitatively under normal gravity and microgravity. Microgravity was either modeled by solid body suspension in a rotating, oxygenated culture vessel or was actually achieved on the International Space Station (ISS). Our experiments demonstrate that tissues or cells challenged by recall antigen or by polyclonal activator in modeled microgravity lose all their ability to produce antibodies and cytokines and to increase their metabolic activity. In contrast, if the cells were challenged before being exposed to modeled microgravity suspension culture, they maintained their responses. Similarly, in microgravity in the ISS, lymphoid cells did not respond to antigenic or polyclonal challenge, whereas cells challenged prior to the space flight maintained their antibody and cytokine responses in space. Thus, immune activation of cells of lymphoid tissue is severely blunted both in modeled and true microgravity. This suggests that suspension culture via solid body rotation is sufficient to induce the changes in cellular physiology seen in true microgravity. This phenomenon may reflect immune dysfunction observed in astronauts during space flights. If so, the ex vivo system described above can be used to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction. PMID:19609626

  6. Partially acetylated chitosan oligo- and polymers induce an oxidative burst in suspension cultured cells of the gymnosperm Araucaria angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; El Gueddari, Nour Eddine; Trombotto, Stéphane; Moerschbacher, Bruno Maria

    2008-12-01

    Suspension-cultured cells were used to analyze the activation of defense responses in the conifer A. angustifolia , using as an elicitor purified chitosan polymers of different degrees of acetylation (DA 1-69%), chitin oligomers of different degrees of polymerization (DP 3-6), and chitosan oligomer of different DA (0-91%). Suspension cultured cells elicited with chitosan polymers reacted with a rapid and transient generation of H2O2, with chitosans of high DA (60 and 69%) being the most active ones. Chitosan oligomers of high DA (78 and 91%) induced substantial levels of H2O2, but fully acetylated chitin oligomers did not. When cultivated for 24-72 h in the presence of 1-10 microg mL(-1) chitosan (DA 69%), cell cultures did not show alterations in the levels of enzymes related to defense responses, suggesting that, in A. angustifolia , the induction of an oxidative burst is not directly coupled to the induction of other defense reactions.

  7. "Candidatus phytoplasma costaricanum" a new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease in soybean in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease, soybean stunt (SoyST), in soybean (Glycine max) was found in 2002 in a soybean plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. The same or very closely related phytoplasma also infected sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) with purple vein syndrome ...

  8. Development of rigorous fatty acid near-infrared spectroscopy quantitation methods in support of soybean oil improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seed of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) is a valuable source of high quality edible oil and protein. Despite dramatic breeding gains over the past 80 years, soybean seed oil continues to be oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation. ...

  9. 77 FR 46373 - Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the Continental United States; Availability of an... release of Aphelinus glycinis for the biological control of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the...-2323. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The soybean aphid, Aphis glycinis, which is native to Asia...

  10. Quantification of Fusarium virguliforme in soybean roots of partially resistant and susceptible genotypes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean sudden death syndrome, caused by Fusarium virguliforme (syn. Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines), was first reported in 1971, in Arkansas. Since then, the fungus has spread to the northern United States, causing significant soybean yield losses. Soybean resistance to F. virguliforme is consider...

  11. RNAseq reveals weed-induced PIF3-like as a candidate target to manipulate weed stress response in soybean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, David P; Hansen, Stephanie A; Moriles-Miller, Janet P; Pierik, Ronald|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/254842836; Yan, Changhui; Clay, David E; Scheffler, Brian; Clay, Sharon A

    Weeds reduce yield in soybeans (Glycine max) through incompletely defined mechanisms. The effects of weeds on the soybean transcriptome were evaluated in field conditions during four separate growing seasons. RNASeq data were collected from six biological samples of soybeans growing with or without

  12. Mapeamento de semeaduras de soja (Glycine max (L.Merr. mediante dados MODIS/Terra E TM/Landsat 5: um comparativo Mapping of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. culture by MODIS/Terra and TM/Landsat 5: a comparative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens A. C. Lamparelli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar mapeamentos de semeadura da cultura da soja na região oeste do Paraná, realizados com imagens MODIS/Terra e TM/Landsat 5. Primeiramente, construiu-se máscara de referência, considerando seis imagens TM ao longo do ciclo da cultura, utilizando-se dos algoritmos Paralelepípedo e MaxVer com posterior análise visual. As imagens MODIS foram classificadas com o algorítimo Paralelepípedo, em quatro passagens referentes ao pico vegetativo. O desempenho das classificações foi avaliado por meio de Matrizes de Erros, calculadas pela análise de 100 pontos amostrais (soja ou não-soja, aleatoriamente distribuídos em cada um dos oito municípios da área de estudo. Os principais resultados mostraram que a Exatidão Global (EG e o Índice Kappa (IK, que variaram entre 0,55 e 0,80, em ambos os sensores, são considerados bons a muito bons. Quando EG e IK dos sensores TM e MODIS foram comparados, não se encontrou diferença significativa. O mapeamento da soja utilizando o sensor MODIS produziu 70% de confiabilidade sob o ponto de vista do usuário. A principal conclusão é a viabilidade de mapear a soja pelo sensor MODIS com as vantagens de que as imagens MODIS têm melhor resolução temporal e são disponibilizadas gratuitamente na Internet.The objective of this work was to compare the soybean crop mapping in the western of Parana State by MODIS/Terra and TM/Landsat 5 images. Firstly, it was generated a soybean crop mask using six TM images covering the crop season, which was used as a reference. The images were submitted to Parallelepiped and Maximum Likelihood digital classification algorithms, followed by visual inspection. Four MODIS images, covering the vegetative peak, were classified using the Parallelepiped method. The quality assessment of MODIS and TM classification was carried out through an Error Matrix, considering 100 sample points between soybean or not soybean, randomly allocated in each of

  13. Physical, chemical and sensorial effects of gamma irradiation and cooking on soybean cultivars (Glycine max) with and without lipoxygenase;Efeitos da irradiacao gama e da coccao sobre aspectos fisicos, quimicos e sensoriais de cultivares de soja (Glycine max) com e sem lipoxigenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biscaro, Luciana Marino e

    2009-07-01

    The soybean is a vegetable with high nutritional value, mainly due to its high protein content. Among the culture of grains, the soy beam is the most important in Brazil, what represents a greater incentive for the consumption of this food. However, a great claim of occidental consumer is its characteristic odor and flavor, known as beany flavor, which is provided by the action of lipoxygenase enzyme. The catalytic action exerted by this type of isoenzyme on polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic and linoleic acid of the soy grains, is one of the main factors responsible for the appearance of the carbonyl compounds, which cause the unpleasant flavor in grains. To enhance the organoleptic characteristics of soybeans, researchers have developed new cultivars, without the presence of lipoxygenase. The objective of this study was to evaluate physical, chemical and sensorial differences between the two soy cultivar, with and without lipoxygenases (cultivars BRS 232 and BRS 257, of EMBRAPA, respectively) and to analyze the possible changes promoted by different radiation doses (0, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw and cooked soybean grains. The physical analyses were: time of cooking and hydration of the grains. The chemical analyses were: centesimal composition, protein digestibility, anti nutritional factors, isoflavone content and antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS). The sensory aspects were determined by sensorial analysis performed by applying analytical methods of differentiation for selection of panelists, and descriptive method to determine the quality of the soybean. At the end, factorial statistical analysis was performed 3x2x2 (irradiation doses X cultivars x treatment) for analysis, comparison and discussion of the obtained results. The results showed differences in physical analyses with the irradiation and between the two cultivars. Besides, the cultivars presented differences in the centesimal composition, digestibility fenolic content, isoflavone content and trypsin

  14. Potentials toward genetic engineering of drought-tolerant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-12-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crops in legume family. Soybean and soybean-based products are also considered as popular food for human and animal husbandry. With its high oil content, soybean has become a potential resource for the production of renewable fuel. However, soybean is considered one of the most drought-sensitive crops, with approximately 40% reduction of the yield in the worst years. Recent research progresses in elucidation of biochemical, morphological and physiological responses as well as molecular mechanisms of plant adaptation to drought stress in model plants have provided a solid foundation for translational genomics of soybean toward drought tolerance. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances in development of drought-tolerant soybean cultivars by gene transfer.

  15. Soybean proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Zahed; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, the world's most widely grown seed legume, is an important global source of vegetable oil and protein. Though, complete draft genome sequence of soybean is now available, but functional genomics studies remain in their infancy, as this agricultural legume species exhibits genetic constrains like genome duplications and self-incompatibilities. The techniques of proteomics provide much powerful tool for functional analysis of soybean. In the present review, an attempt has been made to summarize all significant contributions in the field of soybean proteomics. Special emphasis is given to subcellular proteomics in response to abiotic stresses for better understanding molecular basis of acquisition of stress tolerance mechanism. Detailed protocols of protein extraction, solubilization, fractionation of subcellular organelle, and proteins identification are explained for soybean proteomics. All this information would not only enrich us in understanding the plants response to environmental stressors but would also enable us to design genetically engineered stress tolerant soybean.

  16. Desenvolvimento, partição de assimilados e produção de matéria seca de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L.) merrill) submetidas a quatro doses de metribuzin Development,assimilate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine max (L.) merrill) plants treated with four doses of metribuzin

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Neto, P. J.; LOPES, N.F.; Oliva, M. A.; Silva, J.F.; Ferreira, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    O desenvolvimento, a partição e a produção de matéria seca, foram estudados em soja (Glycine Max (L. ) Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba'), cultivadas em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin - (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. ha-1). O metri buzin não reduziu a população e nem alterou significativamente a razão parte aérea/sistema radicular. A altura média das plantas aumentou significativamente com o incremento das doses de metribuzin, sendo que as alturas máximas das plantas foram 761, 784...

  17. Improving the nutritional status of malnourished children using soybean products in Rwanda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mugo, C; Niyibituronsa, M; Kyallo, F; Gaidashova, S

    2014-01-01

    ...). The contribution of soybean (Glycine max L), which is an important source of high quality and inexpensive protein and oil, to improvement of nutritional status of malnourished children is unclear...

  18. Seed priming and sulfur effects on soybean cell membrane stability and yield in saline soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bejandi, Teymur Khandan; Sedghi, Mohammad; Sharifi, Raouf Seyed; Namvar, Ali; Molaei, Peyman

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effects of seed priming and sulfur application on cell membrane characteristics, seedling emergence, chlorophyll content and grain yield of soybean (Glycine max) in saline soil...

  19. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from NaCl-treated Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Li, Yong; Li, Jie; Dai, Cui-hong; Wang, Xi; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Yang, Liang; Zhu, Yan-ming

    2006-02-22

    Salinization causes negative effects on plant productivity and poses an increasingly serious threat to the sustainability of agriculture. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) can survive in highly saline conditions, therefore provides an ideal candidate plant system for salt tolerance gene mining. As a first step towards the characterization of genes that contribute to combating salinity stress, we constructed a full-length cDNA library of Glycine soja (50109) leaf treated with 150 mM NaCl, using the SMART technology. Random expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing of 2,219 clones produced 2,003 cleaned ESTs for gene expression analysis. The average read length of cleaned ESTs was 454 bp, with an average GC content of 40%. These ESTs were assembled using the PHRAP program to generate 375 contigs and 696 singlets. The resulting unigenes were categorized according to the Gene Ontology (GO) hierarchy. The potential roles of gene products associated with stress related ESTs were discussed. We compared the EST sequences of Glycine soja to that of Glycine max by using the blastn algorithm. Most expressed sequences from wild soybean exhibited similarity with soybean. All our EST data are available on the Internet (GenBank_Accn: DT082443-DT084445). The Glycine soja ESTs will be used to mine salt tolerance gene, whose full-length cDNAs will be obtained easily from the full-length cDNA library. Comparison of Glycine soja ESTs with those of Glycine max revealed the potential to investigate the wild soybean's expression profile using the soybean's gene chip. This will provide opportunities to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying stress response of plants.

  20. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from NaCl-treated Glycine soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Hua

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salinization causes negative effects on plant productivity and poses an increasingly serious threat to the sustainability of agriculture. Wild soybean (Glycine soja can survive in highly saline conditions, therefore provides an ideal candidate plant system for salt tolerance gene mining. Results As a first step towards the characterization of genes that contribute to combating salinity stress, we constructed a full-length cDNA library of Glycine soja (50109 leaf treated with 150 mM NaCl, using the SMART technology. Random expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing of 2,219 clones produced 2,003 cleaned ESTs for gene expression analysis. The average read length of cleaned ESTs was 454 bp, with an average GC content of 40%. These ESTs were assembled using the PHRAP program to generate 375 contigs and 696 singlets. The resulting unigenes were categorized according to the Gene Ontology (GO hierarchy. The potential roles of gene products associated with stress related ESTs were discussed. We compared the EST sequences of Glycine soja to that of Glycine max by using the blastn algorithm. Most expressed sequences from wild soybean exhibited similarity with soybean. All our EST data are available on the Internet (GenBank_Accn: DT082443~DT084445. Conclusion The Glycine soja ESTs will be used to mine salt tolerance gene, whose full-length cDNAs will be obtained easily from the full-length cDNA library. Comparison of Glycine soja ESTs with those of Glycine max revealed the potential to investigate the wild soybean's expression profile using the soybean's gene chip. This will provide opportunities to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying stress response of plants.

  1. Influence of photoperiod and air temperature on the growth, flowering and maturation of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill Influência do fotoperíodo e da temperatura do ar no crescimento, floração e maturação da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.S. Câmara

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to evaluate the effect of short (12 hours and long (13 and 14 hours photoperiods and air temperature regimes (winter and summer growing seasons on soybean behaviour, greenhouse experiments were installed at the Federal University of Viçosa, Brasil, from June 1984 to December 1985. In each experiment, under a completely randomized design with 12 treatments (soybean cultivars and eight replicates: duration of vegetative period from emergency to stage R1 or flowering (DVP, in days; plant height (PH, m; number of nodes per plant at stage R1 (NNP; and duration of soybean cycle from emergency to stage R7 or physiological maturity point (DC, days, were evaluated. The results permit to conclude that: the vegetative period from emergency to flowering and the juvenile period are significantly affected by the photoperiod and temperature differences; shorter photoperiods or higher temperatures anticipate flowering; longer photoperiods under the same temperature regime or higher temperature under the same photoperiod regime result in higher plants.Experimentos em casa-de-vegetacão visando estudar o comportamento de cultivares de soja perante fotoperíodo curto (12 horas e longo (13 e 14 horas e na presença de temperaturas variáveis em função de diferentes épocas de semeadura, foram instalados na Universidade Federal de Viçosa, MG, Brasil, durante o período de junho de 1984 a dezembro de 1985. Delineado inteiramente ao acaso, cada experimento contou com doze cultivares de soja repetidos oito vezes por época. Avaliaram-se as seguintes características: duração do subperíodo emergência - inicio do florescimento, altura de planta e número de nós vegetativos formados por planta e duração do subperíodo emergencia - maturidade fisiológica. Concluiu-se que a fase fenológica da soja compreendida entre a emergência e o inicio do florescimento é significativamente influenciada pelas variações do fotoperíodo e da temperatura do

  2. HERBICIDES EFFICIENCY AND SELECTIVITY ON WEED CONTROL IN THE SOYBEAN CROP EFICIÊNCIA E SELETIVIDADE DE HERBICIDAS NA CULTURA DA SOJA (Glycine Max (L. Merrill EM ÁREA DE CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Baldin Pinheiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of Boral (sulfentrazone, Scepter (imazaquin and Sencor (metribuzin on weed control in the soybean crop, a trial was carried out at Escola de Agronomia / Universidade Federal de Goiás. Six treatments were tested: 1- Boral 500 SC(1.2 l/ha; 2- Sencor 480 SC (1.0 l/ha; 3- Sencor 480 SC +Scepter 150 CE (0.6 + 0.8 1/ha; 4- Sencor 480 SC + Boral 500 SC (0.75 + 0.70 1/ha; 5- Not weeded control; 6- Weeded control. These treatments were planted as randomized blocks design with four replications. The soybean cultivar was MTBR-49 (Pioneira, sowing in 50 cm spacing and 20 plants/m density. There were not differences between the treatments in the first and second evaluation of Sida rhombifolia L., Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. and Ipomoea purpurea Lam. occurrence. There were differences between treatments for Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. O. Kuntze at first evaluation (27 days after herbicides application and for Brachiaria decumbens Stapt. and second evaluation (41 days after herbicides application. During the evaluations it was not found fitotoxicity.

    KEY-WORDS: Sulfentrazone; imazaquin; metribuzin; soybean.

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a seletividade dos produtos Boral (sulfentrazone, Scepter (lmazaquin e Sencor (metribuzin no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja, instalou-se um ensaio na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no município de Goiânia - GO. O ensaio constituiu-se de seis tratamentos: l- Boral 500 SC (1,2 1/ha; 2- Sencor 480 SC (1,0 1/ha; 3- Sencor 480 SC + Scepter 150 CE (0,6 + 0,8 l/ha; 4 - Sencor 480 SC + Boral 500 SC (0,75 + 0,70 l/ha; 5- Testemunha sem capina e 6-Testemunha capinada. O

  3. Evaluation of the potential energy briquettes made with corn stubble (Zea mays) and soybean residue (Glycine max (L.)) combined with waste wood; Avaliacao do potencial energetico de briquetes confeccionados com residuo de milho (Zea mays) e residuo de soja (Glycine max (L.)) combinado com residuo de madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travessini, Rosana; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Oyama, Paulo; Possan, Edna; Bittencourt, Paulo R.S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], emails: rosana_travessini@yahoo.com.br, fabianaschutz@utfpr.edu.br, oyama_pt@hotmail.com, epossan@gmail.com, paulob@utfpr.edu.br

    2011-07-01

    The agriculture industry produces a large amount of biomass whose use constitutes an economically viable alternative energy through the compression of the lignocellulosic portion, replacing the wood with an equivalent product. This is possible through the briquette, which is a very efficient way to concentrate the available energy in biomass. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of burning briquettes. The making of briquettes was performed in the laboratory of Electro mechanics and burning at the Laboratory of Environmental UTFPR Campus Medianeira / PR. For the analysis, the energy balance of the combinations we used a bomb calorimeter IKA C5000, Laboratory of Biomass Energy (LEB), Federal University of Parana - UFPR. From the results we can conclude that in all aspects of the briquettes made from soybean residues are more efficient and still points to the need for studies to the development of more efficient equipment for these specific applications. (author)

  4. High-efficiency induction of soybean hairy roots and propagation of the soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H J; Farrand, S K; Noel, G R; Widholm, J M

    2000-01-01

    Cotyledon explants of 10 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars were inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599 with and without binary vectors pBI121 or pBINm-gfp5-ER possessing both neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (gus) or nptII and green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes, respectively. Hairy roots were produced from the wounded surface of 54-95% of the cotyledon explants on MXB selective medium containing 200 microg ml(-1) kanamycin and 500 microg ml(-1) carbenicillin. Putative individual transformed hairy roots were identified by cucumopine analysis and were screened for transgene incorporation using polymerase chain reaction. All of the roots tested were found to be co-transformed with T-DNA from the Ri-plasmid and the transgene from the binary vectors. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of the 35S-gfp5 gene in the plant genomes. Transgene expression was also confirmed by histochemical GUS assay and Western blot analysis for the GFP. Attempts to induce shoot formation from the hairy roots failed. Infection of hairy roots of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe)-susceptible cultivar, Williams 82, with eggs of H. glycines race 1, resulted in the development of mature cysts about 4-5 weeks after inoculation. Thus the soybean cyst nematode could complete its entire life cycle in transformed soybean hairy-root cultures expressing GFP. This system should be ideal for testing genes that might impart resistance to soybean cyst nematode.

  5. Comparison of Small RNA Profiles of Glycine max and Glycine soja at Early Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuzhe; Mui, Zeta; Liu, Xuan; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Qin, Hao; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Chan, Ting-Fung; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong

    2016-12-06

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs; from PHAS loci), play key roles in plant development. Cultivated soybean, Glycine max, contributes a great deal to food production, but, compared to its wild kin, Glycine soja, it may lose some genetic information during domestication. In this work, we analyzed the sRNA profiles of different tissues in both cultivated (C08) and wild soybeans (W05) at three stages of development. A total of 443 known miRNAs and 15 novel miRNAs showed varying abundances between different samples, but the miRNA profiles were generally similar in both accessions. Based on a sliding window analysis workflow that we developed, 50 PHAS loci generating 55 21-nucleotide phasiRNAs were identified in C08, and 46 phasiRNAs from 41 PHAS loci were identified in W05. In germinated seedlings, phasiRNAs were more abundant in C08 than in W05. Disease resistant TIR-NB-LRR genes constitute a very large family of PHAS loci. PhasiRNAs were also generated from several loci that encode for NAC transcription factors, Dicer-like 2 (DCL2), Pentatricopeptide Repeat (PPR), and Auxin Signaling F-box 3 (AFB3) proteins. To investigate the possible involvement of miRNAs in initiating the PHAS-phasiRNA pathway, miRNA target predictions were performed and 17 C08 miRNAs and 15 W05 miRNAs were predicted to trigger phasiRNAs biogenesis. In summary, we provide a comprehensive description of the sRNA profiles of wild versus cultivated soybeans, and discuss the possible roles of sRNAs during soybean germination.

  6. Changes of Respiration Activities in Cells of Winter Wheat and Sugar Cane Suspension Cultures During Programmed Cell Death Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Lyubushkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Process of cell death in suspension cultures of winter wheat and sugar cane under high (50 °С and negative (-8 °С temperature treatment has been studied. It has been shown, that programmed cell death (PCD process caused by the negative temperature in the culture of winter wheat was noted for slow rate of realization and it was carried out for 10 days. It has been state that rate of cell respiration was significantly higher than in the control culture. At the same time PCD processes induced by the high temperature in the culture of sugar cane and winter wheat and by the negative temperature in the culture of sugar cane realized for 24-48 h and was accompanied by graduate decrease of respiration activities. We can conclude that the main reason of PCD processes realization differences was a different level of respiration metabolism resistance to high and negative temperatures action.

  7. Serum-Free Suspension Culture of MDCK Cells for Production of Influenza H1N1 Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding; Peng, Wen-Juan; Ye, Qian; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Liang; Fan, Li; Xia-Hou, Kang; Jia, Han-Jing; Luo, Jian; Zhou, Lin-Ting; Li, Bei-Bei; Wang, Shi-Lei; Xu, Wen-Ting; Chen, Ze; Tan, Wen-Song

    2015-01-01

    Development of serum-free suspension cell culture processes is very important for influenza vaccine production. Previously, we developed a MDCK suspension cell line in a serum-free medium. In the present study, the growth kinetics of suspension MDCK cells and influenza virus production in the serum-free medium were investigated, in comparison with those of adherent MDCK cells in both serum-containing and serum-free medium. It was found that the serum-free medium supported the stable subculture and growth of both adherent and suspension cells. In batch culture, for both cell lines, the growth kinetics in the serum-free medium was comparable with those in the serum-containing medium and a commercialized serum-free medium. In the serum-free medium, peak viable cell density (VCD), haemagglutinin (HA) and median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) titers of the two cell lines reached 4.51×106 cells/mL, 2.94Log10(HAU/50 μL) and 8.49Log10(virions/mL), and 5.97×106 cells/mL, 3.88Log10(HAU/50 μL), and 10.34Log10(virions/mL), respectively. While virus yield of adherent cells in the serum-free medium was similar to that in the serum-containing medium, suspension culture in the serum-free medium showed a higher virus yield than adherent cells in the serum-containing medium and suspension cells in the commercialized serum-free medium. However, the percentage of infectious viruses was lower for suspension culture in the serum-free medium. These results demonstrate the great potential of this suspension MDCK cell line in serum-free medium for influenza vaccine production and further improvements are warranted.

  8. Induction and Analysis of the Alkaloid Mitragynine Content of a Mitragyna speciosa Suspension Culture System upon Elicitation and Precursor Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Nahazima Mohamad Zuldin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction was achieved from petiole explants cultured on WPM that was supplemented with 4 mg L−1 2, 4-D (70.83%. Calli were transferred to liquid media and agitated on rotary shakers to establish Mitragyna speciosa cell suspension cultures. The optimum settled cell volume was achieved in the presence of WPM that contained 3 mg L−1 2,4-D and 3% sucrose (9.47±0.4667 mL. The treatment of cultures with different concentrations of yeast extract and salicylic acid for different inoculation periods revealed that the highest mitragynine content as determined by HPLC was achieved from the culture treated with 250 mg L−1 yeast extract (9.275±0.082 mg L−1 that was harvested on day 6 of culturing; salicylic acid showed low mitragynine content in all concentrations used. Tryptophan and loganin were used as exogenous precursors; the highest level of mitragynine production was achieved in cultures treated with 3 μM tryptophan and harvested at 6 days (13.226±1.98 mg L−1.

  9. Recombinant human IGF-1 produced by transgenic plant cell suspension culture enhances new bone formation in calvarial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Bhattarai, Govinda; Kook, Sung-Ho; Shin, Yun-Ji; Kwon, Tae-Ho; Lee, Seung-Youp; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2017-10-01

    Transgenic plant cell suspension culture systems have been utilized extensively as convenient and efficient expression systems for the production of recombinant human growth factors. We produced insulin-like growth factor-1 using a plant suspension culture system (p-IGF-1) and explored its effect on new bone formation in calvarial defects. We also compared the bone regenerating potential of p-IGF-1 with commercial IGF-1 derived from Escherichia coli (e-IGF-1). Male C57BL/6 mice underwent calvarial defect surgery, and the defects were loaded with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) only (ACS group) or ACS impregnated with 13μg of p-IGF-1 (p-IGF-1 group) or e-IGF-1 (e-IGF-1 group). The sham group did not receive any treatment with ACS or IGFs after surgery. Live μCT and histological analyses showed critical-sized bone defects in the sham group, whereas greater bone formation was observed in the p-IGF-1 and e-IGF-1 groups than the ACS group both 5 and 10weeks after surgery. Bone mineral density, bone volume, and bone surface values were also higher in the IGF groups than in the ACS group. Local delivery of p-IGF-1 or e-IGF-1 more greatly enhanced the expression of osteoblast-specific markers, but inhibited osteoclast formation, in newly formed bone compared with ACS control group. Specifically, p-IGF-1 treatment induced higher expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and osteopontin in the defect site than did e-IGF-1. Furthermore, treatment with p-IGF-1, but not e-IGF-1, increased mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells, with the attendant upregulation of osteogenic marker genes. Collectively, our findings suggest the potential of p-IGF-1 in promoting the processes required for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Greenhouse Inoculation Methods for Evaluating Resistance of Soybean to Sudden Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines (FSG) (syn. Fusarium virguliforme Akoi, O’Donnell, Homma and Lattanzi), is a major disease in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Selection for SDS resistance in the field is difficult because of the impact of ...

  11. Identification of novel sources of host plant resistance to known soybean aphid biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raman; Mian, M A R; Michel, Andy P

    2013-06-01

    While soybean cultivars with resistance to the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) have been commercially released, the presence of virulent biotypes capable of overcoming plant resistance threatens the durability of host plant resistance as a stable management tactic. Novel sources of host plant resistance are needed to combat rapid biotype evolution. In this study, we screened 1,061 soybean plant introductions (PIs) for resistance to three known biotypes of A. glycines. Based on a series of growth chamber and field screenings, we identified 11 PIs that showed resistance to biotype 1 of A. glycines. Among these 11 PIs, 7 PIs were resistant to biotype 2 and 5 PIs were resistant to biotype 3. Further, two PIs (PI 606390A from Vietnam and PI 340034 from South Korea) showed resistance to all three biotypes of A. glycines. We also identified 11 PIs that were potentially tolerant to A. glycines, illustrated by no adverse impact on plant quality because of A. glycines infestation. As resistant PIs identified in this study belong to maturity group II-IV, they can be readily crossed to early maturing cultivars adapted to north-central states of the United States, where A. glycines is a major pest. The genetic characterization of resistance in these PIs and incorporation of novel resistant genes into elite soybean cultivars will broaden the defense against multiple biotypes of A. glycines.

  12. Palha de soja (Glycine max como substituto parcial da silagem de sorgo forrageiro (Sorghum bicolor ( L. Moench na alimentação de terneiros de corte confinados Soybean straw (Glycine max as a partial substitute of sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in the feeding of confined calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a utilização da palha de soja como substituto parcial da silagem de sorgo forrageiro na fração volumosa da dieta de terneiros confinados, sendo testados os seguintes tratamentos: T0 constituído por 100% de silagem de sorgo; T33 constituído por 66,67% de silagem de sorgo, mais 33,33% de feno de palha de soja; T66 constituído por 33,33% de silagem de sorgo, mais 66,67% de feno de palha de soja. As dietas foram fornecidas durante 77 dias para terneiros cruzas Charolês-Nelore com peso e idade média inicial de 165,6kg e 11 meses, respectivamente. A dieta alimentar foi isonitrogenada com 14% de proteína bruta (PB na matéria seca (MS, sendo 20% suprida na forma de uréia. A relação volumoso:concentrado com base na MS, foi de 70:30. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão sendo obtidas as seguintes equações de regressão: para ganho de peso médio diário em kg (GMD = 1,166273 - 0,00186 PI (peso inicial - 0,00351 NS (nível de substituição; consumo médio diário de MS em kg/100 kg peso vivo/dia (CMSPPV = 2,284983 + 0,002679 PI - 0,002303 NS; consumo médio diário de energia digestível Mcal/100kg peso vivo/dia (CEDPPV = 5,709589 + 0,010964 PI - 0,018736 NS; conversão alimentar (CA = - 4,426857 + 0,064579 PI + 0,023165 NS. Verificou-se que a cada aumento de 1% na substituição da silagem de sorgo por feno de palha de soja, ocorreu um decréscimo de 3,51g no GMD e 2,3g no CMSPPV, enquanto que a conversão alimentar piorou em 0,023 unidades. O aumento na proporção de palha de soja na dieta em substituição à silagem de sorgo resultou em um decréscimo linear no desempenho dos animais. No entanto, mesmo no maior nível de substituição, o ganho de peso médio diário foi satisfatório.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the use of soybean straw as partial substitute for sorghum silage in the roughage fraction of the diet of confined calves, being tested the following

  13. Eficiência e competitividade de variantes espontâneos isolados de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp recomendadas para a cultura da soja (Glycine max Effectiveness and competitiveness of spontaneous mutants isolated from Bradyrhizobium spp strains recommended for soybean crop (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Gomes de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo sucessivo de soja inoculada numa mesma área proporcionou a adaptação de uma população de rizóbios, que podem não ser tão eficientes quanto à capacidade de fixação de N2, mas apresentam alta competitividade, dificultando a introdução de novas estirpes mais eficientes. Com a finalidade de avaliar o desempenho simbiótico (eficiência e competitividade de variantes espontâneos isolados de estirpes de B. japonicum (SEMIA 5079 e SEMIA 5080 e B. elkanii (SEMIA 587 e SEMIA 5019, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação onde os variantes foram inoculados isoladamente e em diferentes combinações entre os variantes e uma estirpe comprovadamente mais competitiva (SEMIA 587 ou SEMIA 5019 a partir da adição de inóculos mistos (1/1; v/v no cultivar de soja BR-16. Por meio da avaliação das variáveis analisadas (nodulação, produção de matéria de seca da parte aérea, N total acumulado na parte aérea e ocupação nodular, foi possível constatar que o determinante da maior eficiência em tratamentos co-inoculados não foi a ocupação nodular de determinada estirpe ou variante presente no inóculo, mas, sim, o tipo de interação (sinérgica ou antagônica predominante no tratamento co-inoculado e que é possível selecionar variantes eficientes e competitivos para a cultura da soja a partir de estirpes parentais que já apresentam características desejáveis para utilização em inoculantes comerciais.The continuous cultivation of inoculated soybean in the same area can determine the soil colonization with a rhizobia population presenting low nitrogen fixation effectiveness. This fact can be a problem for the establishment of a more effective population. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the symbiotic effectiveness and competitiveness of spontaneous mutants isolated from B. japonicum (SEMIA 5079 and SEMIA 5080 and B. elkanii (SEMIA 587 and SEMIA 5019 strains. The soybean biovar BR 16 was

  14. Embryogenic callus formation, growth and regeneration in callus and suspension cultures of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus' as affected by proline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Krogstrup, Peter; Hansen, Jürgen

    1997-01-01

    The effects of proline additions to culture systems of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda Giganteus' were investigated. Proline was added in concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 300 mM to the callus induction and suspension culture media containing either Murashige and Skoog or N6 basal salts and ...

  15. Effects of aluminum on DNA synthesis, cellular polyamines, polyamine biosynthetic enzymes and inorganic ions in cell suspension cultures of a woody plant, Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha; Stephanie L. Long; Walter C. Shortle

    1992-01-01

    Increased aluminum (Al) solubility in soil waters due to acid precipitation has aroused considerable interest in the problem of Al toxicity in plants. In the present study, an in vitro suspension culture system of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don was used to analyze the effects of aluminum on several biochemical processes in these cells. The aliphatic...

  16. ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS DE Anticarsia gemmatalis HÜEBNER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE SOJA (Glycine max MERRIL BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Anticarsia gemmatalis HÜEBNER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE ON SOYBEAN CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Baldin Pinheiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em condições controladas de temperatura (25+2ºC, umidade relativa (40+10% e fotofase de 13h, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito das cultivares Emgopa 316, FT-Estrela, IAC 100 e IAC 17, no desenvolvimento de Anticarsia gemmatalis. Foram observadas a duração do período larval, o tamanho e o peso de lagartas e peso de pupas. Na cultivar Emgopa 316, as larvas apresentaram uma diminuição no período larval e um aumento nos pesos larval e pupal, enquanto IAC 100 mostrou alguma evidência de antibiose, aumentando o período larval e diminuindo o peso de lagartas e de pupas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; antibiose; insecta.

    A laboratory work was conducted at Universidade Federal de Goiás, under controlled conditions of temperature (25+2º, relative humidity (40+10% and photophase (13h. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the soybean cultivars Emgopa 316, FT-Estrela, IAC 100 and IAC 17 on the development of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hüebner, 1818. Duration of the development phases, length of larvae and weight of pupae were observed. Emgopa 316 showed a decreasing duration of larval stage and an increase in larvae and pupae weight; IAC 100 showed some evidence of antibiosis, increasing the larval stage and decreasing larvae and pupae weight.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta; resistance; antibiosis.

  17. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on ...

  18. Evaluation of glyphosate application on transgenic soybean and its relationship with shikimic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine]-resistant crops (GRC) are the transgenic crops most extensively grown worldwide, with soybean being the major GRC. It is important to evaluate the impact of glyphosate on the shikimate pathway, growth and yield of GR soybean in the field. Furthermore, whether...

  19. Environmental Effects on Lutein Concent and Relationship of Lutein and Other Seed Components in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutein is a major carotenoid in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. ] seed, and has been shown to be beneficial for eye health in humans. Development of soybeans high in lutein is a goal of some breeding programs. Little is known about how different growing environments affect lutein concentration. Obje...

  20. Host range of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal organism of soybean rust, was first described in 1903 from leaves of Glycine max subsp. soja, or wild soybean, in Japan. Since that time, there have been numerous reports of the pathogen on various leguminous species around the world, first in Asia, followed by Aust...

  1. Impact of crop rotation and soil amendments on long-term no-tilled soybean yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous cropping systems without cover crops are perceived as unsustainable for long-term yield and soil health. To test this, cropping sequence and cover crop effects on soybean (Glycine max L.) yields were assessed. Main effects were 10 cropping sequences of soybean, corn (Zea mays L.), and co...

  2. Comparison of corn, grain sorghum, soybean, and sunflower under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] constitute a large share of the annual total irrigated planted area in the central Great Plains. This study aimed to determine the effect of limited irrigation on grain yield, water use, and profitability of corn and soybean in comparison with ...

  3. A survey of the agronomic and end-use characteristics of low phytic acid soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    With unique high protein and oil contents, soybean (Glycine max L. merr.) is one of the most widely grown agronomic crops in the United States. Around 98% of those soybeans are used in animal feeds ranging from swine and cattle to domestic animals and aquaculture. This chapter will introduce phytic ...

  4. From forest to waste: Assessment of the Brazilian soybean chain, using nitrogen as a marker.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaling, E.M.A.; Roscoe, R.; Lesschen, J.P.; Bouwman, A.F.; Comunello, E.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a booming crop in Brazil. In 2004, the export value was equivalent to 10 billion US $, covering over 10% of total Brazilian exports. Three-quarters of total production leaves the country, mainly to China and the European Union (EU). Soybean cultivation in Brazil is expected

  5. Genetic studies on saline and sodic tolerances in soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Donghe; Tuyen, Do Duc

    2012-01-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories: saline and sodic (alkaline). Developing and using soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) cultivars with high salt tolerance is an effective way of maintaining sustainable production in areas where soybean growth is threatened by salt stress. Early classical genetics studies revealed that saline tolerance was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Recently, a series of studies consistently revealed a major quantitative trait locus...

  6. Material embodiment and energy flows as efficiency indicators of soybean (Glycine max production in Brazil Incorporação material e fluxos de energia como indicadores de eficiência da produção de soja (Glycine max no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As the requirement for agriculture to be environmentally suitable there is a necessity to adopt indicators and methodologies approaching sustainability. In Brazil, biodiesel addition into diesel is mandatory and soybean oil is its main source. The material embodiment determines the convergence of inputs into the crop. Moreover, the material flows are necessary for any environmental analysis. This study evaluated distinct production scenarios, and also conventional versus GMO crops, through the material embodiment and energy analysis. GMO crops demanded less indirectly applied inputs. The energy balance showed linearity with yield, whereas for EROI, the increases in input and yield were not affected.Para a agricultura alcançar os patamares de sustentabilidade ambiental, é fundamental a adoção de indicadores e metodologias que a tornem viável. No Brasil, a adição de biodiesel ao diesel foi estabelecida em lei, sendo que a principal fonte para a obtenção desse biocombustível é o óleo de soja. A incorporação de material determina a convergência das entradas de produtos e serviços dentro de uma cultura agrícola. Além disso, a avaliação dos fluxos de materiais é necessária para qualquer análise ambiental. Este trabalho procura avaliar diferentes cenários produtivos e também comparar os cultivos de soja convencional e geneticamente modificada (OGM, através da incorporação material e da análise de energia nos sistemas. O uso de OGM demandou menores inputs indiretamente aplicados ao sistema. O balanço energético mostrou linearidade com a produtividade, enquanto para o EROI, o crescimento nos inputs e na produtividade não foram afetados.

  7. Elicitation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) cell suspension culture for enhancement of inulin production and altered degree of polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunquan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Haitao; Han, Dongming; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2017-01-01

    Plant cell suspension cultures have emerged as a potential source of secondary metabolites for food additives and pharmaceuticals. In this study inulin accumulation and its degree of polymerisation (DP) in the treated cells in the same medium were investigated after treatment with six types of elicitors. An in vitro cell suspension culture of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) was optimised by adding an extra nitrogen source. According to the growth kinetics, a maximum biomass of 5.48 g L -1 was obtained from the optimal cell suspension medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog basic medium (MS) + 1.0 mg L -1 α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) + 1.0 mg L -1 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) + 0.5 mg L -1 proline + 1.0 mg L -1 glutamine. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 µmol L -1 ) treatment for 15 days led to the highest levels of inulin (2955.27 ± 9.81 mg L -1 compared to control of 1217.46 ± 0.26 mg L -1 ). The elicited effect of five elicitors to the suspension cells of Jerusalem artichoke is as follows: AgNO 3 (Ag, 10 µmol L -1 ), salicylic acid (SA, 75 µmol L -1 ), chitosan (KJT, 40 mg L -1 ), Trichoderma viride (Tv, 90 mg L -1 ), yeast extract (YE, 0.25 mg L -1 ), and the corresponding content of inulin is increased by 2.05-, 1.93-, 1.76-, 1.44- and 1.18-fold compared to control, respectively. The obvious effect on the percentage of lower DP in inulin was observed in cells treated with 40 mg L -1 KJT, 0.25 mg L -1 YE and 10 µmol L -1 Ag. Among the six types of elicitors, the descending order of inulin content is MeJA > Ag > SA > KJT > Tv > YE. For the purpose inulin with lower DP and its application to prebiotic food, three elicitors, including KJT, YE and Ag, can be used for the elicitation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Comparison of the Production of Recombinant Protein in Suspension Culture of CHO Cells in Spinner Flask and Shake Flask System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N.Z Zainul Abidin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells have been most widely used as the production host for the commercial production of biopharmaceuticals product. They have been extensively studied and developed, and today provide a stable platform for producing monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. This study was focusing on comparison of suspension culture system by using spinner flask and shake flask for the growth and production of recombinant protein in CHO cell line. The CHO cells were transfected with an expression of DNA plasmid containing lac Z gene which codes for β-galactosidase. The recombinant genes in these CHO cells and the β-galactosidase expressing cells were adapted to suspension culture. The agitation speed for both spinner and shake flask were adjusted accordingly. The experiments were carried out in duplicate and samples were taken for cell count, determination of glucose consumption, lactate production and protein level by using biochemical assay. The result showed that, the cell growth in spinner flask is more favorable then in shake flask. The cell concentration in spinner flask is 58% higher than in shake flask. On the other hand, specific activity of β-galactosidase is 25% higher in spinner flask compared to shake flask, at the same agitation speed.ABSTRAK: Sel ovari hamster China (Chinese hamster ovary (CHO digunakan secara meluas dalam hos pembiakan untuk tujuan komersil produk biofarmaseutikal. Ia telah dikaji dan dibangunkan secara ekstensif, dan kini ia menyediakan landasan yang stabil untuk penghasilan antibodi monoklon dan protein rekombinan. Kajian ini memfokuskan tentang penghasilan protein rekombinan menggunakan kultur ampaian sel CHO di dalam kelalang putar dan kelalang goncang. Sel CHO dimasukkan dengan plasmid DNA yang mengandungi gen lac Z yang juga memberikan kod untuk β-galaktosidase. Sel CHO β-galaktosidase-terungkap dimasukkan ke dalam kultur ampaian. Kelajuan agitasi untuk kedua-dua kelalang putar

  9. Analysis and Characterization of Vitamin B Biosynthesis Pathways in the Phytoparasitic Nematode Heterodera Glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), "Heterodera glycines" is an obligate plant parasite that can cause devastating crop losses. To aide in the study of this pathogen, the SCN genome and the transcriptome of second stage juveniles and eggs were shotgun sequenced. A bioinformatic screen of the data revealed nine genes involved in the "de novo"…

  10. Cell death induction and nitric oxide biosynthesis in white poplar (Populus alba) suspension cultures exposed to alfalfa saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrazzi, Alma; Agoni, Valentina; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Biazzi, Elisa; Raimondi, Elena; Macovei, Anca; Carbonera, Daniela

    2011-03-01

    The present work reports on the biological activity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) saponins on white poplar (Populus alba, cultivar 'Villafranca') cell suspension cultures. The extracts from alfalfa roots, aerial parts and seeds were characterized for their saponin content by means of thin layer chromatography (TLC) and electrospray ionisation coupled to mass spectrometry. The quantitative saponin composition from the different plant extracts was determined considering the aglycone moieties and determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses. Only soyasapogenin I was detected in the seed extract while several other saponins were found in the root and leaf extracts. Actively proliferating white poplar cell cultures were challenged with the different saponin extracts. Only alfalfa root saponins, at 50 µg ml⁻¹, induced significant cell death rates (75.00 ± 4.90%). Different cell subpopulations with peculiar cell death morphologies were observed and the programmed cell death (PCD)/necrosis ratio was reduced at increasing saponin concentrations. Enhancement of nitric oxide (NO) production was observed in white poplar cells treated with root saponins (RSs) at 50 µg ml⁻¹ and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the culture medium was also demonstrated. Saponin-induced NO production was sensitive to sodium azide and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, two specific inhibitors of distinct pathways for NO biosynthesis in plant cells. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  11. White poplar (Populus alba L.) suspension cultures as a model system to study apoptosis induced by alfalfa saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrazzi, Alma; Carbonera, Daniela; Avato, Pinarosa; Tava, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    In animal cells, the anticancer function played by plant saponins involves a complex network of molecular processes that still deserves investigation and apoptosis seems to be the outstanding pathway. An intriguing aspect of the biological activity of saponins is related to their effects on genome integrity. As demonstrated by the studies carried out in white poplar (Populus alba L., cv Villafranca) cell suspension cultures, plant cells can as well be used as a model system to unravel the molecular mechanisms activated by plant saponins. These recent studies have evidenced that animal and plant cells share common features in their response to saponins, paving the way for novel opportunities for both basic and applied research. Indeed, there is a certain interest in replacing the animal models for pharmacological research, at least when preliminary large-scale cytotoxicity tests are performed on wide collections of natural extracts and/or purified compounds. The review provides an up-date of the molecular pathways (signal transduction, antioxidant response, DNA repair) associated with plant saponin bioactivity, with an emphasis on apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) saponins. The comparison between animal and plant cells as tools for the study of saponin bioactivity is also discussed in view of the most recent literature and innovative future applications.

  12. Role of Changes in Cell Fatty Acids Composition in the Increasing of Frost Resistance of Winter Wheat Suspension Culture

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    I.V. Lyubushkina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Influences of low temperatures (4 and 8 ° С on the frost tolerance and fatty acid compositions of cells in a winter wheat suspension culture have been studied. It has been found that treatment of the culture with 4 °C (7 days did not protect cells from subsequent freezing temperature action (-8 °С, 6 h and was not accompanied significant changes in the fatty acid composition. On the contrary, the treatment of the culture with the temperature 8 °C (7 days prevented the death caused by freezing temperature and the content of saturated fatty acids decreased: pentadecanoic acid (by 35,0%, palmitic acid (by 19,9% and stearic acid (by 65,4%, and the content of α-linolenic acid increased by 94%. That was the cause of the double bond index (DBI increase by 16%. The role of fatty acids composition changes in the process of increasing frost tolerance in plants are discussed.

  13. Changes in auxin level in the course of growth of a sunflower crown-gall suspension culture

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    Zofia Chirek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The auxin level in the cell mass and culture medium was determined by means of the Avena straight caleoptile test in various periods of the suspension culture cycle of the sunflower crown-gall tumour. The investigations were performed in the course of the zero passage (PO and first one (Pl, differing in their time of duration of maximum growth and its intensity. In both passages the intra- and extra-cellular auxin levels reach values of the same order. At the beginning of the maximal growth phase the activity corresponding to IAA in the cells prevails over that of the other auxin-like compounds. This disproportion diminishes with further development of the culture, and with the beginning of the stationary phase the cellular IAA level is lower than that of the remaining auxin-like compounds. The short phase of maximal growth (PO occurs with an auxin level decreasing in the cell mass and increasing in the medium, and towards the end of the cycle these levels become equal. During the long phase of maximal growth (Pl the total amount of auxins in the cells increases and is 2-3 times higher than in the medium, whereas IAA in the cells remains at a constant level. These results suggest that the participation of IAA in the intracellular pool of auxin-like substances is decisive for the mitotic activity of the cells and maintenance of growth in the culture.

  14. Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induced Oxidative Stress and Accumulation of Phenolics in Panax ginseng Bioreactor Root Suspension Cultures

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    Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the enzyme variations responsible for the synthesis of phenolics, 40 day-old adventitious roots of Panax ginseng were treated with 200 μM methyl jasmonate (MJ or salicylic acid (SA in a 5 L bioreactor suspension culture (working volume 4 L. Both treatments caused an increase in the carbonyl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents, although the levels were lower in SA treated roots. Total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol (NPSH and cysteine contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical reducing activity were increased by MJ and SA. Fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW decreased significantly after 9 days of exposure to SA and MJ. The highest total phenolics (62%, DPPH activity (40%, flavonoids (88%, ascorbic acid (55%, NPSH (33%, and cysteine (62% contents compared to control were obtained after 9 days in SA treated roots. The activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, substrate specific peroxidases (caffeic acid peroxidase, quercetin peroxidase and ferulic acid peroxidase were higher in MJ treated roots than the SA treated ones. Increased shikimate dehydrogenase, chlorogenic acid peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities and proline content were observed in SA treated roots than in MJ ones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by both MJ and SA. These results strongly indicate that MJ and SA induce the accumulation of phenolic compounds in ginseng root by altering the phenolic synthesis enzymes.

  15. Nitric Oxide Functions as a Signal in Ultraviolet-B-Induced Baicalin Accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis Suspension Cultures

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    Jin-Jie Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B irradiation stimulates the accumulation of various secondary metabolites in plants. Nitric oxide (NO serves as an important secondary messenger in UV-B stress-induced signal transduction pathways. NO can be synthesized in plants by either enzymatic catalysis or an inorganic nitrogen pathway. The effects of UV-B irradiation on the production of baicalin and the associated molecular pathways in plant cells are poorly understood. In this study, nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity, NO release and the generation of baicalin were investigated in cell suspension cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis exposed to UV-B irradiation. UV-B irradiation significantly increased NOS activity, NO release and baicalin biosynthesis in S. baicalensis cells. Additionally, exogenous NO supplied by the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, led to a similar increase in the baicalin content as the UV-B treatment. The NOS inhibitor, Nω-nitro-l-arginine (LNNA, and NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO partially inhibited UV-B-induced NO release and baicalin accumulation. These results suggest that NO is generated by NOS or NOS-like enzymes and plays an important role in baicalin biosynthesis as part of the defense response of S. baicalensis cells to UV-B irradiation.

  16. Relationships between hydroxyproline-containing proteins secreted into the cell wall and medium by suspension-cultured Acer psedoplatanus cells

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    Pope, D.G.

    1977-05-01

    The pathway of hydroxyproline-containing proteins to the cell wall and to the growth medium in suspension-cultured Acer pseudoplatanus cells is traced by following the kinetics of the transfer of protein-bound /sup 14/C-hydroxyproline into various fractions, and by comparing the hydroxyproline-arabinoside profiles of these fractions after alkaline hydrolysis. Hydroxyproline-rich protein passes directly from a membrane-bound compartment in the cytoplasm to the cell wall, not via an intermediate salt-soluble pool in the wall. There are at least three hydroxyproline-containing glycoproteins in the cell wall. One which possesses mono-, tri-, and tetraarabinoside side chains accounts for over 90% of the total hydroxyproline. This glycoprotein is ''extensin.'' The hydroxyproline-containing proteins secreted into the medium have a glycosylation pattern markedly different from that of the major cell wall glycoprotein. It appears that there is little or no wall-like extensin in the medium. Approximately half of the protein-bound hydroxyproline secreted into the medium is linked to an arabinogalactan. This linkage is also found in a particulate wall protein precursor fraction from the cytoplasm, but only trace amounts can be detected in the cell wall.

  17. Changes in cell wall properties coincide with overexpression of extensin fusion proteins in suspension cultured tobacco cells.

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    Li Tan

    Full Text Available Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increased wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. These data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production.

  18. Pretreatment of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) Suspension Cultures with Methyl Jasmonate Enhances Elicitation of Activated Oxygen Species.

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    Kauss, H.; Jeblick, W.; Ziegler, J.; Krabler, W.

    1994-05-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) were used to demonstrate an influence of jasmonic acid methyl ester (JAME) on the elicitation of activated oxygen species. Preincubation of the cell cultures for 1 d with JAME greatly enhanced the subsequent induction by an elicitor preparation from cell walls of Phytophtora megasperma f. sp. glycinea (Pmg elicitor) and by the polycation chitosan. Shorter preincubation times with JAME were less efficient, and the effect was saturated at about 5 [mu]M JAME. Treatment of the crude Pmg elicitor with trypsin abolished induction of activated oxygen species, an effect similar to that seen with elicitation of coumarin secretion. These results suggest that JAME conditioned the parsley suspension cells in a time-dependent manner to become more responsive to elicitation, reminiscent of developmental effects caused by JAME in whole plants. It is interesting that pretreatment of the parsley cultures with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic and 5-chlorosalicylic acid only slightly enhanced the elicitation of activated oxygen species, whereas these substances greatly enhanced the elicitation of coumarin secretion. Therefore, these presumed inducers of systemic acquired resistance exhibit a specificity different from JAME.

  19. Sucrose-enhanced biosynthesis of medicinally important antioxidant secondary metabolites in cell suspension cultures of Artemisia absinthium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Syed Shujait; Ali, Shahid; Ali, Gul Shad

    2016-12-01

    Natural products are gaining tremendous importance in pharmaceutical industry and attention has been focused on the applications of in vitro technologies to enhance yield and productivity of such products. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of biomass and antioxidant secondary metabolites in response to different carbohydrate sources (sucrose, maltose, fructose and glucose) and sucrose concentrations (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 %). Moreover, the effects of 3 % repeated sucrose feeding (day-12, -18 and -24) were also investigated. The results showed the superiority of disaccharides over monosaccharides for maximum biomass and secondary metabolites accumulation. Comparable profiles for maximum biomass were observed in response to sucrose and maltose and initial sucrose concentrations of 3 and 5 %. Maximum total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were displayed by cultures treated with sucrose and maltose; however, initial sucrose concentrations of 5 and 7 % were optimum for both classes of metabolites, respectively. Following 3 % extra sucrose feeding, cultures fed on day-24 (late-log phase) showed higher biomass, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents as compared to control cultures. Highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by maltose-treated cultures. Moreover, sucrose-treated cultures displayed positive correlation of antioxidant activity with total phenolics and total flavonoids production. This work describes the stimulatory role of disaccharides and sucrose feeding strategy for higher accumulation of phenolics and flavonoids, which could be potentially scaled up to bioreactor level for the bulk production of these metabolites in suspension cultures of A. absinthium.

  20. New Synthetic Pyridine Derivate as Potential Elicitor in Production of Isoflavonoids and Flavonoids in Trifolium pratense L. Suspension Culture

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    Marie Kašparová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of secondary metabolites in Trifolium pratense L. suspension culture of the family of legume plants (Fabaceae is low, and therefore there was an attempt to increase it by elicitation. New synthetic substance, 2-(2-fluoro-6-nitrobenzylsulfanylpyridine-4-carbothioamide, was tested as elicitor—a substance that showed the best elicitation effect after 48-hour application of 1 μmol L−1 concentration. Maximum contents of genistin (11.60 mg g−1 DW, daidzein (8.31 mg g−1 DW, and genistein (1.50 mg g−1 DW were recorded, and the production of these isoflavonoids thus significantly increased, when compared with the control, by 152%, 151%, and 400%. The maximum content of flavonoids (5.78 mg g−1 DW and the increase in the production by 142%, when compared with the control, were induced by 6-hour application of 100 μmol L−1 concentration. The tested substance showed to be an effective elicitor of phenylpropane metabolism.

  1. Enhancement of anthraquinone production in Morinda citrifolia cell suspension cultures after stimulation of the proline cycle with two proline analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Carla V; Perassolo, María; Giulietti, Ana M; Rodríguez Talou, Julián

    2012-03-01

    Synthesis of anthraquinones (AQs) involves the shikimate and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathways. The proline cycle is linked to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to generate NADPH needed in the first steps of this pathway. The effect of two proline analogs, azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (A2C) and thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C), were evaluated in Morinda citrifolia suspension cultures. Both analogs gave higher proline accumulation after 6 and 10 days (68 and 179% after 6 days with A2C at 25 and 50 μM, respectively, and 111% with T4C added at 100 μM). Induction of the proline cycle increased the AQ content after 6 days (~40% for 50 μM A2C and 100 μM T4C). Whereas A2C (50 μM) increased only AQ production, T4C also enhanced total phenolics. However, no induction of the PPP was observed with any of the treatments. This pathway therefore does not limit the supply of carbon skeletons to secondary metabolic pathways.

  2. Enhanced accumulation of phytosterols and phenolic compounds in cyclodextrin-elicited cell suspension culture of Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras-Moreno, Begoña; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, M A; Sabater-Jara, Ana Belén

    2016-09-01

    In this work, suspension-cultured cells of Daucus carota were used to evaluate the effect of β-cyclodextrins on the production of isoprenoid and phenolic compounds. The results showed that the phytosterols and phenolic compounds were accumulated in the extracellular medium (15100μgL(-1) and 477.46μgL(-1), respectively) in the presence of cyclodextrins. Unlike the phytosterol and phenolic compound content, β-carotene (1138.03μgL(-1)), lutein (25949.54μgL(-1)) and α-tocopherol (8063.82μgL(-1)) chlorophyll a (1625.13μgL(-1)) and b (9.958 (9958.33μgL(-1)) were mainly accumulated inside the cells. Therefore, cyclodextrins were able to induce the cytosolic mevalonate pathway, increasing the biosynthesis of phytosterols and phenolic compounds, and accumulate them outside the cells. However, in the absence of these cyclic oligosaccharidic elicitors, carrot cells mainly accumulated carotenoids through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Therefore, the use of cyclodextrins would allow the extracellular accumulation of both phytosterols and phenolic compounds by diverting the carbon flux towards the cytosolic mevalonate/phenylpropanoid pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accumulation of ixerin F and activities of some terpenoid bisynthetic enzymes in a cell suspension culture of Lactuca virosa L.

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    Anna Stojakowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cell suspension culture of Lactuca virosa L. (Asteraceae, tribe Lactuceae is capable of synthesizing sesquiterpene lactones of which ixerin F is the main compound. The culture was characterized on growth (by dissimilation rates, on ixerin F accumulation (by RP-HPLC and on some enzyme activities involved in early steps of terpenoid biosynthesis. Acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase (AACT, E.C. 2.3.1.9 and 3S-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS, E.C. 4.13.5 activities of the cells were assayed spectrophotometrically. HMGS activity increased during the culture period and reached a maximum during the stationary phase (190 pkat/mg protein, while AACT showed relatively high level of activity throughout the growth cycle, with transient decrease at the logarithmic growth phase and the beginning of stationary phase. Ixerin F accumulated inside the cells and the maximum concentration of 0.08% (on dry weight basis was found in the early stationary phase of the growth cycle of the culture.

  4. Impact of UV-B radiation on some biochemical changes and growth parameters in Echinacea purpurea callus and suspension culture

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    Hossam H. Manaf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of UV-B light force, exposure time and incubation period on producing caffeic acid derivatives and growth parameters in Echinacea purpurea callus and suspension culture were assessed. UV-B led to an increment of all growth parameters and antioxidant activity in callus and cell suspension and caffeic acid derivatives in cell suspension by increasing incubation period. The reverse was true for G-POD activity in cell suspension and PAL activity in both types of cultures. Incubation period 2 weeks was more effective in caffeic acid, total phenols and G-POD activity in callus cells and incubation period one week only for total phenols in cell suspension. The two exposure times 2 and 4 h increased antioxidant activity in the two types of cultures. Exposure time 2 h led to increase caffeic acid and total phenols in callus cells. The maximum increase in caffeic acid, total phenols and PAL activity in cell suspension was achieved by 4 h exposure time. Likewise, using 2 UV-B lamps for 2 h was the most effective in creating more biochemical components than the other treatments.

  5. Enhanced extracellular production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera suspension cultured cells by using cyclodextrins and coronatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Lorena; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Bru, Roque; Pedreño, María A

    2015-12-01

    In the present work the effect of cyclodextrin and coronatine on both trans-resveratrol production and the expression of stilbene biosynthetic genes in Vitis vinifera L. cv Monastrell suspension cultured cells were evaluated. The results showed the maximum level of trans-resveratrol produced by cells and secreted to the culture medium with 50 mM cyclodextrins and 1 μM coronatine. Since the levels of trans-resveratrol produced in the combined treatment were higher than the sum of the individual treatments, a synergistic effect between both elicitors was assumed. In addition, all the analysed genes were induced by cyclodextrins and/or coronatine. The expression of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase and stilbene synthase genes was greatly enhanced by coronatine although an increase in the amount of trans-resveratrol in the spent medium was not detected. Therefore, despite the fact that trans-resveratrol production is related with the expression of genes involved in the biosynthetic process, other factors may be involved, such as post-transcriptional and post-traductional regulation. The expression maximal levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase genes were found with cyclodextrins alone or in combination with coronatine suggesting that the activity of these enzymes could be not only important for the formation of intermediates of trans-R biosynthesis but also for those intermediates involved in the biosynthesis of lignins and/or flavonoids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction between abscisic acid and nitric oxide in PB90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Chen, Zunwei; Lu, Li; Jin, Haihong; Sun, Lina; Yu, Qin; Xu, Hongke; Yang, Fengxia; Fu, Mengna; Li, Shengchao; Wang, Huizhong; Xu, Maojun

    2013-01-01

    Elicitations are considered to be an important strategy to improve production of secondary metabolites of plant cell cultures. However, mechanisms responsible for the elicitor-induced production of secondary metabolites of plant cells have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we report that treatment of Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures with PB90, a protein elicitor from Phytophthora boehmeriae, induced rapid increases of abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO), subsequently followed by the enhancement of catharanthine production and up-regulation of Str and Tdc, two important genes in catharanthine biosynthesis. PB90-induced catharanthine production and the gene expression were suppressed by the ABA inhibitor and NO scavenger respectively, showing that ABA and NO are essential for the elicitor-induced catharanthine biosynthesis. The relationship between ABA and NO in mediating catharanthine biosynthesis was further investigated. Treatment of the cells with ABA triggered NO accumulation and induced catharanthine production and up-regulation of Str and Tdc. ABA-induced catharanthine production and gene expressions were suppressed by the NO scavenger. Conversely, exogenous application of NO did not stimulate ABA generation and treatment with ABA inhibitor did not suppress NO-induced catharanthine production and gene expressions. Together, the results showed that both NO and ABA were involved in PB90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of C. roseus cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that ABA acted upstream of NO in the signaling cascade leading to PB90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of C. roseus cells. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Comportamento de baixas doses de herbicidas na cultura da soja (Glycine max (L. Merril: I - efeitos sobre o controle das plantas daninhas e parâmetros de produção da cultura Behavior of low-rates of herbicides in the soybean (Glycine max (L . Merril crop: I - effects on weed control and crop yield parameters

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    J. C. Durigan

    1983-06-01

    rate, 25% an d 50% reduction of full rate of trifluralin, alachlor and metribuzin alone and in mixtures. There - commended rates were 8, 06 ; 1, 72 and 0,28 kg/h a of trifluralin, alachlor and metribuzin, respectivelly. Mixtures with reduced rates of trigluralin metribuzin (0,6 5 + 0,21 kg/ha and alachlor + metribuzin (1,44 - 0,21 kg/ha presented control rate higher than 90% up to 60th day after sowing without any phytotoxicity and deleterious effects on no dulation. Weed control achieved by 25% r eduction in herbicide rates was equivalent to hoeing and afforded similar levels of protein , et her -extract and ash content, weigh of 100 grains, number of grains per pod, plant heigh and height of inferior pod insertion. The highest soybean yield, achieved wi th full rates of the mixtures were statistically similar to yields provided with 25% reduction of the recommended rates of same herbicides. Therefore, in accordance to economic and ecologic conveniencies, it is suggested that the actual rate should be reduced 25%, under the conditions of this trial.

  8. Comportamento de baixas doses de herbicidas na cultura da soja (Glycine max (L. Merril. I I-Efeitos sobre o controle das plantas daninhas, desenvolvimento e absorção de nutrientes pela cultura Behavior of low-rates of herbicides, in the soybean (Glycine max (L . Merril Crop. II - Effects on the weed control, development and nutrients uptake by the crop

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    J.C. Durigan

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a possibilidade de redução nas doses recomendadas de herbicidas, isolados ou em misturas, sem afetar algumas características das plantas de soja (Santa Rosa, tais como o acúmulo total de matéria secada parte aérea (caule + ramos, folhas e vagens, índice de Area Foliar (IAF e teores de macro e micronutrientes (Diagnose Foliar e nos grãos. O experimento foi ins talado em Solo Latos - sol Vermelho Escuro - fase arenosa, município de Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em vinte tratamentos e três repetições, te stando-se a dose total recomendad a e reduções de 25% e 50% de la , para o trifluralin, alachlor e metribuzin, isolados e em misturas. As doses recomendadas foram 0,86; 1,72 e 0,28 kg/ha de trifluralin, alachlor e metribuzin, respectivamente. As 'misturas com doses reduzidas, de tri - fluralin + metribuzin (0 ,6 5 + 0, 21 kg/h a e alachlor + metribuzin (1 ,4 4 + 0, 21 kg /h a, apresentaram controle geral das plantas daninhas acima de 90% at é o 60 .° dia após a semeadura, sem apresentar fitotoxicida de ou efeitos deletérios nas plantas de soja. Além disso apresenta ram os melhores resultados relativos ao acúmulo de matéria seca na parte aérea, juntamente com as mesmas misturas nas doses padrões e testemunha capinada. A absorção de nutrientes também sempre foi maior nestes tratamentos , com maiores teores nas folhas, na matéria seca geral e nos grãos. O IAF alto e a sua manutenção por um período maior, nestes tratamentos, podem ter tido influência decisiva, com maior eficiência fotossintética das plantas.The feasibility of reducing the recommended herbicide rate, single or in mixtur