WorldWideScience

Sample records for suspension system design

  1. Control system design of active seat suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, I.

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to the control system design of seat suspension systems for the active vibration attenuation. The paper presents the studies of the active vibration control strategy based on the reverse dynamics of force actuator and the primary controller. The multi-criteria optimization procedure is utilized in order to calculate the primary controller settings which subsequently define the vibro-isolation characteristics of active suspensions. As an example of the proposed control system design, the seat with a pneumatic suspension is investigated and its vibro-isolation properties are shaped by an appropriate selection of the controller settings.

  2. DESIGN AND CONTROL OF FULL VEHICLE SUSPENSION SYSTEM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramë Likaj; Ahmet Shala

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and control of vehicle suspension system for a full vehicle model with the aim to improve the ride comfort and to guarantee permanent contact between road and wheel...

  3. Design and analysis of an intelligent controller for active geometry suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Avesta; Oloomi, Ehsan; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-02-01

    An active geometry suspension (AGS) system is a device to optimise suspension-related factors such as toe angle and roll centre height by controlling vehicle's suspension geometry. The suspension geometry could be changed through control of suspension mounting point's position. In this paper, analysis and control of an AGS system is addressed. First, the effects of suspension geometry change on roll centre height and toe angle are studied. Then, based on an analytical approach, the improvement of the vehicle's stability and handling due to the control of suspension geometry is investigated. In the next section, an eight-degree-of-freedom handling model of a sport utility vehicle equipped with an AGS system is introduced. Finally, a self-tuning proportional-integral controller has been designed, using the fuzzy control theory, to control the actuator that changes the geometry of the suspension system. The simulation results show that an AGS system can improve the handling and stability of the vehicle.

  4. Design and test of a novel magnetic lead screw for active suspension system in a vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore the Magnetic Lead Screw is introduced and its benefits when used with an active suspension system are discussed. Based on a model of a quarter car, the design specifications for the MLS active suspension system are found, which leads to a design study. The design study investigates the relation...

  5. Digital Control Analysis and Design of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hsing Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic suspension systems are mechatronic systems and crucial in several engineering applications, such as the levitation of high-speed trains, frictionless bearings, and wind tunnels. Magnetic suspension systems are nonlinear and unstable systems; therefore, they are suitable educational benchmarks for testing various modeling and control methods. This paper presents the digital modeling and control of magnetic suspension systems. First, the magnetic suspension system is stabilized using a digital proportional-derivative controller. Subsequently, the digital model is identified using recursive algorithms. Finally, a digital mixed linear quadratic regulator (LQR/H∞ control is adopted to stabilize the magnetic suspension system robustly. Simulation examples and a real-world example are provided to demonstrate the practicality of the study results. In this study, a digital magnetic suspension system model was developed and reviewed. In addition, equivalent state and output feedback controls for magnetic suspension systems were developed. Using this method, the controller design for magnetic suspension systems was simplified, which is the novel contribution of this study. In addition, this paper proposes a complete digital controller design procedure for magnetic suspension systems.

  6. Digital control analysis and design of a field-sensed magnetic suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jen-Hsing; Chiou, Juing-Shian

    2015-03-13

    Magnetic suspension systems are mechatronic systems and crucial in several engineering applications, such as the levitation of high-speed trains, frictionless bearings, and wind tunnels. Magnetic suspension systems are nonlinear and unstable systems; therefore, they are suitable educational benchmarks for testing various modeling and control methods. This paper presents the digital modeling and control of magnetic suspension systems. First, the magnetic suspension system is stabilized using a digital proportional-derivative controller. Subsequently, the digital model is identified using recursive algorithms. Finally, a digital mixed linear quadratic regulator (LQR)/H∞ control is adopted to stabilize the magnetic suspension system robustly. Simulation examples and a real-world example are provided to demonstrate the practicality of the study results. In this study, a digital magnetic suspension system model was developed and reviewed. In addition, equivalent state and output feedback controls for magnetic suspension systems were developed. Using this method, the controller design for magnetic suspension systems was simplified, which is the novel contribution of this study. In addition, this paper proposes a complete digital controller design procedure for magnetic suspension systems.

  7. Optical position measurement for a large gap magnetic suspension system: Design and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Sharon S.; Clemmons, James I., Jr.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Duncan, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    An optical measurement system (OMS) has been designed and tested for a large gap magnetic suspension system (LGMSS). The LGMSS will be used to study control laws for magnetic suspension systems for vibration isolation and pointing applications. The LGMSS features six degrees of freedom and consists of a planar array of electromagnets that levitate and position a cylindrical element containing a permanent magnet core. The OMS provides information on the location and orientation of the element to the LGMSS control system to stabilize suspension. The hardware design of this optical sensing system and the tracking algorithms are presented. The results of analyses and experiments are presented that define the accuracy limits of the optical sensing system and that quantify the errors in position estimation.

  8. DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF MAGNETIC BEARING SUSPENSION SYSTEM IN A THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman GÜRDAL

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The current popularity of suspension and levitation stems no doubt the possibilities in high-speed ground transportation schemes. Although these are both challenging and exciting, there is considerable scope for application of suspension techniques to achieving frictionless bearing. The requirement in this case is often for close tolerances, low power consumption, small airgaps and ingeneral, compactness. Thus, magnetic suspension using DC electromagnets schemes have received more attention than the other techniques of repulsion levitation. Proposed prototype system consists of a conventional stator and its rotor without iron core, set of electromagnets for suspension of rotor shaft and set of compensation circuits feedbacked by optical-transducers. Prototyped system is aimed as a laboratory demonstration tool so there is no challenging to exceed the speeds of 1500 rev/min that is the speed of motor with mechanical bearings. Magnetic bearing suspension system provides a high impact visual demonstration of many principles in undergraduate educational programs in electrical education, e.g., electromagnetic design, PD controlled compensation of a unstable control system and power amplifier design. The system is capable of giving a good comparison between mechanical and magnetic bearing up to speeds 350 rev/min. Power losses without load show about 15% reduction with magnetic bearing. The noise of the motor is also decreased to a low level.

  9. Multiobjective Robust Design of the Double Wishbone Suspension System Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuqun

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design parameters of the robust optimization are the positions of the key points, and the random factors are the uncertainties in manufacturing. A simplified model of the double wishbone suspension is established by software ADAMS. The sensitivity analysis is utilized to determine main design variables. Then, the simulation experiment is arranged and the Latin hypercube design is adopted to find the initial points. The Kriging model is employed for fitting the mean and variance of the quality characteristics according to the simulation results. Further, a particle swarm optimization method based on simple PSO is applied and the tradeoff between the mean and deviation of performance is made to solve the robust optimization problem of the double wishbone suspension system. PMID:24683334

  10. Decoupling Control Design for the Module Suspension Control System in Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An engineering oriented decoupling control method for the module suspension system is proposed to solve the coupling issues of the two levitation units of the module in magnetic levitation (maglev train. According to the format of the system transfer matrix, a modified adjoint transfer matrix based decoupler is designed. Then, a compensated controller is obtained in the light of a desired close loop system performance. Optimization between the performance index and robustness index is also carried out to determine the controller parameters. However, due to the high orders and complexity of the obtained resultant controller, model reduction method is adopted to get a simplified controller with PID structure. Considering the modeling errors of the module suspension system as the uncertainties, experiments have been performed to obtain the weighting function of the system uncertainties. By using this, the robust stability of the decoupled module suspension control system is checked. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed decoupling design method is validated by simulations and physical experiments. The results illustrate that the presented decoupling design can result in a satisfactory decoupling and better dynamic performance, especially promoting the reliability of the suspension control system in practical engineering application.

  11. The Design and Simulation of the Modular Vehicle Air Suspension Height Control System Based on ECAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peigang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on ECAS, this paper intended to develop a modular air suspension height control system with WABCO4728800010 two-position three way solenoid valves and Free scale MC9S12D64 microprocessor as its core components. And a simulation test was conducted in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The air suspension height control strategy of this system was divided into four modules: start control module, dynamic adjustment module, manual adjustment module and errors adjustment module, which were controlled by module select switch. Simulation tests indicated that the air suspension height control strategy is featured by its logical control accuracy and debug convenience, and the modular design greatly reduced the system complexity and software development cycle and costs as well.

  12. Design a PID Controller for Suspension System by Back Propagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heidari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a neural network for designing of a PID controller for suspension system. The suspension system, designed as a quarter model, is used to simplify the problem to one-dimensional spring-damper system. In this paper, back propagation neural network (BPN has been used for determining the gain parameters of a PID controller for suspension system of automotive. The BPN method is found to be the most accurate and quick. The best results were obtained by the BPN by Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm training with 10 neurons in the one hidden layer. Training was continued until the mean squared error is less than . Desired error value was achieved in the BPN, and the BPN was tested with both data used and not used for training. By training of this network, it is possible to estimate the gain parameters of PID controller at any condition. The inputs of network are automotive velocity, overshoot percentage, settling time, and steady state error of suspension system response. Also outputs of the net are the gain parameters of PID controller. Resultant low relative error value of the ANN model indicates the usability of the BPN in this area.

  13. 49 CFR 238.427 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.427 Section 238.427... Equipment § 238.427 Suspension system. (a) General requirements. (1) Suspension systems shall be designed to... equipment. (2) Passenger equipment shall meet the safety performance standards for suspension systems...

  14. Kinematic design of double-wishbone suspension systems using a multiobjective optimisation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancibrian, Ramon; Garcia, Pablo; Viadero, Fernando; Fernandez, Alfonso; De-Juan, Ana

    2010-07-01

    This paper is focused on the kinematic design of double-wishbone suspension systems in vehicles, which is tackled using a multiobjective dimensional synthesis technique. The synthesis goal is to optimise an RSSR-SS linkage, subject to some constraints involved in the dynamic behaviour of vehicles. The synthesis method is based on gradient determination using exact differentiation to obtain the elements in the Jacobian matrix. These characteristics make the method adapt well to the optimum design of vehicle suspension systems. The method is capable of handling equality and inequality constraints, thus, the usual ranges of values may be imposed on the functional parameters. The formulation presented is easy to implement and the solutions obtained demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the method.

  15. Design of a New Integrated Structure of the Active Suspension System and Emergency Lane Change Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-bo; Liu, Hai-mei; Zhang, Lan-chun; Bei, Shao-yi

    2017-09-01

    An integrated structure of the active suspension system was proposed in order to solve the problem of the individual control of the height of the body or the adjustable damping of the active suspension system of the electric vehicle, which improve the vibration reduction performance of the vehicle. The air bag was used to replace the traditional spiral spring, and the traditional shock absorber was replaced by the damping adjustable shock absorber, and the control module received the body acceleration sensor and the horizontal height sensor signal. The system controlled adjustable damping coefficient of shock absorber through the height of the car body the output of the air pump relay and the height control valve and the output of the electromagnetic valve of the adjustable damping shock absorber, and the emergency lane change test was carried out under different modes of speed of 60km/h. The experimental results indicated that the damping value was greater, average roll angle, yaw angle and average vehicle lateral acceleration were small when vehicle body was in the state of emergency lane change, which verified the feasibility of the integrated control strategy and structure design of the active suspension system. The research has important theoretical research value and engineering application prospect for designing and controlling strategy of vehicle chassis integrated control system.

  16. Optimized design of suspension systems for hand-arm transmitted vibration reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a systematic approach for optimizing suspension systems to reduce the vibrations transmitted to workers by hand-held power tools. The optimization is based on modeling tool-operator interactions using a mobility scheme. The tool is modeled as a vibration generator, and its internal impedance is included. A hand-arm impedance matrix is used to model the operator upper limbs. The mobility model is used to identify the optimal suspension characteristics, which in our study were the set of parameters that minimizes the frequency-weighted acceleration at the hand-tool interface. Different handling conditions (one and two hands) and different working cycles with the same tools can be included in the optimization process. The constraints derived from the limitation on the increase in the tool mass and the static deflection of the mounting system under the working loads are also considered. The proposed method has been applied to the reduction of the vibrations transmitted to the operator by a small pneumatic hammer. The designed system reduced the worker's exposure so that it is within the limits of the EU directive. The agreement between the model predictions and the measured suspension performances validates the effectiveness of this approach.

  17. Optimization of Automotive Suspension System by Design of Experiments: A Nonderivative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban C. Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of health issues like low back pain, digestive disorders, and musculoskeletal disorders are caused as a result of the whole body vibrations induced by automobiles. This paper is concerned with the enhancement and optimization of suspension performance by using factorial methods of Design of Experiments, a nonderivative method. It focuses on the optimization of ride comfort and determining the parameters which affect the suspension behavior significantly as per the guidelines stated in ISO 2631-1:1997 standards. A quarter car test rig integrated with a LabVIEW based data acquisition system was developed to understand the real time behavior of a vehicle. In the pilot experiment, only three primary suspension parameters, that is, spring-stiffness, damping, and sprung mass, were considered and the full factorial method was implemented for the purpose of optimization. But the regression analysis of the data obtained rendered a very low goodness of fit which indicated that other parameters are likely to influence the response. Subsequently, steering geometry angles, camber and toe and tire pressure, were included in the design. Fractional factorial method with six factors was implemented to optimize ride comfort. The resultant optimum combination was then verified on the test rig with high correlation.

  18. What is fluidity? Designing an experimental system to probe stress and velocity fluctuations in flowing suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Workamp, Marcel; Alaie, Sepideh; Dijksman, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    We develop a method to investigate the microscopic origin of granular fluidity. We design a Couette cell in which we can probe the flow of soft hydrogel suspensions. As we drive the suspension with a rheometer, we have access to global flow characteristics. In addition, the Couette cell has been

  19. Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.

  20. Robust fixed-order dynamic output feedback controller design for nonlinear uncertain suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Pouya; Amini, Amir; Sojoodi, Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with designing a robust fixed-order non-fragile dynamic output feedback controller for active suspension system of a quarter-car, by means of convex optimization and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Our purpose is to design a low-order controller that keeps the desired design specifications besides the simplicity of the implementation. The proposed controller is capable of asymptotically stabilizing the closed-loop system and developing H∞ control, despite model uncertainties and nonlinear dynamics of the quarter-car as well as the norm bounded perturbations of controller parameters. Furthermore, controller parameters are prevented from taking very large and undesirable amounts through appropriate LMI constraints. Finally, a numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing it with similar works.

  1. Physics-based Modeling Techniques for Analysis and Design of Advanced Suspension Systems with Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Farjoud, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    This research undertakes the problem of vibration control of vehicular and structural systems using intelligent materials and controllable devices. Advanced modeling tools validated with experimental test data are developed to help with understanding the fundamentals as well as advanced and novel applications of smart and conventional suspension systems. The project can be divided into two major parts. The first part is focused on development of novel smart suspensions using Magneto-Rheolo...

  2. Multi-objective design of vehicle suspension systems via a local diffusion genetic algorithm for disjoint Pareto frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Mohamed F.; Nassef, Ashraf O.; Hamza, Karim

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a multi-objective design optimization study of a vehicle suspension system with passive variable stiffness and active damping. Design of suspension systems is particularly challenging when the effective mass of the vehicle is subject to considerable variation during service. Perfectly maintaining the suspension performance under the variable load typically requires a controlled actuator to emulate variable stiffness. This is typically done through a hydraulic or pneumatic system, which can be too costly for small/medium pick-up trucks. The system in this article employs two springs with an offset to the second spring so that it engages during large deformation only, thereby providing passive variable stiffness without expensive hydraulics. The system damping is assumed to be controlled via variable viscosity magnetizable fluid, which can be implemented in a compact, low-power set-up. Performance indices from the literature are evaluated at minimum and maximum weight, and regarded as objectives in a multi-objective problem. As the individual objectives are prone to having local optima, the multi-objective problem is prone to having a disjointed Pareto-space. To deal with this issue, a modification is proposed to a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The algorithm performance is investigated via analytical test functions as well as the design case of the suspension system.

  3. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Rotary Magnetorheological Damper for Unmanned Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Han, Changwan; Ahn, Dongsu; Lee, Jin Kyoo; Park, Sang-Hu; Park, Seonghun

    2013-01-01

    We designed and validated a rotary magnetorheological (MR) damper with a specified damping torque capacity, an unsaturated magnetic flux density (MFD), and a high magnetic field intensity (MFI) for unmanned vehicle suspension systems. In this study, for the rotary type MR damper to have these satisfactory performances, the roles of the sealing location and the cover case curvature of the MR damper were investigated by using the detailed 3D finite element model to reflect asymmetrical shapes and sealing components. The current study also optimized the damper cover case curvature based on the MFD, the MFI, and the weight of the MR damper components. The damping torques, which were computed using the characteristic equation of the MR fluid and the MFI of the MR damper, were 239.2, 436.95, and 576.78 N·m at currents of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 A, respectively, at a disk rotating speed of 10 RPM. These predicted damping torques satisfied the specified damping torque of 475 N·m at 1.5 A and showed errors of less than 5% when compared to experimental measurements from the MR damper manufactured by the proposed design. The current study could play an important role in improving the performance of rotary type MR dampers. PMID:23533366

  4. Design and performance evaluation of a rotary magnetorheological damper for unmanned vehicle suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Han, Changwan; Ahn, Dongsu; Lee, Jin Kyoo; Park, Sang-Hu; Park, Seonghun

    2013-01-01

    We designed and validated a rotary magnetorheological (MR) damper with a specified damping torque capacity, an unsaturated magnetic flux density (MFD), and a high magnetic field intensity (MFI) for unmanned vehicle suspension systems. In this study, for the rotary type MR damper to have these satisfactory performances, the roles of the sealing location and the cover case curvature of the MR damper were investigated by using the detailed 3D finite element model to reflect asymmetrical shapes and sealing components. The current study also optimized the damper cover case curvature based on the MFD, the MFI, and the weight of the MR damper components. The damping torques, which were computed using the characteristic equation of the MR fluid and the MFI of the MR damper, were 239.2, 436.95, and 576.78 N·m at currents of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 A, respectively, at a disk rotating speed of 10 RPM. These predicted damping torques satisfied the specified damping torque of 475 N·m at 1.5 A and showed errors of less than 5% when compared to experimental measurements from the MR damper manufactured by the proposed design. The current study could play an important role in improving the performance of rotary type MR dampers.

  5. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Rotary Magnetorheological Damper for Unmanned Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed and validated a rotary magnetorheological (MR damper with a specified damping torque capacity, an unsaturated magnetic flux density (MFD, and a high magnetic field intensity (MFI for unmanned vehicle suspension systems. In this study, for the rotary type MR damper to have these satisfactory performances, the roles of the sealing location and the cover case curvature of the MR damper were investigated by using the detailed 3D finite element model to reflect asymmetrical shapes and sealing components. The current study also optimized the damper cover case curvature based on the MFD, the MFI, and the weight of the MR damper components. The damping torques, which were computed using the characteristic equation of the MR fluid and the MFI of the MR damper, were 239.2, 436.95, and 576.78 N·m at currents of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 A, respectively, at a disk rotating speed of 10 RPM. These predicted damping torques satisfied the specified damping torque of 475 N·m at 1.5 A and showed errors of less than 5% when compared to experimental measurements from the MR damper manufactured by the proposed design. The current study could play an important role in improving the performance of rotary type MR dampers.

  6. The road disturbance attenuation for quarter car active suspension system via a new static two-degree-of-freedom design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Altun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to attenuate the effects of the road disturbance on the quarter-car active suspension system (ASS for the passenger comfort by using design. Therefore, a new static disturbance compensator is proposed by using linear matrix inequality method such that the disturbance compensator and feedback controller are simultaneously designed for the disturbances in the linear time-invariant systems, which are measurable or predictable. They have static structure, and the disturbance compensator is designed on the feedforward path. The design is applied against the road disturbance affecting the quarter car ASS. The effectiveness of the design is demonstrated with the simulations.

  7. Preliminary investigations of design philosophies and features applicable to large magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, C. P.; Fortescue, P. W.; Allcock, G. A.; Goodyer, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The technology which is required to allow the principles of magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBS) to be applied to the high Reynolds number transonic testing of aircraft models is examined. A test facility is presented as comprising a pressurized transonic cryogenic wind tunnel, with the MSBS providing full six degree of freedom control. The electro-magnets which are superconducting and fed from quiet, bipolar power supplies are examined. A model control system having some self adaptive characteristics is discussed.

  8. Design and development of a MLS based compact active suspension system, featuring air spring and energy harvesting capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of an novel Magnetic Lead Screw based active suspension system for passenger vehicles, using a new MLS topology. The design is based on performance specifications found from ISO road profiles, with a maximum harvested energy approach. By integrating...... the PMSM motor with the MLS, it possible to construct a very compact design with an integrated air spring. The prototype is build and frictional losses and efficiency for the MLS damper unit are measured. Additional the stall force and stall torque are measured for the build prototype to validate...

  9. Design of Immune-Algorithm-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Controllers for Active Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shieh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to integrate the artificial immune systems and adaptive fuzzy control for the automobile suspension system, which is regarded as a multiobjective optimization problem. Moreover, the fuzzy control rules and membership controls are then introduced for identification and memorization. It leads fast convergence in the search process. Afterwards, by using the diversity of the antibody group, trapping into local optimum can be avoided, and the system possesses a global search capacity and a faster local search for finding a global optimal solution. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system with the recognition and memory functions allows the system to rapidly converge and search for the global optimal approximate solutions.

  10. Editors' perspectives: road vehicle suspension design, dynamics, and control

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Song, Xubin; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the latest advances in road vehicle suspension design, dynamics, and control, together with the authors' perspectives, in the context of vehicle ride, handling, and stability. The general aspects of road vehicle suspension dynamics and design are discussed, followed by descriptions of road-roughness excitations with a particular emphasis on road potholes. Passive suspension system designs and their effects on road vehicle dynamics and stability are presented...

  11. Vibration isolation analysis of new design OEM damper for malaysia vehicle suspension system featuring MR fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuh, M. H.; Muhamad, P.; Norfazrina, H. M. Y.; Ismail, M. A.; Tanasta, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The applications of semi-active damper employing magnetorheological (MR) fluids keep increasing in fulfilling the demand to control undesired vibration effect. The aim of this study is to introduce the new design of damper for Malaysian vehicle model as well to evaluate its effectiveness in promoting comfort. The vibration isolation performance of the OEM damper featuring MR fluid was analysed physically under real road profile excitation experimentally. An experiment using quarter car rig suspension and LMS SCADAS Mobile was conducted to demonstrate the influence of current in controlling the characteristics of MR fluid in alter the damping behaviour under 5 cm bump impact. Subsequently, the displacement values were measured with respect to time. The new design OEM damper featuring MR fluid was validated by comparing the data with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) passive damper results under the same approach of testing. Comparison of numerical data of the new design OEM damper shown that it can reduce the excitation amplitude up to 40% compared to those obtained by OEM passive damper. Finally, the new design OEM damper featuring MR fluid has effectively isolated the disturbance from the road profile and control the output force.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  13. Articulated suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention provides a rough terrain vehicle which maintains a substantially constant weight, and therefore traction, on all wheels, despite one wheel moving considerably higher or lower than the others, while avoiding a very soft spring suspension. The vehicle includes a chassis or body to be supported and a pair of side suspensions at either side of the body. In a six wheel vehicle, each side suspension includes a middle wheel, and front and rear linkages respectively coupling the front and rear wheels to the middle wheel. A body link pivotally connects the front and rear linkages together, with the middle of the body link rising or falling by only a fraction of the rise or fall of any of the three wheels. The body link pivotally supports the middle of the length of the body. A transverse suspension for suspending the end of the body on the side suspensions includes a middle part pivotally connected to the body about a longitudinal axis and opposite ends each pivotally connected to one of the side suspensions along at least a longitudinal axis.

  14. Development of an Air Pneumatic Suspension System for Transtibial Prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Pirouzi, Gholamhossein; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Oshkour, Azim; Ali, Sadeeq; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Abas, Wan Wan

    2014-01-01

    The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS) for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning a...

  15. 3D modeling design and engineering analysis of automotive suspension beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Zhi Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automotive suspension is an important device for transmission and torque. The main parameters and dimensions of 40 tons of heavy duty truck spring suspension system are designed in the paper. According to the data, the 3D modeling and virtual assembly of the leaf spring suspension are carried out by using parametric design. Structural stress of spring suspension is analyzed which can provide a guide and basis for the design of the leaf spring suspension.

  16. Ride responses of macpherson suspension systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to obtain more correct vehicle ride responses by using a nonlinear ride model considering the effect of Macpherson suspension geometry. Traditional ride model applied to analysis and controller design uses a two degree of freedom linear model, which includes sprung mass and unsprung mass and a spring and a damper vertically connect them. In fact, suspension components do not vertically position above the tire. The motions of body and tire are not going straight up and down. Therefore, the analysis results obtained by the simple model are often different from the experimental values of the actual vehicle. Because of the difference between simple model and actual vehicle, the control strategy almost cannot apply to actual vehicle. In order to understand the effect of suspension geometry on the vehicle ride responses and design a more practical control strategy, a nonlinear model including the geometric parameters of the suspension is constructed in this study. To estimate the initial equilibrium position of the suspension assembly under load, the static equilibrium analysis and mechanism motion analysis are synchronous implemented at the same time. The nonlinear model describes not only the relative position and velocity but also the force transmission between body and tire. Furthermore, by linearize this nonlinear model the development of control strategy for subsequent (semi active suspension system could be expected.

  17. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.207 Suspension systems. (a) Axles. No axle positioning part shall be cracked, broken, loose or missing...

  18. Integration of uniform design and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to the robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system under different wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method, integrating the uniform design (UD) of experiments and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), to solve the problem of a robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system. Based on the new nonlinear creep model derived from combining Hertz contact theory, Kalker's linear theory and a heuristic nonlinear creep model, the modeling and dynamic analysis of a 24 degree-of-freedom railway vehicle system were investigated. The Lyapunov indirect method was used to examine the effects of suspension parameters, wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii on critical hunting speeds. Generally, the critical hunting speeds of a vehicle system resulting from worn wheels with different wheel rolling radii are lower than those of a vehicle system having original wheels without different wheel rolling radii. Because of worn wheels, the critical hunting speed of a running railway vehicle substantially declines over the long term. For safety reasons, it is necessary to design the suspension system parameters to increase the robustness of the system and decrease the sensitive of wheel noises. By applying UD and QPSO, the nominal-the-best signal-to-noise ratio of the system was increased from -48.17 to -34.05 dB. The rate of improvement was 29.31%. This study has demonstrated that the integration of UD and QPSO can successfully reveal the optimal solution of suspension parameters for solving the robust design problem of a railway vehicle suspension system.

  19. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut...

  20. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 570.8 Section 570.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Pounds or Less § 570.8 Suspension systems. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut or...

  1. Quadruple suspension design for Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, N A; Crooks, D R M; Elliffe, E; Faller, J E; Fritschel, P; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Heptonstall, A; Hough, J; Lück, H B; Mittleman, R; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Plissi, M V; Rowan, S; Shoemaker, D H; Sneddon, P H; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H; Willems, P

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the conceptual design for the suspension system for the test masses for Advanced LIGO, the planned upgrade to LIGO, the US laser interferometric gravitational-wave observatory. The design is based on the triple pendulum design developed for GEO 600 - the German/UK interferometric gravitational wave detector. The GEO design incorporates fused silica fibres of circular cross-section attached to the fused silica mirror (test mass) in the lowest pendulum stage, in order to minimize the thermal noise from the pendulum modes. The damping of the low-frequency modes of the triple pendulum is achieved by using co-located sensors and actuators at the highest mass of the triple pendulum. Another feature of the design is that global control forces acting on the mirrors, used to maintain the output of the interferometer on a dark fringe, are applied via a triple reaction pendulum, so that these forces can be implemented via a seismically isolated platform. These techniques have been extended to ...

  2. Evaluation of new suspension system for limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Hossein; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Ali, Sadeeq; Arifin, Nooranida; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar

    2014-01-10

    Good prosthetic suspension system secures the residual limb inside the prosthetic socket and enables easy donning and doffing. This study aimed to introduce, evaluate and compare a newly designed prosthetic suspension system (HOLO) with the current suspension systems (suction, pin/lock and magnetic systems). All the suspension systems were tested (tensile testing machine) in terms of the degree of the shear strength and the patient's comfort. Nine transtibial amputees participated in this study. The patients were asked to use four different suspension systems. Afterwards, each participant completed a questionnaire for each system to evaluate their comfort. Furthermore, the systems were compared in terms of the cost. The maximum tensile load that the new system could bear was 490 N (SD, 5.5) before the system failed. Pin/lock, magnetic and suction suspension systems could tolerate loads of 580 N (SD, 8.5), 350.9 (SD, 7) and 310 N (SD, 8.4), respectively. Our subjects were satisfied with the new hook and loop system, particularly in terms of easy donning and doffing. Furthermore, the new system is considerably cheaper (35 times) than the current locking systems in the market. The new suspension system could successfully retain the prosthesis on the residual limb as a good alternative for lower limb amputees. In addition, the new system addresses some problems of the existing systems and is more cost effective than its counterparts.

  3. Prilog optimalnom projektovanju aktivnog sistema za oslanjanje vozila / A contribution to optimal design of vehicle active suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Demić

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available U ovom radu prikazanje sistem za aktivno oslanjanje vozila, uz korišćenje ravanskog modela vozila, bez filtera u povratnim spregama sistema za regulaciju. Za optimizaciju parametara PI kontrolera korišćena je metoda stohastičke parametarske optimizacije. Cilj optimizacije bio je istovremeno minimiziranje vibracijskih ubrzanja oslonjene mase i standardnog odstupanja sila u kontaktima točkova i tla, što poboljšava udobnost i ponašanje vozila na putu. / In this paper, an active suspension system is developed by use of a vehicle plane model without feedback filters in control system. A method of stochastic parameters optimization has been utilized in order to optimize PI controller parameters. The basic optimization goal was a simultaneous minimization of sprung mass acceleration and standard deviation of forces in tire-to-ground contact area, so as to improve vehicle comfort and handling performances.

  4. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  5. 49 CFR 238.227 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.227 Section 238.227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.227 Suspension system. On or after November 8, 1999— (a) All passenger equipment shall...

  6. Nonlinear Model of the Passenger Car Seat Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Ján

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modelling of a passenger car seat suspension system. Currently, vehicle safety and ride comfort are one of the most important factors of vehicle design. This article analyses a mathematical model of the passenger car seat suspension system. Furthermore, experimental measurements of the passenger car seat suspension system are performed. Utilizing the experimental data, model parameters are identified. From the chosen mathematical model a simulation model in constructed in Matlab is designed. In this simulation, the force-velocity and force-displacement characteristics of the passenger car seat suspension system are described. Finally, evaluation of simulated damper characteristics with the characteristics form measured data are performed.

  7. Multidisciplinary design optimization of mechatronic vehicles with active suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuping; McPhee, John

    2005-05-01

    A multidisciplinary optimization method is applied to the design of mechatronic vehicles with active suspensions. The method is implemented in a GA-A'GEM-MATLAB simulation environment in such a way that the linear mechanical vehicle model is designed in a multibody dynamics software package, i.e. A'GEM, the controllers and estimators are constructed using linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method, and Kalman filter algorithm in Matlab, then the combined mechanical and control model is optimized simultaneously using a genetic algorithm (GA). The design variables include passive parameters and control parameters. In the numerical optimizations, both random and deterministic road inputs and both perfect measurement of full state variables and estimated limited state variables are considered. Optimization results show that the active suspension systems based on the multidisciplinary optimization method have better overall performance than those derived using conventional design methods with the LQG algorithm.

  8. Optimal Vibration Control for Tracked Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of optimal vibration control with exponential decay rate and simulation for vehicle active suspension systems is developed. Mechanical model and dynamic system for a class of tracked vehicle suspension vibration control is established and the corresponding system of state space form is described. In order to prolong the working life of suspension system and improve ride comfort, based on the active suspension vibration control devices and using optimal control approach, an optimal vibration controller with exponential decay rate is designed. Numerical simulations are carried out, and the control effects of the ordinary optimal controller and the proposed controller are compared. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  9. The Active Fractional Order Control for Maglev Suspension System

    OpenAIRE

    Peichang Yu; Jie Li; Jinhui Li

    2015-01-01

    Maglev suspension system is the core part of maglev train. In the practical application, the load uncertainties, inherent nonlinearity, and misalignment between sensors and actuators are the main issues that should be solved carefully. In order to design a suitable controller, the attention is paid to the fractional order controller. Firstly, the mathematical model of a single electromagnetic suspension unit is derived. Then, considering the limitation of the traditional PD controller adaptat...

  10. Design of electromagnetic shock absorbers for automotive suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Nicola; Festini, Andrea; Tonoli, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    Electromechanical dampers seem to be a valid alternative to conventional shock absorbers for automotive suspensions. They are based on linear or rotative electric motors. If they are of the DC-brushless type, the shock absorber can be devised by shunting its electric terminals with a resistive load. The damping force can be modified by acting on the added resistance. To supply the required damping force without exceeding in size and weight, a mechanical or hydraulic system that amplifies the speed is required. This paper illustrates the modelling and design of such electromechanical shock absorbers. This paper is devoted to describe an integrated design procedure of the electrical and mechanical parameters with the objective of optimising the device performance. The application to a C class front suspension car has shown promising results in terms of size, weight and performance.

  11. A magnetic suspension system for measuring liquid density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Centeno González

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Density is a derived quantity of mass and length; it is defined as mass per volume unit and its SI unit is kg/m3. National metrology institutes have been designing and building their own magnetic suspension systems during the last 5 decades for making fluid density measurements; this has allowed them to carry out research into liquids and gases’ physical characteristics. This paper was aimed at designing and developing a magnetic suspension system for a magnetic balance used in determining liquid density to be used in CENAM’s metrology density laboratories.

  12. Annular suspension and pointing system with controlled DC electromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Josephine Lynn; Tam, Kwok Hung

    1993-01-01

    The Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) developed by the Flight System division of Sperry Corporation is a six-degree of freedom payload pointing system designed for use with the space shuttle. This magnetic suspension and pointing system provides precise controlled pointing in six-degrees of freedom, isolation of payload-carrier disturbances, and end mount controlled pointing. Those are great advantages over the traditional mechanical joints for space applications. In this design, we first analyzed the assumed model of the single degree ASPS bearing actuator and obtained the plant dynamics equations. By linearizing the plant dynamics equations, we designed the cascade and feedback compensators such that a stable and satisfied result was obtained. The specified feedback compensator was computer simulated with the nonlinearized plant dynamics equations. The results indicated that an unstable output occurred. In other words, the designed feedback compensator failed. The failure of the design is due to the Taylor's series expansion not converging.

  13. Development of an air pneumatic suspension system for transtibial prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzi, Gholamhossein; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Oshkour, Azim Ataollahi; Ali, Sadeeq; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Abas, Wan A B Wan

    2014-09-09

    The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS) for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface were tested for the new APSS. More than 95% of the area between each prosthetic socket and liner was measured using a Tekscan F-Scan pressure measurement which has developed matrix-based pressure sensing systems. The variance in pressure around the stump was 8.76 kPa. APSS exhibits less pressure concentration around the stump, improved pressure distribution, easy donning and doffing, adjustability to remain fitted to the socket during daily activities, and more adaptability to the changes in stump volume. The volume changes were adjusted by utility of air pressure sensor. The vertical displacement point and reliability of suspension were assessed using a photographic method. The optimum pressure in every level of loading weight was 55 kPa, and the maximum displacement was 6 mm when 90 N of weight was loaded.

  14. Development of an Air Pneumatic Suspension System for Transtibial Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Pirouzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface were tested for the new APSS. More than 95% of the area between each prosthetic socket and liner was measured using a Tekscan F-Scan pressure measurement which has developed matrix-based pressure sensing systems. The variance in pressure around the stump was 8.76 kPa. APSS exhibits less pressure concentration around the stump, improved pressure distribution, easy donning and doffing, adjustability to remain fitted to the socket during daily activities, and more adaptability to the changes in stump volume. The volume changes were adjusted by utility of air pressure sensor. The vertical displacement point and reliability of suspension were assessed using a photographic method. The optimum pressure in every level of loading weight was 55 kPa, and the maximum displacement was 6 mm when 90 N of weight was loaded.

  15. Design of LQG Controller for Active Suspension without Considering Road Input Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the road conditions are completely unknown in the design of a suspension controller, an improved linear quadratic and Gaussian distributed (LQG controller is proposed for active suspension system without considering road input signals. The main purpose is to optimize the vehicle body acceleration, pitching angular acceleration, displacement of suspension system, and tire dynamic deflection comprehensively. Meanwhile, it will extend the applicability of the LQG controller. Firstly, the half-vehicle and road input mathematical models of an active suspension system are established, with the weight coefficients of each evaluating indicator optimized by using genetic algorithm (GA. Then, a simulation model is built in Matlab/Simulink environment. Finally, a comparison of simulation is conducted to illustrate that the proposed LQG controller can obtain the better comprehensive performance of vehicle suspension system and improve riding comfort and handling safety compared to the conventional one.

  16. PID controller design for trailer suspension based on linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushairi, S.; Omar, A. R.; Schmidt, R.; Isa, A. A. Mat; Hudha, K.; Azizan, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    A quarter of an active trailer suspension system having the characteristics of a double wishbone type was modeled as a complex multi-body dynamic system in MSC.ADAMS. Due to the complexity of the model, a linearized version is considered in this paper. A model reduction technique is applied to the linear model, resulting in a reduced-order model. Based on this simplified model, a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller was designed in MATLAB/Simulink environment; primarily to reduce excessive roll motions and thus improving the ride comfort. Simulation results show that the output signal closely imitates the input signal in multiple cases - demonstrating the effectiveness of the controller.

  17. The Stiffness Characteristics Study on an Interconnected Anti-Rolling Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Youshan; Song, Huixin; Ma, Ming; Xiao, Jie; Zhao, Ning

    The heavy-duty special vehicles easily roll during steering, anti-rolling technology becomes a critical technology to the heavy-duty vehicles. Aiming at the rolling problem of a full load heavy vehicle in the process of steering, an interconnected anti-rolling suspension system with adjustable damping was designed, the nonlinear stiffness mathematical model of interconnected anti-rolling suspension system was established. The stiffness characteristic was studied through digital simulation method, discussing the system parameter changes' affection on the stiffness performance of interconnected anti-rolling suspension system. The study results indicate that the interconnected anti-rolling suspension system betterly improves vehicles rolling resistance in contrast to the oil-gas mixed independent suspension, the study results provide theoretical basis for the anti-rolling's design of heavy-duty vehicles.

  18. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Takamori, A; Bertolini, A; Cella, G; DeSalvo, R; Fukushima, M; Iida, Y; Jacquier, F; Kawamura, S; Marka, S; Nishi, Y; Numata, K; Sannibale, V; Somiya, K; Takahashi, R; Tariq, H; Tsubono, K; Ugas, J; Viboud, N; Yamamoto, H; Yoda, T; Wang Chen Yang

    2002-01-01

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SU...

  19. Parametric test for the preliminary design of suspension bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, M. R. T.; Serafim, J. P. M.

    2017-06-01

    The preliminary design of suspension bridges is a very important step in the design of a structure, since this stage is the one that will lead to an efficient and economic structure. The models that are used nowadays are complex and sometimes hard to apply, leading to a lack of comprehension from the designing team. This work proposes a new simplified method for the preliminary design of cable suspension bridges that relate the stiffness of the deck truss with the stiffness of the cable, in which stresses are calculated. This relation is intended to know how much of the live load is absorbed by each of these elements and finally obtaining the pre-design values of each substructure. First simple parametric tests are executed using the proposed method and finite element method with geometrical non-linear analysis, in order to study its accuracy. Finally, a real case study is analysed using a known Portuguese suspension bridge, in which the proposed method is applied and compared with numerical solutions.

  20. Optimization of Casting Design Parameters on Fabrication of Reliable Semi-Solid Aluminum Suspension Control Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Kh. A.; Bouaicha, A.; Bouazara, M.

    2017-09-01

    The semi-solid casting process has the advantage of providing reliable mechanical aluminum parts that work continuously in dynamic as control arm of the suspension system in automotive vehicles. The quality performance of dynamic control arm is related to casting mold and gating system designs that affect the fluidity of semi-solid metal during filling the mold. Therefore, this study focuses on improvement in mechanical performance, depending on material characterization, and casting design optimization, of suspension control arms made of A357 aluminum semi-solid alloys. Mechanical and design analyses, applied on the suspension arm, showed the occurrence of mechanical failures at unexpected weak points. Metallurgical analysis showed that the main reason lies in the difficult flow of semi-solid paste through the thin thicknesses of a complex geometry. A design modification procedure is applied to the geometry of the suspension arm to avoid this problem and to improve its quality performance. The design modification of parts was carried out by using SolidWorks design software, evaluation of constraints with ABAQUS, and simulation of flow with ProCast software. The proposed designs showed that the modified suspension arm, without ribs and with a central canvas designed as Z, is considered as a perfect casting design showing an increase in the structural strength of the component. In this case, maximum von Mises stress is 199 MPa that is below the yield strength of the material. The modified casting mold design shows a high uniformity and minim turbulence of molten metal flow during semi-solid casting process.

  1. Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... This study describes the establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for use in proteomics studies. ... Key words: Sorghum, proteomics, callus, cell suspension cultures, total soluble protein, secretome. INTRODUCTION ..... system, are dynamic and heterogeneous, being com- posed of a ...

  2. Control system synthesis of seat suspensions used for protection of working machine operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Igor; Krzyzynski, Tomasz; Meyer, Lutz

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with a novel approach to the control system synthesis of semi-active and active seat suspensions. An original control strategy is discussed in order to increase the effectiveness of vibration isolators used for protection of working machines operators. As an example of the proposed control system design, the suspension systems with a magneto-rheological damper and a pneumatic spring are investigated using a laboratory experimental set-up with seated humans.

  3. The Active Fractional Order Control for Maglev Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peichang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maglev suspension system is the core part of maglev train. In the practical application, the load uncertainties, inherent nonlinearity, and misalignment between sensors and actuators are the main issues that should be solved carefully. In order to design a suitable controller, the attention is paid to the fractional order controller. Firstly, the mathematical model of a single electromagnetic suspension unit is derived. Then, considering the limitation of the traditional PD controller adaptation, the fractional order controller is developed to obtain more excellent suspension specifications and robust performance. In reality, the nonlinearity affects the structure and the precision of the model after linearization, which will degrade the dynamic performance. So, a fractional order controller is addressed to eliminate the disturbance by adjusting the parameters which are added by the fractional order controller. Furthermore, the controller based on LQR is employed to compare with the fractional order controller. Finally, the performance of them is discussed by simulation. The results illustrated the validity of the fractional order controller.

  4. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamori, Akiteru [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ando, Masaki [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Bertolini, Alessandro [Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Cella, Giancarlo [Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); DeSalvo, Riccardo [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fukushima, Mitsuhiro [National Astronomy Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588 (Japan); Iida, Yukiyoshi [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Jacquier, Florian [INSA de Lyon, Lyon (France); Kawamura, Seiji [National Astronomy Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588 (Japan); Marka, Szabolcs [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nishi, Yuhiko [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Numata, Kenji [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Sannibale, Virginio [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Somiya, Kentaro [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryutaro [National Astronomy Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588 (Japan); Tariq, Hareem [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Tsubono, Kimio [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Ugas, Jose [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Viboud, Nicolas [INSA de Lyon, Lyon (France); Yamamoto, Hiroaki [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Yoda, Tatsuo [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Wang Chenyang [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2002-04-07

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SUS is equipped with a totally passive magnetic damper to suppress internal resonances without degrading the thermal noise performance. In this paper we discuss the SUS details and present prototype results.

  5. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1995-03-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  6. Operational Modal Analysis and the Performance Assessment of Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Soria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfort, road holding and safety of passenger cars are mainly influenced by an appropriate design of suspension systems. Improvements of the dynamic behaviour can be achieved by implementing semi-active or active suspension systems. In these cases, the correct design of a well-performing suspension control strategy is of fundamental importance to obtain satisfying results. Operational Modal Analysis allows the experimental structural identification in those that are the real operating conditions: Moving from output-only data, leading to modal models linearised around the more interesting working points and, in the case of controlled systems, providing the needed information for the optimal design and verification of the controller performance. All these characters are needed for the experimental assessment of vehicle suspension systems. In the paper two suspension architectures are considered equipping the same car type. The former is a semi-active commercial system, the latter a novel prototypic active system. For the assessment of suspension performance, two different kinds of tests have been considered, proving ground tests on different road profiles and laboratory four poster rig tests. By OMA-processing the signals acquired in the different testing conditions and by comparing the results, it is shown how this tool can be effectively utilised to verify the operation and the performance of those systems, by only carrying out a simple, cost-effective road test.

  7. Microfluidic Fabrication Solutions for Tailor-Designed Fiber Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Berthet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibers are widely used in different industrial processes, for example in paper manufacturing or lost circulation problems in the oil industry. Recently, interest towards the use of fibers at the microscale has grown, driven by research in bio-medical applications or drug delivery systems. Microfluidic systems are not only directly relevant for lab-on-chip applications, but have also proven to be good model systems to tackle fundamental questions about the flow of fiber suspensions. It has therefore become necessary to provide fiber-like particles with an excellent control of their properties. We present here two complementary in situ methods to fabricate controlled micro-fibers allowing for an embedded fabrication and flow-on-a-chip platform. The first one, based on a photo-lithography principle, can be used to make isolated fibers and dilute fiber suspensions at specific locations of interest inside a microchannel. The self-assembly property of super-paramagnetic colloids is the principle of the second fabrication method, which enables the fabrication of concentrated suspensions of more flexible fibers. We propose a flow gallery with several examples of fiber flow illustrating the two methods’ capabilities and a range of recent laminar flow results.

  8. The Gravity Probe B electrostatic gyroscope suspension system (GSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, W. J.; Brumley, R. W.; Eglington, M. L.; Hipkins, D. N.; Holmes, T. J.; Parkinson, B. W.; Ohshima, Y.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    2015-11-01

    A spaceflight electrostatic suspension system was developed for the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) Relativity Mission’s cryogenic electrostatic vacuum gyroscopes which serve as an indicator of the local inertial frame about Earth. The Gyroscope Suspension System (GSS) regulates the translational position of the gyroscope rotors within their housings, while (1) minimizing classical electrostatic torques on the gyroscope to preserve the instrument’s sensitivity to effects of General Relativity, (2) handling the effects of external forces on the space vehicle, (3) providing a means of precisely aligning the spin axis of the gyroscopes after spin-up, and (4) acting as an accelerometer as part of the spacecraft’s drag-free control system. The flight design was tested using an innovative, precision gyroscope simulator Testbed that could faithfully mimic the behavior of a physical gyroscope under all operational conditions, from ground test to science data collection. Four GSS systems were built, tested, and operated successfully aboard the GP-B spacecraft from launch in 2004 to the end of the mission in 2008.

  9. Design and Performance Assessment of a Semi-Active Suspension Model of Tractor Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ahmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effect of transmitted vibrations to the tractor driver not only leads to driver health problems, but also reduces the driver working efficiency. Tractor suspension system is one of the methods which is employed to lower the level of transmitted vibrations to the driver. In this study the design and performance assessment of a semi-active suspension model of tractor cabin was considered. Tractor full vibration model was developed first, and subsequently a semi-active ON-OFF damper model was designed. The examination of the model indicated that doubling the piston area and the volume of hydraulic accumulator air chamber, led to 39% increase and 31% reduction of the resonance frequency of transmitted vibrations to the driver, respectively. On the other hand doubling the piston area and the primary air pressure of the accumulator, affected the RMS of transmitted vibration to the driver by 77 cm s-2 reduction and 66 cm s-2 increase, respectively. Moreover, the numerical comparison of the model outputs with and without activation of semi-active cabin suspension, while the model was stimulated with the same input function, led to 43% improvement in RMS acceleration of the transmitted vibrations to the tractor seat. Therefore, the designed semi-active suspension model of cabin was able to attenuate the level of transmitted vibrations to the tractor driver.

  10. Development of A New Automotive Active Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef Abdulhammed, Eng.; Eng. Hisham Elsherif, Dr, Prof.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective was to develop a smart new vehicle suspension system that minimizes the road irregularities impact on the driver, also to increase performance and stability of the vehicle at high speeds. The central idea is based on modifying the normal passive suspension system into a computer controller hydraulic actuated active suspension system simply by adding a new component such as a hydraulic cylinder on a normal passive system. The new suspension system is economical to be wildly used in consumer’s cars with low prices. The new added components was analytically tested and modeled according to different parameters. A new test rig was implemented to simulate a real quarter suspension system. The new suspension model was controlled by feedback controller according to the road conditions; the controller output controls the cylinder actuator to compensate the road oscillations and increases the vehicle stability for the passenger. Finally, to maximize the aerodynamics coefficients of the vehicle during high speeds by controlling the vehicle clearance level from the ground to achieve full stability, steering and fuel economy.

  11. A Study on Integration of Energy Harvesting System and Semi-Active Control for a Hydraulic Suspension System

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Sung, Yung-Ching; Liu, Han-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Suspension systems are used to diminish the vibration of vehicles. The hydraulic dampers in conventional suspension systems are mainly designed with the orifices of the piston; however, the vibration energy will be transferred into waste heat. In recent years, conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines and hybrid vehicles are used commonly. However, with the gradual depletion of fossil fuels, electric vehicles are developing. For this reason, the research focuses on recycling ener...

  12. Optimization of damping in the passive automotive suspension system with using two quarter-car models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozia, Z.; Zdanowicz, P.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the optimization of damping in the passive suspension system of a motor vehicle moving rectilinearly with a constant speed on a road with rough surface of random irregularities, described according to the ISO classification. Two quarter-car 2DoF models, linear and non-linear, were used; in the latter, nonlinearities of spring characteristics of the suspension system and pneumatic tyres, sliding friction in the suspension system, and wheel lift-off were taken into account. The smoothing properties of vehicle tyres were represented in both models. The calculations were carried out for three roads of different quality, with simulating four vehicle speeds. Statistical measures of vertical vehicle body vibrations and of changes in the vertical tyre/road contact force were used as the criteria of system optimization and model comparison. The design suspension displacement limit was also taken into account. The optimum suspension damping coefficient was determined and the impact of undesirable sliding friction in the suspension system on the calculation results was estimated. The results obtained make it possible to evaluate the impact of the structure and complexity of the model used on the results of the optimization.

  13. Formulation design of oral pediatric Acetazolamide suspension: dose uniformity and physico-chemical stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoveña, Ana; Suárez-González, Javier; Martín-Rodríguez, Cristina; Fariña, José B

    2017-03-01

    The formulation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as oral solution or suspension in pediatrics is a habitual practice, due to the non-existence of many commercialized medicines in pediatric doses. It is also the simplest way to prepare and administer them to this vulnerable population. The design of a formulation that assures the dose and the system stability depends on the physico-chemical properties of the API. In this study, we formulate a class IV API, Acetazolamide (AZM) as suspension for oral administration to pediatric population. The suspension must comply attributes of quality, safety and efficacy for this route of administration. We use simple compounding procedures, as well as fewer pure excipients, as recommended for children. Mass and uniformity content assays and physical and chemical stability studies were performed. To quantify the API an UPLC method was used. We verified the physico-chemical stability of the suspensions and that they passed the mass test of the European Pharmacopeia (EP), but not the dose uniformity test. This reveals that AZM must be formulated as liquid forms with a more complex system of excipients (not usually indicated in pediatrics), or otherwise solid forms capable of assuring uniformity of mass and dose for every dosage unit.

  14. Overview of Magnetic Levitation Systems with Emphasis on Electrodynamic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Najjar-Khodabakhsh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of magnetic levitation systems has made attention in transportation. Suspension is caused by two magnetic fields in the near distance and thus the repulsion and attraction induced between them. In Iran, different types of magnetic systems and their applications, especially in the transportation system were not considered deeply and the features and specifications of each of these systems is not discussed yet. In this article we want to review past research and studies on the applications and the characteristics of these systems to fully express and we do compare them with each other. We also offer the laboratory equipment for study the behavior of magnetic suspension systems with emphasis on electrodynamic suspension.

  15. A new pneumatic suspension system with independent stiffness and ride height tuning capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhihong; Khajepour, Amir; Cao, Dongpu; Ebrahimi, Babak; Guo, Konghui

    2012-12-01

    This paper introduces a new pneumatic spring for vehicle suspension systems, allowing independent tuning of stiffness and ride height according to different vehicle operating conditions and driver preferences. The proposed pneumatic spring comprises a double-acting pneumatic cylinder, two accumulators and a tuning subsystem. This paper presents a detailed description of the pneumatic spring and its working principle. The mathematical model is established based on principles of thermo and fluid dynamics. An experimental setup has been designed and fabricated for testing and evaluating the proposed pneumatic spring. The analytical and experimental results confirm the capability of the new pneumatic spring system for independent tuning of stiffness and ride height. The mathematical model is verified and the capabilities of the pneumatic spring are further proved. It is concluded that this new pneumatic spring provides a more flexible suspension design alternative for meeting various conflicting suspension requirements for ride comfort and performance.

  16. Robust finite-time tracking control for nonlinear suspension systems via disturbance compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Jing, Xingjian; Sun, Weichao

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the finite-time tracking control with external disturbance for active suspension systems. In order to compensate unknown disturbance efficiently, a disturbance compensator with finite-time convergence property is studied. By analyzing the discontinuous phenomenon of classical disturbance compensation techniques, this study presents a simple approach to construct a continuous compensator satisfying the finite-time disturbance rejection performance. According to the finite-time separation principle, the design procedures of the nominal controller for the suspension system without disturbance and the disturbance compensator can be implemented in a completely independent manner. Therefore, the overall control law for the closed-loop system is continuous, which offers some distinct advantages over the existing discontinuous ones. From the perspective of practical implementation, the continuous controller can avoid effectively the unexpected chattering in active suspension control. Comparative experimental results are presented and discussed to illustrate the advantage and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  17. Parallel Damping Injection for the Quarter Car Suspension System.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Jeltsema, Dimitri; Maulny, François

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study an application of Passivity-Based Control (PBC) to a quarter car suspension system. We use Passivity-Based Control in the Brayton-Moser framework (BM-PBC) that has recently been developed for control of switching and non-switching electrical circuits. Via the usual

  18. A forecast of new test capabilities using Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, Pierce L.; Johnson, William G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the potential of Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) technology to solve existing problems related to support interference in wind tunnels. Improvement of existing test techniques and exciting new techniques are envisioned as a result of applying MSBS. These include improved data accuracy, dynamic stability testing, two-body/stores release testing, and pilot/designer-in-the-loop tests. It also discusses the use of MSBS for testing exotic configurations such as hybrid hypersonic vehicles. A new facility concept that combines features of ballistic tubes, magnetic suspension, and cryogenic tunnels is described.

  19. Robust Vehicle Suspension System by Converting Active & Passive Control of a Vehicle to Semi-Active Control System Analytically

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassan Elahi; Dr. Riffat Asim Pasha; Dr. Asif Israr; Dr. M. Zubair Khan

    2014-01-01

    .... Passive Vehicle Suspension System is converted into Semi Active Vehicle System. Major advantage achieved by this system is that it adjusts the damping of the suspension system without the application of any actuator by using MATLAB® simulations...

  20. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXI, I--MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING REAR END SUSPENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM AND REAR AXLE SUSPENSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) AIR INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEM, (2) VALVE MECHANISM, (3) TROUBLESHOOTING THE AIR SYSTEM, (4) PURPOSE OF VEHICLE SUSPENSION, (5) TANDEM…

  1. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said

    2014-02-04

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  2. Car suspension system monitoring under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Kuznetsov, N. Y.; Lysenko, A. V.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes an advanced gyro-based measuring system comprising a CGV-4K central vertical gyro and a G-3M gyrocompass. The advanced system provides additional functions that help measure unsprung mass rotation angles about a vertical axis, rolling angles, trim angles and movements of the unsprung masses of the front (ap and al) and rear b axes when a car wheel hits a single obstruction. The paper also describes the operation of the system, which measures movements of unsprung masses about the body of a car when it hits a single obstruction. The paper presents the dependency diagrams ap = f(t) and al = f(t) for front and rear wheels respectively, as well as b = f(t) for a rear left wheel, which were determined experimentally. Test results for a car equipped with an advanced gyro-based measuring system moving around a circle can form a basis for developing a mathematical model of the process.

  3. Topological analysis for designing a suspension of the Hénon map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.mangiarotti@ird.fr [Centre d' Études Spatiales de la Biosphère, UPS-CNRS-CNES-IRD, Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, 18 avenue Édouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse (France); Letellier, Christophe [CORIA-UMR 6614 – Normandie Université, CNRS-Université et INSA de Rouen, Campus Universitaire du Madrillet, 76800 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2015-12-18

    A suspension of a map consists of the flow for which the Poincaré section is that map. Designing a suspension of a given map remains a non-trivial task in general. The case of suspending the Hénon map is here considered. Depending on the parameter values, the Hénon map is orientation preserving or reversing; it is here shown that while a tridimensional suspension can be obtained in the former case, a four-dimensional flow is required to suspend the latter. A topological characterization of the three-dimensional suspension proposed by Starrett and Nicholas for the orientation preserving area is performed. A template is proposed for the four-dimensional case, for which the governing equations remain to be obtained. - Highlights: • A suspension of a map is the flow for which the Poincaré section is that map. • Under orientation preserving conditions, the suspension for the Hénon map is 3D. • Under orientation reversing conditions, the suspension for the Hénon map is 4D. • Topological analysis of suspensions for the Hénon map are performed for both cases.

  4. Robust Vehicle Suspension System by Converting Active & Passive Control of a Vehicle to Semi-Active Control System Analytically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Elahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work a simplified translational model of an automotive suspension system is constructed by only considering the translation motion of one wheel of a car. Passive Vehicle Suspension System is converted into Semi Active Vehicle System. Major advantage achieved by this system is that it adjusts the damping of the suspension system without the application of any actuator by using MATLAB® simulations. The semi-active control is found to control the vibration of suspension system very well.

  5. Design of a tuned mass damper for high quality factor suspension modes in Advanced LIGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, N A; Fritschel, P; Shapiro, B; Torrie, C I; Evans, M

    2017-03-01

    We discuss the requirements, design, and performance of a tuned mass damper which we have developed to damp the highest frequency pendulum modes of the quadruple suspensions which support the test masses in the two advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The design has to meet the requirements on mass, size, and level of damping to avoid unduly compromising the suspension thermal noise performance and to allow retrofitting of the dampers to the suspensions with minimal changes to the existing suspensions. We have produced a design satisfying our requirements which can reduce the quality factor of these modes from ∼500 000 to less than 10 000, reducing the time taken for the modes to damp down from several hours to a few minutes or less.

  6. Force Measurements in Magnetic Suspension and Balance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Alexander; Shapovalov, George; Prohorov, Nikolay

    1996-01-01

    The description of an infrared telemetry system for measurement of drag forces in Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) is presented. This system includes a drag force sensor, electronic pack and transmitter placed in the model which is of special construction, and receiver with a microprocessor-based measuring device, placed outside of the test section. Piezosensitive resonators as sensitive elements and non-magnetic steel as the material for the force sensor are used. The main features of the proposed system for load measurements are discussed and the main characteristics are presented.

  7. A seesaw-lever force-balancing suspension design for space and terrestrial gravity-gradient sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, H; Pike, WT; Dou, G

    2016-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a seesaw-lever force-balancing suspension for a silicon gravity-gradient sensor, a gravity gradiometer, that is capable of operation over a range of gravity from 0 to 1?g. This allows for both air and space deployment after ground validation. An overall rationale for designing a microelectromechanical systems(MEMS) gravity gradiometer is developed, indicating that a gravity gradiometer based on a torsion-balance, rather than a differ...

  8. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  9. Stabilization of Electromagnetic Suspension System Behavior by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Najar Khoda Bakhsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic suspension system with a nonlinear and unstable behavior, is used in maglev trains. In this paper a linear mathematical model of system is achieved and the state feedback method is used to improve the system stability. The control coefficients are tuned by two different methods, Riccati and a new method based on Genetic algorithm. In this new proposed method, we use Genetic algorithm to achieve the optimum values of control coefficients. The results of the system simulation by Matlab indicate the effectiveness of new proposed system. When a new reference of air gap is needed or a new external force is added, the proposed system could omit the vibration and shake of the train coupe and so, passengers feel more comfortable.

  10. Gait biomechanics of individuals with transtibial amputation: effect of suspension system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Eshraghi

    Full Text Available Prosthetic suspension system is an important component of lower limb prostheses. Suspension efficiency can be best evaluated during one of the vital activities of daily living, i.e. walking. A new magnetic prosthetic suspension system has been developed, but its effects on gait biomechanics have not been studied. This study aimed to explore the effect of suspension type on kinetic and kinematic gait parameters during level walking with the new suspension system as well as two other commonly used systems (the Seal-In and pin/lock. Thirteen persons with transtibial amputation participated in this study. A Vicon motion system (six cameras, two force platforms was utilized to obtain gait kinetic and kinematic variables, as well as pistoning within the prosthetic socket. The gait deviation index was also calculated based on the kinematic data. The findings indicated significant difference in the pistoning values among the three suspension systems. The Seal-In system resulted in the least pistoning compared with the other two systems. Several kinetic and kinematic variables were also affected by the suspension type. The ground reaction force data showed that lower load was applied to the limb joints with the magnetic suspension system compared with the pin/lock suspension. The gait deviation index showed significant deviation from the normal with all the systems, but the systems did not differ significantly. Main significant effects of the suspension type were seen in the GRF (vertical and fore-aft, knee and ankle angles. The new magnetic suspension system showed comparable effects in the remaining kinetic and kinematic gait parameters to the other studied systems. This study may have implications on the selection of suspension systems for transtibial prostheses. Trial registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT2013061813706N1.

  11. Discrete-time sliding mode control for MR vehicle suspension system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J W; Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Wereley, N M [Smart Structures Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents control performance of a full-vehicle suspension system featuring magnetorheological (MR) dampers via a discrete-time sliding mode control algorithm (DSMC). A cylindrical MR damper is designed by incorporating Bingham model of the MR fluid and the field-dependent damping characteristics of the MR damper are evaluated. A full-vehicle suspension model installed with independent four MR dampers is constructed and the governing equations which include vertical, pitch and roll motion are derived. A discrete-time control model is established with considering system uncertainties and a discrete-time sliding mode controller which has inherent robustness to model uncertainty and external disturbance is formulated. Vibration control performances under bump excitation are evaluated and presented.

  12. Interactions between suspension characteristics and physicochemical properties of silver and copper oxide nanoparticles: a case study for optimizing nanoparticle stock suspensions using a central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jino; Vavra, Janna; Li, Yusong; Seymour, Megan; Forbes, Valery

    2015-04-01

    The preparation of a stable nanoparticle stock suspension is the first step in nanotoxicological studies, but how different preparation methods influence the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles in a solution, even in Milli-Q water, is often under-appreciated. In this study, a systematic approach using a central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the effects of sonication time and suspension concentration on the physicochemical properties (i.e. hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential and ion dissolution) of silver (Ag) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) and to identify optimal conditions for suspension preparation in Milli-Q water; defined as giving the smallest particle sizes, highest suspension stability and lowest ion dissolution. Indeed, all the physicochemical properties of AgNPs and CuONPs varied dramatically depending on how the stock suspensions were prepared and differed profoundly between nanoparticle types, indicating the importance of suspension preparation. Moreover, the physicochemical properties of AgNPs and CuONPs, at least in simple media (Milli-Q water), behaved in predictable ways as a function of sonication time and suspension concentration, confirming the validity of our models. Overall, the approach allows systematic assessment of the influence of various factors on key properties of nanoparticle suspensions, which will facilitate optimization of the preparation of nanoparticle stock suspensions and improve the reproducibility of nanotoxicological results. We recommend that further attention be given to details of stock suspension preparation before conducting nanotoxicological studies as these can have an important influence on the behavior and subsequent toxicity of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative study between double wish-bone and macpherson suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shoaib; Joshi, Yagvendra; Kumar, Ashutosh; Babu Vemuluri, Ramesh

    2017-11-01

    The present paper proposes comparative study between Double Wish-Bone and Macpherson Suspension system. The objective is achieved by using ANSYS simulation package. Dynamic and static loads are applied on the suspension systems. Various analysis such as Structural analysis with static as well as dynamic loading, Modal analysis and Transient analysis are carried out in order to study deflection, stress, frequency and strain of both the suspension systems and a thorough comparative study is accomplished.

  14. Stiffness Parameter Design of Suspension Element of Under-Chassis-Equipment for A Rail Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Menglin; Wang, Chengqiang; Deng, Hai

    2017-06-01

    According to the frequency configuration requirements of the vibration of railway under-chassis-equipment, the three- dimension stiffness of the suspension elements of under-chassis-equipment is designed based on the static principle and dynamics principle. The design results of the concrete engineering case show that, compared with the design method based on the static principle, the three- dimension stiffness of the suspension elements designed by the dynamic principle design method is more uniform. The frequency and decoupling degree analysis show that the calculation frequency of under-chassis-equipment under the two design methods is basically the same as the predetermined frequency. Compared with the design method based on the static principle, the design method based on the dynamic principle is adopted. The decoupling degree can be kept high, and the coupling vibration of the corresponding vibration mode can be reduced effectively, which can effectively reduce the fatigue damage of the key parts of the hanging element.

  15. Vibration Control of a Semiactive Vehicle Suspension System Based on Extended State Observer Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A feedback control method based on an extended state observer (ESO method is implemented to vibration reduction in a typical semiactive suspension (SAS system using a magnetorheological (MR damper as actuator. By considering the dynamic equations of the SAS system and the MR damper model, an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC is designed based on the ESO. Numerical simulation and real-time experiments are carried out with similar vibration disturbances. Both the simulation and experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in vibration suppression for a SAS system.

  16. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Calatayud, Sebastien Borreani, Juan C. Colado, Fernando F Martín, Michael E. Rogers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29 performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001. Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation.

  17. Identification of nonlinear systems using modified particle swarm optimisation: a hydraulic suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfi, Alireza; Fateh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a novel modified particle swarm optimisation (MPSO) algorithm to identify nonlinear systems. The case of study is a hydraulic suspension system with a complicated nonlinear model. One of the main goals of system identification is to design a model-based controller such as a nonlinear controller using the feedback linearisation. Once the model is identified, the found parameters may be used to design or tune the controller. We introduce a novel mutation mechanism to enhance the global search ability and increase the convergence speed. The MPSO is used to find the optimum values of parameters by minimising the fitness function. The performance of MPSO is compared with genetic algorithm and alternative particle swarm optimisation algorithms in parameter identification. The presented comparisons confirm the superiority of MPSO algorithm in terms of the convergence speed and the accuracy without the premature convergence problem. Furthermore, MPSO is improved to detect any changes of system parameters, which can be used for designing an adaptive controller. Simulation results show the success of the proposed algorithm in tracking time-varying parameters.

  18. 34 CFR 395.17 - Suspension of designation as State licensing agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protection of Federal property on which vending machines subject to the requirements of § 395.32 are located in the State. Upon the suspension of such designation, vending machine income from vending machines... maintenance, operation and protection of the Federal property on which such vending machines are located...

  19. Active Electromechanical Suspension System for Planetary Rovers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Balcones Technologies, LLC proposes to adapt actively controlled suspension technology developed by The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics...

  20. Improving the Dynamics of Suspension Bridges using Active Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Improving the dynamics of suspension bridge using active control is discussed in this paper. The main dynamic problem with long suspension bridges is the aeroelastic phenomenon called flutter. Flutter oscillations of a bridge girder is a stability problem and the oscillations are perpendicular...

  1. Vehicle height and posture control of the electronic air suspension system using the hybrid system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Chen, Long; Liu, Yanling; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-03-01

    The electronic air suspension (EAS) system can improve ride comfort, fuel economy and handling safety of vehicles by adjusting vehicle height. This paper describes the development of a novel controller using the hybrid system approach to adjust the vehicle height (height control) and to regulate the roll and pitch angles of the vehicle body during the height adjustment process (posture control). The vehicle height adjustment system of EAS poses challenging hybrid control problems, since it features different discrete modes of operation, where each mode has an associated linear continuous-time dynamic. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the modelling and controller design problem for the vehicle height adjustment system of EAS. The system model is described firstly in the hybrid system description language (HYSDEL) to obtain a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) hybrid model. For the resulting model, a hybrid model predictive controller is tuned to improve the vehicle height and posture tracking accuracy and to achieve the on-off statuses direct control of solenoid valves. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach are demonstrated by simulations and actual vehicle tests.

  2. The Exact Linearization and LQR Control of Semiactive Connected Hydropneumatic Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on differential geometry theory, the nonlinear system of connected hydropneumatic suspension was transformed to a linear one. What is more, it realized the decoupling and inverter between the control variables and system outputs. With LQR (Linear Quadratic Regulator control theory, a semiactive system has been developed for connected hydropneumatic suspension in this paper. By AMESim/Simulink cosimulation, the results show that the semiactive connected hydropneumatic suspension decreases the vibration of upper vehicle quickly and reduces the impact acceleration strongly both in displacement and inroll angle. Moreover, the semiactive suspension could increase the suspension dynamic deflection, which would make the system reach balance quickly and keep small vibration amplitude under the effect of disturbance.

  3. Numerical simulation of shock absorbers heat load for semi-active vehicle suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demić Miroslav D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modelling, has a significant role during to the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first design stages, when relevant parameters are to be defined. Shock absorber, as an executive part of a semi-active suspension system, is exposed to thermal loads which can lead to its damage and degradation of characteristics. Therefore, this paper attempts to analyze a conversion of mechanical work into heat energy by use of a method of dynamic simulation. The issue of heat dissipation from the shock absorber has not been taken into consideration.

  4. A Sliding Mode Control of Semi-Active Suspension Systems with Describing Function Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Shigehiro; Ikeda, Fujio

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller of semi-active suspension systems. The sliding mode controller is designed by the describing function method so that a switching function is enforced into a desired limit cycle instead of a perfect sliding mode. Although the proposed sliding mode controller cannot generate the limit cycle as desired because of the passive constraint of controllable dampers, restricting the switching function in the vicinity of the origin can suppress the deterioration due to the passive constraint, such as increase of jerk of the sprung mass. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  5. Design and Analysis of an Interconnected Suspension for a Small Off-Road Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minaker Bruce P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the design and multibody dynamic analysis of a mechanically interconnected suspension, as applied to a small off-road vehicle. Interconnected suspensions use some sort of connection between the axles of a vehicle in order improve ride quality or vehicle handling. In principle, the connection may be hydraulic, pneumatic, or mechanical, but for installation in a typical passenger car, a mechanical connection would likely be impractical due to weight and complexity. In this paper, the vehicle in question is the University of Windsor SAE Baja off-road competition vehicle, and novel mechanical design is proposed. A multibody dynamic analysis is performed on the proposed design using the EoM open source multibody software developed by the University of Windsor Vehicle Dynamics and Control research group in order to assess any potential performance improvements.

  6. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E; Behm, David G; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key PointsCompared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation.A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity.More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation.A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS.

  7. A nonlinear control method for the electromagnetic suspension system of the maglev train

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Junqi; Zhou, Yuan

    ... s. The proposed method has a faster response and stronger robustness. With a designed bi-DSP suspension controller, this nonlinear control method was implemented on the Shanghai Urban Maglev Test Line (SUMTL...

  8. Active Vibration Control in a Rotor System by an Active Suspension with Linear Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arias-Montiel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of modeling, analysis and unbalance response control of a rotor system with two disks in an asymmetrical configuration is treated. The Finite Element Method (FEM is used to get the system model including the gyroscopic effects and then, the obtained model is experimentally validated. Rotordynamic analysis is carried out using the finite element model obtaining the Campbell diagram, the natural frequencies and the critical speeds of the rotor system. An asymptotic observer is designed to estimate the full state vector which is used to synthesize a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR to reduce the vibration amplitudes when the system passes through the first critical speed. Some numerical simulations are carried out to verify the closed-loop system behavior. The active vibration control scheme is experimentally validated using an active suspension with electromechanical linear actuators, obtaining significant reductions in the resonant peak.

  9. Development and optimization of the activated charcoal suspension composition based on a mixture design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronowicz, Joanna; Kupcewicz, Bogumiła; Pałkowski, Łukasz; Krysiński, Jerzy

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a new drug product containing activated charcoal was designed and developed. The excipient levels in the pharmaceutical formulation were optimized using a mixture design approach. The adsorption power of the activated charcoal suspension was selected as the critical quality attribute influencing the efficacy of medical treatment. Significant prognostic models (p<0.05) were obtained to describe in detail the interrelations between excipient levels and the adsorption power of the formulation. Liquid flavour had a critical impact on the adsorption power of the suspension. Formulations containing the largest amount of liquid flavour showed the lowest adsorption power. Sorbitol was not adsorbed onto activated charcoal so strongly as liquid flavour. A slight increase in the content of carboxymethylcellulose sodium led to a marked decrease in adsorption power. The obtained mathematical models and response surface allowed selection of the optimal composition of excipients in a final drug product.

  10. Adaptive Neural-Sliding Mode Control of Active Suspension System for Camera Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The camera always suffers from image instability on the moving vehicle due to the unintentional vibrations caused by road roughness. This paper presents a novel adaptive neural network based on sliding mode control strategy to stabilize the image captured area of the camera. The purpose is to suppress vertical displacement of sprung mass with the application of active suspension system. Since the active suspension system has nonlinear and time varying characteristics, adaptive neural network (ANN is proposed to make the controller robustness against systematic uncertainties, which release the model-based requirement of the sliding model control, and the weighting matrix is adjusted online according to Lyapunov function. The control system consists of two loops. The outer loop is a position controller designed with sliding mode strategy, while the PID controller in the inner loop is to track the desired force. The closed loop stability and asymptotic convergence performance can be guaranteed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the simulation results show that the employed controller effectively suppresses the vibration of the camera and enhances the stabilization of the entire camera, where different excitations are considered to validate the system performance.

  11. Superconducting electromagnets for large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Scurlock, R. G.; Wu, Y. Y.; Goodyer, M. J.; Balcerek, K.; Eskins, J.; Britcher, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    A superconducting electromagnetic suspension and balance system for an 8 x 8-ft, Mach 0.9 wind tunnel is presented. The system uses a superconducting solenoid as a model core 70 cm long and with a 11.5 cm OD, and a combination of permanent magnet material in the model wings to produce the required roll torque. The design, which uses an integral cold structure rather than separate cryostats for mounting all control magnets, has 14 external magnets, including 4 racetrack-shaped roll coils. Helium capacity of the system is 3.0 to 3.5 l with idling boiloff rate predicted at 0.147 to 0.2 l/h. The improvements yielded a 50-percent reduction in the system size, weight, and cost.

  12. Nanonized itraconazole powders for extemporary oral suspensions: Role of formulation components studied by a mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglio Bonda, Andrea; Rinaldi, Maurizio; Segale, Lorena; Palugan, Luca; Cerea, Matteo; Vecchio, Carlo; Pattarino, Franco

    2016-02-15

    Itraconazole (ITZ) nanocrystal-containing powders were prepared through the combined use of high pressure homogenization (HPH) and spray drying (SD). These powders were intended as base materials for the preparation of extemporary oral suspensions of the drug. The role and the effect of stabilizers on the size of re-dispersed particles were studied using a mixture design and a Scheffé model relating the dried nanosuspension composition to the mean particle diameters. The homogenization process required a surface active agent (Tween 20) to obtain the efficient comminution of itraconazole micronized powder. SD was carried out on ITZ nanosuspensions after addition of a cellulose derivative (Methocel(®) E5) that allowed the prompt re-dispersion of nanoparticles under "in use" conditions. The powders obtained by drying of homogenized systems showed in vitro dissolution profile faster than that of the micronized drug, suggesting a potential ameliorated GI absorption of itraconazole released from the nanosuspensions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel quality by design tools for concentrated drug suspensions: surface energy profiling and the fractal concept of flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, Jan Kendall; Khoo, Jiyi; Bravo, Roberto; Kuentz, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Quality by design is an important concept, but only limited research has been invested in concentrated pharmaceutical suspensions. A need exists for novel analytical tools to thoroughly characterize the drug as well as its aggregated particle structure in suspension. This work focuses on lipid-based pharmaceutical suspensions for filling of capsules. A rheological approach, namely the fractal concept of flocculation, is introduced to the pharmaceutical field. The model drug mebeverine hydrochloride was first physicochemically analyzed. A special aim was to study the surface energy profiles using inverse gas chromatography as a critical characteristic for the suspension's rheological behavior. Suspensions were manufactured in laboratory process equipment while applying different homogenization speeds. Flow curves of the final suspensions were measured using a cone-and-plate rheometer. As a result, surface energy profiles revealed differences from one mebeverine lot to another. Different homogenization intensities greatly affected the viscosity and the Mooney model was able to predict experimental values as a function of the drug volume fraction. The fractal concept of flocculation characterized mebeverine in suspension and a slight increase of fractal dimension was noted when homogenization speed was increased. It was concluded that the introduced concepts have large potential for designing quality into concentrated pharmaceutical suspensions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Using fuzzy logic to control active suspension system of one-half-car model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruczek Aleš

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, fuzzy logic is used to control active suspension of a one-half-car model. Velocity and acceleration of the front and rear wheels and undercarriage velocity above the mentioned wheels are taken as input data of the fuzzy logic controller. Active forces improving vehicle driving, ride comfort and handling properties are considered to be the controller outputs. The controller design is proposed to minimize chassis and wheels deflection when uneven road surfaces, pavement points, etc. are acting on the tires of running cars. In the conclusion, a comparison of active suspension fuzzy control and spring/damper passive suspension is shown using MATLAB simulations.

  15. Experimental Investigations on the Surface-Driven Capillary Flow of Aqueous Microparticle Suspensions in the Microfluidic Laboratory-On Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhadeep

    In this work, total 1592 individual leakage-free polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic devices as laboratory-on-a-chip systems are fabricated by maskless lithography, hot embossing lithography, and direct bonding technique. Total 1094 individual Audio Video Interleave Files as experimental outputs related to the surface-driven capillary flow have been recorded and analyzed. The influence of effective viscosity, effect of surface wettability, effect of channel aspect ratio, and effect of centrifugal force on the surface-driven microfluidic flow of aqueous microparticle suspensions have been successfully and individually investigated in these laboratory-on-a-chip systems. Also, 5 micron polystyrene particles have been separated from the aqueous microparticle suspensions in the microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems of modified design with 98% separation efficiency, and 10 micron polystyrene particles have been separated with 100% separation efficiency. About the novelty of this work, the experimental investigations have been performed on the surface-driven microfluidic flow of aqueous microparticle suspensions with the investigations on the separation time in particle-size based separation mechanism to control these suspensions in the microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems. This research work contains a total of 10,112 individual experimental outputs obtained using total 30 individual instruments by author’s own hands-on completely during more than three years continuously. Author has performed the experimental investigations on both the fluid statics and fluid dynamics to develop an automated fluid machine.

  16. Use of MBS (ADAMS / CAR software in simulations of vehicle suspension systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the examination of a vehicle suspension system in the plate position are presented in the paper. The model vehicle is a Fiat Seicento with front independent suspension, McPherson type, with the steering system and with the semi-trailing arm in the rear suspension. Identification of the model was made by comparing the simulation results with the results from the test stand. A multibody model of the vehicle will be used in studies of the impact of shock absorber technical conditions on the dynamics of automotive vehicles.

  17. Active Control of Nonlinear Suspension System Using Modified Adaptive Supertwisting Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagat J. Rath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The suspension system is faced with nonlinearities from the spring, damper, and external excitations from the road surface. The objective of any control action provided to the suspension is to improve ride comfort while ensuring road holding for the vehicle. In this work, a robust higher order sliding mode algorithm combining the merits of the modified supertwisting algorithm and the adaptive supertwisting algorithm has been proposed for the nonlinear active suspension system. The proposed controller is robust to linearly growing perturbations and bounded uncertainties. Simulations have been performed for different classes of road excitations and the results are presented.

  18. Adaptive tracking control for active suspension systems with non-ideal actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Sun, Weichao; Jing, Xingjian; Gao, Huijun; Yao, Jianyong

    2017-07-01

    As a critical component of transportation vehicles, active suspension systems are instrumental in the improvement of ride comfort and maneuverability. However, practical active suspensions commonly suffer from parameter uncertainties (e.g., the variations of payload mass and suspension component parameters), external disturbances and especially the unknown non-ideal actuators (i.e., dead-zone and hysteresis nonlinearities), which always significantly deteriorate the control performance in practice. To overcome these issues, this paper synthesizes an adaptive tracking control strategy for vehicle suspension systems to achieve suspension performance improvements. The proposed control algorithm is formulated by developing a unified framework of non-ideal actuators rather than a separate way, which is a simple yet effective approach to remove the unexpected nonlinear effects. From the perspective of practical implementation, the advantages of the presented controller for active suspensions include that the assumptions on the measurable actuator outputs, the prior knowledge of nonlinear actuator parameters and the uncertain parameters within a known compact set are not required. Furthermore, the stability of the closed-loop suspension system is theoretically guaranteed by rigorous mathematical analysis. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented adaptive control scheme is confirmed using comparative numerical simulation validations.

  19. Solution or suspension - Does it matter for lipid based systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A T; Holm, R; Müllertz, A

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the potential of co-administering an aqueous suspension with a placebo lipid vehicle, i.e. chase dosing, was investigated in rats relative to the aqueous suspension alone or a solution of the drug in the lipid vehicle. The lipid investigated in the present study was Labrafil M2125CS...... or a lower solubility in the colloidal structures formed during digestion, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The study thereby supported the potential of chase dosing as a potential dosing regimen in situations where it is beneficial to have a drug in the solid state, e.g. due to chemical stability...

  20. Alternative Suspension System for Space Shuttle Avionics Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, Frank H., III

    2010-01-01

    Engineers working in the Aerospace field under deadlines and strict budgets often miss the opportunity to design something that is considered new or innovative, favoring instead to use the tried-and-true design over those that may, in fact, be more efficient. This thesis examines an electronic equipment stowage shelf suspended from a frame in the cargo bay (mid fuselage) of the United States Space Transportation System (STS), the Space Shuttle, and 3 alternative designs. Four different designs are examined and evaluated. The first design is a conventional truss, representing the tried and true approach. The second is a cable dome type structure consisting of struts and pre-stressed wiring. The third and fourth are double layer tensegrity systems consisting of contiguous struts of the order k=1 and k=2 respectively.

  1. Effects of the Truck Suspension System on Animal Welfare, Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Costa, Filipe Antônio; Lopes, Letícia S.; Dalla Costa, Osmar Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Transportation is a complex stressor in which animals are exposed to a series negatively stimuli, such as vibration, new environmental conditions, variation in temperature and humidity, social mixing, noises among other poor factors, which can result in welfare problems and economic losses such as increased skin lesions, poorer pork quality traits. Transport stress may be reduced through a vehicle suspension system that provides a much smoother ride during transport, and consequently is less aversive to pigs. However, air suspension systems are more expensive and have bigger maintenance costs. This increase in transportation cost must be supported by the benefits from improvements in quality of freight transport; otherwise, the truckers will be paying unnecessarily for a similar or equivalent ride quality. Thus, finishing pigs were assessed after transport to slaughter by the same two double-decked trucks using two types of commercial vehicle suspension, leaf-spring and air suspension, to compare effects on blood cortisol and lactate at exsanguination, behaviour during lairage, and carcass (skin lesions) and pork quality traits. The use of leaf-spring suspension system negatively affects the welfare of pigs due to the increased carcass damage and resulted in poorer pork quality traits. Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the effects of two types of commercial suspension (leaf-spring (LS) vs. air suspension (AS)) installed on two similar double-decked trucks on blood cortisol and lactate concentration, lairage behavior, carcass skin lesions and pork quality traits of 120 crossbred pigs. The suspension type neither influenced pig behaviour in lairage nor blood cortisol and lactate concentrations (p > 0.10). However, when compared with the AS suspension system, the use of LS increased the number of skin lesions in the back and thigh (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively) and produced thigh with lower pHu (p meat quality traits of pigs

  2. Performance Analysis of a Semiactive Suspension System with Particle Swarm Optimization and Fuzzy Logic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Abroon Jamal; de Silva, Clarence W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a quarter model of an automobile having passive and semiactive suspension systems to develop a scheme for an optimal suspension controller. Semi-active suspension is preferred over passive and active suspensions with regard to optimum performance within the constraints of weight and operational cost. A fuzzy logic controller is incorporated into the semi-active suspension system. It is able to handle nonlinearities through the use of heuristic rules. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to determine the optimal gain parameters for the fuzzy logic controller, while maintaining within the normalized ranges of the controller inputs and output. The performance of resulting optimized system is compared with different systems that use various control algorithms, including a conventional passive system, choice options of feedback signals, and damping coefficient limits. Also, the optimized semi-active suspension system is evaluated for its performance in relation to variation in payload. Furthermore, the systems are compared with respect to the attributes of road handling and ride comfort. In all the simulation studies it is found that the optimized fuzzy logic controller surpasses the other types of control. PMID:24574868

  3. Performance analysis of a semiactive suspension system with particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Abroon Jamal; de Silva, Clarence W; Khan, Afzal; Khan, Muhammad Tahir

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a quarter model of an automobile having passive and semiactive suspension systems to develop a scheme for an optimal suspension controller. Semi-active suspension is preferred over passive and active suspensions with regard to optimum performance within the constraints of weight and operational cost. A fuzzy logic controller is incorporated into the semi-active suspension system. It is able to handle nonlinearities through the use of heuristic rules. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to determine the optimal gain parameters for the fuzzy logic controller, while maintaining within the normalized ranges of the controller inputs and output. The performance of resulting optimized system is compared with different systems that use various control algorithms, including a conventional passive system, choice options of feedback signals, and damping coefficient limits. Also, the optimized semi-active suspension system is evaluated for its performance in relation to variation in payload. Furthermore, the systems are compared with respect to the attributes of road handling and ride comfort. In all the simulation studies it is found that the optimized fuzzy logic controller surpasses the other types of control.

  4. Performance Analysis of a Semiactive Suspension System with Particle Swarm Optimization and Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abroon Jamal Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a quarter model of an automobile having passive and semiactive suspension systems to develop a scheme for an optimal suspension controller. Semi-active suspension is preferred over passive and active suspensions with regard to optimum performance within the constraints of weight and operational cost. A fuzzy logic controller is incorporated into the semi-active suspension system. It is able to handle nonlinearities through the use of heuristic rules. Particle swarm optimization (PSO is applied to determine the optimal gain parameters for the fuzzy logic controller, while maintaining within the normalized ranges of the controller inputs and output. The performance of resulting optimized system is compared with different systems that use various control algorithms, including a conventional passive system, choice options of feedback signals, and damping coefficient limits. Also, the optimized semi-active suspension system is evaluated for its performance in relation to variation in payload. Furthermore, the systems are compared with respect to the attributes of road handling and ride comfort. In all the simulation studies it is found that the optimized fuzzy logic controller surpasses the other types of control.

  5. Magnetic suspension motorized spindle-cutting system dynamics analysis and vibration control review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli QIAO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of high-speed spindle directly determines the development of high-end machine tools. The cutting system's dynamic characteristics and vibration control effect are inseparable with the performance of the spindle,which influence each other, synergistic effect together the cutting efficiency, the surface quality of the workpiece and tool life in machining process. So, the review status on magnetic suspension motorized spindle, magnetic suspension bearing-flexible rotor system dynamics modeling theory and status of active control technology of flexible magnetic suspension motorized spindle rotor vibration are studied, and the problems which present in the magnetic suspension flexible motorized spindle rotor systems are refined, and the development trend of magnetic levitation motorized spindle and the application prospect is forecasted.

  6. Suspension-thermal noise in spring–antispring systems for future gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Jan; Mow-Lowry, Conor M.

    2018-01-01

    Spring–antispring systems have been investigated in the context of low-frequency seismic isolation in high-precision optical experiments. These systems provide the possibility to tune the fundamental resonance frequency to, in principle, arbitrarily low values, and at the same time maintain a compact design. It was argued though that thermal noise in spring–antispring systems would not be as small as one may naively expect from lowering the fundamental resonance frequency. In this paper, we present calculations of suspension-thermal noise for spring–antispring systems potentially relevant in future gravitational-wave detectors, i.e. the beam-balance tiltmeter, and the Roberts linkage. We find a concise expression of the suspension-thermal noise spectrum, which assumes a form very similar to the well-known expression for a simple pendulum. For systems such as the Roberts linkage foreseen as passive seismic isolation, we find that while they can provide strong seismic isolation due to a very low fundamental resonance frequency, their thermal noise is determined by the dimension of the system and is insensitive to fine-tunings of the geometry that can strongly influence the resonance frequency. By analogy, i.e. formal similarity of the equations of motion, this is true for all horizontal mechanical isolation systems with spring–antispring dynamics. This imposes strict requirements on mechanical spring–antispring systems for seismic isolation in potential future low-frequency gravitational-wave detectors as we discuss for the four main concepts, atom-interferometric, superconducting, torsion-bars, and conventional laser interferometer, and generally suggests that thermal noise needs to be evaluated carefully for high-precision experiments implementing spring–antispring dynamics.

  7. Ride performance of a high speed rail vehicle using controlled semi active suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-05-01

    The rail-wheel interaction in a rail vehicle running at high speed results in large amplitude vibration of carbody that deteriorates the ride comfort of travellers. The role of suspension system is crucial to provide an acceptable level of ride performance. In this context, an existing rail vehicle is modelled in vertical, pitch and roll motions of carbody and bogies. Additionally, nonlinear stiffness and damping parameters of passive suspension system are defined based on experimental data. In the secondary vertical suspension system, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is included to improve the ride quality and comfort. The parameters of MR damper depend on the current, amplitude and frequency of excitations. At different running speeds, three semi-active suspension strategies with MR damper are analysed for periodic track irregularity and the resulting performance indices are juxtaposed with the nonlinear passive suspension system. The disturbance rejection and force tracking damper controller algorithms are applied to control the desired force of MR damper. This study reveals that the vertical vibrations of a vehicle can be reduced significantly by using the proposed semi-active suspension strategies. Moreover, it naturally results in improved ride quality and passenger’s comfort in comparison to the existing passive system.

  8. Development of Matlab Simulink model for dynamics analysis of passive suspension system for lightweight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, M. S.; Ismail, K. A.; Taha, Z.; Aiman, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    In designing suitable isolators to reduce unwanted vibration in vehicles, the response from a mathematical model which characterizes the transmissibility ratio of the input and output of the vehicle is required. In this study, a Matlab Simulink model is developed to study the dynamic behaviour performance of passive suspension system for a lightweight electric vehicle. The Simulink model is based on the two degrees of freedom system quarter car model. The model is compared to the theoretical plots of the transmissibility ratios between the amplitudes of the displacements and accelerations of the sprung and unsprung masses to the amplitudes of the ground, against the frequencies at different damping values. It was found that the frequency responses obtained from the theoretical calculations and from the Simulink simulation is comparable to each other. Hence, the model may be extended to a full vehicle model.

  9. A decoupled control approach for magnetic suspension systems using electromagnets mounted in a planar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1993-01-01

    A decoupled control approach for a Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) is presented. The control approach is developed for an LGMSS which provides five degree-of-freedom control of a cylindrical suspended element that contains a core composed of permanent magnet material. The suspended element is levitated above five electromagnets mounted in a planar array. Numerical results are obtained by using the parameters of the Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF) which is a small scale laboratory model LGMSS.

  10. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  11. Learning Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Harold G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need to learn how to design learning systems involving the synthesis of systems thinking and design actions. Design intelligence is considered, based on theories of multiple intelligence; new models of the information age that require systems design are discussed; and the roles of symbolic analysts and symbolic synthesists are…

  12. A semi-active control suspension system for railway vehicles with magnetorheological fluid dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiukun; Zhu, Ming; Jia, Limin

    2016-07-01

    The high-speed train has achieved great progress in the last decades. It is one of the most important modes of transportation between cities. With the rapid development of the high-speed train, its safety issue is paid much more attention than ever before. To improve the stability of the vehicle with high speed, extra dampers (i.e. anti-hunting damper) are used in the traditional bogies with passive suspension system. However, the curving performance of the vehicle is undermined due to the extra lateral force generated by the dampers. The active suspension systems proposed in the last decades attempt to solve the vehicle steering issue. However, the active suspension systems need extra actuators driven by electrical power or hydraulic power. There are some implementation and even safety issues which are not easy to be overcome. In this paper, an innovative semi-active controlled lateral suspension system for railway vehicles is proposed. Four magnetorheological fluid dampers are fixed to the primary suspension system of each bogie. They are controlled by online controllers for enhancing the running stability on the straight track line on the one hand and further improving the curving performance by controlling the damper force on the other hand. Two control strategies are proposed in the light of the pure rolling concept. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is demonstrated by SIMPACK and Matlab co-simulation for a full railway vehicle with two conventional bogies.

  13. Integrating uniform design and response surface methodology to optimize thiacloprid suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei-Xing; Wang, Wei-Chang; Zhang, Xian-Peng; Zhang, Da-Xia; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2017-04-06

    A model 25% suspension concentrate (SC) of thiacloprid was adopted to evaluate an integrative approach of uniform design and response surface methodology. Tersperse2700, PE1601, xanthan gum and veegum were the four experimental factors, and the aqueous separation ratio and viscosity were the two dependent variables. Linear and quadratic polynomial models of stepwise regression and partial least squares were adopted to test the fit of the experimental data. Verification tests revealed satisfactory agreement between the experimental and predicted data. The measured values for the aqueous separation ratio and viscosity were 3.45% and 278.8 mPa·s, respectively, and the relative errors of the predicted values were 9.57% and 2.65%, respectively (prepared under the proposed conditions). Comprehensive benefits could also be obtained by appropriately adjusting the amount of certain adjuvants based on practical requirements. Integrating uniform design and response surface methodology is an effective strategy for optimizing SC formulas.

  14. Very low frequency suspension systems for dynamic testing. [of flexible spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienholz, David A.; Crawley, Edward F.; Harvey, T. Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    Specifications for a Space Station suspension system which can provide rigid-body translation frequencies on the order of 0.1-0.2 Hz for a 50-foot payload weighing about 3400 lb and having a number of highly flexible appendages are discussed. Two suspension devices are considered, an all-mechanical passive device based on coil springs and a device using a combination of a passive pneumatic system and an active electromagnetic system. Test results show that both devices meet the initial requirements.

  15. Adaptive Super-Twisting Observer for Estimation of Random Road Excitation Profile in Automotive Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Rath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of road excitation profile is important for evaluation of vehicle stability and vehicle suspension performance for autonomous vehicle control systems. In this work, the nonlinear dynamics of the active automotive system that is excited by the unknown road excitation profile are considered for modeling. To address the issue of estimation of road profile, we develop an adaptive supertwisting observer for state and unknown road profile estimation. Under Lipschitz conditions for the nonlinear functions, the convergence of the estimation error is proven. Simulation results with Ford Fiesta MK2 demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed observer for state and unknown input estimation for nonlinear active suspension system.

  16. Software Design Analyzer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    CRISP80 software design analyzer system a set of programs that supports top-down, hierarchic, modular structured design, and programing methodologies. CRISP80 allows for expression of design as picture of program.

  17. 17 CFR 33.6 - Suspension or revocation of designation as a contract market for the trading of commodity options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designation as a contract market for the trading of commodity options. 33.6 Section 33.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.6 Suspension or revocation of designation as a contract market for the trading...

  18. Influence analysis of design parameters of suspensions on the technical specifications of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the basic design of the conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive, a series of numerical calculations was performed. As a result, the influence of friction and mass-dimensional design parameters of suspensions on the main technical parameters of the conveyor was established. Recommendations on the choice of rational parameters were formulated.

  19. Sky-Hook Control and Kalman Filtering in Nonlinear Model of Tracked Vehicle Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkiewicz Andrzej

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the undertaken topic is application of the continuous sky-hook control strategy and the Extended Kalman Filter as the state observer in the 2S1 tracked vehicle suspension system. The half-car model of this suspension system consists of seven logarithmic spiral springs and two magnetorheological dampers which has been described by the Bingham model. The applied continuous sky-hook control strategy considers nonlinear stiffness characteristic of the logarithmic spiral springs. The control is determined on estimates generated by the Extended Kalman Filter. Improve of ride comfort is verified by comparing simulation results, under the same driving conditions, of controlled and passive vehicle suspension systems.

  20. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  1. Assessment of alternative dredging technologies pneumatic sediment suspension system for IMTT - Bayonne, Bayonne, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-16

    This report was prepared in order to document the findings of a one year environmental and hydrographic survey program conducted as part of the Air GuardTM Pneumatic Sediment Suspension System installation at IMTT in Bayonne. This system was installe...

  2. Magnetic Flux Density Feedback Control for Permanent Magnetic-Electromagnetic Hybrid Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnetic-electromagnetic hybrid suspension system can effectively reduce energy consumption and heat release of the system, but also increase the difficulty of suspension control because of the existence of permanent magnets. The traditional current feedback control method is not conducive to the stability of the system and is difficult to debug. In this paper, the models of permanent magnetic-electromagnetic hybrid suspension system based on current feedback and magnetic flux density feedback are established. The effects of current feedback and magnetic flux density feedback on the stability of the system are analyzed in theory and the advantages of flux density feedback are pointed out. The model of magnet flux feedback is simple and it can overcome the disadvantages of current feedback, which is beneficial to the stability of the system. The magnetic flux density feedback control of permanent magnetic-electromagnetic hybrid suspension system is realized by simulation and experiment. Control system performs well and is easy to debug.

  3. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  4. Effects of the Truck Suspension System on Animal Welfare, Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Antônio Dalla Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of two types of commercial suspension (leaf-spring (LS vs. air suspension (AS installed on two similar double-decked trucks on blood cortisol and lactate concentration, lairage behavior, carcass skin lesions and pork quality traits of 120 crossbred pigs. The suspension type neither influenced pig behaviour in lairage nor blood cortisol and lactate concentrations (p > 0.10. However, when compared with the AS suspension system, the use of LS increased the number of skin lesions in the back and thigh (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively and produced thigh with lower pHu (p < 0.001 and yellower colour (higher b* value; p = 0.03, and paler back muscles (subjective colour; p < 0.05, with a tendency to lower pH (p = 0.06. Therefore, the use air suspension system can improve carcass and meat quality traits of pigs transported to slaughter.

  5. Roll- and pitch-plane coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension. Part I Feasibility analysis and suspension properties

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Passive fluidically coupled suspensions have been considered to offer a promising alternative solution to the challenging design of a vehicle suspension system. A theoretical foundation, however, has not been established for fluidically coupled suspension to facilitate its broad applications to various vehicles. The first part of this study investigates the fundamental issues related to feasibility and properties of the passive, full-vehicle interconnected, hydro-pneumatic suspension configur...

  6. Vibration control of a class of semiactive suspension system using neural network and backstepping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapateiro, M.; Luo, N.; Karimi, H. R.; Vehí, J.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of designing the semiactive controller for a class of vehicle suspension system that employs a magnetorheological (MR) damper as the actuator. As the first step, an adequate model of the MR damper must be developed. Most of the models found in literature are based on the mechanical behavior of the device, with the Bingham and Bouc-Wen models being the most popular ones. These models can estimate the damping force of the device taking the control voltage and velocity inputs as variables. However, the inverse model, i.e., the model that computes the control variable (generally the voltage) is even more difficult to find due to the numerical complexity that implies the inverse of the nonlinear forward model. In our case, we develop a neural network being able to estimate the control voltage input to the MR damper, which is necessary for producing the optimal force predicted by the controller so as to reduce the vibrations. The controller is designed following the standard backstepping technique. The performance of the control system is evaluated by means of simulations in MATLAB/Simulink.

  7. Design of a Tubular Permanent Magnet Actuator for Active Lateral Secondary Suspension of a Railway Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Yoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the finite element (FE-based design of a slotted tubular permanent magnet actuator (TPMA used in railway vehicle active lateral secondary suspension that improves the actuator’s thrust and lowers its cogging force under thermal and geometric constraints. To consider the electromagnetic and thermal fields and the complex interactions among the design variables, design was carried out in an electromagnet and thermal field environment using accurate and time-effective FE analysis. A six-slot prototype model was fabricated to estimate critical thermal parameters, which are difficult to compute without experiments. Three-dimensional FE analysis using the determined thermal parameters was adopted to calculate the precise thermal distribution of the TPMA and verify the forced air-cooling effect. A prototype TPMA with a quasi-Halbach array of permanent magnets and a moving magnet was manufactured through the FE-based design process; the dynamic, electromagnetic, and thermal characteristics of the prototype TPMA were validated experimentally.

  8. Designing photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.J.

    1987-03-22

    Photovoltaic system design understanding has matured rapidly in the last decade. Initially the design process emphasized detailed modeling, load match, and on-site energy storage. This entire approach ended once the systems were allowed to operate interactively with the utility. Current design thinking emphasizes system energy cost in relation to utility avoided cost. This leads to a new logic that allows for much simplified design procedures. This paper reviews these procedures for the two types of grid-connected photovoltaic systems and presents a brief discussion of balance-of-system options.

  9. Development of friable embryogenic callus and embryogenic suspension culture systems in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N J; Edwards, M; Kiernan, R J; Davey, C D; Blakesley, D; Henshaw, G G

    1996-06-01

    Procedures for the production of a new and highly prolific embryogenic culture system have been developed in cassava. The importance of the basal salts and type of auxin in controlling the development of cassava embryogenic tissues has been demonstrated, with culture on Gresshoff and Doy basal medium in the presence of 4-amino-3,5,6,trichloro-picolinic acid (picloram) inducing the formation of friable embryogenic callus from which highly totipotent embryogenic suspension cultures could be established. Plants have been regenerated from these cultures. The availability of embryogenic suspension cultures is considered to have important implications for the application of genetic transformation and other biotechnologies in the agronomic improvement of cassava.

  10. Clothing Systems Design Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Clothing Systems Design Lab houses facilities for the design and rapid prototyping of military protective apparel.Other focuses include: creation of patterns and...

  11. Magneto-rheological accumulator for temperature compensation in hydropneumatic suspension systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Uk; Yun, Young Won; Park, Myeong Kwan [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Hydro-pneumatic suspension systems consist of two fluids acting upon each other, usually gas over oil. In these systems, a compressible gas such as nitrogen is used as the springing medium, while a hydraulic fluid is used to convert the pressure to force. One of the problems associated with hydro-pneumatic systems is the effect of temperature change on the spring characteristics, which results in a variation in the spring rate and ride height. The important characteristics of a gas chamber filled with gas or air are to maintain the setting pressure, with very small variations, even for long strokes. This paper presents a magneto-rheological (MR) accumulator that can adjust the pressure of the gas chamber through the use of an MR device. To analyze the characteristics of the gas chamber, mathematical modeling based on the energy equation for a gas in a closed container is carried out. Further, a prototype of the MR device is designed and manufactured, and its performance is evaluated. The theoretical results are validated by conducting experiments in the laboratory environment. It is demonstrated that the MR accumulator can effectively compensate for the pressure variations caused by an increase in the gas temperature. Moreover, this research provides new information about the applicability of the MR accumulator to devices that use conventional accumulators.

  12. Stability considerations for magnetic suspension systems using electromagnets mounted in a planar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Nelson J.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical models of a 5, 6, 7, and 8 coil large gap magnetic suspension system (MSDS) are presented. Some of the topics covered include: force and torque equations, reduction of state-space form, natural modes, origins of modes, effect of rotation in azimuth (yaw), future work, and n-coil ring conclusions.

  13. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  14. Investigation of passenger car using Macpherson strut for suspension system pt.1: Vehicle behaviour variation of time response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been decade, researchers has been conducting researches on the topics concerning vehicle behavior. Suspension system, driving maneuver and road profile are the particular parameters in order to achieve the aim in vehicle behavior understanding. This paper combined these three criteria by means of using a passenger car equipped with MacPherson strut front suspension undergoes different driving behavior. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of passenger car equipped with MacPherson strut front suspension system vehicle behavior based on different driving maneuvers. For this study, Proton Persona Sedan 1.6 Manual Transmission Base Line was used to investigate the MacPherson strut suspension system. Data were collected using DEWESoft Software. As the velocity and direction varies with time, the vehicle response subjected to stationary excitation, while it varies with different velocity and different type of road. Acceleration, deceleration and bumpy test the suspension mechanism support the weight of the vehicle yet to cushion bumps and holes in the road. It can be concluded that the MacPherson strut suspension system has an effect on not only vehicle behavior but also comfort ride. These findings provide the following insights for future research in suspension vibration in order to optimize the performance of the MacPherson strut suspension system.

  15. HVAC systems design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Thoroughly updated with the latest codes, technologies, and practices, this all-in-one resource provides details, calculations, and specifications for designing efficient and effective residential, commercial, and industrial HVAC systems. HVAC Systems Design Handbook, Fifth Edition, features new information on energy conservation and computer usage for design and control, as well as the most recent International Code Council (ICC) Mechanical Code requirements. Detailed illustrations, tables, and essential HVAC equations are also included. This comprehensive guide contains everything you need to design, operate, and maintain peak-performing HVAC systems.

  16. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  17. Modal and Dynamic Analysis of a Vehicle with Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangji Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel kinetic dynamic suspension (KDS system is presented for the cooperative control of the roll and warp motion modes of off-road vehicles. The proposed KDS system consists of two hydraulic cylinders acting on the antiroll bars. Hence, the antiroll bars are not completely replaced by the hydraulic system, but both systems are installed. In this paper, the vibration analysis in terms of natural frequencies of different motion modes in frequency domain for an off-road vehicle equipped with different configurable suspension systems is studied by using the modal analysis method. The dynamic responses of the vehicle with different configurable suspension systems are investigated under different road excitations and maneuvers. The results of the modal and dynamic analysis prove that the KDS system can reduce the roll and articulation motions of the off-road vehicle without adding extra bounce stiffness and deteriorating the ride comfort. Furthermore, the roll stiffness is increased and the warp stiffness is decreased by the KDS system, which could significantly enhance handing performance and off-road capability.

  18. Rectenna system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. C.; Dickinson, R. M.; Nalos, E. J.; Ott, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The function of the rectenna in the solar power satellite system is described and the basic design choices based on the desired microwave field concentration and ground clearance requirements are given. One important area of concern, from the EMI point of view, harmonic reradiation and scattering from the rectenna is also designed. An optimization of a rectenna system design to minimize costs was performed. The rectenna cost breakdown for a 56 w installation is given as an example.

  19. FxLMS Method for Suppressing In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor Vertical Force Based on Vehicle Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration of SRM obtains less attention for in-wheel motor applications according to the present research works. In this paper, the vertical component of SRM unbalanced radial force, which is named as SRM vertical force, is taken into account in suspension performance for in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles (IWM-EV. The analysis results suggest that SRM vertical force has a great effect on suspension performance. The direct cause for this phenomenon is that SRM vertical force is directly exerted on the wheel, which will result in great variation in tyre dynamic load and the tyre will easily jump off the ground. Furthermore, the frequency of SRM vertical force is broad which covers the suspension resonance frequencies. So it is easy to arouse suspension resonance and greatly damage suspension performance. Aiming at the new problem, FxLMS (filtered-X least mean square controller is proposed to improve suspension performance. The FxLMS controller is based on active suspension system which can generate the controllable force to suppress the vibration caused by SRM vertical force. The conclusion shows that it is effective to take advantage of active suspensions to reduce the effect of SRM vertical force on suspension performance.

  20. Design of combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    )] This paper addresses an experimentally and theoretically investigation of three different marketed combi systems. Two different combi systems, based on the above mentioned system design, with units where the auxiliary energy supply system is built into the same cabinet as the hot-water tank and one combi...... with constant daily hot water consumption, consumption patterns and space heating demand for all days, and the results are used to validate TrnSys models. Based on simulation models of the combi systems, the thermal behavior is simulated and the thermal performance and the solar fraction of the systems...... simulation models where a number of different design-, control- and consumption parameters are varied....

  1. An Ultra-low Frequency Modal Testing Suspension System for High Precision Air Pressure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling YUAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a resolution for air pressure control challenges in ultra-low frequency modal testing suspension systems, an incremental PID control algorithm with dead band is applied to achieve high-precision pressure control. We also develop a set of independent hardware and software systems for high-precision pressure control solutions. Taking control system versatility, scalability, reliability, and other aspects into considerations, a two-level communication employing Ethernet and CAN bus, is adopted to complete such tasks as data exchange between the IPC, the main board and the control board ,and the pressure control. Furthermore, we build a single set of ultra-low frequency modal testing suspension system and complete pressure control experiments, which achieve the desired results and thus confirm that the high-precision pressure control subsystem is reasonable and reliable.

  2. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  3. Psychology of system design

    CERN Document Server

    Meister, D

    2014-01-01

    This is a book about systems, including: systems in which humans control machines; systems in which humans interact with humans and the machine component is relatively unimportant; systems which are heavily computerized and those that are not; and governmental, industrial, military and social systems. The book deals with both traditional systems like farming, fishing and the military, and with systems just now tentatively emerging, like the expert and the interactive computer system. The emphasis is on the system concept and its implications for analysis, design and evaluation of these many di

  4. Residential photovoltaic system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. All of these systems utilize a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allow excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Residential photovoltaic system design issues are discussed and specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented.

  5. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  6. Design on a Composite Mobile System for Exploration Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyan Shang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to accomplish exploration missions in complex environments, a new type of robot has been designed. By analyzing the characteristics of typical moving systems, a new mobile system which is named wheel-tracked moving system (WTMS has been presented. Then by virtual prototype simulation, the new system’s ability to adapt complex environments has been verified. As the curve of centroid acceleration changes in large amplitude in this simulation, ride performance of this robot has been studied. Firstly, a simplified dynamic model has been established, and then by affecting factors analysis on ride performance, an optimization model for suspension parameters has been presented. Using NSGA-II method, a set of nondominated solutions for suspension parameters has been gotten, and by weighing the importance of the objective function, an optimal solution has been selected to be applied on suspension design. As the wheel-tracked exploration robot has been designed and manufactured, the property test has been conducted. By testing on physical prototype, the robot’s ability to surmount complex terrain has been verified. Design of the wheel-tracked robot will provide a stable platform for field exploration tasks, and in addition, the certain configuration and suspension parameters optimization method will provide reference to other robot designs.

  7. Independent suspension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaikin, Don

    1992-01-01

    ... independent suspension. INDEPENDENCE! An independent system is simply one in which each of the vehicle's wheels is free to react totally separate from any of the other wheels. If the right rear wheel hits a bump, the left rear wheel is undisturbed. Since the whole car does not bounce and shake every time one of the wheels hits a potho...

  8. The vibration damping effectiveness of an active seat suspension system and its robustness to varying mass loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, I.; Meyer, L.; Krzyzynski, T.

    2010-09-01

    The paper describes the simulated dynamic response of an active vibro-isolating pneumatic suspension seat. Active control of the air-spring force is used to improve its vibro-isolation properties. For the active vibration isolating system described, a triple feedback loop control system was developed and analysed. The system robustness for different load masses was investigated using the verified active seat suspension model. The Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility factor (SEAT) and the maximum suspension deflection were used as the seat performance indices.

  9. Resilient computer system design

    CERN Document Server

    Castano, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a paradigm for designing new generation resilient and evolving computer systems, including their key concepts, elements of supportive theory, methods of analysis and synthesis of ICT with new properties of evolving functioning, as well as implementation schemes and their prototyping. The book explains why new ICT applications require a complete redesign of computer systems to address challenges of extreme reliability, high performance, and power efficiency. The authors present a comprehensive treatment for designing the next generation of computers, especially addressing safety-critical, autonomous, real time, military, banking, and wearable health care systems.   §  Describes design solutions for new computer system - evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) that is free from drawbacks inherent in current ICT and related engineering models §  Pursues simplicity, reliability, scalability principles of design implemented through redundancy and re-configurability; targeted for energy-,...

  10. Construction of AN Active Suspension System of a Quarter CAR Model Using the Concept of Sliding Mode Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOSHIMURA, T.; KUME, A.; KURIMOTO, M.; HINO, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the construction of an active suspension system for a quarter car model using the concept of sliding mode control. The active control is derived by the equivalent control and switching function where the sliding surface is obtained by using Linear quadratic control (LQ control) theory. The active control is generated with non-negligible time lag by using a pneumatic actuator, and the road profile is estimated by using the minimum order observer based on a linear system transformed from the exact non-linear system. The experimental result indicates that the proposed active suspension system is more effective in the vibration isolation of the car body than the linear active suspension system based on LQ control theory and the passive suspension system.

  11. Designing Menu Selection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Ben

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on the multiple design issues involved in creating successful menu selection systems: semantic organization, response time, display rates, shortcuts for frequent users, titles, phrasing of menu items, graphic layout, and selection mechanisms. Pop-up and embedded menus, experimental results, and design guidelines are also covered.…

  12. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  13. Telecommunications systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The general configuration of deep space telecommunication systems is reviewed with regard to the design criteria necessary to insure the integrity of the system's telemetry, command, and tracking functions. The signal to noise spectral density ratios that characterize telecommunications performance are defined in terms of the link parameters. For design control, a statistical approach to predict link performance and to assess its uncertainty is described.

  14. Dynamics of an Autoparametric Pendulum-Like System with a Nonlinear Semiactive Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kecik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents vibration analysis of an autoparametric pendulum-like mechanism subjected to harmonic excitation. To improve dynamics and control motions, a new suspension composed of a semiactive magnetorheological damper and a nonlinear spring is applied. The influence of essential parameters such as the nonlinear damping or stiffness on vibration, near the main parametric resonance region, are carried out numerically and next verified experimentally in a special experimental rig. Results show that the magnetorheological damper, together with the nonlinear spring can be efficiently used to change the dynamic behaviour of the system. Furthermore, the nonlinear elements applied in the suspension of the autoparametric system allow to reduce the unstable areas and chaotic or rotating motion of the pendulum.

  15. Load-cell based characterization system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor in advanced LIGO suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which 40 kg test-mass/mirrors are each suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation and a rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which, together, were to bracket the fibre under test. The aim was to detect transverse Violin-Mode resonances in the suspension fibres. Part of the testing procedure involved tensioning a silica fibre sample and translating it transversely through the illuminating NIR beam, so as to measure the DC responsivity of the detection system to fibre displacement. However, an equally important part of the procedure, reported here, was to keep the fibre under test stationary within the beam, whilst trying to detect low-level AC Violin-Mode resonances excited on the fibre, in order to confirm the primary function of the sensor. Therefore, a tensioning system, incorporating a load-cell readout, was built into the test fibre's holder. The fibre then was excited by a signal generator, audio power amplifier, and distant loudspeaker, and clear resonances were detected. A theory for the expected fundamental resonant frequency as a function of fibre tension was developed and is reported here, and this theory was found to match closely with the detected resonant frequencies as they varied with tension. Consequently, the resonances seen were identified as being proper Violin-Mode fundamental resonances of the fibre, and the operation of the Violin-Mode detection system was validated.

  16. Load-cell based characterization system for a “Violin-Mode” shadow-sensor in advanced LIGO suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance) Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which 40 kg test-mass/mirrors are each suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation and a rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which, together, were to bracket the fibre under test. The aim was to detect transverse Violin-Mode resonances in the suspension fibres. Part of the testing procedure involved tensioning a silica fibre sample and translating it transversely through the illuminating NIR beam, so as to measure the DC responsivity of the detection system to fibre displacement. However, an equally important part of the procedure, reported here, was to keep the fibre under test stationary within the beam, whilst trying to detect low-level AC Violin-Mode resonances excited on the fibre, in order to confirm the primary function of the sensor. Therefore, a tensioning system, incorporating a load-cell readout, was built into the test fibre’s holder. The fibre then was excited by a signal generator, audio power amplifier, and distant loudspeaker, and clear resonances were detected. A theory for the expected fundamental resonant frequency as a function of fibre tension was developed and is reported here, and this theory was found to match closely with the detected resonant frequencies as they varied with tension. Consequently, the resonances seen were identified as being proper Violin-Mode fundamental resonances of the fibre, and the operation of the Violin-Mode detection system was validated.

  17. Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total soluble proteins (TSP) and culture filtrate (CF) proteins were extracted from the cell culture system and solubilised in urea buffer (9 M urea, 2 M thiourea and 4% CHAPS). Both onedimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) gel analysis of these two proteomes show that the TSP and CF proteomes have different ...

  18. Designing Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2010-01-01

    the potential to revitalize and transform citizen engagement in democracy.  Although the majority of web 2.0 systems enable these discourses to some extent, government institutions commission and manage specialized deliberation systems (information systems designed to support participative discourse) intended...... to promote citizen engagement.  The most common examples of these are political discussion forums.  Though usually considered trivial adaptations of well-known technologies, these types of deliberative systems are often unsuccessful, and present a distinct set of design and management challenges.......  In this article we analyze the issues involved in establishing political deliberation systems under four headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, service management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement.  We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study...

  19. Nonlinear Dynamics Analysis of the Semiactive Suspension System with Magneto-Rheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines dynamical behavior of a nonlinear oscillator which models a quarter-car forced by the road profile. The magneto-rheological (MR suspension system has been established, by employing the modified Bouc-Wen force-velocity (F-v model of magneto-rheological damper (MRD. The possibility of chaotic motions in MR suspension is discovered by employing the method of nonlinear stability analysis. With the bifurcation diagrams and corresponding Lyapunov exponent (LE spectrum diagrams detected through numerical calculation, we can observe the complex dynamical behaviors and oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasiperiodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations with different profiles of road excitation, as well as the dynamical evolutions to chaos through period-doubling bifurcations, saddle-node bifurcations, and reverse period-doubling bifurcations.

  20. Soft-coupling suspension system for an intradural spinal cord stimulator: Biophysical performance characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, H.; Safayi, S.; Jeffery, N. D.; Viljoen, S.; Reddy, C. G.; Dalm, B. D.; Kanwal, J. K.; Gillies, G. T.; Howard, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    We have characterized the mechanical compliance of an improved version of the suspension system used to position the electrode-bearing membrane of an intradural neuromodulator on the dorsal pial surface of the spinal cord. Over the compression span of 5 mm, it exhibited a restoring force of 2.4 μN μm-1 and a mean pressure of 0.5 mm Hg (=66 Pa) on the surface below it, well within the range of normal intrathecal pressures. We have implanted prototype devices employing this suspension and a novel device fixation technique in a chronic ovine model of spinal cord stimulation and found that it maintains stable contact at the electrode-pia interface without lead fracture, as determined by measurement of the inter-contact impedances.

  1. High-lateral-tension abdominoplasty with superficial fascial system suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, T

    1995-09-01

    Modern abdominoplasty techniques were developed in the 1960s. The advent of liposuction has reduced the need for classic abdominoplasty and allowed more aesthetic sculpting of the entire trunk. However, the combination of significant truncal liposuction and classic abdominoplasty is not recommended due to the increased risk of complications. Although the surgical principles of classic abdominoplasty certainly have stood the test of time, they are based on two theoretical assumptions that may be proved to be inaccurate. The first assumption is that wide direct undermining to costal margins is essential for abdominal flap advancement. In fact, discontinuous undermining allows effective loosening of the abdominal flap while preserving vascular perforators. The second inaccurate assumption is that with aging and weight fluctuations (including pregnancy), abdominal skin relaxation occurs primarily in the vertical direction from the xiphoid to the pubis. This is true in the lower abdomen, but in most patients a strong superficial fascial system adherence to the linea alba in the epigastrium limits vertical descent. Epigastric laxity frequently results from a progressive horizontal loosening due to relaxation of the tissue along the lateral trunk. Experience with the lower-body lift procedure has shown that significant lateral truncal skin resection results in epigastric tightening. In these patients, the ideal abdominoplasty pattern would resect as much or more laterally than centrally, leading to more natural abdominal contours. Fifty patients who underwent high-lateral-tension abdominoplasty with and without significant truncal liposuction and other aesthetic procedures were followed for 4 to 16 months. The primary indication for surgery was moderate to severe laxity of abdominal skin and muscle with or without truncal fat deposits. Complication rates were equal to or less than those of historical controls and did not increase with significant adjunctive liposuction

  2. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.

  3. Implementation of a decoupled controller for a magnetic suspension system using electromagnets mounted in a planar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D. E.; Groom, N. J.

    1994-01-01

    An implementation of a decoupled, single-input/single-output control approach for a large angle magnetic suspension test fixture is described. Numerical and experimental results are presented. The experimental system is a laboratory model large gap magnetic suspension system which provides five degree-of-freedom control of a cylindrical suspended element. The suspended element contains a core composed of permanent magnet material and is levitated above five electromagnets mounted in a planar array.

  4. The effects of suction and pin/lock suspension systems on transtibial amputees' gait performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Gholizadeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The suction sockets that are commonly prescribed for transtibial amputees are believed to provide a better suspension than the pin/lock systems. Nevertheless, their effect on amputees' gait performance has not yet been fully investigated. The main intention of this study was to understand the potential effects of the Seal-in (suction and the Dermo (pin/lock suspension systems on amputees' gait performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten unilateral transtibial amputees participated in this prospective study, and two prostheses were fabricated for each of them. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to evaluate the temporal-spatial, kinematics and kinetics variables during normal walking. We also asked the participants to complete some part of Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ regarding their satisfaction and problems with both systems. The results revealed that there was more symmetry in temporal-spatial parameters between the prosthetic and sound limbs using the suction system. However, the difference between two systems was not significant (p<0.05. Evaluation of kinetic data and the subjects' feedback showed that the participants had more confidence using the suction socket and the sockets were more fit for walking. Nevertheless, the participants had more complaints with this system due to the difficulty in donning and doffing. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that even though the suction socket could create better suspension, fit, and gait performance, overall satisfaction was higher with the pin/lock system due to easy donning and doffing of the prosthesis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: irct.ir IRCT2014012816395N1.

  5. EHF SATCOM system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. Jamil

    Future satellite systems will differ considerably from the current versions. The impetus for change is a result of the need for more capacity, wider bandwidth requirements for enhanced services, increasing demand for mobile communications, advances in technology, developments in satellite payload systems, and a demand for secure military communications. To a large extent all of these needs can be satisfied by the use of extremely high frequency satellite communication (EHF Satcom) systems. EHF Satcom system design, features, pros and cons of using the system, particularly for military applications, and the current status of EHF SATCOM in Canada, U.S., Europe, and Japan are examined. The demand for bandwidth will continue to increase due to the growth of communication as well as due to enhanced services for business and entertainment. The increased bandwidth needs will be met by operating at higher frequencies, and perhaps by using extremely high frequency/superhigh frequency (EHF/SHF) satellites. Design of such systems involves a consideration of numerous aspects of design, technology, cost, and services. Advances in technology will make EHF/SHF systems feasible for military applications, as well as commercial mobile terminals, and high data rate terminals. The use of higher frequencies and small antennas will aid mobile communications. On-board processing will be akin to putting a switch in the space, providing flexibility of rates, connectivity, and services.

  6. Exploring Optimization Opportunities in Four-Point Suspension Wind Turbine Drivetrains Through Integrated Design Approaches: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Drivetrain design has significant influence on the costs of wind power generation. Current industry practices usually approach the drivetrain design with loads and system requirements defined by the turbine manufacturer. Several different manufacturers are contracted to supply individual components from the low-speed shaft to the generator - each receiving separate design specifications from the turbine manufacturer. Increasingly, more integrated approaches to turbine design have shown promise for blades and towers. Yet, integrated drivetrain design is a challenging task owing to the complex physical behavior of the important load-bearing components, namely the main bearings, gearbox, and the generator. In this paper we combine two of NREL's systems engineering design tools, DriveSE and GeneratorSE, to enable a comprehensive system-level drivetrain optimization for the IEAWind reference turbine for land-based applications. We compare a more traditional design with integrated approaches employing decoupled and coupled design optimization. It is demonstrated that both approaches have the potential to realize notable mass savings with opportunities to lower the costs of energy.

  7. Distributed System Design Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brendan; Driscoll, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a design checklist targeted to fault-tolerant distributed electronic systems. Many of the questions and discussions in this checklist may be generally applicable to the development of any safety-critical system. However, the primary focus of this report covers the issues relating to distributed electronic system design. The questions that comprise this design checklist were created with the intent to stimulate system designers' thought processes in a way that hopefully helps them to establish a broader perspective from which they can assess the system's dependability and fault-tolerance mechanisms. While best effort was expended to make this checklist as comprehensive as possible, it is not (and cannot be) complete. Instead, we expect that this list of questions and the associated rationale for the questions will continue to evolve as lessons are learned and further knowledge is established. In this regard, it is our intent to post the questions of this checklist on a suitable public web-forum, such as the NASA DASHLink AFCS repository. From there, we hope that it can be updated, extended, and maintained after our initial research has been completed.

  8. [Readaptation processes in the calcitonin-producing system of the rat's thyroid following 30-day suspension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, V I

    2007-01-01

    Immunocytochemical and cytomorphological studies of ca/citonin-producing cells (C-cells) in the thyroid of rats were conducted on days 0, 2, 8, 14, 30 and 60 of readaptation from 30-d tail-suspension. It was shown that suspension reduced the C-cell pool by 35% and size of C-cell nuclei and cytoplasm by 15% and 12%, respectively. On the contrary, the amount of inactive cells within the total pool increased by 33% at the expense of actively secreting cells (17% loss) and secret depot cells (13% loss). The data suggest a dramatic inhibition of the C-cell functional activity due to insufficient loading of the musculoskeletal system. In 48 hrs. after suspension, biosynthesis in the C-cell population was obviously stimulated as indicated by the increase of nuclei size by 11%. The total C-cell population as well as the proportion of C-cell functional varieties regained normal values by day 8 of readaptation; however, nuclear size remained abnormal which could be consequence of elevated biosynthetic activity in that period. Investigations of morphometric indices of the C-cell functional activity fulfilled on days 14 and 30 of readaptation failed to detect any differences between the suspended rats and their controls. Investigations performed on days 30 and 60 of readaptation showed increases in C-cell population resulting from daily and total body mass gain.

  9. Extensions of suspension systems to measure effects of hypokinesia/hypodynamia and antiorthostasis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Suspension systems are used to simulate hypokinetic/hypodynamic (H/H) and anitorthostatic (AO) responses seen under conditions of weightlessness. Growing rats in H/H suspension with unloaded hindlimbs for one and two weeks respond with muscle atrophy and increased excretion of nitrogenous end products such as urea, NH3 and 3 methyl histidine. Since muscle is in a dynamic state of synthesis and breakdown of protein, relationships between protein, RNA and DNA contents in the four muscles which reflect weight bearing and non-weight bearing functions were assessed. Protein and RNA progressively decreased over a one and two week period of H/H suspension: soleus gastrocnemius=plantaris EDL. Concommitant analysis of DNA contents showed there were no changes. The interpretation was that protein synthesis was slowed during H/H. As with muscle mass, protein and RNA levels recovered rapidly after removal from H/H. The AO rats (which are also H/H) respond with diuresis, natriuresis and kaliuresis in a manner comparable to responses seen when thoracic blood vessels are volume loaded.

  10. Design of serum-free medium for suspension culture of CHO cells on the basis of general commercial media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Hideo; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2015-08-01

    The design of serum-free media for suspension culture of genetically engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using general commercial media as a basis was investigated. Subcultivation using a commercial serum-free medium containing insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 with or without FCS necessitated additives other than IGF-1 to compensate for the lack of FCS and improve cell growth. Suspension culture with media containing several combinations of growth factors suggested the effectiveness of addition of both IGF-1 and the lipid signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) for promoting cell growth. Subcultivation of CHO cells in suspension culture using the commercial serum-free medium EX-CELL™302, which contained an IGF-1 analog, supplemented with LPA resulted in gradually increasing specific growth rate comparable to the serum-containing medium and in almost the same high antibody production regardless of the number of generations. The culture with EX-CELL™302 supplemented with LPA in a jar fermentor with pH control at 6.9 showed an apparently higher cell growth rate than the cultures without pH control and with pH control at 6.8. The cell growth in the medium supplemented with aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), which was much cheaper than IGF-1, in combination with LPA was synergistically promoted similarly to that in the medium supplemented with IGF-1 and LPA. In conclusion, the serum-free medium designed on the basis of general commercial media could support the growth of CHO cells and antibody production comparable to serum-containing medium in suspension culture. Moreover, the possibility of cost reduction by the substitution of IGF-1 with ATA was also shown.

  11. A New Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Based on Diversion-Type Microcapsule Suspension for Bioartificial Liver Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lu

    Full Text Available A fluidized bed bioreactor containing encapsulated hepatocytes may be a valuable alternative to a hollow fiber bioreactor for achieving the improved mass transfer and scale-up potential necessary for clinical use. However, a conventional fluidized bed bioreactor (FBB operating under high perfusion velocity is incapable of providing the desired performance due to the resulting damage to cell-containing microcapsules and large void volume. In this study, we developed a novel diversion-type microcapsule-suspension fluidized bed bioreactor (DMFBB. The void volume in the bioreactor and stability of alginate/chitosan microcapsules were investigated under different flow rates. Cell viability, synthesis and metabolism functions, and expression of metabolizing enzymes at transcriptional levels in an encapsulated hepatocyte line (C3A cells were determined. The void volume was significantly less in the novel bioreactor than in the conventional FBB. In addition, the microcapsules were less damaged in the DMFBB during the fluidization process as reflected by the results for microcapsule retention rates, swelling, and breakage. Encapsulated C3A cells exhibited greater viability and CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activity in the DMFBB than in the FBB, although the increases in albumin and urea synthesis were less prominent. The transcription levels of several CYP450-related genes and an albumin-related gene were dramatically greater in cells in the DMFBB than in those in the FBB. Taken together, our results suggest that the DMFBB is a promising alternative for the design of a bioartificial liver system based on a fluidized bed bioreactor with encapsulated hepatocytes for treating patients with acute hepatic failure or other severe liver diseases.

  12. Design and Hemocompatibility Analysis of a Double-Suction Injection Suspension Blood Pump Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Zhu, Liangfan; Luo, Yun

    2017-11-01

    The blood pump has become a possible solution to heart diseases. For the prevention of device failure and hemocompatibility problems, a rotary pump with suspended bearing is a preferred solution. In our previous work, a novel injection suspension method has been introduced to levitate the rotor. The suspension method is totally passive. This study aims to apply this suspension method to a double-suction pump, and the property of the pump was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The flow field of the pump is simulated based on the SST k-ω turbulent model. The characteristic curves of the pump were calculated. At the nominal working point of 5 L/min, 100 mm Hg, the suspension force acting on the rotor was detected, which could reach 0.46 N with a gap of 150 µm. We compared the pump with a previously developed single-suction injection pump to evaluate the blood compatibility of the double-suction design. The average scalar shear stress values were 3.13 Pa for the double-suction pump and 7.10 Pa for the single-suction pump. Larger volumes in the single-suction pump were exposed to shear stresses higher than 10 Pa. Thresholds for the von Willebrand factor cleavage, platelet activation, and hemolysis were defined to be 9 Pa, 50 Pa, and 150 Pa, respectively. The volume fractions for the double-suction pump are lower for all thresholds. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) values for the two pumps were calculated to be 0.008 g/100 L and 0.016 g/100 L. Results proved that the double-suction pump has a better hemocompatibility compared with the single-suction pump. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Annoyance rate evaluation method on ride comfort of vehicle suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuanyin; Zhang, Yimin; Zhao, Guangyao; Ma, Yan

    2014-03-01

    The existing researches of the evaluation method of ride comfort of vehicle mainly focus on the level of human feelings to vibration. The level of human feelings to vibration is influenced by many factors, however, the ride comfort according to the common principle of probability and statistics and simple binary logic is unable to reflect these uncertainties. The random fuzzy evaluation model from people subjective response to vibration is adopted in the paper, these uncertainties are analyzed from the angle of psychological physics. Discussing the traditional evaluation of ride comfort during vehicle vibration, a fuzzily random evaluation model on the basis of annoyance rate is proposed for the human body's subjective response to vibration, with relevant fuzzy membership function and probability distribution given. A half-car four degrees of freedom suspension vibration model is described, subject to irregular excitations from the road surface, with the aid of software Matlab/Simulink. A new kind of evaluation method for ride comfort of vehicles is proposed in the paper, i.e., the annoyance rate evaluation method. The genetic algorithm and neural network control theory are used to control the system. Simulation results are obtained, such as the comparison of comfort reaction to vibration environments between before and after control, relationship of annoyance rate to vibration frequency and weighted acceleration, based on ISO 2631/1(1982), ISO 2631-1(1997) and annoyance rate evaluation method, respectively. Simulated assessment results indicate that the proposed active suspension systems prove to be effective in the vibration isolation of the suspension system, and the subjective response of human being can be promoted from very uncomfortable to a little uncomfortable. Furthermore, the novel evaluation method based on annoyance rate can further estimate quantitatively the number of passengers who feel discomfort due to vibration. A new analysis method of vehicle

  14. Vehicle active suspension system using skyhook adaptive neuro active force control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyandoko, G.; Mailah, M.; Jamaluddin, H.

    2009-04-01

    This paper aims to highlight the practical viability of a new and novel hybrid control technique applied to a vehicle active suspension system of a quarter car model using skyhook and adaptive neuro active force control (SANAFC). The overall control system essentially comprises four feedback control loops, namely the innermost proportional-integral (PI) control loop for the force tracking of the pneumatic actuator, the intermediate skyhook and active force control (AFC) control loops for the compensation of the disturbances and the outermost proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control loop for the computation of the optimum target/commanded force. A neural network (NN) with a modified adaptive Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm was used to approximate the estimated mass and inverse dynamics of the pneumatic actuator in the AFC loop. A number of experiments were carried out on a physical test rig using a hardware-in-the-loop configuration that fully incorporates the theoretical elements. The performance of the proposed control method was evaluated and compared to examine the effectiveness of the system in suppressing the vibration effect on the suspension system. It was found that the simulation and experimental results were in good agreement, particularly for the sprung mass displacement and acceleration behaviours in which the proposed SANAFC scheme is found to outperform the PID and passive counterparts.

  15. Adaptive neural networks control for camera stabilization with active suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The camera always suffers from image instability on the moving vehicle due to unintentional vibrations caused by road roughness. This article presents an adaptive neural network approach mixed with linear quadratic regulator control for a quarter-car active suspension system to stabilize the image captured area of the camera. An active suspension system provides extra force through the actuator which allows it to suppress vertical vibration of sprung mass. First, to deal with the road disturbance and the system uncertainties, radial basis function neural network is proposed to construct the map between the state error and the compensation component, which can correct the optimal state-feedback control law. The weights matrix of radial basis function neural network is adaptively tuned online. Then, the closed-loop stability and asymptotic convergence performance is guaranteed by Lyapunov analysis. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller effectively suppresses the vibration of the camera and enhances the stabilization of the entire camera, where different excitations are considered to validate the system performance.

  16. Systems engineering agile design methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the paradigm of the engineering design process. The authors discuss agile systems and engineering design. The book captures the entire design process (functionbases), context, and requirements to affect real reuse. It provides a methodology for an engineering design process foundation for modern and future systems design. This book captures design patterns with context for actual Systems Engineering Design Reuse and contains a new paradigm in Design Knowledge Management.

  17. Three-dimensional finite-element modelling of a superconducting suspension system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.T.; Paul, R.J.A.; Simkin, J.

    1983-11-01

    The suspension system considered is characterised by a superconducting magnet with an arrangement of superconducting screens to provide stable levitation of a long mild-steel bar. This paper is concerned with static modelling of the magnetic forces for which a nonlinear three-dimensional analysis is required. Problems encountered using the magneto-static program TOSCA are discussed and the code is subsequently extended to accommodate a representation of superconducting screens taped on the critical-state model. Measured and computed results which are in good agreement are presented, leading to further consideration of the practical application of the method.

  18. Open-loop characteristics of magnetic suspension systems using electromagnets mounted in a planar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Nelson J.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1992-01-01

    The open-loop characteristics of a Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) were studied and numerical results are presented. The LGMSS considered provides five-degree-of-freedom control. The suspended element is a cylinder that contains a core composed of permanent magnet material. The magnetic actuators are air core electromagnets mounted in a planar array. Configurations utilizing five, six, seven, and eight electromagnets were investigated and all configurations were found to be controllable from coil currents and observable from suspended element positions. Results indicate that increasing the number of coils has an insignificant effect on mode shapes and frequencies.

  19. Roll- and pitch-plane-coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension. Part 2 dynamic response analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2010-01-01

    In the first part of this study, the potential performance benefits of fluidically coupled passive suspensions were demonstrated through analyses of suspension properties, design flexibility and feasibility. In this second part of the study, the dynamic responses of a vehicle equipped with different configurations of fluidically coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension systems are investigated for more comprehensive assessments of the coupled suspension concepts. A generalised 14 degree-of-freedom ...

  20. Interface stress in socket/residual limb with transtibial prosthetic suspension systems during locomotion on slopes and stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Gholizadeh, Hossien; Ali, Sadeeq; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of different suspension methods on the interface stress inside the prosthetic sockets of transtibial amputees when negotiating ramps and stairs. Three transtibial prostheses, with a pin/lock system, a Seal-In system, and a magnetic suspension system, were created for the participants in a prospective study. Interface stress was measured as the peak pressure by using the F-socket transducers during stairs and ramp negotiation. Twelve individuals with transtibial amputation managed to complete the experiments. During the stair ascent and descent, the greatest peak pressure was observed in the prosthesis with the Seal-In system. The magnetic prosthetic suspension system caused significantly different peak pressure at the anterior proximal region compared with the pin/lock (P = 0.022) and Seal-In (P = 0.001) during the stair ascent. It was also observed during the stair descent and ramp negotiation. The prostheses exhibited varying pressure profiles during the stair and ramp ascent. The prostheses with the pin/lock and magnetic suspension systems exhibited lower peak pressures compared with the Seal-In system. The intrasystem pressure distribution at the anterior and posterior regions of the residual limb was fairly homogenous during the stair and ramp ascent and descent. Nevertheless, the intrasystem pressure mapping revealed a significant difference among the suspension types, particularly at the anterior and posterior sensor sites.

  1. T-S Fuzzy Model Based H-Infinity Control for 7-DoF Automobile Electrohydraulic Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyu Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a double loop controller for a 7-DoF automobile electrohydraulic active suspension via T-S fuzzy modelling technique. The outer loop controller employs a modified H-infinity feedback control based on a T-S fuzzy model to provide the actuation force needed to ensure better riding comfort and handling stability. The resulting optimizing problem is transformed into a linear matrix inequalities solution issue associated with stability analysis, suspension stroke limit, and force constraints. Integrating these via parallel distributed compensation method, the feedback gains are derived to render the suspension performance dependent on the perturbation size and improve the efficiency of active suspensions. Adaptive Robust Control (ARC is then adopted in the inner loop design to deal with uncertain nonlinearities and improve tracking accuracy. The validity of improvements attained from this controller is demonstrated by comparing with conventional Backstepping control and a passive suspension on a 7-DoF simulation example. It is shown that the T-S fuzzy model based controller can achieve favourable suspension performance and energy conservation under both mild and malevolent road inputs.

  2. The Parameters Optimizing Design of Double Suspension Arm Torsion Bar in the Electric Sight-Seeing Car by Random Vibration Analyzing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Ting Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the impact of the performance and the sensitivity analysis for parameters of the torsion bar suspension in the electric sight-seeing car, which the authors’ laboratory designed and which is used in the authors’ university. The suspension stiffness was calculated by using the virtual work principle, the vector algebra, and tensor of finite rotation methods and was verified by the ADAMS software. Based on the random vibration analysis method, the paper analyzed the dynamic tire load (DTL, suspension working space (SWS, and comfort performance parameters. For the purpose of decreasing the displacement of the suspension and limiting the frequency of impacting the stop block, the paper examined the three parameters and optimized the basic parameters of the torsion bar. The results show that the method achieves a great effect and contributes an accurate value for the general layout design.

  3. Magnetic suspension dynamic calibration device of measurement system for dynamic characteristics of sliding bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wu; Zhao, Zhiming; Cai, Le; Yuan, Xiaoyang

    2017-10-01

    A measurement system error is a key factor that disturbs the identification precision of sliding bearing's dynamic characteristic coefficients. The transfer process and influence rule of errors from a measurement system to dynamic characteristic coefficients are analyzed by solving the dynamic characteristic measurement model. In order to ensure that the identification errors are no more than 40%, the amplitude error and phase error of the transfer function of the measurement system should be controlled within 10% and 1°, respectively. A novel magnetic suspension calibration method of the measurement system, which generates a vibration through a noncontact electromagnetic force rather than a traditional contact force, is proposed. A magnetic dynamic calibration device is developed. The experiment results show that the device can make dynamic calibration at different frequencies successfully, which is favorable to improve the controllability of the calibration process and the stability of calibration results.

  4. Internal model control of inductive magnetic suspension spherical active joints based on fuzzy neural network inverse system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zeng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article puts forward inductive magnetic suspension spherical active joints and has researched on its mechanism. The expression of motor’s electromagnetic torque is derived from the point of power balance of three-dimensional electromagnetic model, and on the basis of the air gap magnetic flux density distribution, we establish the joint’s mathematical model of electromagnetic levitation force. The relationship between the two of displacement, angle, and current and the transfer function expression of motor system are derived by the state equation and the inverse system theory We established the inverse system of joint’s original system using fuzzy neural network theory and simplified coupling relationship of the motor’s complex multivariable to establish ANFIS model of joint’s inverse system. An internal model controller with high robustness and stability was designed, and an internal model control joint pseudo linear system was built. According to the simulation analysis and experimental verification of the joint control system, the conclusion indicates that the rotor has quick dynamic response and high robustness.

  5. Integrated control of active suspension system and electronic stability programme using hierarchical control strategy: theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hansong; Chen, Wuwei; Zhou, HuiHui; Zu, Jean W.

    2011-02-01

    Integrated vehicle dynamics control has been an important research topic in the area of vehicle dynamics and control over the past two decades. The aim of integrated vehicle control is to improve the overall vehicle performance including handling, stability, and comfort through creating synergies in the use of sensor information, hardware, and control strategies. This paper proposes a two-layer hierarchical control architecture for integrated control of the active suspension system (ASS) and the electronic stability programme (ESP). The upper-layer controller is designed to coordinate the interactions between the ASS and the ESP. While in the lower layer, the two controllers including the ASS and the ESP are developed independently to achieve their local control objectives. Both a simulation investigation and a hardware-in-the-loop experimental study are performed. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed hierarchical control system is able to improve the multiple vehicle performance indices including both the ride comfort and the lateral stability, compared with the non-integrated control system. Moreover, the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the design of the hierarchical control system.

  6. Intelligent Tutoring Systems as Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Albert K. W.; Lee, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes the notion of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) as design in order to engage ITS development with more rigor. Topics include engineering design versus ITS design; systems approach; design as problem solving; a hierarchy of paradigms; the emergence of an agent-theoretic approach; and the need for an ITS design notation. (Author/LRW)

  7. Simulation of disturbance rejection control of half-car active suspension system using active disturbance rejection control with decoupling transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbullah, Faried; Faris, Waleed F.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) has become a popular control alternative due to its easy applicability and robustness to varying processes. In this article, ADRC with input decoupling transformation (ADRC-IDT) is proposed to improve ride comfort of a vehicle with an active suspension system using half-car model. The ride performance of the ADRC-IDT is evaluated and compared with decentralized ADRC control as well as the passive system. Simulation results show that both ADRC and ADRC-IDT manage to appreciably reduce body accelerations and able to cope well with varying conditions typically encountered in an active suspension system. Also, it is sufficient to control only the body motions with both active controllers to improve ride comfort while maintaining good road holding and small suspension working space.

  8. 48 CFR 209.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 209.407... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 209.407 Suspension. ...

  9. Roll- and pitch-plane coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension. Part 1: Feasibility analysis and suspension properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2010-03-01

    Passive fluidically coupled suspensions have been considered to offer a promising alternative solution to the challenging design of a vehicle suspension system. A theoretical foundation, however, has not been established for fluidically coupled suspension to facilitate its broad applications to various vehicles. The first part of this study investigates the fundamental issues related to feasibility and properties of the passive, full-vehicle interconnected, hydro-pneumatic suspension configurations using both analytical and simulation techniques. Layouts of various interconnected suspension configurations are illustrated based on two novel hydro-pneumatic suspension strut designs, both of which provide a compact design with a considerably large effective working area. A simplified measure, vehicle property index, is proposed to permit a preliminary evaluation of different interconnected suspension configurations using qualitative scaling of the bounce-, roll-, pitch- and warp-mode stiffness properties. Analytical formulations for the properties of unconnected and three selected X-coupled suspension configurations are derived, and simulation results are obtained to illustrate their relative stiffness and damping properties in the bounce, roll, pitch and warp modes. The superior design flexibility feature of the interconnected hydro-pneumatic suspension is also discussed through sensitivity analysis of a design parameter, namely the annular piston area of the strut. The results demonstrate that a full-vehicle interconnected hydro-pneumatic suspension could provide enhanced roll- and pitch-mode stiffness and damping, while retaining the soft bounce- and warp-mode properties. Such an interconnected suspension thus offers considerable potential in realising enhanced decoupling among the different suspension modes.

  10. Optimization of the linear quadratic regulator (LQR control quarter car suspension system using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Nagarkar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA based in an optimization approach is presented in order to search the optimum weighting matrix parameters of a linear quadratic regulator (LQR. A Macpherson strut quarter car suspension system is implemented for ride control application. Initially, the GA is implemented with the objective of minimizing root mean square (RMS controller force. For single objective optimization, RMS controller force is reduced by 20.42% with slight increase in RMS sprung mass acceleration. Trade-off is observed between controller force and sprung mass acceleration. Further, an analysis is extended to multi-objective optimization with objectives such as minimization of RMS controller force and RMS sprung mass acceleration and minimization of RMS controller force, RMS sprung mass acceleration and suspension space deflection. For multi-objective optimization, Pareto-front gives flexibility in order to choose the optimum solution as per designer’s need.

  11. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  12. Pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshio; Takagi, Atsushi

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents the construction of a pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer. The one-wheel car model can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system subject to excitation from a road profile. The active control is composed of fuzzy and disturbance controls, and functions by actuating a pneumatic actuator. A phase lead-lag compensator is inserted to counter the performance degradation due to the delay of the pneumatic actuator. The experimental result indicates that the proposed active suspension improves much the vibration suppression of the car model.

  13. A Framework for Systemic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As designers move upstream from traditional product and service design to engage with challenges characterised by complexity, uniqueness, value conflict, and ambiguity over objectives, they have increasingly integrated systems approaches into their practice. This synthesis of systems thinking with design thinking is forming a distinct new field of systemic design. This paper presents a framework for systemic design as a mindset, methodology, and set of methods that together enable teams to learn, innovate, and adapt to a complex and dynamic environment. We suggest that a systemic design mindset is inquiring, open, integrative, collaborative, and centred. We propose a systemic design methodology composed of six main activities: framing, formulating, generating, reflecting, inquiring, and facilitating. We view systemic design methods as a flexible and open-ended set of procedures for facilitating group collaboration that are both systemic and designerly.  

  14. Control and actuator design for a precision magnetic suspension linear bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, David L.; Queen, Michael A.

    1992-07-01

    In optical systems, where the positions of such components as mirrors must be controlled in six degrees of freedom (DOFs), magnetic bearings can impart forces and torques to the suspended component without rigidly constraining its DOFs, and obviate the complex flexures typical of conventional designs. Attention is here given to a magnetically suspended linear bearing employing variable-reluctance actuators to control three rotational and two translational DOFs, as well as to a linear motor charged with control of the sixth DOF. Applicability to vibration isolation and optical line-of-sight stabilization are noted.

  15. Issues in holistic system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia L.; Probst, Christian W.; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2006-01-01

    The coordination of layers in computer and software systems is one of the main challenges in designing such systems today. In this paper we consider Holistic System Design as a way of integrating requirements and facilities of different system layers. We also discuss some of the challenges...... that this kind of system design poses for computer science in general as well as programming languages and operating systems in particular....

  16. Aspects of suspension design for the development of advanced gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul

    The Institute for Gravitational Research in the University of Glasgow in collaboration with the Albert Einstein Institute in Hannover, Golm and the University of Cardiff has been actively involved in the research for the development of instruments and data analysis techniques to detect gravitational waves. This includes construction of a long ground based interferometer in Germany called GEO 600 (upgraded to GEO-HF) having an arm length 600 m and strong involvement in the larger detectors of the LIGO (Laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory) project in USA having arm lengths of 4 km (Operated by MIT, Boston and CALTECH, Pasadena). An upgrade to LIGO called Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) is currently under construction with significant input from the University of Glasgow. Thermal noise is one of the most significant noise sources affecting the sensitivity of the detector at a range of frequencies. Thermal noise arises due to the random fluctuations of atoms and molecules in the materials of the test mass mirrors and suspension elements, and is related to mechanical loss in these materials. The work presented in chapter 3 of this thesis is devoted to the analysis of aspects of mechanical loss and thermal noise in the final stages of the GEO suspension. The work in chapter 4 focuses on the theory of photoelasticty and birefringence techniques. A study of mechanical and thermal stress induced in fused silica has been discussed in chapter 5 of this thesis. To understand the working of photoelastic techniques learned in chapter 4, a study of mechanical stress was undertaken by applying a load on the sample to induce temporary birefringence. A study of thermal stress in fused silica welds has also been presented in chapter 5.

  17. Suspension system for a wheel rolling on a flat track. [bearings for directional antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcginness, H. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved suspension system for an uncrowned wheel rolling on a flat track is presented. It is characterized by a wheel frame assembly including a wheel frame and at least one uncrowned wheel connected in supporting relation with the frame. It is adapted to be seated in rolling engagement with a flat track, a load supporting bed, and a plurality of flexural struts interconnecting the bed in supported relation with the frame. Each of said struts is disposed in a plane passing through the center of the uncrowned wheel surface along a line substantially bisecting the line of contact established between the wheel surface and the flat surface of the truck and characterized by a modulus of elasticity sufficient for maintaining the axis of rotation for the wheel in substantial parallelism with the line of contact established between the surfaces of the wheel and track.

  18. The behaviour of a vehicle’s suspension system on dynamic testing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihon, L.; Lontiş, N.; Deac, S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a car suspension’s behaviour on dynamic testing conditions through theoretical and mathematical simulation on specific model, on the single traction wheel, according to the real vehicle and by experiment on the test bench by reproducing the road’s geometry and vehicle’s speed and measuring the acceleration and damping response of the suspension system on that wheel. There are taking in consideration also the geometry and properties of the tyre-wheel model and physical wheel’s properties. The results are important due to the suspension’s model properties which allows to extend the theory and applications to the whole vehicle for improving the vehicle’s dynamics.

  19. Model predictive control of an air suspension system with damping multi-mode switching damper based on hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Yuan, Chaochun; Cai, Yingfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Long

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the hybrid modeling and the model predictive control of an air suspension system with damping multi-mode switching damper. Unlike traditional damper with continuously adjustable damping, in this study, a new damper with four discrete damping modes is applied to vehicle semi-active air suspension. The new damper can achieve different damping modes by just controlling the on-off statuses of two solenoid valves, which makes its damping adjustment more efficient and more reliable. However, since the damping mode switching induces different modes of operation, the air suspension system with the new damper poses challenging hybrid control problem. To model both the continuous/discrete dynamics and the switching between different damping modes, the framework of mixed logical dynamical (MLD) systems is used to establish the system hybrid model. Based on the resulting hybrid dynamical model, the system control problem is recast as a model predictive control (MPC) problem, which allows us to optimize the switching sequences of the damping modes by taking into account the suspension performance requirements. Numerical simulations results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control method finally.

  20. Measurement of suspension loads and determination of suspension reliability for a store in the F-111 weapons bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, S.D.; Paez, T.L.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic store suspension environment in an open bay of the F-111 aircraft is under investigation. This experimental study was prompted by the uncertainties relative to the loads on the store suspension system which result from the severe aerodynamic environment in the open bay. Because of the complex flow field which exists, the loads on the swaybraces, vertical chocks, horizontal chocks, and lugs are not amenable to accurate analytical predictions. In an effort to verify that a store is capable of withstanding the loads experienced during carriage to the performance limits of the aircraft, an experimental buildup program was undertaken and is currently in progress. This paper discusses the design of the unit which is being used to measure the random loads on the suspension system during open-door carriage and the methods used to establish the reliability of the store suspension system. A numerical example shows that the suspension system of the store under consideration is highly reliable.

  1. 78 FR 27468 - Order of Suspension of Trading in the Matter of CoreCare Systems, Inc., Forticell Bioscience, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order of Suspension of Trading in the Matter of CoreCare Systems, Inc., Forticell Bioscience, Inc... concerning the securities of Forticell Bioscience, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  2. DESIGNING INFORMATION SYSTEM IN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna WALASEK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to approach essential issues in designing modern information systems. The key to successful information system is good design. A modern design requires looking from a number of different perspectives. Different people use different information in different contexts. These problems should be analyzed and requirements should be documented before solutions are designed and implemented. Satisfying the business needs is a baseline standard for information system.

  3. Study of the surfactant role in latex-aerogel systems by scanning transmission electron microscopy on aqueous suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, A; Foray, G; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Maire, E; Yrieix, B

    2018-01-01

    For insulation applications, boards thinner than 2 cm are under design with specific thermal conductivities lower than 15 mW m-1  K-1 . This requires binding slightly hydrophobic aerogels which are highly nanoporous granular materials. To reach this step and ensure insulation board durability at the building scale, it is compulsory to design, characterise and analyse the microstructure at the nanoscale. It is indeed necessary to understand how the solid material is formed from a liquid suspension. This issue is addressed in this paper through wet-STEM experiments carried out in an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). Latex-surfactant binary blends and latex-surfactant-aerogel ternary systems are studied, with two different surfactants of very different chemical structures. Image analysis is used to distinguish the different components and get quantitative morphological parameters which describe the sample architecture. The evolution of such morphological parameters during water evaporation permits a good understanding of the role of the surfactant. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Preliminary design review: Brayton Isotope Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1977-03-01

    The design aspects covered include flight system design, design criteria/margins/reliability, GDS design, system analysis, materials, system assembly procedure, and government furnished equipment-BTPS. (TFD)

  5. Computer System Design System-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of computer system designers will be less concerned about details of processors and memories, and more concerned about the elements of a system tailored to particular applications. These designers will have a fundamental knowledge of processors and other elements in the system, but the success of their design will depend on the skills in making system-level tradeoffs that optimize the cost, performance and other attributes to meet application requirements. This book provides a new treatment of computer system design, particularly for System-on-Chip (SOC), which addresses th

  6. Damping Parameters Identification of Cabin Suspension System for Heavy Duty Truck Based on Curve Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the dynamic simulation of cabin system, the damping parameters values of cabin suspension are the key factors. In previous work, for obtaining all the parameters of the cabin system of trucks for long distance transport, a parameters identification model was built by minimizing the error of the root-mean-square acceleration between the tested and the measured. However, the identification precision is not high. In this paper, according to the real cabin system of a heavy duty truck for short distance transport, a 3-DOF model of cabin system was built. Based on curve fitting method, a new identification model for damping parameters was established. At last, the bench test was done and the comparisons were conducted among the tested values, the values identified by the method built in this work, and those obtained by the method built in previous work. The results show that the model built and the method proposed are feasible, and the identification precision is higher than the previous work.

  7. Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2005-01-01

    -to-market, and reduce development and manufacturing costs. In this paper, the author introduces several embedded systems design problems, and shows how they can be formulated as optimization problems. Solving such challenging design optimization problems are the key to the success of the embedded systems design...... of designing such systems is becoming increasingly important and difficult at the same time. New automated design optimization techniques are needed, which are able to: successfully manage the complexity of embedded systems, meet the constraints imposed by the application domain, shorten the time...

  8. System Design for Telecommunication Gateways

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmutsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    System Design for Telecommunication Gateways provides a thorough review of designing telecommunication network equipment based on the latest hardware designs and software methods available on the market. Focusing on high-end efficient designs that challenge all aspects of the system architecture, this book helps readers to understand a broader view of the system design, analyze all its most critical components, and select the parts that best fit a particular application. In many cases new technology trends, potential future developments, system flexibility and capability extensions are outline

  9. Design and Characteristic Analysis of a Novel Bearingless SRM considering Decoupling between Torque and Suspension Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor (BSRM has a complicated character of nonlinear coupling; therefore, it is a hard work to operate BSRM stably. In this paper, a new type of BSRMs with novel rotor structure is proposed by analyzing relationships between motor structure and theoretical formulae of levitation force and torque. The stator structure of this new motor is same as that of traditional BSRM and each stator pole can coil one winding or two windings, while the pole arc of rotor is wider. In order to analyze the characteristics of the proposed BSRM, finite-element (FE models are used and a 12/4 one-set-winding BSRM and a 12/8 two-sets-windings BSRM are taken as examples. The analysis results indicate that the new scheme is effective for a stable levitation. It can realize decoupling control of torque and radial force, thus simplifying its control strategy and improving the use ratio of winding currents. A control system is designed for the 12/8 BSRM based on deducing its mathematical model. Compared with traditional BSRM, the proposed scheme is easier to be implemented.

  10. Lofar information system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, E.; Belikov, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    The Lofar Information System is a solution for Lofar Long Term Archive that is capable to store and handle PBs of raw and processed data. The newly created information system is based on Astro-WISE - the information system for wide field astronomy. We review an adaptation of Astro-WISE for the new

  11. Multiobjective Game Method Based on Self-Adaptive Space Division of Design Variables and Its Application to Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the similarity between the game theory and the multiobjective design, the bionic mapping and the space mapping are established between the multiobjective optimization model and game model. Then, the multiobjective optimization method based on self-adaptive space division of design variables is proposed. The design variables are divided into multiple strategy subspaces and are assigned to corresponding game players by calculating impact factors, K-means clustering, and correlation analysis. Strategy subspaces of game players are dynamically adjusted in the iteration process. In their own strategy subspaces, each game player takes their payoff function (the mapping of objective function as monoobjective optimization. It gives the best strategy upon other players. And the best strategies of all players are combined into the group strategy in this game round. Triobjective optimization is carried out for vehicle suspension in this method and it is compared with the traditional game method. The results show that this method has better calculating automaticity and can effectively promote generalization of multiobjective game method and improve the computational efficiency and precision.

  12. Soluto-inertial phenomena: Designing long-range, long-lasting, surface-specific interactions in suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anirudha; Williams, Ian; Azevedo, Rodrigo Nery; Helgeson, Matthew E; Squires, Todd M

    2016-08-02

    Equilibrium interactions between particles in aqueous suspensions are limited to distances less than 1 μm. Here, we describe a versatile concept to design and engineer nonequilibrium interactions whose magnitude and direction depends on the surface chemistry of the suspended particles, and whose range may extend over hundreds of microns and last thousands of seconds. The mechanism described here relies on diffusiophoresis, in which suspended particles migrate in response to gradients in solution. Three ingredients are involved: a soluto-inertial "beacon" designed to emit a steady flux of solute over long time scales; suspended particles that migrate in response to the solute flux; and the solute itself, which mediates the interaction. We demonstrate soluto-inertial interactions that extend for nearly half a millimeter and last for tens of minutes, and which are attractive or repulsive, depending on the surface chemistry of the suspended particles. Experiments agree quantitatively with scaling arguments and numerical computations, confirming the basic phenomenon, revealing design strategies, and suggesting a broad set of new possibilities for the manipulation and control of suspended particles.

  13. Microwave systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Awang, Zaiki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this book is to serve as a design reference for students and as an up-to-date reference for researchers. It also acts as an excellent introduction for newcomers to the field and offers established rf/microwave engineers a comprehensive refresher.  The content is roughly classified into two – the first two chapters provide the necessary fundamentals, while the last three chapters focus on design and applications. Chapter 2 covers detailed treatment of transmission lines. The Smith chart is utilized in this chapter as an important tool in the synthesis of matching networks for microwave amplifiers. Chapter 3 contains an exhaustive review of microstrip circuits, culled from various references. Chapter 4 offers practical design information on solid state amplifiers, while Chapter 5 contains topics on the design of modern planar filters, some of which were seldom published previously. A set of problems at the end of each chapter provides the readers with exercises which were compiled from actual uni...

  14. Differential Evolution-Based PID Control of Nonlinear Full-Car Electrohydraulic Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimoh O. Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a differential-evolution- (DE- optimized, independent multiloop proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller design for full-car nonlinear, electrohydraulic suspension systems. The multiloop PID control stabilises the actuator via force feedback and also improves the system performance. Controller gains are computed using manual tuning and through DE optimization to minimise a performance index, which addresses suspension travel, road holding, vehicle handling, ride comfort, and power consumption constraints. Simulation results showed superior performance of the DE-optimized PID-controlled active vehicle suspension system (AVSS over the manually tuned PID-controlled AVSS and the passive vehicle suspension system (PVSS.

  15. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    fluid-fluid interface [2]. Together with Remco Tuinier, Henk has recently completed a book in this area which is to appear later this year. A major theme in Henk's research is that of phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals. Henk, together with Daan Frenkel and Alain Stroobants, realized in the 1980s that a smectic phase in dispersions of rod-like particles can be stable without the presence of attractive interactions, similar to nematic ordering as predicted earlier by Onsager [3]. Together with Gert-Jan Vroege he wrote a seminal review in this area [4]. Henk once said that 'one can only truly develop one colloidal model system in one's career' and in his case this must be that of gibbsite platelets. Initially Henk's group pursued another polymorph of aluminium hydroxide, boehmite, which forms rod-like particles [5], which already displayed nematic liquid crystal phases. The real breakthrough came when the same precursors treated the produced gibbsite platelets slightly differently. These reliably form a discotic nematic phase [6] and, despite the polydispersity in their diameter, a columnar phase [7]. A theme encompassing a wide range of soft matter systems is that of colloidal dynamics and phase transition kinetics. Many colloidal systems have a tendency to get stuck in metastable states, such as gels or glasses. This is a nuisance if one wishes to study phase transitions, but it is of great practical significance. Such issues feature in many of Henk's publications, and with Valerie Anderson he wrote a highly cited review in this area [8]. Henk Lekkerkerker has also invested significant effort into the promotion of synchrotron radiation studies of colloidal suspensions. He was one of the great supporters of the Dutch-Belgian beamline 'DUBBLE' project at the ESRF [9]. He attended one of the very first experiments in Grenoble in 1999, which led to a Nature publication [7]. He was strongly involved in many other experiments which followed and also has been a

  16. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a "tall-thin" rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse "Violin-Mode" vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor's DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor's more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz-300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m-1 was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC/DC transimpedance gain ratio

  17. Inductive Communication System Design Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    The report documents the experience obtained during the design and development of the Inductive Communications System used in the Morgantown People Mover. The Inductive Communications System is used to provide wayside-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-waysid...

  18. Embedded Systems Design with FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Pnevmatikatos, Dionisios; Sklavos, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This book presents methodologies for modern applications of embedded systems design, using field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices.  Coverage includes state-of-the-art research from academia and industry on a wide range of topics, including advanced electronic design automation (EDA), novel system architectures, embedded processors, arithmetic, dynamic reconfiguration and applications. Describes a variety of methodologies for modern embedded systems design;  Implements methodologies presented on FPGAs; Covers a wide variety of applications for reconfigurable embedded systems, including Bioinformatics, Communications and networking, Application acceleration, Medical solutions, Experiments for high energy physics, Astronomy, Aerospace, Biologically inspired systems and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  19. Design of Distributed Voting Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meter, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Countries like Estonia, Norway or Australia developed electronic voting systems, which could be used to realize parliamentary elections with the help of personal computers and the Internet. These systems are completely different in their design and their way to solve the same problem. In this thesis, we analyze some of the largest real-world systems, describe their building blocks and their general design to focus on possible problems in these electronic voting systems. Furthermore, we presen...

  20. Software for CCTV systems design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamek Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the software, which is used in the design of the CCTV systems. It shows tools available online, tools for PC and mobile applications. It describes the basic components of the camera systems, their characteristics and current trends in CCTV systems. Moreover, it compares two selected software tools, their features and supported functions. In the practical part, these tools are used for the design of a CCTV system and the whole process is described in detail.

  1. Software-Design-Analyzer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    CRISP-90 software-design-analyzer system, update of CRISP-80, is set of computer programs constituting software tool for design and documentation of other software and supporting top-down, hierarchical, modular, structured methodologies for design and programming. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

  2. HYPER system design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won S.; Han, Seok J.; Song, Tae Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    KAERI is developing ADS, named HYPER for the transmutation of nuclear waste. HYPER is designed to produce 1000 MWth with the subcriticality of 0.97. HYPER adopts a hollow cylinder type metal fuel and require 1.0GeV, 16mA proton beams. Pb-Bi is used as coolant and the inlet and outlet temperatures are 340 deg C, 510 deg C, respectively. In addition, Pb-Bi coolant is used as spallation target also. HYPER is expected to incinerate about 380 kg of TRU a year, which is corresponding to the support ratio 5 {approx} 6. 23 refs., 50 figs., 31 tabs. (Author)

  3. 48 CFR 2909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 2909.407... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2909.407 Suspension. (a) The Senior... authorized to make an exception, regarding suspension by another agency suspending official under the...

  4. Fundamentals of electronic systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Lienig, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This textbook covers the design of electronic systems from the ground up, from drawing and CAD essentials to recycling requirements. Chapter by chapter, it deals with the challenges any modern system designer faces: the design process and its fundamentals, such as technical drawings and CAD, electronic system levels, assembly and packaging issues and appliance protection classes, reliability analysis, thermal management and cooling, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), all the way to recycling requirements and environmental-friendly design principles. Enables readers to face various challenges of designing electronic systems, including coverage from various engineering disciplines; Written to be accessible to readers of varying backgrounds; Uses illustrations extensively to reinforce fundamental concepts; Organized to follow essential design process, although chapters are self-contained and can be read in any order.

  5. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  6. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  7. Design Theory in Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Gregor

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore an important category of information systems knowledge that is termed “design theory”. This knowledge is distinguished as the fifth of five types of theory: (i) theory for analysing and describing, (ii) theory for understanding, (iii) theory for predicting, (iv) theory for explaining and predicting, and (v) theory for design and action. Examples of design theory in information systems are provided, with associated research methods. The limited understanding...

  8. Systems design for remote healthcare

    CERN Document Server

    Bonfiglio, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a multidisciplinary overview of the design and implementation of systems for remote patient monitoring and healthcare. Readers are guided step-by-step through the components of such a system and shown how they could be integrated in a coherent framework for deployment in practice. The authors explain planning from subsystem design to complete integration and deployment, given particular application constraints. Readers will benefit from descriptions of the clinical requirements underpinning the entire application scenario, physiological parameter sensing techniques, information processing approaches and overall, application dependent system integration. Each chapter ends with a discussion of practical design challenges and two case studies are included to provide practical examples and design methods for two remote healthcare systems with different needs. ·         Provides a multi-disciplinary overview of next-generation mobile healthcare system design; ·         Includes...

  9. Reconfigurable system design and verification

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Huang, Chun-Hsian

    2009-01-01

    Reconfigurable systems have pervaded nearly all fields of computation and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Reconfigurable System Design and Verification provides a compendium of design and verification techniques for reconfigurable systems, allowing you to quickly search for a technique and determine if it is appropriate to the task at hand. It bridges the gap between the need for reconfigurable computing education and the burgeoning development of numerous different techniques in the design and verification of reconfigurable systems in various application domains. The text e

  10. FEATURES OF DESIGN OF TIED-ARCH BRIDGES WITH FLEXIBLE INCLINED SUSPENSION HANGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Samosvat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation and analysis of the hanger arrangement and the structural stability of a Network arch bridge – a tied-arch bridge with inclined hangers that cross each other at least twice. It is also necessary to make a comparative analysis with other types of hanger arrangements. Methodology. The authors in their research investigated a large number of parameters to determine their influence in the force distribution in the arch. Eventually they determined optimal values for all parameters. These optimal values allowed developing a design guide that leads to optimal arch design. When solving this problem, the authors used three-dimensional finite element models and the objective was to determine the most suitable solution for a road bridge, with a span of 100 meters, consisting of two inclined steel arches, located on a road with two traffic lanes, subjected to medium traffic. The virtual prototype of the model is performed by finite element simulator Midas Civil. Findings. In this study, for the bridge deck, a concrete tie appears to be the best solution considering the structural behavior of network arches, but economic advantages caused by easier erection may lead to steel or a composite bridge deck as better alternatives. Design requirements and local conditions of each particular bridge project will decide the most economic deck design.Originality. To ensure passenger comfort and the stability and continuity of the track, deformations of bridges are constricted. A network arch is a stiff structure with small deflections and therefore suitable to comply with such demands even for high speed railway traffic.
A network arch bridge with a concrete tie usually saves more than half the steel required for tied arches with vertical hangers and concrete ties. Practical value. Following the study design advice given in this article leads to savings of about 60 % of structural steel compared with conventional tied arch bridges with

  11. Modular system design and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Mark Sh

    2015-01-01

    This book examines seven key combinatorial engineering frameworks (composite schemes consisting of algorithms and/or interactive procedures) for hierarchical modular (composite) systems. These frameworks are based on combinatorial optimization problems (e.g., knapsack problem, multiple choice problem, assignment problem, morphological clique problem), with the author’s version of morphological design approach – Hierarchical Morphological Multicritieria Design (HMMD) – providing a conceptual lens with which to elucidate the examples discussed. This approach is based on ordinal estimates of design alternatives for systems parts/components, however, the book also puts forward an original version of HMMD that is based on new interval multiset estimates for the design alternatives with special attention paid to the aggregation of modular solutions (system versions). The second part of ‘Modular System Design and Evaluation’ provides ten information technology case studies that enriches understanding of th...

  12. Relating Systems Thinking & Design 2013. Emerging Contexts for Systemic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Sevaldson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AHO – Oslo School of Architecture & Design, Norway, invites to the Relating Systems Thinking and Design to a free and open symposium over two days 9th-11th October 2013, with a preceding full day with diverse workshops and a subsequent special issue in FORMakademisk.

  13. Launch vehicle systems design analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  14. Automated extraction system design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, H.L.; Eklund, J.D.; Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.

    1979-03-01

    The Automated Extraction System (AES) is an advanced fullface continuous mining system designed and built by National Mine Service Co. Since initial testing in a coal mine revealed operational problems, a design review was conducted. Two potential conceptual problems were identified: the roof control concept and the hydraulic sumping concept. It is felt that the combination of uneven and cyclic roof loading may promote roof failure even in bolted roof areas. Critical design problem areas include weight and balance, friction-induced excessive sumping forces, and design complexity.

  15. A semi-closed recirculating system for the in situ study of feeding and respiration of benthic suspension feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ribes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspension feeding is one of the most widespread feeding strategies among benthic organisms. However, natural feeding ecology and energetics of benthic suspension feeders are poorly known. The scarcity of field methods, apparatus and protocols that facilitate obtention of reliable in situ data has contributed to this lack of knowledge. A detailed description of an improved semi-closed recirculating system as well as the experimental set up is provided for the study of energetics in benthic suspension feeders. The system, completely submersible and surface-independent, allows us to assess oxygen concentration changes and feeding rates under natural conditions. Methodological examinations are conducted to investigate: a the circulation of the water within the chamber; b the time required for the flushing pump to entirely renew the volume of water of the incubation chambers; c the behavior of the species within the chambers; d the time of acclimation to the chamber conditions for the different species; e the maximum decrease in oxygen concentration without affecting respiration rate; f the time required to detect changes in concentration of the natural food sources. The system and experimental protocol is tested with species from three representative phyla, Porifera, Cnidaria and Tunicata.

  16. Measurement of Vibrations in Two Tower-Typed Assistant Personal Robot Implementations with and without a Passive Suspension System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Javier; Clotet, Eduard; Tresanchez, Marcel; Martínez, Dani; Casanovas, Jordi; Palacín, Jordi

    2017-05-14

    This paper presents the vibration pattern measurement of two tower-typed holonomic mobile robot prototypes: one based on a rigid mechanical structure, and the other including a passive suspension system. Specific to the tower-typed mobile robots is that the vibrations that originate in the lower part of the structure are transmitted and amplified to the higher areas of the tower, causing an unpleasant visual effect and mechanical stress. This paper assesses the use of a suspension system aimed at minimizing the generation and propagation of vibrations in the upper part of the tower-typed holonomic robots. The two robots analyzed were equipped with onboard accelerometers to register the acceleration over the X, Y, and Z axes in different locations and at different velocities. In all the experiments, the amplitude of the vibrations showed a typical Gaussian pattern which has been modeled with the value of the standard deviation. The results have shown that the measured vibrations in the head of the mobile robots, including a passive suspension system, were reduced by a factor of 16.

  17. Measurement of Vibrations in Two Tower-Typed Assistant Personal Robot Implementations with and without a Passive Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moreno

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the vibration pattern measurement of two tower-typed holonomic mobile robot prototypes: one based on a rigid mechanical structure, and the other including a passive suspension system. Specific to the tower-typed mobile robots is that the vibrations that originate in the lower part of the structure are transmitted and amplified to the higher areas of the tower, causing an unpleasant visual effect and mechanical stress. This paper assesses the use of a suspension system aimed at minimizing the generation and propagation of vibrations in the upper part of the tower-typed holonomic robots. The two robots analyzed were equipped with onboard accelerometers to register the acceleration over the X, Y, and Z axes in different locations and at different velocities. In all the experiments, the amplitude of the vibrations showed a typical Gaussian pattern which has been modeled with the value of the standard deviation. The results have shown that the measured vibrations in the head of the mobile robots, including a passive suspension system, were reduced by a factor of 16.

  18. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect "Violin-Mode" (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a "synthesized split photodiode" detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC "shadow notch" outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing "jitter" at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  19. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect "Violin-Mode" (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a "synthesized split photodiode" detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC "shadow notch" outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing "jitter" at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  20. Full factorial experimental design applied to oxalic acid photocatalytic degradation in TiO2 aqueous suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Barka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Full factorial experimental design technique was used to study the main effects and the interaction effects between operational parameters in the photocatalytic degradation of oxalic acid in a batch photo-reactor using TiO2 aqueous suspension. The important parameters which affect the removal efficiency of oxalic acid such as agitation, initial concentration, volume of the solution and TiO2 dosage were investigated. The parameters were coded as X1, X2, X3 and X4, consecutively, and were investigated at two levels (−1 and +1. The effects of individual variables and their interaction effects for dependent variables, namely, photocatalytic degradation efficiency (% were determined. From the statistical analysis, the most effective parameters in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency were initial concentration and volume of solution. The interaction between initial concentration, volume of solution and TiO2 dosage was the most influencing interaction. However, the interaction between agitation, initial concentration and volume of solution was the least influencing parameter.

  1. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  2. Design Theory in Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Gregor

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore an important category of information systems knowledge that is termed “design theory”. This knowledge is distinguished as the fifth of five types of theory: (i theory for analysing and describing, (ii theory for understanding, (iii theory for predicting, (iv theory for explaining and predicting, and (v theory for design and action. Examples of design theory in information systems are provided, with associated research methods. The limited understanding and recognition of this type of theory in information systems indicates that further debate concerning its nature and role in our discipline is needed.

  3. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  4. Designing a Campus Signage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll Univ Bus, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Explains a new system that combines architectural and graphic skills to direct, inform, and control the increasing numbers of people who attend various campus activities. Article was prepared by Interior Space Designers (ISD), Incorporated of New York. (WM)

  5. A piezoelectric active mirror suspension system embedded into low-temperature cofired ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocinski, Maciej; Leinonen, Mikko; Juuti, Jari; Jantunen, Heli

    2012-09-01

    Low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) has proven to be a cost-effective, flexible technology for producing complicated structures such as sensors, actuators, and microsystems. This paper presents a piezoelectric active mirror suspension system embedded into LTCC. In the structure, the LTCC was used as a package, for the passive layers of piezoelectric monomorphs, as support for the mirrors, and as a substrate for the conductors. The active mirror structure, 17 mm in diameter, was made by compiling 20 LTCC layers using common LTCC processing techniques. Each sample contained a laser-micromachined bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT) structure which formed a monomorph with the LTCC during the firing process. A mirror substrate (diameter 4 mm) was mounted in the middle of the monomorph arms for evaluation of the positioning performance, where each of the three arms had independent signal electrodes and a common ground electrode. Electrical and electromechanical properties were investigated with an LCR meter, network analyzer, and laser vibrometer for the different arms and the mirror. The active mirror structure exhibited more than 1 μm dc displacement for mirror leveling and also allowed small changes in mirror angle up to 0.06°. The first bending resonance frequency of the structure with the mirror was detected at 11.31 kHz with 4.0 μm displacement; 13.02 kHz and 2.7 μm were obtained without the mirror. The structure exhibited characteristics feasible for further utilization in tunable Fabry-Perot filter applications, allowing the mounting of active mirrors on both sides with distance and angle control.

  6. System design projects for undergraduate design education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batill, S. M.; Pinkelman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Design education has received considerable in the recent past. This paper is intended to address one aspect of undergraduate design education and that is the selection and development of the design project for a capstone design course. Specific goals for a capstone design course are presented and their influence on the project selection are discussed. The evolution of a series of projects based upon the design of remotely piloted aircraft is presented along with students' perspective on the capstone experience.

  7. The use of morphogenic suspension cultures for the development of a protoplast regeneration system in lily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Famelaer, L.; Bordas, M.; Baliu', E.; Ennik, E.; Meijer, H.; Tuyl, van J.M.; Creemers-Molenaar, J.

    1997-01-01

    The present study reports data on the development of a protoplast regeneration procedure in lily. Established morphogenic suspension cultures were obtained from callus cultures induced on mature embryos from crosses between cultivars of L. longiflorum. The effect on the frequency of protoplast

  8. The stress system in a suspension of heavy particles: antisymmetric contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea; Zhang, Q.; Ichiki, K.

    2006-01-01

    The nature of the stress in a suspension of equal homogeneous spheres all subject to the same force, such as weight, is considered; inertial effects are neglected. This study builds upon some of the well-known work devoted to this problem by the founder of the Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Professor

  9. Network synthesis and parameter optimization for vehicle suspension with inerter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to design a comfortable-oriented vehicle suspension structure, the network synthesis method was utilized to transfer the problem into solving a timing robust control problem and determine the structure of “inerter–spring–damper” suspension. Bilinear Matrix Inequality was utilized to obtain the timing transfer function. Then, the transfer function of suspension system can be physically implemented by passive elements such as spring, damper, and inerter. By analyzing the sensitivity and quantum genetic algorithm, the optimized parameters of inerter–spring–damper suspension were determined. A quarter-car model was established. The performance of the inerter–spring–damper suspension was verified under random input. The simulation results manifested that the dynamic performance of the proposed suspension was enhanced in contrast with traditional suspension. The root mean square of vehicle body acceleration decreases by 18.9%. The inerter–spring–damper suspension can inhibit the vertical vibration within the frequency of 1–3 Hz effectively and enhance the performance of ride comfort significantly.

  10. Design of a recovery system for a reentry vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eckroth, Wulf; Garrard, William L.; Miller, Norman

    Engineers are often required to design decelerator systems which are deployed in cross-wind orientations. If the system is not designed to minimize 'line sail', damage to the parachutes could result. A Reentry Vehicle Analysis Code (RVAC) and an accompanying graphics animation software program (DISPLAY) are presented in this paper. These computer codes allow the user to quickly apply the Purvis line sail modeling technique to any vehicle and then observe the relative motion of the vehicle, nose cap, suspension lines, pilot and drogue bags and canopies on a computer screen. Data files are created which allow plots of velocities, spacial positions, and dynamic pressures versus time to be generated. The code is an important tool for the design engineer because it integrates two degrees of freedom (DOF) line sail equations with a three DOF model of the reentry body and jettisoned nose cap to provide an animated output.

  11. Design of a recovery system for a reentry vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Eckroth, Wulf; Garrard, William L.; Miller, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Engineers are often required to design decelerator systems which are deployed in cross-wind orientations. If the system is not designed to minimize 'line sail', damage to the parachutes could result. A Reentry Vehicle Analysis Code (RVAC) and an accompanying graphics animation software program (DISPLAY) are presented in this paper. These computer codes allow the user to quickly apply the Purvis line sail modeling technique to any vehicle and then observe the relative motion of the vehicle, nose cap, suspension lines, pilot and drogue bags and canopies on a computer screen. Data files are created which allow plots of velocities, spacial positions, and dynamic pressures versus time to be generated. The code is an important tool for the design engineer because it integrates two degrees of freedom (DOF) line sail equations with a three DOF model of the reentry body and jettisoned nose cap to provide an animated output.

  12. Modeling Kinetics of CO2 (Carbon Dioxide Mineral Sequestration in Heterogeneous Aqueous Suspensions Systems of Cement Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Świnder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to reduce CO2 emission in the environment has encouraged people to search for solutions for its safe capture and storage. Known methods for carbon dioxide mineral sequestration are based primarily on the use of its binding reaction with metal oxides, mainly earth metals. Increasingly important, due to the availability and price, are processes based on the suspension of various wastes such as fly ash, cement dust or furnace slag. Due to the complexity of the mineral sequestration of CO2 in water-waste suspensions, an important issue is to determine the reaction mechanisms. This applies mainly to the initial period of the transformation phase of mineral wastes, and consequently with the occurrence of a number of transition states of ionic equilibria. The mechanisms and reaction rates in the various stages of the process of CO2 mineral sequestration in heterogeneous systems containing selected wastes are defined herein. This paper presents a method of modeling kinetics of this type of process, developed on the basis of the results of the absorption of CO2 thanks to the aqueous suspension of fly ash and cement dust. This allowed for the transfer of obtained experimental results into the mathematical formula, using the invariant function method, used to describe the processes.

  13. Solution or suspension - Does it matter for lipid based systems? In vivo studies of chase dosing lipid vehicles with aqueous suspensions of a poorly soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A T; Holm, R; Müllertz, A

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the potential of co-administering an aqueous suspension with a placebo lipid vehicle, i.e. chase dosing, was investigated in rats relative to the aqueous suspension alone or a solution of the drug in the lipid vehicle. The lipid investigated in the present study was Labrafil M2125CS and three evaluated poorly soluble model compounds, danazol, cinnarizine and halofantrine. For cinnarizine and danazol the oral bioavailability in rats after chase dosing or dosing the compound dissolved in Labrafil M21515CS was similar and significantly higher than for the aqueous suspension. For halofantrine the chase dosed group had a tendency towards a low bioavailability relative to the Labrafil M2125CS solution, but still a significant higher bioavailability relative to the aqueous suspension. This could be due to factors such as a slower dissolution rate in the intestinal phase of halofantrine or a lower solubility in the colloidal structures formed during digestion, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The study thereby supported the potential of chase dosing as a potential dosing regimen in situations where it is beneficial to have a drug in the solid state, e.g. due to chemical stability issues in the lipid vehicle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transtibial prosthesis suspension failure during skydiving freefall: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Assaf T; Land, Rebekah M

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the unusual case of an everyday-use prosthesis suspension system failure during the freefall phase of a skydiving jump. The case individual was a 53-year-old male with a left transtibial amputation secondary to trauma. He used his everyday prosthesis, a transtibial endoskeleton with push-button, plunger-releasing, pin-locking silicon liner suction suspension and a neoprene knee suspension sleeve, for a standard recreational tandem skydive. Within seconds of exiting the plane, the suspension systems failed, resulting in the complete prosthesis floating away. Several factors may have led to suspension system failure, including an inadequate seal and material design of the knee suspension sleeve and liner, lack of auxiliary suspension mechanisms, and lack of a safety cover overlying the push-button release mechanism. This is the first report, to our knowledge, to discuss prosthetic issues specifically related to skydiving. While amputees are to be encouraged to participate in this extreme sport, special modifications to everyday components may be necessary to reduce the possibility of prosthesis failure during freefall, parachute deployment, and landing.

  15. Static Output-Feedback Control for Vehicle Suspensions: A Single-Step Linear Matrix Inequality Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Rubió-Massegú

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new strategy to design static output-feedback controllers for a class of vehicle suspension systems is presented. A theoretical background on recent advances in output-feedback control is first provided, which makes possible an effective synthesis of static output-feedback controllers by solving a single linear matrix inequality optimization problem. Next, a simplified model of a quarter-car suspension system is proposed, taking the ride comfort, suspension stroke, road holding ability, and control effort as the main performance criteria in the vehicle suspension design. The new approach is then used to design a static output-feedback H∞ controller that only uses the suspension deflection and the sprung mass velocity as feedback information. Numerical simulations indicate that, despite the restricted feedback information, this static output-feedback H∞ controller exhibits an excellent behavior in terms of both frequency and time responses, when compared with the corresponding state-feedback H∞ controller.

  16. Networking systems design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Effectively integrating theory and hands-on practice, Networking Systems Design and Development provides students and IT professionals with the knowledge and skills needed to design, implement, and manage fully functioning network systems using readily available Linux networking tools. Recognizing that most students are beginners in the field of networking, the text provides step-by-step instruction for setting up a virtual lab environment at home. Grounded in real-world applications, this book provides the ideal blend of conceptual instruction and lab work to give students and IT professional

  17. 5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

  18. Requirements analysis and system design

    CERN Document Server

    Maciaszek, Leszek A

    2007-01-01

    An examination of the methods and techniques used in the analysis and design phases of Information System development. Emphasis is placed upon the application of object technology in enterprise information systems (EIS) with UML being used throughout. Through its excellent balance of practical explanation and theoretical insight the book manages to avoid unnecessary, complicating details without sacrificing rigor. Examples of real-world scenarios are used throughout, giving the reader an understanding of what really goes on within the field of Software Engineering.

  19. Test techniques: A survey paper on cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Robert A.; Dress, David A.; Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to get good experimental data in wind tunnels is often compromised by things seemingly beyond our control. Inadequate Reynolds number, wall interference, and support interference are three of the major problems in wind tunnel testing. Techniques for solving these problems are available. Cryogenic wind tunnels solve the problem of low Reynolds number. Adaptive wall test sections can go a long way toward eliminating wall interference. A magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) completely eliminates support interference. Cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and MSBS are surveyed. A brief historical overview is given and the present state of development and application in each area is described.

  20. Fatigue Criterion for System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeretsky, E. V.

    1986-01-01

    Report discusses principles of structural-life prediction. Generalized methodology developed for structural life prediction, design, and reliability, based upon fatigue criterion. Approach incorporates computed life of elemental stress volumes of complex machine elements to predict system life. Results of coupon fatigue testing incorporated into analysis, allowing for life prediction and component or structural renewal rates, with reasonable statistical certainty.

  1. Design of interpretable fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cpałka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book shows that the term “interpretability” goes far beyond the concept of readability of a fuzzy set and fuzzy rules. It focuses on novel and precise operators of aggregation, inference, and defuzzification leading to flexible Mamdani-type and logical-type systems that can achieve the required accuracy using a less complex rule base. The individual chapters describe various aspects of interpretability, including appropriate selection of the structure of a fuzzy system, focusing on improving the interpretability of fuzzy systems designed using both gradient-learning and evolutionary algorithms. It also demonstrates how to eliminate various system components, such as inputs, rules and fuzzy sets, whose reduction does not adversely affect system accuracy. It illustrates the performance of the developed algorithms and methods with commonly used benchmarks. The book provides valuable tools for possible applications in many fields including expert systems, automatic control and robotics.

  2. [Technological innovation and humanitarianism in the transport of war wounded: Nicasio Landa's report on a new elastic suspension system for stretchers (Pamplona, May 29, 1875)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizabalaga, Jon; García-Reyes, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In May 1875, in the midst of a bloody civil conflict in Spain known as the Third Carlist War, Nicasio Landa, a medical officer with Military Health, wrote a report requesting authorization for the Spanish Red Cross, of which he was Inspector General, to adopt a new elastic suspension system for stretchers that he had designed, developed and tested. Intended above all for use in farm wagons - still the most widely-used method of transporting the wounded at the time - it was an inexpensive, sturdy mechanism that improved patient comfort and could also be installed in ambulance carriages, railway carriages and hospital ships. An annotated version of the report is included, preceded by a presentation of its contents.

  3. Consistent Design of Dependable Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    1996-01-01

    Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented.......Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented....

  4. 48 CFR 2509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2509.407 Section 2509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2509.407 Suspension. ...

  5. 48 CFR 609.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 609.407 Section 609.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 609.407 Suspension. ...

  6. 48 CFR 1309.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1309.407 Section 1309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1309.407 Suspension. ...

  7. 48 CFR 509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 509.407 Section 509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 509.407 Suspension. ...

  8. 48 CFR 9.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 9.407 Section 9.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407 Suspension. ...

  9. 48 CFR 909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 909.407 Section 909.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 909.407 Suspension. ...

  10. 48 CFR 809.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 809.407 Section 809.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 809.407 Suspension. ...

  11. 48 CFR 1509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 1509.407 Section 1509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 1509.407 Suspension. ...

  12. 48 CFR 409.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 409.407 Section 409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 409.407 Suspension. ...

  13. 48 CFR 2009.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2009.407 Section 2009.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2009.407 Suspension. ...

  14. 48 CFR 309.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 309.407 Section 309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 309.407 Suspension. ...

  15. 48 CFR 1409.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1409.407 Section 1409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1409.407 Suspension. ...

  16. Microminiature inertial measurement system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gang; Gu, Qitai

    2000-05-01

    The microminiature inertial measurement system, a new style of the inertial measurement system, has many advantages compared with the traditional one, such as small size, light weight, low cost, little power consumption, high bearing capacity and long life. Undoubtedly, it will have wider applications in military and commercial fields. However, it is a pity that current micro inertial sensors do not have enough accuracy. Therefore, its applications were limited to some extent. This paper described a design of microminiature inertial measurement system and its composing and operating theory. In addition, its performance and applications were evaluated.

  17. Identifiable piezoelectric security system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-10-01

    Directing at the disadvantages of low environmental suitability, inferior anti-interference ability and being easy to be found and destroyed in existing security product, a kind of identifiable piezoelectric security system based on piezoelectric cable is designed. The present system gathers vibration signals of different moving bodies, such as human, vehicles, animals and so on, with piezoelectric cable buried under -ground and distinguishes the different moving bodies through recognition algorithm and thus giving an alarm. As is shown in experiments, the present system has the features of good concealment and high accuracy in distinguishing moving bodies.

  18. Expanded Equations for Torque and Force on a Cylindrical Permanent Magnet Core in a Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1997-01-01

    The expanded equations for torque and force on a cylindrical permanent magnet core in a large-gap magnetic suspension system are presented. The core is assumed to be uniformly magnetized, and equations are developed for two orientations of the magnetization vector. One orientation is parallel to the axis of symmetry, and the other is perpendicular to this axis. Fields and gradients produced by suspension system electromagnets are assumed to be calculated at a point in inertial space which coincides with the origin of the core axis system in its initial alignment. Fields at a given point in the core are defined by expanding the fields produced at the origin as a Taylor series. The assumption is made that the fields can be adequately defined by expansion up to second-order terms. Examination of the expanded equations for the case where the magnetization vector is perpendicular to the axis of symmetry reveals that some of the second-order gradient terms provide a method of generating torque about the axis of magnetization and therefore provide the ability to produce six-degree-of-freedom control.

  19. Engineering Design Information System (EDIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.S.; Short, R.D.; Schwarz, R.K.

    1990-11-01

    This manual is a guide to the use of the Engineering Design Information System (EDIS) Phase I. The system runs on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., IBM 3081 unclassified computer. This is the first phase in the implementation of EDIS, which is an index, storage, and retrieval system for engineering documents produced at various plants and laboratories operated by Energy Systems for the Department of Energy. This manual presents on overview of EDIS, describing the system's purpose; the functions it performs; hardware, software, and security requirements; and help and error functions. This manual describes how to access EDIS and how to operate system functions using Database 2 (DB2), Time Sharing Option (TSO), Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF), and Soft Master viewing features employed by this system. Appendix A contains a description of the Soft Master viewing capabilities provided through the EDIS View function. Appendix B provides examples of the system error screens and help screens for valid codes used for screen entry. Appendix C contains a dictionary of data elements and descriptions.

  20. Telecommunications Systems Design Techniques Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, R. E. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) increasingly supports deep space missions sponsored and managed by organizations without long experience in DSN design and operation. The document is intended as a textbook for those DSN users inexperienced in the design and specification of a DSN-compatible spacecraft telecommunications system. For experienced DSN users, the document provides a reference source of telecommunication information which summarizes knowledge previously available only in a multitude of sources. Extensive references are quoted for those who wish to explore specific areas more deeply.

  1. ARGOS laser system mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deysenroth, M.; Honsberg, M.; Gemperlein, H.; Ziegleder, J.; Raab, W.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Borelli, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    ARGOS, a multi-star adaptive optics system is designed for the wide-field imager and multi-object spectrograph LUCI on the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope). Based on Rayleigh scattering the laser constellation images 3 artificial stars (at 532 nm) per each of the 2 eyes of the LBT, focused at a height of 12 km (Ground Layer Adaptive Optics). The stars are nominally positioned on a circle 2' in radius, but each star can be moved by up to 0.5' in any direction. For all of these needs are following main subsystems necessary: 1. A laser system with its 3 Lasers (Nd:YAG ~18W each) for delivering strong collimated light as for LGS indispensable. 2. The Launch system to project 3 beams per main mirror as a 40 cm telescope to the sky. 3. The Wave Front Sensor with a dichroic mirror. 4. The dichroic mirror unit to grab and interpret the data. 5. A Calibration Unit to adjust the system independently also during day time. 6. Racks + platforms for the WFS units. 7. Platforms and ladders for a secure access. This paper should mainly demonstrate how the ARGOS Laser System is configured and designed to support all other systems.

  2. Simple suspension culture system of human iPS cells maintaining their pluripotency for cardiac cell sheet engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a simple three-dimensional (3D) suspension culture method for the expansion and cardiac differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is reported. The culture methods were easily adapted from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D culture without any additional manipulations. When hiPSCs were directly applied to 3D culture from 2D in a single-cell suspension, only a few aggregated cells were observed. However, after 3 days, culture of the small hiPSC aggregates in a spinner flask at the optimal agitation rate created aggregates which were capable of cell passages from the single-cell suspension. Cell numbers increased to approximately 10-fold after 12 days of culture. The undifferentiated state of expanded hiPSCs was confirmed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, and the hiPSCs differentiated into three germ layers. When the hiPSCs were subsequently cultured in a flask using cardiac differentiation medium, expression of cardiac cell-specific genes and beating cardiomyocytes were observed. Furthermore, the culture of hiPSCs on Matrigel-coated dishes with serum-free medium containing activin A, BMP4 and FGF-2 enabled it to generate robust spontaneous beating cardiomyocytes and these cells expressed several cardiac cell-related genes, including HCN4, MLC-2a and MLC-2v. This suggests that the expanded hiPSCs might maintain the potential to differentiate into several types of cardiomyocytes, including pacemakers. Moreover, when cardiac cell sheets were fabricated using differentiated cardiomyocytes, they beat spontaneously and synchronously, indicating electrically communicative tissue. This simple culture system might enable the generation of sufficient amounts of beating cardiomyocytes for use in cardiac regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A neural-network-based model for the dynamic simulation of the tire/suspension system while traversing road irregularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Paolo; Rocca, Gianpiero; Gobbi, Massimiliano

    2008-09-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of the tire/suspension dynamics by using recurrent neural networks (RNNs). RNNs are derived from the multilayer feedforward neural networks, by adding feedback connections between output and input layers. The optimal network architecture derives from a parametric analysis based on the optimal tradeoff between network accuracy and size. The neural network can be trained with experimental data obtained in the laboratory from simulated road profiles (cleats). The results obtained from the neural network demonstrate good agreement with the experimental results over a wide range of operation conditions. The NN model can be effectively applied as a part of vehicle system model to accurately predict elastic bushings and tire dynamics behavior. Although the neural network model, as a black-box model, does not provide a good insight of the physical behavior of the tire/suspension system, it is a useful tool for assessing vehicle ride and noise, vibration, harshness (NVH) performance due to its good computational efficiency and accuracy.

  4. A reliable method for spectrophotometric determination of glycine betaine in cell suspension and other systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Bustos, Ma Guadalupe; Aguado-Santacruz, Gerardo Armando; Tiessen-Favier, Axel; Robledo-Paz, Alejandrina; Muñoz-Orozco, Abel; Rascón-Cruz, Quintin; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio

    2016-04-01

    Glycine betaine is a quaternary ammonium compound that accumulates in a large variety of species in response to different types of stress. Glycine betaine counteracts adverse effects caused by abiotic factors, preventing the denaturation and inactivation of proteins. Thus, its determination is important, particularly for scientists focused on relating structural, biochemical, physiological, and/or molecular responses to plant water status. In the current work, we optimized the periodide technique for the determination of glycine betaine levels. This modification permitted large numbers of samples taken from a chlorophyllic cell line of the grass Bouteloua gracilis to be analyzed. Growth kinetics were assessed using the chlorophyllic suspension to determine glycine betaine levels in control (no stress) cells and cells osmotically stressed with 14 or 21% polyethylene glycol 8000. After glycine extraction, different wavelengths and reading times were evaluated in a spectrophotometer to determine the optimal quantification conditions for this osmolyte. Optimal results were obtained when readings were taken at a wavelength of 290 nm at 48 h after dissolving glycine betaine crystals in dichloroethane. We expect this modification to provide a simple, rapid, reliable, and cheap method for glycine betaine determination in plant samples and cell suspension cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reactor Design for Bioelectrochemical Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Mohanakrishna, G.

    2017-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are novel hybrid systems which are designed to generate renewable energy from the low cost substrate in a sustainable way. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are the well studied application of BES systems that generate electricity from the wide variety of organic components and wastewaters. MFC mechanism deals with the microbial oxidation of organic molecules for the production of electrons and protons. The MFC design helps to build the electrochemical gradient on anode and cathode which leads for the bioelectricity generation. As whole reactions of MFCs happen at mild environmental and operating conditions and using waste organics as the substrate, it is defined as the sustainable and alternative option for global energy needs and attracted worldwide researchers into this research area. Apart from MFC, BES has other applications such as microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) for biohydrogen production, microbial desalinations cells (MDCs) for water desalination, and microbial electrosynthesis cells (MEC) for value added products formation. All these applications are designed to perform efficiently under mild operational conditions. Specific strains of bacteria or specifically enriched microbial consortia are acting as the biocatalyst for the oxidation and reduction of BES. Detailed function of the biocatalyst has been discussed in the other chapters of this book.

  6. A simple and effective system for foreign gene expression in plants via root absorption of agrobacterial suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Jingying; Li, Liang; Fan, Yajun; Wang, Xiufeng; Song, Yehua; Sun, Shaoguang; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xingzhi

    2008-04-30

    Due to the laborious and scale-up limitation we have developed a simple system named "root absorption" to express foreign proteins in plants successfully. It has been shown that GFP was expressed in tobacco plants by root absorbing the Agrobacterium suspension containing TMV-based P35S-30B-GFP vector. Various factors influencing the gene expression were studied including Agrobacterium cell density, seedling age, plant materials and inoculation conditions. This system has the special advantages as simple and convenient work process, ease to scale-up and higher level of expression than leaf infiltration. Interestingly, GFP was expressed at 24h post-absorption. We assume that the root absorption system will facilitate the large-scale production of the recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in plants by means of transient expression.

  7. Distributed Persistent Identifiers System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Golodoniuc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementation, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have, by in large, catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, and persistence, regardless of the identifier’s application domain. Trustworthiness of these systems has been measured by the criteria first defined by Bütikofer (2009 and further elaborated by Golodoniuc 'et al'. (2016 and Car 'et al'. (2017. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by a single organisation they faced challenges for widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. We believe that a cause of PID systems that were once successful fading away is the centralisation of support infrastructure – both organisational and computing and data storage systems. In this paper, we propose a PID system design that implements the pillars of a trustworthy system – ensuring identifiers’ independence of any particular technology or organisation, implementation of core PID system functions, separation from data delivery, and enabling the system to adapt for future change. We propose decentralisation at all levels — persistent identifiers and information objects registration, resolution, and data delivery — using Distributed Hash Tables and traditional peer-to-peer networks with information replication and caching mechanisms, thus eliminating the need for a central PID data store. This will increase overall system fault tolerance thus ensuring its trustworthiness. We also discuss important aspects of the distributed system’s governance, such as the notion of the authoritative source and data integrity

  8. Flywheel Magnetic Suspension Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, Alan; Kenny, Andrew; Sifford, Curtiss; Thomas, Erwin; Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Provenza, Andrew; Kascak, Albert; Montague, Gerald; Lei, Shuliang; Kim, Yeonkyu; hide

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of many areas of the flywheel magnetic suspension (MS) R&D being performed at the Texas A&M Vibration Control and Electromechanics Lab (TAMU-VCEL). This includes system response prediction, actuator optimization and redundancy, controller realizations and stages, sensor enhancements and backup bearing reliability.

  9. 36 CFR 223.141 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 223.141 Section... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Suspension and Debarment of Timber Purchasers § 223.141 Suspension. (a) The suspending official may, in the public interest, suspend a purchaser on the basis of...

  10. Flow dynamics of pulp fiber suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Carla; Garcia, Fernando; Ferreira, Paulo; Rasteiro, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The transport between different equipment and unit operations plays an important role in pulp and paper mills because fiber suspensions differ from all other solid-liquid systems, due to the complex interactions between the different pulp and paper components. Poor understanding of the suspensions’ flow dynamics means the industrial equipment design is usually conservative and frequently oversized, thus contributing to excessive energy consumption in the plants. Our study aim was ...

  11. A CONCEPT OF SOLAR TRACKER SYSTEM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Meita Rumbayan *, Muhamad Dwisnanto Putro

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of solar panel efficiency is an ongoing research work recently. Maximizing the output power by integrating with the solar tracker system becomes a interest point of the research. This paper presents the concept in designing a solar tracker system applied to solar panel. The development of solar panel tracker system design that consist of system display prototype design, hardware design, and algorithm design. This concept is useful as the control system for solar tracker to improve...

  12. Computerized Adaptive Testing System Design: Preliminary Design Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Paul R.

    A functional design model for a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system was developed and presented through a series of hierarchy plus input-process-output (HIPO) diagrams. System functions were translated into system structure: specifically, into 34 software components. Implementation of the design in a physical system was addressed through…

  13. A prospective, randomized, controlled study of a suspension positioning system used with elderly bedridden patients with neurogenic fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Yin; Lin, Shi-Quan; zhou, Ye-Wen; Zhou, Ye-Wen; Liu, Si-Ya; Lin, Ai; Lin, Xi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Elderly patients with acute neurological impairment are prone to severe disability, fecal incontinence (FI), and resultant complications. A suspension positioning system (SPS), based on the orthopedic suspension traction system commonly used for conservative treatment of pediatric femoral fracture and uncomplicated adult pelvic fracture, was developed to facilitate FI management in patients immobilized secondary to an acute neurological condition. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the system, a prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted between October 2009 and July 2012. Two hundred (200) elderly, bedridden, hospitalized patients with acute, nonchronic neurological impairment were randomly assigned to receive routine FI nursing care (ie, individualized dietary modification, psychological support, health education, and social support for caregivers and family members [control group]) or routine incontinence care plus the SPS (experimental group) during the day. Rates of perianal fecal contamination, skin breakdown, incontinence associated dermatitis, pressure ulcer development, and lower urinary tract infection (LUTI) were significantly lower in the SPS than in the control group (P care were also lower in the SPS group (P <0.05). Patient quality-of-life (QoL) and FI QoL scores were similar at baseline but significantly higher (better) at the 6-month follow-up interview in the SPS than in the control group (P <0.05). In this study, the rate of FI-associated morbidities was lower and 6-month patient QoL scores were higher in the SPS than in the control group. No adverse events were observed, and all patients completed the study. Further clinical studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of SPS use among neurologically impaired FI patients.

  14. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. C. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Hazelwood, K. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Morris, D. K. [Fermilab; Murphy, M. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. [Fermilab; Yang, M-J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  15. Roll- and pitch-plane-coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension. Part 2: dynamic response analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2010-04-01

    In the first part of this study, the potential performance benefits of fluidically coupled passive suspensions were demonstrated through analyses of suspension properties, design flexibility and feasibility. In this second part of the study, the dynamic responses of a vehicle equipped with different configurations of fluidically coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension systems are investigated for more comprehensive assessments of the coupled suspension concepts. A generalised 14 degree-of-freedom nonlinear vehicle model is developed and validated to evaluate vehicle ride and handling dynamic responses and suspension anti-roll and anti-pitch characteristics under various road excitations and steering/braking manoeuvres. The dynamic responses of the vehicle model with the coupled suspension are compared with those of the unconnected suspensions to demonstrate the performance potential of the fluidic couplings. The dynamic responses together with the suspension properties suggest that the full-vehicle-coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension could offer considerable potential in realising enhanced ride and handling performance, as well as improved anti-roll and anti-pitch properties in a very flexible and energy-saving manner.

  16. Design correctness of digital systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, C.

    1998-01-01

    Transformational design is a formal technique directed at design correctness. It integrates design and verification by the use of pre-proven behaviour preserving transformations as design steps. A formal framework is necessary but hidden for the designer. Five formal aspects are integrated in the

  17. Optimization of nonlinear quarter car suspension-seat-driver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Mahesh P; Vikhe Patil, Gahininath J; Zaware Patil, Rahul N

    2016-11-01

    In this paper a nonlinear quarter car suspension-seat-driver model was implemented for optimum design. A nonlinear quarter car model comprising of quadratic tyre stiffness and cubic stiffness in suspension spring, frame, and seat cushion with 4 degrees of freedom (DoF) driver model was presented for optimization and analysis. Suspension system was aimed to optimize the comfort and health criterion comprising of Vibration Dose Value (VDV) at head, frequency weighted RMS head acceleration, crest factor, amplitude ratio of head RMS acceleration to seat RMS acceleration and amplitude ratio of upper torso RMS acceleration to seat RMS acceleration along with stability criterion comprising of suspension space deflection and dynamic tyre force. ISO 2631-1 standard was adopted to assess ride and health criterions. Suspension spring stiffness and damping and seat cushion stiffness and damping are the design variables. Non-dominated Sort Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) and Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization - Crowding Distance (MOPSO-CD) algorithm are implemented for optimization. Simulation result shows that optimum design improves ride comfort and health criterion over classical design variables.

  18. Exploring teacher's instructional design practices from a systems design perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogveld, Bert; Paas, Fred; Jochems, Wim; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Hoogveld, A. W. M., Paas, F., Jochems, W. M. G., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2002). Exploring teacher's instructional design practices from a systems design perspective. Instructionals Science, 30, 291-305.

  19. Systems Thinking in Design: Service Design and self-Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Darzentas; Jenny Siobhane Darzentas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, it seeks to use a practical real-world example to demonstrate the power of a systems thinking perspective in design, and more specifically in the design of services...

  20. Motion stability of high-speed maglev systems in consideration of aerodynamic effects: a study of a single magnetic suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the intrinsic mechanism of aerodynamic effects on the motion stability of a high-speed maglev system was investigated. The concept of a critical speed for maglev vehicles considering the aerodynamic effect is proposed. The study was carried out based on a single magnetic suspension system, which is convenient for proposing relevant concepts and obtaining explicit expressions. This study shows that the motion stability of the suspension system is closely related to the vehicle speed when aerodynamic effects are considered. With increases of the vehicle speed, the stability behavior of the system changes. At a certain vehicle speed, the stability of the system reaches a critical state, followed by instability. The speed corresponding to the critical state is the critical speed. Analysis reveals that when the system reaches the critical state, it takes two forms, with two critical speeds, and thus two expressions for the critical speed are obtained. The conditions of the existence of the critical speed were determined, and the effects of the control parameters and the lift coefficient on the critical speed were analyzed by numerical analysis. The results show that the first critical speed appears when the aerodynamic force is upward, and the second critical speed appears when the aerodynamic force is downward. Moreover, both critical speeds decrease with the increase of the lift coefficient.

  1. Design and components of photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the various aspects of photovoltaic (PV) system components and design. The basic performance of cells, modules, and inverters and how this is used in PV system design is described. Two case studies illustrating PV system design are presented: a hybrid system on

  2. ITER Disruption Mitigation System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, David; Lyttle, M. S.; Baylor, L. R.; Carmichael, J. R.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Combs, S. K.; Ericson, N. M.; Bull-Ezell, N. D.; Fehling, D. T.; Fisher, P. W.; Foust, C. R.; Ha, T.; Meitner, S. J.; Nycz, A.; Shoulders, J. M.; Smith, S. F.; Warmack, R. J.; Coburn, J. D.; Gebhart, T. E.; Fisher, J. T.; Reed, J. R.; Younkin, T. R.

    2015-11-01

    The disruption mitigation system for ITER is under design and will require injection of up to 10 kPa-m3 of deuterium, helium, neon, or argon material for thermal mitigation and up to 100 kPa-m3 of material for suppression of runaway electrons. A hybrid unit compatible with the ITER nuclear, thermal and magnetic field environment is being developed. The unit incorporates a fast gas valve for massive gas injection (MGI) and a shattered pellet injector (SPI) to inject a massive spray of small particles, and can be operated as an SPI with a frozen pellet or an MGI without a pellet. Three ITER upper port locations will have three SPI/MGI units with a common delivery tube. One equatorial port location has space for sixteen similar SPI/MGI units. Supported by US DOE under DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  3. Three-axial evaluation of whole-body vibration in agricultural telehandlers: The effects of an active cab-suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Preti, Christian; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2017-10-01

    Agricultural and earth-moving machinery operators are particularly exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV), which has severe effects on health and affects comfort and performance. Few studies have investigated vibrational safety and comfort issues in telescopic handlers. These vehicles are widespread in many off-road applications-such as construction, agriculture, and mining-used to handle loads and to lift persons and equipment. This study investigated the effects of an active hydro-pneumatic cab-suspension system fitted to a telehandler on a driver's vibration exposure along the x-, y-, and z-axes, through both objective and subjective assessments. Sixteen healthy professional telehandler drivers took part in the study. Objective measurements were acquired at the operator's seat, and subjective ratings were taken while participants drove the telehandler with either a deactivated or activated suspension system at 12 kph on an ISO 5008 smooth track. The results showed that the activation of the cab-suspension system reduced the root-mean-square acceleration along the x- and z-axes (p =.038 and p =.000, respectively). Moreover, the frequency analysis showed a reduction in the acceleration along the z-axis in the range of 2-25 Hz (p suspension systems are discussed.

  4. 48 CFR 42.1302 - Suspension of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1302 Suspension of work. A suspension of work under a construction or architect... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of work. 42...

  5. Multidisciplinary systems engineering architecting the design process

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Demijohn, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This book presents Systems Engineering from a modern, multidisciplinary engineering approach, providing the understanding that all aspects of systems design, systems, software, test, security, maintenance and the full life-cycle must be factored in to any large-scale system design; up front, not factored in later. It lays out a step-by-step approach to systems-of-systems architectural design, describing in detail the documentation flow throughout the systems engineering design process. It provides a straightforward look and the entire systems engineering process, providing realistic case studies, examples, and design problems that will enable students to gain a firm grasp on the fundamentals of modern systems engineering.  Included is a comprehensive design problem that weaves throughout the entire text book, concluding with a complete top-level systems architecture for a real-world design problem.

  6. A magneto rheological hybrid damper for railway vehicles suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe GHITA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High speed railway vehicles features a specific lateral oscillation resulting from the coupled lateral displacement and yaw of the wheelset which leads to a sinusoid movement of the wheelset along the track, transferred to the entire vehicle. The amplitude of this oscillation is strongly dependant on vehicle’s velocity. Over a certain value, namely the critical speed, the instability phenomenon so-called hunting occurs. To raise the vehicle’s critical speed different designs of the suspension all leading to a much stiffer vehicle can be envisaged. Different simulations prove that a stiffer central suspension will decrease the passenger’s comfort in terms of lateral accelerations of the carboy. The authors propose a semi-active magneto rheological suspension to improve the vehicle’s comfort at high speeds. The suspension has as executive elements hybrid magneto rheological dampers operating under sequential control strategy type balance logic. Using an original mathematical model for the lateral dynamics of the vehicle the responses of the system with passive and semi-active suspensions are simulated. It is shown that the semi-active suspension can improve the vehicle performances.

  7. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  8. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  9. On the design of reversible QDCA systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBenedictis, Erik P.; Frank, Michael P. (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL); Ottavi, Marco; Frost-Murphy, Sarah E. (University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN)

    2006-10-01

    This work is the first to describe how to go about designing a reversible QDCA system. The design space is substantial, and there are many questions that a designer needs to answer before beginning to design. This document begins to explicate the tradeoffs and assumptions that need to be made and offers a range of approaches as starting points and examples. This design guide is an effective tool for aiding designers in creating the best quality QDCA implementation for a system.

  10. TFTR neutral beam systems conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The functions, design requirements, and design descriptions of the injection system are described. Cost summaries are given for each system and subsystem. The costs presented are for: materials procurement; and shipping, assembly, and installation at the Princeton site. (MOW)

  11. COMPLEX DESIGN OF INTEGRATED MATERIAL FLOW SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    PÉTER TELEK; TAMÁS BÁNYAI

    2013-01-01

    Material flow systems have in generally very complex structure and relations. During design, building and operation of complex systems there are many different problems. This paper shows some usable solution for the design and selection process of material flow systems. We give a short overview about the theoretical principles of the design process, then describe the base design tasks, the possibilities of the using of heuristic algorithms and the modelling of material flow systems. At the en...

  12. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianze, Li; Hengwei, Lu; Chuan, Jiang; Luan, Hou; Xia, Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  13. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  14. Research on conceptual design of mechatronic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/sadh/031/06/0661-0669. Keywords. Conceptual design; interface matching; mechatronic system; cyclic feedback mapping. ... Finally, a computer-aided conceptual design automatic software system for mechatronic systems is developed and the conceptual design of a computerised ...

  15. Object oriented design of the Liverpool Telescope Robotic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stephen N.; Steele, Iain A.

    2002-12-01

    In the traditional, manned observatory, an astronomer must continually be weighing together many factors during the course of an observing run in order to make an appropriate decision on the course of action at that time. Weather conditions may force suspension of the observing program to protect the telescope, later to be resumed when conditions improve. Power outages may force controlled shutdown of computers and other hardware. Changes in sky condition may require on-the-fly changes to the scheduled program. For the Liverpool Telescope (LT), the Robotic Control System (RCS) is designed to act as a replacement for the duty astronomer. The system is required to be robust, reliable and adaptable e.g. to future instrument configurations and varying operational objectives. Consequently, object-oriented techniques which promote modularity and code re-use have been employed throughout the design of this system to facilitate maintainance and future upgrading. This paper describes the task management architecture (TMA) - a configurable, pattern based object model defining the cognitive functionality of the RCS, the environment monitoring architecture (EMA) - a configurable, rule-based decision making paradigm and the use of our proprietary Java message system (JMS) communications architecture to control the telescope and associated instrumentation.

  16. A New Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller with a Disturbance Estimator for Robust Vibration Control of a Semi-Active Vehicle Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Keun Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC to improve control performances in the presence of uncertainties related to model errors and external disturbance (UAD. As a first step, an adaptive control law is designed using Lyapunov stability analysis. The control law can update control parameters of the FSMC with a disturbance estimator (DE in which the closed-loop stability and finite-time convergence of tracking error are guaranteed. A solution for estimating the compensative quantity of the impact of UAD on a control system and a set of solutions are then presented in order to avoid the singular cases of the fuzzy-based function approximation, increase convergence ability, and reduce the calculating cost. Subsequently, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified through the investigation of vibration control performances of a semi-active vehicle suspension system featuring a magnetorheological damper (MRD. It is shown that the proposed controller can provide better control ability of vibration control with lower consumed power compared with two existing fuzzy sliding mode controllers.

  17. Experimental investigation on momentum and drag reduction of Malaysian crop suspensions in closed conduit flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. M.; Kazi, S. N.; Khan, G.; Dahari, M.; Zubir, M. N. M.; Ahmad, P.; Montazer, E.

    2017-06-01

    The study of frictional losses in fiber suspension flow is one of the significant scientific interests as the characteristics of suspension flow considerably changes with shear stress, fiber source, and treatments applied on fibers. Pressure drop measurements were obtained for different Malaysian crop fiber suspensions flowing through a closed conduit. The generated data were gathered over a range of flow rates and suspension concentrations. It was found that the magnitude of the pressure drop of the fiber suspensions is dependent on the concentration, characteristics, and fiber source. Considerable drag reduction is obtained for concentration of 0.6 wt. % at high flow rates. Such a reduction of pressure drop at the particular concentrations and the flow rates is interesting and useful as these data can be used for design and optimization of fiber handling equipment and piping systems. Furthermore, the effect of different fibers, fiber properties and flexibility on pressure drop were studied.

  18. Hybrid robot climbing system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purna Irawan, Agustinus; Halim, Agus; Kurniawan, Hengky

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to develop a climbing hybrid robot, especially to design the structure of robot that quite strong and how to build an optimal mechanism for transmitting the motor’s rotation and torque to generate movement up the pole. In this research we use analytical methods using analysis software, simulation, a prototype, and robot trial. The result showed that robot could climb a pole by with maximum velocity 0.33m/s with a 20 kg load. Based on a weight diversity trial between 10 kg and 20 kg we obtained climb up load factor with value 0.970 ± 0.0223 and climb down load factor with value 0.910 ± 0.0163. Displacement of the frame structure was 7.58 mm. To minimize this displacement, the gate system was used so as to optimize the gripper while gripping the pole. The von Misses stress in the roller was 48.49 MPa, with 0.12 mm of displacement. This result could be a reference for robot development in further research.

  19. Relating Systems Thinking and Design I. Practical Advances in Systemic Design

    OpenAIRE

    Birger Sevaldson; Ryan, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    This issue, Relating Systems Thinking and Design I – Practical Advances in Systemic Design, along with Issue 7:4, Relating Systems Thinking II – Theoretical Evolution in Systemic Design, together form a double special issue of FORMakademisk on the theory and practice of Systemic Design.

  20. System level ESD co-design

    CERN Document Server

    Gossner, Harald

    2015-01-01

    An effective and cost efficient protection of electronic system against ESD stress pulses specified by IEC 61000-4-2 is paramount for any system design. This pioneering book presents the collective knowledge of system designers and system testing experts and state-of-the-art techniques for achieving efficient system-level ESD protection, with minimum impact on the system performance. All categories of system failures ranging from ‘hard’ to ‘soft’ types are considered to review simulation and tool applications that can be used. The principal focus of System Level ESD Co-Design is defining and establishing the importance of co-design efforts from both IC supplier and system builder perspectives. ESD designers often face challenges in meeting customers' system-level ESD requirements and, therefore, a clear understanding of the techniques presented here will facilitate effective simulation approaches leading to better solutions without compromising system performance. With contributions from Robert Asht...

  1. Design of Mobility System for Ground Model of Planetary Exploration Rover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younkyu Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of missions have been planned and conducted worldwide on the planets such as Mars, which involves the unmanned robotic exploration with the use of rover. The rover is an important system for unmanned planetary exploration, performing the locomotion and sample collection and analysis at the exploration target of the planetary surface designated by the operator. This study investigates the development of mobility system for the rover ground model necessary to the planetary surface exploration for the benefit of future planetary exploration mission in Korea. First, the requirements for the rover mobility system are summarized and a new mechanism is proposed for a stable performance on rough terrain which consists of the passive suspension system with 8 wheeled double 4-bar linkage (DFBL, followed by the performance evaluation for the mechanism of the mobility system based on the shape design and simulation. The proposed mobility system DFBL was compared with the Rocker-Bogie suspension system of US space agency National Aeronautics and Space Administration and 8 wheeled mobility system CRAB8 developed in Switzerland, using the simulation to demonstrate the superiority with respect to the stability of locomotion. On the basis of the simulation results, a general system configuration was proposed and designed for the rover manufacture.

  2. Design Process-System and Methodology of Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashier, Fathi

    2017-10-01

    Studies have recognized the failure of the traditional design approach both in practice and in the studio. They showed that design problems today are too complex for the traditional approach to cope with and reflected a new interest in a better quality design services in order to meet the challenges of our time. In the mid-1970s and early 1980s, there has been a significant shift in focus within the field of design research towards the aim of creating a ‘design discipline’. The problem, as will be discussed, is the lack of an integrated theory of design knowledge that can explicitly describe the design process in a coherent way. As a consequence, the traditional approach fails to operate systematically, in a disciplinary manner. Addressing this problem is the primary goal of the research study in the design process currently being conducted in the research-based master studio at Wollega University, Ethiopia. The research study seeks to make a contribution towards a disciplinary approach, through proper understanding the mechanism of knowledge development within design process systems. This is the task of the ‘theory of design knowledge’. In this article the research project is introduced, and a model of the design process-system is developed in the studio as a research plan and a tool of design research at the same time. Based on data drawn from students’ research projects, the theory of design knowledge is developed and empirically verified through the research project.

  3. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  4. Towards design space exploration for biological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polstra, S.; Pronk, T.E.; Pimentel, A.D.; Breit, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    For both embedded systems and biological cell systems, design is a feature that defines their identity. The assembly of different components in designs of both systems can vary widely. Given the similarities between computers and cellular systems, methods and models of computation from the domain of

  5. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Case Management System for Suspension and Debarment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This system collects contact information and other Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Learn how this data will be collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and the record retention policies.

  6. Vibration control of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension with magneto-rheological dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Oh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents vibration control performances of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension system using a magneto-rheological damper tested on the roller rig. In order to evaluate control performances, a mathematical railway vehicle model with 15 degrees of freedom is first derived to represent the lateral, yaw and roll motions of the car body, bogie frame, and wheel set, respectively. Based on the formulated model, the design parameters of magneto-rheological damper are determined to undertake a compatible comparison with dynamic performances of conventional (existing passive railway vehicle suspension system. The designed magneto-rheological damper is manufactured and its field-dependent damping force characteristics are experimentally evaluated. Subsequently, in order to enhance the ride quality of a railway vehicle suspension equipped with magneto-rheological damper, a skyhook controller associated with an extended Kalman filter is designed in a state space representation. The railway suspension system incorporated with the car body and two bogies is then experimentally set up on the roller rig in order to evaluate the ride quality. It is demonstrated from experimental realization of the controller that the ride quality of the suspension system with magneto-rheological damper can be significantly enhanced compared with the existing passive suspension system.

  7. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46 (Usp46 regulates mouse immobile behavior in the tail suspension test through the GABAergic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Imai

    Full Text Available The tail suspension test (TST is widely recognized as a useful experimental paradigm for assessing antidepressant activity and depression-like behavior. We have previously identified ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46 (Usp46 as a quantitative trait gene responsible for decreasing immobility time in the TST in mice. This Usp46 mutation has a 3-bp deletion coding for lysine in the open reading frame, and we indicated that Usp46 is implicated in the regulation of the GABAergic system. However, it is not known precisely how the immobile behavior is regulated by the GABAergic system. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether the immobility time is influenced by drugs affecting the action mediated by GABA(A receptor using both 3-bp deleted (the Usp46 mutant and null Usp46 (Usp46 KO mice. Nitrazepam, an agonist at the benzodiazepine-binding site of the GABA(A receptor, which potentiates the action of GABA, produced a dose-dependent increase in TST immobility time in the Usp46 mutant mice without affecting general behaviors. The Usp46 KO mice exhibited short immobility times comparable to the Usp46 mutant mice, which was also increased by nitrazepam administration. The effects of nitrazepam in the Usp46 mutant and KO mice were antagonized by flumazenil. These results indicate that the 3-bp deleted Usp46 mutation causes a loss-of-function phenotype, and that the GABA(A receptor might participate in the regulation of TST immobility time.

  8. Eyelid reanimation with gold weight implant and tendon sling suspension: evaluation of excursion and velocity using the FACIAL CLIMA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the efficacy of static techniques, namely gold weight implant and tendon sling, in the reanimation of the paralytic eyelid. Upper eyelid rehabilitation in terms of excursion and blinking velocity is performed using the automatic motion capture system, FACIAL CLIMA. Seventy-four patients underwent a total of 101 procedures including 58 upper eyelid gold weight implants and 43 lower eyelid tendon suspension with 27 patients undergoing both procedures. The presence of lagophtalmos, eye dryness, corneal ulcer, epiphora and lower lid ptosis/ectropion was assessed preoperatively. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare preoperative versus postoperative measurements of upper eyelid excursion and blinking velocity determined with FACIAL CLIMA. Significance was set at p CLIMA revealed significant improvement of eyelid excursion and velocity of blinking (p CLIMA system is a reliable method to quantify upper eyelid excursion and blinking velocity and to detect the exact position of the lower eyelid. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An investigation into force-moment calibration techniques applicable to a magnetic suspension and balance system. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskins, Jonathan

    1988-01-01

    The problem of determining the forces and moments acting on a wind tunnel model suspended in a Magnetic Suspension and Balance System is addressed. Two calibration methods were investigated for three types of model cores, i.e., Alnico, Samarium-Cobalt, and a superconducting solenoid. Both methods involve calibrating the currents in the electromagnetic array against known forces and moments. The first is a static calibration method using calibration weights and a system of pulleys. The other method, dynamic calibration, involves oscillating the model and using its inertia to provide calibration forces and moments. Static calibration data, found to produce the most reliable results, is presented for three degrees of freedom at 0, 15, and -10 deg angle of attack. Theoretical calculations are hampered by the inability to represent iron-cored electromagnets. Dynamic calibrations, despite being quicker and easier to perform, are not as accurate as static calibrations. Data for dynamic calibrations at 0 and 15 deg is compared with the relevant static data acquired. Distortion of oscillation traces is cited as a major source of error in dynamic calibrations.

  10. FxLMS Method for Suppressing In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor Vertical Force Based on Vehicle Active Suspension System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan-yang Wang; Yi-nong Li; Wei Sun; Chao Yang; Guang-hui Xu

    2014-01-01

    .... In this paper, the vertical component of SRM unbalanced radial force, which is named as SRM vertical force, is taken into account in suspension performance for in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles (IWM-EV...

  11. Screening candidate systems engineers: a research design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, DP

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors focus on the human dimension of Systems Engineering by addressing the need for the development of systems engineering potential in candidate engineers. Specifically, the authors propose a research design for a systems...

  12. A multidisciplinary design optimization advisory system for aircraft design

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogreef, M.F.M.; d'Ippolito, R.; Augustinus, R.; La Rocca, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the status of development of an MDO advisory system, coupled to an optimization configurator for a process integration and design optimization (PIDO) system. This advisory system can support non-experts in the application of MDO by giving advice on the type of MDO architecture to use and assist in the implementation of the actual problem inside a PIDO system. Both the advisory system and optimization configurator are implemented by means of knowledge based technologies tha...

  13. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a “Violin-Mode” transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance) Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a “tall-thin” rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse “Violin-Mode” vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor’s DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor’s more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz–300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m{sup −1} was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC

  14. Simple adaptive control system design trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the design of a Model Reference Adaptive Control system, a reference model serves as the (well-known) basis through which system and user requirements can find their way into the design. By tuning the design parameters, the response of the actual vehicle should track the response of the

  15. A multidisciplinary design optimization advisory system for aircraft design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogreef, M.F.M.; D'Ippolito, R.; Augustinus, R.; La Rocca, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the status of development of an MDO advisory system, coupled to an optimization configurator for a process integration and design optimization (PIDO) system. This advisory system can support non-experts in the application of MDO by giving advice on the type of MDO architecture to

  16. Comparison of the Production of Recombinant Protein in Suspension Culture of CHO Cells in Spinner Flask and Shake Flask System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N.Z Zainul Abidin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells have been most widely used as the production host for the commercial production of biopharmaceuticals product. They have been extensively studied and developed, and today provide a stable platform for producing monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. This study was focusing on comparison of suspension culture system by using spinner flask and shake flask for the growth and production of recombinant protein in CHO cell line. The CHO cells were transfected with an expression of DNA plasmid containing lac Z gene which codes for β-galactosidase. The recombinant genes in these CHO cells and the β-galactosidase expressing cells were adapted to suspension culture. The agitation speed for both spinner and shake flask were adjusted accordingly. The experiments were carried out in duplicate and samples were taken for cell count, determination of glucose consumption, lactate production and protein level by using biochemical assay. The result showed that, the cell growth in spinner flask is more favorable then in shake flask. The cell concentration in spinner flask is 58% higher than in shake flask. On the other hand, specific activity of β-galactosidase is 25% higher in spinner flask compared to shake flask, at the same agitation speed.ABSTRAK: Sel ovari hamster China (Chinese hamster ovary (CHO digunakan secara meluas dalam hos pembiakan untuk tujuan komersil produk biofarmaseutikal. Ia telah dikaji dan dibangunkan secara ekstensif, dan kini ia menyediakan landasan yang stabil untuk penghasilan antibodi monoklon dan protein rekombinan. Kajian ini memfokuskan tentang penghasilan protein rekombinan menggunakan kultur ampaian sel CHO di dalam kelalang putar dan kelalang goncang. Sel CHO dimasukkan dengan plasmid DNA yang mengandungi gen lac Z yang juga memberikan kod untuk β-galaktosidase. Sel CHO β-galaktosidase-terungkap dimasukkan ke dalam kultur ampaian. Kelajuan agitasi untuk kedua-dua kelalang putar

  17. Systems Thinking in Design: Service Design and self-Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Darzentas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, it seeks to use a practical real-world example to demonstrate the power of a systems thinking perspective in design, and more specifically in the design of services. It makes use of the paradigm of e-accessibility, in the application domain of publicly available self-services. Secondly, the benefits of this perspective will be discussed, through some theoretical tenets of systems thinking, such as the use of emerging properties, the law of requisite variety and notions of second order cybernetics, in terms of the richness that they offer to the conceptualisation and praxis of design in general, and service design in particular. Finally, we speculate on the implications of systems thinking to question the nature of the interdisciplinarity and even transdisciplinarity of design.

  18. A hybrid clustering based fuzzy structure for vibration control - Part 2: An application to semi-active vehicle seat-suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sy Dzung; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-05-01

    This work presents a novel neuro-fuzzy controller (NFC) for car-driver's seat-suspension system featuring magnetorheological (MR) dampers. The NFC is built based on the algorithm for building adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) named B-ANFIS, which has been developed in Part 1, and fuzzy logic inference systems (FISs). In order to create the NFC, the following steps are performed. Firstly, a control strategy based on a ride-comfort-oriented tendency (RCOT) is established. Subsequently, optimal FISs are built based on a genetic algorithm (GA) to estimate the desired damping force that satisfies the RCOT corresponding to the road status at each time. The B-ANFIS is then used to build ANFISs for inverse dynamic models of the suspension system (I-ANFIS). Based on the FISs, the desired force values are calculated according to the status of road at each time. The corresponding exciting current value to be applied to the MR damper is then determined by the I-ANFIS. In order to validate the effectiveness of the developed neuro-fuzzy controller, control performances of the seat-suspension systems featuring MR dampers are evaluated under different road conditions. In addition, a comparative work between conventional skyhook controller and the proposed NFC is undertaken in order to demonstrate superior control performances of the proposed methodology.

  19. Harnessing VLSI System Design with EDA Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Kamat, Rajanish K; Gaikwad, Pawan K; Guhilot, Hansraj

    2012-01-01

    This book explores various dimensions of EDA technologies for achieving different goals in VLSI system design. Although the scope of EDA is very broad and comprises diversified hardware and software tools to accomplish different phases of VLSI system design, such as design, layout, simulation, testability, prototyping and implementation, this book focuses only on demystifying the code, a.k.a. firmware development and its implementation with FPGAs. Since there are a variety of languages for system design, this book covers various issues related to VHDL, Verilog and System C synergized with EDA tools, using a variety of case studies such as testability, verification and power consumption. * Covers aspects of VHDL, Verilog and Handel C in one text; * Enables designers to judge the appropriateness of each EDA tool for relevant applications; * Omits discussion of design platforms and focuses on design case studies; * Uses design case studies from diversified application domains such as network on chip, hospital on...

  20. White poplar (Populus alba L.) suspension cultures as a model system to study apoptosis induced by alfalfa saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrazzi, Alma; Carbonera, Daniela; Avato, Pinarosa; Tava, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    In animal cells, the anticancer function played by plant saponins involves a complex network of molecular processes that still deserves investigation and apoptosis seems to be the outstanding pathway. An intriguing aspect of the biological activity of saponins is related to their effects on genome integrity. As demonstrated by the studies carried out in white poplar (Populus alba L., cv Villafranca) cell suspension cultures, plant cells can as well be used as a model system to unravel the molecular mechanisms activated by plant saponins. These recent studies have evidenced that animal and plant cells share common features in their response to saponins, paving the way for novel opportunities for both basic and applied research. Indeed, there is a certain interest in replacing the animal models for pharmacological research, at least when preliminary large-scale cytotoxicity tests are performed on wide collections of natural extracts and/or purified compounds. The review provides an up-date of the molecular pathways (signal transduction, antioxidant response, DNA repair) associated with plant saponin bioactivity, with an emphasis on apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) saponins. The comparison between animal and plant cells as tools for the study of saponin bioactivity is also discussed in view of the most recent literature and innovative future applications.

  1. Comportement statique et dynamique d'une suspension de haut-parleur à joint de ferrofluide

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the study of the vibratory behavior of ferrofluid seals suspensions used in a new type of loudspeaker. The motor of this loudspeaker has been designed to reduce magnetic nonlinearities and allows ferrofluid seals, as two annular seals, to be used as an alternative to classical viscoelastic suspensions. Seals serve as a link between mobile to fixed part of the system. The originality of this configuration is the presence of high level magnetic field in the loudspeaker...

  2. Introduction to Space Systems Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The definition of all space systems starts with the establishment of its fundamental parameters: requirements to be fulfilled, overall system and satellite design, analysis and design of the critical elements, developmental approach, cost, and schedule. There are only a few texts covering early design of space systems and none of them has been specifically dedicated to it. Furthermore all existing space engineering books concentrate on analysis. None of them deal with space system synthesis – with the interrelations between all the elements of the space system. Introduction to Space Systems concentrates on understanding the interaction between all the forces, both technical and non-technical, which influence the definition of a space system. This book refers to the entire system: space and ground segments, mission objectives as well as to cost, risk, and mission success probabilities. Introduction to Space Systems is divided into two parts. The first part analyzes the process of space system design in an ab...

  3. The Design of Large Technological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    This is a study of the processes of design of large technological systems based on a two-case study: the rapid transit bus system, Transmilenio, in Bogotá, Colombia, and the urban rail system, Metro, in Copenhagen, Denmark. The research focused especially on the process by which designers define...

  4. Design of multistable systems via partial synchronization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 2. Design of multistable systems via partial synchronization. MOHAMMAD ALI KHAN ... In this paper, we introduce a generalized scheme for designing multistable systems by coupling two different dynamical systems. The basic idea of the scheme is to ...

  5. Challenges in Designing Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a systematic and thorough survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order...... to investigate if the challenges can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during...

  6. The development and evaluation of single cell suspension from wheat and barley as a model system; a first step towards functional genomics application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Jing; Bowra, Steve; Vincze, Éva

    2010-01-01

    Background The overall research objective was to develop single cell plant cultures as a model system to facilitate functional genomics of monocots, in particular wheat and barley. The essential first step towards achieving the stated objective was the development of a robust, viable single cell...... suspension culture from both species. Results We established growth conditions to allow routine culturing of somatic cells in 24 well microtiter plate format. Evaluation of the wheat and barley cell suspension as model cell system is a multi step process. As an initial step in the evaluation procedure we...... chose to study the impact of selected abiotic stress elicitors at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level. We report the results of osmotic stress imposed by NaCl and PEG. As proline is an important osmoprotectant of the cereal cells, colorimetric assay for proline detection was developed...

  7. Determination of Weight Suspension Rigidity in the Transport-Erector Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zverev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to determine weight suspension rigidity in aggregates designed to perform technological transport-erector operations at the miscellaneous launch complexes.We consider the weight suspension comprising the following distinctive structural components: the executive weight-lowering mechanism, polyspast mechanism, rope, traverse, and rods. A created structural dynamic model of suspension allowed us to define weight suspension rigidity. Within the framework of design analysis of a dynamic model we determined the rigidity of its structural units, i.e. traverse, rope, and polyspast.Known analytical relationships were used to calculate the rope rigidity. To determine rigidity of polyspast and traverse have been created special models based on the finite element method. For each model deformation in the specific points under the test load have been defined. Data obtained were used to determine trigidity of traverses and polyspast, and also rigidity of suspension in total. The rigidity models of polispast mechanism and traverse have been developed and calculated using the software complex "Zenit-95".As the research results, the paper presents a dynamic model of the weight suspension of the transport-erector aggregate, the finite element models of the polispast mechanism and traverse, an algorithm for determining the weight suspension rigidity and relevant analytical relationships.Independent calculation of weight suspension rigidity enables us to simplify further dynamic calculation of the aggregate-weight system because it allows attaining a simpler model of the aggregate-weight system that uses the weight suspension model as an element of equivalent rigidity. Despite this simplification the model allows us to determine correctly weight movement parameters and overloads in the aggregate-weight system in the process of technical operations.

  8. Participatory simulation in hospital work system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    When ergonomic considerations are integrated into the design of work systems, both overall system performance and employee well-being improve. A central part of integrating ergonomics in work system design is to benefit from emplo y-ees’ knowledge of existing work systems. Participatory simulation...... (PS) is a method to access employee knowledge; namely employees are involved in the simulation and design of their own future work systems through the exploration of models representing work system designs. However, only a few studies have investigated PS and the elements of the method. Yet...... understanding the elements is essential when analyzing and planning PS in research and practice. This PhD study investigates PS and the method elements in the context of the Danish hospital sector, where PS is applied in the renewal and design of public hospitals and the work systems within the hospitals...

  9. A comparative study on the control strategies in vehicle active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Zheng, Ling; Li, Yi-nong

    2005-12-01

    The object of this research was to compare the performances of the active suspension system with three different control strategies. At first, a two degree-of-freedom vehicle model was established in order to study the basis feature of the active suspension system. Then three different control strategies including fuzzy control, optimal control and fuzzy-PID control were designed for the model. Each control strategy has its own characteristics. Therefore, their advantages and disadvantages were discussed in details. The simulation results show that the performances of the active suspension with three different control strategies are improved in riding comfort obviously and the fuzzy-PID control takes the advantages of both fuzzy control and PID control. It can be concluded that the fuzzy-PID control is a useful strategy for the active suspension system.

  10. 26 CFR 301.6503(j)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitations; extension in case of designated and related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitations... ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6503(j)-1 Suspension of running of... running of the applicable period of limitations on assessment provided for in section 6501 is suspended...

  11. Effectiveness of different laser systems to kill Enterococcus faecalis in aqueous suspension and in an infected tooth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, M A; De Prijck, K; Coenye, T; Nelis, H J; De Moor, R J G

    2009-04-01

    To assess the antibacterial action of laser irradiation (Nd:YAG, KTP), photo activated disinfection (PAD) and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on Enterococcus faecalis, in an aqueous suspension and in an infected tooth model. Root canals of 60 human teeth with single straight canals were prepared to apical size 50, autoclaved, inoculated with an E. faecalis suspension and incubated for 48 h. They were randomly allocated to four treatment and one control groups. After treatment, the root canals were sampled by flushing with physiological saline, and the number of surviving bacteria in each canal was determined by plate count and solid phase cytometry. The same experimental or control treatments were completed on aqueous suspensions of E. faecalis, and the number of surviving bacteria was determined in the same way. In aqueous suspension, PAD and NaOCl resulted in a significant reduction in the number of E. faecalis cells (P teeth yielded significantly different results relative to the untreated controls (P faecalis, both in aqueous suspension and in the infected tooth model.

  12. Systemic Design: Two Canadian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces two novel applications of systemic design to facilitate a comparison of alternative methodologies that integrate systems thinking and design. In the first case study, systemic design helped the Procurement Department at the University of Toronto re-envision how public policy is implemented and how value is created in the broader university purchasing ecosystem. This resulted in an estimated $1.5 million in savings in the first year, and a rise in user retention rates from 40% to 99%. In the second case study, systemic design helped the clean energy and natural resources group within the Government of Alberta to design a more efficient and effective resource management system and shift the way that natural resource departments work together. This resulted in the formation of a standing systemic design team and contributed to the creation of an integrated resource management system. A comparative analysis of the two projects identifies a shared set of core principles for systemic design as well as areas of differentiation that reveal potential for learning across methodologies. Together, these case studies demonstrate the complementarity of systems thinking and design thinking, and show how they may be integrated to guide positive change within complex sociotechnical systems.

  13. Embedded systems design with special arithmetic and number systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Leonel; Chang, Chip-Hong

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to alternative approaches to designing efficient embedded systems using unconventional number systems. The authors describe various systems that can be used for designing efficient embedded and application-specific processors, such as Residue Number System, Logarithmic Number System, Redundant Binary Number System Double-Base Number System, Decimal Floating Point Number System and Continuous Valued Number System. Readers will learn the strategies and trade-offs of using unconventional number systems in application-specific processors and be able to apply and design appropriate arithmetic operations from these number systems to boost the performance of digital systems. • Serves as a single-source reference to designing embedded systems with unconventional number systems • Covers theory as well as implementation on application-specific processors • Explains mathematical concepts in a manner accessible to readers with diverse backgrounds.

  14. Designing Systems in an Organizational Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    This dissertation is concerned with the early part of systems design, the purpose of which is that users and their managers can decide which computer-based systems are needed and relevant, and how they can be provided, i.e. purchased, and/or developed, and implemented, in a specific organization....... Systems design begins with a recognition of a possible need for computer support in a specific organization, continues until this need has been analysed, described, evaluated, and discussed, and ends with the description of an overall conceptual and functional design for the corresponding computer......-based systems. The research objective behind this dissertation aims at developing theories of and approaches to systems design, which should provide a basis for designers to improve their work practices. In other words, this dissertation contributes to a clarification of what is going on in design, and how we...

  15. Decentralized systems with design constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides a rigorous examination of the analysis, stability and control of large-scale systems, and addresses the difficulties that arise because of dimensionality, information structure constraints, parametric uncertainty and time-delays.

  16. Simulation systems: design and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Burtseva

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the history of Simulation System Group investigations is presented. Some important achievements in past and present time are marked. The directions of future investigations are discussed in the fourth section of the paper.

  17. Design Automation for Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-16

    Verilog back-end emits them as black boxes. 3.6 System Composition We synthesize a system as a composition of stream-connected pages, where a page...Figure 6.5 shows a sample state flow graph for clustering. Each node denotes a state and its action. Each black 242 Chapter 6. Streaming Programmable...Bilsen, Marc Engels, Rudy Lauwereins, and Jean Peper - straete. Cyclo-static dataflow. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 44(2):397– 408, February

  18. Design of low noise imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Xiaolai

    2017-10-01

    In order to meet the needs of engineering applications for low noise imaging system under the mode of global shutter, a complete imaging system is designed based on the SCMOS (Scientific CMOS) image sensor CIS2521F. The paper introduces hardware circuit and software system design. Based on the analysis of key indexes and technologies about the imaging system, the paper makes chips selection and decides SCMOS + FPGA+ DDRII+ Camera Link as processing architecture. Then it introduces the entire system workflow and power supply and distribution unit design. As for the software system, which consists of the SCMOS control module, image acquisition module, data cache control module and transmission control module, the paper designs in Verilog language and drives it to work properly based on Xilinx FPGA. The imaging experimental results show that the imaging system exhibits a 2560*2160 pixel resolution, has a maximum frame frequency of 50 fps. The imaging quality of the system satisfies the requirement of the index.

  19. Axiomatic Design of Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering is an organized way to design and develop systems, but the initial system design concepts are usually seen as the products of unexplained but highly creative intuition. Axiomatic design is a mathematical approach to produce and compare system architectures. The two axioms are:- Maintain the independence of the functional requirements.- Minimize the information content (or complexity) of the design. The first axiom generates good system design structures and the second axiom ranks them. The closed system human life support architecture now implemented in the International Space Station has been essentially unchanged for fifty years. In contrast, brief missions such as Apollo and Shuttle have used open loop life support. As mission length increases, greater system closure and increased recycling become more cost-effective.Closure can be gradually increased, first recycling humidity condensate, then hygiene wastewater, urine, carbon dioxide, and water recovery brine. A long term space station or planetary base could implement nearly full closure, including food production. Dynamic systems theory supports the axioms by showing that fewer requirements, fewer subsystems, and fewer interconnections all increase system stability. If systems are too complex and interconnected, reliability is reduced and operations and maintenance become more difficult. Using axiomatic design shows how the mission duration and other requirements determine the best life support system design including the degree of closure.

  20. Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.; Osman, Mohammed; Godso, David; King, Brent; Ricciardi, Michael

    1998-01-01

    In this technical document, we describe the design developed for the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Executive Assistant (EA) Proof of Concept (POC). We describe the genesis and role of the ASAC system, discuss the objectives of the ASAC system and provide an overview of components and models within the ASAC system, and describe the design process and the results of the ASAC EA POC system design. We also describe the evaluation process and results for applicable COTS software. The document has six chapters, a bibliography, three appendices and one attachment.

  1. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a “Violin-Mode” shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance), Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect “Violin-Mode” (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a “synthesized split photodiode” detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC “shadow notch” outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing “jitter” at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  2. Design, characterization, and evaluation of meloxicam gel prepared by suspension and solution polymerization using solubility parameter as the basis for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepika; Pathak, Kamla

    2010-03-01

    Meloxicam gel was designed based on the matching of the solubility parameter (delta) of the drug with that of the polymer and subsequently with skin for improved dermal delivery of meloxicam. The delta of meloxicam (11.48 (cal/cm(3))(0.5)) determined by solubility measurement was matched statistically to the solubility parameter of monomers, n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate, ethylene glycol methacrylate (EGMA) determined by intrinsic viscosity measurement. Consequently gels were formulated by polymerization in selected solvent blend of water/ethyl acetate (20:80) in which the drug showed maximum solubility. Thus, F1-F16 formulations designed were evaluated for physicochemical properties, textural analysis, and in vitro drug release. On the basis of optimum characteristics, F2 (PVA, delta = 16.96 (cal/cm(3))(0.5)) and F8 (EGMA, delta = 18.35 (cal/cm(3))(0.5)) formulated by suspension polymerization were selected and subjected to skin irritation and topical anti-inflammatory studies. The formulation F8 demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) of anti-inflammatory activity in comparison to marketed piroxicam gel and was free from irritation.

  3. Optimization of BY-2 cell suspension culture medium for the production of a human antibody using a combination of fractional factorial designs and the response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Grömping, Ulrike; Lipperts, Anja; Raven, Nicole; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a strategy for the optimization of plant cell suspension culture media using a combination of fractional factorial designs (FFDs) and response surface methodology (RSM). This sequential approach was applied to transformed tobacco BY-2 cells secreting a human antibody (M12) into the culture medium, in an effort to maximize yields. We found that the nutrients KNO₃, NH₄NO₃ and CaCl₂ and the hormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) had the most significant impact on antibody accumulation. The factorial screening revealed strong interactions within the nutrients group (KNO₃, NH₄NO₃ and CaCl₂) and also individually between 2,4-D and three other components (KNO₃, NH₄NO₃ and BAP). The RSM design resulted in a fivefold increase in the antibody concentration after 5 days and a twofold reduction in the packed cell volume (PCV). Longer cultivation in the optimized medium led to the further accumulation of antibody M12 in the culture medium (up to 107 μg/mL, day 10). Because the packed cell volume was reduced in the optimized medium, this enhanced the overall yield by 20-fold (day 7) and 31-fold (day 10) compared to the conventional MS medium. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Decoupling Suspension Controller Based on Magnetic Flux Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module’s antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.

  5. A new walker with upper trunk suspension system for severely disabled patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppetta, C; Scoppetta, M

    2013-10-01

    We have recently designed a new type of walker for those severely disabled patients who cannot walk with commonly used medical walkers. A drawing and the description of this new walker is reported in order to permit the worldwide companies as well as artisans to develop and produce it for the people affected from severe motor problems. This walker supposes the patient wearing either a modified climbing harness or equipped clothes and being suspended to the walking frame. It consists in two series of bands suspending the patient from the frame; the upper one suspends him for the upper part of his trunk, the lower one by his pelvis. This walker is suggested for patients belonging to three principal groups: (1) Persons who have no trunk control (e.g.: patients affected by severe stroke or ataxias). (2) Persons whose walk is allowed only if they achieve a significant reduction (up to 30-40%) of the their body weight charging on trunk, spine, and lower limbs. (3) Persons who need a differentiated reduction of the body weight either among anterior and posterior side or among their right and left part of the body (hemiparesis, Parkinson disease, scoliosis, kyphosis). Creating this walker is easy; producing costs are low; there are no maintenance costs.

  6. Differential impact of amino acids on OXPHOS system activity following carbohydrate starvation in Arabidopsis cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, João Henrique F; Quinhones, Carla G S; Schertl, Peter; Brito, Danielle S; Eubel, Holger; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Braun, Hans-Peter; Araújo, Wagner L

    2017-12-01

    Plant respiration mostly depends on the activity of glycolysis and the oxidation of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle to synthesize ATP. However, during stress situations plant cells also use amino acids as alternative substrates to donate electrons through the electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF)/ETF:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) complex to the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC). Given this, we investigated changes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in Arabidopsis thaliana cell culture under carbohydrate starvation supplied with a range of amino acids. Induction of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) activity was observed under carbohydrate starvation which was associated with increased amounts of IVDH protein detected by immunoblotting. Furthermore, activities of the protein complexes of the mETC were reduced under carbohydrate starvation. We also observed that OXPHOS system activity behavior is differently affected by different amino acids and that proteins associated with amino acids catabolism are upregulated in cells following carbohydrate starvation. Collectively, our results support the contention that ETF/ETFQO is an essential pathway to donate electrons to the mETC and that amino acids are alternative substrates to maintain respiration under carbohydrate starvation. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. The Analysis and Design of Distributed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet

    1992-01-01

    The design of distributed object-oriented systems involves a number of considerations that rarely arise in sequential object-oriented design or in non-object-oriented languages. The tutorial describes analysis and design techniques for data abstraction, inheritance, delegation, persistence,

  8. Designing To Learn about Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo, Cindy E.; Holton, Douglas L.; Kolodner, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the presence of complex structural, behavioral, and functional relations to understanding. Reports on a design experiment in which 6th grade children learned about the human respiratory system by designing artificial lungs and building partial working models. Makes suggestions for successful learning from design activities. (Contains 44…

  9. Algebraic Varieties and System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabrandt, Andreas

    Design and analysis of networks have many applications in the engineering sciences. This dissertation seeks to contribute to the methods used in the analysis of networks with a view towards assisting decision making processes. Networks are initially considered as objects in the category of graphs...... and later as objects in the category of hypergraphs. The connection with the category of simplicial pairs become apparent when the topology is analyzed using homological algebra. A topological ranking is developed that measures the ability of the network to stay path-connected. Combined with the analysis...... are called algebraic varieties....

  10. Accelerating Science Driven System Design With RAMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawrzynek, John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Researchers from UC Berkeley, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, are engaged in developing an Infrastructure for Synthesis with Integrated Simulation (ISIS). The ISIS Project was a cooperative effort for “application-driven hardware design” that engages application scientists in the early parts of the hardware design process for future generation supercomputing systems. This project served to foster development of computing systems that are better tuned to the application requirements of demanding scientific applications and result in more cost-effective and efficient HPC system designs. In order to overcome long conventional design-cycle times, we leveraged reconfigurable devices to aid in the design of high-efficiency systems, including conventional multi- and many-core systems. The resulting system emulation/prototyping environment, in conjunction with the appropriate intermediate abstractions, provided both a convenient user programming experience and retained flexibility, and thus efficiency, of a reconfigurable platform. We initially targeted the Berkeley RAMP system (Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors) as that hardware emulation environment to facilitate and ultimately accelerate the iterative process of science-driven system design. Our goal was to develop and demonstrate a design methodology for domain-optimized computer system architectures. The tangible outcome is a methodology and tools for rapid prototyping and design-space exploration, leading to highly optimized and efficient HPC systems.

  11. Design of Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy has become very important both worldwide and on the European market, mainly due to the decrease in the photovoltaic (PV) system cost (up to 75%) during the last decade. PV installations worldwide have reached 227 GW at the end of 2015 with a predicted extra 50 GW of new installat......Renewable energy has become very important both worldwide and on the European market, mainly due to the decrease in the photovoltaic (PV) system cost (up to 75%) during the last decade. PV installations worldwide have reached 227 GW at the end of 2015 with a predicted extra 50 GW of new...

  12. Implantable intraocular pressure monitoring systems: Design considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Design considerations and limitations of implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) systems are presented in this paper. Detailed comparison with the state of the art is performed to highlight the benefits and challenges of the proposed design. The system-on-chip, presented here, is battery free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. This low-cost design, in standard CMOS process, does not require any external components or bond wires to function. This paper provides useful insights to the designers of implantable wireless sensors in terms of design choices and associated tradeoffs. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Risk analysis of computer system designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, A.

    1981-01-01

    Adverse events during implementation can affect final capabilities, schedule and cost of a computer system even though the system was accurately designed and evaluated. Risk analysis enables the manager to forecast the impact of those events and to timely ask for design revisions or contingency plans before making any decision. This paper presents a structured procedure for an effective risk analysis. The procedure identifies the required activities, separates subjective assessments from objective evaluations, and defines a risk measure to determine the analysis results. The procedure is consistent with the system design evaluation and enables a meaningful comparison among alternative designs.

  14. A Design Framework for Awareness Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markopoulos, Panos

    This chapter discusses the design of awareness systems, whose main function is a social one, namely, to support social communication, mediated social interactions and eventually relationships of the individuals they connect. We focus especially on connecting friends and family rather than on systems used in the context of collaborative work. Readers interested in this latter kind of applications are referred to the design frameworks by Ginelle and Gutwin (2005) and Gutwin and Greenberg (2002). Below, we outline the relevant design space and the corresponding challenges for the design of awareness systems. The challenges pertain to social aspects of interaction design rather than the technological challenges relating to such systems. As such, they are inspired by Jonathan Grudin’s exposition of design challenges for the domain of groupware applications (Grudin, 1994).

  15. Model checking embedded system designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Mader, Angelika H.

    2002-01-01

    Model checking has established itself as a successful tool supported technique for the verification and debugging of various hardware and software systems [16]. Not only in academia, but also by industry this technique is increasingly being regarded as a promising and practical proposition,

  16. Software Prototyping: Designing Systems for Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Phyllis Bova

    1983-01-01

    Reports on major change in computer software development process--the prototype model, i.e., implementation of skeletal system that is enhanced during interaction with users. Expensive and unreliable software, software design errors, traditional development approach, resources required for prototyping, success stories, and systems designer's role…

  17. Designing comprehensible self-organising systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Höning (Nicolas); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSelf-organising systems are a popular engineering concept for designing decentralised autonomic computing systems. They are able to find solutions in complex and versatile problem domains, but as they capture more complexity in their own design, they are becoming less and less

  18. Interactive graphical computer-aided design system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    System is used for design, layout, and modification of large-scale-integrated (LSI) metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) arrays. System is structured around small computer which provides real-time support for graphics storage display unit with keyboard, slave display unit, hard copy unit, and graphics tablet for designer/computer interface.

  19. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 2: Data Analyses and Report Writing. Book cover Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 2: Data Analyses and Report. Author(s):. Corlien M. Varkevisser, Indra Pathmanathan, and Ann Brownlee. Publisher(s):. KIT, IDRC.

  20. TWRS information locator database system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-13

    This document gives an overview and description of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD)system design. The TWRS ILD system is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  1. Design Technology for Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Ian; Piguet, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Designing technology to address the problem of heterogeneous embedded systems, while remaining compatible with standard “More Moore” flows, i.e. capable of handling simultaneously both silicon complexity and system complexity, represents one of the most important challenges facing the semiconductor industry today. While the micro-electronics industry has built its own specific design methods to focus mainly on the management of complexity through the establishment of abstraction levels, the emergence of device heterogeneity requires new approaches enabling the satisfactory design of physically heterogeneous embedded systems for the widespread deployment of such systems. This book, compiled largely from a set of contributions from participants of past editions of the Winter School on Heterogeneous Embedded Systems Design Technology (FETCH), proposes a broad and holistic overview of design techniques used to tackle the various facets of heterogeneity in terms of technology and opportunities at the physical ...

  2. CRBRP sodium fire protection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttrey, K. E.

    1984-09-10

    A passive catch pan fire suppression deck system was designed. A large-scale sodium spray fire test showed that the effects of spray burning were being underestimated. A modified computer code indicated that for a design basis IHTS leak in CRBRP, the design allowables would be exceeded. A modified pipe insulation design was developed and tested. The tests and analysis indicate that the concrete temperatures, structural steel temperatures, building pressures, and aerosol releases are now all reduced to acceptable levels. (DLC)

  3. Highly conductive, printable pastes from capillary suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Monica; Koos, Erin; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    We have used the capillary suspension phenomenon to design conductive pastes for printed electronic applications, such as front side metallization of solar cells, without non-volatile, organic additives that often deteriorate electrical properties. Adding a small amount of a second, immiscible fluid to a suspension creates a network of liquid bridges between the particles. This capillary force-controlled microstructure allows for tuning the flow behavior in a wide range. Yield stress and low-shear viscosity can be adjusted such that long-term stability is provided by inhibiting sedimentation, and, even more importantly, narrow line widths and high aspect ratios are accessible. These ternary mixtures, called capillary suspensions, exhibit a strong degree of shear thinning that allows for conventional coating or printing equipment to be used. Finally, the secondary fluid, beneficial for stability and processing of the wet paste, completely evaporates during drying and sintering. Thus, we obtained high purity silver and nickel layers with a conductivity two times greater than could be obtained with state-of-the-art, commercial materials. This revolutionary concept can be easily applied to other systems using inorganic or even organic conductive particles and represents a fundamental paradigm change to the formulation of pastes for printed electronics.

  4. DESIGNING AN EVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botond BENEDEK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet world, the amount of information available reaches very high quotas. In order to find specific information, some tools were created that automatically scroll through the existing web pages and update their databases with the latest information on the Internet. In order to systematize the search and achieve a result in a concrete form, another step is needed for processing the information returned by the search engine and generating the response in a more organized form. Centralizing events of a certain type is useful first of all for creating a news service. Through this system we are pursuing a knowledge - events from the Internet documents - extraction system. The system will recognize events of a certain type (weather, sports, politics, text data mining, etc. depending on how it will be trained (the concept it has in the dictionary. These events can be provided to the user, or it can also extract the context in which the event occurred, to indicate the initial form in which the event was embedded.

  5. Design patterns in medical imaging information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, Kent S., Jr.; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Ching, Wan

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and important conceptual framework of software design for the medical imaging community using design patterns. Use cases are created to summarize operational scenarios of clinicians using the system to complete certain tasks such as image segmentation. During design the Unified Modeling Language is used to translate the use cases into modeling diagrams that describe how the system functions. Next, design patterns are applied to build models that describe how software components interoperate to deliver that functionality. The software components are implemented using the Java language, CORBA architecture, and other web technologies. The biomedical image information system is used in epilepsy neurosurgical planning and diagnosis. This article proposes the use of proven software design models for solving medical imaging informatics design problems. Design patterns provide an excellent vehicle to leverage design solutions that have worked in the past to solve the problems we face in building user-friendly, reliable, and efficient information systems. This work introduces this new technology for building increasing complex medical image information systems. The rigorous application of software design techniques is essential in building information systems that are easy to use, rich in functionality, maintainable, reliable, and updatable.

  6. Communicating embedded systems software and design

    CERN Document Server

    Jard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    The increased complexity of embedded systems coupled with quick design cycles to accommodate faster time-to-market requires increased system design productivity that involves both model-based design and tool-supported methodologies. Formal methods are mathematically-based techniques and provide a clean framework in which to express requirements and models of the systems, taking into account discrete, stochastic and continuous (timed or hybrid) parameters with increasingly efficient tools. This book deals with these formal methods applied to communicating embedded systems by presenting the

  7. Introduction to thermo-fluids systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia McDonald, André

    2012-01-01

    A fully comprehensive guide to thermal systems design covering fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, heat transfer and thermodynamic power cycles Bridging the gap between the fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics, heat transfer and thermodynamics, and the practical design of thermo-fluids components and systems, this textbook focuses on the design of internal fluid flow systems, coiled heat exchangers and performance analysis of power plant systems. The topics are arranged so that each builds upon the previous chapter to convey to the reader that topics are not stand-alone i

  8. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  9. Data base systems in electronic design engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.

    1980-01-01

    The concepts of an integrated design data base system (DBMS) as it might apply to an electronic design company are discussed. Data elements of documentation, project specifications, project tracking, firmware, software, electronic and mechanical design can be integrated and managed through a single DBMS. Combining the attributes of a DBMS data handler with specialized systems and functional data can provide users with maximum flexibility, reduced redundancy, and increased overall systems performance. Although some system overhead is lost due to redundancy in transitory data, it is believed the combination of the two data types is advisable rather than trying to do all data handling through a single DBMS.

  10. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We design and investigate the performance of fuzzy logic-controlled (FLC) active suspensions on a nonlinear vehicle model with four degrees of freedom, without causing any degeneration in suspension working limits. Force actuators were mounted parallel to the suspensions. In this new approach, linear combinations of ...

  11. Removal of bacterial suspension water occupying the intercellular space of detached leaves after agroinfiltration improves the yield of recombinant hemagglutinin in a Nicotiana benthamiana transient gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matsuda, Ryo; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    The use of detached leaves instead of whole plants provides an alternative means for recombinant protein production based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient gene overexpression. However, the process for high-level protein production in detached leaves has not yet been established. In this study, we focused on leaf handling and maintenance conditions immediately after infiltration with Agrobacterium suspension (agroinfiltration) to improve recombinant protein expression in detached Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We demonstrated that the residual water of bacterial suspension in detached leaves had significant impact on the yield of recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (HA). Immediately after agroinfiltration, detached leaves were stored in a dehumidified chamber to allow bacterial suspension water occupying intercellular space to be removed by transpiration. We varied the duration of this water removal treatment from 0.7 to 4.4 h, which resulted in leaf fresh weights ranging from 0.94 to 1.28 g g(-1) relative to weights measured just before agroinfiltration. We used these relative fresh weights (RFWs) as an indicator of the amount of residual water. The detached leaves were then incubated in humidified chambers for 6 days. We found that the presence of residual water significantly decreased HA yield, with a clear inverse correlation observed between HA yield and RFW. We next compared HA yields in detached leaves with those obtained from intact leaves by whole-plant expression performed at the same time. The maximum HA yield obtained from a detached leaf with a RFW of approximately 1.0, namely, 800 μg gFW(-1), was comparable to the mean HA yield of 846 μg gFW(-1) generated in intact leaves. Our results indicate the necessity of removing bacterial suspension water from agroinfiltrated detached leaves in transient overexpression systems and point to a critical factor enabling the detached-leaf system as a viable recombinant protein factory.

  12. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are faced with the problem of determining suspension spring and damper coefficients. Two important ... Replacement of spring damper suspensions of automobiles by active systems has the potential to ..... Rao M V C, Prahlad V 1997 A tunable fuzzy logic controller for vehicle-active suspension systems. Fuzzy Sets Syst.

  13. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  14. Digital television system design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, G. K.

    1976-01-01

    The use of digital techniques for transmission of pictorial data is discussed for multi-frame images (television). Video signals are processed in a manner which includes quantization and coding such that they are separable from the noise introduced into the channel. The performance of digital television systems is determined by the nature of the processing techniques (i.e., whether the video signal itself or, instead, something related to the video signal is quantized and coded) and to the quantization and coding schemes employed.

  15. Costing systems design for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TURTUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an overall image of the way Accounting responds to nowadays user’s needs in relation to the quantification of the impact companies have towards the environment. Regarding this, there have been analyzed concepts like sustainable development, environmental accounting, environmental costs and there have been presented the main progress towards environmental cost identification and measurement from the perspective of Activity Based Costing system. To provide an overall image of this concepts, there have been used as research methodology methods the documentation from literature review, analysis, synthesis and comparison.

  16. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  17. Laser and photonic systems design and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Nof, Shimon Y; Cheng, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    New, significant scientific discoveries in laser and photonic technologies, systems perspectives, and integrated design approaches can improve even further the impact in critical areas of challenge. Yet this knowledge is dispersed across several disciplines and research arenas. Laser and Photonic Systems: Design and Integration brings together a multidisciplinary group of experts to increase understanding of the ways in which systems perspectives may influence laser and photonic innovations and application integration.By bringing together chapters from leading scientists and technologists, ind

  18. Power Systems Design for Long Duration Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Bryan; Chuzel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility has been designing and building high-altitude balloon power systems for over 26 years. With that experience, we have found certain types of PV panels, batteries, and charge controllers that are reliable in stratospheric environments. The ultimate goal is to ensure that power systems will provide power reliably throughout the duration of an LDB flight. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines and best practices for power system design.

  19. The establishment of suspension and meristem cultures for the development of a protoplast regeneration and fusion system in Lily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Famelaer, I.; Ennik, E.; Tuyl, van J.M.; Meijer, H.; Creemers-Molenaar, J.

    1996-01-01

    The present results indicate that established morphogenic suspension cultures can be obtained from crosses between cultivars of L. longiflorum and from a cross between Asiatic hybrid 'Orlito' x 'Connecticut King'. Meristem cultures were obtained from L. longiflorum 'Gelria' and Oriental hybrid 'Star

  20. Cost Optimal System Identification Experiment Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    A structural system identification experiment design method is formulated in the light of decision theory, structural reliability theory and optimization theory. The experiment design is based on a preposterior analysis, well-known from the classical decision theory. I.e. the decisions concerning...... reflecting the cost of the experiment and the value of obtained additional information. An example concerning design of an experiment for parametric identification of a single degree of freedom structural system shows the applicability of the experiment design method.......A structural system identification experiment design method is formulated in the light of decision theory, structural reliability theory and optimization theory. The experiment design is based on a preposterior analysis, well-known from the classical decision theory. I.e. the decisions concerning...

  1. Sedimentation process and design of settling systems

    CERN Document Server

    De, Alak

    2017-01-01

    This book is designed to serve as a comprehensive source of information of sedimentation processes and design of settling systems, especially as applied to design of such systems in civil and environmental engineering. The book begins with an introduction to sedimentation as a whole and goes on to cover the development and details of various settling theories. The book traces the chronological developments of the comprehensive knowledge of settling studies and design of settling systems from 1889.A new concept of 'Velocity Profile Theorem', tool for settling problem analysis, has been employed to the analysis of the phenomenon of short circuiting. Complete theory of tube settling has been developed and its application to the computation of residual solids from the assorted solids through the same has been demonstrated. Experimental verification of the tube settling theory has also been presented. Field-oriented compatible design and operation methodology of settling system has been developed from the detailed...

  2. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiemenz, G J [Techno-Sciences, Inc., 11750 Beltsville Dr. Ste. 300, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Hu, W; Wereley, N M [Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20712 (United States)], E-mail: greg@technosci.com, E-mail: wereley@umd.edu

    2009-02-01

    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  3. Design, Fabrication, and Analysis of a Hybrid FIBER Composite Monoleaf Spring Using Carbon and E-Glass Fibers for Automotive Suspension Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, M.; Tamilselvam, P.; Kumaravelan, R.; Dharmalingam, R.

    2014-03-01

    The leaf spring is an important component that provides suspension and plays a vital role in automotive applications. As a vehicle travels, a tremendous force, mostly in terms of a fatigue load, is applied to the leaf spring assembly, particularly to the eye point of the rear axle. In a vehicle with rear-wheel drive, the leaf spring is subject to twisting forces that are opposite in direction and magnitude during the acceleration of drive wheels. A multileaf spring provides an additional strength, but lacks the flexibility and increases the overall weight of the vehicle. Considering the loading conditions, the availability of space in a vehicle, and geometrical considerations, a composite monoleaf spring is designed. In due consideration of the tensile behavior, fatigue resistance, chipping resistance, and base part resistance, a hybrid laminated spring is constructed for the purpose. The present study focuses on an analysis and behavior of a monoleaf spring made of hybrid composite materials, i.e., carbon and E-glass fibers. It is observed that the natural frequency of a hybrid composite leaf spring is twice the frequency of a conventional leaf spring, particularly in the vertical direction, which means that the occurrences of resonance will be less. Also, it is observed that the stress produced in it is lower than that in a conventional leaf spring. The hybrid composite monoleaf spring proved to have better impact and tensile behavior than a steel one.

  4. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  5. Conceptual design of a noncontacting power transfer device for the ASPS Vernier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, J.; Drilling, J.; Gunderman, T.

    1984-01-01

    The conceptual of electrical power transfer across a magnetically controlled gap as discussed for several years. The design represents the culmination of the first serious attempt to design a very low force, noncontracting power transfer mechanism. The electromagnetic device advanced herein is an ironless, translatable secondary transformer in which one of the two coils is fixed to the entire magnetic core. The second coil is free to move within the core over the full range of motions required. The specific application considered for this design was the Vernier subsystem of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS). The development of and rationale for the electromagnetics design is presented. Similar documentation is provided for the Electronics Design. The Appendices detail the results of small scale model tests, disturbance force calculations, the baseline transformer fabrication drawings, the AVS Converter Parts List, and model schematic diagrams.

  6. Design Methodologies for Secure Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Biedermann, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Embedded systems have been almost invisibly pervading our daily lives for several decades. They facilitate smooth operations in avionics, automotive electronics, or telecommunication. New problems arise by the increasing employment, interconnection, and communication of embedded systems in heterogeneous environments: How secure are these embedded systems against attacks or breakdowns? Therefore, how can embedded systems be designed to be more secure? And how can embedded systems autonomically react to threats? Facing these questions, Sorin A. Huss is significantly involved in the exploration o

  7. The design of remote temperature monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biqing; Li, Zhao; Wei, Liuren

    2017-08-01

    This design is made on the basis of the single-chip microcomputer remote temperature monitoring system. STC89C51RC is the main core part, this design use the sensor DHT11 of temperature or humidity and wireless transceiver NRF24L01 the temperature of the test site for long-range wireless measurement and monitoring. The design contains the main system and the small system, of which the main system can show the actual test site temperature and humidity values, voice broadcast, out of control and receive data alarm function; The small system has the function of temperature and humidity, temperature monitoring and sending data. After debugging, the user customizable alarm upper and lower temperature, when the temperature exceeds limit value, the main system of buzzer alarm immediately. The system has simple structure, complete functions and can alarm in time, it can be widely used remote temperature acquisition and monitoring of the site.

  8. Context-aware system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine S.; Ostertag, Michael H.; Akyürek, Alper Sinan; Šimunić Rosing, Tajana

    2017-05-01

    The Internet of Things envisions a web-connected infrastructure of billions of sensors and actuation devices. However, the current state-of-the-art presents another reality: monolithic end-to-end applications tightly coupled to a limited set of sensors and actuators. Growing such applications with new devices or behaviors, or extending the existing infrastructure with new applications, involves redesign and redeployment. We instead propose a modular approach to these applications, breaking them into an equivalent set of functional units (context engines) whose input/output transformations are driven by general-purpose machine learning, demonstrating an improvement in compute redundancy and computational complexity with minimal impact on accuracy. In conjunction with formal data specifications, or ontologies, we can replace application-specific implementations with a composition of context engines that use common statistical learning to generate output, thus improving context reuse. We implement interconnected context-aware applications using our approach, extracting user context from sensors in both healthcare and grid applications. We compare our infrastructure to single-stage monolithic implementations with single-point communications between sensor nodes and the cloud servers, demonstrating a reduction in combined system energy by 22-45%, and multiplying the battery lifetime of power-constrained devices by at least 22x, with easy deployment across different architectures and devices.

  9. Designing Systems for E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Leitch

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is an important element in all aspects of computing, but proves to be a real problem in the development and delivery of E-Commerce systems. There are many aspects of ethics that can affect E-Commerce systems, but often research is focused on the ethics after the E-Commerce system has been implemented, focusing on issues such as trust, privacy and disclosure. This paper will discuss how ethical matters can affect the design of E-Commerce systems and how a framework designed for E-Commerce can be used to create and deliver effective, ethical E-Commerce systems.

  10. OPTIMUM HEAT STORAGE DESIGN FOR SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral....... The other model is especially designed for low flow SDHW systems based on a mantle tank.The tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the SDHW systems has been investigated in a way where only one tank parameter has been changed at a time in the calculations. In this way a direct analysis...... of the tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the systems is possible. By means of the calculations design rules for the two heat storage types are proposed....

  11. Mechatronic Systems Analysis, Design and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Boukas, El-Kébir

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with the analysis, the design and the implementation of the mechatronic systems. Classical and modern tools are developed for the analysis and the design for such systems. Robust control, H-Infinity and guaranteed cost control theory are also used for analysis and design of mechatronic systems. Different controller such as state feedback, static output feedback and dynamic output feedback controllers are used to stabilize mechatronic systems. Heuristic algorithms are provided to solve the design of the classical controller such as PID, phase lead, phase lag and phase lead-lag controllers while linear matrix inequalities (LMI) algorithms are provided for finding solutions to the state feedback, static output feedback and dynamic output feedback controllers. The theory presented in the different chapters of the volume is applied to numerical examples to show the usefulness of the theoretical results. Some case studies are also provided to show how the developed concepts apply for real system. Em...

  12. Active suspension for a field sprayer boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Skovsgaard; Sørensen, Paul Haase

    1998-01-01

    The possibilities of implementing an active boom suspension is investigated. The performance improvement of an active suspension over a traditional passive one is studied in simulation, and shows a significant improvement. A closed-loop control system involving two ultrasonic distance transducers...

  13. 32 CFR 1609.5 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1609.5 Section 1609.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM UNCOMPENSATED PERSONNEL § 1609.5 Suspension. The Director of Selective Service may suspend from duty any uncompensated person...

  14. Suspension as an Emergency Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amanda L. Tyler

    2009-01-01

    ... Legislation B. Suspension During Reconstruction: Putting Down the Klan in South Carolina IV. UNDERSTANDING SUSPENSION AS AN EMERGENCY POWER A. Reading the Suspension Clause in Context B. Giving Meaning to the Suspension Power C. Mapping the Suspension Clause Within the Constitution V. SUSPENSION AND THE SEPARATION OF POWERS CONCLUSION [A] suspensio...

  15. System-of-Systems Design Thinking on Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing digitalization of all societal systems, informed design of services and systems becomes pertinent for various stakeholders. This paper discusses the design of digital systems in a user-centered way with the help of subject-oriented design. The approach follows a communication-driven and network-centric perspective on a System-of-Systems, whereby system specifications encapsulate behavior and exchange messages, including relevant data, such as business objects. Systems can represent activities of human actors, as well as artefacts. Stakeholders can be actively involved in their roles in the design of a System-of-Systems. In the course of design, they identify and refine role-specific behavior, based on communication to other actors or systems. A System-of-Systems specification evolves as a network of cooperating behavior entities. It develops according to communication needs and system-specific capabilities, on the level of synchronized execution agents, or as an overlay mechanism on existing applications or sub networks. Since certain behavior sequences, such as decision-making procedures, are re-occurring in organizations or eco-systems, the design of complex systems can be facilitated by behavior patterns stemming from existing modeling experiences.

  16. Preliminary design of a future integrated design system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggins, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    IPAD is a system of computer programs and data supporting the aerospace-vehicle design process by providing a set of services to aid in the management of a design project, project technical work, and project support work. Its purpose is to integrate people, programs, and data into a unified aerospace-vehicle design system. All project-management and technical data, together with certain standard data, are stored in a data base. The IPAD functions allow project personnel to query the data base and to perform operations on the data. This permits the orderly sequencing of the task elements of a complex operation and provides common access to a single data base by various participating groups who otherwise would require many separate files. These capabilities will be provided on a single host computer or across multiple heterogeneous computers on a distributed progress basis.

  17. Efficient Design Methods for Embedded Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, design of embedded systems is confronted with complex signal processing algorithms and a multitude of computational intensive multimedia applications, while time to product launch has been extremely reduced. Especially in the wireless domain, those challenges are stacked with tough requirements on power consumption and chip size. Unfortunately, design productivity did not undergo a similar progression, and therefore fails to cope with the heterogeneity of modern architectures. Electronic design automation tools exhibit deep gaps in the design flow like high-level characterization of algorithms, floating-point to fixed-point conversion, hardware/software partitioning, and virtual prototyping. This tutorial paper surveys several promising approaches to solve the widespread design problems in this field. An overview over consistent design methodologies that establish a framework for connecting the different design tasks is given. This is followed by a discussion of solutions for the integrated automation of specific design tasks.

  18. Efficient Design Methods for Embedded Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rupp

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, design of embedded systems is confronted with complex signal processing algorithms and a multitude of computational intensive multimedia applications, while time to product launch has been extremely reduced. Especially in the wireless domain, those challenges are stacked with tough requirements on power consumption and chip size. Unfortunately, design productivity did not undergo a similar progression, and therefore fails to cope with the heterogeneity of modern architectures. Electronic design automation tools exhibit deep gaps in the design flow like high-level characterization of algorithms, floating-point to fixed-point conversion, hardware/software partitioning, and virtual prototyping. This tutorial paper surveys several promising approaches to solve the widespread design problems in this field. An overview over consistent design methodologies that establish a framework for connecting the different design tasks is given. This is followed by a discussion of solutions for the integrated automation of specific design tasks.

  19. USE OF A SYSTEM DESIGN ULTRAACUSTIC WELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe AMZA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents elements of a computer modeling system and ultraacustic using analyzing finite element method used in its design. With the experimental results obtained for a system used for welding ultraacustic determine variation curve aplitudinii particle velocity along the system.

  20. Conceptual design of automated freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    The conceptual design of automated freight transport systems is a challenging matter. It involves many different parties, types of people and disciplines which all have to work together to develop a system which is often new and complex. Automated freight transport systems typically have a long

  1. Communication: key factor in multidisciplinary system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Borches Juzgado, P.D.; Kauw-A-Tjoe, R.G.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Cloutier Sauser, B.; Gill, E.

    2010-01-01

    System design research often looks at ways to model the system that is developing. Many modelling techniques and model representations exist. Another aspect these models can be used for is to enable, facilitate and improve communication among the developers during the process. The young System

  2. Systems Analysis and Design: Know Your Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinicke, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Systems analysis and design (SAD) classes are required in both Information Systems and Accounting programs, but these audiences have very different needs for these skills. This article will review the requirements for SAD within each of these disciplines and compare and contrast the different requirements for teaching systems analysis and design…

  3. General Systems Theory and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    The use of general systems theory in the field of instructional systems design (ISD) is explored in this paper. Drawing on work by Young, the writings of 12 representative ISD writers and researchers were surveyed to determine the use of 60 general systems theory concepts by the individual authors. The average number of concepts used by these…

  4. Thinking Tracks for Integrated Systems Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Denkena, B.; Gausemeijer, J.; Scholz-Reiter, B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates systems thinking and systems engineering. After a short literature review, the paper presents, as a means for systems thinking, twelve thinking tracks. The tracks can be used as creativity starter, checklist, and as means to investigate effects of design decisions taken early

  5. Planning and design of information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blokdijk, André

    1991-01-01

    Planning and Design of Information Systems provides a theoretical base and a practical method of executing the planning of computerized information systems, and the planning and design of individual applications. The book is organized into five parts, covering the non-technical and nonimplementational part of information systems planning, design, and development. Part I gives the theoretical base for the subsequent parts of the book. It discusses modeling, techniques, notations, boundaries, quality issues and aspects, and decomposition techniques and problems. Part II discusses the needs, prob

  6. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  7. Hybrid Secondary Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Vahdati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive fluid mounts are used in the fixed wing applications as engine mounts. The passive fluid mount is placed in between the engine and the fuselage to reduce the cabin's structure- borne noise and vibration generated by the engine.

  8. Information management systems improve advanced plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, R.S.; Serafin, S.A.; Leckey, J.B. [ABB-Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Morgan, J.S. [Duke Engineering & Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Computer-aided engineering tools are proving invaluable in both the design and operation of nuclear power plants. ABB Combustion Engineering`s Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) features a computerized Information Management System (IMS) as an integral part of the design. The System 80+ IMS represents the most powerful information management tool for Nuclear Power Plants commercially available today. Developed by Duke Power Company specifically for use by nuclear power plant owner operators, the IMS consists of appropriate hardware and software to manage and control information flow for all plant related work or tasks in a systematic, consistent, coordinated and informative manner. A significant feature of this IMS is that it is primarily based on plant data. The principal design tool, PASCE (Plant Application and Systems from Combustion Engineering), is comprised of intelligent databases that describe the design and from which accurate plant drawings are created. Additionally the IMS includes, at its hub, a relational database management system and an associated document management system. During the design phase, the IMS captures all design information in a database as it is generated. Interrelated data are automatically checked for consistency. Engineers and managers from various disciplines are automatically and simultaneously notified of pending changes. The 3-D model automatically checks for interferences and can be used to simulate the removal and replacement of equipment. Thus any potential difficulties can be corrected in the design phase. Document and data search times are greatly reduced by the querying capabilities of the system.

  9. Solar heating system final design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  10. Modeling Adaptive Behavior for Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    of the predictive models required for the design of work supports systems, that is,information systems serving as the human-work interface. Three basic issues are in focus: 1.) Some fundamental problems in analysis and modeling modern dynamic work systems caused by the adaptive nature of human behavior; 2......Field studies in modern work systems and analysis of recent major accidents have pointed to a need for better models of the adaptive behavior of individuals and organizations operating in a dynamic and highly competitive environment. The paper presents a discussion of some key characteristics.......) The basic difference between the models of system functions used in engineering and design and those evolving from basic research within the various academic disciplines and finally 3.) The models and methods required for closed-loop, feedback system design....

  11. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-14

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined.

  12. System design document for the INFLO prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report documents the high level System Design Document (SDD) for the prototype development and : demonstration of the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) application bundle, with a focus on the Speed : Harmonization (SPD-HARM) and Queu...

  13. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  14. Transceiver and system design for digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    This applied engineering reference covers a wide range of wireless communication design techniques; including link budgets, error detection and correction, adaptive and cognitive techniques, and system analysis of receivers and transmitters.

  15. Design study: fishing vessel technical information system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, C.H

    1979-01-01

    ... out. This study is primarily concerned with the design of a Fishing Vessel Technical Information System that will meet the requirements of the Department, and the determination of a schedule and means of data collection and management.

  16. Design Flaws and Service System Breakdowns: Learning from Systems Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In what ways might systems thinking be helpful to designers?  In the 21st century, the types of project with which designers have become engaged has expanded to include service systems.  Service systems are typically composites of mechanisms, organisms, human beings and ecologies.  Systems thinking is a perspective with theories, methods and practices that enables transcending disciplinary boundaries.  Application of systems thinking in designing a service system can aid in surfacing potential flaws and/or anticipating future breakdowns in functions, structures and/or processes. Designers and systems thinkers should work together to improve the nature of service systems.  As a starter set into these conversations, seven conditions are proposed as a starting context.  These conditions are presented neither as rigourously defined nor as exhaustive, but as an entry point into future joint engagement.

  17. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 2 : Data Analyses and Report Writing. Book cover Designing and Conducting Health ... Ebola Crisis: Improving Science-Based Communication and Local Journalism in Emergency and Post-outbreak Periods. The World Federation of Science Journalists ...

  18. Designing Systems for E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Shona Leitch; Matthew Warren

    2003-01-01

    Ethics is an important element in all aspects of computing, but proves to be a real problem in the development and delivery of E-Commerce systems. There are many aspects of ethics that can affect E-Commerce systems, but often research is focused on the ethics after the E-Commerce system has been implemented, focusing on issues such as trust, privacy and disclosure. This paper will discuss how ethical matters can affect the design of E-Commerce systems and how a framework designed for E-Com...

  19. Optical Design Using an Expert System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, S A

    2003-08-01

    We present, as a different perspective on optimization, an expert system for optimization of optical systems that can be used in conjunction with damped least squared methods to find minima for specific design forms. Expert system optimization differs from global optimization in that it preserves the basic structure of the optical system and limits its search for a minima to a relatively small portion of the design space. In general, the high density of local minima obscures the general trend of the merit function in the region of interest for systems with a large number of variables and constraints. Surprisingly, there may be a potential decrease of an order a magnitude in the merit function for a region of solution space. While global optimization is well-suited to identifying design forms of interest, expert system optimization can be used for in-depth optimization of such forms. An expert system based upon such techniques was used to obtain the winning entry for the 2002 IODC lens design problem. The expert system used is discussed along with other design examples.

  20. Relating Systems Thinking and Design II. Theoretical Evolution in Systemic Design

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jones

    2014-01-01

    We have joined two issues of FORMakademisk to accommodate two sets of articles developed from remarkable early work presented at the 2013 Relating Systems Thinking to Design Symposium in Oslo. We organized these papers into a theory set, and a set for practice of systemic design, although most of these theoretical works are deeply informed by design and planning practices. The theory issue, Theoretical Evolution in Systemic Design, comprises the perspectives of scholars contributing new work ...

  1. Design of Galilean-type telescope systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchaca, C; Malacara, D

    1988-09-01

    In this paper we present the design of three Galilean-type telescope systems with magnifications of 2.2x, 4x, and 5x. These systems are free of the large weight and length as well as the reduced field of view, which are frequent undesirable properties of Galilean telescopes. These designs have a moderate field of view and a short length, with reasonably good aberration correction, and may be used as binocular telescopes or magnifiers with a large working distance.

  2. Thinking Tracks for Integrated Systems Design

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Denkena, B.; Gausemeijer, J.; Scholz-Reiter, B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates systems thinking and systems engineering. After a short literature review, the paper presents, as a means for systems thinking, twelve thinking tracks. The tracks can be used as creativity starter, checklist, and as means to investigate effects of design decisions taken early in the process. Tracks include thinking about time, risk and safety, and different types of life-cycles. The thinking tracks are based on literature, teaching experience and practice as a system de...

  3. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  4. Collectives and the design of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wolpert, David

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly powerful computers are making possible distributed systems comprised of many adaptive and self-motivated computational agents. Such systems, when distinguished by system-level performance criteria, are known as "collectives." Collectives and the Design of Complex Systems lays the foundation for a science of collectives and describes how to design them for optimal performance. An introductory survey chapter is followed by descriptions of information-processing problems that can only be solved by the joint actions of large communities of computers, each running its own complex, decentralized machine-learning algorithm. Subsequent chapters analyze the dynamics and structures of collectives, as well as address economic, model-free, and control-theory approaches to designing complex systems. The work assumes a modest understanding of basic statistics and calculus. Topics and Features: Introduces the burgeoning science of collectives and its practical applications in a single useful volume Combines ap...

  5. Microwave Radiometer Systems, Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Vine, David Le

    Two important microwave remote sensors are the radar and the radiometer. There have been a number of books written on various aspects of radar, but there have been only a few written on microwave radiometers, especially on subjects of how to design and build radiometer systems. This book, which...... is the second edition of a book originally published in 1989, attempts to fill this void. The background for this book is many years of work with radiometer systems including design and manufacture of airborne imaging radiometer systems, laboratory as well as airborne field experiments with the systems......, and design of future spaceborne imagers. This book would not have been possible without the support and encouragement of several colleagues. Søren Nørvang Madsen, who is working with synthetic aperture radar systems, and, before him, Finn søndergaard have both contributed much to the work with radiometer...

  6. Transmission function of pneumatic suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Turenko, A.; Bogomolov, V.; Klimenko, V.; Shilov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The transmission function of pneumatic suspension at assumption, that walls of pneumatic elastic element is absolute not stretched; the rubber buffers of compression and of retreat are absent; description of shock absorber is linear and symmetric; the processes of compression and expansion of air are adiabatic; motion of the oscillating system carry out without separation of wheel from a road is received.

  7. Optimized Experiment Design for Marine Systems Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Knudsen, Morten

    1999-01-01

    and proposes a sensitivity approach to solve the practical experiment design problem. The applicability of the sensitivity approach is demonstrated on a large non-linear model of surge, sway, roll and yaw of a ship. The use of the method is illustrated for a container-ship where both model and full-scale tests......Simulation of maneuvring and design of motion controls for marine systems require non-linear mathematical models, which often have more than one-hundred parameters. Model identification is hence an extremely difficult task. This paper discusses experiment design for marine systems identification...

  8. Theory and design of CNC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Suk-Hwan; Chung, Dae-Hyuk; Stroud, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Computer Numerical Control (CNC) controllers are high value-added products counting for over 30% of the price of machine tools. The development of CNC technology depends on the integration of technologies from many different industries, and requires strategic long-term support. a oeTheory and Design of CNC Systemsa covers the elements of control, the design of control systems, and modern open-architecture control systems. Topics covered include Numerical Control Kernel (NCK) design of CNC, Programmable Logic Control (PLC), and the Man-Machine Interface (MMI), as well as the major modules for t

  9. Microprocessor system design a practical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Spinks, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor System Design: A Practical Introduction describes the concepts and techniques incorporated into the design of electronic circuits, particularly microprocessor boards and their peripherals. The book reviews the basic building blocks of the electronic systems composed of digital (logic levels, gate output circuitry) and analog components (resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors). The text also describes operational amplifiers (op-amp) that use a negative feedback technique to improve the parameters of the op-amp. The design engineer can use programmable array logic (PAL) to rep

  10. Influence of suspension on the oxidative burst by rat neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. S.; Koebel, D. A.; Davis, S. A.; Klein, J. B.; McLeish, K. R.; Goldwater, D.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of spaceflight on the oxidative burst of neutrophils is not known. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of antiorthostatic suspension, a ground-based modeling system designed to simulate certain aspects of weightlessness that occur after spaceflight, on the capacity of rat neutrophils to express the oxidative burst, an important host defense mechanism against microbial pathogens. Rats were suspended in whole body harnesses in the antiorthostatic orientation for a 3- or 7-day period. Control rats were suspended orthostatically or allowed to remain in vivarium cages without the attachment of any suspension materials. After suspension, peripheral blood was harvested and neutrophils were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. The enriched neutrophil preparations were stimulated with N-formyl-methionyl-leucine-phenylalanine and phorbol myristic acid to induce the oxidative burst. It was found that neutrophils isolated from suspended animals released the same levels of superoxide anion as did vivarium control animals that were not suspended, indicating that whole body suspension did not alter this aspect of rat neutrophil function.

  11. Lectures in feedback design for multivariable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Isidori, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on methods that relate, in one form or another, to the “small-gain theorem”. It is aimed at readers who are interested in learning methods for the design of feedback laws for linear and nonlinear multivariable systems in the presence of model uncertainties. With worked examples throughout, it includes both introductory material and more advanced topics. Divided into two parts, the first covers relevant aspects of linear-systems theory, the second, nonlinear theory. In order to deepen readers’ understanding, simpler single-input–single-output systems generally precede treatment of more complex multi-input–multi-output (MIMO) systems and linear systems precede nonlinear systems. This approach is used throughout, including in the final chapters, which explain the latest advanced ideas governing the stabilization, regulation, and tracking of nonlinear MIMO systems. Two major design problems are considered, both in the presence of model uncertainties: asymptotic stabilization with a “...

  12. 48 CFR 52.242-14 - Suspension of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of Work. 52.242... Suspension of Work. As prescribed in 42.1305(a), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price construction or architect-engineer contract is contemplated: Suspension of Work (APR...

  13. Design Requirements for Designing Responsive Modular Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Madsen, Ole; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    the needed flexibility and responsiveness, but such systems are not yet fully achieved. From related theory it is known that achieving modular benefits depend on the modular architecture; a modular architecture which must be developed according to the customer needs. This makes production needs a design...... and industrial work are conducted in this area and has resulted in a wide span of theories, models, and methods. Manufacturing companies are, regardless hereon, still facing these challenges, especially regarding their manufacturing systems. Several theories state that modular manufacturing concepts possess...... requirement in order to achieve responsiveness and other benefits of modular manufacturing systems (MMS). Due to the complex and interrelated nature of a production system and its surroundings these production needs are complex to identify. This paper presents an analysis framework for identification...

  14. SYSTEMS APPROACH TO DESIGN OF BUILDINGS DESIGNATED FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Istomin Boris Semenovich; Razin Andrey Dionisovich

    2012-01-01

    The article covers the design of buildings of diplomatic missions as sophisticated, multi-functional networks of buildings and structures. Their constituents (rooms) have up to 100 different options each of which serves a particular function (namely, lobbies, reception areas, guest rooms, halls, dining rooms, offices, flats, toilets, etc.) that may be clustered into four functional groups: diplomatic missions, official areas, residential areas, service areas. The systems approach to the p...

  15. One-Quarter-Car Active SuspensionModel Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyniova Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspension system influences both the comfort and safety of the passengers. In the paper, energy recuperation and management in automotive suspension systems with linear electric motors that are controlled by a designed H∞ controller to generate a variable mechanical force for a car damper is presented. Vehicle shock absorbers in which forces are generated in response to feedback signals by active elements obviously offer increased design flexibility compared to the conventional suspensions with passive elements (springs and dampers. The main advantage of the proposed solution that uses a linear AC motor is the possibility to generate desired forces acting between the unsprung (wheel and sprung (one-quarter of the car body mass masses of the car, providing good insulation of the car sprung mass from the road surface roughness and load disturbances. As shown in the paper, under certain circumstances linear motors as actuators enable to transform mechanical energy of the vertical car vibrations to electrical energy, accumulate it, and use it when needed. Energy flow control enables to reduce or even eliminate the demands on the external power source. In particular, the paper is focused on experiments with active shock absorber that has been taken on the designed test bed and the way we developed an appropriate input signal for the test bed that as real road disturbance acts upon the vibration absorber and the obtained results are evaluated at the end. Another important point the active suspension design should satisfy is energy supply control that is made via standard controller modification, and which allows changing amount of energy required by the system. Functionality of the designed controller modification was verified taking various experiments on the experiment stand as mentioned in the paper.

  16. Suspension for the low frequency facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cella, G; Di Virgilio, A; Gaddi, A; Viceré, A

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the working principles of the VIRGO Low Frequency Facility (LFF), whose main aim is the measurement of the thermal noise in the VIRGO suspension system. We evaluate the displacement thermal noise of a mirror, which is an intermediate element of a double pendulum suspension system. This double pendulum will be suspended to the last stage of a VIRGO Super-Attenuator (SA), the prototype VIRGO suspension system being tested at the Pisa section of INFN. In the proposed configuration, we evaluate the spectrum of the thermal noise for different choices of the parameters: based on this study, we comment on the future directions to be undertaken in the LFF experiment.

  17. The Design of Document Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents costs and benefits of document information systems as well as a design methodology. Highlights include the method of working, method of modelling, multiple data types, access structure and indexing, and a case study of the implementation of a document information system in the Netherlands. (Author/LRW)

  18. [Design of a medical equipment purchasing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Chen, Xiao-hua

    2008-09-01

    This paper introduces the network data dynamic exchange technology applied to the design of the medical equipment purchase system according to the process of the medical equipment purchasing. The new system adopts B/S structure based on .net technology, to realize the medical equipment purchasing information's dynamic management of network purchase application and verification, suppliers qualification examination and the contact file inquiry etc.

  19. Biometric systems technology, design and performance evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Wayman, James; Maltoni, Davide

    2005-01-01

    A reference book for anyone involved in the design, management or implementation of biometric systems, and provides all the information needed to a build reliable system. It focuses on the four most widely used types of biometric technology - speech, fingerprint, iris and face recognition.

  20. Mechatronic System Design Course for Undergraduate Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A.; Tutunji, T.; Al-Sharif, L.

    2011-01-01

    Technology advancement and human needs have led to integration among many engineering disciplines. Mechatronics engineering is an integrated discipline that focuses on the design and analysis of complete engineering systems. These systems include mechanical, electrical, computer and control subsystems. In this paper, the importance of teaching…

  1. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-Mei; Wang, Xin-Jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  2. Design data brochure: SIMS prototype system 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    Information is provided on the design and performance of the IBM SIMS Prototype System 2, solar domestic hot water system, for single family residences. The document provides sufficient data to permit procurement, installation, operation, and maintenance by qualified architectural engineers or contractors.

  3. Design and installation of earth energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loggia, S.; Adragna, M.; Coyle, S.; Foley, C.; Hawryn, S.; Martin, A.; McConnell, J. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    This first edition of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Standard C448 Series, replaces CSA Standards CAN/CSA-C445-M92 entitled Design and Installation of Earth Energy Heat Pump Systems for Residential and Other Small Buildings, as well as C447-94 entitled Design and Installation of Earth Energy Heat Pump Systems for Commercial and Institutional Buildings. This standard document consists of three parts: (C448.1) Design and installation of earth energy systems for commercial and institutional buildings; (C448.2) Design and installation of earth energy systems for residential and small buildings; and, (C448.3) Design and installation of underground thermal energy storage systems for commercial and institutional buildings. In C448.1, the requirements applicable to any system falling within the scope of the C448 series were included. Alternative requirements for houses and small buildings were added in C448.2. It was noted that either standard may be implemented. The standards applicable to the intentional storage of energy in the earth for later use were presented in C448.3. This latter section includes a brief introduction on underground thermal energy storage (UTES). tabs.

  4. Wind energy systems control engineering design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sanz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionBroad Context and MotivationConcurrent Engineering: A Road Map for EnergyQuantitative Robust ControlNovel CAD Toolbox for QFT Controller DesignOutline Part I: Advanced Robust Control Techniques: QFT and Nonlinear SwitchingIntroduction to QFTQuantitative Feedback TheoryWhy Feedback? QFT OverviewInsight into the QFT TechniqueBenefits of QFTMISO Analog QFT Control SystemIntroductionQFT Method (Single-Loop MISO System)Design Procedure OutlineMinimum-Phase System Performance SpecificationsJ LTI Plant ModelsPlant Templates of P?(s), P( j_i )Nominal PlantU-Contour (Stability Bound)Trackin

  5. Design of Grain Dryers’ Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shizhuang; Cao, Shukun; Meng, Wenjing

    2017-06-01

    TMS320F28335 which is a TI high-performance TMS320C28x series 32-bit floating point DSP processor is used as the core of the controller, and the hardware is designed, which includes temperature collection, temperature and humidity collection, moisture detection and motor control. The development environment of the system CCS, and then for the characteristics of grain dryer control system, the control system software modular design, the use of fuzzy control method to achieve food grain motor control, and MATLAB simulation analysis, Fuzzy control is used to control the feasibility of the grain moisture.

  6. A new transient expression system for large-scale production of recombinant proteins in plants based on air-brushing an Agrobacterium suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Taicheng; Wang,Jing; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Xu, Yanan; Zhou, Xiaofu; Yang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Plant transient expression using virus-based vectors is advantageous when high level of gene expression is desired within a short time. In this study, a new system, named “air-brush,” has been developed to facilitate a scale-up production of recombinant proteins in plants. GFP was expressed successfully in Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb) plants by air-brushing an Agrobacterium suspension that contained the TMV-based vector p35S-30B-GFP. Key factors influencing the gene expression were optimized, i...

  7. The design and analysis of mooring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixuan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the force status and a design method of single chain mooring system for shallow sea observation network are studied. With treating the link of a chain, steel drum and steel pipe as a rigid body, the recurrence model is established by using Newton's first law and the law of Moment equilibrium theorem. Via the simplified calculation of dichotomy searching, we determine the design parameters of mooring system, such as anchor model, anchor chain length, heavy ball quality under different water flow and wind conditions. We apply MATLAB to simulate the internal steady state of the system in the fixed scheme, water depth of buoy and swimming area to meet the decision-making needs, providing an idea for the actual scheme design of mooring system.

  8. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2018-01-01

    Power density, efficiency, cost, and reliability are the major challenges when designing a power electronic system. Latest advancements in power semiconductor devices (e.g., silicon carbide devices) and topological innovations have vital contributions to power density and efficiency. Nevertheless......, dedicated heat sink systems for thermal management are required to dissipate the power losses in power electronic systems; otherwise, the power devices will be heated up and eventually fail to operate. In addition, in many mission critical applications (e.g., marine systems), the operating condition (i.......e., mission profiles) is usually harsh, where the input power can change quickly and randomly, resulting in considerable temperature swings in the power electronics. This may induce failures to the power electronic systems. If remain untreated (i.e., ill-designed system without considering reliability...

  9. The Combat System Design and Test Criteria for Iguana TM Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alper, Irfan

    1999-01-01

    ... acoustic/IR signatures. The Iguana(trademark), a tracked vehicle concept based on a recently patented suspension and track design, could deploy to hot spots world-wide on peacekeeping and combat missions which require extra flexibility to adapt...

  10. Reliable computer systems design and evaluatuion

    CERN Document Server

    Siewiorek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Enhance your hardware/software reliabilityEnhancement of system reliability has been a major concern of computer users and designers ¦ and this major revision of the 1982 classic meets users' continuing need for practical information on this pressing topic. Included are case studies of reliablesystems from manufacturers such as Tandem, Stratus, IBM, and Digital, as well as coverage of special systems such as the Galileo Orbiter fault protection system and AT&T telephone switching processors.

  11. Switching Systems: Controllability and Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-25

    TERMS EOARD, Navigation, Comunications & Guidance, Complex Systems 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON JAMES LAWTON Ph...Switching Systems : Controllability and Control Design 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Professor...ABSTRACT Motivated by the need of dealing with physical systems that exhibit a more complicated behavior than those normally described by

  12. Transceiver and system design for digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    This is the fourth edition of this successful professional reference book on transceiver design, the device that both sends and receives signals, and its place within the wireless communication system. It gives engineers and others a good intuitive understanding of wireless systems and spread spectrum. New topics covered include cognitive radio, systems, networks, and commercial communications. In addition, many items have been extensively updated to improve the flow of the book and enhance comprehension.

  13. Design Criteria For Networked Image Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Cliff; Nitteberg, Alan

    1982-01-01

    Image systems design is currently undergoing a metamorphosis from the conventional computing systems of the past into a new generation of special purpose designs. This change is motivated by several factors, notably among which is the increased opportunity for high performance with low cost offered by advances in semiconductor technology. Another key issue is a maturing in understanding of problems and the applicability of digital processing techniques. These factors allow the design of cost-effective systems that are functionally dedicated to specific applications and used in a utilitarian fashion. Following an overview of the above stated issues, the paper presents a top-down approach to the design of networked image analysis systems. The requirements for such a system are presented, with orientation toward the hospital environment. The three main areas are image data base management, viewing of image data and image data processing. This is followed by a survey of the current state of the art, covering image display systems, data base techniques, communications networks and software systems control. The paper concludes with a description of the functional subystems and architectural framework for networked image analysis in a production environment.

  14. On the Benefits of Semi-Active Suspensions with Inerters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inerters have become a hot topic in recent years especially in vehicle, train, building suspension systems, etc. Eight different layouts of suspensions were analyzed with a quarter-car model in this paper. Dimensionless root mean square (RMS responses of the sprung mass vertical acceleration, the suspension travel, and the tire deflection are derived which were used to evaluate the performance of the quarter-car model. The behaviour of semi-active suspensions with inerters using Groundhook, Skyhook, and Hybrid control has been evaluated and compared to the performance of passive suspensions with inerters. Sensitivity analysis was applied to the development of a high performance semi-active suspension with an inerter. Numerical simulations indicate that a semi-active suspension with an inerter has much better performance than the passive suspension with an inerter, especially with the Hybrid control method, which has the best compromise between comfort and road holding quality.

  15. Defloculação de massas cerâmicas triaxiais obtidas a partir do delineamento de misturas Deflocculation of triaxial ceramic suspensions using a mixture design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Gomes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação das propriedades reológicas de suspensões é uma parte importante no desenvolvimento de massas cerâmicas. Em processamento via úmida, o fator reológico pode ser limitante ao emprego tanto de determinada matéria-prima quanto do agente defloculante. Nesse sentido, a abordagem integrada da formulação de massas cerâmicas triaxiais juntamente com o auxílio do delineamento de misturas visa a diminuição do número de experimentos necessários para determinação de propriedades ótimas do sistema em estudo, sejam essas propriedades físicas ou reológicas. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a defloculação de massas cerâmicas triaxiais (argila/feldspato/quartzo obtidas a partir do delineamento de misturas, através da obtenção de um modelo matemático que represente a concentração ideal de defloculante apresentada por cada composição cerâmica do diagrama triaxial. Para tanto, foram preparadas suspensões aquosas (55% de sólidos, utilizando silicato de sódio anidro (razão molar SiO2:Na2O igual a 1.3 como agente defloculante. Curvas de defloculação foram obtidas com o objetivo de determinar a concentração ideal de defloculante. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento na fração argilosa das composições estudadas conduziu a um aumento no consumo de defloculante.The evaluation of the rheological properties of suspensions is an important step in the ceramic slurries development. Mainly in wet processing, the rheological factor can be a limitation to the employment of determined raw material as well as the deflocculant agent. In this sense, the integrated approach of triaxial ceramics formulation and the mixture design come as an important aid to decrease the number of experiments necessary to determine the optimum properties of a system, which can be physical or rheological properties. The present work is directed towards to study the deflocculation of triaxial ceramic slurries (clay

  16. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; Daniel Stevens; Allison Ray; Debor

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  17. CRISP90 - SOFTWARE DESIGN ANALYZER SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The CRISP90 Software Design Analyzer System, an update of CRISP-80, is a set of programs forming a software design and documentation tool which supports top-down, hierarchic, modular, structured design and programming methodologies. The quality of a computer program can often be significantly influenced by the design medium in which the program is developed. The medium must foster the expression of the programmer's ideas easily and quickly, and it must permit flexible and facile alterations, additions, and deletions to these ideas as the design evolves. The CRISP90 software design analyzer system was developed to provide the PDL (Programmer Design Language) programmer with such a design medium. A program design using CRISP90 consists of short, English-like textual descriptions of data, interfaces, and procedures that are imbedded in a simple, structured, modular syntax. The display is formatted into two-dimensional, flowchart-like segments for a graphic presentation of the design. Together with a good interactive full-screen editor or word processor, the CRISP90 design analyzer becomes a powerful tool for the programmer. In addition to being a text formatter, the CRISP90 system prepares material that would be tedious and error prone to extract manually, such as a table of contents, module directory, structure (tier) chart, cross-references, and a statistics report on the characteristics of the design. Referenced modules are marked by schematic logic symbols to show conditional, iterative, and/or concurrent invocation in the program. A keyword usage profile can be generated automatically and glossary definitions inserted into the output documentation. Another feature is the capability to detect changes that were made between versions. Thus, "change-bars" can be placed in the output document along with a list of changed pages and a version history report. Also, items may be marked as "to be determined" and each will appear on a special table until the item is

  18. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  19. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  20. Human Systems Interface Design Methods Using Ecological Interface Design Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Kweon; Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Sun Su; Sim, Kwang Pyo; Yuk, Seung Yul; Choi, Jae Hyeon; Yoon, Seung Hyun [Chungju National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The results of this study categorized into two parts. The first part is the guidelines for EID designs. The procedure to observe for EID design is composed of 6 steps; 1) to define a target system, 2) to make an abstraction hierarchy model, 3) to check the link structure among each components included in the layers of abstraction hierarchy model, 4) to transform information requirements to variables, 5) to make the graphs related to each variables, 6) to check the graphs by visual display design principles and heuristic rules. The second part is an EID design alternative for nuclear power plant. The EID for high level function represents the energy balance and energy flow in each loop of nuclear power plant. The EID for middle level function represents the performance indicators of each equipment involved in the all processes of changing from coolants to steam. The EID for low level function represents the values measured in each equipment such as temperature, pressure, water level and so on.