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Sample records for suspension array analysis

  1. Analysis of the Kanamycin in Raw Milk Using the Suspension Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the monoclonal antibody against kanamycin being prepared successfully, a bead-based indirect competitive fluorescent immunoassay was developed to detect kanamycin in milk. The fact that there was no significant cross-reaction with other aminoglycoside antibiotics implied that the monoclonal antibody was highly specific for kanamycin. The limit of detection (LOD and the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 in raw milk were 3.2 ng/mL and 52.5 ng/mL, respectively. Using the method developed in this study, the kanamycin concentrations were monitored in raw milk after the intramuscular administration of kanamycin in sick cows. Compared to the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the method using the suspension array system was more sensitive. The results obtained in the present study showed a good correlation with that of the ELISA.

  2. Multiplex detection of tumor markers with photonic suspension array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yuanjin; Zhao Xiangwei [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Pei Xiaoping [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Hu Jing; Zhao Wenju [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Chen Baoan [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Gu Zhongze [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Research Institute of Southeast University in Suzhou, Dushu Lake Higher Education Town, Suzhou 215123 (China)], E-mail: gu@seu.edu.cn

    2009-02-02

    A novel photonic suspension array was developed for multiplex immunoassay. The carries of this array were silica colloidal crystal beads (SCCBs). The codes of these carriers are the characteristic reflection peak originated from their structural periodicity, and therefore they do not suffer from fading, bleaching, quenching, and chemical instability. In addition, because no dyes or materials related with fluorescence are included, the fluorescence background of SCCBs is very low. With a sandwich format, the proposed suspension array was used for simultaneous multiplex detection of tumor markers in one test tube. The results showed that the four tumor markers, {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carcinoma antigen 125 (CA 125) and carcinoma antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) could be assayed in the ranges of 1.0-500 ng mL{sup -1}, 1.0-500 ng mL{sup -1}, 1.0-500 U mL{sup -1} and 3.0-500 U mL{sup -1} with limits of detection of 0.68 ng mL{sup -1}, 0.95 ng mL{sup -1}, 0.99 U mL{sup -1} and 2.30 U mL{sup -1} at 3{sigma}, respectively. The proposed array showed acceptable accuracy, detection reproducibility, storage stability and the results obtained were in acceptable agreement with those from parallel single-analyte test of practical clinical sera. This technique provides a new strategy for low cost, automated, and simultaneous multiplex immunoassay.

  3. A decoupled control approach for magnetic suspension systems using electromagnets mounted in a planar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1993-01-01

    A decoupled control approach for a Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) is presented. The control approach is developed for an LGMSS which provides five degree-of-freedom control of a cylindrical suspended element that contains a core composed of permanent magnet material. The suspended element is levitated above five electromagnets mounted in a planar array. Numerical results are obtained by using the parameters of the Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF) which is a small scale laboratory model LGMSS.

  4. Design analysis of formula student race car suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, Julian Wisnu; Ubaidillah, Aditra, Rama; Alnursyah, Rafli; Rahman, Rizki Abdul; Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro

    2018-02-01

    Design analysis of suspension especially for racecar suspension is very crucial to achieve maximum performance and handling. Suspension design may vary depending on the road terrain and the vehicle purpose itself, such as high speed or off-road vehicle. This paper focused on the suspension which used for racecar vehicle. The suspension type used was unequal double wishbone. This model is used because of its stability for high-speed usage compared to another kind of suspension. The suspension parameter was calculated to achieve desired performance. The result is the motion ratio of the designed suspension geometry. The obtained value of motion ratio was 1:2 for front suspension and 1:1 for the rear suspension. These calculation result the front suspension is still too soft, which the optimal motion ratio should be kept around 1:1 for better handling. This problem caused by the lack of space for suspension linkage.

  5. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: Chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Nan; Su Pu [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China); Gao Zhixian [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)], E-mail: gaozhx@163.com; Zhu Maoxiang; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Fang Yanjun; Chao Fuhuan [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2009-01-19

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R{sup 2} was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, 50-7.81 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1} and 1 x 10{sup 3-}7.29 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost.

  6. Nanoelectrode array for electrochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelton, William G [Sandia Park, NM; Siegal, Michael P [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-12-01

    A nanoelectrode array comprises a plurality of nanoelectrodes wherein the geometric dimensions of the electrode controls the electrochemical response, and the current density is independent of time. By combining a massive array of nanoelectrodes in parallel, the current signal can be amplified while still retaining the beneficial geometric advantages of nanoelectrodes. Such nanoelectrode arrays can be used in a sensor system for rapid, non-contaminating field analysis. For example, an array of suitably functionalized nanoelectrodes can be incorporated into a small, integrated sensor system that can identify many species rapidly and simultaneously under field conditions in high-resistivity water, without the need for chemical addition to increase conductivity.

  7. A bead-based suspension array for the multiplexed detection of begomoviruses and their whitefly vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brunschot, S L; Bergervoet, J H W; Pagendam, D E; de Weerdt, M; Geering, A D W; Drenth, A; van der Vlugt, R A A

    2014-03-01

    Bead-based suspension array systems enable simultaneous fluorescence-based identification of multiple nucleic acid targets in a single reaction. This study describes the development of a novel approach to plant virus and vector diagnostics, a multiplexed 7-plex array that comprises a hierarchical set of assays for the simultaneous detection of begomoviruses and Bemisia tabaci, from both plant and whitefly samples. The multiplexed array incorporates genus, species and strain-specific assays, offering a unique approach for identifying both known and unknown viruses and B. tabaci species. When tested against a large panel of sequence-characterized begomovirus and whitefly samples, the array was shown to be 100% specific to the homologous target. Additionally, the multiplexed array was highly sensitive, efficiently and concurrently determining both virus and whitefly identity from single viruliferous whitefly samples. The detection limit for one assay within the multiplexed array that specifically detects Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel (TYLCV-IL) was quantified as 200fg of TYLCV-IL DNA, directly equivalent to that of TYLCV-specific qPCR. Highly reproducible results were obtained over multiple tests. The flexible multiplexed array described in this study has great potential for use in plant quarantine, biosecurity and disease management programs worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular identification of common Salmonella serovars using multiplex DNA sensor-based suspension array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Muhsin; Carter-Conger, Jacqueline; Gao, Ning; Gilmore, David F; Ricke, Steven C; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella is one of major foodborne pathogens and the leading cause of foodborne illness-related hospitalizations and deaths. It is critical to develop a sensitive and rapid detection assay that can identify Salmonella to ensure food safety. In this study, a DNA sensor-based suspension array system of high multiplexing ability was developed to identify eight Salmonella serovars commonly associated with foodborne outbreaks to the serotype level. Each DNA sensor was prepared by activating pre-encoded microspheres with oligonucleotide probes that are targeting virulence genes and serovar-specific regions. The mixture of 12 different types of DNA sensors were loaded into a 96-well microplate and used as a 12-plex DNA sensor array platform. DNA isolated from Salmonella was amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and the presence of Salmonella was determined by reading fluorescent signals from hybridization between probes on DNA sensors and fluorescently labeled target DNA using the Bio-Plex® system. The developed multiplex array was able to detect synthetic DNA at the concentration as low as 100 fM and various Salmonella serovars as low as 100 CFU/mL within 1 h post-PCR. Sensitivity of this assay was further improved to 1 CFU/mL with 6-h enrichment. The array system also correctly and specifically identified serotype of tested Salmonella strains without any cross-reactivity with other common foodborne pathogens. Our results indicate the developed DNA sensor suspension array can be a rapid and reliable high-throughput method for simultaneous detection and molecular identification of common Salmonella serotypes.

  9. Suspension Array for Multiplex Detection of Eight Fungicide-Resistance Related Alleles in Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Xie, Fei; Lv, Baobei; Zhao, Pengxiang; Ma, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    A simple and high-throughput assay to detect fungicide resistance is required for large-scale monitoring of the emergence of resistant strains of Botrytis cinerea. Using suspension array technology performed on a Bio-Plex 200 System, we developed a single-tube allele-specific primer extension (ASPE) assay that can simultaneously detect eight alleles in one reaction. These eight alleles include E198 and 198A of the β-Tubulin gene (BenA), H272 and 272Y of the Succinate dehydrogenase iron–sulfur...

  10. Open-loop characteristics of magnetic suspension systems using electromagnets mounted in a planar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Nelson J.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1992-01-01

    The open-loop characteristics of a Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) were studied and numerical results are presented. The LGMSS considered provides five-degree-of-freedom control. The suspended element is a cylinder that contains a core composed of permanent magnet material. The magnetic actuators are air core electromagnets mounted in a planar array. Configurations utilizing five, six, seven, and eight electromagnets were investigated and all configurations were found to be controllable from coil currents and observable from suspended element positions. Results indicate that increasing the number of coils has an insignificant effect on mode shapes and frequencies.

  11. Microsphere suspension array assays for detection and differentiation of Hendra and Nipah viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foord, Adam J; White, John R; Colling, Axel; Heine, Hans G

    2013-01-01

    Microsphere suspension array systems enable the simultaneous fluorescent identification of multiple separate nucleotide targets in a single reaction. We have utilized commercially available oligo-tagged microspheres (Luminex MagPlex-TAG) to construct and evaluate multiplexed assays for the detection and differentiation of Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV). Both these agents are bat-borne zoonotic paramyxoviruses of increasing concern for veterinary and human health. Assays were developed targeting multiple sites within the nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) encoding genes. The relative specificities and sensitivities of the assays were determined using reference isolates of each virus type, samples from experimentally infected horses, and archival veterinary diagnostic submissions. Results were assessed in direct comparison with an established qPCR. The microsphere array assays achieved unequivocal differentiation of HeV and NiV and the sensitivity of HeV detection was comparable to qPCR, indicating high analytical and diagnostic specificity and sensitivity.

  12. Towards a peptide-based suspension array for the detection of pestivirus antibodies in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Fimme J; Jelsma, Tinka; Fijten, Helmi; Achterberg, René P; Loeffen, Willie L A

    2016-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and lethal disease in swine. Serological tests for the diagnosis of CSF need not only to detect antibodies against CSFV, but also need to differentiate these from antibodies against other pestiviruses. To investigate the possibilities of specific peptide-based serology, various synthetic peptides that represent a well-described linear epitope of the CSFV E2 protein (TAVSPTTLR) were used to test the viability of a peptide-based suspension array for the detection of antibodies against pestiviruses in swine. The results show that N-terminally biotinylated peptides can bind to avidin conjugated beads, and function in detection of the corresponding monoclonal antibody WH303. There are indications that the length of the spacer between epitope and biotin affect the efficiency of the peptide-antibody interaction. A protocol was established that enables probing for antibodies in porcine sera, where neutravidin-blocking of serum and the use of empty control beads for normalization was crucial. With a set of porcine sera with antibodies against various pestiviruses, the proof of concept of a peptide-based suspension array for specific detection of antibodies against pestiviruses in porcine sera was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementation of a decoupled controller for a magnetic suspension system using electromagnets mounted in a planar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D. E.; Groom, N. J.

    1994-01-01

    An implementation of a decoupled, single-input/single-output control approach for a large angle magnetic suspension test fixture is described. Numerical and experimental results are presented. The experimental system is a laboratory model large gap magnetic suspension system which provides five degree-of-freedom control of a cylindrical suspended element. The suspended element contains a core composed of permanent magnet material and is levitated above five electromagnets mounted in a planar array.

  14. A Microsphere-Based Suspension Array for Blood Group Molecular Typing: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesca; Karpasitou, Katerina; Spinardi, Laura; Crespiatico, Loretta; Scalamogna, Mario; Poli, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background In a previous publication we described a method for Jka/Jkb, Fya/Fyb, S/s, K/k, Kpa/Kpb, Jsa/Jsb, Coa/Cob, and Lua/Lub genotyping based on a microsphere suspension array. Here, an improved version of the assay is presented. Methods Two multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were developed: one for amplification of samples routinely tested and the other for those systems that are tested less frequently. Each biotinylated PCR product is hybridized in a single multiplex assay. A total of 2,020 samples were analyzed, and the genotypes were compared to the blood group phenotypes. Results There have been no discrepancies with the serology results other than null and/or weak phenotypes. Conclusion In its present form, the method presented here has the capacity to genotype hundreds of a samples in few hours with a high concordance rate with serology. PMID:21416028

  15. Microsphere Suspension Array Assays for Detection and Differentiation of Hendra and Nipah Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Foord

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsphere suspension array systems enable the simultaneous fluorescent identification of multiple separate nucleotide targets in a single reaction. We have utilized commercially available oligo-tagged microspheres (Luminex MagPlex-TAG to construct and evaluate multiplexed assays for the detection and differentiation of Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV. Both these agents are bat-borne zoonotic paramyxoviruses of increasing concern for veterinary and human health. Assays were developed targeting multiple sites within the nucleoprotein (N and phosphoprotein (P encoding genes. The relative specificities and sensitivities of the assays were determined using reference isolates of each virus type, samples from experimentally infected horses, and archival veterinary diagnostic submissions. Results were assessed in direct comparison with an established qPCR. The microsphere array assays achieved unequivocal differentiation of HeV and NiV and the sensitivity of HeV detection was comparable to qPCR, indicating high analytical and diagnostic specificity and sensitivity.

  16. Geometrical analysis of suspension flows near jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyart, Matthieu

    2012-02-01

    The viscosity of suspensions was computed early on by Einstein and Batchelor in the dilute regime. At high density however, their rheology remains mystifying. As the packing fraction increases, steric hindrance becomes dominant and particles move under stress in a more and more coordinated way. Eventually, the viscosity diverges as the suspension jams into an amorphous solid. Such a jamming transition is reminiscent of critical points: the rheology displays scaling and a diverging length scale. Jamming bear similarities with the glass transition where steric hindrance is enhanced under cooling, and where the dynamics is also observed to become more and more collective as it slows down. In all these examples, understanding the nature of the collective dynamics and the associated rheology remains a challenge. Recent progress has been made however on a related problem, the unjamming transition where a solid made of repulsive soft particles is isotropically decompressed toward vanishing pressure. In this situation various properties of the amorphous solid, such as elasticity, transport or force propagation, display scaling with the distance to threshold. Theoretically these observations can be shown to stem from the presence of soft modes in the vibrational spectrum, a result that can be extended to thermal colloidal glasses as well. Here we focus on particles driven by shear at zero temperature. We show that if hydrodynamical interactions are neglected an analogy can be made between the rheology of such a suspension and the elasticity of simple networks, building a link between the jamming and the unjamming transition. This analogy enables us to unify in a common framework key aspects of the elasticity of amorphous solids with the rheology of dense suspensions, and to relate features of the latter to the geometry of configurations visited under flow.

  17. Spectral analysis connected with suspension bridge systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2016), s. 42-75 ISSN 0272-4960 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : suspension bridge * vertical and torsional oscillation * eigenvalue * eigenvector * flutter Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.945, year: 2016 http://imamat.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/09/16/imamat.hxv027.short?rss=1

  18. A Microsphere-Based Suspension Array for Blood Group Molecular Typing: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesca; Karpasitou, Katerina; Spinardi, Laura; Crespiatico, Loretta; Scalamogna, Mario; Poli, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: BACKGROUND: In a previous publication we described a method for Jk(a)/Jk(b), Fy(a)/Fy(b), S/s, K/k, Kp(a)/Kp(b), Js(a)/Js(b), Co(a)/Co(b), and Lu(a)/Lu(b) genotyping based on a microsphere suspension array. Here, an improved version of the assay is presented. METHODS: TWO MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTIONS (PCR) WERE DEVELOPED: one for amplification of samples routinely tested and the other for those systems that are tested less frequently. Each biotinylated PCR product is hybridized in a single multiplex assay. A total of 2,020 samples were analyzed, and the genotypes were compared to the blood group phenotypes. RESULTS: There have been no discrepancies with the serology results other than null and/or weak phenotypes. CONCLUSION: In its present form, the method presented here has the capacity to genotype hundreds of a samples in few hours with a high concordance rate with serology.

  19. High-throughput simultaneous genotyping of human platelet antigen-1 to -16 by using suspension array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qun-Xing; Li, Cui-Ying; Xu, Li-Juan; Zhang, Xian-Qing; Bai, Yan-Jun; Shao, Zhong-Jun; Zhang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    Comprehensive and accurate detection of human platelet antigens (HPAs) plays a significant role in diagnosis and prevention of the platelet (PLT) alloimmune syndromes and ensuring clinical safety of patients undergoing PLT transfusion. The majority of the available methods are incapable of performing high-throughput simultaneous detection of HPA-1 to -16, and the accuracy of many methods needs to be further enhanced. We have developed a new HPA-genotyping method for simultaneous detection of HPA-1 to -16 based on suspension array technology. A total of 216 samples from Chinese Han donors in Xi'an were genotyped using the developed method, and all the samples again were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT), which is considered the gold standard. All 216 samples were successfully genotyped for HPA-1 to -16 using both our method and PCR-SBT. Results showed that the genotype and allele frequencies obtained using our method were fully consistent with those obtained using PCR-SBT. Our method provides accurate, high-throughput, and simultaneous genotyping of HPA-1 to -16 and will serve as the foundation for large-scale clinical genotyping of HPAs and for the establishment of an HPA-typed PLT donor registry. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. Leakage analysis of crossbar memristor arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2014-07-01

    Crossbar memristor arrays provide a promising high density alternative for the current memory and storage technologies. These arrays suffer from parasitic current components that significantly increase the power consumption, and could ruin the readout operation. In this work we study the trade-off between the crossbar array density and the power consumption required for its readout. Our analysis is based on simulating full memristor arrays on a SPICE platform.

  1. Suspension Array for Multiplex Detection of Eight Fungicide-Resistance Related Alleles in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xie, Fei; Lv, Baobei; Zhao, Pengxiang; Ma, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    A simple and high-throughput assay to detect fungicide resistance is required for large-scale monitoring of the emergence of resistant strains of Botrytis cinerea . Using suspension array technology performed on a Bio-Plex 200 System, we developed a single-tube allele-specific primer extension assay that can simultaneously detect eight alleles in one reaction. These eight alleles include E198 and 198A of the β-Tubulin gene ( BenA ), H272 and 272Y of the Succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur subunit gene ( SdhB) , I365 and 365S of the putative osmosensor histidine kinase gene ( BcOS1 ), and F412 and 412S of the 3-ketoreductase gene ( erg27 ). This assay was first established and optimized with eight plasmid templates containing the DNA sequence variants BenA- E198, BenA- 198A, SdhB- H272, SdhB- 272Y, BcOS1- I365, BcOS1- 365S, erg27 -F412, and erg27 -412S. Results indicated that none of the probes showed cross-reactivity with one another. The minimum limit of detection for these genotypes was one copy per test. Four mutant plasmids were mixed with 10 ng/μL wild-type genomic DNA in different ratios. Detection sensitivity of mutant loci was 0.45% for BenA- E198A, BcOS1- I365S, and erg27 -F412S, and was 4.5% for SdhB- H272Y. A minimum quantity of 0.1 ng of genomic DNA was necessary to obtain reliable results. This is the first reported assay that can simultaneously detect mutations in BenA , SdhB , BcOS1 , and erg27 .

  2. Suspension Array for Multiplex Detection of Eight Fungicide-Resistance Related Alleles in Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and high-throughput assay to detect fungicide resistance is required for large-scale monitoring of the emergence of resistant strains of Botrytis cinerea. Using suspension array technology performed on a Bio-Plex 200 System, we developed a single-tube allele-specific primer extension (ASPE assay that can simultaneously detect eight alleles in one reaction. These eight alleles include E198 and 198A of the β-Tubulin gene (BenA, H272 and 272Y of the Succinate dehydrogenase iron–sulfur subunit gene (SdhB, I365 and 365S of the putative osmosensor histidine kinase gene (BcOS1, and F412 and 412S of the 3-ketoreductase gene (erg27. This assay was first established and optimized with eight plasmid templates containing the DNA sequence variants BenA-E198, BenA-198A, SdhB-H272, SdhB-272Y, BcOS1-I365, BcOS1-365S, erg27-F412, and erg27-412S. Results indicated that none of the probes showed cross-reactivity with one another. The minimum limit of detection for these genotypes was one copy per test. Four mutant plasmids were mixed with 10 ng/μL wild-type genomic DNA in different ratios. Detection sensitivity of mutant loci was 0.45% for BenA-E198A, BcOS1-I365S, and erg27-F412S, and was 4.5% for SdhB-H272Y. A minimum quantity of 0.1 ng of genomic DNA was necessary to obtain reliable results. This is the first reported assay that can simultaneously detect mutations in BenA, SdhB, BcOS1, and erg27.

  3. Rapid and sensitive suspension array for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides based on silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Mu, Zhongde; Shangguan, Fengqi [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Yin, Lihong, E-mail: lhyin@seu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads were used to develop suspension array. • The results in detecting pesticides agree well with those from LC–MS/MS. • The method showed the good capability for multiplex analysis of pesticides residues. - Abstract: A technique for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides has been developed using a suspension array based on silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads (SHHMs). The main advantage of SHHMs, which consist of both silica and hydrogel materials, is that they not only could be distinguished by their characteristic reflection peak originating from the stop-band of the photonic crystal but also have low non-specific adsorption of proteins. Using fluorescent immunoassay, the LODs for fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenthion, carbaryl and metolcarb were measured to be 0.02 ng/mL, 0.012 ng/mL, 0.04 ng/mL, 0.05 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively, all of which are much lower than the maximum residue limits, as reported in the European Union pesticides database. All the determination coefficients for these five pesticides were greater than 0.99, demonstrating excellent correlations. The suspension array was specific and had no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. The results for the detection of pesticide residues collected from agricultural samples using this method agree well with those from liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed that this simple method is suitable for simultaneous detection of these five pesticides residues in fruits and vegetables.

  4. Rapid and sensitive suspension array for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides based on silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xuan; Mu, Zhongde; Shangguan, Fengqi; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads were used to develop suspension array. • The results in detecting pesticides agree well with those from LC–MS/MS. • The method showed the good capability for multiplex analysis of pesticides residues. - Abstract: A technique for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides has been developed using a suspension array based on silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads (SHHMs). The main advantage of SHHMs, which consist of both silica and hydrogel materials, is that they not only could be distinguished by their characteristic reflection peak originating from the stop-band of the photonic crystal but also have low non-specific adsorption of proteins. Using fluorescent immunoassay, the LODs for fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenthion, carbaryl and metolcarb were measured to be 0.02 ng/mL, 0.012 ng/mL, 0.04 ng/mL, 0.05 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively, all of which are much lower than the maximum residue limits, as reported in the European Union pesticides database. All the determination coefficients for these five pesticides were greater than 0.99, demonstrating excellent correlations. The suspension array was specific and had no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. The results for the detection of pesticide residues collected from agricultural samples using this method agree well with those from liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed that this simple method is suitable for simultaneous detection of these five pesticides residues in fruits and vegetables

  5. Evaluation of Influenza-Specific Humoral Response by Microbead Array Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Keynan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Quantitation and determination of antigen specificity of systemic and mucosal immune responses to influenza vaccination is beneficial for future vaccine development. Previous methods to acquire this information were costly, time consuming and sample exhaustive. The benefits of suspension microbead array (MBA analysis are numerous. The multiplex capabilities of the system conserve time, money and sample, while generating statistically powerful data.

  6. Multi-response Optimization of Spring Parameters of Two Wheeler Rear Suspension System Using Grey Relational Analysis in Taguchi Method

    OpenAIRE

    G.Venkatkumar; S.Mohanamurugan; R.Vijay

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a suitable approach for the optimization of spring parameters, namely spring wire diameter, spring index and number of active coils of two wheeler rear suspension systems with multiple responses such as strain energy and weight based on orthogonal arrays with grey relational analysis is used. A grey relational grade is obtained from the grey analysis. Based on the grey relational grade, optimum levels of parameters have been identified and significant contribution of parameters...

  7. Genetic diversity of K-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli and their molecular typing using a suspension array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang; Xi, Daoyi; Jing, Fuyi; Kong, Deju; Wu, Junli; Feng, Lu; Cao, Boyang; Wang, Lei

    2018-04-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs), or K-antigens, are the major surface antigens of Escherichia coli. More than 80 serologically unique K-antigens are classified into 4 groups (Groups 1-4) of capsules. Groups 1 and 4 contain the Wzy-dependent polymerization pathway and the gene clusters are in the order galF to gnd; Groups 2 and 3 contain the ABC-transporter-dependent pathway and the gene clusters consist of 3 regions, regions 1, 2 and 3. Little is known about the variations among the gene clusters. In this study, 9 serotypes of K-antigen gene clusters (K2ab, K11, K20, K24, K38, K84, K92, K96, and K102) were sequenced and correlated with their CPS chemical structures. On the basis of sequence data, a K-antigen-specific suspension array that detects 10 distinct CPSs, including the above 9 CPSs plus K30, was developed. This is the first report to catalog the genetic features of E. coli K-antigen variations and to develop a suspension array for their molecular typing. The method has a number of advantages over traditional bacteriophage and serum agglutination methods and lays the foundation for straightforward identification and detection of additional K-antigens in the future.

  8. Stability considerations for magnetic suspension systems using electromagnets mounted in a planar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Nelson J.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical models of a 5, 6, 7, and 8 coil large gap magnetic suspension system (MSDS) are presented. Some of the topics covered include: force and torque equations, reduction of state-space form, natural modes, origins of modes, effect of rotation in azimuth (yaw), future work, and n-coil ring conclusions.

  9. Performance Analysis of Digital loudspeaker Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Kontomichos, Fotios; Mourjopoulos, John

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of digital loudspeaker arrays shows that the ways in which bits are mapped to the drivers influence the quality of the audio result. Specifically, a "bit-summed" rather than the traditional "bit-mapped" strategy greatly reduces the number of times drivers make binary transitions per...... period of the input frequency. Detailed simulations compare the results for a 32-loudspeaker array with a similar configuration with analog excitation of the drivers. Ideally, drivers in digital arrays should be very small and span a small area, but that sets limits on the low-frequency response...

  10. Optimization Analysis Model of Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hangers of self-anchored suspension bridge need to be tensioned suitably during construction. In view of this point, a simplified optimization calculation method of cable force for self-anchored suspension bridge has been developed based on optimization theories, such as minimum bending energy method, and internal force balanced method, influence matrix method. Meanwhile, combined with the weak coherence of main cable and the adjacently interaction of hanger forces, a simplified analysis method is developed using MATLAB, which is then compared with the optimization method that consider the main cable's geometric nonlinearity with software ANSYS in an actual example bridge calculation. This contrast proves the weak coherence of main cable displacement and the limitation of the adjacent cable force influence. Furthermore, a tension program that is of great reference value has been developed; some important conclusions, advices, and attention points have been summarized.

  11. Design and analysis of an intelligent controller for active geometry suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Avesta; Oloomi, Ehsan; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-02-01

    An active geometry suspension (AGS) system is a device to optimise suspension-related factors such as toe angle and roll centre height by controlling vehicle's suspension geometry. The suspension geometry could be changed through control of suspension mounting point's position. In this paper, analysis and control of an AGS system is addressed. First, the effects of suspension geometry change on roll centre height and toe angle are studied. Then, based on an analytical approach, the improvement of the vehicle's stability and handling due to the control of suspension geometry is investigated. In the next section, an eight-degree-of-freedom handling model of a sport utility vehicle equipped with an AGS system is introduced. Finally, a self-tuning proportional-integral controller has been designed, using the fuzzy control theory, to control the actuator that changes the geometry of the suspension system. The simulation results show that an AGS system can improve the handling and stability of the vehicle.

  12. BeadArray expression analysis using bioconductor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Ritchie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Illumina whole-genome expression BeadArrays are a popular choice in gene profiling studies. Aside from the vendor-provided software tools for analyzing BeadArray expression data (GenomeStudio/BeadStudio, there exists a comprehensive set of open-source analysis tools in the Bioconductor project, many of which have been tailored to exploit the unique properties of this platform. In this article, we explore a number of these software packages and demonstrate how to perform a complete analysis of BeadArray data in various formats. The key steps of importing data, performing quality assessments, preprocessing, and annotation in the common setting of assessing differential expression in designed experiments will be covered.

  13. Performance Analysis of Digital loudspeaker Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Kontomichos, Fotios; Mourjopoulos, John

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of digital loudspeaker arrays shows that the ways in which bits are mapped to the drivers influence the quality of the audio result. Specifically, a "bit-summed" rather than the traditional "bit-mapped" strategy greatly reduces the number of times drivers make binary transitions per...

  14. Analysis of a front suspension system for UniART FSAE car using FEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidie, M. N. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Tasyrif, M.; Basha, M. H.; Ibrahim, I.; Kamaruddin, N. S.; Shahriman, A. B.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, many research works from institutions that participated in Formula SAE had highlighted on suspension systems. The aim is to improve the system in term of performance and robustness. However, every suspension system for a racing car is tailored to the car itself. Thus, this paper proposes a new design for front suspension system for UniART FSAE car. The new design was than being compared to the previous suspension system for enhancement. The analysis covered in this paper based on several conditions such as braking, cornering and bumping condition and was carried out using finite element analysis. Each main component for the suspension system such as lower arm, upper arm and knuckle has been analysed in term of strength and performance. From the results, the proposed new design of the suspension system has improved in term of strength and performance compared to the previous suspension system.

  15. Feasibility of Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM) for Analysis of Pharmaceutical Suspensions in Preclinical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Kaushalkumar; Luner, Paul E; Forness, Cecile; Baker, Doris; Jankovsky, Corinne; Chen, Shirlynn

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the use of focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical suspensions with particular application to toxicology supply preparations for use in preclinical studies. Aqueous suspensions of ibuprofen were used as prototype formulations. Initial experiments were conducted to examine the effects of operational conditions including FBRM probe angle, probe location, and mixing (method and rate of mixing) on the FBRM analysis. Once experimental conditions were optimized, the homogeneity and sedimentation-redispersion of particles in the suspensions were assessed. Ibuprofen suspension under continuous agitation was monitored using FBRM for 60 h to study particle size change over time. Another study was performed to determine if particle count rates obtained by FBRM could be correlated to suspension concentration. The location and the angle of the FBRM probe relative to the beaker contents, and the rate and the method of mixing the suspension were found to be sensitive parameters during FBRM analysis. FBRM was able to monitor the process of particle sedimentation in the suspension. The attrition of ibuprofen particles was detectable by FBRM during prolonged stirring with an increase in the number of smaller particles and decrease in the number of larger particles. A strong correlation was observed between particle count rate by FBRM and ibuprofen concentration in the suspension. Also, change in content uniformity in the suspension at different locations of the beaker was represented by FBRM particle count. Overall, FBRM has potential to be a useful tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical suspensions.

  16. Electrochemical analysis in a liposome suspension using lapachol as a hydrophobic electro active species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Noriko; Wakamatsu, Shiori; Uno, Bunji

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrated that the electro-chemical analysis of hydrophobic quinones can be performed in liposome suspension systems. We prepared and analyzed liposome suspensions containing lapachol, which is a quinone-based anti-tumor activity compound. In this suspension system, a simple one redox couple of lapachol is observed. These results are quite different from those obtained in organic solvents. In addition, the pH dependence of redox behaviors of lapachol could be observed in multilamellar vesicle (MLV) suspension system. This MLV suspension system method may approximate the electrochemical behavior of hydrophobic compounds in aqueous conditions. A benefit of this liposome suspension system for electrochemical analysis is that it enables to observe water-insoluble compounds without using organic solvents.

  17. Parametric analysis of ATM solar array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. K.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The paper discusses the methods used for the calculation of ATM solar array performance characteristics and provides the parametric analysis of solar panels used in SKYLAB. To predict the solar array performance under conditions other than test conditions, a mathematical model has been developed. Four computer programs have been used to convert the solar simulator test data to the parametric curves. The first performs module summations, the second determines average solar cell characteristics which will cause a mathematical model to generate a curve matching the test data, the third is a polynomial fit program which determines the polynomial equations for the solar cell characteristics versus temperature, and the fourth program uses the polynomial coefficients generated by the polynomial curve fit program to generate the parametric data.

  18. Exome Array Analysis of Nuclear Lens Opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Stephanie J; Klein, Alison P; Lee, Kristine E; Chen, Fei; Bomotti, Samantha; Truitt, Barbara; Iyengar, Sudha K; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Duggal, Priya

    2018-06-01

    Nuclear cataract is the most common subtype of age-related cataract, the leading cause of blindness worldwide. It results from advanced nuclear sclerosis, or opacity in the center of the optic lens, and is affected by both genetic and environmental risk factors, including smoking. We sought to understand the genetic factors associated with nuclear sclerosis through interrogation of rare and low frequency coding variants using exome array data. We analyzed Illumina Human Exome Array data for 1,488 participants of European ancestry in the Beaver Dam Eye Study who were without cataract surgery for association with nuclear sclerosis grade, controlling for age and sex. We performed single-variant regression analysis for 32,138 variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.003. In addition, gene-based analysis of 11,844 genes containing at least two variants with MAF nuclear sclerosis, the possible association with the RNF149 gene highlights a potential candidate gene for future studies that aim to understand the genetic architecture of nuclear sclerosis.

  19. Analysis of measurements on wind turbine arrays. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeg, E.

    1990-12-01

    In 1989 a Danish electric power company initiated an analysis of eight wind turbine arrays. Data from this project is presented together with the explained results of the analyses and the output variations for individual arrays and for systems within the arrays. The models for prognosis are compared and evaluated in order to find that which is most effective. (AB)

  20. Topological analysis for designing a suspension of the Hénon map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.mangiarotti@ird.fr [Centre d' Études Spatiales de la Biosphère, UPS-CNRS-CNES-IRD, Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, 18 avenue Édouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse (France); Letellier, Christophe [CORIA-UMR 6614 – Normandie Université, CNRS-Université et INSA de Rouen, Campus Universitaire du Madrillet, 76800 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2015-12-18

    A suspension of a map consists of the flow for which the Poincaré section is that map. Designing a suspension of a given map remains a non-trivial task in general. The case of suspending the Hénon map is here considered. Depending on the parameter values, the Hénon map is orientation preserving or reversing; it is here shown that while a tridimensional suspension can be obtained in the former case, a four-dimensional flow is required to suspend the latter. A topological characterization of the three-dimensional suspension proposed by Starrett and Nicholas for the orientation preserving area is performed. A template is proposed for the four-dimensional case, for which the governing equations remain to be obtained. - Highlights: • A suspension of a map is the flow for which the Poincaré section is that map. • Under orientation preserving conditions, the suspension for the Hénon map is 3D. • Under orientation reversing conditions, the suspension for the Hénon map is 4D. • Topological analysis of suspensions for the Hénon map are performed for both cases.

  1. Analysis of Rail Vehicle Suspension Spring with Special Emphasis on Curving, Tracking and Tractive Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhalkar, M. A.; Bhope, D. V.; Vanalkar, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of the rail vehicle represents a balance between the forces acting between wheel and rail, the inertia forces and the forces exerted by suspension and articulation. Axial loading on helical spring causes vertical deflection at straight track but failures calls to investigate for lateral and longitudinal loading at horizontal and vertical curves respectively. Goods carrying vehicle has the frequent failures of middle axle inner suspension spring calls for investigation. The springs are analyzed for effect of stress concentration due to centripetal force and due to tractive and breaking effort. This paper also discusses shear failure analysis of spring at curvature and at uphill at various speeds for different loading condition analytically and by finite element analysis. Two mass rail vehicle suspension systems have been analyzed for vibration responses analytically using mathematical tool Matlab Simulink and the same will be evaluated using FFT vibration analyzer to find peak resonance in vertical, lateral and longitudinal direction. The results prove that the suspension acquires high repeated load in vertical and lateral direction due to tracking and curving causes maximum stress concentration on middle axle suspension spring as height of this spring is larger than end axle spring in primary suspension system and responsible for failure of middle axle suspension spring due to high stress acquisition.

  2. Heat leak analysis on a cryostat suspension system with complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.

    1994-01-01

    An internal suspension system is designed for the cryostat of the SSC sector cryogenic shaft transfer line. The suspension system supports seven cryogenic circuits of three temperature levels at 4, 20, and 80 K. Due to strict strength requirements and space constraints, the designed suspension system has complex geometry which makes the estimate of heat leaks into the cryogenic circuits rather difficult. Numerical analysis is performed on three subassemblies of the suspension system using a finite element analysis package by Algor. Typical temperature distributions in key elements are graphically presented, and heat leaks into the circuit tubes at three temperature levels are summarized. The results of the analysis indicate that the current suspension system design, while meeting the strength requirements, significantly reduces the heat leaks into the 4 and 20 K helium circuits compared to the conventional design which uses a single spacer to support the cryogenic circuits. The results also provide good reference for the final design of the suspension system, and can be readily verified experimentally

  3. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  4. High-resolution SNP array analysis of patients with developmental disorder and normal array CGH results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siggberg Linda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic analysis of patients with developmental disorders has improved over recent years largely due to the use of microarray technology. Array methods that facilitate copy number analysis have enabled the diagnosis of up to 20% more patients with previously normal karyotyping results. A substantial number of patients remain undiagnosed, however. Methods and Results Using the Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0, we analyzed 35 patients with a developmental disorder of unknown cause and normal array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH results, in order to characterize previously undefined genomic aberrations. We detected no seemingly pathogenic copy number aberrations. Most of the vast amount of data produced by the array was polymorphic and non-informative. Filtering of this data, based on copy number variant (CNV population frequencies as well as phenotypically relevant genes, enabled pinpointing regions of allelic homozygosity that included candidate genes correlating to the phenotypic features in four patients, but results could not be confirmed. Conclusions In this study, the use of an ultra high-resolution SNP array did not contribute to further diagnose patients with developmental disorders of unknown cause. The statistical power of these results is limited by the small size of the patient cohort, and interpretation of these negative results can only be applied to the patients studied here. We present the results of our study and the recurrence of clustered allelic homozygosity present in this material, as detected by the SNP 6.0 array.

  5. Analysis and experimental validation of an HTS linear synchronous propulsion prototype with HTS magnetic suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jianxun; Zheng Luhai; Guo Youguang; Xu Wei; Zhu Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    An HTS linear synchronous propulsion prototype with an HTSLSM drive is developed. The feasibility of combining an HTSLSM with an HTS magnetic suspension system has been verified. Three different PMGs are studied by ECS method and experiment verification to obtain an optimal one. The prototype has been tested to obtain the performance and thrust characteristics of the HTSLSM. The measurement results benefit the optimal design and control scheme development for an HTSLSM. A high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear propulsion system composed of a single-sided HTS linear synchronous motor (HTSLSM) in its middle and HTS magnetic suspension sub-systems on both sides has been developed. The HTSLSM uses an HTS bulk magnet array on the moving secondary, and the field-trapped characteristics of the HTS bulk using different magnetized methods have been measured and compared to identify their magnetization capability. In order to generate a large levitation force for the system, three different types of permanent magnet guideways (PMGs) have been numerically analyzed and experimentally verified to obtain an optimal PMG. Based on comprehensive experimental prototype tests, the results show that the HTS linear propulsion system can run with stable magnetic suspension having a constant air-gap length, and the thrust characteristics versus the exciting current, working frequency and the air-gap length have also been obtained. This work forms the basis for developing a practical HTS linear propulsion system by using HTS bulks both for propulsion and suspension.

  6. Operational Modal Analysis and the Performance Assessment of Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Soria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfort, road holding and safety of passenger cars are mainly influenced by an appropriate design of suspension systems. Improvements of the dynamic behaviour can be achieved by implementing semi-active or active suspension systems. In these cases, the correct design of a well-performing suspension control strategy is of fundamental importance to obtain satisfying results. Operational Modal Analysis allows the experimental structural identification in those that are the real operating conditions: Moving from output-only data, leading to modal models linearised around the more interesting working points and, in the case of controlled systems, providing the needed information for the optimal design and verification of the controller performance. All these characters are needed for the experimental assessment of vehicle suspension systems. In the paper two suspension architectures are considered equipping the same car type. The former is a semi-active commercial system, the latter a novel prototypic active system. For the assessment of suspension performance, two different kinds of tests have been considered, proving ground tests on different road profiles and laboratory four poster rig tests. By OMA-processing the signals acquired in the different testing conditions and by comparing the results, it is shown how this tool can be effectively utilised to verify the operation and the performance of those systems, by only carrying out a simple, cost-effective road test.

  7. Update-in-Place Analysis for True Multidimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Fitzgerald

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Applicative languages have been proposed for defining algorithms for parallel architectures because they are implicitly parallel and lack side effects. However, straightforward implementations of applicative-language compilers may induce large amounts of copying to preserve program semantics. The unnecessary copying of data can increase both the execution time and the memory requirements of an application. To eliminate the unnecessary copying of data, the Sisal compiler uses both build-in-place and update-in-place analyses. These optimizations remove unnecessary array copy operations through compile-time analysis. Both build-in-place and update-in-place are based on hierarchical ragged arrays, i.e., the vector-of-vectors array model. Although this array model is convenient for certain applications, many optimizations are precluded, e.g., vectorization. To compensate for this deficiency, new languages, such as Sisal 2.0, have extended array models that allow for both high-level array operations to be performed and efficient implementations to be devised. In this article, we introduce a new method to perform update-in-place analysis that is applicable to arrays stored either in hierarchical or in contiguous storage. Consequently, the array model that is appropriate for an application can be selected without the loss of performance. Moreover, our analysis is more amenable for distributed memory and large software systems.

  8. Global sensitivity analysis of bogie dynamics with respect to suspension components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi Bideleh, Seyed Milad, E-mail: milad.mousavi@chalmers.se; Berbyuk, Viktor, E-mail: viktor.berbyuk@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    The effects of bogie primary and secondary suspension stiffness and damping components on the dynamics behavior of a high speed train are scrutinized based on the multiplicative dimensional reduction method (M-DRM). A one-car railway vehicle model is chosen for the analysis at two levels of the bogie suspension system: symmetric and asymmetric configurations. Several operational scenarios including straight and circular curved tracks are considered, and measurement data are used as the track irregularities in different directions. Ride comfort, safety, and wear objective functions are specified to evaluate the vehicle’s dynamics performance on the prescribed operational scenarios. In order to have an appropriate cut center for the sensitivity analysis, the genetic algorithm optimization routine is employed to optimize the primary and secondary suspension components in terms of wear and comfort, respectively. The global sensitivity indices are introduced and the Gaussian quadrature integrals are employed to evaluate the simplified sensitivity indices correlated to the objective functions. In each scenario, the most influential suspension components on bogie dynamics are recognized and a thorough analysis of the results is given. The outcomes of the current research provide informative data that can be beneficial in design and optimization of passive and active suspension components for high speed train bogies.

  9. Decorrelation correction for nanoparticle tracking analysis of dilute polydisperse suspensions in bulk flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John; Kirby, Brian

    2017-03-01

    Nanoparticle tracking analysis, a multiprobe single particle tracking technique, is a widely used method to quickly determine the concentration and size distribution of colloidal particle suspensions. Many popular tools remove non-Brownian components of particle motion by subtracting the ensemble-average displacement at each time step, which is termed dedrifting. Though critical for accurate size measurements, dedrifting is shown here to introduce significant biasing error and can fundamentally limit the dynamic range of particle size that can be measured for dilute heterogeneous suspensions such as biological extracellular vesicles. We report a more accurate estimate of particle mean-square displacement, which we call decorrelation analysis, that accounts for correlations between individual and ensemble particle motion, which are spuriously introduced by dedrifting. Particle tracking simulation and experimental results show that this approach more accurately determines particle diameters for low-concentration polydisperse suspensions when compared with standard dedrifting techniques.

  10. Analysis of Flat-Plate Solar Array and Solar Lantern

    OpenAIRE

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith; M. Sameera Sarma

    2014-01-01

    A very detailed theortical analysis of a solar array has been carried out based on established values of solar radiation data to predict the performance of solar lamp . The analysis is based on established theory about flat-plate collectors. Top heat loss coefficient (Ut), Bottom heat loss coefficient (Ub), Overall heat loss coefficient (Ul), Useful energy (Qu), efficiency (hp) of the flat-plate solar array and efficiency (hl) of the solar lantern has been calculated.

  11. Energy Conservation Analysis and Control of Hybrid Active Semiactive Suspension with Three Regulating Damping Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active suspension has not been popularized for high energy consumption. To address this issue, this paper introduces the concept of a new kind of suspension. The linear motor is considered to be integrated into an adjustable shock absorber to form the hybrid active semiactive suspension (HASAS. To realize the superiority of HASAS, its energy consumption and regeneration mechanisms are revealed. And the system controller which is composed of linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller, mode decision and switch controller, and the sliding mode control based thrust controller is developed. LQR controller is designed to maintain the suspension control objectives, while mode decision and switch controller decides the optimal damping level to tune motor thrust. The thrust controller ensures motor thrust tracking. An adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels to be used in HASAS is trial produced and tested to obtain its working characteristics. Finally, simulation analysis is made with the experimental three damping characteristics. The impacts of adjustable damping on the motor force and energy consumption are investigated. Simulation results demonstrate the advantages of HASAS in energy conservation with various suspension control objectives. Even self-powered active control and energy regenerated to the power source can be realized.

  12. An Empirical Study of Precise Interprocedural Array Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hind

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the role played by the interprocedural analysis of array accesses in the automatic parallelization of Fortran programs. We use the PTRAN system to provide measurements of several benchmarks to compare different methods of representing interprocedurally accessed arrays. We examine issues concerning the effectiveness of automatic parallelization using these methods and the efficiency of a precise summarization method.

  13. Hybrid analysis for the Telescope Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes B.T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Telescope Array (TA experiment is the largest Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR hybrid detector which consists of three stations of Fluorescence Detectors (FDs and 507 Surface Detectors (SDs. The coincidence events which observed both by FD and SD is referred as hybrid event. The geometry and energy of each extensive air shower observed by hybrid mode are reconstructed with much more accurate resolution than monocular reconstruction alone. The hybrid event candidates were searched for by comparison of the trigger times between FD and SD in the good weather days from May 2008 to September 2010. By this search, we found 1306 hybrid events for BR, 1051 events for LR and 905 events for MD. In this paper, the performance of the hybrid technique and the energy spectra measured by using hybrid events are presented.

  14. Performance Analysis of a NASA Integrated Network Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program is planning to integrate its individual networks into a unified network which will function as a single entity to provide services to user missions. This integrated network architecture is expected to provide SCaN customers with the capabilities to seamlessly use any of the available SCaN assets to support their missions to efficiently meet the collective needs of Agency missions. One potential optimal application of these assets, based on this envisioned architecture, is that of arraying across existing networks to significantly enhance data rates and/or link availabilities. As such, this document provides an analysis of the transmit and receive performance of a proposed SCaN inter-network antenna array. From the study, it is determined that a fully integrated internetwork array does not provide any significant advantage over an intra-network array, one in which the assets of an individual network are arrayed for enhanced performance. Therefore, it is the recommendation of this study that NASA proceed with an arraying concept, with a fundamental focus on a network-centric arraying.

  15. EzArray: A web-based highly automated Affymetrix expression array data management and analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yuelin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though microarray experiments are very popular in life science research, managing and analyzing microarray data are still challenging tasks for many biologists. Most microarray programs require users to have sophisticated knowledge of mathematics, statistics and computer skills for usage. With accumulating microarray data deposited in public databases, easy-to-use programs to re-analyze previously published microarray data are in high demand. Results EzArray is a web-based Affymetrix expression array data management and analysis system for researchers who need to organize microarray data efficiently and get data analyzed instantly. EzArray organizes microarray data into projects that can be analyzed online with predefined or custom procedures. EzArray performs data preprocessing and detection of differentially expressed genes with statistical methods. All analysis procedures are optimized and highly automated so that even novice users with limited pre-knowledge of microarray data analysis can complete initial analysis quickly. Since all input files, analysis parameters, and executed scripts can be downloaded, EzArray provides maximum reproducibility for each analysis. In addition, EzArray integrates with Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO and allows instantaneous re-analysis of published array data. Conclusion EzArray is a novel Affymetrix expression array data analysis and sharing system. EzArray provides easy-to-use tools for re-analyzing published microarray data and will help both novice and experienced users perform initial analysis of their microarray data from the location of data storage. We believe EzArray will be a useful system for facilities with microarray services and laboratories with multiple members involved in microarray data analysis. EzArray is freely available from http://www.ezarray.com/.

  16. The integral suspension pressure method (ISP) for precise particle-size analysis by gravitational sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Wolfgang; Iden, Sascha C.; von Unold, Georg

    2017-04-01

    The particle-size distribution (PSD) of a soil expresses the mass fractions of various sizes of mineral particles which constitute the soil material. It is a fundamental soil property, closely related to most physical and chemical soil properties and it affects almost any soil function. The experimental determination of soil texture, i.e., the relative amounts of sand, silt, and clay-sized particles, is done in the laboratory by a combination of sieving (sand) and gravitational sedimentation (silt and clay). In the latter, Stokes' law is applied to derive the particle size from the settling velocity in an aqueous suspension. Traditionally, there are two methodologies for particle-size analysis from sedimentation experiments: the pipette method and the hydrometer method. Both techniques rely on measuring the temporal change of the particle concentration or density of the suspension at a certain depth within the suspension. In this paper, we propose a new method which is based on the pressure in the suspension at a selected depth, which is an integral measure of all particles in suspension above the measuring depth. We derive a mathematical model which predicts the pressure decrease due to settling of particles as function of the PSD. The PSD of the analyzed sample is identified by fitting the simulated time series of pressure to the observed one by inverse modeling using global optimization. The new method yields the PSD in very high resolution and its experimental realization completely avoids any disturbance by the measuring process. A sensitivity analysis of different soil textures demonstrates that the method yields unbiased estimates of the PSD with very small estimation variance and an absolute error in the clay and silt fraction of less than 0.5%

  17. TURBISCAN MA 2000: multiple light scattering measurement for concentrated emulsion and suspension instability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengual, O; Meunier, G; Cayré, I; Puech, K; Snabre, P

    1999-09-13

    Emulsion or suspension destabilisation often results from coalescence or particle aggregation (flocculation) leading to particle migration (creaming or sedimentation). Creaming and sedimentation are often considered as reversible, while coalescence and flocculation spell disaster for the formulator. Thus, it is of prime importance to detect coalescence or cluster formation at an early stage to shorten the ageing tests and to improve the formulations. This work mainly concerns the independent and anisotropic scattering of light from an emulsion or suspension in a cylindrical glass measurement cell, in relation with the optical analyser TURBISCAN MA 2000. The propagation of light through a concentrated dispersion can be used to characterise the system physico-chemical stability. Indeed, photons undergo many scattering events in an optically thick dispersion before escaping the medium and entering a receiver aperture. Multiple scattering thus contributes significantly to the transmitted and backscattered flux measured by TURBISCAN MA 2000. We present statistical models and numerical simulations for the radiative transfer in a suspension (plane or cylindrical measurement cells) only involving the photon mean path length, the asymmetry factor and the geometry of the light receivers. We further have developed an imaging method with high grey level resolution for the visualisation and the analysis of the surface flux in the backscattered spot light. We compare the results from physical models and numerical simulations with the experiments performed with the imaging method and the optical analyser TURBISCAN MA 2000 for latex beads suspensions (variable size and particle volume fraction). We then present a few examples of concentrated emulsion and suspension instability analysis with TURBISCAN 2000. It is shown that the instrument is able to characterise particle or aggregate size variation and particle/aggregate migration and to detect these phenomena much more earlier

  18. Dynamic analysis of suspension cable based on vector form intrinsic finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Qiao, Liang; Wan, Jiancheng; Jiang, Ming; Xia, Yongjun

    2017-10-01

    A vector finite element method is presented for the dynamic analysis of cable structures based on the vector form intrinsic finite element (VFIFE) and mechanical properties of suspension cable. Firstly, the suspension cable is discretized into different elements by space points, the mass and external forces of suspension cable are transformed into space points. The structural form of cable is described by the space points at different time. The equations of motion for the space points are established according to the Newton’s second law. Then, the element internal forces between the space points are derived from the flexible truss structure. Finally, the motion equations of space points are solved by the central difference method with reasonable time integration step. The tangential tension of the bearing rope in a test ropeway with the moving concentrated loads is calculated and compared with the experimental data. The results show that the tangential tension of suspension cable with moving loads is consistent with the experimental data. This method has high calculated precision and meets the requirements of engineering application.

  19. Parameter Analysis on Wind-Induced Vibration of UHV Cross-Rope Suspension Tower-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilai Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influences of important structural design parameters on the wind-induced response of cross-rope suspension tower-line. A finite element model of cross-rope suspension tower-line system is established, and the dynamic time-history analysis with harmonic wave superposition method is conducted. The two important structural design parameters such as initial guy pretension and sag-span ratio of suspension-rope are studied, as well as their influences on the three wind-induced vibration responses such as tensile force on guys, the reaction force on mast supports, and the along-wind displacement of the mast top; the results show that the value of sag-span ratio of suspension-rope should not be less than 1/9 and the value of guy pretension should be less than 30% of its design bearing capacity. On this occasion, the tension in guys and compression in masts would be maintained in smaller values, which can lead to a much more reasonable structure.

  20. On the Statics for Micro-Array Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushibara, Tomoko; Akasaka, Shizu; Ito, Makiko; Suzuki, Tomonori; Miyazaki, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    Recently after human genome sequence has been determined almost perfectly, more and more researchers have been studying genes in detail. Therefore, we are sure that accumulated gene information for human will be getting more important in the near future to develop customized medicine and to make gene interactions clear. Among plenty of information, micro array might be one of the most important analysis method for genes because it is the technique that can get big amount of the gene expressions data from one time experiment and also can be used for DNA isolation. To get the novel knowledge from micro array data, we need to enrich statistical tools for its data analysis. So far, many mathematical theories and definition have been proposing. However, many of those proposals are tested with strict conditions or customized to data for specific species. In this paper, we reviewed existing typical statistical methods for micro array analysis and discussed the repeatability of the analysis, construction the guideline with more general procedure. First we analyzed the micro array data for TG rats, with statistical methods of family-wise error rate (FWER) control approach and False Discovery Rate (FDR) control approach. As existing report, no significantly different gene could be detected with FWER control approach. On the other hand, we could find several genes significantly with FDR control approach even q=0.5. To find out the reliability of FDR control approach with micro array conditions, we have analyzed 2 more pieces of data from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public database on the web site with SAM in addition to FWER and FDR control approaches. We could find a certain number of significantly different genes with BH method and SAM in the case of q=0.05. However, we have to note that the number and kinds of detected genes are different when we compare our result with the one from the published paper. Even if the same approach is used to analyze the same micro array

  1. Hybrid Information Flow Analysis for Programs with Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergö Barany

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Information flow analysis checks whether certain pieces of (confidential data may affect the results of computations in unwanted ways and thus leak information. Dynamic information flow analysis adds instrumentation code to the target software to track flows at run time and raise alarms if a flow policy is violated; hybrid analyses combine this with preliminary static analysis. Using a subset of C as the target language, we extend previous work on hybrid information flow analysis that handled pointers to scalars. Our extended formulation handles arrays, pointers to array elements, and pointer arithmetic. Information flow through arrays of pointers is tracked precisely while arrays of non-pointer types are summarized efficiently. A prototype of our approach is implemented using the Frama-C program analysis and transformation framework. Work on a full machine-checked proof of the correctness of our approach using Isabelle/HOL is well underway; we present the existing parts and sketch the rest of the correctness argument.

  2. Arrays in biological and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2002-01-01

    Recently a dramatic change has happened for biological and biochemical analysis. Originally developed as an academic massive parallel screening tool, industry has caught the idea as well of performing all kinds of assays in the new format of microarrays. From food manufacturers over water supply...

  3. Gravitational wave detection and data analysis for pulsar timing arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasteren, Rutger van

    2011-01-01

    Long-term precise timing of Galactic millisecond pulsars holds great promise for measuring long-period (months-to-years) astrophysical gravitational waves. In this work we develop a Bayesian data analysis method for projects called pulsar timing arrays; projects aimed to detect these gravitational

  4. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of cytogenetic abnormalities by array CGH analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Array CGH analysis has been shown to be highly accurate for rapid detection of chromosomal aneuploidies and submicroscopic deletions or duplications on fetal DNA samples in a clinical prenatal diagnostic setting. The objective of this study is to present our "post-validation phase" experience with ...

  5. Modal and Dynamic Analysis of a Vehicle with Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangji Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel kinetic dynamic suspension (KDS system is presented for the cooperative control of the roll and warp motion modes of off-road vehicles. The proposed KDS system consists of two hydraulic cylinders acting on the antiroll bars. Hence, the antiroll bars are not completely replaced by the hydraulic system, but both systems are installed. In this paper, the vibration analysis in terms of natural frequencies of different motion modes in frequency domain for an off-road vehicle equipped with different configurable suspension systems is studied by using the modal analysis method. The dynamic responses of the vehicle with different configurable suspension systems are investigated under different road excitations and maneuvers. The results of the modal and dynamic analysis prove that the KDS system can reduce the roll and articulation motions of the off-road vehicle without adding extra bounce stiffness and deteriorating the ride comfort. Furthermore, the roll stiffness is increased and the warp stiffness is decreased by the KDS system, which could significantly enhance handing performance and off-road capability.

  6. HTGR core seismic analysis using an array processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatoff, H.; Charman, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    A Floating Point Systems array processor performs nonlinear dynamic analysis of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) core with significant time and cost savings. The graphite HTGR core consists of approximately 8000 blocks of various shapes which are subject to motion and impact during a seismic event. Two-dimensional computer programs (CRUNCH2D, MCOCO) can perform explicit step-by-step dynamic analyses of up to 600 blocks for time-history motions. However, use of two-dimensional codes was limited by the large cost and run times required. Three-dimensional analysis of the entire core, or even a large part of it, had been considered totally impractical. Because of the needs of the HTGR core seismic program, a Floating Point Systems array processor was used to enhance computer performance of the two-dimensional core seismic computer programs, MCOCO and CRUNCH2D. This effort began by converting the computational algorithms used in the codes to a form which takes maximum advantage of the parallel and pipeline processors offered by the architecture of the Floating Point Systems array processor. The subsequent conversion of the vectorized FORTRAN coding to the array processor required a significant programming effort to make the system work on the General Atomic (GA) UNIVAC 1100/82 host. These efforts were quite rewarding, however, since the cost of running the codes has been reduced approximately 50-fold and the time threefold. The core seismic analysis with large two-dimensional models has now become routine and extension to three-dimensional analysis is feasible. These codes simulate the one-fifth-scale full-array HTGR core model. This paper compares the analysis with the test results for sine-sweep motion

  7. Qualitative analysis of controlled release ciprofloxacin/carbopol 934 mucoadhesive suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashree Sahoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive polymeric (carbopol 934 suspension of ciprofloxacin was prepared by ultrasonication and optimized with the aim of developing an oral controlled release gastro-retentive dosage form. The qualitative analysis of the formulation was performed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses. FTIR (400 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 region and Raman (140 to 2400 cm-1 region Spectroscopic studies were carried out and the spectra were used for interpretation. XRD data of pure drug, polymer and the formulation were obtained using a powder diffractometer scanned from a Bragg′s angle (2q of 10° to 70°. The dispersion of the particle was observed using SEM techniques. The particle size distribution and aspect ratio of particles in the polymeric suspension were obtained from SEM image analysis. The results from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analyses suggested that, in formulation, the carboxylic groups of ciprofloxacin and hydroxyl groups of C934 undergo a chemical interaction leading to esterification and hydrogen bonding. The XRD data suggested that the retention of crystalline nature of ciprofloxacin in the formulation would lead to increase in stability and drug loading; decrease in solubility; and delay in release of the drug from polymeric suspension with better bioavailability and penetration capacity. The SEM image analysis indicated that, in the formulation maximum particles were having aspect ratio from 2 to 4 and standard deviation was very less which provided supporting evidences for homogeneous, uniformly dispersed, stable controlled release ciprofloxacin suspension which would be pharmaceutically acceptable.

  8. Analysis of Camera Arrays Applicable to the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachen; Xu, Ru; Lv, Zhihan; Song, Houbing

    2016-03-22

    The Internet of Things is built based on various sensors and networks. Sensors for stereo capture are essential for acquiring information and have been applied in different fields. In this paper, we focus on the camera modeling and analysis, which is very important for stereo display and helps with viewing. We model two kinds of cameras, a parallel and a converged one, and analyze the difference between them in vertical and horizontal parallax. Even though different kinds of camera arrays are used in various applications and analyzed in the research work, there are few discussions on the comparison of them. Therefore, we make a detailed analysis about their performance over different shooting distances. From our analysis, we find that the threshold of shooting distance for converged cameras is 7 m. In addition, we design a camera array in our work that can be used as a parallel camera array, as well as a converged camera array and take some images and videos with it to identify the threshold.

  9. Analysis for Suspension Hardpoint of Formula SAE Car Based on Correlation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xintian Liu; Jiao Luo; Yansong Wang; Hui Guo; Xinyu Wang

    2013-01-01

    According to the correlation of the hardpoints, double wishbone suspension of Formula SAE Car can be improved and optimized. For Formula SAE car, performance and kinetic characteristic of the suspension follow very closely to handling stability, comfort ability, handling of steering and service life of tire, etc. Double wishbone suspension is chosen as front suspension of Formula SAE car in the paper. Based on the multi-body dynamics and suspension kinematics theory, simulation model of front...

  10. 3D modeling design and engineering analysis of automotive suspension beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Zhi Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automotive suspension is an important device for transmission and torque. The main parameters and dimensions of 40 tons of heavy duty truck spring suspension system are designed in the paper. According to the data, the 3D modeling and virtual assembly of the leaf spring suspension are carried out by using parametric design. Structural stress of spring suspension is analyzed which can provide a guide and basis for the design of the leaf spring suspension.

  11. Studying mixing in Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions using color analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-Newtonian fluids occur in many relevant flow and mixing scenarios at the lab and industrial scale. The addition of acid or basic solutions to a non-Newtonian fluid is not an infrequent operation, particularly in Biotechnology applications where the pH of Non-Newtonian culture broths is usually regulated using this strategy. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We conducted mixing experiments in agitated vessels using Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions. Acid or basic pulses were injected to reveal mixing patterns and flow structures and to follow their time evolution. No foreign pH indicator was used as blue maize flours naturally contain anthocyanins that act as a native, wide spectrum, pH indicator. We describe a novel method to quantitate mixedness and mixing evolution through Dynamic Color Analysis (DCA in this system. Color readings corresponding to different times and locations within the mixing vessel were taken with a digital camera (or a colorimeter and translated to the CIELab scale of colors. We use distances in the Lab space, a 3D color space, between a particular mixing state and the final mixing point to characterize segregation/mixing in the system. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Blue maize suspensions represent an adequate and flexible model to study mixing (and fluid mechanics in general in Non-Newtonian suspensions using acid/base tracer injections. Simple strategies based on the evaluation of color distances in the CIELab space (or other scales such as HSB can be adapted to characterize mixedness and mixing evolution in experiments using blue maize suspensions.

  12. Receiver function analysis using AlpArray stations in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dániel, Kalmár; Bálint, Süle; István, Bondár

    2017-04-01

    The AlpArray temporary seismic network, together with the permanent stations of the Hungarian National Seismological Network provid an unprecedented density and resolution to study the Eastern Alps - Pannonian basin transition zone. Previous receiver functions studies .(Hetényi et al., 2007, 2015) in the region used a much smaller station density and shorter time period than the present paper. In the analysis we used data from 48 permanent and temporary AlpArray stations in Hungary and neighbouring countries. We present our methodology (P-wave receiver function analysis, H-K grid search and cross-correlation matrix methods), the pitfalls in processing, and finally our result, the detailed Moho map of the region.

  13. Data-flow Analysis of Programs with Associative Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hauzar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic programming languages, such as PHP, JavaScript, and Python, provide built-in data structures including associative arrays and objects with similar semantics—object properties can be created at run-time and accessed via arbitrary expressions. While a high level of security and safety of applications written in these languages can be of a particular importance (consider a web application storing sensitive data and providing its functionality worldwide, dynamic data structures pose significant challenges for data-flow analysis making traditional static verification methods both unsound and imprecise. In this paper, we propose a sound and precise approach for value and points-to analysis of programs with associative arrays-like data structures, upon which data-flow analyses can be built. We implemented our approach in a web-application domain—in an analyzer of PHP code.

  14. Dual-Polarized Planar Phased Array Analysis for Meteorological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis for the accuracy requirements of the planar polarimetric phased array radar (PPPAR in meteorological applications. Among many factors that contribute to the polarimetric biases, four factors are considered and analyzed in this study, namely, the polarization distortion due to the intrinsic limitation of a dual-polarized antenna element, the antenna pattern measurement error, the entire array patterns, and the imperfect horizontal and vertical channels. Two operation modes, the alternately transmitting and simultaneously receiving (ATSR mode and the simultaneously transmitting and simultaneously receiving (STSR mode, are discussed. For each mode, the polarimetric biases are formulated. As the STSR mode with orthogonal waveforms is similar to the ATSR mode, the analysis is mainly focused on the ATSR mode and the impacts of the bias sources on the measurement of polarimetric variables are investigated through Monte Carlo simulations. Some insights of the accuracy requirements are obtained and summarized.

  15. Single cell array impedance analysis in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinagac, Emre; Taskin, Selen; Kizil, Huseyin

    2016-10-01

    Impedance analysis of single cells is presented in this paper. Following the separation of a target cell type by dielectrophoresis in our previous work, this paper focuses on capturing the cells as a single array and performing impedance analysis to point out the signature difference between each cell type. Lab-on-a-chip devices having a titanium interdigitated electrode layer on a glass substrate and a PDMS microchannel are fabricated to capture each cell in a single form and perform impedance analysis. HCT116 (homosapiens colon colorectal carcin) and HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells are used in our experiments.

  16. Improvements in analysis techniques for segmented mirror arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Gregory J.; Genberg, Victor L.; Bisson, Gary R.

    2016-08-01

    The employment of actively controlled segmented mirror architectures has become increasingly common in the development of current astronomical telescopes. Optomechanical analysis of such hardware presents unique issues compared to that of monolithic mirror designs. The work presented here is a review of current capabilities and improvements in the methodology of the analysis of mechanically induced surface deformation of such systems. The recent improvements include capability to differentiate surface deformation at the array and segment level. This differentiation allowing surface deformation analysis at each individual segment level offers useful insight into the mechanical behavior of the segments that is unavailable by analysis solely at the parent array level. In addition, capability to characterize the full displacement vector deformation of collections of points allows analysis of mechanical disturbance predictions of assembly interfaces relative to other assembly interfaces. This capability, called racking analysis, allows engineers to develop designs for segment-to-segment phasing performance in assembly integration, 0g release, and thermal stability of operation. The performance predicted by racking has the advantage of being comparable to the measurements used in assembly of hardware. Approaches to all of the above issues are presented and demonstrated by example with SigFit, a commercially available tool integrating mechanical analysis with optical analysis.

  17. Effect of particle size on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of alumina suspension in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Rosado, Jose Carlos [CEA, DEN, SEARS, LANIE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Univ. Paris Sud, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health and Environment UMR 8079, 5 rue J.B. Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); National University of Engineering, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 31-139, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima (Peru); L' hermite, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lhermite@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, SEARS, LANIE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Levi, Yves [Univ. Paris Sud, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health and Environment UMR 8079, 5 rue J.B. Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2012-08-15

    The analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed for the detection and the quantification of different elements in water even when the analyte is composed of particles in suspension. We have studied the effect of particle size on the LIBS signal during liquid analysis. In our study we used different particle sizes (from 2 {mu}m to 90 {mu}m) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in suspension in water. The results were compared to the signal obtained in the case of dissolved aluminum. In the case of particles, a linear correlation between the LIBS signal versus concentration was found but a significant decrease in the slope of the calibration curve was found when the particle size increased. Several hypotheses have been tested and only a partial ablation of the particles might explain this decrease in signal intensity. This effect probably does not occur at smaller particle size. We estimated 860 nm/pulse as ablated thickness from the top of the particle. A statistical analysis over all data obtained allowed us to calculate 100 {mu}m as ablated water column depth. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have identified a decrease of calibration curve when particle size increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partial particle ablation has been identified as the origin of this effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation rate on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in suspension in water has been estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We can determine the deepness of the interaction volume into the liquid.

  18. CGHPRO – A comprehensive data analysis tool for array CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenzner Steffen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array CGH (Comparative Genomic Hybridisation is a molecular cytogenetic technique for the genome wide detection of chromosomal imbalances. It is based on the co-hybridisation of differentially labelled test and reference DNA onto arrays of genomic BAC clones, cDNAs or oligonucleotides, and after correction for various intervening variables, loss or gain in the test DNA can be indicated from spots showing aberrant signal intensity ratios. Now that this technique is no longer confined to highly specialized laboratories and is entering the realm of clinical application, there is a need for a user-friendly software package that facilitates estimates of DNA dosage from raw signal intensities obtained by array CGH experiments, and which does not depend on a sophisticated computational environment. Results We have developed a user-friendly and versatile tool for the normalization, visualization, breakpoint detection and comparative analysis of array-CGH data. CGHPRO is a stand-alone JAVA application that guides the user through the whole process of data analysis. The import option for image analysis data covers several data formats, but users can also customize their own data formats. Several graphical representation tools assist in the selection of the appropriate normalization method. Intensity ratios of each clone can be plotted in a size-dependent manner along the chromosome ideograms. The interactive graphical interface offers the chance to explore the characteristics of each clone, such as the involvement of the clones sequence in segmental duplications. Circular Binary Segmentation and unsupervised Hidden Markov Model algorithms facilitate objective detection of chromosomal breakpoints. The storage of all essential data in a back-end database allows the simultaneously comparative analysis of different cases. The various display options facilitate also the definition of shortest regions of overlap and simplify the

  19. The On-Site Analysis of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgarelli, Andrea; Zoli, Andrea; Aboudan, Alessio; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Juan José; De Cesare, Giovanni; De Rosa, Adriano; Maier, Gernot; Lyard, Etienne; Bastieri, Denis; Lombardi, Saverio; Tosti, Gino; Bergamaschi, Sonia; Beneventano, Domenico; Lamanna, Giovanni; Jacquemier, Jean; Kosack, Karl; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Boisson, Catherine; Borkowski, Jerzy; Buson, Sara; Carosi, Alessandro; Conforti, Vito; Colomé, Pep; Reyes, Raquel de los; Dumm, Jon; Evans, Phil; Fortson, Lucy; Fuessling, Matthias; Gotz, Diego; Graciani, Ricardo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Grandi, Paola; Hinton, Jim; Humensky, Brian; Inoue, Susumu; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Flour, Thierry Le; Lindemann, Rico; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Markoff, Sera; Marisaldi, Martino; Neyroud, Nadine; Nicastro, Luciano; Ohm, Stefan; Osborne, Julian; Oya, Igor; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rosen, Simon; Ribo, Marc; Tacchini, Alessandro; Schüssler, Fabian; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Torresi, Eleonora; Testa, Vincenzo; Wegner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be one of the largest ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatories. The On-Site Analysis will be the first CTA scientific analysis of data acquired from the array of telescopes, in both northern and southern sites. The On-Site Analysis will have two pipelines: the Level-A pipeline (also known as Real-Time Analysis, RTA) and the level-B one. The RTA performs data quality monitoring and must be able to issue automated alerts on variable and transient astrophysical sources within 30 seconds from the last acquired Cherenkov event that contributes to the alert, with a sensitivity not worse than the one achieved by the final pipeline by more than a factor of 3. The Level-B Analysis has a better sensitivity (not be worse than the final one by a factor of 2) and the results should be available within 10 hours from the acquisition of the data: for this reason this analysis could be performed at the end of an observation or next morning. The latency (in part...

  20. Spatio-Temporal Human Grip Force Analysis via Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian P. Kolb

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a technique for measuring human grip forces exerted on a cylindrical object via a sensor array. Standardised resistor-based pressure sensor arrays for industrial and medical applications have been available for some time. We used a special 20 mm diameter grip rod that subjects could either move actively with their fingers in the horizontal direction or exert reactive forces against opposing forces generated in the rod by a linear motor. The sensor array film was attached to the rod by adhesive tape and covered approximately 45 cm2 of the rod surface. The sensor density was 4/cm2 with each sensor having a force resolution of 0.1 N. A scan across all sensors resulted in a corresponding frame containing force values at a frame repetition rate of 150/s. The force value of a given sensor was interpreted as a pixel value resulting in a false-colour image. Based on remote sensed image analysis an algorithm was developed to distinguish significant force-representing pixels from those affected by noise. This allowed tracking of the position of identified fingers in subsequent frames such that spatio-temporal grip force profiles for individual fingers could be derived. Moreover, the algorithm allowed simultaneous measurement of forces exerted without any constraints on the number of fingers or on the position of the fingers. The system is thus well suited for basic and clinical research in human physiology as well as for studies in psychophysics.

  1. The On-Site Analysis of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Zoli, A.; Aboudan, A.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J. J.; De Cesare, G.; De Rosa, A.; Maier, G.; Lyard, E.; Bastieri, D.; Lombardi, S.; Tosti, G.; Bergamaschi, S.; Beneventano, D.; Lamanna, G.; Jacquemier, J.; Kosack, K.; Antonelli, L. A.; Boisson, C.; Borkowski, J.; Buson, S.; Carosi, A.; Conforti, V.; Colomé, P.; de los Reyes, R.; Dumm, J.; Evans, P.; Fortson, L.; Fuessling, M.; Gotz, D.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Gianotti, F.; Grandi, P.; Hinton, J.; Humensky, B.; Inoue, S.; Knodlseder, J.; Le Flour, T.; Lindemann, R.; Malaguti, G.; Markoff, S.; Marisaldi, M.; Neyroud, N.; Nicastro, L.; Ohm, S.; Osborne, J. P.; Oya, I.; Rodriguez, J.; Rosen, S.; Ribó, M.; Tacchini, A.; Schussler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Torresi, E.; Testa, V.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be one of the largest ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatories. The On-Site Analysis will be the first CTA scientific analysis of data acquired from the array of telescopes, in both northern and southern sites. The On-Site Analysis will have two pipelines: the Level-A pipeline (also known as Real-Time Analysis, RTA) and the level-B one. The RTA performs data quality monitoring and must be able to issue automated alerts on variable and transient astrophysical sources within 30 seconds from the last acquired Cherenkov event that contributes to the alert, with a sensitivity not worse than the one achieved by the final pipeline by more than a factor of 3. The Level-B Analysis has a better sensitivity (not be worse than the final one by a factor of 2) and the results should be available within 10 hours from the acquisition of the data: for this reason this analysis could be performed at the end of an observation or next morning. The latency (in particular for the RTA) and the sensitivity requirements are challenging because of the large data rate, a few GByte/s. The remote connection to the CTA candidate site with a rather limited network bandwidth makes the issue of the exported data size extremely critical and prevents any kind of processing in real-time of the data outside the site of the telescopes. For these reasons the analysis will be performed on-site with infrastructures co-located with the telescopes, with limited electrical power availability and with a reduced possibility of human intervention. This means, for example, that the on-site hardware infrastructure should have low-power consumption. A substantial effort towards the optimization of high-throughput computing service is envisioned to provide hardware and software solutions with high-throughput, low-power consumption at a low-cost.

  2. Cluster Computing For Real Time Seismic Array Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Giudicepietro, F.

    A seismic array is an instrument composed by a dense distribution of seismic sen- sors that allow to measure the directional properties of the wavefield (slowness or wavenumber vector) radiated by a seismic source. Over the last years arrays have been widely used in different fields of seismological researches. In particular they are applied in the investigation of seismic sources on volcanoes where they can be suc- cessfully used for studying the volcanic microtremor and long period events which are critical for getting information on the volcanic systems evolution. For this reason arrays could be usefully employed for the volcanoes monitoring, however the huge amount of data produced by this type of instruments and the processing techniques which are quite time consuming limited their potentiality for this application. In order to favor a direct application of arrays techniques to continuous volcano monitoring we designed and built a small PC cluster able to near real time computing the kinematics properties of the wavefield (slowness or wavenumber vector) produced by local seis- mic source. The cluster is composed of 8 Intel Pentium-III bi-processors PC working at 550 MHz, and has 4 Gigabytes of RAM memory. It runs under Linux operating system. The developed analysis software package is based on the Multiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm and is written in Fortran. The message-passing part is based upon the LAM programming environment package, an open-source imple- mentation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The developed software system includes modules devote to receiving date by internet and graphical applications for the continuous displaying of the processing results. The system has been tested with a data set collected during a seismic experiment conducted on Etna in 1999 when two dense seismic arrays have been deployed on the northeast and the southeast flanks of this volcano. A real time continuous acquisition system has been simulated by

  3. [Determination of Azospirillum Brasilense Cells With Bacteriophages via Electrooptical Analysis of Microbial Suspensions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulii, O I; Karavayeva, O A; Pavlii, S A; Sokolov, O I; Bunin, V D; Ignatov, O V

    2015-01-01

    The dependence-of changes in the electrooptical properties of Azospirillum brasilense cell suspension Sp7 during interaction with bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 on the number and time of interactions was studied. Incubation of cells with bacteriophage significantly changed the electrooptical signal within one minute. The selective effect of bacteriophage ΦAb on 18 strains of bacteria of the genus Azospirillum was studied: A. amazonense Ami4, A. brasilense Sp7, Cd, Sp107, Sp245, Jm6B2, Brl4, KR77, S17, S27, SR55, SR75, A. halopraeferans Au4, A. irakense KBC1, K A3, A. lipoferum Sp59b, SR65 and RG20a. We determined the limit of reliable determination of microbial cells infected with bacteriophage: - 10(4) cells/mL. The presence of foreign cell cultures of E. coli B-878 and E. coli XL-1 did not complicate the detection of A brasilense Sp7 cells with the use of bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7. The results demonstrated that bacteriophage (ΦAb-Sp7 can be used for the detection of Azospirillum microbial cells via t electrooptical analysis of cell suspensions.

  4. Failure Analysis of Multilayered Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Rocchio-Heller, R.; Liu, J.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-02-01

    Improvement in the performance of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is one of the key objectives for further development of gas turbine applications. The material most commonly used as TBC topcoat is yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). However, the usage of YSZ is limited by the operating temperature range which in turn restricts the engine efficiency. Materials such as pyrochlores, perovskites, rare earth garnets are suitable candidates which could replace YSZ as they exhibit lower thermal conductivity and higher phase stability at elevated temperatures. The objective of this work was to investigate different multilayered TBCs consisting of advanced topcoat materials fabricated by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). The investigated topcoat materials were YSZ, dysprosia-stabilized zirconia, gadolinium zirconate, and ceria-yttria-stabilized zirconia. All topcoats were deposited by TriplexPro-210TM plasma spray gun and radial injection of suspension. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue and thermal shock testing. Microstructure analysis of as-sprayed and failed specimens was performed with scanning electron microscope. The failure mechanisms in each case have been discussed in this article. The results show that SPS could be a promising route to produce multilayered TBCs for high-temperature applications.

  5. Balanced into array : genome-wide array analysis in 54 patients with an apparently balanced de novo chromosome rearrangement and a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Ilse; Hanemaaijer, Nicolien; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Yntema, Helger; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Verheij, Joke; Green, Andrew; Hordijk, Roel; Reardon, William; de Vries, Bert; Brunner, Han; Bongers, Ernie; de Leeuw, Nicole; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution genome-wide array analysis enables detailed screening for cryptic and submicroscopic imbalances of microscopically balanced de novo rearrangements in patients with developmental delay and/or congenital abnormalities. In this report, we added the results of genome-wide array analysis

  6. Digital control analysis and design of a field-sensed magnetic suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jen-Hsing; Chiou, Juing-Shian

    2015-03-13

    Magnetic suspension systems are mechatronic systems and crucial in several engineering applications, such as the levitation of high-speed trains, frictionless bearings, and wind tunnels. Magnetic suspension systems are nonlinear and unstable systems; therefore, they are suitable educational benchmarks for testing various modeling and control methods. This paper presents the digital modeling and control of magnetic suspension systems. First, the magnetic suspension system is stabilized using a digital proportional-derivative controller. Subsequently, the digital model is identified using recursive algorithms. Finally, a digital mixed linear quadratic regulator (LQR)/H∞ control is adopted to stabilize the magnetic suspension system robustly. Simulation examples and a real-world example are provided to demonstrate the practicality of the study results. In this study, a digital magnetic suspension system model was developed and reviewed. In addition, equivalent state and output feedback controls for magnetic suspension systems were developed. Using this method, the controller design for magnetic suspension systems was simplified, which is the novel contribution of this study. In addition, this paper proposes a complete digital controller design procedure for magnetic suspension systems.

  7. Analysis of Wide-Band Signals Using Wavelet Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisii, V.; Saccorotti, G.

    2005-12-01

    Wavelets transforms allow for precise time-frequency localization in the analysis of non-stationary signals. In wavelet analysis the trade-off between frequency bandwidth and time duration, also known as Heisenberg inequality, is by-passed using a fully scalable modulated window which solves the signal-cutting problem of Windowed Fourier Transform. We propose a new seismic array data processing procedure capable of displaying the localized spatial coherence of the signal in both the time- and frequency-domain, in turn deriving the propagation parameters of the most coherent signals crossing the array. The procedure consists in: a) Wavelet coherence analysis for each station pair of the instruments array, aimed at retrieving the frequency- and time-localisation of coherent signals. To this purpose, we use the normalised wavelet cross- power spectrum, smoothed along the time and scale domains. We calculate different coherence spectra adopting smoothing windows of increasing lengths; a final, robust estimate of the time-frequency localisation of spatially-coherent signals is eventually retrieved from the stack of the individual coherence distribution. This step allows for a quick and reliable signal discrimination: wave groups propagating across the network will manifest as high-coherence patches spanning the corresponding time-scale region. b) Once the signals have been localised in the time and frequency domain,their propagation parameters are estimated using a modified MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Characterization) algorithm. We select the MUSIC approach as it demonstrated superior performances in the case of low SNR signals, more plane waves contemporaneously impinging at the array and closely separated sources. The narrow-band Coherent Signal Subspace technique is applied to the complex Continuous Wavelet Transform of multichannel data for improving the singularity of the estimated cross-covariance matrix and the accuracy of the estimated signal eigenvectors. Using

  8. Failure analysis of a helical compression spring for a heavy vehicle's suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youli Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed why a compression coil spring fractured at the transition position from the bearing coil to the first active coil in service, while the nominal stress here should always be much less than that at the inside coil position of a fully active coil. Visual observations indicated that a wear scar was formed on the first active coil and the fracture surface showed radiating ridges emanating from the wear scar. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed crescent shaped region and beach marks, typical of fatigue failure. ZnCaph phosphate layer and painting around the contact zone were worn out due to contact and friction and resulted in corrosion and corrosion pits induced local stress concentration. Stress analysis indicated severe stress singularities at the edges of the contact zone, which facilitated cycle slip and fatigue crack nucleation. Recommendations were also made for improving the fatigue performance of the suspension springs.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of WEC Array Layout Parameters Effect on the Power Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the effect that the array layout choice has on the power performance. To this end, a sensitivity analysis is carried out with six array layout parameters, as the simulation inputs, the array power performance (q-factor), as the simulation output, and a simulation model specially...

  10. Analysis of the modal behavior of an antiguide diode laser array with Talbot filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, P.D.; van Eijk, Pieter D.; Reglat, Muriel; Vassilief, Georges; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Driessen, A.; Mouthaan, A.J.

    An analysis of the filtering of the array modes in a resonant optical waveguide (ROW) array of antiguides by a diffractive spatial filter (a Talbot filter) is presented. A dispersion relation is derived for the array modes, allowing the calculation of the field distribution. The filtering is

  11. Joint analysis of BICEP2/keck array and Planck Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, P A R; Aghanim, N; Ahmed, Z; Aikin, R W; Alexander, K D; Arnaud, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barkats, D; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Benton, S J; Bernard, J-P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Brevik, J A; Bucher, M; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Buza, V; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J-F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chary, R-R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Connors, J; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J-M; Désert, F-X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dowell, C D; Duband, L; Ducout, A; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Dvorkin, C; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Filippini, J P; Finelli, F; Fliescher, S; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; Golwala, S R; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Hasselfield, M; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hilton, G C; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Hristov, V V; Huffenberger, K M; Hui, H; Hurier, G; Irwin, K D; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Karakci, A; Karkare, K S; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kefeli, S; Keihänen, E; Kernasovskiy, S A; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kovac, J M; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kuo, C L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J-M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leitch, E M; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Lewis, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Lueker, M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Mason, P; Matarrese, S; Megerian, K G; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M-A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Pryke, C; Puget, J-L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Richter, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Schwarz, R; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Sheehy, C D; Spencer, L D; Staniszewski, Z K; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A-S; Sygnet, J-F; Tauber, J A; Teply, G P; Terenzi, L; Thompson, K L; Toffolatti, L; Tolan, J E; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Turner, A D; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Vieregg, A G; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Weber, A C; Wehus, I K; White, M; White, S D M; Willmert, J; Wong, C L; Yoon, K W; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-03-13

    We report the results of a joint analysis of data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck. BICEP2 and Keck Array have observed the same approximately 400  deg^{2} patch of sky centered on RA 0 h, Dec. -57.5°. The combined maps reach a depth of 57 nK deg in Stokes Q and U in a band centered at 150 GHz. Planck has observed the full sky in polarization at seven frequencies from 30 to 353 GHz, but much less deeply in any given region (1.2  μK deg in Q and U at 143 GHz). We detect 150×353 cross-correlation in B modes at high significance. We fit the single- and cross-frequency power spectra at frequencies ≥150  GHz to a lensed-ΛCDM model that includes dust and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r), using a prior on the frequency spectral behavior of polarized dust emission from previous Planck analysis of other regions of the sky. We find strong evidence for dust and no statistically significant evidence for tensor modes. We probe various model variations and extensions, including adding a synchrotron component in combination with lower frequency data, and find that these make little difference to the r constraint. Finally, we present an alternative analysis which is similar to a map-based cleaning of the dust contribution, and show that this gives similar constraints. The final result is expressed as a likelihood curve for r, and yields an upper limit r_{0.05}<0.12 at 95% confidence. Marginalizing over dust and r, lensing B modes are detected at 7.0σ significance.

  12. THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY 21 cm POWER SPECTRUM ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bowman, Judd D. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Hazelton, B. J.; Sullivan, I. S.; Barry, N.; Carroll, P. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Trott, C. M.; Pindor, B.; Briggs, F.; Gaensler, B. M. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Dillon, Joshua S.; Oliveira-Costa, A. de; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pober, J. C. [Brown University, Department of Physics, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Bernardi, G. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Emrich, D., E-mail: daniel.c.jacobs@asu.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); and others

    2016-07-10

    We present the 21 cm power spectrum analysis approach of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization project. In this paper, we compare the outputs of multiple pipelines for the purpose of validating statistical limits cosmological hydrogen at redshifts between 6 and 12. Multiple independent data calibration and reduction pipelines are used to make power spectrum limits on a fiducial night of data. Comparing the outputs of imaging and power spectrum stages highlights differences in calibration, foreground subtraction, and power spectrum calculation. The power spectra found using these different methods span a space defined by the various tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, and systematic control. Lessons learned from comparing the pipelines range from the algorithmic to the prosaically mundane; all demonstrate the many pitfalls of neglecting reproducibility. We briefly discuss the way these different methods attempt to handle the question of evaluating a significant detection in the presence of foregrounds.

  13. Analysis of the Kinematics and Compliance of a Passive Suspension System using Adams Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ikhsan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental approach is usually used as the way to develop or modify a suspension system to obtain maximum ride comfort and handling characteristics. This approach is a time-consuming process, costly, and may not guarantee the optimum solution. Thus, to avoid this, a virtual vehicle suspension system is necessary. In this paper, a half-car body of an actual suspension system based on the PROTON WRM 44 P0-34 was modeled and simulated. In total, 10 components comprised each front McPherson strut and rear multilink suspension consisting of different joint types and a number of degrees of freedom. The model was developed by defining the location of the hard point or coordinate before specifying the component characteristics and joint type. The completed suspension model was simulated using the vertical parallel and vertical oppose movement test, the same tests conducted with the actual experimental parameter setup. The kinematics and compliance (K&C of the simulation is compared with the experimental data to verify the suspension model. The outcome from the simulation showed a verified virtual suspension system model with a very minimum percentage of error and different characteristics of the static performance of the suspension system when subjected to the test as explained further in the paper.

  14. Histocytological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis from cell suspensions of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sané, D; Aberlenc-Bertossi, F; Gassama-Dia, Y K; Sagna, M; Trouslot, M F; Duval, Y; Borgel, A

    2006-08-01

    The date palm is a dioecious perennial species of the Arecaceae for which in vitro micropropagation is essential to ensure the renewal of palm plantations. This study presents a histocytological analysis of the traditional Mauritanian Amsekhsi cultivar beginning from the initial callogenesis and continuing up to the establishment of the cellular embryogenic cell suspensions. The formation of somatic embryos and their development into rooted plants are also described. Foliar segments of seedlings cultured in the presence of 2,4-D produced primary calli that were chopped to produce fine friable granular calli that subsequently produced cellular suspensions when transferred to liquid medium. The somatic proembryos that developed after removal of the 2,4-D were plated on agar medium where they developed into rooted plants. Thin sections of tissue fragments taken at each stage of the process were stained using Periodic Acid Schiff and Naphthol Blue-Black. The first cellular divisions were localized close to the vascular vessels of the leaf. The primary calli were obtained within 2 months. Fine friable granular calli grew quickly after the primary calli were chopped. Individual embryogenic cells were identified that rapidly started to divide and developed into globular proembryos. In addition, in the microcalli, breaking zones appeared in the thick pectocellulosic walls which delimited the pluricellular proembryos. The anatomy of somatic embryos is similar to that of zygotic embryos despite a deficit in the accumulation of intracellular proteins. When rooted with NAA, the vitroplants developed a strong orthotropic taproot. This study contributes to understanding the whole process of somatic embryogenesis, but two specific questions remain to be answered: what factors are involved in the reactivation of the somatic cells at the beginning of the initial callogenesis, and why do the somatic embryos not accumulate proteins in their tissues during maturation?

  15. Vibration Analysis of Suspension Cable with Attached Masses by Non-linear Spline Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear strain and stress expressions of suspension cable are established from the basic condition of suspension structure on the Lagrange coordinates and the equilibrium equation of the suspension structure is obtained. The dynamics equations of motion of the suspended cable with attached masses are proposed according to the virtual work principle. Using the spline function as interpolation functions of displacement and spatial position, the spline function method of dynamics equation of suspension cable is formed in which the stiffness matrix is expressed by spline function, and the solution method of stiffness matrix, matrix assembly method based on spline integral, is put forwards which can save cost time efficiency. The vibration frequency of the suspension cable is calculated with different attached masses, which provides theoretical basis for valuing of safety coefficient of the bearing cable of the cableway.

  16. Seismic Background Noise Analysis of BRTR (PS-43) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezgi Bakir, Mahmure; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Umut Semin, Korhan

    2015-04-01

    The seismic background noise variation of BRTR array, composed of two sub arrays located in Ankara and in Ankara-Keskin, has been investigated by calculating Power Spectral Density and Probability Density Functions for seasonal and diurnal noise variations between 2005 and 2011. PSDs were computed within the frequency range of 100 s - 10 Hz. The results show us a little change in noise conditions in terms of time and location. Especially, noise level changes were observed at 3-5 Hz in diurnal variations at Keskin array and there is a 5-7 dB difference in day and night time in cultural noise band (1-10 Hz). On the other hand, noise levels of medium period array is high in 1-2 Hz frequency rather than short period array. High noise levels were observed in daily working times when we compare it to night-time in cultural noise band. The seasonal background noise variation at both sites also shows very similar properties to each other. Since these stations are borehole instruments and away from the coasts, we saw a small change in noise levels caused by microseism. Comparison between Keskin short period array and Ankara medium period array show us Keskin array is quiter than Ankara array.

  17. arrayCGHbase: an analysis platform for comparative genomic hybridization microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Yves

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of the human genome sequence as well as the large number of physically accessible oligonucleotides, cDNA, and BAC clones across the entire genome has triggered and accelerated the use of several platforms for analysis of DNA copy number changes, amongst others microarray comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH. One of the challenges inherent to this new technology is the management and analysis of large numbers of data points generated in each individual experiment. Results We have developed arrayCGHbase, a comprehensive analysis platform for arrayCGH experiments consisting of a MIAME (Minimal Information About a Microarray Experiment supportive database using MySQL underlying a data mining web tool, to store, analyze, interpret, compare, and visualize arrayCGH results in a uniform and user-friendly format. Following its flexible design, arrayCGHbase is compatible with all existing and forthcoming arrayCGH platforms. Data can be exported in a multitude of formats, including BED files to map copy number information on the genome using the Ensembl or UCSC genome browser. Conclusion ArrayCGHbase is a web based and platform independent arrayCGH data analysis tool, that allows users to access the analysis suite through the internet or a local intranet after installation on a private server. ArrayCGHbase is available at http://medgen.ugent.be/arrayCGHbase/.

  18. [Comparative study of prenatal diagnosis with single nucleotide polymorphism array and karyotype analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling; Zhao, Nan; Wei, Yuan; Zhong, Su; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2014-10-18

    To compare the roles of single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) and karyotype analysis in high-risk pregnant women prenatal diagnosis. From July 2012 to December 2013, a total of 141 pregnant women with high-risk in prenatal diagnosis were selected as the object of study in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, 78 cases of umbilical cord puncture and 63 of amnion cavity puncture , both taking SNP array detection and karyotype analysis. The abnormality karyotype rate was 6.4%, the abnormal rate of SNP array result was 11.3%, and the abnormal rate of the combined two methods for detecting was 12.1%. There were significant differences between the SNP array and karyotype analysis (P=0.039). There were obvious differences between the two techniques. It is an effective way to determine genetic disease by integrating SNP array and karyotype analysis in prenatal diagnosis.

  19. Magnetic suspension motorized spindle-cutting system dynamics analysis and vibration control review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli QIAO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of high-speed spindle directly determines the development of high-end machine tools. The cutting system's dynamic characteristics and vibration control effect are inseparable with the performance of the spindle,which influence each other, synergistic effect together the cutting efficiency, the surface quality of the workpiece and tool life in machining process. So, the review status on magnetic suspension motorized spindle, magnetic suspension bearing-flexible rotor system dynamics modeling theory and status of active control technology of flexible magnetic suspension motorized spindle rotor vibration are studied, and the problems which present in the magnetic suspension flexible motorized spindle rotor systems are refined, and the development trend of magnetic levitation motorized spindle and the application prospect is forecasted.

  20. Read margin analysis of crossbar arrays using the cell-variability-aware simulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wookyung; Choi, Sujin; Shin, Hyungsoon

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a new concept of read margin analysis of crossbar arrays using cell-variability-aware simulation. The size of the crossbar array should be considered to predict the read margin characteristic of the crossbar array because the read margin depends on the number of word lines and bit lines. However, an excessively high-CPU time is required to simulate large arrays using a commercial circuit simulator. A variability-aware MATLAB simulator that considers independent variability sources is developed to analyze the characteristics of the read margin according to the array size. The developed MATLAB simulator provides an effective method for reducing the simulation time while maintaining the accuracy of the read margin estimation in the crossbar array. The simulation is also highly efficient in analyzing the characteristic of the crossbar memory array considering the statistical variations in the cell characteristics.

  1. Performance analysis of a semiactive suspension system with particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Abroon Jamal; de Silva, Clarence W; Khan, Afzal; Khan, Muhammad Tahir

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a quarter model of an automobile having passive and semiactive suspension systems to develop a scheme for an optimal suspension controller. Semi-active suspension is preferred over passive and active suspensions with regard to optimum performance within the constraints of weight and operational cost. A fuzzy logic controller is incorporated into the semi-active suspension system. It is able to handle nonlinearities through the use of heuristic rules. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to determine the optimal gain parameters for the fuzzy logic controller, while maintaining within the normalized ranges of the controller inputs and output. The performance of resulting optimized system is compared with different systems that use various control algorithms, including a conventional passive system, choice options of feedback signals, and damping coefficient limits. Also, the optimized semi-active suspension system is evaluated for its performance in relation to variation in payload. Furthermore, the systems are compared with respect to the attributes of road handling and ride comfort. In all the simulation studies it is found that the optimized fuzzy logic controller surpasses the other types of control.

  2. Physical analysis for designing nested-wire arrays on Z-pinch implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhenhua; Liu Quan; Ding Ning; Ning Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Z-pinch experiments have demonstrated that the X-ray power increases 40% with a nested-wire array compared with that with a single-layered wire array. The design of the nested-wire array on Z accelerator is studied through the implosion dynamics and the growth of RT instabilities. The analysis shows that the nested-wire array does not produce more total X-ray radiation energy than the single-layered wire array, but it obviously increases the X-ray power. The radius of the outer array of the nested-wire array could be determined based on the radius of the optimized single-layered. The masses of the outer and inner arrays could be determined by the implosion time of the nested-wire array, which is roughly the same as that of the single-layered wire array. Some suggestions are put forward which may be helpful in the nested-wire array design for Z-pinch experiments. (authors)

  3. Congenital ptosis and blefarophimosis: retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of correction with levator resection and frontalis suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, R; Piozzi, E; Lanfranchi, A L; Baruffaldi Preis, F W

    2011-01-01

    treatment of congenital ptoses and blepharophimoses relies on levator resections and frontalis suspensions. Several techniques of levator resection have been described in literature, some of them include tarsal resections and resections of the Müller muscle. Nevertheless a gold treatment have not been detected yet. Frontalis suspension is performed when levator muscle is not functional or when ptosis is severe. The suspension could be carried out with several materials: ePTFE, silicon rods, poly-propylene, nylon, braided poliester, but the preferable material is considered the autologous fascia lata. this study was designate to determine retrospectively if the indications of surgery are correct, considering age, severity of pathology, relapses and complications. An analysis of demographic data and outcomes for each technique is performed. in this study we analyze case series of 33 pediatric patients affected by congenital ptosis and blepharophimosis congenital syndrome, surgically treated from 2000 to 2008 in the ophtalmic pediatric surgery department at the Niguarda Hospital of Milan. A literature review was also performed. the mean age at presentation was 4.13. The diagnosis was precocious in most cases and often helped by some recognizable clinical signs: compensatory head posture (48.5%), anisometropia (36.4%), astigmatism (48.5%), strabismus (36.4%) and amblyopia (15.2%). Most of patients was treated with frontalis suspension (57.6%) and their age was significatively lower than patients treated with levator resection. No difference about complications and recurrence was reported between the two techniques. Complications and recurrence amount to 39.4%. these results are in line with other studies in literature. A precociuos treatment is able to reduce the incidence of amblyopia from 34% to 8%. The choice of the treatment (resection Vs suspension) has to consider the age of the patient, the severity of ptosis and avaibility of fascia lata. Nevertheless no

  4. Performance analysis of solar cell arrays in concentrating light intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yongfeng; Li Ming; Lin Wenxian; Wang Liuling; Xiang Ming; Zhang Xinghua; Wang Yunfeng; Wei Shengxian

    2009-01-01

    Performance of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is researched by experiment and simulation calculation. The results show that the I-V curve of the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays and the exergy produced by 9.51% electrical efficiency of the GaAs solar cell array can reach 68.93% of the photovoltaic/thermal system. So improving the efficiency of solar cell arrays can introduce more exergy and the system value can be upgraded. At the same time, affecting factors of solar cell arrays such as series resistance, temperature and solar irradiance also have been analyzed. The output performance of a solar cell array with lower series resistance is better and the working temperature has a negative impact on the voltage in concentrating light intensity. The output power has a -20 W/V coefficient and so cooling fluid must be used. Both heat energy and electrical power are then obtained with a solar trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system. (semiconductor devices)

  5. Array Independent Component Analysis with Application to Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuyeva, Irina A.

    2012-11-01

    There are three ways to learn about an object: from samples taken directly from the site, from simulation studies based on its known scientific properties, or from remote sensing images. All three are carried out to study Earth and Mars. Our goal, however, is to learn about the second largest storm on Jupiter, called the White Oval, whose characteristics are unknown to this day. As Jupiter is a gas giant and hundreds of millions of miles away from Earth, we can only make inferences about the planet from retrieval algorithms and remotely sensed images. Our focus is to find latent variables from the remotely sensed data that best explain its underlying atmospheric structure. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is currently the most commonly employed technique to do so. For a data set with more than two modes, this approach fails to account for all of the variable interactions, especially if the distribution of the variables is not multivariate normal; an assumption that is rarely true of multispectral images. The thesis presents an overview of PCA along with the most commonly employed decompositions in other fields: Independent Component Analysis, Tucker-3 and CANDECOMP/PARAFAC and discusses their limitations in finding unobserved, independent structures in a data cube. We motivate the need for a novel dimension reduction technique that generalizes existing decompositions to find latent, statistically independent variables for one side of a multimodal (number of modes greater than two) data set while accounting for the variable interactions with its other modes. Our method is called Array Independent Component Analysis (AICA). As the main question of any decomposition is how to select a small number of latent variables that best capture the structure in the data, we extend the heuristic developed by Ceulemans and Kiers in [10] to aid in model selection for the AICA framework. The effectiveness of each dimension reduction technique is determined by the degree of

  6. Complementary analysis techniques applied on optimizing suspensions of yttria stabilized zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Negra, Michela; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Klemensø, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Three different polymers with different functional groups and similar molecular weight were tested as dispersing agents for suspensions of yttria stabilized zirconia in ethanol: polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene imine, polyvinyl butyral/acetal. The stability of the system was assessed consideri...... excellent performance of polyvinyl pyrrolidone and polyethylene imine as dispersing agents. The stability and dispersing power were finally utilized for preparing concentrated suspensions for tape casting and subsequently to sinter the tapes into dense ceramic pieces......., in details, all the processing steps, including suspension de-agglomeration, slurry manipulation, quality of sintered tapes microstructure, and final layer leak tightness. Different analytical techniques were used to monitor ceramic de-agglomeration and stability as a function of time, for different types...

  7. Analysis of impedance measurements of a suspension of microcapsules using a variable length impedance measurement cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Krizaj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrical impedance measurements of the suspensions have to take into account the double layer impedance that is due to a very thin charged layer formed at the electrode-electrolite interface. A dedicated measuring cell that enables variation of the distance between the electrodes was developed for investigation of electrical properties of suspensions using two electrode impedance measurements. By varying the distance between the electrodes it is possible to separate the double layer and the suspension impedance from the measured data. From measured and extracted impedances electrical lumped models have been developed. The error of non inclusion of the double layer impedance has been analyzed. The error depends on the frequency of the measurements as well as on the distance between the electrodes.

  8. Coherence analysis using canonical coordinate decomposition with applications to sparse processing and optimal array deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi-Sadjadi, Mahmood R.; Pezeshki, Ali; Wade, Robert L.

    2004-09-01

    Sparse array processing methods are typically used to improve the spatial resolution of sensor arrays for the estimation of direction of arrival (DOA). The fundamental assumption behind these methods is that signals that are received by the sparse sensors (or a group of sensors) are coherent. However, coherence may vary significantly with the changes in environmental, terrain, and, operating conditions. In this paper canonical correlation analysis is used to study the variations in coherence between pairs of sub-arrays in a sparse array problem. The data set for this study is a subset of an acoustic signature data set, acquired from the US Army TACOM-ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ. This data set is collected using three wagon-wheel type arrays with five microphones. The results show that in nominal operating conditions, i.e. no extreme wind noise or masking effects by trees, building, etc., the signals collected at different sensor arrays are indeed coherent even at distant node separation.

  9. HAT: Hypergeometric Analysis of Tiling-arrays with application to promoter-GeneChip data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Taskesen (Erdogan); R. Beekman (Renée); J. de Ridder (Jeroen); B.J. Wouters (Bas); J. Peeters (Justine); I.P. Touw (Ivo); M.J.T. Reinders (Marcel); H.R. Delwel (Ruud)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Tiling-arrays are applicable to multiple types of biological research questions. Due to its advantages (high sensitivity, resolution, unbiased), the technology is often employed in genome-wide investigations. A major challenge in the analysis of tiling-array data is to define

  10. HAT : Hypergeometric Analysis of Tiling-arrays with application to promoter-GeneChip data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taskesen, E.; Beekman, R.; De Ridder, J.; Wouters, B.J.; Peeters, J.K.; Touw, I.P.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Delwel, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tiling-arrays are applicable to multiple types of biological research questions. Due to its advantages (high sensitivity, resolution, unbiased), the technology is often employed in genome-wide investigations. A major challenge in the analysis of tiling-array data is to define

  11. Metabolic labeling and membrane fractionation for comparative proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Witold G; Kierszniowska, Sylwia; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2013-09-28

    Plasma membrane microdomains are features based on the physical properties of the lipid and sterol environment and have particular roles in signaling processes. Extracting sterol-enriched membrane microdomains from plant cells for proteomic analysis is a difficult task mainly due to multiple preparation steps and sources for contaminations from other cellular compartments. The plasma membrane constitutes only about 5-20% of all the membranes in a plant cell, and therefore isolation of highly purified plasma membrane fraction is challenging. A frequently used method involves aqueous two-phase partitioning in polyethylene glycol and dextran, which yields plasma membrane vesicles with a purity of 95% (1). Sterol-rich membrane microdomains within the plasma membrane are insoluble upon treatment with cold nonionic detergents at alkaline pH. This detergent-resistant membrane fraction can be separated from the bulk plasma membrane by ultracentrifugation in a sucrose gradient (2). Subsequently, proteins can be extracted from the low density band of the sucrose gradient by methanol/chloroform precipitation. Extracted protein will then be trypsin digested, desalted and finally analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Our extraction protocol for sterol-rich microdomains is optimized for the preparation of clean detergent-resistant membrane fractions from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures. We use full metabolic labeling of Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cell cultures with K(15)NO3 as the only nitrogen source for quantitative comparative proteomic studies following biological treatment of interest (3). By mixing equal ratios of labeled and unlabeled cell cultures for joint protein extraction the influence of preparation steps on final quantitative result is kept at a minimum. Also loss of material during extraction will affect both control and treatment samples in the same way, and therefore the ratio of light and heave peptide will remain constant. In the proposed method either labeled or

  12. Callogenesis and cell suspension establishment of tropical highland blackberry (Rubus adenotrichosSchltdl.) and its microscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Durán, Alexander; Alvarado-Ulloa, Carlos; Chacón-Cerdas, Randall; Alvarado-Marchena, Luis Fernando; Flores-Mora, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Blackberries are fruits produced worldwide, with 25 % of their production centered in Mexico, Central and South America. Tropical highland blackberry is a fruit that can potentially enhance human health, due to their high content in phenolic compounds, which include anthocyanins, phenolic acids, tannins (gallotannins and elagitannins) and flavonoids. Therefore, the overall aim of this study is the development of a callus induction protocol, the establishment of blackberry cell suspensions ( Rubus adenotrichos Schltdl.) and their cell analysis through optical microscopy and TEM, for the potential production of phenolic compounds. In order to produce callogenesis, segments of blackberry leaves were disinfected and placed in different concentrations of 2,4-D and the control media (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5 and 3.0 mg/l of 2,4-D); obtaining the higher size of calli in the medium with 1.5 mg/l of 2,4-D. After this determination, and for this specific treatment, a growth curve was performed through the use of fresh and dry weight parameters, in order to identify each of the growth stages. Furthermore, the calli obtained from the 1.5 mg/l of 2,4-D treatment were placed in two different culture media (MS and MS supplemented with 1.5 mg/l of 2,4-D) in order to establish the cell suspensions and the growth curve. To the best treatment, the total polyphenols were also quantified. It was determined that the MS medium is ideal for the growth and disintegration of the cell suspensions, obtaining 0.0256 mg of gallic acid/g of fresh sample. Finally, a cell callus and cell suspension analysis was performed through OM and TEM, evidencing a higher hystological differentiation in the calli, as well as the observation of antioxidant storage in the plastids.

  13. Microcantilever array instrument based on optical fiber and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangping; Wu, Lin; Li, Chao; Wu, Shangquan; Zhang, Qingchuan

    2017-07-01

    We developed a microcantilever array biosensor instrument based on optical readout from a microcantilever array in fluid environment. The microcantilever signals were read out sequentially by laser beams emitted from eight optical fibers. The optical fibers were coupled to lasers, while the other ends of the fibers were embedded in eight V-grooves with 250 μm pitch microfabricated from a Si wafer. Aspherical lens was used to keep the distance between lasers. A programmable logic controller was used to make the system work stably. To make sure that the output of lasers was stable, a temperature controller was set up for each laser. When the deflection signal was collected, lasers used here were set to be on for at least 400 ms in each scanning cycle to get high signal-to-noise ratio deflection curves. A test was performed by changing the temperature of the liquid cell holding a microcantilever array to verify the consistent response of the instrument to the cantilever deflections. The stability and conformance of the instrument were demonstrated by quantitative detection of mercury ions in aqueous solution and comparison detection of clenbuterol by setting test and reference cantilevers. This microcantilever array detection instrument can be applied to highly sensitive detection of chemical and biological molecules in fluid environment.

  14. Analysis of the yielding behavior of electrorheological suspensions by controlled shear stress experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlínek, V.; Sáha, P.; Perez-Gonzales, K.; de Vargas, L.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Quadrat, Otakar

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 16, 1-2 (2006), s. 14-18 ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : electrorheology * yield stress * suspensions * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  15. Comparative analysis of copy number detection by whole-genome BAC and oligonucleotide array CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejjani Bassem A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH is a powerful diagnostic tool for the detection of DNA copy number gains and losses associated with chromosome abnormalities, many of which are below the resolution of conventional chromosome analysis. It has been presumed that whole-genome oligonucleotide (oligo arrays identify more clinically significant copy-number abnormalities than whole-genome bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC arrays, yet this has not been systematically studied in a clinical diagnostic setting. Results To determine the difference in detection rate between similarly designed BAC and oligo arrays, we developed whole-genome BAC and oligonucleotide microarrays and validated them in a side-by-side comparison of 466 consecutive clinical specimens submitted to our laboratory for aCGH. Of the 466 cases studied, 67 (14.3% had a copy-number imbalance of potential clinical significance detectable by the whole-genome BAC array, and 73 (15.6% had a copy-number imbalance of potential clinical significance detectable by the whole-genome oligo array. However, because both platforms identified copy number variants of unclear clinical significance, we designed a systematic method for the interpretation of copy number alterations and tested an additional 3,443 cases by BAC array and 3,096 cases by oligo array. Of those cases tested on the BAC array, 17.6% were found to have a copy-number abnormality of potential clinical significance, whereas the detection rate increased to 22.5% for the cases tested by oligo array. In addition, we validated the oligo array for detection of mosaicism and found that it could routinely detect mosaicism at levels of 30% and greater. Conclusions Although BAC arrays have faster turnaround times, the increased detection rate of oligo arrays makes them attractive for clinical cytogenetic testing.

  16. ArrayQuest: a web resource for the analysis of DNA microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Jeremy L

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous microarray analysis programs have been created through the efforts of Open Source software development projects. Providing browser-based interfaces that allow these programs to be executed over the Internet enhances the applicability and utility of these analytic software tools. Results Here we present ArrayQuest, a web-based DNA microarray analysis process controller. Key features of ArrayQuest are that (1 it is capable of executing numerous analysis programs such as those written in R, BioPerl and C++; (2 new analysis programs can be added to ArrayQuest Methods Library at the request of users or developers; (3 input DNA microarray data can be selected from public databases (i.e., the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC DNA Microarray Database or Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO or it can be uploaded to the ArrayQuest center-point web server into a password-protected area; and (4 analysis jobs are distributed across computers configured in a backend cluster. To demonstrate the utility of ArrayQuest we have populated the methods library with methods for analysis of Affymetrix DNA microarray data. Conclusion ArrayQuest enables browser-based implementation of DNA microarray data analysis programs that can be executed on a Linux-based platform. Importantly, ArrayQuest is a platform that will facilitate the distribution and implementation of new analysis algorithms and is therefore of use to both developers of analysis applications as well as users. ArrayQuest is freely available for use at http://proteogenomics.musc.edu/arrayquest.html.

  17. Electromagnetic linear machines with dual Halbach array design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Liang; Peng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Lei; Jiao, Zongxia

    2017-01-01

    This book extends the conventional two-dimensional (2D) magnet arrangement into 3D pattern for permanent magnet linear machines for the first time, and proposes a novel dual Halbach array. It can not only effectively increase the radial component of magnetic flux density and output force of tubular linear machines, but also significantly reduce the axial flux density, radial force and thus system vibrations and noises. The book is also the first to address the fundamentals and provide a summary of conventional arrays, as well as novel concepts for PM pole design in electric linear machines. It covers theoretical study, numerical simulation, design optimization and experimental works systematically. The design concept and analytical approaches can be implemented to other linear and rotary machines with similar structures. The book will be of interest to academics, researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in electronic engineering and mechanical engineering who wish to learn the core principles, met...

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of magnetometer array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A. D.; Baumjohann, W.

    1984-01-01

    A technique is developed for mapping magnetic variation fields in three dimensions using data from an array of magnetometers, based on the theory of optimal linear estimation. The technique is applied to data from the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array. Estimates of the spatial power spectra for the internal and external magnetic variations are derived, which in turn provide estimates of the spatial autocorrelation functions of the three magnetic variation components. Statistical errors involved in mapping the external and internal fields are quantified and displayed over the mapping region. Examples of field mapping and of separation into external and internal components are presented. A comparison between the three-dimensional field separation and a two-dimensional separation from a single chain of stations shows that significant differences can arise in the inferred internal component.

  19. Design and Analysis Tools for Deployable Solar Array Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being...

  20. Analysis of the crosstalk in an underwater planar array transducer by the equivalent circuit method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Seonghun; Roh, Yongrae

    2017-07-01

    A planar array transducer consists of several transducers arranged on an acoustic window, which causes crosstalk. The crosstalk is a phenomenon in which the acoustic pressure generated by a projector is transferred to adjacent hydrophones through the acoustic window and the transferred pressure generates noise signals in the hydrophones. The performance of the planar array transducer is deteriorated due to this acoustic interaction, which should be minimized for maximum array performance. Analysis of the crosstalk has been carried out with sophisticated numerical methods, which motivated the need to develop a simpler and accurate analysis method. In this work, an equivalent circuit has been developed to analyze the crosstalk level of the planar array transducer, and the validity of the developed method has been verified by comparing the result from the equivalent circuit analysis with that from finite element analysis.

  1. Design and Analysis Tools for Deployable Solar Array Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being...

  2. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  3. Genetic analysis of presbycusis by arrayed primer extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Paris, Juan; Ballay, Charles; Inserra, Michelle; Stidham, Katrina; Colen, Tahl; Roberson, Joseph; Gardner, Phyllis; Schrijver, Iris

    2008-01-01

    Using the Hereditary Hearing Loss arrayed primer extension (APEX) array, which contains 198 mutations across 8 hearing loss-associated genes (GJB2, GJB6, GJB3, GJA1, SLC26A4, SLC26A5, 12S-rRNA, and tRNA Ser), we compared the frequency of sequence variants in 94 individuals with early presbycusis to 50 unaffected controls and aimed to identify possible genetic contributors. This cross-sectional study was performed at Stanford University with presbycusis samples from the California Ear Institute. The patients were between ages 20 and 65 yr, with adult-onset sensorineural hearing loss of unknown etiology, and carried a clinical diagnosis of early presbycusis. Exclusion criteria comprised known causes of hearing loss such as significant noise exposure, trauma, ototoxic medication, neoplasm, and congenital infection or syndrome, as well as congenital or pediatric onset. Sequence changes were identified in 11.7% and 10% of presbycusis and control alleles, respectively. Among the presbycusis group, these solely occurred within the GJB2 and SLC26A4 genes. Homozygous and compound heterozygous pathogenic mutations were exclusively seen in affected individuals. We were unable to detect a statistically significant difference between our control and affected populations regarding the frequency of sequence variants detected with the APEX array. Individuals who carry two mild mutations in the GJB2 gene possibly have an increased risk of developing early presbycusis.

  4. Monitoring Technology for Vehicle Loading Status Based on the Analysis of Suspension Vibration Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and early warning of vehicle risk status was one of the key technologies of transportation security, and real-time monitoring load status could reduce the transportation accidents effectively. In order to obtain vehicle load status information, vehicle characters of suspension were analyzed and simulated under different working conditions. On the basis of this, the device that can detect suspension load with overload protection structure was designed and a method of monitored vehicle load status was proposed. The monitoring platform of vehicle load status was constructed and developed for a FAW truck and system was tested on level-A road and body twist lane. The results show that the measurement error is less than 5% and horizontal centre-of-mass of vehicle was positioned accurately. The platform enables providing technical support for the real-time monitoring and warning of vehicles risk status in transit.

  5. Alignment error analysis of detector array for spatial heterodyne spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Chen, Di-Hu; Li, Zhi-Wei; Luo, Hai-Yan; Hong, Jin

    2017-12-10

    Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) is a new spatial interference spectroscopy which can achieve high spectral resolution. The alignment error of the detector array can lead to a significant influence with the spectral resolution of a SHS system. Theoretical models for analyzing the alignment errors which are divided into three kinds are presented in this paper. Based on these models, the tolerance angle of these errors has been given, respectively. The result of simulation experiments shows that when the angle of slope error, tilt error, and rotation error are less than 1.21°, 1.21°, 0.066° respectively, the alignment reaches an acceptable level.

  6. Array analysis of regional Pn and Pg wavefields from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, M.A.

    1991-06-01

    Small-aperture high-frequency seismic arrays with dimensions of a few kilometers or less, can improve our ability to seismically monitor compliance with a low-yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty. This work studies the characteristics and effectiveness of array processing of the regional Pn and Pg wavefields generated by underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. Waveform data from the explosion HARDIN (m b = 5.5) is recorded at a temporary 12-element, 3-component, 1.5 km-aperture array sited in an area of northern Nevada. The explosions VILLE (m b = 4.4) and SALUT (m b = 5.5) are recorded at two arrays sited in the Mojave desert, one a 96-element vertical-component 7 km-aperture array and the other a 155-element vertical-component 4 km-aperture array. Among the mean spectra for the m b = 5.5 events there are significant differences in low-frequency spectral amplitudes between array sites. The spectra become nearly identical beyond about 6 Hz. Spectral ratios are used to examine seismic source properties and the partitioning of energy between Pn and Pg. Frequency-wavenumber analysis at the 12-element array is used to obtain estimates of signal gain, phase velocity, and source azimuth. This analysis reveals frequency-dependent biases in velocity and azimuth of the coherent Pn and Pg arrivals. Signal correlation, the principal factor governing array performance, is examined in terms of spatial coherence estimates. The coherence is found to vary between the three sites. In all cases the coherence of Pn is greater than that for Pg. 81 refs., 92 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Array analysis of regional Pn and Pg wavefields from the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, M.A. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Small-aperture high-frequency seismic arrays with dimensions of a few kilometers or less, can improve our ability to seismically monitor compliance with a low-yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty. This work studies the characteristics and effectiveness of array processing of the regional Pn and Pg wavefields generated by underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. Waveform data from the explosion HARDIN (m{sub b} = 5.5) is recorded at a temporary 12-element, 3-component, 1.5 km-aperture array sited in an area of northern Nevada. The explosions VILLE (m{sub b} = 4.4) and SALUT (m{sub b} = 5.5) are recorded at two arrays sited in the Mojave desert, one a 96-element vertical-component 7 km-aperture array and the other a 155-element vertical-component 4 km-aperture array. Among the mean spectra for the m{sub b} = 5.5 events there are significant differences in low-frequency spectral amplitudes between array sites. The spectra become nearly identical beyond about 6 Hz. Spectral ratios are used to examine seismic source properties and the partitioning of energy between Pn and Pg. Frequency-wavenumber analysis at the 12-element array is used to obtain estimates of signal gain, phase velocity, and source azimuth. This analysis reveals frequency-dependent biases in velocity and azimuth of the coherent Pn and Pg arrivals. Signal correlation, the principal factor governing array performance, is examined in terms of spatial coherence estimates. The coherence is found to vary between the three sites. In all cases the coherence of Pn is greater than that for Pg. 81 refs., 92 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Enhanced Performance Analysis of Inter-aircraft Optical Wireless Communication Link Using Array of Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mehtab

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of various parameters on the performance of inter-aircraft optical wireless communication (IaOWC) link. Also, an improved performance analysis of a 2.5 Gbps IaOWC link using an array of photodetectors at the receiver terminal has been reported. The results show an increase in the SNR and total power of the received signal at a link distance of 100 km by deploying a photodetector array at the receiver terminal.

  9. Theoretical analysis of optical conveyor belt with plasmonic nanodisk array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changhun; Kim, Donghyun

    2017-07-01

    Plasmonic optical trapping allows trapping and manipulation of micro- and even nanometer-sized particles using localized and enhanced electric fields by plasmon resonance in metallic nanostructure. We consider an optical conveyor belt consisting of an array of nanodisks acting as optical tweezers with different sizes to implement a system to trap and manipulate particles through a laser-induced gradient force. An electric field induced and localized at each optical resonator is sensitive to the wavelength and polarization. The maximum electric field is enhanced at resonant wavelength depending on the shape and size of the plasmonic nanostructure used for light localization. By changing the light wavelength and polarization, the position of localized light induced in the disk can be determined and nanoparticles can be moved to a desired location through the variation of resonance conditions without any mechanical forces.

  10. Equivalent circuit-based analysis of CMUT cell dynamics in arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, H K; Atalar, Abdullah; Köymen, Hayrettin

    2013-05-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are usually composed of large arrays of closely packed cells. In this work, we use an equivalent circuit model to analyze CMUT arrays with multiple cells. We study the effects of mutual acoustic interactions through the immersion medium caused by the pressure field generated by each cell acting upon the others. To do this, all the cells in the array are coupled through a radiation impedance matrix at their acoustic terminals. An accurate approximation for the mutual radiation impedance is defined between two circular cells, which can be used in large arrays to reduce computational complexity. Hence, a performance analysis of CMUT arrays can be accurately done with a circuit simulator. By using the proposed model, one can very rapidly obtain the linear frequency and nonlinear transient responses of arrays with an arbitrary number of CMUT cells. We performed several finite element method (FEM) simulations for arrays with small numbers of cells and showed that the results are very similar to those obtained by the equivalent circuit model.

  11. Linear arrays of Josephson junctions: A stability analysis of characteristic modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trees, B.R.; Harris, E.B.

    1998-01-01

    We have performed a linear stability analysis of two arrays of resistively shunted Josephson junctions: a ladder array and a so-called modified linear array. We find the periodic solutions to be linearly stable for a wide range of bias currents in the absence of a load. This is contrasted with the well-studied globally coupled linear array, where stability of the periodic solutions is a sensitive function of bias current and load parameters. For the ladder array, we have studied the nature of the mesh currents for the different decay modes. Numerical evidence leads us to conclude that the branches of the ladder parallel to the bias current play an important role in helping to damp out perturbed currents. We also compare the long-time dynamics of these Josephson-junction arrays with that of an RL network, which is a ladder of resistors and inductors, and for which the decay rates and mesh currents are calculated exactly. We find that at long times the dynamics of all three arrays are basically identical. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Dynamic model and workspace analysis of novel incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables is introduced in this article. Based on wrench of forces theory and Lagrange’s equation of first kind, the static and dynamics models of incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables are established, respectively. In order to obtain an intuitive understanding of the trajectory analysis, a dynamics model consisting of governing equation and geometric constraint conditions which is a set of the mixed differential-algebraic equation in mathematics is established. A typical feedback controller and an inverse model were set up to estimate the driving function. The effective workspace, which is used to guarantee an efficient swing process, mostly depends on the geometrical shape rather than the volume itself which was calculated by trajectory analysis. In order to estimate system features and ensure a limited range of tension in underconstrained spatial cable system, the probable location of unbalanced loading was evaluated by pointwise evaluation techniques during normal work.

  13. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products.

  14. Thermal correlation analysis of a long-span suspension bridge static responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linren; Chen, Lan; Xia, Yong; Brownjohn, James M. W.

    2016-04-01

    Harsh service environment degenerates the performance of bridges even leads to catastrophic collapse. Structural temperature has been widely recognized as one of the most negative environmental effects on bridges. The structural responses are deeply affected by the variation and distribution of temperatures on bridges. Therefore, identifying the correlations between them is a significant issue for structural safety assessment. In this study, the relationships between the temperature induced static response and the surrounding weather factors are investigated based on the long-term field measurements of a long-span suspension bridge. The correlations of the meteorological parameters between the bridge filed and the nearby weather station, and the relations of structural static responses to the air temperature, are investigated. The results indicate that relationships of meteorological parameters between nearby weather station and the bridge field can be predicted. The correlation between the static responses and the air temperature and is remarkable with high correlation coefficient. The conclusions are expected to provide reference for the design and evaluation of longspan suspension bridges.

  15. Biomedical analysis of rat body hair after hindlimb suspension for 14 days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ishioka, Noriaki; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamazaki, Takashi; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Niihori, Maki; Nakao, Reiko; Yamada, Shin; Mukai, Chiaki; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2012-04-01

    The levels of 26 minerals in rat body hair were analyzed in control and hindlimb-suspended Wistar Hannover rats (n=5 each). We quantified the levels of 22 minerals in this experiment. However, we were unable to measure the levels of 4 minerals (Be, V, Cd, and Hg) quantitatively because they were below the limit of detection. Of the 22 quantified, the levels of 19 minerals were not significantly different between control and hindlimb-suspended groups. The levels of 3 minerals (Pb, Cr, and Al) tended to be higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group; however, this difference was not significant. The concentrations of 3 other minerals (I, K, and Mg) were significantly different between the 2 groups. The iodine (I) level was 58.2% higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group (Pbody hair. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. We believe that hindlimb suspension for 14 days can simulate the effects of an extremely severe environment, such as space flight, because the hindlimb suspension model elicits a rapid physiological change in skeletal muscle, bone, and fluid shift even in the short term. These results also suggest that we can detect various effects on the body by analyzing the human scalp hair shaft.

  16. Numerical and experimental analysis of the sedimentation of spherical colloidal suspensions under centrifugal force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Evangelia; Rohmann-Shaw, Connor F.; Sykes, Thomas C.; Cayre, Olivier J.; Hunter, Timothy N.; Jimack, Peter K.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the sedimentation behaviour of colloidal suspensions is crucial in determining their stability. Since sedimentation rates are often very slow, centrifugation is used to expedite sedimentation experiments. The effect of centrifugal acceleration on sedimentation behaviour is not fully understood. Furthermore, in sedimentation models, interparticle interactions are usually omitted by using the hard-sphere assumption. This work proposes a one-dimensional model for sedimentation using an effective maximum volume fraction, with an extension for sedimentation under centrifugal force. A numerical implementation of the model using an adaptive finite difference solver is described. Experiments with silica suspensions are carried out using an analytical centrifuge. The model is shown to be a good fit with experimental data for 480 nm spherical silica, with the effects of centrifugation at 705 rpm studied. A conversion of data to Earth gravity conditions is proposed, which is shown to recover Earth gravity sedimentation rates well. This work suggests that the effective maximum volume fraction accurately captures interparticle interactions and provides insights into the effect of centrifugation on sedimentation.

  17. Computational Analysis of Static and Dynamic Behaviour of Magnetic Suspensions and Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, Colin P. (Editor); Groom, Nelson J.

    1996-01-01

    Static modelling of magnetic bearings is often carried out using magnetic circuit theory. This theory cannot easily include nonlinear effects such as magnetic saturation or the fringing of flux in air-gaps. Modern computational tools are able to accurately model complex magnetic bearing geometries, provided some care is exercised. In magnetic suspension applications, the magnetic fields are highly three-dimensional and require computational tools for the solution of most problems of interest. The dynamics of a magnetic bearing or magnetic suspension system can be strongly affected by eddy currents. Eddy currents are present whenever a time-varying magnetic flux penetrates a conducting medium. The direction of flow of the eddy current is such as to reduce the rate-of-change of flux. Analytic solutions for eddy currents are available for some simplified geometries, but complex geometries must be solved by computation. It is only in recent years that such computations have been considered truly practical. At NASA Langley Research Center, state-of-the-art finite-element computer codes, 'OPERA', 'TOSCA' and 'ELEKTRA' have recently been installed and applied to the magnetostatic and eddy current problems. This paper reviews results of theoretical analyses which suggest general forms of mathematical models for eddy currents, together with computational results. A simplified circuit-based eddy current model proposed appears to predict the observed trends in the case of large eddy current circuits in conducting non-magnetic material. A much more difficult case is seen to be that of eddy currents in magnetic material, or in non-magnetic material at higher frequencies, due to the lower skin depths. Even here, the dissipative behavior has been shown to yield at least somewhat to linear modelling. Magnetostatic and eddy current computations have been carried out relating to the Annular Suspension and Pointing System, a prototype for a space payload pointing and vibration

  18. A cross-reactive sensor array for the fluorescence qualitative analysis of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huaizhi; Lin, Liping; Rong, Mingcong; Chen, Xi

    2014-11-01

    A cross-reactive sensor array using mercaptopropionic acid modified cadmium telluride (CdTe), glutathione modified CdTe, poly(methacrylic acid) modified silver nanoclusters, bovine serum albumin modified gold nanoclusters, rhodamine derivative and calcein blue as fluorescent indicators has been designed for the detection of seven heavy metal ions (Ag(+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+) and Cd(2+)). The discriminatory capacity of the sensor array to different heavy metal ions in different pH solutions has been tested and the results have been analyzed with linear discriminant analysis. Results showed that the sensor array could be used to qualitatively analyze the selected heavy metal ions. The array performance was also evaluated in the identification of known and unknown samples and the preliminary results suggested the promising practicability of the designed sensor assay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Computational analysis of vertical axis wind turbine arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremseth, J.; Duraisamy, K.

    2016-10-01

    Canonical problems involving single, pairs, and arrays of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are investigated numerically with the objective of understanding the underlying flow structures and their implications on energy production. Experimental studies by Dabiri (J Renew Sustain Energy 3, 2011) suggest that VAWTs demand less stringent spacing requirements than their horizontal axis counterparts and additional benefits may be obtained by optimizing the placement and rotational direction of VAWTs. The flowfield of pairs of co-/counter-rotating VAWTs shows some similarities with pairs of cylinders in terms of wake structure and vortex shedding. When multiple VAWTs are placed in a column, the extent of the wake is seen to spread further downstream, irrespective of the direction of rotation of individual turbines. However, the aerodynamic interference between turbines gives rise to regions of excess momentum between the turbines which lead to significant power augmentations. Studies of VAWTs arranged in multiple columns show that the downstream columns can actually be more efficient than the leading column, a proposition that could lead to radical improvements in wind farm productivity.

  20. Air sampling to assess potential generation of aerosolized viable bacteria during flow cytometric analysis of unfixed bacterial suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Christine F; Inglis, Timothy JJ

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated aerosolized viable bacteria in a university research laboratory during operation of an acoustic-assisted flow cytometer for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by sampling room air before, during and after flow cytometer use. The aim was to assess the risk associated with use of an acoustic-assisted flow cytometer analyzing unfixed bacterial suspensions. Air sampling in a nearby clinical laboratory was conducted during the same period to provide context for the existing background of microorganisms that would be detected in the air. The three species of bacteria undergoing analysis by flow cytometer in the research laboratory were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Burkholderia thailandensis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. None of these was detected from multiple 1000 L air samples acquired in the research laboratory environment. The main cultured bacteria in both locations were skin commensal and environmental bacteria, presumed to have been disturbed or dispersed in laboratory air by personnel movements during routine laboratory activities. The concentrations of bacteria detected in research laboratory air samples were reduced after interventional cleaning measures were introduced and were lower than those in the diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratory. We conclude that our flow cytometric analyses of unfixed suspensions of K. pneumoniae, B. thailandensis and S. pneumoniae do not pose a risk to cytometer operators or other personnel in the laboratory but caution against extrapolation of our results to other bacteria and/or different flow cytometric experimental procedures. PMID:29608197

  1. Statistical analysis of modal parameters of a suspension bridge based on Bayesian spectral density approach and SHM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijun; Feng, Maria Q.; Luo, Longxi; Feng, Dongming; Xu, Xiuli

    2018-01-01

    Uncertainty of modal parameters estimation appear in structural health monitoring (SHM) practice of civil engineering to quite some significant extent due to environmental influences and modeling errors. Reasonable methodologies are needed for processing the uncertainty. Bayesian inference can provide a promising and feasible identification solution for the purpose of SHM. However, there are relatively few researches on the application of Bayesian spectral method in the modal identification using SHM data sets. To extract modal parameters from large data sets collected by SHM system, the Bayesian spectral density algorithm was applied to address the uncertainty of mode extraction from output-only response of a long-span suspension bridge. The posterior most possible values of modal parameters and their uncertainties were estimated through Bayesian inference. A long-term variation and statistical analysis was performed using the sensor data sets collected from the SHM system of the suspension bridge over a one-year period. The t location-scale distribution was shown to be a better candidate function for frequencies of lower modes. On the other hand, the burr distribution provided the best fitting to the higher modes which are sensitive to the temperature. In addition, wind-induced variation of modal parameters was also investigated. It was observed that both the damping ratios and modal forces increased during the period of typhoon excitations. Meanwhile, the modal damping ratios exhibit significant correlation with the spectral intensities of the corresponding modal forces.

  2. Development of Matlab Simulink model for dynamics analysis of passive suspension system for lightweight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, M. S.; Ismail, K. A.; Taha, Z.; Aiman, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    In designing suitable isolators to reduce unwanted vibration in vehicles, the response from a mathematical model which characterizes the transmissibility ratio of the input and output of the vehicle is required. In this study, a Matlab Simulink model is developed to study the dynamic behaviour performance of passive suspension system for a lightweight electric vehicle. The Simulink model is based on the two degrees of freedom system quarter car model. The model is compared to the theoretical plots of the transmissibility ratios between the amplitudes of the displacements and accelerations of the sprung and unsprung masses to the amplitudes of the ground, against the frequencies at different damping values. It was found that the frequency responses obtained from the theoretical calculations and from the Simulink simulation is comparable to each other. Hence, the model may be extended to a full vehicle model.

  3. Magnetic field analysis in a suspension of gyrotactic microorganisms and nanoparticles over a stretching surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher, E-mail: noreensher@yahoo.com [DBS& H, CEME, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Zafar Hayat [Department of Mathematics, University of Malakand, Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan)

    2016-07-15

    The combine effects of magnetic field bioconvection, Brownian motion and thermophoresis on a free convection nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet containing gyrotactic microorganisms are investigated. The self-similar Buongiorno model is analyzed first time for stretching sheet numerically. The present results are compared with available data and are found in an excellent agreement. Pertinent results are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively with respect to variation in bioconvection parameters. - Highlights: • Two dimensional MHD flow in a suspension of gyrotactic microorganisms and nanoparticles over a stretching surface is discussed first paper in literature. • Governed problem for proposed model solved numerically using fourth-order Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method. • Good agreement in comparison with previous studies. • Tabulated physical quantities and graphics of all flow profiles. • Graphics of reduced skin friction coefficient, when the different flow parameters vary.

  4. Simple, precise and accurate HPLC method of analysis for nevirapine suspension from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halde, S; Mungantiwar, A; Chintamaneni, M

    2011-07-01

    A selective and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography with UV detector (HPLC-UV) method was developed and validated from human plasma. Nevirapine and internal standard (IS) zidovudine were extracted from human plasma by liquid-liquid extraction process using methyl tert-butyl ether. The samples were analysed using Inertsil ODS 3, 250×4.6 mm, 5 μ column using a mobile phase consists of 50 mM sodium acetate buffer solution (pH-4.00±0.05): acetonitrile (73:27 v/v). The method was validated over a concentration range of 50.00 ng/ml to 3998.96 ng/ml. The method was successfully applied to bioequivalence study of 10 ml single dose nevirapine oral suspension 50 mg/5 ml in healthy male volunteers.

  5. Analysis and simulation of complex interactions during dynamic microfiltration of Escherichia coli suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F; Gehmlich, I; Guthke, R; Górak, A; Knorre, W A

    1998-07-20

    Microfiltration is an important unit operation in downstream processing. However, due to the influence of membrane fouling, prediction of the filtration performance for biological suspensions is difficult. This paper describes a modeling approach that allows a comprehensive description of filtration performance. On the basis of experimental data and linguistic information, a specific artificial neural network was developed that predicts the process behavior within a certain range of parameters. This approach allows us to analyze influences of fermentation on filtration. By using extensive simulations, the interactions of 17 parameters were examined and the fouling causes determined. The model was developed for cell harvesting of Escherichia coli through a shear-enhanced module. The method can be applied to any cross-flow filtration process. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. ExonMiner: Web service for analysis of GeneChip Exon array data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoto Seiya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some splicing isoform-specific transcriptional regulations are related to disease. Therefore, detection of disease specific splice variations is the first step for finding disease specific transcriptional regulations. Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array can measure exon-level expression profiles that are suitable to find differentially expressed exons in genome-wide scale. However, exon array produces massive datasets that are more than we can handle and analyze on personal computer. Results We have developed ExonMiner that is the first all-in-one web service for analysis of exon array data to detect transcripts that have significantly different splicing patterns in two cells, e.g. normal and cancer cells. ExonMiner can perform the following analyses: (1 data normalization, (2 statistical analysis based on two-way ANOVA, (3 finding transcripts with significantly different splice patterns, (4 efficient visualization based on heatmaps and barplots, and (5 meta-analysis to detect exon level biomarkers. We implemented ExonMiner on a supercomputer system in order to perform genome-wide analysis for more than 300,000 transcripts in exon array data, which has the potential to reveal the aberrant splice variations in cancer cells as exon level biomarkers. Conclusion ExonMiner is well suited for analysis of exon array data and does not require any installation of software except for internet browsers. What all users need to do is to access the ExonMiner URL http://ae.hgc.jp/exonminer. Users can analyze full dataset of exon array data within hours by high-level statistical analysis with sound theoretical basis that finds aberrant splice variants as biomarkers.

  7. Discrimination of trace nitroaromatics using linear discriminant analysis on aerosol jet printed fluorescent sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolse, N.; Eckstein, R.; Schend, M.; Habermehl, A.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Eschenbaum, C.; Lemmer, U.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we report on fluorescent sensor arrays fabricated by aerosol jet printing on glass substrates to detect explosives-related nitroaromatic species. The printed sensor arrays consist of six different fluorescent polymers responding to nitroaromatic vapors through a photo-induced electron transfer. This results in a quenched fluorescence proportional to the vapor concentration. Distinct fluorescence quenching patterns are detected for nitroaromatic species including nitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene. The detected fingerprints are evaluated at low concentrations of only 1, 3 and 10 parts-per-billion in air. Linear discriminant analysis is used to train each sensor array enabling the discrimination of the target analyte vapors. To investigate the reproducibility of multiple sensor arrays on a single substrate, the measured fluorescence quenching patterns are used to benchmark the linear discriminant models. For this purpose, the target analytes and vapor concentrations are predicted for each sensor array. On average, we report low and reproducible misclassification rates of about 4 % indicating excellent discriminatory abilities at low concentrations close to the detection limits. We conclude that digital printing of fluorescent polymers offers the potential to realize low-cost sensor arrays for a reliable detection of trace explosives.

  8. Analysis of radiation damage in on-orbit solar array of Venus explorer Akatsuki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Takanobu; Takahashi, You; Imamura, Takeshi; Hada, Yuko; Ishii, Takako T.; Isobe, Hiroaki; Asai, Ayumi; Shiota, Daikou

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of radiation damage in solar array of Venus explorer Akatsuki observed on orbit. The output voltage of the solar array have shown sudden drops, which are most reasonably associated with radiation damage, three times since its launch. The analysis of these radiation damages is difficult, because no direct observation data of the spectra and the amount of the high-energy particles is available. We calculated the radiation damage using the relative damage coefficient (RDC) method assuming a typical spectral shape of protons. (author)

  9. Analysis of Array-CGH Data Using the R and Bioconductor Software Suite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried A. Hofmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH is an emerging high-resolution and high-throughput molecular genetic technique that allows genome-wide screening for chromosome alterations. DNA copy number alterations (CNAs are a hallmark of somatic mutations in tumor genomes and congenital abnormalities that lead to diseases such as mental retardation. However, accurate identification of amplified or deleted regions requires a sequence of different computational analysis steps of the microarray data. Results. We have developed a user-friendly and versatile tool for the normalization, visualization, breakpoint detection, and comparative analysis of array-CGH data which allows the accurate and sensitive detection of CNAs. Conclusion. The implemented option for the determination of minimal altered regions (MARs from a series of tumor samples is a step forward in the identification of new tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes.

  10. Study on dynamic behavior analysis of towed line array sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyoung Shin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of equations of motion is derived for vibratory motions of an underwater cable connected to a moving vehicle at one end and with drogues at the other end. From the static analysis, cable configurations are obtained for different vehicle speeds and towing pretensions are determined by fluid resistance of drogues. Also the dynamic analysis is required to predict its vibratory motion. Nonlinear fluid drag forces greatly influence the dynamic tension. In this study, a numerical analysis program was developed to find out the characteristic of cable behaviour. The motion is described in terms of space and time coordinates based on Chebyshev polynomial expansions. For the spatial integration the collocation method is employed and the Newmark method is applied for the time integration. Dynamic tensions, displacements, velocities, accelerations were predicted in the time domain while natural frequencies and transfer functions were obtained in the frequency domain.

  11. Panax ginseng Adventitious Root Suspension Culture: Protocol for Biomass Production and Analysis of Ginsenosides by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee Yoeup

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) is a popular herbal medicine. It has been used in Chinese and Oriental medicines since thousands of years. Ginseng products are generally used as a tonic and an adaptogen to resist the adverse influence of a wide range of physical, chemical and biological factors, and to restore homeostasis. Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins are the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Since ginseng cultivation process is very slow and needs specific environment for field cultivation, cell and tissue cultures are sought as alternatives for the production of ginseng biomass and bioactive compounds. In this chapter, we focus on methods of induction of adventitious roots from ginseng roots, establishment of adventitious root suspension cultures using bioreactors, procedures for processing of adventitious roots, and analysis of ginsenosides by high pressure liquid chromatography.

  12. Thermal Conductivity Analysis and Lifetime Testing of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying (SPS has become an interesting method for the production of thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine components. The development of the SPS process has led to structures with segmented vertical cracks or column-like structures that can imitate strain-tolerant air plasma spraying (APS or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD coatings. Additionally, SPS coatings can have lower thermal conductivity than EB-PVD coatings, while also being easier to produce. The combination of similar or improved properties with a potential for lower production costs makes SPS of great interest to the gas turbine industry. This study compares a number of SPS thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with vertical cracks or column-like structures with the reference of segmented APS coatings. The primary focus has been on lifetime testing of these new coating systems. Samples were tested in thermo-cyclic fatigue at temperatures of 1100 °C for 1 h cycles. Additional testing was performed to assess thermal shock performance and erosion resistance. Thermal conductivity was also assessed for samples in their as-sprayed state, and the microstructures were investigated using SEM.

  13. Vibration isolation analysis of new design OEM damper for malaysia vehicle suspension system featuring MR fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuh, M. H.; Muhamad, P.; Norfazrina, H. M. Y.; Ismail, M. A.; Tanasta, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The applications of semi-active damper employing magnetorheological (MR) fluids keep increasing in fulfilling the demand to control undesired vibration effect. The aim of this study is to introduce the new design of damper for Malaysian vehicle model as well to evaluate its effectiveness in promoting comfort. The vibration isolation performance of the OEM damper featuring MR fluid was analysed physically under real road profile excitation experimentally. An experiment using quarter car rig suspension and LMS SCADAS Mobile was conducted to demonstrate the influence of current in controlling the characteristics of MR fluid in alter the damping behaviour under 5 cm bump impact. Subsequently, the displacement values were measured with respect to time. The new design OEM damper featuring MR fluid was validated by comparing the data with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) passive damper results under the same approach of testing. Comparison of numerical data of the new design OEM damper shown that it can reduce the excitation amplitude up to 40% compared to those obtained by OEM passive damper. Finally, the new design OEM damper featuring MR fluid has effectively isolated the disturbance from the road profile and control the output force.

  14. Inverse problem analysis of pluripotent stem cell aggregation dynamics in stirred-suspension cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Mahboubeh Rahmati; Wu, Jincheng; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S.

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of stem cells as aggregates in scalable bioreactor cultures is an appealing modality for the large-scale manufacturing of stem cell products. Aggregation phenomena are central to such bioprocesses affecting the viability, proliferation and differentiation trajectory of stem cells but a quantitative framework is currently lacking. A population balance equation (PBE) model was used to describe the temporal evolution of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) cluster size distribution by considering collision-induced aggregation and cell proliferation in a stirred-suspension vessel. For ESC cultures at different agitation rates, the aggregation kernel representing the aggregation dynamics was successfully recovered as a solution of the inverse problem. The rate of change of the average aggregate size was greater at the intermediate rate tested suggesting a trade-off between increased collisions and agitation-induced shear. Results from forward simulation with obtained aggregation kernels were in agreement with transient aggregate size data from experiments. We conclude that the framework presented here can complement mechanistic studies offering insights into relevant stem cell clustering processes. More importantly from a process development standpoint, this strategy can be employed in the design and control of bioreactors for the generation of stem cell derivatives for drug screening, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:26036699

  15. Indoor air quality inspection and analysis system based on gas sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Mingjiang; Fan, Binwen

    2017-08-01

    A detection and analysis system capable of measuring the concentration of four major gases in indoor air is designed. It uses four gas sensors constitute a gas sensor array, to achieve four indoor gas concentration detection, while the detection of data for further processing to reduce the cross-sensitivity between the gas sensor to improve the accuracy of detection.

  16. Two-Stage MAS Technique for Analysis of DRA Elements and Arrays on Finite Ground Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    A two-stage Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) technique is proposed for analysis of dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) elements and arrays on finite ground planes (FGPs). The problem is solved by first analysing the DRA on an infinite ground plane (IGP) and then using this solution to model the FGP...

  17. The spatial coherence structure of infrasonic waves: analysis of data from International Monitoring System arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David N.

    2015-04-01

    The spatial coherence structure of 30 infrasound array detections, with source-to-receiver ranges of 25-6500 km, has been measured within the 0.25-1 Hz passband. The data were recorded at International Monitoring System (IMS) microbarograph arrays with apertures of between 1 and 4 km. Such array detections are of interest for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring. The majority of array detections (e.g. 80 per cent of recordings in the third-octave passband centred on 0.63 Hz) exhibit spatial coherence loss anisotropy that is consistent with previous lower frequency atmospheric acoustic studies; coherence loss is more rapid perpendicular to the acoustic propagation direction than parallel to it. The thirty array detections display significant interdetection variation in the magnitude of spatial coherence loss. The measurements can be explained by the simultaneous arrival of wave fronts at the recording array with angular beamwidths of between 0.4 and 7° and velocity bandwidths of between 2 and 40 m s-1. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between source-to-receiver range and the magnitude of coherence loss. Acoustic multipathing generated by interactions with fine-scale wind and temperature gradients along stratospheric propagation paths is qualitatively consistent with the observations. In addition, the study indicates that to isolate coherence loss generated by propagation effects, analysis of signals exhibiting high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) is required (SNR2 > 11 in this study). The rapid temporal variations in infrasonic noise observed in recordings at IMS arrays indicates that correcting measured coherence values for the effect of noise, using pre-signal estimates of noise power, is ineffective.

  18. Noise analysis and performance of a selfscanned linear InSb detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, G.; Meyer, M.; Moorwood, A.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    A noise model for detectors operated in the capacitive discharge mode is presented. It is used to analyze the noise performance of the ESO nested timing readout technique applied to a linear 32-element InSb array which is multiplexed by a silicon switched-FET shift register. Analysis shows that KTC noise of the videoline is the major noise contribution; it can be eliminated by weighted double-correlated sampling. Best noise performance of this array is achieved at the smallest possible reverse bias voltage (not more than 20 mV) whereas excess noise is observed at higher reverse bias voltages. 5 references

  19. TiArA: a virtual appliance for the analysis of Tiling Array data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Greenbaum

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Genomic tiling arrays have been described in the scientific literature since 2003, yet there is a shortage of user-friendly applications available for their analysis.Tiling Array Analyzer (TiArA is a software program that provides a user-friendly graphical interface for the background subtraction, normalization, and summarization of data acquired through the Affymetrix tiling array platform. The background signal is empirically measured using a group of nonspecific probes with varying levels of GC content and normalization is performed to enforce a common dynamic range.TiArA is implemented as a standalone program for Linux systems and is available as a cross-platform virtual machine that will run under most modern operating systems using virtualization software such as Sun VirtualBox or VMware. The software is available as a Debian package or a virtual appliance at http://purl.org/NET/tiara.

  20. MTF measurement and analysis of linear array HgCdTe infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Lin, Chun; Chen, Honglei; Sun, Changhong; Lin, Jiamu; Wang, Xi

    2018-01-01

    The slanted-edge technique is the main method for measurement detectors MTF, however this method is commonly used on planar array detectors. In this paper the authors present a modified slanted-edge method to measure the MTF of linear array HgCdTe detectors. Crosstalk is one of the major factors that degrade the MTF value of such an infrared detector. This paper presents an ion implantation guard-ring structure which was designed to effectively absorb photo-carriers that may laterally defuse between adjacent pixels thereby suppressing crosstalk. Measurement and analysis of the MTF of the linear array detectors with and without a guard-ring were carried out. The experimental results indicated that the ion implantation guard-ring structure effectively suppresses crosstalk and increases MTF value.

  1. Efficient Analysis of Systems Biology Markup Language Models of Cellular Populations Using Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Leandro; Myers, Chris J

    2016-08-19

    The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) has been widely used for modeling biological systems. Although SBML has been successful in representing a wide variety of biochemical models, the core standard lacks the structure for representing large complex regular systems in a standard way, such as whole-cell and cellular population models. These models require a large number of variables to represent certain aspects of these types of models, such as the chromosome in the whole-cell model and the many identical cell models in a cellular population. While SBML core is not designed to handle these types of models efficiently, the proposed SBML arrays package can represent such regular structures more easily. However, in order to take full advantage of the package, analysis needs to be aware of the arrays structure. When expanding the array constructs within a model, some of the advantages of using arrays are lost. This paper describes a more efficient way to simulate arrayed models. To illustrate the proposed method, this paper uses a population of repressilator and genetic toggle switch circuits as examples. Results show that there are memory benefits using this approach with a modest cost in runtime.

  2. Numeric-modeling sensitivity analysis of the performance of wind turbine arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissaman, P.B.S.; Gyatt, G.W.; Zalay, A.D.

    1982-06-01

    An evaluation of the numerical model created by Lissaman for predicting the performance of wind turbine arrays has been made. Model predictions of the wake parameters have been compared with both full-scale and wind tunnel measurements. Only limited, full-scale data were available, while wind tunnel studies showed difficulties in representing real meteorological conditions. Nevertheless, several modifications and additions have been made to the model using both theoretical and empirical techniques and the new model shows good correlation with experiment. The larger wake growth rate and shorter near wake length predicted by the new model lead to reduced interference effects on downstream turbines and hence greater array efficiencies. The array model has also been re-examined and now incorporates the ability to show the effects of real meteorological conditions such as variations in wind speed and unsteady winds. The resulting computer code has been run to show the sensitivity of array performance to meteorological, machine, and array parameters. Ambient turbulence and windwise spacing are shown to dominate, while hub height ratio is seen to be relatively unimportant. Finally, a detailed analysis of the Goodnoe Hills wind farm in Washington has been made to show how power output can be expected to vary with ambient turbulence, wind speed, and wind direction.

  3. Analysis of an industrial production suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin crystals by powder diffraction: a powerful quality-control tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Moroz, Olga V.; Turkenburg, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    in the production suspension, albeit with the 1ndq -like microcrystals predominating. It is shown how the two techniques can provide invaluable and complementary information for such a production suspension and it is proposed that XRPD provides an excellent quality-control tool for such suspensions....... production suspension corresponded to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.65, b = 62.43, c = 75.74 Å, equivalent to those for a known orthorhombic crystal form (PDB entry 1ndq ). MX using synchrotron beamlines at the Diamond Light Source with beam dimensions of 20 × 20 µm was subsequently...... used to study the largest crystals present in the suspension, with diffraction data being collected from two single crystals (~20 × 20 × 60 µm) to resolutions of 1.40 and 1.57 Å, respectively. Both structures also belonged to space group P212121, but were quite distinct from the dominant form...

  4. Clearance Analysis of Node 3 Aft CBM to the Stowed FGB Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Donn

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, the ISS Vehicle Configuration Office began considering the relocation of the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) to the aft facing Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) on Node 3 to open a berthing location for visiting vehicles on the Node 1 nadir CBM. In this position, computer-aided design (CAD) models indicated that the aft end of the PMM would be only a few inches from the stowed Functional Cargo Block (FGB) port solar array. To validate the CAD model clearance analysis, in the late summer of 2011 the Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) was asked to determine the true geometric relationship between the on-orbit aft facing Node 3 CBM and the FGB port solar array. The desired measurements could be computed easily by photogrammetric analysis if current imagery of the ISS hardware were obtained. Beginning in the fall of 2011, ISAG used the Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) program to design a way to acquire imagery of the aft face of Node 3, the aft end-cone of Node 1, the port side of pressurized mating adapter 1 (PMA1), and the port side of the FGB out to the tip of the port solar array using cameras on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This was complicated by the need to thread the SSRMS under the truss, past Node 3 and the Cupola, and into the space between the aft side of Node 3 and the FGB solar array to acquire more than 100 images from multiple positions. To minimize the number of SSRMS movements, the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) would be attached to the SSRMS. This would make it possible to park the SPDM in one position and acquire multiple images by changing the viewing orientation of the SPDM body cameras using the pan/tilt units on which the cameras are mounted. Using this implementation concept, ISAG identified four SSRMS/SPDM positions from which all of the needed imagery could be acquired. Based on a photogrammetric simulation, it was estimated that the location of the FGB solar array could be

  5. Solar array deployment analysis considering path-dependent behavior of a tape spring hinge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    Solar array deployment analysis is conducted considering the path-dependent nonlinear behavior of tape spring hinge. Such hinges offer many advantages over rigid hinges; they are self-deployable, self-locking, lightweight, and simple. However, they show strongly nonlinear behavior with respect to rotation angle, making deployment analysis difficult. To accurately consider the characteristics of tape spring hinges for deployment analysis, a path-dependent path identification (PI) method for tracing the previous path of the moment is introduced. To analyze the deployment motion, the governing equation for solar array deployment is derived within the framework of Kane's dynamic equation for three deployable solar panels. The numerical solution is compared with the Recurdyn's multi-body dynamics analysis solution using experimentally measured moment-rotation profiles. Solar array deployment analysis is conducted by considering and not considering the path-dependent PI method. This simulation example shows that the proposed path-dependent PI method is very effective for accurately predicting the deployment motion.

  6. Young's modulus and SEM analysis of leg bones exposed to simulated microgravity by hind limb suspension (HLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mehta, Rahul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Central Arkansas, 201 Donaghey Avenue, Lewis Science Center 171, Conway, AR 72035 (United States); Ali, Nawab [Department of Applied Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham St., Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    The aim of this study was to determine composition of the leg bone tissue of rats that were exposed to simulated microgravity by Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for one week. The leg bones were cross sectioned, cleaned of soft tissues, dried and sputter coated, and then placed horizontally on the stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for analysis. Interaction of a 17.5 keV electron beam, incident from the vertical direction on the sample, generated images using two detectors. X-rays emitted from the sample during electron bombardment were measured with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) feature of SEM using a liquid-nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 144 eV at 5.9 keV ({sub 25}Mn K{sub {alpha}} x-ray). K{sub {alpha}}- x-rays from carbon, oxygen, phosphorus and calcium formed the major peaks in the spectrum. Relative percentages of these elements were determined using a software that could also correct for ZAF factors namely Z(atomic number), A(X-ray absorption) and F(characteristic fluorescence). The x-rays from the control groups and from the experimental (HLS) groups were analyzed on well-defined parts (femur, tibia and knee) of the leg bone. The SEM analysis shows that there are definite changes in the hydroxyl or phosphate group of the main component of the bone structure, hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}], due to hind limb suspension. In a separate experiment, entire leg bones (both from HLS and control rats) were subjected to mechanical stress by mean of a variable force. The stress vs. strain graph was fitted with linear and polynomial function, and the parameters reflecting the mechanical strength of the bone, under increasing stress, were calculated. From the slope of the linear part of the graph the Young's modulus for HLS bones were calculated and found to be 2.49 times smaller than those for control bones.

  7. SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  8. 8-spot smFRET analysis using two 8-pixel SPAD arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingargiola, Antonino; Panzeri, Francesco; Sarkosh, Niusha; Gulinatti, Angelo; Rech, Ivan; Ghioni, Massimo; Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier

    2013-02-22

    Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) techniques are now widely used to address outstanding problems in biology and biophysics. In order to study freely diffusing molecules, current approaches consist in exciting a low concentration (pixel Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs). A large enough number of single-molecule bursts must be accumulated in order to compute FRET efficiencies with sufficient statistics. As a result, the minimum timescale of observable phenomena is set by the minimum acquisition time needed for accurate measurements, typically a few minutes or more, limiting this approach mostly to equilibrium studies. Increasing smFRET analysis throughput would allow studying dynamics with shorter timescales. We recently demonstrated a new multi-spot excitation approach, employing a novel multi-pixel SPAD array, using a simplified dual-view setup in which a single 8-pixel SPAD array was used to collect FRET data from 4 independent spots. In this work we extend our results to 8 spots and use two 8-SPAD arrays to collect donor and acceptor photons and demonstrate the capabilities of this system by studying a series of doubly labeled dsDNA samples with different donor-acceptor distances ranging from low to high FRET efficiencies. Our results show that it is possible to enhance the throughput of smFRET measurements in solution by almost one order of magnitude, opening the way for studies of single-molecule dynamics with fast timescale once larger SPAD arrays become available.

  9. Analysis of Structural and Material Aspects of Selected Elements of a Hydropneumatic Suspension System in a Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczny Ł.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses results of analyses of design solutions and materials commonly used in gas springs for hydropneumatic suspension systems. The authors have discussed main advantages resulting from application of such a design solution in passenger car suspension systems. Fundamental correlations defining the parameters characterising a gas spring with constant gas mass have been referred to. Also materials used in the manufacture of selected gas spring elements have been described

  10. The performance analysis of sonar target tracking based on pressure hydrophone arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Qijun; Li, Zhizhong

    2017-06-01

    For the linear array sonar that consists of pressure hydrophones, it is difficult to solve the problem of port/starboard ambiguity. To estimate the target’s real azimuth accurately, the conventional beam forming methods of different arrays which include linear array, arc array, cross array and Y-shaped array were analysed. Based on the port/starboard discrimination ability and beam width, the sonar target tracking performance of different arrays was compared. It is shown that all arrays except the linear array could discriminate the real target, and the arc array’s effect is the best.

  11. Genome mapping on nanochannel arrays for structural variation analysis and sequence assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Ernest T; Hastie, Alex; Lin, Chin; Ehrlich, Dean; Das, Somes K; Austin, Michael D; Deshpande, Paru; Cao, Han; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Xiao, Ming; Kwok, Pui-Yan

    2012-01-01

    We describe genome mapping on nanochannel arrays. In this approach, specific sequence motifs in single DNA molecules are fluorescently labeled, and the DNA molecules are uniformly stretched in thousands of silicon channels on a nanofluidic device. Fluorescence imaging allows the construction of maps of the physical distances between occurrences of the sequence motifs. We demonstrate the analysis, individually and as mixtures, of 95 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones that cover the 4...

  12. High-content analysis screening for cell cycle regulators using arrayed synthetic crRNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strezoska, Žaklina; Perkett, Matthew R; Chou, Eldon T; Maksimova, Elena; Anderson, Emily M; McClelland, Shawn; Kelley, Melissa L; Vermeulen, Annaleen; Smith, Anja van Brabant

    2017-06-10

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been utilized for large-scale, loss-of-function screens mainly using lentiviral pooled formats and cell-survival phenotypic assays. Screening in an arrayed format expands the types of phenotypic readouts that can be used to now include high-content, morphology-based assays, and with the recent availability of synthetic crRNA libraries, new studies are emerging. Here, we use a cell cycle reporter cell line to perform an arrayed, synthetic crRNA:tracrRNA screen targeting 169 genes (>600 crRNAs) and used high content analysis (HCA) to identify genes that regulate the cell cycle. Seven parameters were used to classify cells into cell cycle categories and multiple parameters were combined using a new analysis technique to identify hits. Comprehensive hit follow-up experiments included target gene expression analysis, confirmation of DNA insertions/deletions, and validation with orthogonal reagents. Our results show that most hits had three or more independent crRNAs per gene that demonstrated a phenotype with consistent individual parameters, indicating that our screen produced high-confidence hits with low off-target effects and allowed us to identify hits with more subtle phenotypes. The results of our screen demonstrate the power of using arrayed, synthetic crRNAs for functional phenotypic screening using multiparameter HCA assays. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Waves in the Near-Field of Wave Energy Converter Arrays through Stereo Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, C.; Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Oregon State University conducted a series of laboratory experiments to measure and quantify the near-field wave effects caused within arrays of 3 and 5 Wave Energy Converters (WEC). As the waves and WECs interact, significant scattering and radiation occurs increasing/decreasing the wave heights as well as changing the direction the wave is traveling. These effects may vary based on the number of WECs within an array and their respective locations. The findings of this analysis will assist in selecting the WEC farm location and in improving WEC design. Analyzing the near-field waves will help determine the relative importance of absorption, scattering, and radiation as a function of the incident wave conditions and device performance. The WEC mooring system design specifications may also be impacted if the wave heights in the near-field are greater than expected. It is imperative to fully understand the near-field waves before full-scale WEC farms can be installed. Columbia Power Technologies' Manta served as the test WEC prototype on a 1 to 33 scale. Twenty-three wave gages measured the wave heights in both regular and real sea conditions at locations surrounding and within the WEC arrays. While these gages give a good overall picture of the water elevation behavior, it is difficult to resolve the complicated wave field within the WEC array using point gages. Here stereo video techniques are applied to extract the 3D water surface elevations at high resolution in order to reconstruct the multi-directional wave field in the near-field of the WEC array. The video derived wave information will also be compared against the wave gage data.

  14. Optimization of suspension system and sensitivity analysis for improvement of stability in a midsize heavy vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Sert

    2017-06-01

    In summary, within the scope of this work, unlike the previous studies, experiments involving physical tests (i.e. tilt table, fishhook and cornering and numerical calculations are included. In addition, verification of the virtual model, parametric sensitivity analysis and the comparison of the virtual test and the physical test is performed. Because of the vigorous verification, sensitivity analysis and validation process, the results can be more reliable compared to previous studies.

  15. RoboSCell: An automated single cell arraying and analysis instrument

    KAUST Repository

    Sakaki, Kelly

    2009-09-09

    Single cell research has the potential to revolutionize experimental methods in biomedical sciences and contribute to clinical practices. Recent studies suggest analysis of single cells reveals novel features of intracellular processes, cell-to-cell interactions and cell structure. The methods of single cell analysis require mechanical resolution and accuracy that is not possible using conventional techniques. Robotic instruments and novel microdevices can achieve higher throughput and repeatability; however, the development of such instrumentation is a formidable task. A void exists in the state-of-the-art for automated analysis of single cells. With the increase in interest in single cell analyses in stem cell and cancer research the ability to facilitate higher throughput and repeatable procedures is necessary. In this paper, a high-throughput, single cell microarray-based robotic instrument, called the RoboSCell, is described. The proposed instrument employs a partially transparent single cell microarray (SCM) integrated with a robotic biomanipulator for in vitro analyses of live single cells trapped at the array sites. Cells, labeled with immunomagnetic particles, are captured at the array sites by channeling magnetic fields through encapsulated permalloy channels in the SCM. The RoboSCell is capable of systematically scanning the captured cells temporarily immobilized at the array sites and using optical methods to repeatedly measure extracellular and intracellular characteristics over time. The instrument\\'s capabilities are demonstrated by arraying human T lymphocytes and measuring the uptake dynamics of calcein acetoxymethylester-all in a fully automated fashion. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Identification and expression analysis of methyl jasmonate responsive ESTs in paclitaxel producing Taxus cuspidata suspension culture cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Sangram K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxol® (paclitaxel promotes microtubule assembly and stabilization and therefore is a potent chemotherapeutic agent against wide range of cancers. Methyl jasmonate (MJ elicited Taxus cell cultures provide a sustainable option to meet the growing market demand for paclitaxel. Despite its increasing pharmaceutical importance, the molecular genetics of paclitaxel biosynthesis is not fully elucidated. This study focuses on identification of MJ responsive transcripts in cultured Taxus cells using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to identify genes involved in global pathway control. Results Six separate SSH cDNA libraries of paclitaxel-accumulating Taxus cuspidata P991 cell lines were constructed at three different post-elicitation time points (6h, 18h and 5 day to identify genes that are either induced or suppressed in response to MJ. Sequencing of 576 differentially screened clones from the SSH libraries resulted in 331 unigenes. Functional annotation and Gene Ontology (GO analysis of up-regulated EST libraries showed enrichment of several known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes and novel transcripts that may be involved in MJ-signaling, taxane transport, or taxane degradation. Macroarray analysis of these identified genes unravelled global regulatory expression of these transcripts. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a set of 12 candidate genes further confirmed the MJ-induced gene expression in a high paclitaxel accumulating Taxus cuspidata P93AF cell line. Conclusions This study elucidates the global temporal expression kinetics of MJ responsive genes in Taxus suspension cell culture. Functional characterization of the novel genes identified in this study will further enhance the understanding of paclitaxel biosynthesis, taxane transport and degradation.

  17. Identification and expression analysis of methyl jasmonate responsive ESTs in paclitaxel producing Taxus cuspidata suspension culture cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Taxol® (paclitaxel) promotes microtubule assembly and stabilization and therefore is a potent chemotherapeutic agent against wide range of cancers. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) elicited Taxus cell cultures provide a sustainable option to meet the growing market demand for paclitaxel. Despite its increasing pharmaceutical importance, the molecular genetics of paclitaxel biosynthesis is not fully elucidated. This study focuses on identification of MJ responsive transcripts in cultured Taxus cells using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to identify genes involved in global pathway control. Results Six separate SSH cDNA libraries of paclitaxel-accumulating Taxus cuspidata P991 cell lines were constructed at three different post-elicitation time points (6h, 18h and 5 day) to identify genes that are either induced or suppressed in response to MJ. Sequencing of 576 differentially screened clones from the SSH libraries resulted in 331 unigenes. Functional annotation and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of up-regulated EST libraries showed enrichment of several known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes and novel transcripts that may be involved in MJ-signaling, taxane transport, or taxane degradation. Macroarray analysis of these identified genes unravelled global regulatory expression of these transcripts. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a set of 12 candidate genes further confirmed the MJ-induced gene expression in a high paclitaxel accumulating Taxus cuspidata P93AF cell line. Conclusions This study elucidates the global temporal expression kinetics of MJ responsive genes in Taxus suspension cell culture. Functional characterization of the novel genes identified in this study will further enhance the understanding of paclitaxel biosynthesis, taxane transport and degradation. PMID:22530557

  18. Failure mode analysis of silicon-based intracortical microelectrode arrays in non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrese, James C.; Rao, Naveen; Paroo, Kaivon; Triebwasser, Corey; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos; Franquemont, Lachlan; Donoghue, John P.

    2013-12-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have the potential to restore lost function to people with disabilities if they work reliably for years. Current sensors fail to provide reliably useful signals over extended periods of time for reasons that are not clear. This study reports a comprehensive retrospective analysis from a large set of implants of a single type of intracortical MEA in a single species, with a common set of measures in order to evaluate failure modes. Approach. Since 1996, 78 silicon MEAs were implanted in 27 monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We used two approaches to find reasons for sensor failure. First, we classified the time course leading up to complete recording failure as acute (abrupt) or chronic (progressive). Second, we evaluated the quality of electrode recordings over time based on signal features and electrode impedance. Failure modes were divided into four categories: biological, material, mechanical, and unknown. Main results. Recording duration ranged from 0 to 2104 days (5.75 years), with a mean of 387 days and a median of 182 days (n = 78). Sixty-two arrays failed completely with a mean time to failure of 332 days (median = 133 days) while nine array experiments were electively terminated for experimental reasons (mean = 486 days). Seven remained active at the close of this study (mean = 753 days). Most failures (56%) occurred within a year of implantation, with acute mechanical failures the most common class (48%), largely because of connector issues (83%). Among grossly observable biological failures (24%), a progressive meningeal reaction that separated the array from the parenchyma was most prevalent (14.5%). In the absence of acute interruptions, electrode recordings showed a slow progressive decline in spike amplitude, noise amplitude, and number of viable channels that predicts complete signal loss by about eight years. Impedance measurements showed

  19. Interfacing Inorganic Nanowire Arrays and Living Cells for Cellular Function Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Minsuk; Han, Lin; Chen, Jonathan J; Fan, Rong

    2015-11-11

    Inorganic nanowires are among the most attractive functional materials, which have emerged in the past two decades. They have demonstrated applications in information technology and energy conversion, but their utility in biological or biomedical research remains relatively under-explored. Although nanowire-based sensors have been frequently reported for biomolecular detection, interfacing nanowire arrays and living mammalian cells for the direct analysis of cellular functions is a very recent endeavor. Cell-penetrating nanowires enabled effective delivery of biomolecules, electrical and optical stimulation and recording of intracellular signals over a long period of time. Non-penetrating, high-density nanowire arrays display rich interactions between the nanostructured substrate and the micro/nanoscale features of cell surfaces. Such interactions enable efficient capture of rare cells including circulating tumor cells and trafficking leukocytes from complex biospecimens. It also serves as a platform for probing cell traction force and neuronal guidance. The most recent advances in the field that exploits nanowire arrays (both penetrating and non-penetrating) to perform rapid analysis of cellular functions potentially for disease diagnosis and monitoring are reviewed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Circular Array of Magnetic Sensors for Current Measurement: Analysis for Error Caused by Position of Conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Qian, Zheng; Liu, Huayi; Qu, Jiaqi

    2018-02-14

    This paper analyzes the measurement error, caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, of a circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement. The circular array of magnetic sensors is an effective approach for AC or DC non-contact measurement, as it is low-cost, light-weight, has a large linear range, wide bandwidth, and low noise. Especially, it has been claimed that such structure has excellent reduction ability for errors caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, crosstalk current interference, shape of the conduction cross-section, and the Earth's magnetic field. However, the positions of the current-carrying conductor-including un-centeredness and un-perpendicularity-have not been analyzed in detail until now. In this paper, for the purpose of having minimum measurement error, a theoretical analysis has been proposed based on vector inner and exterior product. In the presented mathematical model of relative error, the un-center offset distance, the un-perpendicular angle, the radius of the circle, and the number of magnetic sensors are expressed in one equation. The comparison of the relative error caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor between four and eight sensors is conducted. Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors are used in the experimental prototype to verify the mathematical model. The analysis results can be the reference to design the details of the circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement in practical situations.

  1. Application of neural networks to digital pulse shape analysis for an array of silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J.L. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Martel, I. [Dpto de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); CERN, ISOLDE, CH 1211 Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Jiménez, R. [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Galán, J., E-mail: jgalan@diesia.uhu.es [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Salmerón, P. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain)

    2016-09-11

    The new generation of nuclear physics detectors that used to study nuclear reactions is considering the use of digital pulse shape analysis techniques (DPSA) to obtain the (A,Z) values of the reaction products impinging in solid state detectors. This technique can be an important tool for selecting the relevant reaction channels at the HYDE (HYbrid DEtector ball array) silicon array foreseen for the Low Energy Branch of the FAIR facility (Darmstadt, Germany). In this work we study the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for particle identification with silicon detectors. Multilayer Perceptron networks were trained and tested with recent experimental data, showing excellent identification capabilities with signals of several isotopes ranging from {sup 12}C up to {sup 84}Kr, yielding higher discrimination rates than any other previously reported.

  2. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  3. Numeric Program Analysis Techniques with Applications to Array Analysis and Library Summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    importance for the areas of software engineering, soft - ware verification, and security: to identify many program errors, such as out-of-bounds array...ification language with primitives for specifying numeric conditional expressions in logic formu- lae , and for specifying numeric updates in TVLA

  4. Analysis of microseismic activity detected by the WIZARD array, Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, J. P.; Roecker, S. W.; Thurber, C. H.; Lord, N.; O'Brien, G.; Pesicek, J. D.; Townend, J.; Bannister, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal for the UW-Madison-RPI WIZARD array is the characterization of background seismicity around the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) site on the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand. The WIZARD array consists of 20 stations, half broadband, deployed for a planned 2-year period around the Whataroa Valley DFDP-2 drill site. Two neighboring arrays, SAMBA (Victoria University of Wellington) to the southwest and ALFA'12 (GNS Science) to the northeast, along with several GeoNet permanent stations, provide broad coverage of the region. The earthquakes that are detected will (1) help to define the geometry of the Alpine Fault and other active faults at depth, (2) provide data for seismic imaging, focal mechanisms, and shear-wave splitting analysis, and (3) enable the assessment of possible changes in seismic activity induced by future fault zone drilling. We are currently analyzing data from the first 2 months of the deployment. Dozens of nearby earthquakes (S-P time of up to a few seconds) have been detected, far more than are in the New Zealand GeoNET catalog. This is expected because the magnitude completion level of the GeoNet seismometer network is around 2.5 in the Whataroa region, due to a relatively sparse station coverage. In this presentation, we report on earthquake location results for 8 months of WIZARD data, along with focal mechanisms for selected larger events.

  5. Design and Characteristic Analysis of a Novel Bearingless SRM considering Decoupling between Torque and Suspension Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor (BSRM has a complicated character of nonlinear coupling; therefore, it is a hard work to operate BSRM stably. In this paper, a new type of BSRMs with novel rotor structure is proposed by analyzing relationships between motor structure and theoretical formulae of levitation force and torque. The stator structure of this new motor is same as that of traditional BSRM and each stator pole can coil one winding or two windings, while the pole arc of rotor is wider. In order to analyze the characteristics of the proposed BSRM, finite-element (FE models are used and a 12/4 one-set-winding BSRM and a 12/8 two-sets-windings BSRM are taken as examples. The analysis results indicate that the new scheme is effective for a stable levitation. It can realize decoupling control of torque and radial force, thus simplifying its control strategy and improving the use ratio of winding currents. A control system is designed for the 12/8 BSRM based on deducing its mathematical model. Compared with traditional BSRM, the proposed scheme is easier to be implemented.

  6. Heat transfer analysis on peristaltically induced motion of particle-fluid suspension with variable viscosity: Clot blood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M M; Zeeshan, A; Ellahi, R

    2016-12-01

    In this article, heat transfer analysis on clot blood model of the particle-fluid suspension through a non-uniform annulus has been investigated. The blood propagating along the whole length of the annulus was induced by peristaltic motion. The effects of variable viscosity and slip condition are also taken into account. The governing flow problem is modeled using lubrication approach by taking the assumption of long wavelength and creeping flow regime. The resulting equation for fluid phase and particle phase is solved analytically and closed form solutions are obtained. The physical impact of all the emerging parameters is discussed mathematically and graphically. Particularly, we considered the effects of particle volume fraction, slip parameter, the maximum height of clot, viscosity parameter, average volume flow rate, Prandtl number, Eckert number and fluid parameter on temperature profile, pressure rise and friction forces for outer and inner tube. Numerical computations have been used to determine the behavior of pressure rise and friction along the whole length of the annulus. The present study is also presented for an endoscope as a special case of our study. It is observed that greater influence of clot tends to rise the pressure rise significantly. It is also found that temperature profile increases due to the enhancement in Prandtl number, Eckert number, and fluid parameter. The present study reveals that friction forces for outer tube have higher magnitude as compared to the friction forces for an inner tube. In fact, the results for present study can also be reduced to the Newtonian fluid by taking ζ → ∞. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Technology Assessment Printer Friendly Version Suspension Trauma/Orthostatic Intolerance Safety and Health Information Bulletin SHIB 03-24- ... with important information about the hazards of orthostatic intolerance and suspension trauma when using fall arrest systems. ...

  8. Using Solid State Disk Array as a Cache for LHC ATLAS Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, W; The ATLAS collaboration; Mount, R

    2014-01-01

    User data analysis in high energy physics presents a challenge to spinning-disk based storage systems. The analysis is data intense, yet reads are small, sparse and cover a large volume of data files. It is also unpredictable due to users' response to storage performance. We describe here a system with an array of Solid State Disk as a non-conventional, standalone file level cache in front of the spinning disk storage to help improve the performance of LHC ATLAS user analysis at SLAC. The system uses a long period of data access records to make caching decisions. It can also use information from other sources such as a work-flow management system. We evaluate the performance of the system both in terms of caching and its impact on user analysis jobs. The system currently uses Xrootd technology, but the technique can be applied to any storage system.

  9. Using Solid State Disk Array as a Cache for LHC ATLAS Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, W; The ATLAS collaboration; Mount, R

    2013-01-01

    User data analysis in high energy physics presents a challenge to spinning-disk based storage systems. The analysis is data intense, yet reads are small, sparse and cover a large volume of data files. It is also unpredictable due to users' response to storage performance. We describe here a system with an array of Solid State Disk as a non-conventional, standalone file level cache in front of the spinning disk storage to help improve the performance of LHC ATLAS user analysis at SLAC. The system uses a long period of data access records to make caching decisions. It can also use information from other sources such as a work-flow management system. We evaluate the performance of the system both in terms of caching and its impact on user analysis jobs. The system currently uses Xrootd technology, but the technique can be applied to any storage system.

  10. Analysis of the Impacts of Wave Energy Converter Arrays on the Nearshore Wave Climate

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dea, Annika M.; Haller, Merrick C.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the impacts of offshore Wave Energy Converter (WEC) arrays on far-field waves and on nearshore wave-induced hydrodynamic forcing for a variety of array designs and incident wave conditions. The main objective of the study is to provide general conclusions on the nearshore impacts of WEC arrays in order to facilitate the assessment of future field test sites. The study utilizes the spectral wave model SWAN. Two array configurations are simulated, and WEC arrays are located ...

  11. Analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures using mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getchell Thomas V

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two or more factor mixed factorial experiments are becoming increasingly common in microarray data analysis. In this case study, the two factors are presence (Patients with Alzheimer's disease or absence (Control of the disease, and brain regions including olfactory bulb (OB or cerebellum (CER. In the design considered in this manuscript, OB and CER are repeated measurements from the same subject and, hence, are correlated. It is critical to identify sources of variability in the analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures and correlations among data points have to be considered. In addition, multiple testing problems are more complicated in experiments with multi-level treatments or treatment combinations. Results In this study we adopted a linear mixed model to analyze oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures. We first construct a generalized F test to select differentially expressed genes. The Benjamini and Hochberg (BH procedure of controlling false discovery rate (FDR at 5% was applied to the P values of the generalized F test. For those genes with significant generalized F test, we then categorize them based on whether the interaction terms were significant or not at the α-level (αnew = 0.0033 determined by the FDR procedure. Since simple effects may be examined for the genes with significant interaction effect, we adopt the protected Fisher's least significant difference test (LSD procedure at the level of αnew to control the family-wise error rate (FWER for each gene examined. Conclusions A linear mixed model is appropriate for analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures. We constructed a generalized F test to select differentially expressed genes, and then applied a specific sequence of tests to identify factorial effects. This sequence of tests applied was designed to control for gene based FWER.

  12. Read/write schemes analysis for novel complementary resistive switches in passive crossbar memory arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shimeng; Liang Jiale; Wu Yi; Wong, H-S Philip

    2010-01-01

    Recently a prototype of complementary resistive switches has been proposed to solve the sneak-path problem in passive crossbar memory arrays. To further evaluate the potential of this novel cell structure for practical applications, we present a modeling analysis to capture its switching dynamics and analyze its unique read/write schemes. The model is corroborated by experimental data. We found a trade-off between the read voltage window and write voltage window. The constraint from avoiding disturbance on unselected cells is critical for proper functionality, which in turn limits the writing speed.

  13. Corporal Punishment, School Suspension, and the Civil Rights of Students: An Analysis of Office for Civil Rights School Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackman, Ted; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Survey data from 116 schools indicate that (1) minority group students, particularly males, are corporally punished more often than their White peers; (2) boys, in general, receive more corporal punishment than girls; and (3) schools that use corporal punishment frequently also have high rates of suspension. (WI)

  14. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of two suspension bridges in Istanbul, Turkey to near- and far-fault ground motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Çavdar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the near-fault and far-fault ground motion effects on the probabilistic sensitivity dynamic responses of two suspension bridges in Istanbul. Two different types of suspension bridges are selected to investigate the near-fault (NF and far-fault (FF ground motion effects on the bridge sensitivity responses. NF and FF strong ground motion records, which have approximately identical peak ground accelerations, of the Kocaeli (1999 earthquake are selected for the analyses. Displacements and internal forces are determined using the probabilistic sensitivity method (PSM, which is one type of stochastic finite element method. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithm are validated by comparison with results of the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS method. The displacements and internal forces obtained from the analyses of suspension bridges subjected to each fault effect are compared with each other. It is clearly seen that there is more seismic demand on displacements and internal forces when suspension bridges are subjected to NF and FF ground motion.

  15. Exome array analysis of ischaemic stroke: results from a southern Swedish study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderholm, M; Almgren, P; Jood, K; Stanne, T M; Olsson, M; Ilinca, A; Lorentzen, E; Norrving, B; Engström, G; Melander, O; Jern, C; Lindgren, A

    2016-12-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified a few risk loci for ischaemic stroke, but these variants explain only a small part of the genetic contribution to the disease. Coding variants associated with amino acid substitutions or premature termination of protein synthesis could have a large effect on disease risk. We performed an exome array analysis for ischaemic stroke. Patients with ischaemic stroke (n = 2385) and control subjects (n = 6077) from three Swedish studies were genotyped with the Illumina HumanOmniExpressExome BeadChip. Single-variant association analysis and gene-based tests were performed of exome variants with minor allele frequency of ischaemic stroke after Bonferroni correction (all P > 1.8 × 10 -6 for single-variant and >4.15 × 10 -6 for gene-based analysis). The strongest association in single-variant analysis was found for a missense variant in the DNAH11 gene (rs143362381; P = 5.01 × 10 -6 ). In gene-based tests, the strongest association was for the ZBTB20 gene (P = 7.9 × 10 -5 ). The GWA analysis showed that the sample was homogenous (median genomic inflation factor = 1.006). No genome-wide significant association with overall ischaemic stroke risk was found. However, previously reported associations for the PITX2 and ZFHX3 gene loci with cardioembolic stroke subtype were replicated (P = 7 × 10 -15 and 6 × 10 -3 ). This exome array analysis did not identify any single variants or genes reaching the pre-defined significance level for association with ischaemic stroke. Further studies on exome variants should be performed in even larger, well-defined and subtyped samples. © 2016 EAN.

  16. Detecting seismic activity with a covariance matrix analysis of data recorded on seismic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydoux, L.; Shapiro, N. M.; de Rosny, J.; Brenguier, F.; Landès, M.

    2016-03-01

    Modern seismic networks are recording the ground motion continuously at the Earth's surface, providing dense spatial samples of the seismic wavefield. The aim of our study is to analyse these records with statistical array-based approaches to identify coherent time-series as a function of time and frequency. Using ideas mainly brought from the random matrix theory, we analyse the spatial coherence of the seismic wavefield from the width of the covariance matrix eigenvalue distribution. We propose a robust detection method that could be used for the analysis of weak and emergent signals embedded in background noise, such as the volcanic or tectonic tremors and local microseismicity, without any prior knowledge about the studied wavefields. We apply our algorithm to the records of the seismic monitoring network of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano located at La Réunion Island and composed of 21 receivers with an aperture of ˜15 km. This array recorded many teleseismic earthquakes as well as seismovolcanic events during the year 2010. We show that the analysis of the wavefield at frequencies smaller than ˜0.1 Hz results in detection of the majority of teleseismic events from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor database. The seismic activity related to the Piton de la Fournaise volcano is well detected at frequencies above 1 Hz.

  17. Analytical Kinematics and Coupled Vibrations Analysis of Mechanical System Operated by Solar Array Drive Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, M.; Wei, C.; Jalali, A.; Sattar, R.

    2017-07-01

    To address the impact of solar array (SA) anomalies and vibrations on performance of precision space-based operations, it is important to complete its accurate jitter analysis. This work provides mathematical modelling scheme to approximate kinematics and coupled micro disturbance dynamics of rigid load supported and operated by solar array drive assembly (SADA). SADA employed in analysis provides a step wave excitation torque to activate the system. Analytical investigations into kinematics is accomplished by using generalized linear and Euler angle coordinates, applying multi-body dynamics concepts and transformations principles. Theoretical model is extended, to develop equations of motion (EoM), through energy method (Lagrange equation). The main emphasis is to research coupled frequency response by determining energies dissipated and observing dynamic behaviour of internal vibratory systems of SADA. The disturbance model captures discrete active harmonics of SADA, natural modes and vibration amplifications caused by interactions between active harmonics and structural modes of mechanical assembly. The proposed methodology can help to predict true micro disturbance nature of SADA operating rigid load. Moreover, performance outputs may be compared against actual mission requirements to assess precise spacecraft controller design to meet next space generation stringent accuracy goals.

  18. Flexible polyimide microelectrode array for in vivo recordings and current source density analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Karen C; Renaud, Philippe; Tanila, Heikki; Djupsund, Kaj

    2007-03-15

    This work presents implantable, flexible polymer-based probes with embedded microelectrodes for acute and chronic neural recordings in vivo, as tested on rodents. Acute recordings using this array were done in mice under urethane anesthesia and compared to those made using silicon-based probes manufactured at the Center for Neural Communication Technology, University of Michigan. The two electrode arrays yielded similar results. Recordings with chronically implanted polymer-based electrodes were performed for 60 days post-surgically in awake, behaving rats. The microelectrodes were used to monitor local field potentials and capture laminar differences in function of cortex and hippocampus, and produced response waveforms of undiminished amplitude and signal-to-noise ratios 8 weeks after chronic implantation. The polymer-based electrodes could also be connected to a lesion current to mark specific locations in the tissue. Current source density (CSD) analysis from the recordings depicted a source - sink-composition. Tissue response was assessed 8 weeks after insertion by immunochemical labeling with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to identify astrocytes, and histological analysis showed minimal tissue reaction to the implanted structures.

  19. Joint Analysis of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ahmed, Z.

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a joint analysis of data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck. BICEP2 and Keck Array have observed the same approximately 400 deg2 patch of sky centered on RA 0 h, Dec. -57.5°. The combined maps reach a depth of 57 nK deg in Stokes Q and U in a band centered at 150 GHz. Plan...

  20. Analysis of an industrial production suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin crystals by powder diffraction: a powerful quality-control tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankaer, Christian G; Moroz, Olga V; Turkenburg, Johan P; Aspmo, Stein I; Thymark, Majbritt; Friis, Esben P; Stahl, Kenny; Nielsen, Jens E; Wilson, Keith S; Harris, Pernille

    2014-04-01

    A microcrystalline suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin (Savinase) produced during industrial large-scale production was analysed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray single-crystal diffraction (MX). XRPD established that the bulk microcrystal sample representative of the entire production suspension corresponded to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.65, b = 62.43, c = 75.74 Å, equivalent to those for a known orthorhombic crystal form (PDB entry 1ndq). MX using synchrotron beamlines at the Diamond Light Source with beam dimensions of 20 × 20 µm was subsequently used to study the largest crystals present in the suspension, with diffraction data being collected from two single crystals (∼20 × 20 × 60 µm) to resolutions of 1.40 and 1.57 Å, respectively. Both structures also belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), but were quite distinct from the dominant form identified by XRPD, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.04, b = 57.55, c = 71.37 Å and a = 52.72, b = 57.13, c = 65.86 Å, respectively, and refined to R = 10.8% and Rfree = 15.5% and to R = 14.1% and Rfree = 18.0%, respectively. They are also different from any of the forms previously reported in the PDB. A controlled crystallization experiment with a highly purified Savinase sample allowed the growth of single crystals of the form identified by XRPD; their structure was solved and refined to a resolution of 1.17 Å with an R of 9.2% and an Rfree of 11.8%. Thus, there are at least three polymorphs present in the production suspension, albeit with the 1ndq-like microcrystals predominating. It is shown how the two techniques can provide invaluable and complementary information for such a production suspension and it is proposed that XRPD provides an excellent quality-control tool for such suspensions.

  1. Generation of a genomic tiling array of the human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC and its application for DNA methylation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottaviani Diego

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is essential for human immunity and is highly associated with common diseases, including cancer. While the genetics of the MHC has been studied intensively for many decades, very little is known about the epigenetics of this most polymorphic and disease-associated region of the genome. Methods To facilitate comprehensive epigenetic analyses of this region, we have generated a genomic tiling array of 2 Kb resolution covering the entire 4 Mb MHC region. The array has been designed to be compatible with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH and expression profiling, including of non-coding RNAs. The array comprises 7832 features, consisting of two replicates of both forward and reverse strands of MHC amplicons and appropriate controls. Results Using MeDIP, we demonstrate the application of the MHC array for DNA methylation profiling and the identification of tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs. Based on the analysis of two tissues and two cell types, we identified 90 tDMRs within the MHC and describe their characterisation. Conclusion A tiling array covering the MHC region was developed and validated. Its successful application for DNA methylation profiling indicates that this array represents a useful tool for molecular analyses of the MHC in the context of medical genomics.

  2. Analysis of the Radiation Mechanisms in and Design of Tightly-Coupled Antenna Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Vogler, Terry Richard

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to design well-tuned, wideband elements for thin planar or cylindrically conformal arrays of balanced elements fed over ground. These arrays have closely spaced elements to achieve wide bandwidths through mutual coupling. This dissertation develops two wideband designs in infinite, semi-infinite, and finite array configurations. The infinite array is best for element tuning. This research advances a concept of a distributed, parallel capacitance between eleme...

  3. Structural design and analysis of a solar array substrate for a GEO satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Safak, Omer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the design of solar array substrate for a geostationary satellite. The design of deployable solar array substrate is realized based on the requirements which are provided by BILUZAY (Bilkent University Space Technologies Research Centre). This array is going to empower a telecommunication satellite which will be operating in a geostationary orbit during 15 years. The main work presented in this thesis consists of two principal directions: solar cell array area dimens...

  4. Simplified Analytical Method for Optimized Initial Shape Analysis of Self-Anchored Suspension Bridges and Its Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Rag Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified analytical method providing accurate unstrained lengths of all structural elements is proposed to find the optimized initial state of self-anchored suspension bridges under dead loads. For this, equilibrium equations of the main girder and the main cable system are derived and solved by evaluating the self-weights of cable members using unstrained cable lengths and iteratively updating both the horizontal tension component and the vertical profile of the main cable. Furthermore, to demonstrate the validity of the simplified analytical method, the unstrained element length method (ULM is applied to suspension bridge models based on the unstressed lengths of both cable and frame members calculated from the analytical method. Through numerical examples, it is demonstrated that the proposed analytical method can indeed provide an optimized initial solution by showing that both the simplified method and the nonlinear FE procedure lead to practically identical initial configurations with only localized small bending moment distributions.

  5. Design and Hemocompatibility Analysis of a Double-Suction Injection Suspension Blood Pump Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Zhu, Liangfan; Luo, Yun

    2017-11-01

    The blood pump has become a possible solution to heart diseases. For the prevention of device failure and hemocompatibility problems, a rotary pump with suspended bearing is a preferred solution. In our previous work, a novel injection suspension method has been introduced to levitate the rotor. The suspension method is totally passive. This study aims to apply this suspension method to a double-suction pump, and the property of the pump was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The flow field of the pump is simulated based on the SST k-ω turbulent model. The characteristic curves of the pump were calculated. At the nominal working point of 5 L/min, 100 mm Hg, the suspension force acting on the rotor was detected, which could reach 0.46 N with a gap of 150 µm. We compared the pump with a previously developed single-suction injection pump to evaluate the blood compatibility of the double-suction design. The average scalar shear stress values were 3.13 Pa for the double-suction pump and 7.10 Pa for the single-suction pump. Larger volumes in the single-suction pump were exposed to shear stresses higher than 10 Pa. Thresholds for the von Willebrand factor cleavage, platelet activation, and hemolysis were defined to be 9 Pa, 50 Pa, and 150 Pa, respectively. The volume fractions for the double-suction pump are lower for all thresholds. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) values for the two pumps were calculated to be 0.008 g/100 L and 0.016 g/100 L. Results proved that the double-suction pump has a better hemocompatibility compared with the single-suction pump. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comprehensive Analysis and Experimental Validation of an Improved Mathematical Modeling of Photovoltaic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satarupa Bal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple, accurate, and easy to model approach for the simulation of photovoltaic (PV array and also provides a comparative analysis of the same with two other widely used models. It is highly imperative that the maximum power point (MPP is achieved effectively and thus a simple and robust mathematical model is necessary that poses less mathematical complexity as well as low data storage requirement, in which the maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm can be realized in an effective way. Further, the resemblance of the P-V and I-V curves as obtained on the basis of experimental data should also be taken into account for theoretical validation. In addition, the study incorporates the root mean square deviation (RMSD from the experimental data, the fill factor (FF, the efficiency of the model, and the time required for simulation. Two models have been used to investigate the I-V and P-V characteristics. Perturb and Observe method has been adopted for MPPT. The MPP tracking is realized using field programmable gate array (FPGA to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach. All the systems are modeled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  7. Null stream analysis of Pulsar Timing Array data: localisation of resolvable gravitational wave sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Janna; Veitch, John; Sesana, Alberto; Vecchio, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    Super-massive black hole binaries are expected to produce a gravitational wave (GW) signal in the nano-Hertz frequency band which may be detected by pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) in the coming years. The signal is composed of both stochastic and individually resolvable components. Here we develop a generic Bayesian method for the analysis of resolvable sources based on the construction of `null-streams' which cancel the part of the signal held in common for each pulsar (the Earth-term). For an array of N pulsars there are N - 2 independent null-streams that cancel the GW signal from a particular sky location. This method is applied to the localisation of quasi-circular binaries undergoing adiabatic inspiral. We carry out a systematic investigation of the scaling of the localisation accuracy with signal strength and number of pulsars in the PTA. Additionally, we find that source sky localisation with the International PTA data release one is vastly superior than what is achieved by its constituent regional PTAs.

  8. In-TFT-Array-Process Micro Defect Inspection Using Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hao Kang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Defect inspection plays a critical role in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD manufacture, and has received much attention in the field of automatic optical inspection (AOI. Previously, most focus was put on the problems of macro-scale Mura-defect detection in cell process, but it has recently been found that the defects which substantially influence the yield rate of LCD panels are actually those in the TFT array process, which is the first process in TFT-LCD manufacturing. Defect inspection in TFT array process is therefore considered a difficult task. This paper presents a novel inspection scheme based on kernel principal component analysis (KPCA algorithm, which is a nonlinear version of the well-known PCA algorithm. The inspection scheme can not only detect the defects from the images captured from the surface of LCD panels, but also recognize the types of the detected defects automatically. Results, based on real images provided by a LCD manufacturer in Taiwan, indicate that the KPCA-based defect inspection scheme is able to achieve a defect detection rate of over 99% and a high defect classification rate of over 96% when the imbalanced support vector machine (ISVM with 2-norm soft margin is employed as the classifier. More importantly, the inspection time is less than 1 s per input image.

  9. Synchrotron high angular resolution microdiffraction analysis of selective area grown optoelectronic waveguide arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimirov, A; Sirenko, A A; Bilderback, D H; Cai, Z-H; Lai, B; Huang, R; Ougazzaden, A

    2006-01-01

    A synchrotron microbeam high-angular resolution diffraction setup based on a phase zone plate and a perfect Si(004) analyzer crystal was introduced to generate an x-ray microbeam with a lateral size of 0.24 μm and an angular resolution of 2 arcsec. The microbeam high angular resolution x-ray diffraction was applied to study InGaAlAs-based multiple quantum well (MQW) ridge-waveguide arrays produced by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy in a selective area growth regime with a central waveguide width varying from 1.6 to 60 μm. The analysis of the period T and the strain S in MQW ridge structures determined from the high-resolution diffraction data is presented. It was found that the MQW period is uniform across the ridge within the error bar of ΔT = ± 0.25 nm. Within the waveguide array, the MQW period and strain can be adequately described by a gas-phase diffusion model

  10. NanoProbeArrays for the analysis of ultra-low-volume protein samples using piezoelectric liquid dispensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Vinay Janthakahalli; Eaton, Seron; Wiktor, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Antibody microarrays are gaining popularity as a high-throughput technology to investigate the proteome. However, protein extracts from most body fluid or biopsy samples are available in very small volumes and are often unsuitable for large-scale antibody microarray studies. To demonstrate the potential for protein analysis with as little as a few nanoliters of sample, we have developed a new technology called NanoProbeArrays based on piezoelectric liquid dispensing for non-contact printing and probing of antibody arrays. Instead of flooding the protein sample on the antibody microarray surface, as in conventional microarray screening, a piezoelectric inkjet printer is used to dispense nanoliters of fluorescently labeled proteins over the antibody spots on the array. The ability of NanoProbeArrays to precisely identify and reliably distinguish between test proteins from different sources, without any loss of sensitivity and specificity as compared with conventional antibody microarrays, is illustrated here. The utility of NanoProbeArrays for biomarker identification in a complex biological sample was tested by detecting the cytokine interleukin-4 in serum. The significant reduction in volume of sample during NanoProbeArray analysis, as compared with conventional antibody microarrays, offers new opportunities for basic and applied proteomic research. Copyright © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. fRMA ST: frozen robust multiarray analysis for Affymetrix Exon and Gene ST arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Matthew N; Jaffee, Harris A; Irizarry, Rafael A

    2012-12-01

    Frozen robust multiarray analysis (fRMA) is a single-array preprocessing algorithm that retains the advantages of multiarray algorithms and removes certain batch effects by downweighting probes that have high between-batch residual variance. Here, we extend the fRMA algorithm to two new microarray platforms--Affymetrix Human Exon and Gene 1.0 ST--by modifying the fRMA probe-level model and extending the frma package to work with oligo ExonFeatureSet and GeneFeatureSet objects. All packages are implemented in R. Source code and binaries are freely available through the Bioconductor project. Convenient links to all software and data packages can be found at http://mnmccall.com/software mccallm@gmail.com.

  12. Microarray data visualization and analysis with the Longhorn Array Database (LAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Patrick J; Iyer, Vishwanath R

    2004-12-01

    The wide availability and use of DNA microarrays has brought the power of whole-genome functional characterization to a large variety of research environments. Microarrays, however, also introduce significant infrastructural and analytical concerns with respect to the long-term warehousing, annotation, and visualization of immense data sets. The Longhorn Array Database (LAD) is a MIAME-compliant microarray database that operates on PostgreSQL and Linux. It is a free and completely open-source software solution, and provides a systematic and proven environment in which vast experiment sets can be safely archived, securely accessed, biologically annotated, quantitatively analyzed, and visually explored. This unit provides the complete set of information needed to successfully deploy, configure, and use LAD for the purposes of two-color DNA microarray analysis and visualization.

  13. Analysis of milk ageing by a sol-gel sensors array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, P.; Rella, R.; Capone, S.; Taurino, A.; Vasanelli, L.

    2000-12-01

    There is growing interest in the development of electronic odours-detection multisensor systems for objective evaluation of aroma food. Study of food storage, freshness control and ageing is one of the most important application field for this new class of device (named "electronic nose"). In this paper we report a specific application of a semiconductor thin films based electronic nose in the control of the rancidity of two different milk (UHT and pasteurised) during their storage days. The active elements of the array were undoped and Os-, Ni-, Pt-, Pd-doped SnO2 thin films prepared by the sol-gel method. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), applied to the data coming from the response of the sensors, gave satisfactory results in tracking dynamic evolution of milk, that could lead to commercial application in the food industry.

  14. Modeling and stability analysis for the upper atmosphere research satellite auxiliary array switch component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, R.; Natarajan, T.; Day, J.

    1987-01-01

    A feedback control system, called an auxiliary array switch, was designed to connect or disconnect auxiliary solar panel segments from a spacecraft electrical bus to meet fluctuating demand for power. A simulation of the control system was used to carry out a number of design and analysis tasks that could not economically be performed with a breadboard of the hardware. These tasks included: (1) the diagnosis of a stability problem, (2) identification of parameters to which the performance of the control system was particularly sensitive, (3) verification that the response of the control system to anticipated fluctuations in the electrical load of the spacecraft was satisfactory, and (4) specification of limitations on the frequency and amplitude of the load fluctuations.

  15. Adapting Controlled-source Coherence Analysis to Dense Array Data in Earthquake Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, B.; Sigloch, K.; Nissen-Meyer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Exploration seismology deals with highly coherent wave fields generated by repeatable controlled sources and recorded by dense receiver arrays, whose geometry is tailored to back-scattered energy normally neglected in earthquake seismology. Owing to these favorable conditions, stacking and coherence analysis are routinely employed to suppress incoherent noise and regularize the data, thereby strongly contributing to the success of subsequent processing steps, including migration for the imaging of back-scattering interfaces or waveform tomography for the inversion of velocity structure. Attempts have been made to utilize wave field coherence on the length scales of passive-source seismology, e.g. for the imaging of transition-zone discontinuities or the core-mantle-boundary using reflected precursors. Results are however often deteriorated due to the sparse station coverage and interference of faint back-scattered with transmitted phases. USArray sampled wave fields generated by earthquake sources at an unprecedented density and similar array deployments are ongoing or planned in Alaska, the Alps and Canada. This makes the local coherence of earthquake data an increasingly valuable resource to exploit.Building on the experience in controlled-source surveys, we aim to extend the well-established concept of beam-forming to the richer toolbox that is nowadays used in seismic exploration. We suggest adapted strategies for local data coherence analysis, where summation is performed with operators that extract the local slope and curvature of wave fronts emerging at the receiver array. Besides estimating wave front properties, we demonstrate that the inherent data summation can also be used to generate virtual station responses at intermediate locations where no actual deployment was performed. Owing to the fact that stacking acts as a directional filter, interfering coherent wave fields can be efficiently separated from each other by means of coherent subtraction. We

  16. Gene array analysis of PD-1H overexpressing monocytes reveals a pro-inflammatory profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bharaj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that overexpression of Programmed Death -1 Homolog (PD-1H in human monocytes leads to activation and spontaneous secretion of multiple pro inflammatory cytokines. Here we evaluate changes in monocytes gene expression after enforced PD-1H expression by gene array. The results show that there are significant alterations in 51 potential candidate genes that relate to immune response, cell adhesion and metabolism. Genes corresponding to pro-inflammatory cytokines showed the highest upregulation, 7, 3.2, 3.0, 5.8, 4.4 and 3.1 fold upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1 β, IFN-α, γ, λ and IL-27 relative to vector control. The data are in agreement with cytometric bead array analysis showing induction of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α by PD-1H. Other genes related to inflammation, include transglutaminase 2 (TG2, NF-κB (p65 and p50 and toll like receptors (TLR 3 and 4 were upregulated 5, 4.5 and 2.5 fold, respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA also revealed that signaling pathways related to inflammatory response, such as NFκB, AT1R, PYK2, MAPK, RELA, TNFR1, MTOR and proteasomal degradation, were significantly upregulated in response to PD-1H overexpression. We validated the results utilizing a standard inflammatory sepsis model in humanized BLT mice, finding that PD-1H expression was highly correlated with proinflammatory cytokine production. We therefore conclude that PD-1H functions to enhance monocyte activation and the induction of a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile.

  17. Thermal Analysis and Correlation of the Mars Odyssey Spacecraft's Solar Array During Aerobraking Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.; George, Benjamin E.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey spacecraft made use of multipass aerobraking to gradually reduce its orbit period from a highly elliptical insertion orbit to its final science orbit. Aerobraking operations provided an opportunity to apply advanced thermal analysis techniques to predict the temperature of the spacecraft's solar array for each drag pass. Odyssey telemetry data was used to correlate the thermal model. The thermal analysis was tightly coupled to the flight mechanics, aerodynamics, and atmospheric modeling efforts being performed during operations. Specifically, the thermal analysis predictions required a calculation of the spacecraft's velocity relative to the atmosphere, a prediction of the atmospheric density, and a prediction of the heat transfer coefficients due to aerodynamic heating. Temperature correlations were performed by comparing predicted temperatures of the thermocouples to the actual thermocouple readings from the spacecraft. Time histories of the spacecraft relative velocity, atmospheric density, and heat transfer coefficients, calculated using flight accelerometer and quaternion data, were used to calculate the aerodynamic heating. During aerobraking operations, the correlations were used to continually update the thermal model, thus increasing confidence in the predictions. This paper describes the thermal analysis that was performed and presents the correlations to the flight data.

  18. A multilevel fast spectral domain algorithm for electromagnetic analysis of infinite periodic arrays with large unit cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Eibert

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A multilevel fast spectral domain algorithm (MLFSDA is introduced for the efficient evaluation of the matrix vector products due to the boundary integral (BI operator within a hybrid finite element - BI (FEBI method for the analysis of infinite periodic arrays. The MLFSDA utilizes the diagonalization property of the spectral domain (SD BI representation and handles the large numbers of Floquet modes required for large (with respect to wavelength periodic unit cells by similar hierarchical techniques as applied in the multilevel fast multipole method/algorithm (MLFMM/MLFMA. With the capability of the MLFSDA to handle very large periodic unit cells, it becomes possible to model finite antennas and scatterers with the infinite periodic array model. For a cavity-backed antenna element and for a semi-finite array of 4 cavity-backed antenna elements in the finite direction, the dependence of the input impedances on the unit cell sizes is investigated and it is found that array resonances disappear for reasonably large unit cell dimensions. Finally, a semi-finite array of antipodal Vivaldi antenna elements is considered and simulation results for infinite periodic, finite, and semi-finite array configurations are compared to measured data.

  19. Analysis of Correlation in MEMS Gyroscope Array and its Influence on Accuracy Improvement for the Combined Angular Rate Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining a correlation factor is a prerequisite for fusing multiple outputs of a mircoelectromechanical system (MEMS gyroscope array and evaluating accuracy improvement. In this paper, a mathematical statistics method is established to analyze and obtain the practical correlation factor of a MEMS gyroscope array, which solves the problem of determining the Kalman filter (KF covariance matrix Q and fusing the multiple gyroscope signals. The working principle and mathematical model of the sensor array fusion is briefly described, and then an optimal estimate of input rate signal is achieved by using of a steady-state KF gain in an off-line estimation approach. Both theoretical analysis and simulation show that the negative correlation factor has a favorable influence on accuracy improvement. Additionally, a four-gyro array system composed of four discrete individual gyroscopes was developed to test the correlation factor and its influence on KF accuracy improvement. The result showed that correlation factors have both positive and negative values; in particular, there exist differences for correlation factor between the different units in the array. The test results also indicated that the Angular Random Walk (ARW of 1.57°/h0.5 and bias drift of 224.2°/h for a single gyroscope were reduced to 0.33°/h0.5 and 47.8°/h with some negative correlation factors existing in the gyroscope array, making a noise reduction factor of about 4.7, which is higher than that of a uncorrelated four-gyro array. The overall accuracy of the combined angular rate signal can be further improved if the negative correlation factors in the gyroscope array become larger.

  20. Array Optimization for Tidal Energy Extraction in a Tidal Channel – A Numerical Modeling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of a hydrodynamic model to simulate tidal energy extraction in a tidal dominated estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast. A series of numerical experiments were carried out to simulate tidal energy extraction with different turbine array configurations, including location, spacing and array size. Preliminary model results suggest that array optimization for tidal energy extraction in a real-world site is a very complex process that requires consideration of m...

  1. Surface-wave analysis and its application to determining crustal and mantle structure beneath regional arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ge

    We develop several new techniques to better retrieve Earth's structure by analyzing seismic surface waves. These techniques are applied in regional studies to understand a variety of tectonic structures and geodynamic processes in Earth's crust and upper mantle. We create an automated method to retrieve surface-wave phase velocities using dense seismic arrays. The method is based on the notion of using cross-correlation to measure phase variations between nearby stations. Frequency-dependent apparent phase velocities are inverted from the phase-variation measurements via the Eikonal equation. The multi-pathing interference is corrected using amplitude measurements via the Helmholtz equation. The coherence between nearby-station waveforms, together with other data-selection criteria, helps to automate the entire process. We build up the Automated Surface-Wave Measuring System (ASWMS) that retrieves structural phase velocity directly from raw seismic waveforms for individual earthquakes without human intervention. This system is applied on the broad-band seismic data recorded by the USArray from 2006-2014, and obtain Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at the periods of 20-100~s. In total around half million seismograms from 850 events are processed, generating about 4 million cross-correlation measurements. The maps correlate well with several published studies, including ambient-noise results at high frequency. At all frequencies, a significant contrast in Rayleigh-wave phase velocity between the tectonically active western US and the stable eastern US can be observed, with the phase-velocity variations in the western US being 1-2 times greater. The Love wave phase-velocity maps are also calculated. We find that overtone interference may produce systematic bias for the Love-wave phase-velocity measurements. We apply surface-wave analysis on the data collected by a temporary broad-band seismic array near the D'Entrecasteaux Island (DI), Papua New Guinea. The array

  2. Unsupervised neural spike sorting for high-density microelectrode arrays with convolutive independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibig, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas; Zeck, Günther

    2016-09-15

    Unsupervised identification of action potentials in multi-channel extracellular recordings, in particular from high-density microelectrode arrays with thousands of sensors, is an unresolved problem. While independent component analysis (ICA) achieves rapid unsupervised sorting, it ignores the convolutive structure of extracellular data, thus limiting the unmixing to a subset of neurons. Here we present a spike sorting algorithm based on convolutive ICA (cICA) to retrieve a larger number of accurately sorted neurons than with instantaneous ICA while accounting for signal overlaps. Spike sorting was applied to datasets with varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNR: 3-12) and 27% spike overlaps, sampled at either 11.5 or 23kHz on 4365 electrodes. We demonstrate how the instantaneity assumption in ICA-based algorithms has to be relaxed in order to improve the spike sorting performance for high-density microelectrode array recordings. Reformulating the convolutive mixture as an instantaneous mixture by modeling several delayed samples jointly is necessary to increase signal-to-noise ratio. Our results emphasize that different cICA algorithms are not equivalent. Spike sorting performance was assessed with ground-truth data generated from experimentally derived templates. The presented spike sorter was able to extract ≈90% of the true spike trains with an error rate below 2%. It was superior to two alternative (c)ICA methods (≈80% accurately sorted neurons) and comparable to a supervised sorting. Our new algorithm represents a fast solution to overcome the current bottleneck in spike sorting of large datasets generated by simultaneous recording with thousands of electrodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Naratriptan hydrochloride in extemporaneosly compounded oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Trissel, L A; Fox, J L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmaceutical acceptability and chemical stability of naratriptan hydrochloride in three extemporaneously compounded suspension formulations. The naratriptan-hydrochloride oral suspensions were prepared from 2.5-mg commercial tablets yielding a nominal naratriptan concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The suspension vehicles selected for testing were Syrpalta, an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, and an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet SF. The tablets were crushed and thoroughly triturated to a fine powder using a porcelain mortar and pestle. The powder was incorporated into a portion of the Syrpalta or Ora-Plus suspension vehicle and mixed until homogeneous. The mixtures were then brought to volume with Syrpalta, Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF, as appropriate. The suspensions were packaged in amber, plastic, screw-cap prescription bottles and stored at 23 deg C for seven days and 4 deg C for 90 days. An adequate suspension was never achieved in Syrpalta. The crushed-tablet powder did not produce a uniformly dispersed mixture and exhibited clumping and a high rate of sedimentation. A distinct layer of the solid tablet material settled immediately after shaking. Over the next four hours, a densely packed, yellow, caked layer formed at the bottom of the containers, making resuspension difficult. During storage, the caking became worse. Chemical analysis was not performed. The Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF suspensions had a slight greenish cast and were resuspended without difficulty by shaking for approximately ten seconds, yielding easily poured and homogeneous mixtures throughout the study. Visible settling and layering did not begin for four hours with the Ora-Sweet suspension and 24 hours for the Ora-Sweet SF suspension. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis found that the naratriptan concentration in both suspension-vehicle combinations exhibited little or no loss for seven days at 23

  4. An analysis of seismic background noise variation and evaluation of detection capability of Keskin Array (BRTR PS-43) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, M. E.; Ozel, N. M.; Semin, K. U.

    2011-12-01

    Bogazici University, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is currently operating the Keskin seismic array (BRTR-PS 43) located in town Keskin, providing real-time data to IDC. The instrumentaion of seismic array includes six short period borehole seismometers and one broadband borehole seismometer. The seismic background noise variation of Keskin array are studied in order to estimate the local and regional event detection capability in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 10 Hz. The Power density spectrum and also probability density function of Keskin array data were computed for seasonal and diurnal noise variations between 2008 and 2010. The computation will be extended to cover the period between 2005 and 2008. We attempt to determine the precise frequency characteristics of the background noise, which will help us to assess the station sensitivity. Minimum detectable magnitude versus distance for Keskin seismic array will be analyzed based on the seismic noise analysis. Detailed analysis results of seismic background noise and detection capability will be presented by this research.

  5. Halbach arrays in precision motion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumper, D.L.; Williams, M.E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Halbach array was developed for use as an optical element in particle accelerators. Following up on a suggestion from Klaus Halbach, the authors have investigated the utility of such arrays as the permanent magnet structure for synchronous machines in cartesian, polar, and cylindrical geometries. Their work has focused on the design of a novel Halbach array linear motor for use in a magnetic suspension stage for photolithography. This paper presents the details of the motor design and its force and power characteristics.

  6. Efficient Full-Wave Analysis of Waveguide Arrays on Cylindrical Surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerini, G.; Guglielmi, M.; Rozzi, T.; Zappelli, L.

    1999-01-01

    Conformal open-ended waveguide arrays received great attention in the early seventies. Recently, dielectric loaded waveguide radiators have been again proposed to achieve high dety microwave packaging [1], [2]. The efficient design of highly integrated array solutions, however, require fast and

  7. A study on the impact of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on the viscosity of PEG melt suspensions using surface plots and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ching Mien; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of the rheological behaviour of polymer melt suspensions is crucial in pharmaceutical manufacturing, especially when processed by spray congealing or melt extruding. However, a detailed comparison of the viscosities at each and every temperature and concentration between the various grades of adjuvants in the formulation will be tedious and time-consuming. Therefore, the statistical method, principal component analysis (PCA), was explored in this study. The composite formulations comprising polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) of ten different grades (K100 LV, K4M, K15M, K100M, E15 LV, E50 LV, E4M, F50 LV, F4M and Methocel VLV) at various concentrations were prepared and their viscosities at different temperatures determined. Surface plots showed that concentration of HPMC had a greater effect on the viscosity compared to temperature. Particle size and size distribution of HPMC played an important role in the viscosity of melt suspensions. Smaller particles led to a greater viscosity than larger particles. PCA was used to evaluate formulations of different viscosities. The complex viscosity profiles of the various formulations containing HPMC were successfully classified into three clusters of low, moderate and high viscosity. Formulations within each group showed similar viscosities despite differences in grade or concentration of HPMC. Formulations in the low viscosity cluster were found to be sprayable. PCA was able to differentiate the complex viscosity profiles of different formulations containing HPMC in an efficient and time-saving manner and provided an excellent visualisation of the data.

  8. Exploring doxorubicin localization in eluting TiO2 nanotube arrays through fluorescence correlation spectroscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santo, Ilaria; Sanguigno, Luigi; Causa, Filippo; Monetta, Tullio; Netti, Paolo A

    2012-11-07

    Drug elution properties of TiO(2) nanotube arrays have been largely investigated by means of solely macroscopic observations. Controversial elution performances have been reported so far and a clear comprehension of these phenomena is still missing as a consequence of a lack of molecular investigation methods. Here we propose a way to discern drug elution properties of nanotubes through the evaluation of drug localization by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) analysis. We verified this method upon doxorubicin elution from differently loaded TiO(2) nanotubes. Diverse elution profiles were obtained from nanotubes filled by soaking and wet vacuum impregnation methods. Impregnated nanotubes controlled drug diffusion up to thirty days, while soaked samples completed elution in seven days. FCS analysis of doxorubicin motion in loaded nanotubes clarified that more than 90% of drugs dwell preferentially in inter-nanotube spaces in soaked samples due to decorrelation in a 2D fashion, while a 97% fraction of molecules showed 1D mobility ascribable to displacements along the nanotube vertical axis of wet vacuum impregnated nanotubes. The diverse drug localizations inferred from FCS measurements, together with distinct drug-surface interaction strengths resulting from diverse drug filling techniques, could explain the variability in elution kinetics.

  9. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 8: Project analysis and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, P.; Henry, P.

    1986-10-01

    Project Analysis and Integration (PA&I) performed planning and integration activities to support management of the various Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project R&D activities. Technical and economic goals were established by PA&I for each R&D task within the project to coordinate the thrust toward the National Photovoltaic Program goals. A sophisticated computer modeling capability was developed to assess technical progress toward meeting the economic goals. These models included a manufacturing facility simulation, a photovoltaic power station simulation and a decision aid model incorporating uncertainty. This family of analysis tools was used to track the progress of the technology and to explore the effects of alternative technical paths. Numerous studies conducted by PA&I signaled the achievement of milestones or were the foundation of major FSA project and national program decisions. The most important PA&I activities during the project history are summarized. The PA&I planning function is discussed and how it relates to project direction and important analytical models developed by PA&I for its analytical and assessment activities are reviewed.

  10. ARRAY FOR MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPY: OBSERVATIONS, DATA ANALYSIS, AND RESULTS FOR SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.-H.P.; Huang, C.-W.L.; Liao, Y.-W.; Lin, K.-Y.; Wang, F.-C.; Chiueh Tzihong; Ho, Paul T. P.; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, G.-C.; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, C.-H.; Chang, S.-H.; Chang, S.-W.; Chen, M.-T.; Han, C.-C.; Huang, Y.-D.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Birkinshaw, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We present observations, analysis, and results for the first-year operation of Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA), an interferometric experiment designed to study cosmology via the measurement of cosmic microwave background (CMB). AMiBA is the first CMB interferometer operating at 3 mm to have reported successful results, currently with seven close-packed antennas of 60 cm diameter giving a synthesized resolution of around 6'. During 2007, AMiBA detected the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (SZEs) of six galaxy clusters at redshift 0.091 ≤ z ≤ 0.322. An observing strategy with on-off-source switching is used to minimize the effects from electronic offset and ground pickup. Planets were used to test the observational capability of AMiBA and to calibrate the conversion from correlator time-lag data to visibilities. The detailed formalism for data analysis is given. We summarize our early tests including observations of planets and quasars, and present images, visibility profiles, the estimated central coordinates, sizes, and SZE amplitudes of the galaxy clusters. Scientific implications are summarized. We also discuss possible systematic effects in the results.

  11. Genome-wide oligonucleotide-based array comparative genome hybridization analysis of non-isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Scott; M. Klaassens; A.M. Holder (Ashley); K.P. Lally (Kevin); C.J. Fernandes (Caraciolo); R-J.H. Galjaard (Robert-Jan); D. Tibboel (Dick); J.E.M.M. de Klein (Annelies); B. Lee (Brendan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractNon-isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH+) is a severe birth defect that is often caused by de novo chromosomal anomalies. In this report, we use genome-wide oligonucleotide-based array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) followed by rapid real-time quantitative PCR analysis

  12. Integrated analysis of three bacterial conjunctivitis trials of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%: microbiological eradication outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris TW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy W Morris1, Lynne S Gearinger1, Dale W Usner2, Michael R Paterno2, Heleen H DeCory3, Timothy L Comstock3, Wolfgang Haas11Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, 2Clinical Affairs, 3Global Pharmaceutical Medical Affairs, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: To assess clinical antimicrobial efficacy results obtained with besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%, administered three times a day (TID for 5 days, integrated across three clinical trials of bacterial conjunctivitis and to investigate any microbiological eradication failures.Methods: Clinical microbiological eradication data from three randomized, double-masked, parallel group studies of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis (two vehicle controlled; one active controlled with moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution, 0.5% were integrated. All bacterial samples isolated at baseline above the species-specific threshold value were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Samples isolated at subsequent visits were subjected to susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to investigate the cause of eradication failures and the potential for drug resistance development.Results: Visit 2 (day 4 or 5 and visit 3 (day 8 overall microbiological eradication rates were 92.2% and 88.4% for besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension compared with 61.4% and 72.5% for vehicle and 91.6% and 85.7% for moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution. Visit 2 and visit 3 microbiological eradication rates for Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates and for individual species were consistent with the overall eradication rates. The majority of observed eradication failures in any treatment group were due to the persistence of the pathogen isolated at baseline. Eradication failures in the besifloxacin treatment group were not associated with lower antimicrobial susceptibility at baseline. PFGE data showed that the majority of bacterial strains in eyes with eradication failures were identical to

  13. Induction and Analysis of the Alkaloid Mitragynine Content of a Mitragyna speciosa Suspension Culture System upon Elicitation and Precursor Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Nahazima Mohamad Zuldin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction was achieved from petiole explants cultured on WPM that was supplemented with 4 mg L−1 2, 4-D (70.83%. Calli were transferred to liquid media and agitated on rotary shakers to establish Mitragyna speciosa cell suspension cultures. The optimum settled cell volume was achieved in the presence of WPM that contained 3 mg L−1 2,4-D and 3% sucrose (9.47±0.4667 mL. The treatment of cultures with different concentrations of yeast extract and salicylic acid for different inoculation periods revealed that the highest mitragynine content as determined by HPLC was achieved from the culture treated with 250 mg L−1 yeast extract (9.275±0.082 mg L−1 that was harvested on day 6 of culturing; salicylic acid showed low mitragynine content in all concentrations used. Tryptophan and loganin were used as exogenous precursors; the highest level of mitragynine production was achieved in cultures treated with 3 μM tryptophan and harvested at 6 days (13.226±1.98 mg L−1.

  14. AnovArray: a set of SAS macros for the analysis of variance of gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Jean-Paul

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of variance is a powerful approach to identify differentially expressed genes in a complex experimental design for microarray and macroarray data. The advantage of the anova model is the possibility to evaluate multiple sources of variation in an experiment. Results AnovArray is a package implementing ANOVA for gene expression data using SAS® statistical software. The originality of the package is 1 to quantify the different sources of variation on all genes together, 2 to provide a quality control of the model, 3 to propose two models for a gene's variance estimation and to perform a correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion AnovArray is freely available at http://www-mig.jouy.inra.fr/stat/AnovArray and requires only SAS® statistical software.

  15. Array comparative genomic hybridization and cytogenetic analysis in pediatric acute leukemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A.J.; Yanofsky, R.; Vallente, R.; Bal, S.; Schroedter, I.; Liang, L.; Mai, S.

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (all) are reported to have acquired chromosomal abnormalities in their leukemic bone marrow cells. Many established chromosome rearrangements have been described, and their associations with specific clinical, biologic, and prognostic features are well defined. However, approximately 30% of pediatric and 50% of adult patients with all do not have cytogenetic abnormalities of clinical significance. Despite significant improvements in outcome for pediatric all, therapy fails in approximately 25% of patients, and these failures often occur unpredictably in patients with a favorable prognosis and “good” cytogenetics at diagnosis. It is well known that karyotype analysis in hematologic malignancies, although genome-wide, is limited because of altered cell kinetics (mitotic rate), a propensity of leukemic blasts to undergo apoptosis in culture, overgrowth by normal cells, and chromosomes of poor quality in the abnormal clone. Array comparative genomic hybridization (acgh—“microarray”) has a greatly increased genomic resolution over classical cytogenetics. Cytogenetic microarray, which uses genomic dna, is a powerful tool in the analysis of unbalanced chromosome rearrangements, such as copy number gains and losses, and it is the method of choice when the mitotic index is low and the quality of metaphases is suboptimal. The copy number profile obtained by microarray is often called a “molecular karyotype.” In the present study, microarray was applied to 9 retrospective cases of pediatric all either with initial high-risk features or with at least 1 relapse. The conventional karyotype was compared to the “molecular karyotype” to assess abnormalities as interpreted by classical cytogenetics. Not only were previously undetected chromosome losses and gains identified by microarray, but several karyotypes interpreted by classical cytogenetics were shown to be discordant with the microarray results. The

  16. Analysis and Modeling of Subthreshold Neural Multi-Electrode Array Data by Statistical Field Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningson, Måns; Illes, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Multi-electrode arrays (MEA) are increasingly used to investigate spontaneous neuronal network activity. The recorded signals comprise several distinct components: Apart from artifacts without biological significance, one can distinguish between spikes (action potentials) and subthreshold fluctuations (local fields potentials). Here we aim to develop a theoretical model that allows for a compact and robust characterization of subthreshold fluctuations in terms of a Gaussian statistical field theory in two spatial and one temporal dimension. What is usually referred to as the driving noise in the context of statistical physics is here interpreted as a representation of the neural activity. Spatial and temporal correlations of this activity give valuable information about the connectivity in the neural tissue. We apply our methods on a dataset obtained from MEA-measurements in an acute hippocampal brain slice from a rat. Our main finding is that the empirical correlation functions indeed obey the logarithmic behavior that is a general feature of theoretical models of this kind. We also find a clear correlation between the activity and the occurrence of spikes. Another important insight is the importance of correctly separating out certain artifacts from the data before proceeding with the analysis.

  17. Microelectrode array-induced neuronal alignment directs neurite outgrowth: analysis using a fast Fourier transform (FFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radotić, Viktorija; Braeken, Dries; Kovačić, Damir

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have shown that the topography of the substrate on which neurons are cultured can promote neuronal adhesion and guide neurite outgrowth in the same direction as the underlying topography. To investigate this effect, isotropic substrate-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips were used as one example of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) for directing neurite growth of spiral ganglion neurons. Neurons were isolated from 5 to 7-day-old rat pups, cultured 1 day in vitro (DIV) and 4 DIV, and then fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. For analysis of neurite alignment and orientation, fast Fourier transformation (FFT) was used. Results revealed that on the micro-patterned surface of a CMOS chip, neurons orient their neurites along three directional axes at 30, 90, and 150° and that neurites aligned in straight lines between adjacent pillars and mostly followed a single direction while occasionally branching perpendicularly. We conclude that the CMOS substrate guides neurites towards electrodes by means of their structured pillar organization and can produce electrical stimulation of aligned neurons as well as monitoring their neural activities once neurites are in the vicinity of electrodes. These findings are of particular interest for neural tissue engineering with the ultimate goal of developing a new generation of MEA essential for improved electrical stimulation of auditory neurons.

  18. Gene expression analysis by massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) on microbead arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, S; Johnson, M; Bridgham, J; Golda, G; Lloyd, D H; Johnson, D; Luo, S; McCurdy, S; Foy, M; Ewan, M; Roth, R; George, D; Eletr, S; Albrecht, G; Vermaas, E; Williams, S R; Moon, K; Burcham, T; Pallas, M; DuBridge, R B; Kirchner, J; Fearon, K; Mao, J; Corcoran, K

    2000-06-01

    We describe a novel sequencing approach that combines non-gel-based signature sequencing with in vitro cloning of millions of templates on separate 5 microm diameter microbeads. After constructing a microbead library of DNA templates by in vitro cloning, we assembled a planar array of a million template-containing microbeads in a flow cell at a density greater than 3x10(6) microbeads/cm2. Sequences of the free ends of the cloned templates on each microbead were then simultaneously analyzed using a fluorescence-based signature sequencing method that does not require DNA fragment separation. Signature sequences of 16-20 bases were obtained by repeated cycles of enzymatic cleavage with a type IIs restriction endonuclease, adaptor ligation, and sequence interrogation by encoded hybridization probes. The approach was validated by sequencing over 269,000 signatures from two cDNA libraries constructed from a fully sequenced strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and by measuring gene expression levels in the human cell line THP-1. The approach provides an unprecedented depth of analysis permitting application of powerful statistical techniques for discovery of functional relationships among genes, whether known or unknown beforehand, or whether expressed at high or very low levels.

  19. Suture midface suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Rachna

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe a simple and effective facelift technique useful as an adjunct to other oculoplastic procedures Methods Retrospective, non-comparative case series. Thirty five patients undergoing suture midface suspension from 1998 to 2000. Suspension sutures were passed from the nasolabial fold to the temporalis fascia to elevate the midface and the corner of the mouth. Results A satisfactory and stable outcome is obtained in 2 years of follow up. Conclusion Suture midface suspension is a safe and effective technique for the management of midface descent.

  20. Multispectral imaging and analysis system. [using charge coupled devices and linear arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Landawer, F. P., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Arrays of charge coupled devices or linear detector arrays simultaneously obtain spectral reflectance data of different wavelengths for a target area. Several accommodating a particular bandwidth, are individually associated with each array. Data from the arrays are read out in parallel and applied to a computer or microprocessor for processing. The microprocessor serves to analyze the data in real time and if possible, in accordance with hard-wired algorithms. The data are then displayed as an image on an appropriate display unit and also recorded for further use. The display system may be operationally connected to receive a terrain image such that the target area and the analyzed spectral reflectance data are superimposed and simultaneously displayed.

  1. Simultaneous Profiling of DNA Mutation and Methylation by Melting Analysis Using Magnetoresistive Biosensor Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Dahl, Christina

    2017-01-01

    specificity. Genomic (mutation) or bisulphite-treated (methylation) DNA is amplified using nondiscriminatory primers, and the amplicons are then hybridized to a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor array followed by melting curve measurements. The GMR biosensor platform offers scalable multiplexed detection...

  2. A multi-center ring trial of allergen analysis using fluorescent multiplex array technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, Eva M.; Filep, Stephanie; Smith, Bryan; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Hamilton, Robert G.; Schmechel, Detlef; Sordillo, Joanne E.; Milton, Donald; van Ree, Ronald; Krop, Esmeralda J. M.; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Metwali, Nervana; Thorne, Peter S.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Sever, Michelle L.; Calatroni, Agustin; Arbes, Samuel J.; Mitchell, Herman E.; Chapman, Martin D.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent performance of allergen assays is essential to ensure reproducibility of exposure assessments for investigations of asthma and occupational allergic disease. This study evaluated intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a fluorescent multiplex array, which simultaneously measures

  3. Magnetic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, D.L.; Kim, W.; Williams, M.E.

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays are disclosed which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness. 12 figs.

  4. Magnetic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumper, David L. (Plaistow, NH); Kim, Won-jong (Cambridge, MA); Williams, Mark E. (Pelham, NH)

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness.

  5. Flexible polyimide microelectrode array for in vivo recordings and current source density analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Karen; Renaud, Philippe; Tanila, Heikki; Djupsund, Kaj

    2007-01-01

    This work presents implantable, flexible polymer-based probes with embedded microelectrodes for acute and chronic neural recordings in vivo, as tested on rodents. Acute recordings using this array were done in mice under urethane anesthesia and compared to those made using silicon-based probes manufactured at the Center for Neural Communication Technology, University of Michigan. The two electrode arrays yielded similar results. Recordings with chronically implanted polymer-based electr...

  6. Evaluation of SNP Data from the Malus Infinium Array Identifies Challenges for Genetic Analysis of Complex Genomes of Polyploid Origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Troggio

    Full Text Available High throughput arrays for the simultaneous genotyping of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have made the rapid genetic characterisation of plant genomes and the development of saturated linkage maps a realistic prospect for many plant species of agronomic importance. However, the correct calling of SNP genotypes in divergent polyploid genomes using array technology can be problematic due to paralogy, and to divergence in probe sequences causing changes in probe binding efficiencies. An Illumina Infinium II whole-genome genotyping array was recently developed for the cultivated apple and used to develop a molecular linkage map for an apple rootstock progeny (M432, but a large proportion of segregating SNPs were not mapped in the progeny, due to unexpected genotype clustering patterns. To investigate the causes of this unexpected clustering we performed BLAST analysis of all probe sequences against the 'Golden Delicious' genome sequence and discovered evidence for paralogous annealing sites and probe sequence divergence for a high proportion of probes contained on the array. Following visual re-evaluation of the genotyping data generated for 8,788 SNPs for the M432 progeny using the array, we manually re-scored genotypes at 818 loci and mapped a further 797 markers to the M432 linkage map. The newly mapped markers included the majority of those that could not be mapped previously, as well as loci that were previously scored as monomorphic, but which segregated due to divergence leading to heterozygosity in probe annealing sites. An evaluation of the 8,788 probes in a diverse collection of Malus germplasm showed that more than half the probes returned genotype clustering patterns that were difficult or impossible to interpret reliably, highlighting implications for the use of the array in genome-wide association studies.

  7. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor will have you try bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, medicines, or other options. If you tried ... retropubic colposuspension; Needle suspension; Burch colposuspension Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  8. Rheology of organoclay suspension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hato, MJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors have studied the rheological properties of clay suspensions in silicone oil, where clay surfaces were modified with three different types of surfactants. Dynamic oscillation measurements showed a plateau-like behavior for all...

  9. The Mystical Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Santiesteban Oliva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mistical suspension, silence, time, absolute, ontology, ineffability, aletheiaIn the mystical ecstasy there is a sensorial and intellectual suspension when contemplating the absolute, the ontological Being. Silence is not only significant: it is revealing. The greatest expression of experience inner silence . The word is insufficient when the ontological reality is revealed. Revelation or truth , the Greek concept of aletheia, takes on greater significance in that transcendental experience. It is also suspended phenomenological time and remains eternity open.

  10. Detection analysis of surface hydroxyl active sites and simulation calculation of the surface dissociation constants of aqueous diatomite suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Cui; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Liu, Gui-Xia

    2015-02-01

    The surface properties of the diatomite were investigated using nitrogen adsorption/deadsorption isotherms, TG-DSC, FTIR, and XPS, and surface protonation-deprotonation behavior was determined by continuous acid-base potentiometric titration technique. The diatomite sample with porous honeycomb structure has a BET specific surface area of 10.21 m2/g and large numbers of surface hydroxyl functional groups (i.e. tbnd Si-OH, tbnd Fe-OH, and tbnd Al-OH). These surface hydroxyls can be protonated or deprotonated depending on the pH of the suspension. The experimental potentiometric data in two different ionic strength solutions (0.1 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl) were fitted using ProtoFit GUI V2.1 program by applying diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites and minimizing the sum of squares between a dataset derivative function and a model derivative function. The optimized surface parameters (i.e. surface dissociation constants (log K1, log K2) and surface site concentrations (log C)) of the sample were obtained. Based on the optimized surface parameters, the surface species distribution was calculated using Program-free PHREEQC 3.1.2. Thus, this work reveals considerable new information about surface protonation-deprotonation processes and surface adsorptive behaviors of the diatomite, which helps us to effectively use the cheap and cheerful diatomite clay adsorbent.

  11. Investigation of the diagnostic value of chromosome analysis and bacterial artificial chromosome-based array comparative genomic hybridization in prenatal diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    SAVLI, HAKAN; KESKİN, SEDA EREN; ÇİNE, NACİ

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: To investigate the diagnostic value of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and chromosome analysis in prenatal diagnosis. Materials and methods: This study included the chromosome analysis and BAC-based array CGH analysis of 140 amniocentesis samples with prenatal diagnosis indications. Results: Karyotype analysis showed trisomy 21 in 4 patients, trisomy 18 in 5 patients, monosomy X in 1 patient, and other anomalies in 3 ...

  12. Surface analysis and mechanical behaviour mapping of vertically aligned CNT forest array through nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koumoulos, Elias P.; Charitidis, C.A., E-mail: charitidis@chemeng.ntua.gr

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Structure and wall numbers are identified through TEM. • Static contact angle measurements revealed a super-hydrophobic behavior. • Hysteresis was observed (loading–unloading) due to the local stress distribution. • Hardness and modulus mapping for a grid of 70 μm{sup 2} is conducted. • Resistance is clearly divided in 2 regions (MWCNT and MWCNT – MWCNT) interface. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube (CNT) based architectures have increased the scientific interest owning to their exceptional performance rendering them promising candidates for advanced industrial applications in the nanotechnology field. Despite individual CNTs being considered as one of the most known strong materials, much less is known about other CNT forms, such as CNT arrays, in terms of their mechanical performance (integrity). In this work, thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method is employed to produce vertically aligned multiwall (VA-MW) CNT carpets. Their structural properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while their hydrophobic behavior was investigated via contact angle measurements. The resistance to indentation deformation of VA-MWCNT carpets was investigated through nanoindentation technique. The synthesized VA-MWCNTs carpets consisted of well-aligned MWCNTs. Static contact angle measurements were performed with water and glycerol, revealing a rather super-hydrophobic behavior. The structural analysis, hydrophobic behavior and indentation response of VA-MWCNTs carpets synthesized via CVD method are clearly demonstrated. Additionally, cycle indentation load-depth curve was applied and hysteresis loops were observed in the indenter loading–unloading cycle due to the local stress distribution. Hardness (as resistance to applied load) and modulus mapping, at 200 nm of displacement for a grid of 70 μm{sup 2} is presented. Through trajection, the resistance is clearly divided in 2

  13. Optimal control and analysis of two-color genomotyping experiments using bacterial multistrain arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez Mário

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH evaluates the distribution of genes of sequenced bacterial strains among unsequenced strains of the same or related species. As genomic sequences from multiple strains of the same species become available, multistrain microarrays are designed, containing spots for every unique gene in all sequenced strains. To perform two-color aCGH experiments with multistrain microarrays, the choice of control sample can be the genomic DNA of one strain or a mixture of all the strains used in the array design. This important problem has no universally accepted solution. Results We performed a comparative study of the two control sample options with a Streptococcus pneumoniae microarray designed with three fully sequenced strains. We separately hybridized two of these strains (R6 and G54 as test samples using the third strain alone (TIGR4 or a mixture of the three strains as control. We show that for both types of control it is advantageous to analyze spots in separate sets according to their expected control channel signal (5–15% AUC increase. Following this analysis, the use of a mix control leads to higher accuracies (5% increase. This enhanced performance is due to gains in sensitivity (21% increase, p = 0.001 that compensate minor losses in specificity (5% decrease, p = 0.014. Conclusion The use of a single strain control increases the error rate in genes that are part of the accessory genome, where more variation across unsequenced strains is expected, further justifying the use of the mix control.

  14. Lithospheric and sublithospheric anisotropy beneath the Baltic shield from surface-wave array analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Helle A.; Bruneton, Marianne; Maupin, Valérie; Svekalapko Seismic Tomography Working Group

    2006-04-01

    We report measurements of radial and azimuthal anisotropy in the upper mantle beneath southern and central Finland, which we obtained by array analysis of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love waves. Azimuthally averaged phase velocities were analysed in the period range 15 to 190 s for Rayleigh waves and 15 to 100 s for Love waves. The azimuthal variation of the Rayleigh wave phase velocities was obtained in the period range 20 to 100 s. The limited depth resolution of fundamental-mode surface waves necessitated strong damping constraints in the inversion for anisotropic parameters. We investigated the effects of non-unicity on the final model by experimenting with varying model geometries. The radial anisotropy beneath Finland can be explained by a lithosphere at least 200 km thick, predominantly (> 50% by volume) composed of olivine crystals having their a-axes randomly distributed in the horizontal plane. On the contrary, the measured lithospheric azimuthal anisotropy is small. This can be reconciled with body-wave observations made in the area that indicate a complex pattern of rapidly varying anisotropy. Below 200-250 km depth, that is below the petrologic lithosphere as revealed by xenolith analyses conducted in the area, the magnitude of the azimuthal anisotropy increases and would be compatible with a mantle containing 15-20% by volume of olivine crystals whose a-axes are coherently aligned in the N-NE direction. The alignment of the a-axes is off the direction of present-day absolute plate motion in either the no-net-rotation or hot-spot reference frame, currently N55-N60. We interpret this mismatch as evidence for a complex convective flow pattern of the mantle beneath the shield, which, by inference, is decoupled from the overlying lithosphere.

  15. Cytotoxicity and gene array analysis of alveolar epithelial A549 cells exposed to paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Suntres, Zacharias E

    2010-12-05

    Paraquat (PQ), a commonly used herbicide, is highly toxic to humans and animals. The primary injury occurs in the lung, where PQ is actively taken up by alveolar epithelial cells and consequently produces damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) via redox cycling. ROS have also been shown to induce expression of several early response genes and to activate transcription factors, which may contribute to the inflammatory response associated with PQ injury. In order to further elucidate the mechanism(s) of PQ injury, we investigated its effects on the cellular status and gene expression profile of immortalized human alveolar epithelial A549 cells in vitro. Incubation of cells with PQ resulted in concentration- and time-dependent PQ uptake, which correlated with increases in intracellular ROS levels and decreases in intracellular glutathione content, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell viability. Gene array analysis showed differential expression in response to PQ exposure over time, particularly increases in: (i) the expression of growth arrest and cell cycle-related genes (e.g. CDKN1A, DDIT3 GADD45A, GDF15, MDM2, EGR1, CASP10, CASP8) and (ii) the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (e.g. IL1A, IL6, IL18, NFKB1, SERPINE1), which correlated with increases in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-8, IL-6). These data suggest that uptake of PQ by A549 cells altered the cellular redox status and the expression of several early response genes, including the inflammatory response, all of which might contribute to the overall cytotoxicity of PQ. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural model of standard ultrasonic transducer array developed for FEM analysis of mechanical crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celmer, M; Opieliński, K J; Dopierała, M

    2018-02-01

    One of the reasons of distortions in ultrasonic imaging are crosstalk effects. They can be divided into groups according to the way of their formation. One of them is constituted by mechanical crosstalk, which is propagated by a construction of a multi-element array of piezoelectric transducers. When an individual transducer is excited, mechanical vibrations are transferred to adjacent construction components, thereby stimulating neighboring transducers to an undesired operation. In order to explore ways of the propagation of such vibrations, the authors developed the FEM model of the array of piezoelectric transducers designed for calculations in COMSOL Multiphysics software. Simulations of activating individual transducers and calculated electrical voltages appearing on transducers unstimulated intentionally, were performed in the time domain in order to assess the propagation velocity of different vibration modes through the construction elements. On this basis, conclusions were drawn in terms of the participation of various construction parts of the array of piezoelectric transducers in the process of creating the mechanical crosstalk. The elaborated FEM model allowed also to examine the ways aimed at reducing the transmission of mechanical crosstalk vibrations through the components of the array. Studies showed that correct cuts in the fasteners and the front layer improve the reduction of the mechanical crosstalk effect. The model can become a helpful tool in the process of design and modifications of manufactured ultrasonic arrays particularly in terms of mechanical crosstalk reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Two-Dimensional CMUT Linear Array for Underwater Applications: Directivity Analysis and Design Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs are one of the promising MEMS devices. This paper proposed an integrated vibration membrane structure to design a two-dimensional CMUT linear array for underwater applications. The operation frequencies for different medium have been calculated and simulated, which are 2.5 MHz in air and 0.7 MHz in water. The directivity analyses for the CMUT cell, subarray, and linear array have been provided. According to the product theorems, the directivity function of the complex array is obtained using a combination of the directivity functions of certain simple structures. Results show that the directivity of a CMUT cell is weak due to the small size, but the directivity of the designed linear array is very strong. Influential parameters of the linear array have been discussed, including the cell numbers, the adjacent distance, and the operation medium. In order to further suppress the side lobe interference and improve the resolution and the imaging quality of the imaging system, several weighting methods are used for optimization and comparison. Satisfactory side lobe suppression results are obtained, which can meet the actual requirements.

  18. Coherence length determination of meso-meso linked porphyrin arrays based on forward-backward pair trajectory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeongwon; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Dongho; Sim, Eunji

    2008-06-12

    We investigated the excitation energy transfer process of meso-meso linked zinc(II) porphyrin arrays using the on-the-fly filtered propagator path integral method. Details of the dynamics such as coherence length of a porphyrin array are estimated by analysis of the characteristics of forward-backward pair trajectories. Upon examination of the convergence of the reduced density matrix with respect to the subset of Hilbert space trajectories, we determine the number of porphyrin units that form collective coherent states, that is, the coherence length. Simulation results show that the coherence length of zinc(II) porphyrin arrays is up to 4 units, which agrees excellently with experimental observations. On the other hand, the energy bias provided by the energy-accepting 5,15-bisphenylethynylated zinc(II) porphyrin reduces the degree of coherence which becomes negligible for an array with more than for porphyrin units. Considering conformational inhomogeneity, we found that the experimentally determined coherence length is the result of electronic and environmental influence rather than the structure disorder. Temperature dependence is also discussed.

  19. CMUT array modeling through free acoustic CMUT modes and analysis of the fluid CMUT interface through Fourier transform methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnekleiv, Arne

    2005-12-01

    A method for analyzing capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays and arrays of elements composed of several CMUTs is proposed. It is based on a combination of a free acoustic mode description of an isolated CMUT, and the coupling of these modes to the fluid in which waves should be excited or detected through an impedance matrix that will depend on frequency. The parameters of the model describing the isolated CMUT is independent of frequency and excitation of neighbor CMUTs, whereas the acoustic impedance matrix describing the coupling to the fluid will depend on both the excitation of neighbor CMUTs and frequency. Hence, this splitting of the calculations has a potential for saving computer time. The analysis gives transfer functions from excitations that vary harmonically with time and space along the array surface to CMUT parameters as current, mode excitations, or output acoustic pressure. Based on this, the response of essentially arbitrary excitations of the CMUTs may be obtained. The method is used to analyze an infinitely large array of circular CMUTs on a rectangular grid. The CMUTs are assumed to be operating in collapsed mode. Sharp resonances are shown to occur that could be significantly damped by adding series resistors to the CMUTs or increasing the water viscosity.

  20. Array-CGH analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in 10 mL of amniotic fluid supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaire, Olav; Lu, Xin-Yan; Johnson, Kirby L; Jarrah, Zina; Stroh, Helene; Cowan, Janet M; Tantravahi, Umadevi; Bianchi, Diana W

    2007-07-01

    Previously, we showed that analysis of amniotic fluid (AF) supernatant cell-free fetal (cff) DNA using DNA microarrays (array-CGH) allows for detection of whole chromosome differences between test and reference DNA. Subsequent technical advances have increased both the yield and quality of extracted cffDNA. Here we determined whether array-CGH using smaller volumes of both fresh and frozen AF cffDNA could identify fetal aneuploidy. CffDNA was extracted from 10 mL of residual AF supernatant. The test AF samples (n = 10) included one with a normal karyotype, and nine with the following fetal aneuploidies: trisomies 13 (n = 1), 18 (n = 3), 21 (n = 2), trisomy 9 mosaicism (47,XX,+ 9[18]/46,XX[2]), triploidy (69,XXY) and Turner syndrome (45,X). Array-CGH using AF cffDNA from aneuploid fetuses, compared to euploid reference AF cffDNA, detected whole chromosome aneuploidy in 8 of 9 cases tested, including the case of trisomy 9 mosaicism. The case of triploidy was not detected. CffDNA extracted from 10 mL AF supernatant can be analyzed using array-CGH to correctly identify human chromosome abnormalities. This technology allows for rapid screening of AF samples for whole chromosomal changes by using routinely discarded supernatant, and may augment standard prenatal karyotyping techniques by providing additional molecular information.

  1. Ctrl+Shift+Enter mastering Excel array formulas a book about building efficient formulas, advanced formulas, and array formulas for data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Girvin, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Designed with Excel gurus in mind, this handbook outlines how to create formulas that can be used to solve everyday problems with a series of data values that standard Excel formulas cannot or would be too arduous to attempt. Beginning with an introduction to array formulas, this manual examines topics such as how they differ from ordinary formulas, the benefits and drawbacks of their use, functions that can and cannot handle array calculations, and array constants and functions. Among the practical applications surveyed include how to extract data from tables and unique lists, how to get resu

  2. Detection analysis of surface hydroxyl active sites and simulation calculation of the surface dissociation constants of aqueous diatomite suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Shu-Cui [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang, Zhi-Gang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Ji-Lin, E-mail: zjl@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Sun, De-Hui [Changchun Institute Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu, Gui-Xia, E-mail: liuguixia22@163.com [Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • To examine surface hydroxyl functional groups of the calcined diatomite by TGA-DSC, FTIR, and XPS. • To calculate the optimized log K{sub 1}, log K{sub 2} and log C values and the surface species distribution of each surface reactive site using ProtoFit and PHREEQC, respectively. - Abstract: The surface properties of the diatomite were investigated using nitrogen adsorption/deadsorption isotherms, TG-DSC, FTIR, and XPS, and surface protonation–deprotonation behavior was determined by continuous acid–base potentiometric titration technique. The diatomite sample with porous honeycomb structure has a BET specific surface area of 10.21 m{sup 2}/g and large numbers of surface hydroxyl functional groups (i.e. ≡Si-OH, ≡Fe-OH, and ≡Al-OH). These surface hydroxyls can be protonated or deprotonated depending on the pH of the suspension. The experimental potentiometric data in two different ionic strength solutions (0.1 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl) were fitted using ProtoFit GUI V2.1 program by applying diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites and minimizing the sum of squares between a dataset derivative function and a model derivative function. The optimized surface parameters (i.e. surface dissociation constants (log K{sub 1}, log K{sub 2}) and surface site concentrations (log C)) of the sample were obtained. Based on the optimized surface parameters, the surface species distribution was calculated using Program-free PHREEQC 3.1.2. Thus, this work reveals considerable new information about surface protonation–deprotonation processes and surface adsorptive behaviors of the diatomite, which helps us to effectively use the cheap and cheerful diatomite clay adsorbent.

  3. Manchester-Fothergill procedure versus vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension: an activity-based costing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Karen Ruben; Tolstrup, Cæcilie Krogsgaard; Lose, Gunnar; Klarskov, Niels

    2018-02-26

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common diagnosis that imposes high and ever-growing costs to the healthcare economy. Numerous surgical techniques for the treatment of POP exist, but there is no consensus about which is the ideal technique for treating apical prolapse. The aim of this study was to estimate hospital costs for the most frequently performed operation, vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension (VH) and the uterus-preserving Manchester-Fothergill procedure (MP), when including costs of postoperative activities. The study was based on a historical matched cohort including 590 patients (295 pairs) who underwent VH or MP during 2010-2014 owing to apical prolapse. The patients were matched according to age and preoperative prolapse stage and followed for a minimum of 20 months. Data were collected from four national registries and electronic medical records. Unit costs were obtained from relevant departments, hospital administration, calculated, or estimated by experts. The hospital perspective was applied for costing the resource use. Total costs for the first 20 months after operation were 3,514 € per VH patient versus 2,318 € per MP patient. The cost difference between the techniques was 898 € (95% confidence interval [CI]: 818-982) per patient when analyzing the primary operation only and 1,196 € (CI: 927-1,465) when including subsequent activities within 20 months (p costs can be reduced by one third if MP is preferred over VH in the treatment of apical prolapse.

  4. Transfemoral interfaces with vacuum assisted suspension comparison of gait, balance, and subjective analysis: ischial containment versus brimless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Jason T; Highsmith, M Jason

    2014-06-01

    Investigate the effect of a brimless interface design compared with ischial ramus containment (IRC) of interfaces when using vacuum-assisted suspension (VAS) on transfemoral amputees (TFAs). Randomized experimental crossover. Household, community, and clinic. Unilateral TFAs (N=12 enrolled, N=10 analyzed). Mean age: 42.9 years. Mean residual limb length: 60.3% of the sound side femur length. Participants' mean time as an amputee: 8.3 years and median AMP score: 43. (1) IRC VAS interface, and (2) brimless VAS interface. Average medial wall height for IRC interfaces was 0.7cm proximal to the distal-most aspect of the ischial tuberosity (IT). The medial wall on the brimless design was an average of 3.3cm distal to the distal-most aspect of the IT. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, limits of stability, four square step test, and subjective perception using the prosthetic evaluation questionnaire (PEQ). Step length was significantly improved towards the IRC (p=0.04), when calculating degree of asymmetry. Base of support was significantly narrowed toward the brimless (p=0.03). All subjective measures reached statistical significance in favor of improvement with the brimless design, compared to the IRC. The brimless design was equivalent to IRC in most gait and balance outcome measures. However, step length was more symmetrical toward the IRC while base of support was narrowed toward the brimless demonstrating mixed inconsistent performance changes. Further, the PEQ demonstrated significant subjective improvements in prosthetic related function and quality of life when participants used the brimless design. Brimless interface design may be a clinically viable choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Eddy Current Signal Analysis for Transmit-Receive Pancake Coil on ECT Array Probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyang Beom

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the eddy current signals come from a pair of transmit-receive (T/R) pancake coil on ECT array Probe are analyzed with the variations of the lift-of and of the distance between transmit and receive coils. To obtain the electromagnetic characteristics of the probes, the governing equation describing the eddy current problems is derived from Maxwell's equation and is solved using three-dimensional finite element method. Eddy current signals from T/R coils on ECT array probe have quite different characteristics compared with ones from impedance coil on rotating pancake coil probe. The results in this paper ran be helpful when the field eddy current signals from ECT array probe are evaluated

  6. A Comprehensive Review and Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Array Configurations under Partial Shaded Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramaprabha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of partial shading on energy output of different Solar Photovoltaic Array (SPVA configurations and to mitigate the losses faced in Solar Photovoltaic (SPV systems by incorporating bypass diodes. Owing to the practical difficulty of conducting experiments on varied array sizes, a generalized MATLAB M-code has been developed for any required array size, configuration, shading patterns, and number of bypass diodes. The proposed model which also includes the insolation-dependent shunt resistance can provide sufficient degree of precision without increasing the computational effort. All the configurations have been analyzed and comparative study is made for different random shading patterns to determine the configuration less susceptible to power losses under partial shading. Inferences have been drawn by testing several shading scenarios.

  7. Linearity Analysis on a Series-Split Capacitor Array for High-Speed SAR ADCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel Capacitor array structure for Successive Approximation Register (SAR ADC is proposed. This circuit efficiently utilizes charge recycling to achieve high-speed of operation and it can be applied to high-speed and low-to-medium-resolution SAR ADC. The parasitic effects and the static linearity performance, namely, the INL and DNL, of the proposed structure are theoretically analyzed and behavioral simulations are performed to demonstrate its effectiveness under those nonidealities. Simulation results show that to achieve the same conversion performance the proposed capacitor array structure can reduce the average power consumed from the reference ladder by 90% when compared to the binary-weighted splitting capacitor array structure.

  8. Metallomics approach to changes in element concentration during differentiation from fibroblasts into adipocytes by element array analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Nagasaki, Shu; Yawata, Ayako; Anan, Yasumi; Hamada, Koichi; Mizutani, Akihiro

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to establish an element array analysis that involves the simultaneous detection of all elements in cells and the display of changes in element concentration before and after a cellular event. In this study, we demonstrated changes in element concentration during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 mouse fibroblasts into adipocytes. This metallomics approach yielded unique information of cellular response to physiological and toxicological events.

  9. Molecular analysis of desmoid tumors with a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism array identifies new molecular candidate lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Erben, Philipp; Nowak, Daniel; Sauer, Christian; Ströbel, Philipp; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Hohenberger, Peter; Kasper, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Background: Desmoid tumors are neoplastic proliferations of connective tissues. The mutation status of the gene coding for catenin (cadherin-associated protein) beta 1 (CTNNB1) and trisomy 8 on the chromosomal level have been described to have prognostic relevance. Patients and Methods: In order to elucidate new molecular mechanisms underlying these tumors, we carried out a molecular analysis with a genome-wide human high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, in 9 patients. Resu...

  10. A critical analysis of air shower structure functions and size spectrum measurements with the NBU air shower array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, N.; Basak, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    A total of 11,000 showers in the size range 10 to the 4 to 10 to the 6 particles so far detected by the NBU air shower array has been analyzed using five different structure functions. A comparison of structure functions in terms: (1) of shower size; and (2) electron density at various core distances has been discussed to indicate the present status of structure functions in air shower analysis.

  11. Introducing GUt Low-Density Array (GULDA) - a validated approach for qPCR-based intestinal microbial community analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Licht, Tine Rask; Wilcks, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    . In the present study, we developed and validated a high-throughput real-time quantitative PCR-based analysis platform, termed 'GUt Low-Density Array' (GULDA). The platform was designed for simultaneous analysis of the change in the abundance of 31 different microbial 16S rRNA gene targets in fecal samples....... To demonstrate the applicability of GULDA, analysis of fecal samples obtained from six healthy infants at both 9 and 18 months of age was performed and showed a significant increase over time of the relative abundance of bacteria belonging to Clostridial cluster IV (Clostridia leptum group) and Bifidobacterium...

  12. Memristor-based programmable logic array (PLA) and analysis as Memristive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan-Hee; Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Seok-Man; Cho, Kyoungrok

    2013-05-01

    A Memristor theorized by Chua in 1971 has the potential to dramatically influence the way electronic circuits are designed. It is a two terminal device whose resistance state is based on the history of charge flow brought about as the result of the voltage being applied across its terminals and hence can be thought of as a special case of a reconfigurable resistor. Nanoscale devices using dense and regular fabrics such as Memristor cross-bar is promising new architecture for System-on-Chip (SoC) implementations in terms of not only the integration density that the technology can offer but also both improved performance and reduced power dissipation. Memristor has the capacity to switch between high and low resistance states in a cross-bar circuit configuration. The cross-bars are formed from an array of vertical conductive nano-wires cross a second array of horizontal conductive wires. Memristors are realized at the intersection of the two wires in the array through appropriate processing technology such that any particular wire in the vertical array can be connected to a wire in the horizontal array by switching the resistance of a particular intersection to a low state while other cross-points remain in a high resistance state. However the approach introduces a number of challenges. The lack of voltage gain prevents logic being cascaded and voltage level degradation affects robustness of the operation. Moreover the cross-bars introduce sneak current paths when two or more cross points are connected through the switched Memristor. In this paper, we propose Memristor-based programmable logic array (PLA) architecture and develop an analytical model to analyze the logic level on the memristive networks. The proposed PLA architecture has 12 inputs maximum and can be cascaded for more input variables with R(off)/R(on) ratio in the range from 55 to 160 of Memristors.

  13. Numerical analysis of ALADIN optics contamination due to outgassing of solar array materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markelov, G [Advanced Operations and Engineering Services (AOES) Group BV, Postbus 342, 2300 AH Leiden (Netherlands); Endemann, M [ESA-ESTEC/EOP-PAS, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Wernham, D [ESA-ESTEC/EOP-PAQ, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)], E-mail: Gennady.Markelov@aoes.com

    2008-03-01

    ALADIN is the very first space-based lidar that will provide global wind profile and a special attention has been paid to contamination of ALADIN optics. The paper presents a numerical approach, which is based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The method allows one to accurately compute collisions between various species, in the case under consideration, free-stream flow and outgassing from solar array materials. The collisions create a contamination flux onto the optics despite there is no line-of-sight from the solar arrays to the optics. Comparison of obtained results with a simple analytical model prediction shows that the analytical model underpredicts mass fluxes.

  14. Numerical analysis of ALADIN optics contamination due to outgassing of solar array materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markelov, G; Endemann, M; Wernham, D

    2008-01-01

    ALADIN is the very first space-based lidar that will provide global wind profile and a special attention has been paid to contamination of ALADIN optics. The paper presents a numerical approach, which is based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The method allows one to accurately compute collisions between various species, in the case under consideration, free-stream flow and outgassing from solar array materials. The collisions create a contamination flux onto the optics despite there is no line-of-sight from the solar arrays to the optics. Comparison of obtained results with a simple analytical model prediction shows that the analytical model underpredicts mass fluxes

  15. Analysis of directional dependence of the two-dimensional array of detectors 2D array seven 29 implications in the planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Melendez, R.; Seguro Fernandez, A.; Iborra Oquendo, M.; Urena Llinares, A.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of our study is to find correction factors dependent on the 2D array incidence angles, and to give account of the phenomenon, allowing the Planner to faithfully reproduce data and curves measured experimentally. (Author)

  16. Coherency analysis of accelerograms recorded by the UPSAR array during the 2004 Parkfield earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Kiureghian, Armen Der; Dreger, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variability of near-fault strong motions recorded by the US Geological Survey Parkfield Seismograph Array (UPSAR) during the 2004 Parkfield (California) earthquake is investigated. Behavior of the lagged coherency for two horizontal and the vertical components is analyzed by separately...

  17. Accuracy and Resolution Analysis of a Direct Resistive Sensor Array to FPGA Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oballe-Peinado, Óscar; Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Sánchez-Durán, José A.; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Hidalgo-López, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Resistive sensor arrays are formed by a large number of individual sensors which are distributed in different ways. This paper proposes a direct connection between an FPGA and a resistive array distributed in M rows and N columns, without the need of analog-to-digital converters to obtain resistance values in the sensor and where the conditioning circuit is reduced to the use of a capacitor in each of the columns of the matrix. The circuit allows parallel measurements of the N resistors which form each of the rows of the array, eliminating the resistive crosstalk which is typical of these circuits. This is achieved by an addressing technique which does not require external elements to the FPGA. Although the typical resistive crosstalk between resistors which are measured simultaneously is eliminated, other elements that have an impact on the measurement of discharge times appear in the proposed architecture and, therefore, affect the uncertainty in resistance value measurements; these elements need to be studied. Finally, the performance of different calibration techniques is assessed experimentally on a discrete resistor array, obtaining for a new model of calibration, a maximum relative error of 0.066% in a range of resistor values which correspond to a tactile sensor. PMID:26840321

  18. All-diamond functional surface micro-electrode arrays for brain-slice neural analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vahidpour, F.; Curley, L.; Biró, I.; McDonald, M.; Croux, D.; Pobedinskas, P.; Haenen, K.; Giugliano, M.; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Kavan, Ladislav; Nesládek, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 1532347. ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : impedance spectroscopy * microelectrode arrays * surface termination Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  19. Characterization of a patch-clamp microchannel array towards neuronal networks analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Massimo; Snakenborg, Detlef; Lopacinska, Joanna M.

    2010-01-01

    for simultaneous patch clamping of cultured cells or neurons in the same network. A disposable silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO2) chip with a microhole array was integrated in a microfluidic system for cell handling, perfusion and electrical recording. Fluidic characterization showed that our PC mu CA can work...

  20. Accuracy and Resolution Analysis of a Direct Resistive Sensor Array to FPGA Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Oballe-Peinado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistive sensor arrays are formed by a large number of individual sensors which are distributed in different ways. This paper proposes a direct connection between an FPGA and a resistive array distributed in M rows and N columns, without the need of analog-to-digital converters to obtain resistance values in the sensor and where the conditioning circuit is reduced to the use of a capacitor in each of the columns of the matrix. The circuit allows parallel measurements of the N resistors which form each of the rows of the array, eliminating the resistive crosstalk which is typical of these circuits. This is achieved by an addressing technique which does not require external elements to the FPGA. Although the typical resistive crosstalk between resistors which are measured simultaneously is eliminated, other elements that have an impact on the measurement of discharge times appear in the proposed architecture and, therefore, affect the uncertainty in resistance value measurements; these elements need to be studied. Finally, the performance of different calibration techniques is assessed experimentally on a discrete resistor array, obtaining for a new model of calibration, a maximum relative error of 0.066% in a range of resistor values which correspond to a tactile sensor.

  1. Accuracy and Resolution Analysis of a Direct Resistive Sensor Array to FPGA Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oballe-Peinado, Óscar; Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Sánchez-Durán, José A; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Hidalgo-López, José A

    2016-02-01

    Resistive sensor arrays are formed by a large number of individual sensors which are distributed in different ways. This paper proposes a direct connection between an FPGA and a resistive array distributed in M rows and N columns, without the need of analog-to-digital converters to obtain resistance values in the sensor and where the conditioning circuit is reduced to the use of a capacitor in each of the columns of the matrix. The circuit allows parallel measurements of the N resistors which form each of the rows of the array, eliminating the resistive crosstalk which is typical of these circuits. This is achieved by an addressing technique which does not require external elements to the FPGA. Although the typical resistive crosstalk between resistors which are measured simultaneously is eliminated, other elements that have an impact on the measurement of discharge times appear in the proposed architecture and, therefore, affect the uncertainty in resistance value measurements; these elements need to be studied. Finally, the performance of different calibration techniques is assessed experimentally on a discrete resistor array, obtaining for a new model of calibration, a maximum relative error of 0.066% in a range of resistor values which correspond to a tactile sensor.

  2. Mathematical analysis of the real time array PCR (RTA PCR) process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksman, Johan Frederik; Pierik, A.

    2012-01-01

    Real time array PCR (RTA PCR) is a recently developed biochemical technique that measures amplification curves (like with quantitative real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT PCR)) of a multitude of different templates in a sample. It combines two different methods in order to profit from the

  3. HPLC-photodiode array detection analysis of curcuminoids in Curcuma species indigenous to Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Rein; Windono, Tri; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Boersma, Ykelien L.; Koulman, Albert; Kayser, Oliver

    An optimized HPLC method with photodiode array detection was developed and applied to analyse the curcuminoids curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bis-demethoxycurcumin in rhizomes of Curcuma mangga Val &. v. Zijp, C. heyneana Val. & v. Zijp, C. aeruginosa Roxb. and C. soloensis Val. (Zingiberaceae),

  4. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl, A Hemphill; Stephanie, M Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students' learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension.

  5. Performance Analysis of Compact FD-MIMO Antenna Arrays in a Correlated Environment

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2017-03-06

    Full dimension multiple-input-multiple-output (FDMIMO) is one of the key technologies proposed in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for the fifth generation (5G) communication systems. The reason can be attributed to its ability to yield significant performance gains through the deployment of active antenna elements at the base station in the vertical as well as the conventional horizontal directions, enabling several elevation beamforming strategies. The resulting improvement in spectral efficiency largely depends on the orthogonality of the sub-channels constituting the FD-MIMO system. Accommodating a large number of antenna elements with sufficient spacing poses several constraints for practical implementation, making it imperative to consider compact antenna arrangements that minimize the overall channel correlation. Two such configurations considered in this work are the uniform linear array (ULA) and the uniform circular array (UCA) of antenna ports, where each port is mapped to a group of physical antenna elements arranged in the vertical direction. The generalized analytical expression for the spatial correlation function (SCF) for the UCA is derived, exploiting results on spherical harmonics and Legendre polynomials. The mutual coupling between antenna dipoles is accounted for and the resulting SCF is also presented. The second part of this work compares the spatial correlation and mutual information (MI) performance of the ULA and UCA configurations in the 3GPP 3D urban-macro and urban-micro cell scenarios, utilizing results from Random Matrix Theory (RMT) on the deterministic equivalent of the MI for the Kronecker channel model. Simulation results study the performance patterns of the two arrays as a function of several channel and array parameters and identify applications and environments suitable for the deployment of each array.

  6. CGH and SNP array using DNA extracted from fixed cytogenetic preparations and long-term refrigerated bone marrow specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKinnon Ruth N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of nucleic acids is limited by the availability of archival specimens and the quality and amount of the extracted material. Archived cytogenetic preparations are stored in many laboratories and are a potential source of total genomic DNA for array karyotyping and other applications. Array CGH using DNA from fixed cytogenetic preparations has been described, but it is not known whether it can be used for SNP arrays. Diagnostic bone marrow specimens taken during the assessment of hematological malignancies are also a potential source of DNA, but it is generally assumed that DNA must be extracted, or the specimen frozen, within a day or two of collection, to obtain DNA suitable for further analysis. We have assessed DNA extracted from these materials for both SNP array and array CGH. Results We show that both SNP array and array CGH can be performed on genomic DNA extracted from cytogenetic specimens stored in Carnoy's fixative, and from bone marrow which has been stored unfrozen, at 4°C, for at least 36 days. We describe a procedure for extracting a usable concentration of total genomic DNA from cytogenetic suspensions of low cellularity. Conclusions The ability to use these archival specimens for DNA-based analysis increases the potential for retrospective genetic analysis of clinical specimens. Fixed cytogenetic preparations and long-term refrigerated bone marrow both provide DNA suitable for array karyotyping, and may be suitable for a wider range of analytical procedures.

  7. COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS IN DEEP SPITZER INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA IMAGES: DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of the data reduction and analysis procedures that have been employed in our previous studies of spatial fluctuation of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) using deep Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations. The self-calibration we apply removes a strong instrumental signal from the fluctuations that would otherwise corrupt the results. The procedures and results for masking bright sources and modeling faint sources down to levels set by the instrumental noise are presented. Various tests are performed to demonstrate that the resulting power spectra of these fields are not dominated by instrumental or procedural effects. These tests indicate that the large-scale (∼>30') fluctuations that remain in the deepest fields are not directly related to the galaxies that are bright enough to be individually detected. We provide the parameterization of these power spectra in terms of separate instrument noise, shot noise, and power-law components. We discuss the relationship between fluctuations measured at different wavelengths and depths, and the relations between constraints on the mean intensity of the CIB and its fluctuation spectrum. Consistent with growing evidence that the ∼1-5 μm mean intensity of the CIB may not be as far above the integrated emission of resolved galaxies as has been reported in some analyses of DIRBE and IRTS observations, our measurements of spatial fluctuations of the CIB intensity indicate the mean emission from the objects producing the fluctuations is quite low (∼>1 nW m -2 sr -1 at 3-5 μm), and thus consistent with current γ-ray absorption constraints. The source of the fluctuations may be high-z Population III objects, or a more local component of very low luminosity objects with clustering properties that differ from the resolved galaxies. Finally, we discuss the prospects of the upcoming space-based surveys to directly measure the epochs inhabited by the populations producing these

  8. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations in Deep Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Images: Data Processing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of the data reduction and analysis procedures that have been employed in our previous studies of spatial fluctuation of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) using deep Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations. The self-calibration we apply removes a strong instrumental signal from the fluctuations that would otherwise corrupt the results. The procedures and results for masking bright sources and modeling faint sources down to levels set by the instrumental noise are presented. Various tests are performed to demonstrate that the resulting power spectra of these fields are not dominated by instrumental or procedural effects. These tests indicate that the large-scale (gsim30') fluctuations that remain in the deepest fields are not directly related to the galaxies that are bright enough to be individually detected. We provide the parameterization of these power spectra in terms of separate instrument noise, shot noise, and power-law components. We discuss the relationship between fluctuations measured at different wavelengths and depths, and the relations between constraints on the mean intensity of the CIB and its fluctuation spectrum. Consistent with growing evidence that the ~1-5 μm mean intensity of the CIB may not be as far above the integrated emission of resolved galaxies as has been reported in some analyses of DIRBE and IRTS observations, our measurements of spatial fluctuations of the CIB intensity indicate the mean emission from the objects producing the fluctuations is quite low (gsim1 nW m-2 sr-1 at 3-5 μm), and thus consistent with current γ-ray absorption constraints. The source of the fluctuations may be high-z Population III objects, or a more local component of very low luminosity objects with clustering properties that differ from the resolved galaxies. Finally, we discuss the prospects of the upcoming space-based surveys to directly measure the epochs inhabited by the populations producing these source

  9. Design, fabrication, and calibration of a cryogenic search-coil array for harmonic analysis of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.I.; Barale, P.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Nelson, D.H.; O'Neill, J.W.; Schafer, R.V.; Taylor, C.E.

    1987-09-01

    A cryogenic search-coil array has been fabricated at LBL for harmonic error analysis of SSC model quadrupoles. It consists of three triplets of coils; the center-coil triplet is 10 cm long, and the end coil triplets are 70 cm long. Design objectives are a high bucking ratio for the dipole and quadrupole signals and utility at cryogenic operating currents (∼6 kA) with sufficient sensitivity for use at room-temperature currents (∼10 A). the design and fabrication are described. Individual coils are mechanically measured to +-5 μm, and their magnetic areas measured to 0.05%. A computer program has been developed to predict the quadrupole and dipole bucking ratios from the mechanical and magnetic measurements. The calibration procedure and accuracy of the array are specified. Results of measurements of SSC model quadrupoles are presented. 1 ref., 4 figs

  10. Association between chromosomal aberration of COX8C and tethered spinal cord syndrome: array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-jiong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copy number variations have been found in patients with neural tube abnormalities. In this study, we performed genome-wide screening using high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization in three children with tethered spinal cord syndrome and two healthy parents. Of eight copy number variations, four were non-polymorphic. These non-polymorphic copy number variations were associated with Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes, and microcephaly. Gene function enrichment analysis revealed that COX8C, a gene associated with metabolic disorders of the nervous system, was located in the copy number variation region of Patient 1. Our results indicate that array-based comparative genomic hybridization can be used to diagnose tethered spinal cord syndrome. Our results may help determine the pathogenesis of tethered spinal cord syndrome and prevent occurrence of this disease.

  11. Magnetic Suspension Technology Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keckler, C.R.; Groom, N.J.; Britcher, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to identify the state of magnetic suspension technology in such areas as rotating systems, pointing of experiments or subsystems, payload isolation, and superconducting materials, a workshop on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, on 2-4 Feb. 1988. The workshop included five technical sessions in which a total of 24 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of pointing, isolation, and measurement, rotating systems, modeling and control, and superconductors. A list of attendees is provided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report

  12. The Texcoco Seismic Array: Analysis of the Seismic Movement in the Deep Sediments of Mexico Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H.; Cardenas-Soto, M.; Lomnitz, C.

    2007-05-01

    The seismic movement in the Lake Zone of the Mexico Basin is characterized by long durations and late energy arrivals; many efforts have been made to find the origin of these late waves. In 1997 the Texcoco Seismic Array (TXC) was installed in the former Lake of Texcoco, in the northeastern part of Mexico Basin. It is a natural reserve formed by the same lacustrine clays of the Lake Zone in Mexico City, however we consider TXC as a virgin site as there are no buildings near, and there is almost no human activity. We analyzed 7 earthquakes recorded at TXC in two instrumental arrays, to identify late energy arrivals near the fundamental period and we also analyzed these pulses with F-K method to estimate the phase velocity and its origin.

  13. Simultaneous Profiling of DNA Mutation and Methylation by Melting Analysis Using Magnetoresistive Biosensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Dahl, Christina; Guldberg, Per; Dufva, Martin; Wang, Shan X; Hansen, Mikkel F

    2017-09-26

    Epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are gaining increasing interest as complementary information to DNA mutations for cancer diagnostics and prognostics. We introduce a method to simultaneously profile DNA mutation and methylation events for an array of sites with single site specificity. Genomic (mutation) or bisulphite-treated (methylation) DNA is amplified using nondiscriminatory primers, and the amplicons are then hybridized to a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor array followed by melting curve measurements. The GMR biosensor platform offers scalable multiplexed detection of DNA hybridization, which is insensitive to temperature variation. The melting curve approach further enhances the assay specificity and tolerance to variations in probe length. We demonstrate the utility of this method by simultaneously profiling five mutation and four methylation sites in human melanoma cell lines. The method correctly identified all mutation and methylation events and further provided quantitative assessment of methylation density validated by bisulphite pyrosequencing.

  14. Electron photoemission in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays: analysis of collective resonances and embedding effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Uskov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically study the characteristics of photoelectron emission in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. Nanoparticles are partially embedded in a semiconductor, forming Schottky barriers at metal/semiconductor interfaces through which photoelectrons can tunnel from the nanoparticle into the semico......-based photodetectors and photovoltaic devices. The results may provide clues to designing an experiment where the contributions of surface and volume photoelectric effects to the overall photocurrent would be defined....

  15. Transcriptome analysis of exosome-compromised human cells using high-density tiling arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Heick

    The extent of RNA degradation in the nucleus has traditionally been underestimated. However, all major RNA species are synthesized, processed and can be degraded in this compartment and consequently an enormous amount of nucleosides are turned over and recycled. The RNA exosome, a multisubunit co......) tiling array that covers discrete regions from different chromosomes to represent a range of gene content and exonic/nonexonic conservation grades of the human genome....

  16. MIMO Performance and Decoupling Network: Analysis of Uniform Rectangular array Using Correlated-Based Stochastic Models

    OpenAIRE

    Obour Agyekum Kwame O-B; Maxwell Oppong Afriyie; Paul Oswald Kwasi Anane; Affum Emmanuel Ampoma; Matthew Seddoh Akatey

    2017-01-01

    We explore the dependency of MIMO performance on azimuthal spread (AS) and elevation spread (ES) using correlated-based stochastic models (CBSMs). We represent the transmitter as uniform rectangular array (URA), and derive an analytical function for spatial correlation, in terms of maximum power when phase gradient of the incident wave follows a Student’s t-distribution. We model the correlated-based stochastic MIMO system to investigate the usefulness of the analytical function, under the co...

  17. Design and Analysis of an Axisymmetric Phased Array Fed Gregorian Reflector System for Limited Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    applications. For space applications, attitude control systems can provide good angular control of the antenna aperture with small residual angular...25, 2012. [7] A. Babuscia, M. Van de Loo, Q. J. Wei, S. Pan, S. Mohan, and S. Seager, Inflatable Antenna for CubeSat : Fabrication, Deployment and...and Arrays for Interplanetary Communication using CubeSats and SmallSats, 2015 IEEE Aerospace Conference, pp. 1-9.

  18. DNA micro array analysis of yeast global genome expression in response to ELF-MF exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kyoh, B.

    2002-01-01

    There is wide spread public concern over the possible health risk of ELF-MF. Electromagnetic fields may produce a variety of effects in several biological systems, including the elevation of cancer risk and reduction of cell growth. Epidemiological studies have shown weak correlations between the exposure to ELF and the incidence of several cancers, but negative studies have also been reported. Moreover, there are some reports that basic biological events such as the cell cycle and DNA replication were affected by exposure to MF. However, to date the molecular mechanism of the MF effect on living organism is not clear. In this study, we used yeast DNA micro array to examine the transcriptional profile of all genes in response to ELF-MF. A few years ago it was difficult to carry out a global gene expression study to identify important genes regarding ELF-MF, however, today DNA micro arrays allow gene regulation in response to high density ELF-MF exposure. Thus we used micro array to analyze changes in mRNA abundance during ELF-MF exposure

  19. Analysis of arrayed nanocapacitor formed on nanorods by flow-rate interruption atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bo-Cheng; Ku, Ching-Shun; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Chakroborty, Subhendu; Wu, Albert T.

    2017-12-01

    Flow-rate interruption (FRI) atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was adopted to fabricate AZO/Al2O3/AZO thin film on a ZnO nanorod array template at low temperature. The high quality amorphous dielectric Al2O3 layer was deposited at 50 °C. The template with an average of 0.73 μm in length was made by a simple hydrothermal method on a c-plane sapphire with an AZO seed layer. Using Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were served as a mask to form vertical and well-aligned ZnO nanostructures. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show ALD to have achieved good step coverage and thickness control in the thin films structure coating. The capacitance density of the arrayed template nanocapacitor increased more than 100% than those of the thin film capacitor at an applied frequency of 10 kHz. These results suggest that the ZnO-arrayed template could enhance energy storage capability by providing significant surface area. This structure provides a concept for high surface-area nanocapacitor applications.

  20. Different effects of the probe summarization algorithms PLIER and RMA on high-level analysis of Affymetrix exon arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yi; He, Fei; Chen, Yuchen

    2010-04-28

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism that increases protein diversity and functionality in higher eukaryotes. Affymetrix exon arrays are a commercialized platform used to detect alternative splicing on a genome-wide scale. Two probe summarization algorithms, PLIER (Probe Logarithmic Intensity Error) and RMA (Robust Multichip Average), are commonly used to compute gene-level and exon-level expression values. However, a systematic comparison of these two algorithms on their effects on high-level analysis of the arrays has not yet been reported. In this study, we showed that PLIER summarization led to over-estimation of gene-level expression changes, relative to exon-level expression changes, in two-group comparisons. Consequently, it led to detection of substantially more skipped exons on up-regulated genes, as well as substantially more included (i.e., non-skipped) exons on down-regulated genes. In contrast, this bias was not observed for RMA-summarized data. By using a published human tissue dataset, we compared the tissue-specific expression and splicing detected by Affymetrix exon arrays with those detected based on expressed sequence databases. We found the tendency of PLIER was not supported by the expressed sequence data. We showed that the tendency of PLIER in detection of alternative splicing is likely caused by a technical bias in the approach, rather than a biological bias. Moreover, we observed abnormal summarization results when using the PLIER algorithm, indicating that mathematical problems, such as numerical instability, may affect PLIER performance.

  1. Crewbot Suspension Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan A.

    2005-01-01

    Planetary Surface Robot Work Crews (RWC) represent a new class of construction robots for future deployment in planetary exploration. Rovers currently being used for the RWC platform lack the load carrying capabilities required in regular work. Two new rovers, dubbed CrewBots, being designed in JPL's Planetary Robotics Lab specifically for RWC applications greatly increase the load carrying capabilities of the platform. A major component of the rover design was the design of the rocker type suspension, which increases rover mobility. The design of the suspension for the Crewbots departed from the design of recent rovers. While many previous rovers have used internal bevel gear differentials, the increased load requirements of the Crewbots calls for a more robust system. The solution presented is the use of an external modified three-bar, slider-linkage, rocker-style suspension that increases the moment arm of the differential. The final product is a suspension system capable of supporting the extreme loading cases the RWC platform presents, without consuming a large portion of the Crewbots' internal space.

  2. Array CGH Analysis and Developmental Delay: A Diagnostic Tool for Neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, F; Xu, J; Jung, J; Prasad, C

    2013-11-01

    Developmental delay occurs in 1-3% of the population, with unknown etiology in approximately 50% of cases. Initial genetic work up for developmental delay previously included chromosome analysis and subtelomeric FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) has emerged as a tool to detect genetic copy number changes and uniparental disomy and is the most sensitive test in providing etiological diagnosis in developmental delay. aCGH allows for the provision of prognosis and recurrence risks, improves access to resources, helps limit further investigations and may alter medical management in many cases. aCGH has led to the delineation of novel genetic syndromes associated with developmental delay. An illustrative case of a 31-year-old man with long standing global developmental delay and recently diagnosed 4q21 deletion syndrome with a deletion of 20.8 Mb genomic interval is provided. aCGH is now recommended as a first line test in children and adults with undiagnosed developmental delay and congenital anomalies. Puce d'hybridation génomique comparative et retard de développement : un outil diagnostic pour les neurologues. Le retard de développement survient chez 1 à 3% de la population et son étiologie est inconnue chez à peu près 50% des cas. L'évaluation génétique initiale pour un retard de développement incluait antérieurement une analyse chromosomique et une analyse par FISH (hybridation in situ en fluorescence) de régions subtélomériques. La puce d'hybridation génomique comparative (CGHa) est devenue un outil de détection des changements du nombre de copies géniques ainsi que de la disomie uniparentale et elle est le test le plus sensible pour fournir un diagnostic étiologique dans le retard de développement. Le CGHa permet d'offrir un pronostic et un risque de récurrence, améliore l'accès aux ressources, aide à limiter les évaluations et peut modifier le traitement médical dans bien des cas

  3. Fiber array based hyperspectral Raman imaging for chemical selective analysis of malaria-infected red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brückner, Michael [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Becker, Katja [Justus Liebig University Giessen, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Popp, Jürgen [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute for Physical Chemistry, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Abbe Centre of Photonics, 07745 Jena (Germany); Frosch, Torsten, E-mail: torsten.frosch@uni-jena.de [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute for Physical Chemistry, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Abbe Centre of Photonics, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-09-24

    A new setup for Raman spectroscopic wide-field imaging is presented. It combines the advantages of a fiber array based spectral translator with a tailor-made laser illumination system for high-quality Raman chemical imaging of sensitive biological samples. The Gaussian-like intensity distribution of the illuminating laser beam is shaped by a square-core optical multimode fiber to a top-hat profile with very homogeneous intensity distribution to fulfill the conditions of Koehler. The 30 m long optical fiber and an additional vibrator efficiently destroy the polarization and coherence of the illuminating light. This homogeneous, incoherent illumination is an essential prerequisite for stable quantitative imaging of complex biological samples. The fiber array translates the two-dimensional lateral information of the Raman stray light into separated spectral channels with very high contrast. The Raman image can be correlated with a corresponding white light microscopic image of the sample. The new setup enables simultaneous quantification of all Raman spectra across the whole spatial area with very good spectral resolution and thus outperforms other Raman imaging approaches based on scanning and tunable filters. The unique capabilities of the setup for fast, gentle, sensitive, and selective chemical imaging of biological samples were applied for automated hemozoin analysis. A special algorithm was developed to generate Raman images based on the hemozoin distribution in red blood cells without any influence from other Raman scattering. The new imaging setup in combination with the robust algorithm provides a novel, elegant way for chemical selective analysis of the malaria pigment hemozoin in early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. - Highlights: • Raman hyperspectral imaging allows for chemical selective analysis of biological samples with spatial heterogeneity. • A homogeneous, incoherent illumination is essential for reliable

  4. Fiber array based hyperspectral Raman imaging for chemical selective analysis of malaria-infected red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brückner, Michael; Becker, Katja; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    A new setup for Raman spectroscopic wide-field imaging is presented. It combines the advantages of a fiber array based spectral translator with a tailor-made laser illumination system for high-quality Raman chemical imaging of sensitive biological samples. The Gaussian-like intensity distribution of the illuminating laser beam is shaped by a square-core optical multimode fiber to a top-hat profile with very homogeneous intensity distribution to fulfill the conditions of Koehler. The 30 m long optical fiber and an additional vibrator efficiently destroy the polarization and coherence of the illuminating light. This homogeneous, incoherent illumination is an essential prerequisite for stable quantitative imaging of complex biological samples. The fiber array translates the two-dimensional lateral information of the Raman stray light into separated spectral channels with very high contrast. The Raman image can be correlated with a corresponding white light microscopic image of the sample. The new setup enables simultaneous quantification of all Raman spectra across the whole spatial area with very good spectral resolution and thus outperforms other Raman imaging approaches based on scanning and tunable filters. The unique capabilities of the setup for fast, gentle, sensitive, and selective chemical imaging of biological samples were applied for automated hemozoin analysis. A special algorithm was developed to generate Raman images based on the hemozoin distribution in red blood cells without any influence from other Raman scattering. The new imaging setup in combination with the robust algorithm provides a novel, elegant way for chemical selective analysis of the malaria pigment hemozoin in early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. - Highlights: • Raman hyperspectral imaging allows for chemical selective analysis of biological samples with spatial heterogeneity. • A homogeneous, incoherent illumination is essential for reliable

  5. Homogenization for rigid suspensions with random velocity-dependent interfacial forces

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2014-12-01

    We study suspensions of solid particles in a viscous incompressible fluid in the presence of random velocity-dependent interfacial forces. The flow at a small Reynolds number is modeled by the Stokes equations, coupled with the motion of rigid particles arranged in a periodic array. The objective is to perform homogenization for the given suspension and obtain an equivalent description of a homogeneous (effective) medium, the macroscopic effect of the interfacial forces and the effective viscosity are determined using the analysis on a periodicity cell. In particular, the solutions uωε to a family of problems corresponding to the size of microstructure ε and describing suspensions of rigid particles with random surface forces imposed on the interface, converge H1-weakly as ε→0 a.s. to a solution of a Stokes homogenized problem, with velocity dependent body forces. A corrector to a homogenized solution that yields a strong H1-convergence is also determined. The main technical construction is built upon the Γ-convergence theory. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  6. The Psychological Challenges of Replacing Conventional Karyotyping with Genomic SNP Array Analysis in Prenatal Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Riedijk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant couples tend to prefer a maximum of information about the health of their fetus. Therefore, we implemented whole genome microarray instead of conventional karyotyping (CK for all indications for prenatal diagnosis (PND. The array detects more clinically relevant anomalies, including early onset disorders, not related to the indication and more genetic anomalies of yet unquantifiable risk, so-called susceptibility loci (SL for mainly neurodevelopmental disorders. This manuscript highlights the psychological challenges in prenatal genetic counselling when using the array and provides counselling suggestions. First, we suggest that pre-test decision counselling should emphasize deliberation about what pregnant couples wish to learn about the future health of their fetus more than information about possible outcomes. Second, pregnant couples need support in dealing with SL. Therefore, in order to consider the SL in a proportionate perspective, the presence of phenotypes associated with SL in the family, the incidence of a particular SL in control populations and in postnatally ascertained patients needs highlighting during post-test genetic counselling. Finally, the decision that couples need to make about the course of their pregnancy is more complicated when the expected phenotype is variable and not quantifiable. Therefore, during post-test psychological counseling, couples should concretize the options of continuing and ending their pregnancy; all underlying feelings and thoughts should be made explicit, as well as the couple’s resources, in order to attain adequate decision-making. As such, pre- and post-test counselling aids pregnant couples in handling the uncertainties that may accompany offering a broader scope of genetic PND using the array.

  7. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization analysis reveals distinct amplifications in osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Tsz-Kwong; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Lu, Xin-Yan; Jaeweon, Kim; Perlaky, Laszlo; Harris, Charles P; Shah, Shishir; Ladanyi, Marc; Gorlick, Richard; Lau, Ching C

    2004-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone neoplasm of children and young adults. It is characterized by extremely complex karyotypes and high frequency of chromosomal amplifications. Currently, only the histological response (degree of necrosis) to therapy represent gold standard for predicting the outcome in a patient with non-metastatic osteosarcoma at the time of definitive surgery. Patients with lower degree of necrosis have a higher risk of relapse and poor outcome even after chemotherapy and complete resection of the primary tumor. Therefore, a better understanding of the underlying molecular genetic events leading to tumor initiation and progression could result in the identification of potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We used a genome-wide screening method – array based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to identify DNA copy number changes in 48 patients with osteosarcoma. We applied fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to validate some of amplified clones in this study. Clones showing gains (79%) were more frequent than losses (66%). High-level amplifications and homozygous deletions constitute 28.6% and 3.8% of tumor genome respectively. High-level amplifications were present in 238 clones, of which about 37% of them showed recurrent amplification. Most frequently amplified clones were mapped to 1p36.32 (PRDM16), 6p21.1 (CDC5L, HSPCB, NFKBIE), 8q24, 12q14.3 (IFNG), 16p13 (MGRN1), and 17p11.2 (PMP22 MYCD, SOX1,ELAC27). We validated some of the amplified clones by FISH from 6p12-p21, 8q23-q24, and 17p11.2 amplicons. Homozygous deletions were noted for 32 clones and only 7 clones showed in more than one case. These 7 clones were mapped to 1q25.1 (4 cases), 3p14.1 (4 cases), 13q12.2 (2 cases), 4p15.1 (2 cases), 6q12 (2 cases), 6q12 (2 cases) and 6q16.3 (2 cases). This study clearly demonstrates the utility of array CGH in defining high-resolution DNA copy number changes and refining amplifications. The resolution of array CGH

  8. Comparative Analysis of Linear and Nonlinear Pattern Synthesis of Hemispherical Antenna Array Using Adaptive Evolutionary Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Subhashini

    2014-01-01

    synthesis is termed as the variation in the element excitation amplitude and nonlinear synthesis is process of variation in element angular position. Both ADE and AFA are a high-performance stochastic evolutionary algorithm used to solve N-dimensional problems. These methods are used to determine a set of parameters of antenna elements that provide the desired radiation pattern. The effectiveness of the algorithms for the design of conformal antenna array is shown by means of numerical results. Comparison with other methods is made whenever possible. The results reveal that nonlinear synthesis, aided by the discussed techniques, provides considerable enhancements compared to linear synthesis.

  9. Measurement and analysis of flow wall shear stress in an interior subchannel of triangular array rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakori-Monazah, M.R.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-08-01

    A simulated model of triangular array rods with pitch to diameter ratio of 1.10 (as a test section) and air as the fluid flow was used to study the LMFBR hydraulic parameters. The wall shear stress distribution around the rod periphery, friction factors, static pressure distributions and turbulence intensity corresponding to various Reynolds numbers ranging from 4140 to 36170 in the central subchannel were measured. Various approaches for measurement of wall shear stress were compared. The measurement was performed using the Preston tube technique with the probe outside diameter equal to 0.014 in

  10. Unifying Suspension and Granular flows near Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGiuli Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of dense flows of hard particles are singular as one approaches the jamming threshold where flow ceases, both for granular flows dominated by inertia, and for over-damped suspensions. Concomitantly, the lengthscale characterizing velocity correlations appears to diverge at jamming. Here we review a theoretical framework that gives a scaling description of stationary flows of frictionless particles. Our analysis applies both to suspensions and inertial flows of hard particles. We report numerical results in support of the theory, and show the phase diagram that results when friction is added, delineating the regime of validity of the frictionless theory.

  11. Analysis of an array of piezoelectric energy harvesters connected in series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H C; Wu, P H; Lien, I C; Shu, Y C

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the electrical response of a series connection of piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) attached to various interface electronics, including standard and parallel-/series-SSHI (synchronized switch harvesting on inductor) circuits. In contrast to the case of parallel connection of multiple oscillators, the system response is determined by the matrix formulation of charging on a capacitance. In addition, the adoption of an equivalent impedance approach shows that the capacitance matrix can be explicitly expressed in terms of the relevant load impedance. A model problem is proposed for performance evaluation of harvested power under different choices of interface circuits. The result demonstrates that the parallel-SSHI array system exhibits higher power output with moderate bandwidth improvement, while the series-SSHI system delivers a pronounced wideband at the cost of peak harvested power. The standard array system shows a mild ability in power harvesting between these two SSHI systems. Finally, comparisons between the series and parallel connection of oscillators are made, showing the striking contrast of these two cases. (paper)

  12. Microdeletion and microduplication analysis of chinese conotruncal defects patients with targeted array comparative genomic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Gong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to develop a reliable targeted array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH to detect microdeletions and microduplications in congenital conotruncal defects (CTDs, especially on 22q11.2 region, and for some other chromosomal aberrations, such as 5p15-5p, 7q11.23 and 4p16.3. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with CTDs, including 12 pulmonary atresia (PA, 10 double-outlet right ventricle (DORV, 3 transposition of great arteries (TGA, 1 tetralogy of Fallot (TOF and one ventricular septal defect (VSD, were enrolled in this study and screened for pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs, using Agilent 8 x 15K targeted aCGH. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was performed to test the molecular results of targeted aCGH. RESULTS: Four of 27 patients (14.8% had 22q11.2 CNVs, 1 microdeletion and 3 microduplications. qPCR test confirmed the microdeletion and microduplication detected by the targeted aCGH. CONCLUSION: Chromosomal abnormalities were a well-known cause of multiple congenital anomalies (MCA. This aCGH using arrays with high-density coverage in the targeted regions can detect genomic imbalances including 22q11.2 and other 10 kinds CNVs effectively and quickly. This approach has the potential to be applied to detect aneuploidy and common microdeletion/microduplication syndromes on a single microarray.

  13. Numerical Analysis of CNC Milling Chatter Using Embedded Miniature MEMS Microphone Array System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Li Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly common use of industrial automation for mass production, there are many computer numerical control (CNC machine tools that require the collection of data from intelligent sensors in order to analyze their processing quality. In general, for high speed rotating machines, an accelerometer can be attached on the spindle to collect the data from the detected vibration of the CNC. However, due to their cost, accelerometers have not been widely adopted for use with typical CNC machine tools. This study sought to develop an embedded miniature MEMS microphone array system (Radius 5.25 cm, 8 channels to discover the vibration source of the CNC from spatial phase array processing. The proposed method utilizes voice activity detection (VAD to distinguish between the presence and absence of abnormal noise in the pre-stage, and utilizes the traditional direction of arrival method (DOA via multiple signal classification (MUSIC to isolate the spatial orientation of the noise source in post-processing. In the numerical simulation, the non-interfering noise source location is calibrated in the anechoic chamber, and is tested with real milling processing in the milling machine. As this results in a high background noise level, the vibration sound source is more accurate in the presented energy gradation graphs as compared to the traditional MUSIC method.

  14. Information theory analysis of sensor-array imaging systems for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.; Self, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    Information theory is used to assess the performance of sensor-array imaging systems, with emphasis on the performance obtained with image-plane signal processing. By electronically controlling the spatial response of the imaging system, as suggested by the mechanism of human vision, it is possible to trade-off edge enhancement for sensitivity, increase dynamic range, and reduce data transmission. Computational results show that: signal information density varies little with large variations in the statistical properties of random radiance fields; most information (generally about 85 to 95 percent) is contained in the signal intensity transitions rather than levels; and performance is optimized when the OTF of the imaging system is nearly limited to the sampling passband to minimize aliasing at the cost of blurring, and the SNR is very high to permit the retrieval of small spatial detail from the extensively blurred signal. Shading the lens aperture transmittance to increase depth of field and using a regular hexagonal sensor-array instead of square lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation also improves the signal information density up to about 30 percent at high SNRs.

  15. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana, E-mail: viviana.scognamiglio@mlib.ic.cnr.it [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano [Biosensor S.r.l. - Via degli Olmetti 44 00060 Formello, Rome (Italy); Buonasera, Katia [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche - Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Rome (Italy); Giardi, Maria Teresa [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 {mu}M and 4.5 {mu}M, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 {mu}M and 35 {mu}M respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  16. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana; Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano; Buonasera, Katia; Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. ► The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. ► Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. ► The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 μM and 4.5 μM, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 μM and 35 μM respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  17. Model-based analysis of multiple electrode array stimulation for epiretinal visual prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jerel K.; Grill, Warren M.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Epiretinal stimulation, which uses an array of electrodes implanted on the inner retinal surface to relay a representation of the visual scene to the neuronal elements of the retina, has seen considerable success. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of multi-electrode stimulation on the patterns of neural excitation in a computational model of epiretinal stimulation. Approach. A computational model of retinal ganglion cells was modified to represent the morphology of human retinal ganglion cells and validated against published experimental data. The ganglion cell model was then combined with a model of an axon of the nerve fiber layer to produce a population model of the inner retina. The response of the population of model neurons to epiretinal stimulation with a multi-electrode array was quantified across a range of electrode geometries using a novel means to quantify the model response—the minimum radius circle bounding the activated model neurons as a proxy for the evoked phosphene. Main results. Multi-electrode stimulation created unique phosphenes, such that the number of potential phosphenes can far exceed the number of electrode contacts. Significance. The ability to exploit the spatial and temporal interactions of stimulation may be critical to improvements in the performance of epiretinal prostheses.

  18. Performance analysis of high frequency single-site-location antenna arrays using numerical electromagnetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiantarelli, Harry T.

    1990-09-01

    Electronic support measures (ESM) systems play an increasingly important role in modern warfare and can influence the outcome of a military engagement. The application of ESM can be extended to anti-guerrilla and anti-drug operations where law enforcement agencies can exploit the fact that their presence is inducing the outlaw to depend more on radio communications to coordinate their activities. When a propagation path of no more than one reflection at the ionosphere (1-hop) can be assumed, position of an HF emitter can be determined by a single observing site using vertical triangulation, provided that the height of the ionosphere at the point where the radio wave is reflected, can be determined. This technique is known as high frequency direction finding single-site-location (HFDF SSL). This thesis analyzes the HFDF SSL error in measuring the direction of arrival of the signal, how this error is generated by the antenna array and its effect on emitter location. The characteristics of the two antenna arrays used by a specific HFDF SSL system that implements the phase-interferometer techniques were studied using electromagnetic modeling.

  19. Impedance spectroscopy analysis of human odorant binding proteins immobilized on nanopore arrays for biochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanli; Zhang, Diming; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Yixuan; Luo, Senbiao; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qingjun

    2016-05-15

    Human odorant-binding proteins (hOBPs) not only can bind and transport odorants in the surrounding environment for sensing smells, but also play important roles in transmitting lots of biomolecules in different organs. Utilizing the properties of hOBPs, an electrochemical biosensor with nanopore array was developed to detect specific biomolecular ligands, such as aldehydes and fatty acids. The highly ordered nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide with diameter of 20-40 nm were fabricated with two-step oxidation. Through 2-carboxyethyl phosphonic acid, hOBPs were self-assembled on nanopores as the sensing membrane. With nanopore arrays, the impedance spectra showed quite different electron transfer processes in the frequency spectra, which could be characterized by the electron transfer resistance and electrical resistance of the porous membrane. Under stimulation of biomolecular ligands, series resistance of nanopores and hOBPs increased and showed a concentration-dependence feature, while the electron transfer resistance hardly changed. The nanopore based biosensor could sensitively detect biological ligands of benzaldehyde, docosahexaenoic acid, and lauric acid, which were closely related to or were potential biomarkers for cancers and other serious diseases. Equipped with hOBPs, the sensor exhibited promising potentials both in odorant and biomolecule detection for olfactory biosensing and in disease diagnosis and evaluation for biochemical detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Aeroelastic Stability of Suspension Bridges using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jesper Winther; Sørensen, Niels; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years large span suspension bridges with very thin and slender profiles have been built without proportional increasing torsional and bending stiffness. As a consequence large deformations at the mid-span can occur with risk of aeroelastic instability and structural failure. Analysis of...

  1. Array capabilities and future arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D.

    1993-01-01

    Early results from the new third-generation instruments GAMMASPHERE and EUROGAM are confirming the expectation that such arrays will have a revolutionary effect on the field of high-spin nuclear structure. When completed, GAMMASHPERE will have a resolving power am order of magnitude greater that of the best second-generation arrays. When combined with other instruments such as particle-detector arrays and fragment mass analysers, the capabilites of the arrays for the study of more exotic nuclei will be further enhanced. In order to better understand the limitations of these instruments, and to design improved future detector systems, it is important to have some intelligible and reliable calculation for the relative resolving power of different instrument designs. The derivation of such a figure of merit will be briefly presented, and the relative sensitivities of arrays currently proposed or under construction presented. The design of TRIGAM, a new third-generation array proposed for Chalk River, will also be discussed. It is instructive to consider how far arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors could be taken. For example, it will be shown that an idealised open-quote perfectclose quotes third-generation array of 1000 detectors has a sensitivity an order of magnitude higher again than that of GAMMASPHERE. Less conventional options for new arrays will also be explored

  2. Growth behavior in plant cell cultures based on emissions detected by a multisensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaraiah, Palle; Navratil, Marian; Carlsson, Maria; Jeffers, Paul; Brodelius, Maria; Brodelius, Peter E; Kieran, Patricia M; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    The use of a multisensor array based on chemical gas sensors to monitor plant cell cultures is described. The multisensor array, also referred to as an electronic nose, consisted of 19 different metal oxide semiconductor sensors and one carbon dioxide sensor. The device was used to continuously monitor the off-gas from two plant cell suspension cultures, Morinda citrifolia and Nicotiana tabacum, cultivated under batch conditions. By analyzing the multiarray responses using two pattern recognition methods, principal component analysis and artificial neural networks, it was possible to monitor the course of the cultivations and, in turn, to predict (1) the biomass concentration in both systems and (2) the formation of the secondary metabolite, antraquinone, by M. citrifolia. The results identify the multisensor array method as a potentially useful analytical tool for monitoring plant process variables that are otherwise difficult to analyze on-line.

  3. Luminance and image quality analysis of an organic electroluminescent panel with a patterned microlens array attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hoang Yan; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Fang, Jheng-Hao; Hsu, Sheng-Chih; Lee, Jiun-Haw; Lin, Jia-Rong; Wei, Mao-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Luminance and image quality observed from the normal direction of a commercial 2.0 inch panel based on organic electroluminescence (OEL) technology attached to regular and patterned microlens array films (MAFs) were studied and analyzed. When applying the regularly arranged MAF on the panel, a luminance enhancement of 23% was observed, accompanied by a reduction of the image quality index as low as 74%. By removing the microlenses on the emitting areas, the patterned MAF enhances the luminance efficiency of the OEL by 52% keeping the image quality index of the display as high as 94%, due to the effective light extraction in the glass substrate being less than the critical angle. 3D simulation based on a ray-tracing model was also established to investigate the spatial distribution of light rays radiated from an OEL pixel with different microstructures which showed consistent results with the experimental results

  4. Application of multiparameter coincidence spectrometry using a Ge detectors array to neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsukawa, Y.; Oshima, M.; Hayakawa, T.; Toh, Y.; Shinohara, N.

    2002-01-01

    The method of multiparameter coincidence spectrometry based on γ-γ coincidence is widely used for the nuclear structure studies, because of its high sensitivity to γ-rays. In this study, feasibility of the method of multiparameter coincidence spectrometry for analytical chemistry was examined. Two reference igneous rock samples (JP-1, JB-1a) issued by the Geological Survey of Japan were irradiated at a research reactor, and the γ-rays from the radioisotopes produced via neutron capture reactions were measured using an array of 12 Ge detectors with BGO Compton suppressors, GEMINI. Simultaneously 24 elements were analyzed without chemical separation. The observed smallest component was Eu contained in JP-1 with abundance of 4 ppb

  5. Aerodynamic Analysis of Low Speed Wing Design using Taguchi L9 Orthogonal Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witcher Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of aerodynamics has been preoccupied with understanding flight at increasing speeds and ultimately supersonic. Today, this pursuit has advanced the science for both Hypersonic and Transonic flight to near Mach 1 supporting economical commercial flight operations. This research presents the data from a Taguchi array on low speed with twin wing designs to establish the design parameters for their use in low speed and high altitude. Also presented is how aerodynamic advantages can be achieved through understanding the interactions of parameters and their use. This is compared to operational effectiveness when applied to remotely piloted aircraft that are not constrained by direct requirements. The research concludes with suggestions for improved designs and further work that may enable higher altitudes with low speeds.

  6. Computer programs for the acquisition and analysis of eddy-current array probe data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, J.R.; Dodd, C.V.

    1996-07-01

    Objective of the Improved Eddy-Curent ISI (in-service inspection) for Steam Generators Tubing program is to upgrade and validate eddy-current inspections, including probes, instrumentation, and data processing techniques for ISI of new, used, and repaired steam generator tubes; to improve defect detection, classification and characterization as affected by diameter and thickness variations, denting, probe wobble, tube sheet, tube supports, copper and sludge deposits, even when defect types and other variables occur in combination; to transfer this advanced technology to NRC's mobile NDE laboratory and staff. This report documents computer programs that were developed for acquisition of eddy-current data from specially designed 16-coil array probes. Complete code as well as instructions for use are provided

  7. Multiplexed Analysis of Serum Breast and Ovarian Cancer Markers by Means of Suspension Bead-quantum Dot Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnik, Kristina; Sokolova, Zinaida; Baryshnikova, Maria; Bilan, Regina; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    Multiplexed analysis of cancer markers is crucial for early tumor diagnosis and screening. We have designed lab-on-a-bead microarray for quantitative detection of three breast cancer markers in human serum. Quantum dots were used as bead-bound fluorescent tags for identifying each marker by means of flow cytometry. Antigen-specific beads reliably detected CA 15-3, CEA, and CA 125 in serum samples, providing clear discrimination between the samples with respect to the antigen levels. The novel microarray is advantageous over the routine single-analyte ones due to the simultaneous detection of various markers. Therefore the developed microarray is a promising tool for serum tumor marker profiling.

  8. Improved Protein Arrays for Quantitative Systems Analysis of the Dynamics of Signaling Pathway Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chin-Rang [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). National Heart, Lung and Blood Inst.

    2013-12-11

    Astronauts and workers in nuclear plants who repeatedly exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR, <10 cGy) are likely to incur specific changes in signal transduction and gene expression in various tissues of their body. Remarkable advances in high throughput genomics and proteomics technologies enable researchers to broaden their focus from examining single gene/protein kinetics to better understanding global gene/protein expression profiling and biological pathway analyses, namely Systems Biology. An ultimate goal of systems biology is to develop dynamic mathematical models of interacting biological systems capable of simulating living systems in a computer. This Glue Grant is to complement Dr. Boothman’s existing DOE grant (No. DE-FG02-06ER64186) entitled “The IGF1/IGF-1R-MAPK-Secretory Clusterin (sCLU) Pathway: Mediator of a Low Dose IR-Inducible Bystander Effect” to develop sensitive and quantitative proteomic technology that suitable for low dose radiobiology researches. An improved version of quantitative protein array platform utilizing linear Quantum dot signaling for systematically measuring protein levels and phosphorylation states for systems biology modeling is presented. The signals are amplified by a confocal laser Quantum dot scanner resulting in ~1000-fold more sensitivity than traditional Western blots and show the good linearity that is impossible for the signals of HRP-amplification. Therefore this improved protein array technology is suitable to detect weak responses of low dose radiation. Software is developed to facilitate the quantitative readout of signaling network activities. Kinetics of EGFRvIII mutant signaling was analyzed to quantify cross-talks between EGFR and other signaling pathways.

  9. Responses of murine and human macrophages to leptospiral infection: a study using comparative array analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xue

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging tropical infectious disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. The different host innate immune responses are partially related to the different severities of leptospirosis. In this study, we employed transcriptomics and cytokine arrays to comparatively calculate the responses of murine peritoneal macrophages (MPMs and human peripheral blood monocytes (HBMs to leptospiral infection. We uncovered a series of different expression profiles of these two immune cells. The percentages of regulated genes in several biological processes of MPMs, such as antigen processing and presentation, membrane potential regulation, and the innate immune response, etc., were much greater than those of HBMs (>2-fold. In MPMs and HBMs, the caspase-8 and Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD-like apoptosis regulator genes were significantly up-regulated, which supported previous results that the caspase-8 and caspase-3 pathways play an important role in macrophage apoptosis during leptospiral infection. In addition, the key component of the complement pathway, C3, was only up-regulated in MPMs. Furthermore, several cytokines, e.g. interleukin 10 (IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha, were differentially expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in MPMs and HBMs. Some of the differential expressions were proved to be pathogenic Leptospira-specific regulations at mRNA level or protein level. Though it is still unclear why some animals are resistant and others are susceptible to leptospiral infection, this comparative study based on transcriptomics and cytokine arrays partially uncovered the differences of murine resistance and human susceptibility to leptospirosis. Taken together, these findings will facilitate further molecular studies on the innate immune response to leptospiral infection.

  10. Particle interactions in concentrated suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, L.A.; Graham, A.L.; Abbott, J.R.; Brenner, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of research that focuses on slow flows of suspensions in which colloidal and inertial effects are negligibly small. The authors describe nuclear magnetic resonance imaging experiments to quantitatively measure particle migration occurring in concentrated suspensions undergoing a flow with a nonuniform shear rate. These experiments address the issue of how the flow field affects the microstructure of suspensions. In order to understand the local viscosity in a suspension with such a flow-induced, spatially varying concentration, one must know how the viscosity of a homogeneous suspension depends on such variables as solids concentration and particle orientation. The authors suggest the technique of falling ball viscometry, using small balls, as a method to determine the effective viscosity of a suspension without affecting the original microstructure significantly. They also describe data from experiments in which the detailed fluctuations of a falling ball's velocity indicate the noncontinuum nature of the suspension and may lead to more insights into the effects of suspension microstructure on macroscopic properties. Finally, they briefly describe other experiments that can be performed in quiescent suspensions (in contrast to the use of conventional shear rotational viscometers) in order to learn more about boundary effects in concentrated suspensions

  11. Cross-platform array comparative genomic hybridization meta-analysis separates hematopoietic and mesenchymal from epithelial tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.; Marchiori, E.; van der Vaart, A.W.; Chin, S.F.; Carvalho, B; Tijssen, M.; Eijk, P.P.; van den IJssel, P.; Grabsch, H.; Quirke, P.; Oudejans, J.J.; Meijer, G.J.; Caldas, C.; Ylstra, B.

    2007-01-01

    A series of studies have been published that evaluate the chromosomal copy number changes of different tumor classes using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH); however, the chromosomal aberrations that distinguish the different tumor classes have not been fully characterized.

  12. Full correction of scattering effects by using the radiative transfer theory for improved quantitative analysis of absorbing species in suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steponavičius, Raimundas; Thennadil, Suresh N

    2013-05-01

    Sample-to-sample photon path length variations that arise due to multiple scattering can be removed by decoupling absorption and scattering effects by using the radiative transfer theory, with a suitable set of measurements. For samples where particles both scatter and absorb light, the extracted bulk absorption spectrum is not completely free from nonlinear particle effects, since it is related to the absorption cross-section of particles that changes nonlinearly with particle size and shape. For the quantitative analysis of absorbing-only (i.e., nonscattering) species present in a matrix that contains a particulate species that absorbs and scatters light, a method to eliminate particle effects completely is proposed here, which utilizes the particle size information contained in the bulk scattering coefficient extracted by using the Mie theory to carry out an additional correction step to remove particle effects from bulk absorption spectra. This should result in spectra that are equivalent to spectra collected with only the liquid species in the mixture. Such an approach has the potential to significantly reduce the number of calibration samples as well as improve calibration performance. The proposed method was tested with both simulated and experimental data from a four-component model system.

  13. Length distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous suspension measured by electrospray differential mobility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Leonard F; Tsai, De-Hao; Fagan, Jeffery A; Bauer, Barry J; Zangmeister, Rebecca A; Tarlov, Michael J; Zachariah, Michael R

    2009-12-01

    The first characterization of the length distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) dispersed in a liquid by electrospray differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) is presented. Although an understanding of geometric properties of SWCNTs, including length, diameter, aspect ratio, and chirality, is essential for commercial applications, rapid characterization of nanotube length distributions remains challenging. Here the use of ES-DMA to obtain length distributions of DNA-wrapped SWCNTs dispersed in aqueous solutions is demonstrated. Lengths measured by ES-DMA compare favorably with those obtained from multiangle light scattering, dynamic light scattering, field flow fractionation with UV/vis detection, and atomic force microscopy, validating ES-DMA as a technique to measure SWCNTs of <250 nm in length. The nanotubes are previously purified and dispersed by wrapping with oligomeric DNA in aqueous solution and centrifuging to remove bundles and amorphous carbon. These dispersions are particularly attractive due to their amenability to bulk processing, ease of storage, high concentration, compatibility with biological and high-throughput manufacturing environments, and for their potential applications ranging from electronics and hydrogen-storage vessels to anticancer agents.

  14. High Throughput Sample Preparation and Analysis for DNA Sequencing, PCR and Combinatorial Screening of Catalysis Based on Capillary Array Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yonghua [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Sample preparation has been one of the major bottlenecks for many high throughput analyses. The purpose of this research was to develop new sample preparation and integration approach for DNA sequencing, PCR based DNA analysis and combinatorial screening of homogeneous catalysis based on multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence or imaging UV absorption detection. The author first introduced a method to integrate the front-end tasks to DNA capillary-array sequencers. protocols for directly sequencing the plasmids from a single bacterial colony in fused-silica capillaries were developed. After the colony was picked, lysis was accomplished in situ in the plastic sample tube using either a thermocycler or heating block. Upon heating, the plasmids were released while chromsomal DNA and membrane proteins were denatured and precipitated to the bottom of the tube. After adding enzyme and Sanger reagents, the resulting solution was aspirated into the reaction capillaries by a syringe pump, and cycle sequencing was initiated. No deleterious effect upon the reaction efficiency, the on-line purification system, or the capillary electrophoresis separation was observed, even though the crude lysate was used as the template. Multiplexed on-line DNA sequencing data from 8 parallel channels allowed base calling up to 620 bp with an accuracy of 98%. The entire system can be automatically regenerated for repeated operation. For PCR based DNA analysis, they demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis with UV detection can be used for DNA analysis starting from clinical sample without purification. After PCR reaction using cheek cell, blood or HIV-1 gag DNA, the reaction mixtures was injected into the capillary either on-line or off-line by base stacking. The protocol was also applied to capillary array electrophoresis. The use of cheaper detection, and the elimination of purification of DNA sample before or after PCR reaction, will make this approach an

  15. Large-scale analysis of antisense transcription in wheat using the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settles Matthew L

    2009-05-01

    -antisense transcript pairs, analysis of the gene ontology terms showed a significant over-representation of transcripts involved in energy production. These included several representations of ATP synthase, photosystem proteins and RUBISCO, which indicated that photosynthesis is likely to be regulated by antisense transcripts. Conclusion This study demonstrated the novel use of an adapted labeling protocol and a 3'IVT GeneChip array for large-scale identification of antisense transcription in wheat. The results show that antisense transcription is relatively abundant in wheat, and may affect the expression of valuable agronomic phenotypes. Future work should select potentially interesting transcript pairs for further functional characterization to determine biological activity.

  16. Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwaters with a gradient of contaminant levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, P.J.; Wu, L.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Schadt, C.W.; Watson, D.B.; Jardine, P.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2009-06-15

    To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, nitrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17-70% overlap between different wells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

  17. Statistical analysis of storm electrical discharges reconstituted from a lightning mapping system, a lightning location system, and an acoustic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallin, Louis-Jonardan; Farges, Thomas; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François; Defer, Eric; Rison, William; Schulz, Wolfgang; Nuret, Mathieu

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the European Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment project, a field campaign devoted to the study of electrical activity during storms took place in the south of France in 2012. An acoustic station composed of four microphones and four microbarometers was deployed within the coverage of a Lightning Mapping Array network. On the 26 October 2012, a thunderstorm passed just over the acoustic station. Fifty-six natural thunder events, due to cloud-to-ground and intracloud flashes, were recorded. This paper studies the acoustic reconstruction, in the low frequency range from 1 to 40 Hz, of the recorded flashes and their comparison with detections from electromagnetic networks. Concurrent detections from the European Cooperation for Lightning Detection lightning location system were also used. Some case studies show clearly that acoustic signal from thunder comes from the return stroke but also from the horizontal discharges which occur inside the clouds. The huge amount of observation data leads to a statistical analysis of lightning discharges acoustically recorded. Especially, the distributions of altitudes of reconstructed acoustic detections are explored in detail. The impact of the distance to the source on these distributions is established. The capacity of the acoustic method to describe precisely the lower part of nearby cloud-to-ground discharges, where the Lightning Mapping Array network is not effective, is also highlighted.

  18. Comparative analysis of the operation efficiency of the continuous and relay control systems of a multi-axle wheeled vehicle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhileykin, M. M.; Kotiev, G. O.; Nagatsev, M. V.

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of the multi-axle wheeled vehicles (MWV) automotive engineers are increasing their cruising speed. One of the promising ways to improve ride comfort of the MWV is the development of the dynamic active suspension systems and control laws for such systems. Here, by the dynamic control systems we mean the systems operating in real time mode and using current (instantaneous) values of the state variables. The aim of the work is to develop the MWV suspension optimal control laws that would reduce vibrations on the driver’s seat at kinematic excitation. The authors have developed the optimal control laws for damping the oscillations of the MWV body. The developed laws allow reduction of the vibrations on the driver’s seat and increase in the maximum speed of the vehicle. The laws are characterized in that they allow generating the control inputs in real time mode. The authors have demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed control laws by means of mathematical simulation of the MWV driving over unpaved road with kinematic excitation. The proposed optimal control laws can be used in the MWV suspension control systems with magnetorheological shock absorbers or controlled hydropneumatic springs. Further evolution of the research line can be the development of the energy-efficient MWV suspension control systems with continuous control input on the vehicle body.

  19. Single-cell-based image analysis of high-throughput cell array screens for quantification of viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Petr; Kumar, Anil; Wörz, Ilka; Erfle, Holger; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Eils, Roland; Rohr, Karl

    2009-04-01

    The identification of eukaryotic genes involved in virus entry and replication is important for understanding viral infection. Our goal is to develop a siRNA-based screening system using cell arrays and high-throughput (HT) fluorescence microscopy. A central issue is efficient, robust, and automated single-cell-based analysis of massive image datasets. We have developed an image analysis approach that comprises (i) a novel, gradient-based thresholding scheme for cell nuclei segmentation which does not require subsequent postprocessing steps for separation of clustered nuclei, (ii) quantification of the virus signal in the neighborhood of cell nuclei, (iii) localization of regions with transfected cells by combining model-based circle fitting and grid fitting, (iv) cell classification as infected or noninfected, and (v) image quality control (e.g., identification of out-of-focus images). We compared the results of our nucleus segmentation approach with a previously developed scheme of adaptive thresholding with subsequent separation of nuclear clusters. Our approach, which does not require a postprocessing step for the separation of nuclear clusters, correctly segmented 97.1% of the nuclei, whereas the previous scheme achieved 95.8%. Using our algorithm for the detection of out-of-focus images, we obtained a high discrimination power of 99.4%. Our overall approach has been applied to more than 55,000 images of cells infected by either hepatitis C or dengue virus. Reduced infection rates were correctly detected in positive siRNA controls, as well as for siRNAs targeting, for example, cellular genes involved in viral infection. Our image analysis approach allows for the automatic and accurate determination of changes in viral infection based on high-throughput single-cell-based siRNA cell array imaging experiments. (c) 2008 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  20. Analysis of optimal mixing in open-flow mixers with time-modulated vortex arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a systematic approach to efficient open flow mixing is introduced, using general theoretical concepts to identify optimized parameters of a deliberately introduced unsteady flow component. The method is applied in detail to two-dimensional (2D) advective mixing in flows resulting from the superposition of a transport flow through a channel and secondary localized cross-flows, here the vortical streaming due to a microbubble array. A simple description of stirring in a steady 2D vortex identifies the characteristic time beyond which vortex stirring becomes ineffective, with slow algebraic decay of the mix-variance. Duty cycling of the vortices introduces flow unsteadiness, for which optimum duty cycling protocols are identified, following analytically from a few selected Eulerian properties of the combined transport and vortex stirring flow. In comparison with experiments and simulations, it is shown that this simple formalism allows for the accurate prediction of optimal advective mixing, exponential in time, in the microbubble streaming case and, by extension, for any open-flow mixer with modulated secondary flow. Taking into account the effect of diffusion, estimated residence times required for complete mixing in such optimized devices are obtained.

  1. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana; Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano; Buonasera, Katia; Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2012-11-02

    In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 μM and 4.5 μM, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 μM and 35 μM respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of anthraquinones in rhubarbs by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shao-yin; Yao, Wen-xin; Ji, Wen-yuan; Wei, Jia-qi; Peng, Shi-qi

    2013-12-01

    Rhubarb is well known in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) mainly due to its effective purgative activity. Anthraquinones, including anthraquinone derivatives and their glycosides, are thought to be the major active components in rhubarb. To improve the quality control method of rhubarb, we studied on the extraction method, and did qualitative and quantitative analysis of widely used rhubarbs, Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. and Rheum palmatum L., by HPLC-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-mass spectrum (HPLC-MS) on a Waters SymmetryShield RP18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm). Amount of five anthraquinones was viewed as the evaluating standard. A standardized characteristic fingerprint of rhubarb was provided. From the quantitative analysis, the rationality was demonstrated for ancestors to use these two species of rhubarb equally. Under modern extraction methods, the amount of five anthraquinones in Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. is higher than that in Rheum palmatum L. Among various extraction methods, ultrasonication with 70% methanol for 30 min is a promising one. For HPLC analysis, mobile phase consisted of methanol and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water with a gradient program, the detection wavelength at 280nm for fingerprinting analysis and 254 nm for quantitative analysis are good choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of Microtremor Array Analysis to Estimate the Bedrock Depth in the Beijing Plain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Ling, S.; Liu, J.; Su, W.

    2013-12-01

    With the rapid expansion of large cities around the world, urban geological survey provides key information regarding resource development and urban construction. Among the major cities of the world, China's capital city Beijing is among the largest cities possessing complex geological structures. The urban geological survey and study in Beijing involves the following aspects: (1) estimating the thickness of the Cenozoic deposit; (2) mapping the three-dimensional structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as its relations to faults and tectonic settings; and (3) assessing the capacity of the city's geological resources in order to support its urban development and operation safety. The geological study of Beijing in general was also intended to provide basic data regarding the urban development and appraisal of engineering and environment geological conditions, as well as underground space resources. In this work, we utilized the microtremor exploration method to estimate the thickness of the bedrock depth, in order to delineate the geological interfaces and improve the accuracy of the bedrock depth map. The microtremor observation sites were located in the Beijing Plain area. Traditional geophysical or geological survey methods were not effective in these areas due to the heavy traffic and dense buildings in the highly-populated urban area. The microtremor exploration method is a Rayleigh-wave inversion technique which extracts its phase velocity dispersion curve from the vertical component of the microtremor array records using the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method, then inverts the shear-wave velocity structure. A triple-circular array was adopted for acquiring microtremor data, with the observation radius in ranging from 40 to 300 m, properly adjusted depending on the geological conditions (depth of the bedrock). The collected microtremor data are used to: (1) estimation of phase velocities of Rayleigh-wave from the vertical components of the microtremor

  4. High-resolution Antibody Array Analysis of Childhood Acute Leukemia Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanderova, Veronika; Kuzilkova, Daniela; Stuchly, Jan; Vaskova, Martina; Brdicka, Tomas; Fiser, Karel; Hrusak, Ondrej; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof

    2016-01-01

    Acute leukemia is a disease pathologically manifested at both genomic and proteomic levels. Molecular genetic technologies are currently widely used in clinical research. In contrast, sensitive and high-throughput proteomic techniques for performing protein analyses in patient samples are still lacking. Here, we used a technology based on size exclusion chromatography followed by immunoprecipitation of target proteins with an antibody bead array (Size Exclusion Chromatography-Microsphere-based Affinity Proteomics, SEC-MAP) to detect hundreds of proteins from a single sample. In addition, we developed semi-automatic bioinformatics tools to adapt this technology for high-content proteomic screening of pediatric acute leukemia patients. To confirm the utility of SEC-MAP in leukemia immunophenotyping, we tested 31 leukemia diagnostic markers in parallel by SEC-MAP and flow cytometry. We identified 28 antibodies suitable for both techniques. Eighteen of them provided excellent quantitative correlation between SEC-MAP and flow cytometry (p leukemia. In this assay, we used 632 different antibodies and detected 501 targets. Of those, 47 targets were differentially expressed between at least two of the three acute leukemia subgroups. The CD markers correlated with immunophenotypic categories as expected. From non-CD markers, we found DBN1, PAX5, or PTK2 overexpressed in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias, LAT, SH2D1A, or STAT5A overexpressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and HCK, GLUD1, or SYK overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemias. In addition, OPAL1 overexpression corresponded to ETV6-RUNX1 chromosomal translocation. In summary, we demonstrated that SEC-MAP technology is a powerful tool for detecting hundreds of proteins in clinical samples obtained from pediatric acute leukemia patients. It provides information about protein size and reveals differences in protein expression between particular leukemia subgroups. Forty-seven of SEC-MAP identified

  5. Techniques for analyzing the behavior of concentrated suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, J.R.; Brenner, H.; Mondy, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that real-time radiography in opaque suspensions, as well as comparable visual techniques in transparent (refractive index-matched) suspensions, have been used to track the path of a single settling sphere (a falling ball) through an otherwise quiescent suspension of neutrally buoyant particles. The small settling sphere serves to probe the microstructure of a given suspension, while not significantly changing this microstructure. The average settling velocity of the ball can be translated via Stokes law into an effective viscosity of the suspension, just as is the suspension were a homogeneous Newtonian continuum. analysis of the detailed instantaneous trajectory of the small ball falling through a suspension shows significant dispersion about the mean position of the ball (based upon its average settling velocity) arising from hydrodynamic particle interactions with the suspended particles. These dispersion data are shown to be quantified via an Einstein-like mean-square displacement law, linear in time. Effective continuum rheological properties have been measured with falling-ball experiments for both randomly oriented and aligned (orientationally ordered) systems of nonspherical particles. Viscosities derived from falling-ball experiments in aligned systems agree with Couette measurements in sheared suspensions, demonstrating that the falling-ball technique has the capability of measuring the configuration-specific rheological properties appropriate to a specific geometric arrangement of the suspension particles. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging has been used to noninvasively measure the particle velocity and concentration profiles in concentrated, nonquiescent suspensions undergoing macroscopic shear. NMR imaging of a wide-gap Couette apparatus

  6. Fingerprint Analysis of Desmodium Triquetrum L. Based on Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Photodiode Array Detector Combined with Chemometrics Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Zhao, Cui; Liang, Xianrui; Ying, Yin; Han, Bing; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A fingerprinting approach was developed by means of ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector for the quality control of Desmodium triquetrum L., an herbal medicine widely used for clinical purposes. Ten batches of raw material samples of D. triquetrum were collected from different regions of China. All UPLC analyses were carried out on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH shield RP18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 µm particle size) at 60°C, with a gradient mobile phase composed of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.45 mL/min. The method validation results demonstrated the developed method possessing desirable reproducibility, efficiency, and allowing fingerprint analysis in one chromatographic run within 13 min. The quality assessment was achieved by using chemometrics methods including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The developed method can be used for further quality control of D. triquetrum. PMID:26791345

  7. Array-based genotyping and genetic dissimilarity analysis of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambrović Antun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the results of the detailed array-based genotyping obtained by using the Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip of eleven inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups relevant for maize breeding in Southeast Europe - European Corn Belt. The objectives of this study were to assess the utility of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip platform by determining its descriptive power and to assess genetic dissimilarity of the inbred lines. The distribution of the SNPs was found not completely uniform among chromosomes, but average call rate was very high (97.9% and number of polymorphic loci was 33200 out of 50074 SNPs with known mapping position indicating descriptive power of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip. The dendrogram obtained from UPGMA cluster analysis as well as principal component analysis (PCA confirmed pedigree information, undoubtedly distinguishing lines according to their background in two population varieties of Reid Yellow Dent and Lancaster Sure Crop. Dissimilarity analysis showed that all of the inbred lines could be distinguished from each other. Whereas cluster analysis did not definitely differentiate Mo17 and Ohio inbred lines, PCA revealed clear genetic differences between them. The studied inbred lines were confirmed to be genetically diverse, representing a large proportion of the genetic variation occurring in two maize heterotic groups.

  8. Surgical Workflow Analysis: Ideal Application of Navigated Linear Array Ultrasound in Low-Grade Glioma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothes, Thomas Ernst; Siekmann, Max; König, Ralph Werner; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Coburger, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Background  Intraoperative imaging in low-grade glioma (LGG) surgery can facilitate residual tumor control and improve surgical outcome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ideal application and typical interactions of intraoperative MRI (iMRI), conventional low-frequency intraoperative ultrasound (cioUS), and high-frequency linear array intraoperative ultrasound (lioUS) to optimize surgical workflow. Methods  Prospectively, we included 11 patients with an LGG. Typical procedural workflow in the iMRI suite was recorded with a compatible software. We took notes of duration, frequency of application, the surgeon's evaluation of image quality, and the respective benefit of lioUS (15 MHz), cioUS (7 MHz), and iMRI (1.5 T). With the help of the workflow software, we meticulously analyzed ∼ 55 hours of surgery. Results  During the interventions, lioUS was used more often (76.3%) than cioUS (23.7%) and showed a better mean image quality (1 = best to 6 = worst) of 2.08 versus 3.26 with cioUS. The benefit of the lioUS application was rated with an average of 2.27, whereas the cioUS probe only reached a mean value of 3.83. The most common application of lioUS was resection control (42.6%); cioUS was used mainly for orientation (63.2%). Overall, lioUS was used more often and was rated better for both the purposes just described regarding image quality and benefit. Estimated residual tumor based on lioUS alone was lower than the final residual tumor detected with iMRI (7.5% versus 14.5%). The latter technique was rated as the best imaging modality for resection control in all cases followed by lioUS. Conclusion  We provide proof of principle for workflow assessment in cranial neurosurgery. Although iMRI remains the imaging method of choice, lioUS has shown to be beneficial in a combined setup. Evaluation of lioUS was significantly superior to cioUS in most indications except for subcortical lesions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Identifying the similarities and differences between single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNPa analysis and karyotyping in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigo de Noronha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To standardize the single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNPa method in acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes, and to identify the similarities and differ- ences between the results of this method and karyotyping. Methods: Twenty-two patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia and three with myelodysplastic syndromes were studied. The G-banding karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis (CytoScan(r HD were performed using cells from bone marrow, DNA extracted from mononuclear cells from bone marrow and buccal cells (BC. Results: The mean age of the patients studied was 54 years old, and the median age was 55 years (range: 28-93. Twelve (48% were male and 13 (52% female. Ten patients showed abnormal karyotypes (40.0%, 11 normal (44.0% and four had no mitosis (16.0%. Regarding the results of bone marrow single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis: 17 were abnor- mal (68.0% and eight were normal (32.0%. Comparing the two methods, karyotyping identified a total of 17 alterations (8 deletions/losses, 7 trissomies/gains, and 2 translocations and single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis identified a total of 42 alterations (17 losses, 16 gains and 9 copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. Conclusion: It is possible to standardize single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis in acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes and compare the results with the abnormalities detected by karyotyping. Single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis increased the detection rate of abnormalities compared to karyotyping and also identified a new set of abnormalities that deserve further investigation in future studies.

  10. Investigation of the diagnostic value of chromosome analysis and bacterial artificial chromosome-based array comparative genomic hybridization in prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savli, Hakan; Keskin, Seda Eren; Cine, Naci

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and chromosome analysis in prenatal diagnosis. This study included the chromosome analysis and BAC-based array CGH analysis of 140 amniocentesis samples with prenatal diagnosis indications. Karyotype analysis showed trisomy 21 in 4 patients, trisomy 18 in 5 patients, monosomy X in 1 patient, and other anomalies in 3 patients. The BAC-based array CGH analysis showed 4 patients with trisomy 21, 4 patients with trisomy 18, and 1 patient with monosomy X as a numerical chromosome anomaly, while partial duplication was observed in chromosome 14 in 1 case as a structural anomaly. The array CGH is the most effective method available to complement cases where chromosome analysis, a gold standard in prenatal diagnosis, proves to be insufficient. Considering the inherent limitations of both methods, complementary features should be introduced in order to be able to give the most accurate data at the right time.

  11. Flow properties of concentrated suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, K.; Izumi, K.

    1984-04-01

    The viscosity and flow behavior of a concentrated suspension, with special emphasis on fresh concrete containing a superplasticizer, is analyzed according to Newton's law of viscosity. The authors interpreted Newton's law in a new way, and explain non-Newton flow from Newton's law. The outline of this new theory is given. Viscosity of suspensions, and the effect of dispersants are analyzed.

  12. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of a familial duplication of chromosome 13q: A recognizable syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, Inge B.; Hoovers, Jan M. N.; Mul, Adri N. P. M.; Man, Hai-Yen; Ket, Jan L.; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a family with six persons in three generations who have mild mental retardation, behavioral problems, seizures, hearing loss, strabismus, dental anomalies, hypermobility, juvenile hallux valgus, and mild dysmorphic features. Classical cytogenetic analysis showed a partial duplication of

  13. Closed-form solutions in the electrical field analysis for dielectrophoretic and travelling wave inter-digitated electrode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Dong Eui; Loire, Sophie; Mezic, Igor

    2003-01-01

    We derive closed-form solutions of electric fields, dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces, and time-averaged DEP forces in a parallel electrode array for three cases: first, the case of a two-phase DEP electrode array with a first-order approximate boundary condition; second, the case of a two-phase DEP electrode array with the exact boundary condition; and last, the case of a four-phase travelling wave DEP electrode array with a first-order approximate boundary condition. We also compare these analytic solutions with numerical solutions

  14. An Integrated Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Chemical Microsensor Array for Gas-Phase Chemical Analysis Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalnuovo, stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    1999-07-20

    This paper describes preliminary results in the development of an acoustic wave (SAW) microsensor array. The array is based on a novel configuration that allows for three sensors and a phase reference. Two configurations of the integrated array are discussed: a hybrid multichip-module based on a quartz SAW sensor with GaAs microelectronics and a fully monolithic GaAs-based SAW. Preliminary data are also presented for the use of the integrated SAW array in a gas-phase chemical micro system that incorporates microfabricated sample collectors and concentrators along with gas chromatography (GC) columns.

  15. Filter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  16. High-throughput analysis of ammonia oxidiser community composition via a novel, amoA-based functional gene array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy C J Abell

    Full Text Available Advances in microbial ecology research are more often than not limited by the capabilities of available methodologies. Aerobic autotrophic nitrification is one of the most important and well studied microbiological processes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We have developed and validated a microbial diagnostic microarray based on the ammonia-monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene, enabling the in-depth analysis of the community structure of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidisers. The amoA microarray has been successfully applied to analyse nitrifier diversity in marine, estuarine, soil and wastewater treatment plant environments. The microarray has moderate costs for labour and consumables and enables the analysis of hundreds of environmental DNA or RNA samples per week per person. The array has been thoroughly validated with a range of individual and complex targets (amoA clones and environmental samples, respectively, combined with parallel analysis using traditional sequencing methods. The moderate cost and high throughput of the microarray makes it possible to adequately address broader questions of the ecology of microbial ammonia oxidation requiring high sample numbers and high resolution of the community composition.

  17. Open-array analysis of genetic variants in Egyptian patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hanaa R.M. Attia

    beta cell function (HOMA-B). Also logistic regression analysis demonstrated that obesity is the most significant factor affecting. T2D. These findings suggested that management of BMI could sig- nificantly improve beta cell function and reduce the risk of T2D. Of all tested genetic risk variants seven SNPs showed significant.

  18. The First Cortical Implant of a Semiconductor Multielectrode Array: Continued Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    thesis will be to complcte the uata analysis proceso . There arc, thrcc A-iain areas, wilici will be investigatoo in an effort to s-olve this problem...Transactions 2a B EngiaeBina 1M-=27: 212-220, April 1980. 28. Lorente deNo’, R. "Cerebral Cortex: Architecture, Intracorticai Connections, Motor Projections

  19. Starr: Simple Tiling ARRay analysis of Affymetrix ChIP-chip data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresch Achim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with DNA microarrays (ChIP-chip is an assay used for investigating DNA-protein-binding or post-translational chromatin/histone modifications. As with all high-throughput technologies, it requires thorough bioinformatic processing of the data for which there is no standard yet. The primary goal is to reliably identify and localize genomic regions that bind a specific protein. Further investigation compares binding profiles of functionally related proteins, or binding profiles of the same proteins in different genetic backgrounds or experimental conditions. Ultimately, the goal is to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of DNA binding events on gene expression. Results We present a free, open-source R/Bioconductor package Starr that facilitates comparative analysis of ChIP-chip data across experiments and across different microarray platforms. The package provides functions for data import, quality assessment, data visualization and exploration. Starr includes high-level analysis tools such as the alignment of ChIP signals along annotated features, correlation analysis of ChIP signals with complementary genomic data, peak-finding and comparative display of multiple clusters of binding profiles. It uses standard Bioconductor classes for maximum compatibility with other software. Moreover, Starr automatically updates microarray probe annotation files by a highly efficient remapping of microarray probe sequences to an arbitrary genome. Conclusion Starr is an R package that covers the complete ChIP-chip workflow from data processing to binding pattern detection. It focuses on the high-level data analysis, e.g., it provides methods for the integration and combined statistical analysis of binding profiles and complementary functional genomics data. Starr enables systematic assessment of binding behaviour for groups of genes that are alingned along arbitrary genomic features.

  20. Pharmaceutical development of paracetamol oral suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Felícia P. S.; Soares, Janete S.; Rolim, Larissa A.; Lyra, Magalí A. M. de; Silva, Keyla E.R. da; Silva, Rosali M. F. da; Rolim Neto, Pedró José

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this work are obtaining and evaluating paracetamol oral suspension 32 mg/mL by qualitative and quantitative planning of the ingredients. The observations of the physical-chemical formulations were based in comparison with the specifications of paracetamol solution contained in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and editing with some analysis on the same reference drug (Tylenol® child 32 mg / mL). We sought to develop a low cost and good quality formulation, acceptable to the children's m...

  1. Analysis of the depth of field in hexagonal array integral imaging systems based on modulation transfer function and Strehl ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Ayatollah

    2016-04-10

    Integral imaging is a technique for displaying three-dimensional images using microlens arrays. In this paper, a method for calculating root mean squared wavefront error and modulation transfer function (MTF) of a defocused integral imaging capture system with hexagonal aperture microlens arrays is introduced. Also, maximum allowable depth of field with Century MTF analyzing and Strehl criterion are obtained.

  2. Quantitative study of liver magnetic resonance spectroscopy quality at 3T using body and phased array coils with physical analysis and clinical evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the quality difference of short echo time (TE breathhold 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS of the liver at 3.0T using the body and phased array coils, respectively. In total, 20 pairs of single-voxel proton spectra of the liver were acquired at 3.0T using the phased array and body coils as receivers. Consecutive stacks of breathhold spectra were acquired using the point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS technique at a short TE of 30 ms and a repetition time (TR of 1500 ms. The first spectroscopy sequence was "copied" for the second acquisition to ensure identical voxel positioning. The MRS prescan adjustments of shimming and water suppression, signal-to noise ratio (SNR, and major liver quantitative information were compared between paired spectra. Theoretical calculation of the SNR and homogeneity of the region of interest (ROI, 2 cm×2 cm×2 cm using different coils loaded with 3D liver electromagnetic model of real human body was implemented in the theoretical analysis. The theoretical analysis showed that, inside the ROI, the SNR of the phase array coil was 2.8387 times larger than that of body coil and the homogeneity of the phase array coil and body coil was 80.10% and 93.86%, respectively. The experimental results showed excellent correlations between the paired data (all r > 0.86. Compared with the body coil group, the phased array group had slightly worse shimming effect and better SNR (all P values 0.05. The theoretical analysis and clinical experiment showed that the phased array coil was superior to the body coil with respect to 3.0T breathhold hepatic proton MRS.

  3. Equivalent-circuit model for stacked slot-based 2D periodic arrays of arbitrary geometry for broadband analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Maria Denise; Frezza, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the transmission and reflection spectra of stacked slot-based 2D periodic structures of arbitrary geometry and the ability to devise and control their electromagnetic responses have been a matter of extensive research for many decades. The purpose of this paper is to develop an equivalent Π circuit model based on the transmission-line theory and Floquet harmonic interactions, for broadband and short longitudinal period analysis. The proposed circuit model overcomes the limits of identical and symmetrical configurations imposed by the even/odd excitation approach, exploiting both the circuit topology of a single 2D periodic array of apertures and the ABCD matrix formalism. The transmission spectra obtained through the equivalent-circuit model have been validated by comparison with full-wave simulations carried out with a finite-element commercial electromagnetic solver. This allowed for a physical insight into the spectral and angular responses of multilayer devices with arbitrary aperture shapes, guaranteeing a noticeable saving of computational resources.

  4. Single Event Analysis and Fault Injection Techniques Targeting Complex Designs Implemented in Xilinx-Virtex Family Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth; Kim, Hak

    2014-01-01

    An informative session regarding SRAM FPGA basics. Presenting a framework for fault injection techniques applied to Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Introduce an overlooked time component that illustrates fault injection is impractical for most real designs as a stand-alone characterization tool. Demonstrate procedures that benefit from fault injection error analysis.

  5. Source location in plates based on the multiple sensors array method and wavelet analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong Jun; Shin, Tae Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2014-01-01

    A new method for impact source localization in a plate is proposed based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and wavelet analysis. For source localization, the direction of arrival of the wave caused by an impact on a plate and the distance between impact position and sensor should be estimated. The direction of arrival can be estimated accurately using MUSIC method. The distance can be obtained by using the time delay of arrival and the group velocity of the Lamb wave in a plate. Time delay is experimentally estimated using the continuous wavelet transform for the wave. The elasto dynamic theory is used for the group velocity estimation.

  6. Characterisation of acid dyes in forensic fibre analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography using narrow-bore columns and diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, D K; Gill, R; Blacklaws, C; Bickley, H M

    1988-06-17

    A gradient elution high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system with a diode array detector and a short narrow-bore (40 x 1 mm I.D.) column has been used to characterise a number of acid dyes. The resolution and reproducibility of the HPLC system have been evaluated and the detection limits for various dyes have been estimated. Comparisons are made with current methods of fibre dyestuff examination used in forensic science. The system has been applied to the analysis of dye extracted from single fibres. Using diode array detection, both chromatographic and spectral data can be produced in a single operation from casework sized samples.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Cultured on Microelectrode Arrays Based on Fluorescence Microscopy Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, João Fernando; Saito, José Hiroki; Neves, Amanda Ferreira; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro da Cruz; Destro-Filho, João-Batista; Nicoletti, Maria do Carmo

    2015-12-01

    Microelectrode Arrays (MEA) are devices for long term electrophysiological recording of extracellular spontaneous or evocated activities on in vitro neuron culture. This work proposes and develops a framework for quantitative and morphological analysis of neuron cultures on MEAs, by processing their corresponding images, acquired by fluorescence microscopy. The neurons are segmented from the fluorescence channel images using a combination of segmentation by thresholding, watershed transform, and object classification. The positioning of microelectrodes is obtained from the transmitted light channel images using the circular Hough transform. The proposed method was applied to images of dissociated culture of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cells. The morphological and topological quantitative analysis carried out produced information regarding the state of culture, such as population count, neuron-to-neuron and neuron-to-microelectrode distances, soma morphologies, neuron sizes, neuron and microelectrode spatial distributions. Most of the analysis of microscopy images taken from neuronal cultures on MEA only consider simple qualitative analysis. Also, the proposed framework aims to standardize the image processing and to compute quantitative useful measures for integrated image-signal studies and further computational simulations. As results show, the implemented microelectrode identification method is robust and so are the implemented neuron segmentation and classification one (with a correct segmentation rate up to 84%). The quantitative information retrieved by the method is highly relevant to assist the integrated signal-image study of recorded electrophysiological signals as well as the physical aspects of the neuron culture on MEA. Although the experiments deal with DRG cell images, cortical and hippocampal cell images could also be processed with small adjustments in the image processing parameter estimation.

  8. Analysis of selected carbonyl oxidation products in wine by liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ryan J; Laurie, V Felipe; Ebeler, Susan E; Wong, Jon W; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2008-09-19

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection and quantitation of acetaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, pyruvic acid, 2-ketoglutaric acid, and formaldehyde in wine, based on the formation of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones, is presented. These carbonyl compounds often result from the chemical oxidation of major wine components, and are known to affect flavor and color stability. Their analysis in wine is complicated due to their instability and their tendency to react reversibly with bisulfite to form alpha-hydroxysulfonates. Published methods that break down the sulfonates for the quantitation of total carbonyls in wine involve alkaline hydrolysis of sulfite-bound carbonyls, but we show, for the first time, that this alkaline treatment step significantly increases the concentration of carbonyls during analysis. A solution based on oxygen exclusion is described. The technique offers good specificity, reproducibility (%RSD 0.45-10.6), and limits of detection (1.29-7.53microgL(-1)). The method was successfully used to monitor concentration changes of these compounds in both white and red wines.

  9. Heat And Mass Transfer Analysis of a Film Evaporative MEMS Tunable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, William J.

    This thesis details the heat and mass transfer analysis of a MEMs microthruster designed to provide propulsive, attitude control and thermal control capabilities to a cubesat. This thruster is designed to function by retaining water as a propellant and applying resistive heating in order to increase the temperature of the liquid-vapor interface to either increase evaporation or induce boiling to regulate mass flow. The resulting vapor is then expanded out of a diverging nozzle to produce thrust. Because of the low operating pressure and small length scale of this thruster, unique forms of mass transfer analysis such as non-continuum gas flow were modeled using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. Continuum fluid/thermal simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics have been applied to model heat and mass transfer in the solid and liquid portions of the thruster. The two methods were coupled through variables at the liquid-vapor interface and solved iteratively by the bisection method. The simulations presented in this thesis confirm the thermal valving concept. It is shown that when power is applied to the thruster there is a nearly linear increase in mass flow and thrust. Thus, mass flow can be regulated by regulating the applied power. This concept can also be used as a thermal control device for spacecraft.

  10. Analysis and Optimization of a Novel 2-D Magnet Array with Gaps and Staggers for a Moving-Magnet Planar Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuedong; Zeng, Lizhan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel 2-D magnet array with gaps and staggers, which is especially suitable for magnetically levitated planar motor with moving magnets. The magnetic flux density distribution is derived by Fourier analysis and superposition. The influences of gaps and staggers on high-order harmonics and flux density were analyzed, and the optimized design is presented. Compared with the other improved structures based on traditional Halbach magnet arrays, the proposed design has the lowest high-order harmonics percentage, and the characteristics of flux density meet the demand of high acceleration in horizontal directions. It is also lightweight and easy to manufacture. The proposed magnet array was built, and the calculation results have been verified with experiment. PMID:29300323

  11. Monitoring the development of volcanic eruptions through volcanic lightning - Using a lightning mapping array, seismic and infrasound array, and visual plume analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. M.; Thompson, G.; McNutt, S. R.; Behnke, S. A.; Edens, H. E.; Van Eaton, A. R.; Gaudin, D.; Thomas, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The period of 28 May - 7 June 2015 at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan witnessed a multitude of Vulcanian eruptive events, which resulted in plumes reaching 500-3000m above the vent. These plumes varied from white, gas-rich plumes to dark grey and black ash-rich plumes, and were recorded on lowlight and infrared cameras. A nine-station lightning mapping array (LMA) was deployed to locate sources of VHF (67-73 MHz) radiation produced by lightning flashes and other types of electrical activity such as `continuous RF (radio frequency)'. Two Nanometrics Trillium broadband seismometers and six BSU infrasound sensors were deployed. Over this ten day period we recorded 1556 events that consisted of both seismic and infrasound signals, indicating explosive activity. There are an additional 1222 events that were recorded as only seismic or infrasound signals, which may be a result of precursory seismic signals or noise contamination. Plume discharge types included both distinct lightning flashes and `continuous RF'. The LMA ran continuously for the duration of the experiment. On 30 May 2015 at least seven lightning flashes were also detected by the Vaisala Global Lightning Detection 360 network, which detects VLF (3-30 kHz) radiation. However the University of Washington's World Wide Lightning Location Network, which also detects VLF radiation, detected no volcanic lightning flashes in this time period. This indicates that the electrical activity in Sakurajima's plume occurs near the lower limits of the VLF detection threshold. We investigate relationships between the plume dynamics, the geophysical signal and the corresponding electrical activity through: plume velocity and height; event waveform cross-correlation; volcano acoustic-seismic ratios; overall geophysical energy; RSAM records; and VHF sources detected by the LMA. By investigating these relationships we hope to determine the seismic/infrasound energy threshold required to generate measurable electrical activity

  12. A Fusion Approach to Feature Extraction by Wavelet Decomposition and Principal Component Analysis in Transient Signal Processing of SAW Odor Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant SINGH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical analysis of a new approach for development of surface acoustic wave (SAW sensor array based odor recognition system. The construction of sensor array employs a single polymer interface for selective sorption of odorant chemicals in vapor phase. The individual sensors are however coated with different thicknesses. The idea of sensor coating thickness variation is for terminating solvation and diffusion kinetics of vapors into polymer up to different stages of equilibration on different sensors. This is expected to generate diversity in information content of the sensors transient. The analysis is based on wavelet decomposition of transient signals. The single sensor transients have been used earlier for generating odor identity signatures based on wavelet approximation coefficients. In the present work, however, we exploit variability in diffusion kinetics due to polymer thicknesses for making odor signatures. This is done by fusion of the wavelet coefficients from different sensors in the array, and then applying the principal component analysis. We find that the present approach substantially enhances the vapor class separability in feature space. The validation is done by generating synthetic sensor array data based on well-established SAW sensor theory.

  13. Genome-wide mapping of copy number variation in humans: comparative analysis of high resolution array platforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajini R Haraksingh

    Full Text Available Accurate and efficient genome-wide detection of copy number variants (CNVs is essential for understanding human genomic variation, genome-wide CNV association type studies, cytogenetics research and diagnostics, and independent validation of CNVs identified from sequencing based technologies. Numerous, array-based platforms for CNV detection exist utilizing array Comparative Genome Hybridization (aCGH, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP genotyping or both. We have quantitatively assessed the abilities of twelve leading genome-wide CNV detection platforms to accurately detect Gold Standard sets of CNVs in the genome of HapMap CEU sample NA12878, and found significant differences in performance. The technologies analyzed were the NimbleGen 4.2 M, 2.1 M and 3×720 K Whole Genome and CNV focused arrays, the Agilent 1×1 M CGH and High Resolution and 2×400 K CNV and SNP+CGH arrays, the Illumina Human Omni1Quad array and the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array. The Gold Standards used were a 1000 Genomes Project sequencing-based set of 3997 validated CNVs and an ultra high-resolution aCGH-based set of 756 validated CNVs. We found that sensitivity, total number, size range and breakpoint resolution of CNV calls were highest for CNV focused arrays. Our results are important for cost effective CNV detection and validation for both basic and clinical applications.

  14. Search and analysis of superdeformed and oblate states in 193Pb nucleus with the EUROGAM II multidetector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducroux, L.

    1997-01-01

    This work is devoted to the search and analysis of superdeformed and oblate states in 193 Pb nucleus. High spin states of this isotope, populated via fusion-evaporation reaction 168 Er ( 30 Si, 5n) 193 Pb, have been studied with the EUROGAM II γ multidetector array located near the VIVITRON accelerator in Strasbourg. New sorting and analysis programs have been developed in particular related to the background treatment. Angular distribution and linear polarisation analysis allowed us to assign the γ transition multipolarities. Five dipole bands, corresponding to a weakly oblate-deformed shape of the nucleus, have been observed and connected to the low-lying states. The level scheme has been considerably extended up to a spin of 61/2 ℎ and an excitation energy of about 8 MeV. These structures have been interpreted as based on a high-K two-quasi-proton excitation coupled to rotation aligned quasi-neutrons. Six superdeformed bands, corresponding to a high prolate-deformed shape of the nucleus, have been observed. These six bands have been interpreted as three pairs of signature partners based on quasineutron excitations. The extraction of the g-factor of a K=9/2 neutron superdeformed orbital has been done for the first time in lead isotopes, giving access to the magnetic properties of the extreme nuclear matter. All these results have been discussed in terms of microscopic mean field self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations using the microscopic 'rotor + particle(s)' model. (author)

  15. Degradability of aged aquatic suspensions of C60 nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B.; Buendia, Inmaculada M.; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    While studies of the potential human and environmental effects of C60 and its derivatives are emerging in the scientific literature, the environmental fate of C60 is still largely unknown. In this study, aged aqueous suspensions of C60 (nC60) were investigated in the respirometric OECD test...... for ready biodegradability. Two suspensions of nC60 were prepared by stirring and aged under indirect exposure to sunlight for 36 months, which resulted in relatively stable suspensions with a dark-brown colour. The suspended nC60 could not be extracted into toluene and indicating that the particles were...... no longer present as underivatised nC60 but had undergone a transformation. TEM images and particle tracking analysis showed that the suspension consisted of particle aggregates with a size of 156 nm (SD=54nm) and 139nm (Sd=49), respectively, but also contained smaller aggregates. Samples of the nC60...

  16. Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyla, Philippe; Priem, Stephane; Vincent, Doyeux; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad

    2014-11-01

    We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. For instance, we examine the role of particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in determining the rheology of confined sheared suspensions. In addition we evaluate the intrinsic viscosity as well as the contribution of hydrodynamic interactions to the dissipation as a function of a wide range of confinements. Thanks to the direct visualisation of the whole 2D Stokes flow, we are able to give a clear interpretation about the rheology of semi-dilute confined suspensions.

  17. 49 CFR 238.427 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.427 Section 238.427... Equipment § 238.427 Suspension system. (a) General requirements. (1) Suspension systems shall be designed to... equipment. (2) Passenger equipment shall meet the safety performance standards for suspension systems...

  18. Analysis of the impacts of Wave Energy Converter arrays on the nearshore wave climate in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, A.; Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    As concerns over the use of fossil fuels increase, more and more effort is being put into the search for renewable and reliable sources of energy. Developments in ocean technologies have made the extraction of wave energy a promising alternative. Commercial exploitation of wave energy would require the deployment of arrays of Wave Energy Converters (WECs) that include several to hundreds of individual devices. Interactions between WECs and ocean waves result in both near-field and far-field changes in the incident wave field, including a significant decrease in wave height and a redirection of waves in the lee of the array, referred to as the wave shadow. Nearshore wave height and direction are directly related to the wave radiation stresses that drive longshore currents, rip currents and nearshore sediment transport, which suggests that significant far-field changes in the wave field due to WEC arrays could have an impact on littoral processes. The goal of this study is to investigate the changes in nearshore wave conditions and radiation stress forcing as a result of an offshore array of point-absorber type WECs using a nested SWAN model, and to determine how array size, configuration, spacing and distance from shore influence these changes. The two sites of interest are the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC) test sites off the coast of Newport Oregon, the North Energy Test Site (NETS) and the South Energy Test Site (SETS). NETS and SETS are permitted wave energy test sites located approximately 4 km and 10 km offshore, respectively. Twenty array configurations are simulated, including 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 devices in two and three staggered rows in both closely spaced (three times the WEC diameter) and widely spaced (ten times the WEC diameter) arrays. Daily offshore wave spectra are obtained from a regional WAVEWATCH III hindcast for 2011, which are then propagated across the continental shelf using SWAN. Arrays are represented in SWAN

  19. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration of a tomographic array in which the object can rotate about its axis is described. The X-ray detector is a cylindrical screen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The X-ray source has a line-shaped focus coinciding with the axis of rotation. The beam is fan-shaped with one side of this fan lying along the axis of rotation. The detector screen is placed inside an X-ray image multiplier tube

  20. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A tomographic array with the following characteristics is described. An X-ray screen serving as detector is placed before a photomultiplier tube which itself is placed in front of a television camera connected to a set of image processors. The detector is concave towards the source and is replacable. Different images of the object are obtained simultaneously. Optical fibers and lenses are used for transmission within the system

  1. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Calado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs. The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  2. An intelligent sensor array distributed system for vibration analysis and acoustic noise characterization of a linear switched reluctance actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  3. Molecular analysis of desmoid tumors with a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism array identifies new molecular candidate lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erben, Philipp; Nowak, Daniel; Sauer, Christian; Ströbel, Philipp; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Hohenberger, Peter; Kasper, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are neoplastic proliferations of connective tissues. The mutation status of the gene coding for catenin (cadherin-associated protein) beta 1 (CTNNB1) and trisomy 8 on the chromosomal level have been described to have prognostic relevance. In order to elucidate new molecular mechanisms underlying these tumors, we carried out a molecular analysis with a genome-wide human high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, in 9 patients. Single samples showed numerical aberrations on chromosomes (Chrs) 20 and 6 with either trisomy 20 or monosomy 6. No trisomy 8 could be detected. Recurrent heterozygous deletions were found in Chr 5q (including the APC gene locus, n = 3) and Chr 8p23 (n = 4, containing coding regions for the potential tumor suppressor gene CSMD1). This novel deletion in 8p23 showed an association with local recurrence. In addition, structural chromosomal changes (gain of Chrs 8 and 20) were found in a minority of cases. The genomic alteration affecting the candidate gene CSMD1 could be important in the development of desmoid tumors.

  4. Cytotoxicity, In vitro anti-Leishmanial and fingerprint HPLC- photodiode array analysis of the roots of Trillium govanianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kashif Maqbool; Nahar, Lutfun; Mannan, Abdul; Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Arfan, Muhammad; Ali Khan, Ghazanfar; Hussain, Izhar; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2017-09-05

    Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D. Don (Melanthiaceae alt. Trilliaceae), commonly known as 'nagchhatry' or 'teen patra', distributed from Pakistan to Bhutan about 2500-3800 m altitude is indigenous to Himalayas region. In folk medicine the plant has been reported for the treatment of wound healing, sepsis and in various sexual disorders. This paper reports, for the first time, to evaluate the cytotoxicity, in vitro anti-leishmanial (promastigotes) and fingerprint HPLC-photodiode array analysis of the MeOH extract of the roots of T. govanianum and its solid phase extraction fractions. Reverse phase HPLC-PDA based quantification revealed the presence of significant amount of quercetin, myrecetin and kaemferol ranging from 0.221to 0.528 μg/mg DW. MeOH extract revealed distinguishable protein kinase inhibitory activity against Streptomyces 85E strain with 18 mm bald phenotype. The remarkable toxicity profile against brine shrimps and leishmanial was manifested by MeOH extract with LC 50 10 and 38.5 μg/mL, respectively.

  5. Subclassification and Detection of New Markers for the Discrimination of Primary Liver Tumors by Gene Expression Analysis Using Oligonucleotide Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Holger G; Vogel, Ulrich; Scheurlen, Michael; Jobst, Jürgen

    2017-12-26

    The failure to correctly differentiate between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [CC] and hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC] is a significant clinical problem, particularly in terms of the different treatment goals for both cancers. In this study a specific gene expression profile to discriminate these two subgroups of liver cancer was established and potential diagnostic markers for clinical use were analyzed. To evaluate the gene expression profiles of HCC and intrahepatic CC, Oligonucleotide arrays ( Affymetrix U133A) were used. Overexpressed genes were checked for their potential use as new markers for discrimination and their expression values were validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analyses. 695 genes/expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in HCC (245 up-/450 down-regulated) and 552 genes/ESTs in CC (221 up-/331 down-regulated) were significantly dysregulated (p〈0.05, fold change >2, ≥70%). Using a supervised learning method, and one-way analysis of variance a specific 270-gene expression profile that enabled rapid, reproducible differentiation between both tumors and non-malignant liver tissues was established. A panel of 12 genes (e.g. HSP90β, ERG1, GPC3, TKT, ACLY, and NME1 for HCC; SPT2, T4S3, CNX43, TTD1, HBD01 for CC) were detected and partly described for the first time as potential discrimination markers. A specific gene expression profile for discrimination of primary liver cancer was identified and potential marker genes with feasible clinical impact were described.

  6. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  7. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  8. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  9. Mass-action model analysis of the apparent molar volume and heat capacity of pluronics in water and liposome suspensions at 25 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirion, François; Meilleur, Luc; Lévesque, Isabelle

    2013-07-09

    Pluronics are block copolymers composed of a central block of polypropylene oxide and two side chains of polyethylene oxide. They are used in water to generate aggregates and gels or added to phospholipid suspensions to prepare microparticles for drug delivery applications. The structure of these systems has been widely investigated. However, little is known about the mechanisms leading to these structures. This investigation compares the apparent molar volumes and heat capacities of Pluronics F38, F108, F127, P85, P104, and P103 at 25 °C in water and in the presence of lecithin liposomes. The changes in molar volumes, heat capacities, and enthalpies generated by a mass-action model are in good agreement with the loss of hydrophobic hydration of the polypropylene oxide central block of the Pluronics. However, the molecularity of the endothermic transitions is much smaller than the aggregation numbers reported in the literature for the same systems. It is suggested that Pluronics go through dehydration of their central block to form unimolecular or small entities having a hydrophobic polypropylene oxide core. In water, these entities would assemble athermally to form larger aggregates. In the presence of liposomes, they would be transferred into the hydrophobic lecithin bilayers of the liposomes. Light transmission experiments suggest that the liposome suspensions are significantly altered only when the added Pluronics are in the dehydrated state.

  10. High-throughput analysis of subtelomeric chromosome rearrangements by use of array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Eussen, B.H.; Janssen, I.M.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Cleef, B. van; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Brunner, H.G.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Telomeric chromosome rearrangements may cause mental retardation, congenital anomalies, and miscarriages. Automated detection of subtle deletions or duplications involving telomeres is essential for high-throughput diagnosis, but impossible when conventional cytogenetic methods are used. Array-based

  11. Analysis of chromosomal abnormalities by CGH-array in patients with dysmorphic and intellectual disability with normal karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Pratte-Santos, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Katyanne Heringer; Santos, Thainá Altoe; Cintra, Terezinha Sarquis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate chromosomal abnormalities by CGH-array in patients with dysmorphic features and intellectual disability with normal conventional karyotype. Methods Retrospective study, carried out from January 2012 to February 2014, analyzing the CGH-array results of 39 patients. Results Twenty-six (66.7%) patients had normal results and 13 (33.3%) showed abnormal results - in that, 6 (15.4%) had pathogenic variants, 6 (15.4%) variants designated as uncertain and 1 (2....

  12. Protein expression profiling by antibody array analysis with use of dried blood spot samples on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weidong; Mao, Ying Qing; Huang, Ruochun; Duan, Chaohui; Xi, Yun; Yang, Kai; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2014-01-31

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper offer several advantages compared to conventional serum/plasma samples: they do not require any phlebotomy or separation of blood by centrifugation; they are less invasive; they allow sample stability and shipment at room temperature; and they pose a negligible risk of infection with blood-borne viruses, such as HIV, HBV and HCV, to those who handle them. Therefore dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper can be a quick, convenient and inexpensive means of obtaining blood samples for biomarker discovery, disease screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-hospitalized, public health settings. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential application of dried blood spot samples (DBSS) in protein expression profiling using antibody array technology. First, optimal conditions for array assay performance using dried blood spot samples (DBSS) was established, including sample elution buffer, elution time, elution temperature and assay blocking buffer. Second, we analyzed dried blood spot samples (DBSS) using three distinct antibody array platforms, including sandwich-based antibody arrays, quantitative antibody arrays and biotin-label-based antibody arrays. In comparison with paired serum samples, detection of circulating proteins in dried blood spot samples (DBSS) correlated well for both low- and high-abundance proteins on all three antibody array platforms. In conclusion, our study strongly indicates the novel application of multiplex antibody array platforms to analyze dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper represents a viable, cost-effective method for protein profiling, biomarker discovery and disease screening in a large, population-based survey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative analysis of the size effect of room temperature nanoimprinted P3HT nanopillar arrays on the photovoltaic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guangzhu; Li, Chao; Li, Xiaohui; Wu, Yangjiang; Liu, Jieping; Li, Yaowen; Hu, Zhijun; Li, Yongfang

    2015-07-07

    We develop a solvent-assisted room temperature nanoimprint lithography (SART-NIL) technique to fabricate an ideal active layer consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanopillar arrays surrounded by [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy, two-dimensional grazing incidence wide angle X-rays diffraction, and conducting atomic force microscopy reveals that the SART-NIL technique can precisely control the size of P3HT nanopillar arrays. With the decrease in diameters of P3HT nanopillar arrays, the P3HT nanopillar arrays exhibit a more preferable face-on molecular orientation, enhanced UV-vis absorption and higher conducting ability along the direction perpendicular to the substrate. The ordered bulk heterojunction film consisting of P3HT nanopillar arrays with a diameter of ∼45 nm (OBHJ-45) gives face-on orientation, a high interfacial area of 2.87, a high conducting ability of ∼130 pA and efficient exciton diffusion and dissociation. The polymer solar cell (PSC) based on an OBHJ-45 film exhibits a significantly improved device performance compared with those of PSCs based on the P3HT nanoapillar arrays with diameters ∼100 nm and ∼60 nm. We believe that the SART-NIL technique is a powerful tool for fabricating an ideal active layer for high performance PSCs.

  14. Asystole following Reintubation during Suspension Laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl H. Glassman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient increase in heart rate and mean arterial pressure commonly occur during manipulation of the airway via direct laryngoscopy. This phenomenon is understood to be due to a sympathetic nervous system reflex causing an increase in plasma catecholamines. Rarely, severe bradycardia and possible asystole can occur following laryngoscopy. One previous report described asystole during suspension laryngoscopy after uneventful direct laryngoscopy. Here we report a case of asystole occurring at the time of reinsertion and cuff inflation of an endotracheal tube in a patient who had been hemodynamically stable during initial direct laryngoscopy and the ensuing suspension laryngoscopy. The asystole was immediately recognized and successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with the patient returning to baseline sinus rhythm. Cardiac arrest following laryngoscopy is rare. This case highlights the importance of continued vigilance even after the initial manipulations of the airway by both direct laryngoscopy and suspension laryngoscopy are to be performed. Identifying patients who may benefit from premedication with a vagolytic drug may prevent adversity. Preoperative heart rate analysis can identify patients with strong vagal tone.

  15. Assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Josef; Skočilas, Jan; Skočilasová, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    The article deals with assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics. The essential characteristics of a suspension are represented by the stiffness constants of the equivalent springs and the eigen frequencies of the oscillating movements in reference to the main central inertia axes of a vehicle. The premise of the experimental determination of these characteristic is the knowledge of the gravity center position and the knowledge of the main central inertia moments of the vehicle frame. The vehicle frame performs the general spatial movement when the vehicle moves. An analysis of the frame movement generally arises from Euler's equations which are commonly used for the description of the spherical movement. This solution is difficult and it can be simplified by applying the specific assumptions. The eigen frequencies solutions and solutions of the suspension stiffness are presented in the article. The solutions are applied on the railway and road vehicles with the simplifying conditions. A new method which assessed the characteristics is described in the article.

  16. Poetic faith and prosaic concerns. A defense of “suspension of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper defends a version of “suspension of disbelief” in an analysis of the problem concerning our emotional responses to fictional characters. The paper begins with an analysis of the issues, as raised initially by Colin Radford. It then offers an examination of Coleridge's notion of the suspension of disbelief. It is argued ...

  17. Application of the aqueous coating suspension for the protection of Gas Turbine Engine parts from corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the physical nature of receiving diffusion coatings from aqueous suspensions of various alloys for various conditions and their further exploitation. Structure of coatings, advantages and features of the production of coatings from aqueous suspensions are shown. Based on the analysis of thermodynamic reactions in the systems of elements formulations of aqueous suspensions were developed and practical recommendations for their application to the parts of gas turbine engine were given.

  18. Analysis of surface structure and hydrogen/deuterium exchange of colloidal silica suspension by contrast-variation small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takuya; Endo, Hitoshi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2008-05-06

    The microscopic surface structure and hydrogen/deuterium exchange effect were investigated by contrast-variation small-angle neutron scattering (CV-SANS) for three different-sized amorphous colloidal silica aqueous suspensions. The results show that the fraction of hydrogen/deuterium exchange per nanoparticle, phiH/D, strongly depends on the size of silica nanoparticles. This finding supports that the hydrogen/deuterium exchange occurs exclusively within a finite surface layer of silica nanoparticles, while the inner component remained unchanged. Detailed analyses of the scattering intensity functions led to the estimation of (1) phiH/D and (2) the thickness of the surface layer as functions of the particle radius. The surface layer thickness was found to increase from 18 to 35 A with decreasing the particle radius from 165 to 71.2 A. The surface area per unit weight of silica estimated with the CV-SANS results are comparable to those reported in the literature.

  19. Exon array analysis reveals neuroblastoma tumors have distinct alternative splicing patterns according to stage and MYCN amplification status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jun S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroblastoma (NB tumors are well known for their pronounced clinical and molecular heterogeneity. The global gene expression and DNA copy number alterations have been shown to have profound differences in tumors of low or high stage and those with or without MYCN amplification. RNA splicing is an important regulatory mechanism of gene expression, and differential RNA splicing may be associated with the clinical behavior of a tumor. Methods In this study, we used exon array profiling to investigate global alternative splicing pattern of 47 neuroblastoma samples in stage 1 and stage 4 with normal or amplified MYCN copy number (stage 1-, 4- and 4+. The ratio of exon-level expression to gene-level expression was used to detect alternative splicing events, while the gene-level expression was applied to characterize whole gene expression change. Results Principal component analysis (PCA demonstrated distinct splicing pattern in three groups of samples. Pairwise comparison identified genes with splicing changes and/or whole gene expression changes in high stage tumors. In stage 4- compared with stage 1- tumors, alternatively spliced candidate genes had little overlap with genes showing whole gene expression changes, and most of them were involved in different biological processes. In contrast, a larger number of genes exhibited either exon-level splicing, gene-level expression or both changes in stage 4+ versus stage 1- tumors. Those biological processes involved in stage 4- tumors were disrupted to a greater extent by both splicing and transcription regulations in stage 4+ tumors. Conclusions Our results demonstrated a significant role of alternative splicing in high stage neuroblastoma, and suggested a MYCN-associated splicing regulation pathway in stage 4+ tumors. The identification of differentially spliced genes and pathways in neuroblastoma tumors of different stages and molecular subtypes may be important to the

  20. WE-D-BRA-07: Analysis of ArcCHECK Diode Array Performance for ViewRay Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, S; Culberson, W; Bednarz, B; DeWerd, L; Bayouth, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Discrepancies in absolute dose values have been detected between the ViewRay treatment planning system and ArcCHECK readings when performing delivery quality assurance on the ViewRay system with the ArcCHECK-MR diode array (SunNuclear Corporation). In this work, we investigate whether these discrepancies are due to errors in the ViewRay planning and/or delivery system or due to errors in the ArcCHECK’s readings. Methods: Gamma analysis was performed on 19 ViewRay patient plans using the ArcCHECK. Frequency analysis on the dose differences was performed. To investigate whether discrepancies were due to measurement or delivery error, 10 diodes in low-gradient dose regions were chosen to compare with ion chamber measurements in a PMMA phantom with the same size and shape as the ArcCHECK, provided by SunNuclear. The diodes chosen all had significant discrepancies in absolute dose values compared to the ViewRay TPS. Absolute doses to PMMA were compared between the ViewRay TPS calculations, ArcCHECK measurements, and measurements in the PMMA phantom. Results: Three of the 19 patient plans had 3%/3mm gamma passing rates less than 95%, and ten of the 19 plans had 2%/2mm passing rates less than 95%. Frequency analysis implied a non-random error process. Out of the 10 diode locations measured, ion chamber measurements were all within 2.2% error relative to the TPS and had a mean error of 1.2%. ArcCHECK measurements ranged from 4.5% to over 15% error relative to the TPS and had a mean error of 8.0%. Conclusion: The ArcCHECK performs well for quality assurance on the ViewRay under most circumstances. However, under certain conditions the absolute dose readings are significantly higher compared to the planned doses. As the ion chamber measurements consistently agree with the TPS, it can be concluded that the discrepancies are due to ArcCHECK measurement error and not TPS or delivery system error. This work was funded by the Bhudatt Paliwal Professorship and the

  1. Clogging by sieving in microchannels: Application to the detection of contaminants in colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Alban; Barney, Erin C.; Perro, Adeline; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Stone, Howard A.; Dressaire, Emilie

    2014-08-01

    We report on a microfluidic method that allows measurement of a small concentration of large contaminants in suspensions of solid micrometer-scale particles. To perform the measurement, we flow the colloidal suspension through a series of constrictions, i.e., a microchannel of varying cross-section. We show and quantify the role of large contaminants in the formation of clogs at a constriction and the growth of the resulting filter cake. By measuring the time interval between two clogging events in an array of parallel microchannels, we are able to estimate the concentration of contaminants whose size is selected by the geometry of the microfluidic device. This technique for characterizing colloidal suspensions offers a versatile and rapid tool to explore the role of contaminants on the properties of the suspensions.

  2. Flow-injection analysis utilizing a spectrally segmented photodiode-array inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. 1: Microcolumn preconcentration for the determination of molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Naoki; Brushwyler, K. R.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    1989-02-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system incorporating a microcolumn of activated alumina was used for the determination of molybdenum by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The transient signal resulting from the injection of molybdenum was determined by a spectrally segmented photodiode-array spectro-meter. Linear calibration was established for molybdenum over a concentration range 0 to 1000 ng/ml. The detection capability was approximately 50 times better than offered by comparable continuous-nebulization systems. The detection limit for molybdenum was 0.2 ng/ml, and the relative standard deviations at 500 and 10 ng/ml were about 2 and 5 percent, respectively. The ability of the multichannel photodiode array spectrometer to correct for background shifts which occur during signal integration period provided improved precision and accuracy. Application to the analysis of molybdenum in standard sea water (NASS-2) was demonstrated.

  3. Mixing Suspensions in Slender Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rieger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial suspension mixing processes are carried out both in standard tanks (H/D =1 and in the tanks with height H/D > 1. When only one impeller is used in such slender tanks, it may be difficult to produce a suspension of desired homogeneity. Hence it may be necessary to install a larger number of impellers on the shaft.The aim of this study was to explain the mechanism of suspension formation in slender tanks (H/D = 2 with an increased number of impellers. On the basis of the solid bed height on the tank bottom, the position of the suspension - water interface and the concentration profile of solid particles in the suspension (standard deviation of solid body concentration the operation of the impellers was estimated and conclusions were drawn on how and at what distance from each other to install them were presented.The location of the upper, highest impeller appeared to be specially significant. On the basis of this study it is recommended to locate the upper impeller so that its distance from the free liquid surface is less than 0.8 D. It was found that such a position of the highest impeller was also advantageous from the energy point of view.

  4. Three-dimensional lithographically-defined organotypic tissue arrays for quantitative analysis of morphogenesis and neoplastic progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Inman, Jamie L.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-02-13

    Here we describe a simple micromolding method to construct three-dimensional arrays of organotypic epithelial tissue structures that approximate in vivo histology. An elastomeric stamp containing an array of posts of defined geometry and spacing is used to mold microscale cavities into the surface of type I collagen gels. Epithelial cells are seeded into the cavities and covered with a second layer of collagen. The cells reorganize into hollow tissues corresponding to the geometry of the cavities. Patterned tissue arrays can be produced in 3-4 h and will undergo morphogenesis over the following one to three days. The protocol can easily be adapted to study a variety of tissues and aspects of normal and neoplastic development.

  5. Quantitative analysis of seismic wave propagation anomalies in azimuth and apparent slowness at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) using seismic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeguas, A. García.; Almendros, J.; Abella, R.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2011-02-01

    We analyse shot data recorded by eight seismic arrays during an active-source seismic experiment carried out at Deception Island (Antarctica) in 2005 January. For each source we estimate the apparent slowness and propagation azimuth of the first wave arrival. Since both source and receiver positions are accurately known, we are able to interpret the results in terms of the effect of the heterogeneities of the medium on wave propagation. The results show the presence of significant propagation anomalies. Nearby shots produce large apparent slowness values above 0.6 s km-1, while distant shots produce small values, down to about 0.15-0.20 s km-1. These values are different for each array, which shows the importance of the local structure under the receiver. The spatial distributions of apparent slowness are not radial as we would expect in a flat-layered medium. And again, these distributions are different for each array. The azimuth anomalies defined as the difference between the empirical estimates and the values expected in a 1-D model (i.e. the source-array directions) suggest ubiquitous wave front distortions. We have detected both positive and negative anomalies. For some shot-array geometries, azimuth anomalies are quite large with values up to 60°. The distribution of the anomalies depends on the position of the array. Some of these features can be interpreted in terms of a shallow magma chamber and shallow rigid bodies imaged by high-resolution seismic tomography. However several details remain unexplained. Further work is required, including modelling of synthetic wavefields on realistic models of Deception Island and/or apparent slowness vector tomography.

  6. ACTIVE CONTROL OF QUARTER-CAR SUSPENSION SYSTEM USING LINEAR QUADRATIC REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Nandedkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The automobile is composed of many systems. One of these is the suspension system. The main functions of the automotive suspension system are to provide vehicle support, stability and directional control during handling manoeuvres and to provide effective isolation from road disturbances. The suspension system has to balance the tradeoff between ride comfort and handling performance. This paper analyses the passive suspension system and active suspension system using a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR controller. A linear quarter-car model is used for the analysis and simulation. The performance of the LQR controller is compared with the passive suspension system. The simulation results show that the LQR controller improves vehicle ride comfort.

  7. SU-F-T-458: Tracking Trends of TG-142 Parameters Via Analysis of Data Recorded by 2D Chamber Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrian, A; Kabat, C; Defoor, D; Saenz, D; Rasmussen, K; Kirby, N; Gutierrez, A; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: With increasing QA demands of medical physicists in clinical radiation oncology, the need for an effective method of tracking clinical data has become paramount. A tool was produced which scans through data automatically recorded by a 2D chamber array and extracts relevant information recommended by TG-142. Using this extracted information a timely and comprehensive analysis of QA parameters can be easily performed enabling efficient monthly checks on multiple linear accelerators simultaneously. Methods: A PTW STARCHECK chamber array was used to record several months of beam outputs from two Varian 2100 series linear accelerators and a Varian NovalisTx−. In conjunction with the chamber array, a beam quality phantom was used to simultaneously to determine beam quality. A minimalist GUI was created in MatLab that allows a user to set the file path of the data for each modality to be analyzed. These file paths are recorded to a MatLab structure and then subsequently accessed by a script written in Python (version 3.5.1) which then extracts values required to perform monthly checks as outlined by recommendations from TG-142. The script incorporates calculations to determine if the values recorded by the chamber array fall within an acceptable threshold. Results: Values obtained by the script are written to a spreadsheet where results can be easily viewed and annotated with a “pass” or “fail” and saved for further analysis. In addition to creating a new scheme for reviewing monthly checks, this application allows for able to succinctly store data for follow up analysis. Conclusion: By utilizing this tool, parameters recommended by TG-142 for multiple linear accelerators can be rapidly obtained and analyzed which can be used for evaluation of monthly checks.

  8. Analysis of pushing exercises: muscle activity and spine load while contrasting techniques on stable surfaces with a labile suspension strap training system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Cannon, Jordan; Andersen, Jordan T

    2014-01-01

    Labile surfaces in the form of suspension straps are increasingly being used as a tool in resistance training programs. Pushing is a common functional activity of daily living and inherently part of a well-rounded training program. This study examined pushing exercises performed on stable surfaces and unstable suspension straps, specifically muscle activation levels and spine loads were quantified together with the influence of employing technique coaching. There were several main questions that this study sought to answer: Which exercises challenged particular muscles? What was the magnitude of the resulting spine load? How did stable and unstable surfaces differ? Did coaching influence the results? Fourteen men were recruited as part of a convenience sample (mean age, 21.1 ± 2.0 years; height, 1.77 ± 0.06 m; mean weight, 74.6 ± 7.8 kg). Data were processed and input to a sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model that used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force-in this way, the model was sensitive to the individuals choice of motor control for each task; muscle forces and linked segment joint loads were used to calculate spine loads. Exercises were performed using stable surfaces for hand/feet contact and repeated where possible with labile suspension straps. Speed of movement was standardized across participants with the use of a metronome for each exercise. There were gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics to every task. In general, the instability associated with the labile exercises required greater torso muscle activity than when performed on stable surfaces. Throughout the duration of an exercise, there was a range of compression; the TRX push-up ranged from 1,653 to 2,128.14 N, whereas the standard push-up had a range from 1,233.75 to 1,530.06 N. There was no significant effect of exercise on spine compression (F(4,60) = 0.86, p = 0.495). Interestingly, a standard push-up showed significantly

  9. Precision magnetic suspension linear bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, David L.; Queen, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    We have shown the design and analyzed the electromechanics of a linear motor suitable for independently controlling two suspension degrees of freedom. This motor, at least on paper, meets the requirements for driving an X-Y stage of 10 Kg mass with about 4 m/sq sec acceleration, with travel of several hundred millimeters in X and Y, and with reasonable power dissipation. A conceptual design for such a stage is presented. The theoretical feasibility of linear and planar bearings using single or multiple magnetic suspension linear motors is demonstrated.

  10. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...... are presented. The theory is illustrated by an example....

  11. Disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for online parallelized cell adhesion kinetics analysis on quartz crystal resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cama, G.; Jacobs, T.; Dimaki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    among all the sensors of the array. As well, dedicated sensor interface electronics were developed and optimized for fast spectra acquisition of all 16 QCRs with a miniaturized impedance analyzer. This allowed performing cell cultivation experiments for the observation of fast cellular reaction kinetics...

  12. Numerical Analysis of Ultrasonic Beam Profile Due to the Change of the Number of Piezoelectric Elements for Phased Array Transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Woo; Lee, Joon Hyun

    1999-01-01

    A phased array is a multi-element piezoelectric device whose elements are individually excited by electric pulses at programmed delay time. One of the advantages of using phased array in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) application over conventional ultrasonic transducers is their great maneuverability of ultrasonic beam. There are some parameters such as the number and the size of the piezoelectric elements and the inter-element spacing of the elements to design phased array transducer. In this study, the characteristic of ultrasonic beam for phased array transducer due to the variation of the number of elements has been simulated for ultrasonic SH-wave on the basis of Huygen's principle. Ultrasonic beam directivity and focusing due to the change of time delay of each element were discussed due to the change of the number of piezoelectric elements. It was found that ultrasonic beam was much more spreaded and hence its sound pressure was decreased as steering angle of ultrasonic beam was increased. In addition, the ability of ultrasonic bean focusing decreased gradually with the increase of focal length at the same piezoelectric elements. However, the ability of beam focusing was improved as the number of consisting elements was increased

  13. Secondary Education Students' Difficulties in Algorithmic Problems with Arrays: An Analysis Using the SOLO Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrachnos, Euripides; Jimoyiannis, Athanassios

    2017-01-01

    Developing students' algorithmic and computational thinking is currently a major objective for primary and secondary education in many countries around the globe. Literature suggests that students face at various difficulties in programming processes, because of their mental models about basic programming constructs. Arrays constitute the first…

  14. Carbon nanotube suspensions, dispersions, & composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Trevor John

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are amazing structures that hold the potential to revolutionize many areas of scientific research. CNTs can be behave both as semiconductors and metals, can be grown in highly ordered arrays and patterns or in random orientation, and can be comprised of one graphene cylinder (single wall nanotube, SWNT) or several concentric graphene cylinders (multi-wall nanotube, MWNT). Although these structures are usually only a few nanometers wide, they can be grown up to centimeter lengths, and in massive quantities. CNTs can be produced in a variety of processes ranging from repeated combustion of organic material such as dried grass, arc-discharge with graphite electrodes, laser ablation of a graphitic target, to sophisticated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. CNTs are stronger than steel but lighter than aluminum, and can be more conductive than copper or semiconducting like silicon. This variety of properties has been matched by the wide variety of applications that have been developed for CNTs. Many of these applications have been limited by the inability of researchers to tame these structures, and incorporating CNTs into existing technologies can be exceedingly difficult and prohibitively expensive. It is therefore the aim of the current study to develop strategies for the solution processing and deposition of CNTs and CNT-composites, which will enable the use of CNTs in existing and emerging technologies. CNTs are not easily suspended in polar solvents and are extremely hydrophobic materials, which has limited much of the solution processing to organic solvents, which also cannot afford high quality dispersions of CNTs. The current study has developed a variety of aqueous CNT solutions that employ surfactants, water-soluble polymers, or both to create suspensions of CNTs. These CNT 'ink' solutions were deposited with a variety of techniques that have afforded many interesting structures, both randomly oriented as well as highly

  15. Exergetic Optimization of a Solar Photovoltaic Array

    OpenAIRE

    Sarhaddi, Faramarz; Farahat, Said; Ajam, Hossein; Behzadmehr, Amin

    2009-01-01

    An exergetic optimization is developed to determine the optimal performance and design parameters of a solar photovoltaic (PV) array. A detailed energy and exergy analysis is carried out to evaluate the electrical performance, exergy destruction components, and exergy efficiency of a typical PV array. The exergy efficiency of a PV array obtained in this paper is a function of climatic, operating, and design parameters such as ambient temperature, solar radiation intensity, PV array temperatur...

  16. Tribology of swollen starch granule suspensions from maize and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Selway, Nichola; Shelat, Kinnari J; Dhital, Sushil; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-01-02

    The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water. Microscopy analysis of the samples following tribological testing suggests that this is due to the rapid break-up of potato ghosts under the shear and rolling conditions within the tribological contact. A reduction in the small deformation moduli (associated with a weak gel structure) is also observed when the potato ghost suspensions are subjected to steady shear using parallel plate rheometry; both microscopy and particle size analysis show that this is accompanied by the partial shear-induced breakage of ghost particles. This interplay between particle microstructure and the resultant rheological and lubrication dynamics of starch ghost suspensions contributes to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of textural and other functional properties of cooked starches in food and other applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flow-injection analysis utilizing a spectrally segmented photodiode-array inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer—I. Microcolumn preconcentration for the determination of molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, N.; Brushwyler, K. R.; Hieftje, G. M.

    A flow-injection analysis (FIA) system incorporating a microcolumn of activated alumina was used for the determination of molybdenum by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The transient signal resulting from the injection of molybdenum was determined by a spectrally segmented photodiode-array spectrometer. Linear calibration was established for molybdenum over a concentration range 0-1000 ng ml -1. The detection capability was approximately 50 times better than that offered by comparable continuous-nebulization systems. The detection limit for molybdenum was 0.2 ng ml -1, and the relative standard deviations at 500 and 10 ng ml -1 were about 2 and 5%, respectively. The ability of the multichannel photodiode-array spectrometer to correct for background shifts which occur during the signal integration period provided improved precision and accuracy. Application to the determination of molybdenum in standard sea water (NASS-2) was demonstrated.

  18. Cytohistological analysis of somatic embryogenesis in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. I. Comparison of cell suspension containing and lacking natural fluorescence with in vivo developing embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tarkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under in vivo conditions early-globular embryos occur in cucumber on the 9th day after pollination, heart-shaped ones on the 14th, and morphologically mature embryos appear on the 19th day. Single starch grains already appear in the cells of the globular embryo, and in the heart-shaped one they occur within the forming root cap. In the morphologically mature embryo only the precambium is free from starch. Somatic embryogenesis (SE in suspension occurs similarly as in vivo, even though the starch localization is somewhat different and torpedo-like embryos occur, which are not observed in vivo. The histological structure of in vitro embryos is similar to in vivo ones, and the greatest morphological difference are the poorly developed cotyledons and their variable number (1 to 3. Aggregates showing fluorescence were found to be composed of cells which differ in morphology from cells not showing fluorescence and appear to be more capable of attaining the mature stages.

  19. Effective temperature for sheared suspensions: A route towards closures for migration in bidisperse suspension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollebregt, H.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    By extending the concept of an effective temperature, earlier introduced for sheared monodisperse suspensions, we propose a continuum theory for sheared bidisperse suspensions. We show the theory for sheared suspensions can be constructed from the theory for Brownian suspensions by replacing the

  20. Rotational diffusion in dense suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, M. H. J.; Frenkel, D.; Lowe, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    We have computed the rotational diffusion coefficient for a suspension of hard spheres. We find excellent agreement with experimental results over a density range up to, and including, the colloidal crystal. However, we find that theories derived to second order in the volume fraction overestimate

  1. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is Part 1 in a series of two describing probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal (shedding) in a 350 MWth suspension boiler, firing straw and wood. The influence of fuel type (straw share in wood), probe exposure time, probe surface temperature (500, 550, and 600 °C), and flu...

  2. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers, describing probe measurements of deposit buildup and removal (shedding), conducted in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, firing straw and wood. Investigations of deposit buildup and shedding have been made by use of an advanced online deposit probe and a s...

  3. Fracture in Kaolinite clay suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgodagan Acharige, Sebastien; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Arratia, Paulo E.

    2017-11-01

    Clay minerals are involved in many natural (landslides, river channels) and industrial processes (ceramics, cosmetics, oil recovery). They are plate shaped charged colloids and exhibit different flow properties than simpler colloids when suspended in a liquid such as thixotropy and shear-banding. kaolinite platelets are non-swelling, meaning that the stacks formed by the platelets do not have water layers, and thus the suspension does not have a sol-gel transition. However, it has been shown that kaolinite suspensions possesses a non-zero yield stress even at low concentrations, indicating that the particles arrange themselves in a structure through attractive interactions. Here, we experimentally investigate the sedimentation of kaolinite suspensions in a Hele-Shaw cell. The sedimentation of these dilute suspensions can display solid behavior like fracture, revealed in cross-polarized light, which is linked to the failure of the weakly-bonded structure (typical yield stress 10-2 Pa). By changing the interaction potential of the particles (by sonication or introducing salts), we show through these sedimentation experiments, how the fracture pattern can be avoided. Research was sponsored by the Army Research Laboratory and was accomplished under Grant Number 569074.

  4. Nonlinear models of suspension bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 321, č. 2 (2006), s. 828-850 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : suspension bridges * principle of minimum energy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.758, year: 2006

  5. Physical changes of beta-sitosterol crystals in oily suspensions during heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bonsdorff-Nikander, Anna; Lievonen, Satu; Christiansen, Leena

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to describe the thermal behavior of beta-sitosterol crystals in oil-suspensions with a focus on the role of water during heating. The suspensions were prepared by recrystallization in order to achieve a microcrystalline particle size. The structural changes together...... with the mechanical properties of the suspensions during heating were studied by using variable temperature X-ray powder diffractometry (VT-XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Hydrated beta-sitosterol crystals in an oil-suspension dehydrated, despite the composition......, which was immiscible in the surrounding oil, caused the recrystallization of hydrated beta-sitosterol during cooling. This procedure indicated a reversible dehydration process. Structural and thermal analysis of beta-sitosterol crystals in suspensions, together with mechanical analysis made it possible...

  6. Dense suspensions: force response and jamming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Kann, S.

    2012-01-01

    The response of dense suspensions to an external force was studied using two different experiments. In the first experiment, objects were settled in a deep bath of a dense cornstarch suspension. This is the only suspension to result in two unexpected phenomena: Velocity oscillations in the bulk, and

  7. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pounds or Less § 570.8 Suspension systems. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut or..., shall be installed on both front springs, both rear springs, or on all four springs. Shock absorber...) Inspection procedure. Examine front and rear end suspension parts for conditions indicated. (b) Shock...

  8. Alternatives to Suspensions: Rationale and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jenna K.; Dowdy, Erin; Jimerson, Shane R.; Rime, W. Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Suspensions are often used as an individual disciplinary consequence in attempts to reduce problem behaviors in the future. However, suspensions have shown to be less effective for students with specific behavioral challenges and problems. When examining suspensions in the context of behaviorist and social-ecological learning theories, suspending…

  9. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut...

  10. SNP array and FISH analysis of a proband with a 22q13.2- 22qter duplication shed light on the molecular origin of the rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Chiara; Marchina, Eleonora; Bertini, Valeria; Traversa, Michele; Savio, Giulia; Pilotta, Alba; Piovani, Giovanna

    2015-07-07

    In about one third of healthy subjects, the microscopic analysis of chromosomes reveals heteromorphisms with no clinical implications: for example changes in size of the short arm of acrocentric chromosomes. In patients with a pathological phenotype, however, a large acrocentric short arm can mask a genomic imbalance and should be investigated in more detail. We report the first case of a chromosome 22 with a large acrocentric short arm masking a partial trisomy of the distal long arm, characterized by SNP array. We suggest a possible molecular mechanism underlying the rearrangement. We report the case of a 15-year-old dysmorphic girl with low grade psychomotor retardation characterized by a karyotype with a large acrocentric short arm of one chromosome 22. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a normal karyotype with a very intense Q-fluorescent and large satellite on the chromosome 22 short arm. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis showed a de novo partial trisomy of the 22q13.2-qter chromosome region attached to the short arm of chromosome 22. SNP-array analysis showed that the duplication was 8.5 Mb long and originated from the paternal chromosome. Haplotype analysis revealed that the two paternal copies of the distal part of chromosome 22 have the same haplotype and, therefore, both originated from the same paternal chromosome 22. A possible molecular mechanism that could explain this scenario is a break-induced replication (BIR) which is involved in non-reciprocal translocation events. The combined use of FISH and SNP arrays was crucial for a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying this rearrangement. This strategy could be applied for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cryptic chromosomal rearrangements.

  11. MassCode Liquid Arrays as a Tool for Multiplexed High-Throughput Genetic Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Gregory S.; Khine, Htet; Zhou, Tina T.; Ryan, Daniel E.; Brand, Tony; McBride, Mary T.; Killeen, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplexed detection assays that analyze a modest number of nucleic acid targets over large sample sets are emerging as the preferred testing approach in such applications as routine pathogen typing, outbreak monitoring, and diagnostics. However, very few DNA testing platforms have proven to offer a solution for mid-plexed analysis that is high-throughput, sensitive, and with a low cost per test. In this work, an enhanced genotyping method based on MassCode technology was devised and integrated as part of a high-throughput mid-plexing analytical system that facilitates robust qualitative differential detection of DNA targets. Samples are first analyzed using MassCode PCR (MC-PCR) performed with an array of primer sets encoded with unique mass tags. Lambda exonuclease and an array of MassCode probes are then contacted with MC-PCR products for further interrogation and target sequences are specifically identified. Primer and probe hybridizations occur in homogeneous solution, a clear advantage over micro- or nanoparticle suspension arrays. The two cognate tags coupled to resultant MassCode hybrids are detected in an automated process using a benchtop single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The prospective value of using MassCode probe arrays for multiplexed bioanalysis was demonstrated after developing a 14plex proof of concept assay designed to subtype a select panel of Salmonella enterica serogroups and serovars. This MassCode system is very flexible and test panels can be customized to include more, less, or different markers. PMID:21544191

  12. MassCode liquid arrays as a tool for multiplexed high-throughput genetic profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Richmond

    Full Text Available Multiplexed detection assays that analyze a modest number of nucleic acid targets over large sample sets are emerging as the preferred testing approach in such applications as routine pathogen typing, outbreak monitoring, and diagnostics. However, very few DNA testing platforms have proven to offer a solution for mid-plexed analysis that is high-throughput, sensitive, and with a low cost per test. In this work, an enhanced genotyping method based on MassCode technology was devised and integrated as part of a high-throughput mid-plexing analytical system that facilitates robust qualitative differential detection of DNA targets. Samples are first analyzed using MassCode PCR (MC-PCR performed with an array of primer sets encoded with unique mass tags. Lambda exonuclease and an array of MassCode probes are then contacted with MC-PCR products for further interrogation and target sequences are specifically identified. Primer and probe hybridizations occur in homogeneous solution, a clear advantage over micro- or nanoparticle suspension arrays. The two cognate tags coupled to resultant MassCode hybrids are detected in an automated process using a benchtop single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The prospective value of using MassCode probe arrays for multiplexed bioanalysis was demonstrated after developing a 14plex proof of concept assay designed to subtype a select panel of Salmonella enterica serogroups and serovars. This MassCode system is very flexible and test panels can be customized to include more, less, or different markers.

  13. Array-CGH analysis in Rwandan patients presenting development delay/intellectual disability with multiple congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwineza, Annette; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Hitayezu, Janvier; Hellin, Anne Cecile; Jamar, Mauricette; Dideberg, Vinciane; Rusingiza, Emmanuel K; Bours, Vincent; Mutesa, Leon

    2014-07-12

    Array-CGH is considered as the first-tier investigation used to identify copy number variations. Right now, there is no available data about the genetic etiology of patients with development delay/intellectual disability and congenital malformation in East Africa. Array comparative genomic hybridization was performed in 50 Rwandan patients with development delay/intellectual disability and multiple congenital abnormalities, using the Agilent's 180 K microarray platform. Fourteen patients (28%) had a global development delay whereas 36 (72%) patients presented intellectual disability. All patients presented multiple congenital abnormalities. Clinically significant copy number variations were found in 13 patients (26%). Size of CNVs ranged from 0,9 Mb to 34 Mb. Six patients had CNVs associated with known syndromes, whereas 7 patients presented rare genomic imbalances. This study showed that CNVs are present in African population and show the importance to implement genetic testing in East-African countries.

  14. Single Event Test Methodologies and System Error Rate Analysis for Triple Modular Redundant Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory; Edmonds, Larry D.; Swift, Gary; Carmichael, Carl; Tseng, Chen Wei; Heldt, Kevin; Anderson, Scott Arlo; Coe, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present a test methodology for estimating system error rates of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) mitigated with Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR). The test methodology is founded in a mathematical model, which is also presented. Accelerator data from 90 nm Xilins Military/Aerospace grade FPGA are shown to fit the model. Fault injection (FI) results are discussed and related to the test data. Design implementation and the corresponding impact of multiple bit upset (MBU) are also discussed.

  15. ArrayPitope: Automated Analysis of Amino Acid Substitutions for Peptide Microarray-Based Antibody Epitope Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skjødt; Østerbye, Thomas; Marcatili, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    of the data provided in such large-scale screenings is far from trivial and in most cases it requires advanced computational and statistical skills. Here, we present an online application for automated identification of linear B cell epitopes, allowing the non-expert user to analyse peptide microarray data......-HSA (and mouse anti-rabbit-Cy3). The application is made available at: www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ArrayPitope....

  16. A versatile polypeptide platform for integrated recognition and reporting: affinity arrays for protein-ligand interaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Karin; Dolphin, Gunnar T; Liedberg, Bo; Lundström, Ingemar; Baltzer, Lars

    2004-05-17

    A molecular platform for protein detection and quantification is reported in which recognition has been integrated with direct monitoring of target-protein binding. The platform is based on a versatile 42-residue helix-loop-helix polypeptide that dimerizes to form four-helix bundles and allows site-selective modification with recognition and reporter elements on the side chains of individually addressable lysine residues. The well-characterized interaction between the model target-protein carbonic anhydrase and its inhibitor benzenesulfonamide was used for a proof-of-concept demonstration. An affinity array was designed where benzenesulfonamide derivatives with aliphatic or oligoglycine spacers and a fluorescent dansyl reporter group were introduced into the scaffold. The affinities of the array members for human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) were determined by titration with the target protein and were found to be highly affected by the properties of the spacers (dissociation constant Kd=0.02-3 microM). The affinity of HCAII for acetazolamide (Kd=4 nM) was determined in a competition experiment with one of the benzenesulfonamide array members to address the possibility of screening substance libraries for new target-protein binders. Also, successful affinity discrimination between different carbonic anhydrase isozymes highlighted the possibility of performing future isoform-expression profiling. Our platform is predicted to become a flexible tool for a variety of biosensor and protein-microarray applications within biochemistry, diagnostics and pharmaceutical chemistry.

  17. An initial analysis of options for a UK feed-in tariff for photovoltaic energy, from an array owner's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plater, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The UK government has announced the introduction from April 2010 of a feed-in tariff (FIT) for renewable energy, and initiated a consultation on its design. This paper compares three possible variants of a UK FIT for rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays, on the basis of calculated income and array cost payback time, and for three locations (north, central and southern England) and various levels of household electricity consumption. This modelling is based on an FIT rate equivalent to Germany's. It concludes that an FIT which paid only for PV electricity surplus to on-site needs, and exported to the grid, would mean a simple payback time too long to make array purchase appealing. Preferable would be either export to the grid of all PV electricity for FIT payment; or a lower FIT rate for electricity used on-site, plus full FIT for any surplus exported. The latter would involve significantly lower costs in feed-in tariff payments. Finally, the effect of the UK government's illustrative FIT rate for consultation is examined for the same locations and annual consumption levels.

  18. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microRNA arrays using the AgiMicroRna Bioconductor library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Romero Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main research tool for identifying microRNAs involved in specific cellular processes is gene expression profiling using microarray technology. Agilent is one of the major producers of microRNA arrays, and microarray data are commonly analyzed by using R and the functions and packages collected in the Bioconductor project. However, an analytical package that integrates the specific characteristics of microRNA Agilent arrays has been lacking. Results This report presents the new bioinformatic tool AgiMicroRNA for the pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microRNA array data. The software is implemented in the open-source statistical scripting language R and is integrated in the Bioconductor project (http://www.bioconductor.org under the GPL license. For the pre-processing of the microRNA signal, AgiMicroRNA incorporates the robust multiarray average algorithm, a method that produces a summary measure of the microRNA expression using a linear model that takes into account the probe affinity effect. To obtain a normalized microRNA signal useful for the statistical analysis, AgiMicroRna offers the possibility of employing either the processed signal estimated by the robust multiarray average algorithm or the processed signal produced by the Agilent image analysis software. The AgiMicroRNA package also incorporates different graphical utilities to assess the quality of the data. AgiMicroRna uses the linear model features implemented in the limma package to assess the differential expression between different experimental conditions and provides links to the miRBase for those microRNAs that have been declared as significant in the statistical analysis. Conclusions AgiMicroRna is a rational collection of Bioconductor functions that have been wrapped into specific functions in order to ease and systematize the pre-processing and statistical analysis of Agilent microRNA data. The development of this package

  19. Analysis of Dynamic Characteristic for Solar Arrays in Series and Global Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Optimal Initial Value Incremental Conductance Strategy under Partially Shaded Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial shading (PS is an unavoidable condition which significantly reduces the efficiency and stability of a photovoltaic (PV system. With PS, the system usually exhibits multiple-peak output power characteristics, but single-peak is also possible under special PS conditions. In fact it is shown that the partial shading condition (PSC is the necessary but not sufficient condition for multiple-peak. Based on circuit analysis, this paper shows that the number of peak points can be determined by short-circuit currents and maximum-power point currents of all the arrays in series. Then the principle is established based on which the number of the peak points is to be determined. Furthermore, based on the dynamic characteristic of solar array, this paper establishes the rule for determination of the relative position of the global maximum power point (GMPP. In order to track the GMPP within an appropriate period, a reliable technique and the corresponding computer algorithm are developed for GMPP tracking (GMPPT control. It exploits a definable nonlinear relation has been found between variable environmental parameters and the output current of solar arrays at every maximum power point, obtained based on the dynamic performance corresponding to PSC. Finally, the proposed method is validated with MATLAB®/Simulink® simulations and actual experiments. It is shown that the GMPPT of a PV generation system is indeed realized efficiently in a realistic environment with partial shading conditions.

  20. Wireless charing pillow for a fully implantable hearing aid: Design of a circular array coil based on finite element analysis for reducing magnetic weak zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung-Gyu; Kim, Jong Hoon; Shin, Dong Ho; Woo, Seong Tak; Seong, Ki Woong; Lee, Jyung Hyun; Kim, Myoung Nam; Wei, Qun; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Many types of fully implantable hearing aids have been developed. Most of these devices are implanted behind the ear. To maintain the implanted device for a long period of time, a rechargeable battery and wireless power transmission are used. Because inductive coupling is the most renowned method for wireless power transmission, many types of fully implantable hearing aids are transcutaneously powered using inductively coupled coils. Some patients with an implantable hearing aid require a method for conveniently charging their hearing aid while they are resting or sleeping. To address this need, a wireless charging pillow has been developed that employs a circular array coil as one of its primary parts. In this device, all primary coils are simultaneously driven to maintain an effective charging area regardless of head motion. In this case, however, there may be a magnetic weak zone that cannot be charged at the specific secondary coil's location on the array coil. In this study, assuming that a maximum charging distance is 4 cm, a circular array coil-serving as a primary part of the charging pillow-was designed using finite element analysis. Based on experimental results, the proposed device can charge an implantable hearing aid without a magnetic weak zone within 4 cm of the perpendicular distance between the primary and secondary coils.

  1. The fine specificity of mannose-binding and galactose-binding lectins revealed using outlier motif analysis of glycan array data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Kevin A; Liden, Daniel; Haab, Brian B

    2012-01-01

    Glycan-binding proteins are commonly used as analytical reagents to detect the levels of specific glycan structures in biological samples. A detailed knowledge of the specificities of glycan-binding proteins is required for properly interpreting their binding data. A powerful technology for characterizing glycan-binding specificity is the glycan array. However, the interpretation of glycan-array data can be difficult due to the complex fine specificities of certain glycan-binding proteins. We developed a systematic approach, called outlier-motif analysis, for extracting fine-specificity information from glycan-array data, and we applied the method to the study of four commonly used lectins: two mannose binders (concanavalin A and Lens culinaris) and two galactose binders (Bauhinia purpurea and peanut agglutinin). The study confirmed the known, primary specificity of each lectin and also revealed new insights into their binding preferences. Lens culinaris's main specificity may be non-terminal, α-linked mannose with a single linkage at its 2' carbon, which is more restricted than previous definitions. We found broader specificity for bauhinea purpurea (BPL) than previously reported, showing that BPL can bind terminal N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and penultimate β-linked galactose under certain limitations. Peanut agglutinin may bind terminal Galβ1,3Gal, a glycolipid motif, in addition to terminal Galβ1,3GalNAc, a common O-linked glycoprotein motif. These results could be used to more accurately interpret data obtained using these well-studied lectins. Furthermore, this study demonstrates a systematic and general approach for extracting fine-specificity information from glycan-array data.

  2. Lectin-Array Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Raquel; Echevarria, Juan; Hernandez, Alvaro; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders. Unlocking the potential of glycans as disease markers will require rapid and unbiased glycoproteomics methods for glycan biomarker discovery. The present method is a facile and rapid protocol for qualitative analysis of protein glycosylation in complex biological mixtures. While traditional lectin arrays only provide an average signal for the glycans in the mixture, which is usually dominated by the most abundant proteins, our method provides individual lectin binding profiles for all proteins separated in the gel electrophoresis step. Proteins do not have to be excised from the gel for subsequent analysis via the lectin array but are transferred by contact diffusion from the gel to a glass slide presenting multiple copies of printed lectin arrays. Fluorescently marked glycoproteins are trapped by the printed lectins via specific carbohydrate-lectin interactions and after a washing step their binding profile with up to 20 lectin probes is analyzed with a fluorescent scanner. The method produces the equivalent of 20 lectin blots in a single experiment, giving detailed insight into the binding epitopes present in the fractionated proteins. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Design and analysis of an ultrasonic transducer micro-array for near-field imaging of age related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clyde C.

    Obtaining quantitative data about tissue has been a goal of ultrasonography since its inception, such data provides invaluable information for diagnosing disease. Traditional ultrasound imaging techniques (B-Mode, C-Mode and M-Mode) have been used to diagnose diseases from images of organs. However, images obtained via these techniques, in some cases, provide limited information about the pathology of the tissues being examined. This is because much of the information that is used for diagnosis depends upon qualitative cues emerging from the echoic profiles of bulk tissue properties. In order to obtain quantitative information about tissue properties, an understanding of the interaction of the ultrasound system proper and tissue is necessary. This requires the creation of detailed models of both the ultrasound imaging system and tissue. These models enable us to obtain quantitative information about tissue, by examining features of backscattered data, generated by the interaction of the ultrasonic imaging system with the tissue under examination. Imaging systems are typically designed with little consideration of the constraints of the imaging environment or the acoustic features of the tissue which include impedance, scatterer size, shape and density. We propose to take into account the physical properties of tissue in designing ultrasonic imaging arrays. We develop a framework for designing ultrasonic imaging systems (primarily the transducer and transducer array) with physical parameters that are tuned to detect specific features of tissue. The design methodology obtains the parameters of an NxN transducer array constrained to a size of e.g. 2mm x 2mm (the size required for medical imaging). The physical parameters of the transducer elements are also obtained for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) technology. In addition to the overall size constraints (2 mm x 2 mm), several other constraints put limitation upon the possible system

  4. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz

  5. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  6. Evaluating damping elements for two-stage suspension vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M. Martinod R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical state of the damping elements for a vehicle having two-stage suspension was evaluated by using numerical models based on the multi-body system theory; a set of virtual tests used the eigenproblem mathematical method. A test was developed based on experimental modal analysis (EMA applied to a physical system as the basis for validating the numerical models. The study focused on evaluating vehicle dynamics to determine the influence of the dampers’ technical state in each suspension state.

  7. Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects

    OpenAIRE

    Doyeux , Vincent; Priem , Stephane; Jibuti , Levan; Farutin , Alexander; Ismail , Mourad; Peyla , Philippe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions in the presence of walls, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. Thanks to the direct visualization of the whole 2D flow (th...

  8. Chemotaxonomic study of Chrysobalanus icaco Linnaeus (Chrysobalanaceae) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection fingerprint in combination with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paracampo, Nádia Elígia Nunes Pinto; Prance, Ghillean Tolmie; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; da Silva, José Alberto Fracassi

    2017-05-01

    We investigated a strategy for the chemotaxonomy study of Chrysobalanus icaco Linnaeus (Chrysobalanaceae) based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection fingerprint in combination with multivariate analysis. Two models using principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were developed, and the samples could be successfully classified into two classes: Class 1 (red morphotype) and Class 2 (white and black morphotypes). Furthermore, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the main compounds responsible for class separation. The partial least squares discriminant analysis model accurately classified the C. icaco samples using an external validation subset with prediction ability of 100% and revealed the existence of two chemotypes. The most important finding obtained in this study is that the three morphotypes distinguished by the mature fruit color (white, red, and black) are not all phytoequivalent to each other. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  10. Theoretical rheology of suspensions of ferromagnetic rod-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenberger, A.R.; Dahler, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    The authors extend the linear response-like derivation of the generalized Navier-Stokes equation to non-Newtonian flows with rate of strain-dependent transport coefficients. They derive a time correlation function expression for the viscosity tensor and point out possible ambiguities in the operational definitions of viscosity coefficients. Their analysis is specific to a suspension of polar, rod-like ferromagnetic particles. A commentary is included about the approximations that lead from the time correlation function and the molecular definition of the viscosity tensor to the standard, Brownian dynamics model used in the theoretical rheology of suspensions. Some theoretical difficulties and logical inconsistencies are pointed out. Preliminary results for the transport coefficients of dilute suspension of magnetic rod-like particles are presented

  11. Mathematical models for suspension bridges nonlinear structural instability

    CERN Document Server

    Gazzola, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    This work provides a detailed and up-to-the-minute survey of the various stability problems that can affect suspension bridges. In order to deduce some experimental data and rules on the behavior of suspension bridges, a number of historical events are first described, in the course of which several questions concerning their stability naturally arise. The book then surveys conventional mathematical models for suspension bridges and suggests new nonlinear alternatives, which can potentially supply answers to some stability questions. New explanations are also provided, based on the nonlinear structural behavior of bridges. All the models and responses presented in the book employ the theory of differential equations and dynamical systems in the broader sense, demonstrating that methods from nonlinear analysis can allow us to determine the thresholds of instability.

  12. Sedimentation and Compaction of Calcium Carbonate Aggregating Suspensions : Scaling Analysis of the Equilibrium Sédimentation et compaction de suspensions agrégées de carbonate de calcium : analyse en loi d'échelle de l'équilibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senis D.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggregating suspensions generally separate into a clear supernatant and a voluminous gelled sediment. The suspension remains homogeneous (i. e. a gel stable under gravity forms only when the volume fraction of particles exceeds a given value Phi**. The present study is devoted to the determination of Phi**. A simplified model describing the gel equilibrium has been developed and its validity is checked comparing its predictions to systematic measurements of the sediment volume performed on calcium carbonate suspensions. Applying this model to the prediction of Phi**, we show that Phi** is not a characteristic of the physico-chemical system but depends on the height of the sample, its aspect ratio and friction between the gel and the side wall. For large (respectively small aspect ratios, we find that Phi** is a power law function of the width (respectively the height of the sample involving an exponent 1/(K - 1 which is related to the dependence of the yield stress on the volume fraction of the suspension. Les suspensions agrégées se divisent généralement en un surnageant transparent et un sédiment gélifié volumineux. La suspension demeure homogène (gel stable sous l'effet de la gravité seulement quand la fraction volumique des particules dépasse une valeur donnée Phi**. La présente étude porte sur le calcul de Phi**. Un modèle simplifié décrivant l'équilibre du gel a été mis au point et sa validité est vérifiée en comparant de ses prédictions avec des mesures systématiques du volume du sédiment effectuées sur des suspensions de carbonate de calcium. Si nous appliquons ce modèle à la prédiction de Phi**, nous démontrons que Phi** n'est pas une caractéristique du système physicochimique mais qu'il dépend de la hauteur de l'échantillon, de son rapport d'aspect et des frottements entre le gel et la paroi, Pour les grands (respectivement petits rapports d'aspect, nous montrons que Phi** est une fonction en loi de

  13. A preconcentrator chip employing μ-SPME array coated with in-situ-synthesized carbon adsorbent film for VOCs analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Yee; Cheng, Wei-Rui; Liu, Mao-Huang; Tian, Wei-Cheng; Lu, Chia-Jung

    2012-11-15

    We report the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a μ-preconcentrator chip that utilizes an array of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) needles coated with in-situ-grown carbon adsorbent film. The structure of the SPME needle (diameter=100 μm, height=250 μm) array inside the sampling chamber was fabricated using a deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) process to enhance the attachable surface area for adsorbent film. Heaters and temperature sensors were fabricated onto the back of a μ-preconcentrator chip using lithography patterning and a metal lift-off process. The devices were sealed by anodic bonding and diced prior to the application of the adsorbent film. An adsorbent precursor, cellulose was dissolved in water and dynamically coated onto the SPME needle array. The coated cellulose film was converted into a porous carbon film via pyrolysis at 600 °C in a N(2) atmosphere. The surface area of the carbon adsorbent film was 308 m(2)/g, which is higher than that of a commercial adsorbent Carbopack X. A preconcentration factor as high as 13,637-fold was demonstrated using toluene. Eleven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of different volatilities and functional groups were sampled and analyzed by GC-FID, and the desorption peak widths at half height were all less than 2.6 s after elution from a 15m capillary GC column. There was no sign of performance degradation after continuous operation for 50 cycles in air. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Classification of the medicinal plants of the genus Atractylodes using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection combined with multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Deok; Kim, Unyong; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Eom, Han Young; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Seul Gi; Choi, Yong Seok; Han, Sang Beom

    2016-04-01

    Analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection were developed for the discrimination of the rhizomes of four Atractylodes medicinal plants: A. japonica, A. macrocephala, A. chinensis, and A. lancea. A quantitative study was performed, selecting five bioactive components, including atractylenolide I, II, III, eudesma-4(14),7(11)-dien-8-one and atractylodin, on twenty-six Atractylodes samples of various origins. Sample extraction was optimized to sonication with 80% methanol for 40 min at room temperature. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was established using a C18 column with a water/acetonitrile gradient system at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 236 nm. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was applied to certify the reliability of the quantitative results. The developed methods were validated by ensuring specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, recovery, robustness, and stability. Results showed that cangzhu contained higher amounts of atractylenolide I and atractylodin than baizhu, and especially atractylodin contents showed the greatest variation between baizhu and cangzhu. Multivariate statistical analysis, such as principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, were also employed for further classification of the Atractylodes plants. The established method was suitable for quality control of the Atractylodes plants. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Simultaneous fingerprint, quantitative analysis and anti-oxidative based screening of components in Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae using liquid chromatography coupled with Charged Aerosol and Coulometric array Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhao, Xin; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2017-04-01

    An analytical approach including fingerprint, quantitative analysis and rapid screening of anti-oxidative components was established and successfully applied for the comprehensive quality control of Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae (RSG), a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine with the homology of medicine and food. Thirteen components were tentatively identified based on their retention behavior, UV absorption and MS fragmentation patterns. Chemometric analysis based on coulmetric array data was performed to evaluate the similarity and variation between fifteen batches. Eight discriminating components were quantified using single-compound calibration. The unit responses of those components in coulmetric array detection were calculated and compared with those of several compounds reported to possess antioxidant activity, and four of them were tentatively identified as main contributors to the total anti-oxidative activity. The main advantage of the proposed approach was that it realized simultaneous fingerprint, quantitative analysis and screening of anti-oxidative components, providing comprehensive information for quality assessment of RSG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.

  17. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  18. Thermal transport phenomena in nanoparticle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Bozorg Bigdeli, Masoud; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have received great attention, as they may offer an approach to enhance thermophysical properties of base fluids. A good variety of applications in engineering and biomedicine has been investigated with the aim of exploiting the above potential. However, the multiscale nature of nanosuspensions raises several issues in defining a comprehensive modelling framework, incorporating relevant molecular details and much larger scale phenomena, such as particle aggregation and their dynamics. The objectives of the present topical review is to report and discuss the main heat and mass transport phenomena ruling macroscopic behaviour of nanosuspensions, arising from molecular details. Relevant experimental results are included and properly put in the context of recent observations and theoretical studies, which solved long-standing debates about thermophysical properties enhancement. Major transport phenomena are discussed and in-depth analysis is carried out for highlighting the role of geometrical (nanoparticle shape, size, aggregation, concentration), chemical (pH, surfactants, functionalization) and physical parameters (temperature, density). We finally overview several computational techniques available at different scales with the aim of drawing the attention on the need for truly multiscale predictive models. This may help the development of next-generation nanoparticle suspensions and their rational use in thermal applications. (topical review)

  19. Thermal transport phenomena in nanoparticle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Bozorg Bigdeli, Masoud; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have received great attention, as they may offer an approach to enhance thermophysical properties of base fluids. A good variety of applications in engineering and biomedicine has been investigated with the aim of exploiting the above potential. However, the multiscale nature of nanosuspensions raises several issues in defining a comprehensive modelling framework, incorporating relevant molecular details and much larger scale phenomena, such as particle aggregation and their dynamics. The objectives of the present topical review is to report and discuss the main heat and mass transport phenomena ruling macroscopic behaviour of nanosuspensions, arising from molecular details. Relevant experimental results are included and properly put in the context of recent observations and theoretical studies, which solved long-standing debates about thermophysical properties enhancement. Major transport phenomena are discussed and in-depth analysis is carried out for highlighting the role of geometrical (nanoparticle shape, size, aggregation, concentration), chemical (pH, surfactants, functionalization) and physical parameters (temperature, density). We finally overview several computational techniques available at different scales with the aim of drawing the attention on the need for truly multiscale predictive models. This may help the development of next-generation nanoparticle suspensions and their rational use in thermal applications.

  20. Micromirror arrays for object selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldis, Severin; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Clerc, Pierre-Andre; Zickar, Michael; Noell, Wilfried; de Rooij, Nico

    2007-10-01

    We report on micromirror arrays being developed for object selection in Multi Object Spectrographs for astronomical applications. The micromirrors are etched in bulk single crystal silicon whereas the cantilever type suspension is realized by surface micromachining. One micromirror element is 100μm × 200μm in size. The micromirrors are actuated electrostatically by electrodes located on a second chip. The use of silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers for both mirror and electrode chip ensures thermal compatibility for cryogenic operation. A system of multiple landing beams has been developed, which passively locks the mirror at a well defined tilt angle when actuated. The mechanical tilt angle obtained is 20° at a pull-in voltage of 90V. Measurements with an optical profiler showed that the tilt angle of the actuated and locked mirror is stable with a precision of one arc minute over a range of 15V. This locking system makes the tilt angle merely independent from process variations across the wafer and thus provides uniform tilt angle over the whole array. The precision on tilt angle from mirror to mirror measured is one arc minute. The surface quality of the mirrors in actuated state is better than 10nm peak-to-valley and the local roughness is around 1nm RMS. Preliminary cryogenic tests showed that the micromirror device sustains 120K without any structural damage.

  1. Polymorphism in Bacterial Flagella Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Walter J.

    Bacterial flagella are a type of biological polymer studied for its role in bacterial motility and the polymorphic transitions undertaken to facilitate the run and tumble behavior. The naturally rigid, helical shape of flagella gives rise to novel colloidal dynamics and material properties. This thesis studies methods in which the shape of bacterial flagella can be controlled using in vitro methods and the changes the shape of the flagella have on both single particle dynamics and bulk material properties. We observe individual flagellum in both the dilute and semidilute regimes to observe the effects of solvent condition on the shape of the filament as well as the effect the filament morphology has on reptation through a network of flagella. In addition, we present rheological measurements showing how the shape of filaments effects the bulk material properties of flagellar suspensions. We find that the individual particle dynamics in suspensions of flagella can vary with geometry from needing to reptate linearly via rotation for helical filaments to the prevention of long range diffusion for block copolymer filaments. Similarly, for bulk material properties of flagella suspensions, helical geometries show a dramatic enhancement in elasticity over straight filaments while block copolymers form an elastic gel without the aid of crosslinking agents.

  2. ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.

    1989-11-01

    Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.

  3. Analysis of low F-number dual micro-axilens array with binary structures by rigorous electromagnetic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Di; Feng, Li-Shuang; Zhang, Chun-Xi

    2011-05-23

    We investigate a two-dimensional low F-number dual micro-axilens array with binary structures based on a rigorous electromagnetic theory. The focal characteristics of a binary dual micro-axilens array (BDMA), including axial performances (focal depth and focal shift) and transverse performances (focal spot size and diffraction efficiency), have been analyzed in detail for different F-numbers, different incident polarization (TE and TM) waves, and different distances between micro-axilens. Numerical results reveal that the interference effect of a BDMA is not very evident, which is useful for building a BDMA with a high fill factor, and the focal characteristics of a BDMA are sensitive to the polarization of an incident wave. The comparative results have also shown that the diffraction efficiency of a BDMA will increase and the focal spot size of a BDMS will decrease when the F-number increases, for both TE polarization and TM polarization, respectively. It is expected that this investigation will provide useful insight into the design of micro-optical elements with high integration.

  4. Array-CGH analysis in Rwandan patients presenting development delay/intellectual disability with multiple congenital anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Array-CGH is considered as the first-tier investigation used to identify copy number variations. Right now, there is no available data about the genetic etiology of patients with development delay/intellectual disability and congenital malformation in East Africa. Methods Array comparative genomic hybridization was performed in 50 Rwandan patients with development delay/intellectual disability and multiple congenital abnormalities, using the Agilent’s 180 K microarray platform. Results Fourteen patients (28%) had a global development delay whereas 36 (72%) patients presented intellectual disability. All patients presented multiple congenital abnormalities. Clinically significant copy number variations were found in 13 patients (26%). Size of CNVs ranged from 0,9 Mb to 34 Mb. Six patients had CNVs associated with known syndromes, whereas 7 patients presented rare genomic imbalances. Conclusion This study showed that CNVs are present in African population and show the importance to implement genetic testing in East-African countries. PMID:25016475

  5. Effects of transients in LIGO suspensions on searches for gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M.; Abbott, T. D.; Aston, S. M.; González, G.; Macleod, D. M.; McIver, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, S. B.; Ananyeva, A.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Batch, J. C.; Bell, A. S.; Betzwieser, J.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blair, C. D.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Countryman, S. T.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Danzmann, K.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Driggers, J. C.; Dwyer, S. E.; Effler, A.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fair, H.; Fernández Galiana, A.; Fisher, R. P.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Grote, H.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Heintze, M. C.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Hough, J.; Izumi, K.; Jones, R.; Kandhasamy, S.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kijbunchoo, N.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kuehn, G.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lormand, M.; Lundgren, A. P.; MacInnis, M.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McIntyre, G.; Mendell, G.; Merilh, E. L.; Meyers, P. M.; Miller, J.; Mittleman, R.; Moreno, G.; Mueller, G.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Palamos, J. R.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I.; Principe, M.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Raab, F. J.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Ryan, K.; Sadecki, T.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Savage, R. L.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Sellers, D.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sigg, D.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Sorazu, B.; Staley, A.; Strain, K. A.; Tanner, D. B.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Weaver, B.; Weiss, R.; Weßels, P.; Willke, B.; Wipf, C. C.; Worden, J.; Wu, G.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the transient behavior of the Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) suspensions used to seismically isolate the optics. We have characterized the transients in the longitudinal motion of the quadruple suspensions during Advanced LIGO's first observing run. Propagation of transients between stages is consistent with modeled transfer functions, such that transient motion originating at the top of the suspension chain is significantly reduced in amplitude at the test mass. We find that there are transients seen by the longitudinal motion monitors of quadruple suspensions, but they are not significantly correlated with transient motion above the noise floor in the gravitational wave strain data, and therefore do not present a dominant source of background noise in the searches for transient gravitational wave signals. Using the suspension transfer functions, we compared the transients in a week of gravitational wave strain data with transients from a quadruple suspension. Of the strain transients between 10 and 60 Hz, 84% are loud enough that they would have appeared above the sensor noise in the top stage quadruple suspension monitors if they had originated at that stage at the same frequencies. We find no significant temporal correlation with the suspension transients in that stage, so we can rule out suspension motion originating at the top stage as the cause of those transients. However, only 3.2% of the gravitational wave strain transients are loud enough that they would have been seen by the second stage suspension sensors, and none of them are above the sensor noise levels of the penultimate stage. Therefore, we cannot eliminate the possibility of transient noise in the detectors originating in the intermediate stages of the suspension below the sensing noise.

  6. Effects of transients in LIGO suspensions on searches for gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M; Abbott, T D; Aston, S M; González, G; Macleod, D M; McIver, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Adams, C; Adhikari, R X; Anderson, S B; Ananyeva, A; Appert, S; Arai, K; Ballmer, S W; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Batch, J C; Bell, A S; Betzwieser, J; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Biwer, C; Blair, C D; Bork, R; Brooks, A F; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Countryman, S T; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Danzmann, K; Da Silva Costa, C F; Daw, E J; DeBra, D; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Driggers, J C; Dwyer, S E; Effler, A; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Factourovich, M; Fair, H; Fernández Galiana, A; Fisher, R P; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gras, S; Gray, C; Grote, H; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harry, G M; Heintze, M C; Heptonstall, A W; Hough, J; Izumi, K; Jones, R; Kandhasamy, S; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Kaufer, S; Kawabe, K; Kijbunchoo, N; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Korth, W Z; Kuehn, G; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lockerbie, N A; Lormand, M; Lundgren, A P; MacInnis, M; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Mason, K; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McIntyre, G; Mendell, G; Merilh, E L; Meyers, P M; Miller, J; Mittleman, R; Moreno, G; Mueller, G; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Palamos, J R; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pele, A; Penn, S; Phelps, M; Pierro, V; Pinto, I; Principe, M; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Raab, F J; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Robertson, N A; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romie, J H; Rowan, S; Ryan, K; Sadecki, T; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Savage, R L; Schofield, R M S; Sellers, D; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T J; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sigg, D; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, B; Smith, J R; Sorazu, B; Staley, A; Strain, K A; Tanner, D B; Taylor, R; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Torrie, C I; Traylor, G; Tuyenbayev, D; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Veggel, A A; Vecchio, A; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Vo, T; Vorvick, C; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Weaver, B; Weiss, R; Weßels, P; Willke, B; Wipf, C C; Worden, J; Wu, G; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Zhang, L; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the transient behavior of the Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) suspensions used to seismically isolate the optics. We have characterized the transients in the longitudinal motion of the quadruple suspensions during Advanced LIGO's first observing run. Propagation of transients between stages is consistent with modeled transfer functions, such that transient motion originating at the top of the suspension chain is significantly reduced in amplitude at the test mass. We find that there are transients seen by the longitudinal motion monitors of quadruple suspensions, but they are not significantly correlated with transient motion above the noise floor in the gravitational wave strain data, and therefore do not present a dominant source of background noise in the searches for transient gravitational wave signals. Using the suspension transfer functions, we compared the transients in a week of gravitational wave strain data with transients from a quadruple suspension. Of the strain transients between 10 and 60 Hz, 84% are loud enough that they would have appeared above the sensor noise in the top stage quadruple suspension monitors if they had originated at that stage at the same frequencies. We find no significant temporal correlation with the suspension transients in that stage, so we can rule out suspension motion originating at the top stage as the cause of those transients. However, only 3.2% of the gravitational wave strain transients are loud enough that they would have been seen by the second stage suspension sensors, and none of them are above the sensor noise levels of the penultimate stage. Therefore, we cannot eliminate the possibility of transient noise in the detectors originating in the intermediate stages of the suspension below the sensing noise.

  7. Digital fast pulse shape and height analysis on cadmium-zinc-telluride arrays for high-flux energy-resolved X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbene, Leonardo; Principato, Fabio; Gerardi, Gaetano; Bettelli, Manuele; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C; Zambelli, Nicola; Benassi, Giacomo; Zappettini, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) arrays with photon-counting and energy-resolving capabilities are widely proposed for next-generation X-ray imaging systems. This work presents the performance of a 2 mm-thick CZT pixel detector, with pixel pitches of 500 and 250 µm, dc coupled to a fast and low-noise ASIC (PIXIE ASIC), characterized only by the preamplifier stage. A custom 16-channel digital readout electronics was used, able to digitize and process continuously the signals from each output ASIC channel. The digital system performs on-line fast pulse shape and height analysis, with a low dead-time and reasonable energy resolution at both low and high fluxes. The spectroscopic response of the system to photon energies below ( 109 Cd source) and above ( 241 Am source) the K-shell absorption energy of the CZT material was investigated, with particular attention to the mitigation of charge sharing and pile-up. The detector allows high bias voltage operation (>5000 V cm -1 ) and good energy resolution at moderate cooling (3.5% and 5% FWHM at 59.5 keV for the 500 and 250 µm arrays, respectively) by using fast pulse shaping with a low dead-time (300 ns). Charge-sharing investigations were performed using a fine time coincidence analysis (TCA), with very short coincidence time windows up to 10 ns. For the 500 µm pitch array (250 µm pitch array), sharing percentages of 36% (52%) and 60% (82%) at 22.1 and 59.5 keV, respectively, were measured. The potential of the pulse shape analysis technique for charge-sharing detection for corner/border pixels and at high rate conditions (250 kcps pixel -1 ), where the TCA fails, is also shown. Measurements demonstrated that significant amounts of charge are lost for interactions occurring in the volume of the inter-pixel gap. This charge loss must be accounted for in the correction of shared events. These activities are within the framework of an international collaboration on the development of energy

  8. High-Throughput Analysis With 96-Capillary Array Electrophoresis and Integrated Sample Preparation for DNA Sequencing Based on Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Gang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve the fluorescence detection for the multiplexed capillary array electrophoresis, extend its use beyond the genomic analysis, and to develop an integrated micro-sample preparation system for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The authors first demonstrated multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separations in a 96-capillary array system with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Migration times of four kinds of fluoresceins and six polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are normalized to one of the capillaries using two internal standards. The relative standard deviations (RSD) after normalization are 0.6-1.4% for the fluoresceins and 0.1-1.5% for the PAHs. Quantitative calibration of the separations based on peak areas is also performed, again with substantial improvement over the raw data. This opens up the possibility of performing massively parallel separations for high-throughput chemical analysis for process monitoring, combinatorial synthesis, and clinical diagnosis. The authors further improved the fluorescence detection by step laser scanning. A computer-controlled galvanometer scanner is adapted for scanning a focused laser beam across a 96-capillary array for laser-induced fluorescence detection. The signal at a single photomultiplier tube is temporally sorted to distinguish among the capillaries. The limit of detection for fluorescein is 3 x 10-11 M (S/N = 3) for 5-mW of total laser power scanned at 4 Hz. The observed cross-talk among capillaries is 0.2%. Advantages include the efficient utilization of light due to the high duty-cycle of step scan, good detection performance due to the reduction of stray light, ruggedness due to the small mass of the galvanometer mirror, low cost due to the simplicity of components, and flexibility due to the independent paths for excitation and emission.

  9. Coupling Between Waveguide-Fed Slot Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between two waveguide-fed planar slot arrays has been investigated using full-wave analysis. The analysis employs the method-of-moments solution to the pertinent coupled integral equations for the aperture electric field of all slots. In order to compute coupling between two arrays, the input port of the first array is excited with a TE(sub 10) mode wave while the second one is match-terminated. After solving the moment method matrix equations, the aperture fields of all slots are obtained and thereby the TE(sub 10) mode wave received at the input port of the second array is determined. Coupling between two arrays is the ratio of the wave amplitude arriving in the second array port to the incident wave amplitude at the first array port. The coupling mechanism has been studied as a function of spacing between arrays in different directions, e.g. the electric field plane, the magnetic field plane, and the diagonal plane. Computed coupling values are presented for different array geometries. This work is novel since it provides a good understanding of coupling between waveguide-fed slot arrays as a function of spacing and orientation for different aperture distributions and array architectures. This serves as a useful tool for antenna design engineers and system engineers.

  10. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Lea, T.G.; Douglas, A.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  11. Characterization and error analysis of an N×N unfolding procedure applied to filtered, photoelectric x-ray detector arrays. II. Error analysis and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Fehl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A five-channel, filtered-x-ray-detector (XRD array has been used to measure time-dependent, soft-x-ray flux emitted by z-pinch plasmas at the Z pulsed-power accelerator (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The preceding, companion paper [D. L. Fehl et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120402 (2010PRABFM1098-4402] describes an algorithm for spectral reconstructions (unfolds and spectrally integrated flux estimates from data obtained by this instrument. The unfolded spectrum S_{unfold}(E,t is based on (N=5 first-order B-splines (histograms in contiguous unfold bins j=1,…,N; the recovered x-ray flux F_{unfold}(t is estimated as ∫S_{unfold}(E,tdE, where E is x-ray energy and t is time. This paper adds two major improvements to the preceding unfold analysis: (a Error analysis.—Both data noise and response-function uncertainties are propagated into S_{unfold}(E,t and F_{unfold}(t. Noise factors ν are derived from simulations to quantify algorithm-induced changes in the noise-to-signal ratio (NSR for S_{unfold} in each unfold bin j and for F_{unfold} (ν≡NSR_{output}/NSR_{input}: for S_{unfold}, 1≲ν_{j}≲30, an outcome that is strongly spectrally dependent; for F_{unfold}, 0.6≲ν_{F}≲1, a result that is less spectrally sensitive and corroborated independently. For nominal z-pinch experiments, the combined uncertainty (noise and calibrations in F_{unfold}(t at peak is estimated to be ∼15%. (b Generalization of the unfold method.—Spectral sensitivities (called here passband functions are constructed for S_{unfold} and F_{unfold}. Predicting how the unfold algorithm reconstructs arbitrary spectra is thereby reduced to quadratures. These tools allow one to understand and quantitatively predict algorithmic distortions (including negative artifacts, to identify potentially troublesome spectra, and to design more useful response functions.

  12. SCORE-EVET: a computer code for the multidimensional transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear fuel rod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, R.L.; Lords, L.V.; Kiser, D.M.

    1978-02-01

    The SCORE-EVET code was developed to study multidimensional transient fluid flow in nuclear reactor fuel rod arrays. The conservation equations used were derived by volume averaging the transient compressible three-dimensional local continuum equations in Cartesian coordinates. No assumptions associated with subchannel flow have been incorporated into the derivation of the conservation equations. In addition to the three-dimensional fluid flow equations, the SCORE-EVET code ocntains: (a) a one-dimensional steady state solution scheme to initialize the flow field, (b) steady state and transient fuel rod conduction models, and (c) comprehensive correlation packages to describe fluid-to-fuel rod interfacial energy and momentum exchange. Velocity and pressure boundary conditions can be specified as a function of time and space to model reactor transient conditions such as a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) or flow blockage

  13. The effect of the atmospheric condition on the extensive air shower analysis at the Telescope Array experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tokuno, H.; Kakimoto, F.; Tomida, T.

    2011-01-01

    The accuracies in determination of air shower parameters such as longitudinal profiles or primary energies with the fluorescence detection technique are strongly dependent on atmospheric conditions of the molecular and aerosol components. Moreover, air fluorescence photon yield depends on the atmospheric density, and the transparency of the air for fluorescence photons depends on the atmospheric conditions from EAS to FDs. In this paper, we describe the atmospheric monitoring system in the Telescope Array (TA experiment), and the impact of the atmospheric conditions in air shower reconstructions. The systematic uncertainties of the determination of the primary cosmic ray energies and of the measurement of depth of maximum development (X max ) of EASs due to atmospheric variance are evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation.

  14. Analysis of a splice array experiment elucidates roles of chromatin elongation factor Spt4-5 in splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Xiao

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Splicing is an important process for regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, and it has important functional links to other steps of gene expression. Two examples of these linkages include Ceg1, a component of the mRNA capping enzyme, and the chromatin elongation factors Spt4-5, both of which have recently been shown to play a role in the normal splicing of several genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a genomic approach to characterize the roles of Spt4-5 in splicing, we used splicing-sensitive DNA microarrays to identify specific sets of genes that are mis-spliced in ceg1, spt4, and spt5 mutants. In the context of a complex, nested, experimental design featuring 22 dye-swap array hybridizations, comprising both biological and technical replicates, we applied five appropriate statistical models for assessing differential expression between wild-type and the mutants. To refine selection of differential expression genes, we then used a robust model-synthesizing approach, Differential Expression via Distance Synthesis, to integrate all five models. The resultant list of differentially expressed genes was then further analyzed with regard to select attributes: we found that highly transcribed genes with long introns were most sensitive to spt mutations. QPCR confirmation of differential expression was established for the limited number of genes evaluated. In this paper, we showcase splicing array technology, as well as powerful, yet general, statistical methodology for assessing differential expression, in the context of a real, complex experimental design. Our results suggest that the Spt4-Spt5 complex may help coordinate splicing with transcription under conditions that present kinetic challenges to spliceosome assembly or function.

  15. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  16. Seismic Response of Long-Span Triple-Tower Suspension Bridge under Random Ground Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ke Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multitower suspension bridge is of different style compared to the traditional suspension bridge with two towers, and consequently the dissimilarity of static and dynamic behaviors is distinct. As a special case of multitower suspension bridge, two long-span triple-tower suspension bridges have been constructed in China and the seismic random response of triple-tower suspension bridges is studied in this paper. A nonlinear dynamic analysis finite element model is established in ABAQUS and the Python language is utilized to facilitate the preprocess and postprocess during the finite element analysis. The procedure for random response calculation of structures based on the pseudoexcitation method is presented, with the initial equilibrium state of structure considered, which may be ignored for long-span bridges during calculating of stochastic response. The stationary seismic random responses of triple-tower suspension bridge under uniform excitation in firm, medium, and soft soil conditions and under spatially varying excitation in soft soil are investigated. The distribution of RMS of random responses of displacements and internal forces of the stiffening girder and towers is presented and discussed in detail. Results show that spatially variable ground motions should be considered in the stochastic analysis of triple-tower suspension bridge.

  17. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, G. C., III

    1981-04-01

    Sixteen conceptual designs of residential photovoltaic arrays are described. Each design concept was evaluated by an industry advisory panel using a comprehensive set of technical, economic and institutional criteria. Key electrical and mechanical concerns that effect further array subsystem development are also discussed. Three integrated array design concepts were selected by the advisory panel for further optimization and development. From these concepts a single one will be selected for detailed analysis and prototype fabrication. The three concepts selected are: (1) An array of frameless panels/modules sealed in a T shaped zipper locking neoprene gasket grid pressure fitted into an extruded aluminum channel grid fastened across the rafters. (2) An array of frameless modules pressure fitted in a series of zipper locking EPDM rubber extrusions adhesively bonded to the roof. Series string voltage is developed using a set of integral tongue connectors and positioning blocks. (3) An array of frameless modules sealed by a silicone adhesive in a prefabricated grid of rigid tape and sheet metal attached to the roof.

  18. Time Varying Behavior of the Loudspeaker Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2007-01-01

    The suspension part of the electrodynamic loudspeaker is often modelled as a simple linear spring with viscous damping, however the dynamic behaviour of the suspension is much more complicated than predicted by such a simple model. At higher levels the compliance becomes non-linear and often chan...... changes during excitation at high levels. This paper investigates how the compliance of the suspension depends on the excitation, i.e. level and frequency content. The measurements are compared with other known measurement methods of the suspension....

  19. Design and integration of a generic disposable array-compatible sensor housing into an integrated disposable indirect microfluidic flow injection analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Bastian E; Schickling, Benjamin; Prokop, Jürgen; Piotter, Volker; Rapp, Michael; Länge, Kerstin

    2011-10-01

    We describe an integration strategy for arbitrary sensors intended to be used as biosensors in biomedical or bioanalytical applications. For such devices ease of handling (by a potential end user) as well as strict disposable usage are of importance. Firstly we describe a generic array compatible polymer sensor housing with an effective sample volume of 1.55 μl. This housing leaves the sensitive surface of the sensor accessible for the application of biosensing layers even after the embedding. In a second step we show how this sensor housing can be used in combination with a passive disposable microfluidic chip to set up arbitrary 8-fold sensor arrays and how such a system can be complemented with an indirect microfluidic flow injection analysis (FIA) system. This system is designed in a way that it strictly separates between disposable and reusable components- by introducing tetradecane as an intermediate liquid. This results in a sensor system compatible with the demands of most biomedical applications. Comparative measurements between a classical macroscopic FIA system and this integrated indirect microfluidic system are presented. We use a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor as an exemplary detector in this work.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Iron, Copper and Cobalt in Food Samples by CCD-diode Array Detection-Flow Injection Analysis with Partial Least Squares Calibration Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi Jiaping; Li Yuanqian; Zhou Xiaoli; Zheng Bo; Zhou Ying [West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China)

    2006-01-01

    A flow injection-CCD diode array detection spectrophotometry with partial least squares (PLS) program for simultaneous determination of iron, copper and cobalt in food samples has been established. The method was based on the chromogenic reaction of the three metal ions and 2- (5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, 5-Br-PADAP in acetic acid - sodium acetate buffer solution (pH5) with Triton X-100 and ascorbic acid. The overlapped spectra of the colored complexes were collected by charge-coupled device (CCD) - diode array detector and the multi-wavelength absorbance data was processed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Optimum reaction conditions and parameters of flow injection analysis were investigated. The samples of tea, sesame, laver, millet, cornmeal, mung bean and soybean powder were determined by the proposed method. The average recoveries of spiked samples were 91.80%{approx}100.9% for Iron, 92.50%{approx}108.0% for Copper, 93.00%{approx}110.5% for Cobalt, respectively with relative standard deviation (R.S.D) of 1.1%{approx}12.1%. The sampling rate is 45 samples h{sup -1}. The determination results of the food samples were in good agreement between the proposed method and ICP-AES.

  1. Analysis of sequence homogenisation in rDNA arrays of Haemonchus contortus by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, R B; Zhu, X; Chilton, N B; Newton, L A; Nedergaard, T; Guldberg, P

    1998-10-01

    Testing different theories of concerted evolution experimentally has been hampered mainly due to the lack of appropriate model systems and technical limitations. In this study, we employed a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach for the display and definition of nucleotide variations in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus. The ITS-2 was amplified from individual adult nematodes by PCR and subjected to DGGE. Of the 94 individuals (representing nine different populations) analysed, 13 different DGGE profiles were displayed. Eighteen bands representing those profiles were excised and sequenced. Sequencing defined 13 different types of ITS-2 with 12 nucleotide variations (4 transitions, 5 transversions, 1 insertion and 2 deletions) which could be related to particular positions of the predicted secondary structure for the ITS-2 pre-rRNA. The results showed that individuals of interbreeding populations of H. contortus can have rDNA arrays that are partially or fully homogenised for different sequence variants (despite interindividual variation), suggesting that the homogenisation process is driven mainly by intrachromosomal exchange. The findings also demonstrated the capacity of the DGGE-sequencing strategy to quantify the frequency of ITS-2 sequence types within individual nematodes from different populations without the need for cloning or Southern blot procedures. This has important implications for studying the mechanisms of sequence homogenisation in rDNA and pre-rRNA processing as well as for elucidating speciation events and population differentiation at the molecular level.

  2. Array-based FMR1 sequencing and deletion analysis in patients with a fragile X syndrome-like phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Collins

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by loss of function mutations in the FMR1 gene. Trinucleotide CGG-repeat expansions, resulting in FMR1 gene silencing, are the most common mutations observed at this locus. Even though the repeat expansion mutation is a functional null mutation, few conventional mutations have been identified at this locus, largely due to the clinical laboratory focus on the repeat tract.To more thoroughly evaluate the frequency of conventional mutations in FXS-like patients, we used an array-based method to sequence FMR1 in 51 unrelated males exhibiting several features characteristic of FXS but with normal CGG-repeat tracts of FMR1. One patient was identified with a deletion in FMR1, but none of the patients were found to have other conventional mutations.These data suggest that missense mutations in FMR1 are not a common cause of the FXS phenotype in patients who have normal-length CGG-repeat tracts. However, screening for small deletions of FMR1 may be of clinically utility.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Human and Rodent Brain Primary Neuronal Culture Spontaneous Activity Using Micro-Electrode Array Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Alessandro; Obeid, Iyad

    2016-03-01

    Electrical activity in embryonic brain tissue has typically been studied using Micro Electrode Array (MEA) technology to make dozens of simultaneous recordings from dissociated neuronal cultures, brain stem cell progenitors, or brain slices from fetal rodents. Although these rodent neuronal primary culture electrical properties are mostly investigated, it has not been yet established to what extent the electrical characteristics of rodent brain neuronal cultures can be generalized to those of humans. A direct comparison of spontaneous spiking activity between rodent and human primary neurons grown under the same in vitro conditions using MEA technology has never been carried out before and will be described in the present study. Human and rodent dissociated fetal brain neuronal cultures were established in-vitro by culturing on a glass grid of 60 planar microelectrodes neurons under identical conditions. Three different cultures of human neurons were produced from tissue sourced from a single aborted fetus (at 16-18 gestational weeks) and these were compared with seven different cultures of embryonic rat neurons (at 18 gestational days) originally isolated from a single rat. The results show that the human and rodent cultures behaved significantly differently. Whereas the rodent cultures demonstrated robust spontaneous activation and network activity after only 10 days, the human cultures required nearly 40 days to achieve a substantially weaker level of electrical function. These results suggest that rat neuron preparations may yield inferences that do not necessarily transfer to humans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Rheology and microstructure of aqueous suspensions of nanocrystalline cellulose rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Atrens, Aleks D; Stokes, Jason R

    2017-06-15

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) is a negatively charged rod-like colloid obtained from the hydrolysis of plant material. It is thus expected that NCC suspensions display a rich set of phase behaviour with salt and pH because of its anisotropic shape and electrical double layer that gives rise to liquid crystallinity and self-assembly respectively. It should thus be possible to tune the rheological properties of NCC suspensions for a wide variety of end-use applications. Rheology and structural analysis techniques are used to characterise surface-sulphated NCC suspensions as a function of pH, salinity (NaCl) and NCC concentration. Structural techniques include atomic force microscopy, Zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy. A phase diagram is developed based on the structure-rheology measurements showing various states of NCC that form as a function of salt and NCC concentration, which go well beyond those previously reported. This extended range of conditions reveals regions where the suspension is a viscous fluid and viscoelastic soft solid, as well as regions of instability that is suggested to arise when there is sufficient salt to reduce the electrical double layer (as explained qualitatively using DLVO theory) but insufficient NCC to form a load bearing network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective viscosity of two-dimensional suspensions: Confinement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyeux, Vincent; Priem, Stephane; Jibuti, Levan; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad; Peyla, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    We study the rheology of a sheared two-dimensional (2D) suspension of non-Brownian disks in the presence of walls. Although it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions in the presence of walls, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension provides valuable insights and helps in the understanding of 3D results. Due to the direct visualization of the whole 2D flow (the shear plane), we are able to give a clear interpretation of the full hydrodynamics of semidilute confined suspensions. For instance, we examine the role of disk-wall and disk-disk interactions to determine the dissipation of confined sheared suspensions whose effective viscosity depends on the area fraction ϕ of the disks as ηeff=η0[1 +[η ] ϕ +β ϕ2+O (ϕ3) ] . We provide numerical estimates of [η ] and β for a wide range of confinements. As a benchmark for our simulations, we compare the numerical results obtained for [η ] and β for very weak confinements with analytical values [η] ∞ and β∞ obtained for an infinite fluid. If the value [η] ∞=2 is well known in the literature, much less is published on the value of β . Here we analytically calculate with very high precision β∞=3.6 . We also reexamine the 3D case in the light of our 2D results.

  6. The Applicability of Incoherent Array Processing to IMS Seismic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Steven J.

    2014-03-01

    The seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) are highly diverse in size and configuration, with apertures ranging from under 1 km to over 60 km. Large and medium aperture arrays with large inter-site spacings complicate the detection and estimation of high-frequency phases lacking coherence between sensors. Pipeline detection algorithms often miss such phases, since they only consider frequencies low enough to allow coherent array processing, and phases that are detected are often attributed qualitatively incorrect backazimuth and slowness estimates. This can result in missed events, due to either a lack of contributing phases or by corruption of event hypotheses by spurious detections. It has been demonstrated previously that continuous spectral estimation can both detect and estimate phases on the largest aperture arrays, with arrivals identified as local maxima on beams of transformed spectrograms. The estimation procedure in effect measures group velocity rather than phase velocity, as is the case for classical f-k analysis, and the ability to estimate slowness vectors requires sufficiently large inter-sensor distances to resolve time-delays between pulses with a period of the order 4-5 s. Spectrogram beampacking works well on five IMS arrays with apertures over 20 km (NOA, AKASG, YKA, WRA, and KURK) without additional post-processing. Seven arrays with 10-20 km aperture (MJAR, ESDC, ILAR, KSRS, CMAR, ASAR, and EKA) can provide robust parameter estimates subject to a smoothing of the resulting slowness grids, most effectively achieved by convolving the measured slowness grids with the array response function for a 4 or 5 s period signal. Even for medium aperture arrays which can provide high-quality coherent slowness estimates, a complementary spectrogram beampacking procedure could act as a quality control by providing non-aliased estimates when the coherent slowness grids display

  7. Simulation Research on Vehicle Active Suspension Controller Based on G1 Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Li, Hang; Zhang, Shuaiyang; Luo, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Based on the order relation analysis method (G1 method), the optimal linear controller of vehicle active suspension is designed. The system of the main and passive suspension of the single wheel vehicle is modeled and the system input signal model is determined. Secondly, the system motion state space equation is established by the kinetic knowledge and the optimal linear controller design is completed with the optimal control theory. The weighting coefficient of the performance index coefficients of the main passive suspension is determined by the relational analysis method. Finally, the model is simulated in Simulink. The simulation results show that: the optimal weight value is determined by using the sequence relation analysis method under the condition of given road conditions, and the vehicle acceleration, suspension stroke and tire motion displacement are optimized to improve the comprehensive performance of the vehicle, and the active control is controlled within the requirements.

  8. Analysis of an Integrated 8-Channel Tx/Rx Body Array for Use as a Body Coil in 7-Tesla MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Orzada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Object: In this work an 8-channel array integrated into the gap between the gradient coil and bore liner of a 7-Tesla whole-body magnet is presented that would allow a workflow closer to that of systems at lower magnetic fields that have a built-in body coil; this integrated coil is compared to a local 8-channel array built from identical elements placed directly on the patient.Materials and Methods: SAR efficiency and the homogeneity of the right-rotating B1 field component (B1+ are investigated numerically and compared to the local array. Power efficiency measurements are performed in the MRI System. First in vivo gradient echo images are acquired with the integrated array.Results: While the remote array shows a slightly better performance in terms of (B1+ homogeneity, the power efficiency and the SAR efficiency are inferior to those of the local array: the transmit voltage has to be increased by a factor of 3.15 to achieve equal flip angles in a central axial slice. The g-factor calculations show a better parallel imaging g-factor for the local array. The field of view of the integrated array is larger than that of the local array. First in vivo images with the integrated array look subjectively promising.Conclusion: Although some RF performance parameters of the integrated array are inferior to a tight-fitting local array, these disadvantages might be compensated by the use of amplifiers with higher power and the use of local receive arrays. In addition, the distant placement provides the potential to include more elements in the array design.

  9. Analysis of an integrated 8-channel Tx/Rx body array for use as a body coil in 7-Tesla MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzada, Stephan; Bitz, Andreas K.; Johst, Sören; Gratz, Marcel; Völker, Maximilian N.; Kraff, Oliver; Abuelhaija, Ashraf; Fiedler, Thomas M.; Solbach, Klaus; Quick, Harald H.; Ladd, Mark E.

    2017-06-01

    Object In this work an 8-channel array integrated into the gap between the gradient coil and bore liner of a 7-Tesla whole-body magnet is presented that would allow a workflow closer to that of systems at lower magnetic fields that have a built-in body coil; this integrated coil is compared to a local 8-channel array built from identical elements placed directly on the patient. Materials and Methods SAR efficiency and the homogeneity of the right-rotating B1 field component (B_1^+) are investigated numerically and compared to the local array. Power efficiency measurements are performed in the MRI System. First in vivo gradient echo images are acquired with the integrated array. Results While the remote array shows a slightly better performance in terms of B_1^+ homogeneity, the power efficiency and the SAR efficiency are inferior to those of the local array: the transmit voltage has to be increased by a factor of 3.15 to achieve equal flip angles in a central axial slice. The g-factor calculations show a better parallel imaging g-factor for the local array. The field of view of the integrated array is larger than that of the local array. First in vivo images with the integrated array look subjectively promising. Conclusion Although some RF performance parameters of the integrated array are inferior to a tight-fitting local array, these disadvantages might be compensated by the use of amplifiers with higher power and the use of local receive arrays. In addition, the distant placement provides the potential to include more elements in the array design.

  10. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  11. 39 CFR 320.9 - Revocation or amendment of suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUSPENSION OF THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 320.9 Revocation or amendment of suspensions. These suspensions... of operations (in dollar or volume terms, whichever is larger) lower than that antedating the...

  12. Photoelectrochemical studies on aqueous suspensions of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Photoelectrochemical; nanomaterial; suspensions; hydrogen; oxides; chalcogenides. Abstract. Photoproduction of hydrogen was achieved by photolysis of aqueous suspensions of mixed TiO2/V2O5 or CdS/ZnS semiconductor (SC) nanoparticle in phosphate buffers containing [Fe(CN)6]4−. Manipulations of the ...

  13. Alternatives to Suspension: A Government Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Zoldy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Student discipline and the ineffectiveness of out-of-school suspension is examined in light of the Ontario (Canada) legislative reform that supported a greater emphasis on progressive discipline alternatives to out-of-school suspension. Alternative discipline herein is explored via the behavior education plan, the school survival group, and…

  14. 78 FR 54766 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... (NFIP) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... Status Book (CSB). The CSB is available at http://www.fema.gov/fema/csb.shtm . DATES: Effective Dates... suspension date. Since these notifications were made, this final rule may take effect within less than 30...

  15. 49 CFR 238.227 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.227 Section 238.227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.227 Suspension system. On or after November 8, 1999— (a) All passenger equipment shall...

  16. 36 CFR 25.3 - Supervision; suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision; suspensions. 25.3 Section 25.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL MILITARY PARKS; LICENSED GUIDE SERVICE REGULATIONS § 25.3 Supervision; suspensions. (a) The guide...

  17. Analysis of Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds in Aromatic Plants by RP-HPLC Coupled to Diode Array Detector (DAD and GC-MS after Silylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The following aromatic plants of Greek origin, Origanum dictamnus (dictamus, Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus, Origanum vulgare L. (oregano, Mellisa officinalis L. (balm mint and Sideritis cretica (mountain tea, were examined for the content of phenolic substances. Reversed phase HPLC coupled to diode array detector (DAD was used for the analysis of the plant extracts. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (GC-MS was also used for identification of phenolic compounds after silylation. The most abundant phenolic acids were: gallic acid (1.5–2.6 mg/100 g dry sample, ferulic acid (0.34–6.9 mg/100 g dry sample and caffeic acid (1.0–13.8 mg/100 g dry sample. (+-Catechin and (−-epicatechin were the main flavonoids identified in oregano and mountain tea. Quercetin was detected only in eucalyptus and mountain tea.

  18. Simultaneous extraction and analysis by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometric detectors of bixin and phenolic compounds from annatto seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisté, Renan Campos; Yamashita, Fábio; Gozzo, Fábio Cesar; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti

    2011-01-07

    This study was designed to identify and quantify the carotenoids and phenolic compounds from annatto seeds using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Furthermore, using response surface methodology, an optimized procedure for simultaneous extraction of these compounds was established. In addition to bixin, known to be the main carotenoid in annatto seeds, hypolaetin and a caffeoyl acid derivative were identified as the main phenolic compounds. The optimized procedure involved 15 extractions using acetone:methanol:water (50:40:10, v/v/v) as solvent, a solid-liquid ratio of 1:9 (m/v) and an extraction time of 5 min. Validation data indicated that the HPLC method proposed provided good linearity, sensitivity, procedure accuracy, system precision and suggested its suitability for the simultaneous analysis of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in annatto seeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cavitation Erosion Behavior of Electroless Ni-P Coating and Optimization of Process Parameter Using Analysis of Variance with Orthogonal Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Cho; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the cavitation erosion resistance of electroless Ni-P (EN) coated gray cast iron (GCI) in seawater solution. Furthermore, the optimum coating design parameters were examined to minimize cavitation erosion damage through analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on the L9 orthogonal array. In this study, four coating design factors were used: concentration of source of nickel (A), concentration of reducer agent (B), deposition temperature (C), and pressure of shot peening (D). In accordance with the regulation of the modified ASTM G32, the cavitation erosion experiment was conducted for 1 hour in a seawater solution to find the optimum design parameters which can minimize the cavitation erosion damage. Besides, ANOVA was performed to verify the contribution of each coating design parameter. As a result, the concentration of reducer agent among the EN process parameters was determined as the most significant factor in the cavitation erosion behavior.

  20. Design of a large-scale femtoliter droplet array for single-cell analysis of drug-tolerant and drug-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota eIino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis is a powerful method to assess the heterogeneity among individual cells, enabling the identification of very rare cells with properties that differ from those of the majority. In this Methods Article, we describe the use of a large-scale femtoliter droplet array to enclose, isolate, and analyze individual bacterial cells. As a first example, we describe the single-cell detection of drug-tolerant persisters of Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with the antibiotic carbenicillin. As a second example, this method was applied to the single-cell evaluation of drug efflux activity, which causes acquired antibiotic resistance of bacteria. The activity of the MexAB-OprM multidrug efflux pump system from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was expressed in Escherichia coli and the effect of an inhibitor D13-9001 were assessed at the single cell level.