Sample records for suspending small drops

  1. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Drop Inlets (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Drop Inlets. This data contains drop inlets locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  2. Impact of water drops on small targets (United States)

    Rozhkov, A.; Prunet-Foch, B.; Vignes-Adler, M.


    The collision of water drops against small targets was studied experimentally by means of a high-speed photography technique. The drop impact velocity was about 3.5 m/s. Drop diameters were in the range of 2.8-4.0 mm. The target was a stainless steel disk of 3.9 mm diameter. The drop spread beyond the target like a central cap surrounded by a thin, slightly conical lamella bounded by a thicker rim. By mounting a small obstacle near the target, surface-tension driven Mach waves in the flowing lamella were generated, which are formally equivalent to the familiar compressibility driven Mach waves in gas dynamics. From the measurement of the Mach angle, the values of some flow parameters could be obtained as functions of time, which provided insight into the flow structure. The liquid flowed from the central cap to the liquid rim through the thin lamella at constant momentum flux. At a certain stage of the process, most of the liquid accumulated in the rim and the internal part of the lamella became metastable. In this situation, a rupture wave propagating through the metastable internal part of the lamella caused the rim to retract while forming outwardly directed secondary jets. The jets disintegrated into secondary droplets due to the Savart-Plateau-Rayleigh instability. Prior to the end of the retraction, an internal circular wave of rupture was formed. It originated at the target and then it propagated to meet the retracting rim. Their meeting resulted in a crown of tiny droplets. A theoretical analysis of the ejection process is proposed.

  3. That's one small drop for Mankind...

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    In August, the members of an ISOLDE project called LOI88 successfully employed a new technique to study the interaction of metal ions in a liquid. It’s the first time that specific ions have been studied in a liquid medium - a technical achievement that opens promising doors for biochemistry.   In the heart of the LOI88 experiment: this is the point where the metal ions (from the left) enter the drop.  “More than half of the proteins in the human body contain metal ions such as magnesium, zinc and copper,” explains Monika Stachura, a biophysicist at the University of Copenhagen and the LOI88 project leader. “We know that these elements are crucial to a protein’s structure and function but their behaviour and interactions are not known in detail.” Detecting these ions directly in  a body-like environment is problematic as their closed atomic shells make them invisible to most spectroscopic techniques. However, using ...

  4. Numerical Studies of the Aspiration of Small Drops Using a Micropipette (United States)

    Leal, Gary; Ramchandran, Arun


    Aspiration of small drops, vesicles, or biological cells using a micropipette has been used as a means of characterizing the properties of the interface or membrane. The basic idea is that the shape of the deformable particle can be imaged, and this data can be translated into information about the interface or membrane properties by comparison with theoretical predictions. For the simple case of a drop, there is a critical condition of flow rate or pressure drop that depends on the interfacial tension (among other parameters) beyond which the drop is aspirated completely into the pipette. With a proper theory, this critical condition can then be used to determine the interfacial tension. Experiments to date when interpreted using a static force balance (neglecting all viscous forces) yield literature values for the interfacial tension. In this study, we use axisymmetric boundary integral methods for drops of different sizes relative to the pipette and different viscosities relative to the suspending fluid, in order to establish the range of validity of this simple method of data interpretation.

  5. Delivery of suspended sediment and associated phosphorus and heavy metals to small rural Danish streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubel, A. R.

    The aim of this study is to examine delivery pathways for suspended sediment, and particulate phosphorus (P) and heavy metals from open rural areas to small Danish streams. A further aim is to quantify the contribution from different path-ways and source areas. Such studies are useful as a basis...

  6. Gravitational Collision Efficiencies of Small Drops with Application to Raindrop Growth (United States)

    Stark, John; Rother, Michael


    Historically, much work has been done to improve our understanding of raindrop formation and growth in the atmosphere. Current work by the authors has focused on calculating gravitational collision efficiencies for the interactions of small, spherical drops, including hydrodynamic and buoyant forces, the lubrication force, retarded and unretarded van der Waals forces, internal drop circulation, and Maxwell slip. Raindrops having radii less than or equal to 30 μm are considered. For such, small drops, the surrounding fluid inertia, as measured by the Reynolds number, remains negligible. However, drop inertia, as measured by the Stokes number, can be significant, particularly for drops with radii between 10 and 30 μm. At finite Stokes numbers and low Reynolds numbers, the hydrodynamic forces remain linear in the drops' translational velocities, but the hydrodynamic forces do not balance the applied forces. The objective of the work presented here is to analyze the relative importance of effects being considered and compare our collision efficiency results with those obtained previously by several different authors.

  7. Scalable electrophysiology in intact small animals with nanoscale suspended electrode arrays (United States)

    Gonzales, Daniel L.; Badhiwala, Krishna N.; Vercosa, Daniel G.; Avants, Benjamin W.; Liu, Zheng; Zhong, Weiwei; Robinson, Jacob T.


    Electrical measurements from large populations of animals would help reveal fundamental properties of the nervous system and neurological diseases. Small invertebrates are ideal for these large-scale studies; however, patch-clamp electrophysiology in microscopic animals typically requires invasive dissections and is low-throughput. To overcome these limitations, we present nano-SPEARs: suspended electrodes integrated into a scalable microfluidic device. Using this technology, we have made the first extracellular recordings of body-wall muscle electrophysiology inside an intact roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans. We can also use nano-SPEARs to record from multiple animals in parallel and even from other species, such as Hydra littoralis. Furthermore, we use nano-SPEARs to establish the first electrophysiological phenotypes for C. elegans models for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, and show a partial rescue of the Parkinson's phenotype through drug treatment. These results demonstrate that nano-SPEARs provide the core technology for microchips that enable scalable, in vivo studies of neurobiology and neurological diseases.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Patil


    Full Text Available There are many factors that are important in the design of queue management schemes for routers in the Internet: for example, queuing delay, link utilization, packet loss, energy consumption and the impact of router buffer size. By considering a fluid model for the congestion avoidance phase of Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD TCP, in a small buffer regime, we argue that stability should also be a desirable feature for network performance. The queue management schemes we study are Drop Tail and Random Early Detection (RED. For Drop Tail, the analytical arguments are based on local stability and bifurcation theory. As the buffer size acts as a bifurcation parameter, variations in it can readily lead to the emergence of limit cycles. We then present NS2 simulations to study the effect of changing buffer size on queue dynamics, utilization, window size and packet loss for three different flow scenarios. The simulations corroborate the analysis which highlights that performance is coupled with the notion of stability. Our work suggests that, in a small buffer regime, a simple Drop Tail queue management serves to enhance stability and appears preferable to the much studied RED scheme.

  9. Damping and scattering of electromagnetic waves by small ferrite spheres suspended in an insulator (United States)

    Englert, Gerald W.


    The intentional degradation of electromagnetic waves by their penetration into a media comprised of somewhat sparsely distributed energy absorbing ferrite spheres suspended in an electrical insulator is investigated. Results are presented in terms of generalized parameters involving wave length and sphere size, sphere resistivity, permeability, and spacing; their influence on dissipation of wave power by eddy currents, magnetic hysteresis, and scattering is shown.

  10. Transport of particles, drops, and small organisms in density stratified fluids (United States)

    Ardekani, Arezoo M.; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Desai, Nikhil


    Sedimenting particles and motile organisms are ubiquitously found in oceans and lakes, where density stratification naturally occurs due to temperature or salinity gradients. We explore the effects of stratification on the fundamental hydrodynamics of settling particles, rising drops, and small organisms. The results of our direct numerical simulations of the sedimentation of particles show that the presence of vertical density gradients in the water column can substantially affect the settling dynamics of a particle, interaction between a pair of particles, and settling rates and microstructure of suspension of particles. We show that elongation of particles affects both the settling orientation and the settling rate of particles in stratified fluids, which will have direct consequences on the vertical flux of particulate matter and carbon flux in the ocean. We further demonstrate an unexpected effect of buoyancy, potentially affecting a broad range of processes at pycnoclines in oceans and lakes. In particular, stratification has a major effect on the flow field, energy expenditure, and nutrient uptake of small organisms. In addition, the role of stratification in pattern formation of bioconvection plumes of algal cells and in biogenic mixing is investigated. In particular, the numerical approach allows for considering the effects of background turbulence and hydrodynamic perturbations produced by swimming organisms, shedding light on the contribution of organisms in the mixing process in aqueous environments.

  11. The rate of collisions due to Brownian or gravitational motion of small drops (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Davis, Robert H.


    Quantitative predictions of the collision rate of two spherical drops undergoing Brownian diffusion or gravitational sedimentation are presented. The diffusion equation for relative Brownian motion of two drops is derived, and the relative motion of pairs of drops in gravitational sedimentation is traced via a trajectory analysis in order to develop theoretical models to determine the collision efficiencies, both with and without interparticle forces applied between the drops. It is concluded that finite collision rates between nondeforming fluid drops are possible for Brownian diffusion or gravitational sedimentation in the absence of attractive forces, in stark contrast to the prediction that lubrication forces prevent rigid spheres from contacting each other unless an attractive force that becomes infinite as the separation approaches zero is applied. Collision rates are shown to increase as the viscosity of the drop-phase decreases. In general, hydrodynamic interactions reduce the collision rates more for gravitational collisions than for Brownian collisions.

  12. Investigations of levitated helium drops (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight Lawrence


    We report on the development of two systems capable of levitating drops of liquid helium. Helium drops of ˜20 mum have been levitated with the radiation pressure from two counter-propagating Nd:YAG laser beams. Drops are produced with a submerged piezoelectric transducer, and could be held for up to three minutes in our optical trap. Calculations show that Brillouin and Raman scattering of the laser light in the liquid helium produces a negligible rate of evaporation of the drop. Evaporation caused by the enhanced vapor pressure of the curved drop surfaces appears to be a significant effect limiting the drop lifetimes. Helium drops as large as 2 cm in diameter have been suspended in the earth's gravitational field with a magnetic field. A commercial superconducting solenoid provides the necessary field, field-gradient product required to levitate the drops. Drops are cooled to 0.5 K with a helium-3 refrigerator, and can be held in the trap indefinitely. We have found that when two or more drops are levitated in the same magnetic trap, the drops often remain in a state of apparent contact without coalescing. This effect is a result of the evaporation of liquid from between the two drops, and is found to occur only for normal fluid drops. We can induce shape oscillations in charged, levitated drops with an applied ac electric field. We have measured the resonance frequencies and damping rates for the l = 2 mode of oscillation as function of temperature. We have also developed a theory to describe the small amplitude shape oscillations of a He II drop surrounded by its saturated vapor. In our theory, we have considered two sets of boundary conditions---one where the drop does not evaporate and another in which the liquid and vapor are in thermodynamic equilibrium. We have found that both solutions give a frequency that agrees well with experiment, but that the data for the damping rate agree better with the solution without evaporation.

  13. Boiling Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of a Refrigerant Flowing Vertically Downward in a Small Diameter Tube (United States)

    Miyata, Kazushi; Mori, Hideo; Ohishi, Katsumi; Tanaka, Hirokazu

    Experiments were performed on boiling heat transfer and pressure drop of a refrigerant R410A flowing vertically downward in a copper smooth tube of 1.0 mm inside diameter for the development of a high-performance heat exchanger using small diameter tubes for air conditioning systems. Local heat transfer coefficients were measured in a range of mass fluxes from 30 to 200 kg/(m2•s), heat fluxes from 1 to 16 kW/m2 and quality from 0.1 to over 1 at evaporation temperature of 10°C. Pressure drops were measured and flow patterns were observed at mass fluxes from 30 to 200 kg/(m2•s) and quality from 0.1 to 0.9. The characteristics of frictional pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient and dryout qualities were clarified by comparing the measurements with the data for the vertically upward flow previously obtained.

  14. An isolation-enhanced quad-element antenna using suspended solid wires for LTE small-cell base stations (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Sheng; Zhou, Huang-Cheng


    This paper presents a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna that has four-unit elements enabled by an isolation technique for long-term evolution (LTE) small-cell base stations. While earlier studies on MIMO base-station antennas cope with either a lower LTE band (698-960 MHz) or an upper LTE band (1710-2690 MHz), the proposed antenna meets the full LTE specification, yet it uses the maximum number of unit elements to increase channel capacity. The antenna configuration is optimized for good impedance matching and high radiation efficiency. In particular, as the spacing between unit elements is so small that severe mutual coupling occurs, we propose a simple structure with extremely low costs to enhance the isolation. By using suspended solid wires interconnecting the position having strong coupled current of two adjacent elements, an isolation enhancement of 37 dB is achieved. Although solid wires inherently aim at direct-current applications, this work successfully employs such a low-cost technique to microwave antenna development. Experimental results have validated the design guidelines and the proposed configuration, showing that antenna performances including impedance matching, isolation, radiation features, signal correlation, and channel capacity gain are highly desired for LTE small-cell base stations.

  15. Scanning drop sensor (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan


    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  16. Boiling Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of a Refrigerant Flowing Vertically Upward in a Small Diameter Tube (United States)

    Miyata, Kazushi; Mori, Hideo; Ohishi, Katsumi; Tanaka, Hirokazu

    In the present study, experiments were performed to examine characteristics of flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop of a refrigerant R410A flowing vertically upward in a copper smooth tube with 1.0 mm inside diameter for the development of a high-performance heat exchanger using small diameter tubes for air conditioning systems. Local heat transfer coefficients were measured in a range of mass fluxes from 30 to 200 kg/(m2•s), heat fluxes from 1 to 16 kW/m2 and qualities from 0.1 to over 1 at evaporation temperature of 10°C, and pressure drops were also measured at mass fluxes of 100 and 200 kg/(m2•s) and qualities from 0.1 to 0.9. Three types of flow pattern were observed in the tube: A slug, a slug-annular and an annular flow. Based on the measurements, the characteristics of frictional pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient and dryout qualities were clarified. The measured pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient were compared with correlations.

  17. Characteristics of two-phase flow pattern transitions and pressure drop of five refrigerants in horizontal circular small tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamitran, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Choi, Kwang-Il [Graduate School, Chonnam National University, San 96-1, Dunduk-Dong, Yeosu, Chonnam 550-749 (Korea); Oh, Jong-Taek [Department of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineering, Chonnam National University, San 96-1, Dunduk-Dong, Yeosu, Chonnam 550-749 (Korea); Hrnjak, Pega [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, ACRC, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)


    An experimental investigation on the characteristics of two-phase flow pattern transitions and pressure drop of R-22, R-134a, R-410A, R-290 and R-744 in horizontal small stainless steel tubes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 mm inner diameters is presented. Experimental data were obtained over a heat flux range of 5-40 kW/m{sup 2}, mass flux range of 50-600 kg/(m{sup 2} s), saturation temperature range of 0-15 C, and quality up to 1.0. Experimental data were evaluated with Wang et al. and Wojtan et al. [Wang, C.C., Chiang, C.S., Lu, D.C., 1997. Visual observation of two-phase flow pattern of R-22, R-134a, and R-407C in a 6.5-mm smooth tube. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 15, 395-405; Wojtan, L., Ursenbacher, T., Thome, J.R., 2005. Investigation of flow boiling in horizontal tubes: part I - a new diabatic two-phase flow pattern map. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 48, 2955-2969.] flow pattern maps. The effects of mass flux, heat flux, saturation temperature and inner tube diameter on the pressure drop of the working refrigerants are reported. The experimental pressure drop was compared with the predictions from some existing correlations. A new two-phase pressure drop model that is based on a superposition model for two-phase flow boiling of refrigerants in small tubes is presented. (author)

  18. A neural network experiment on the simulation of daily nitrate-nitrogen and suspended sediment fluxes from a small agricultural catchment



    In this paper, we report an application of neural networks to simulate daily nitrate-nitrogen and suspended sediment fluxes from a small 7.1 km2 agricultural catchment (Melarchez), 70km east of Paris,France. Nitrate-nitrogen and sediment losses are only a few possible consequences of soil erosion and biochemical applications associated to human activities such as intensive agriculture. Stacked multilayer perceptrons models (MLPs) like the ones explored here are based on commonly available inp...

  19. Suspended matter and nutrient gradients of a small-scale river plume in Sepetiba Bay, SE-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Paiva Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Coastal river plumes represent one of the final stages of material transport across the land-sea interface. Most studies, however have focused on the behavior of medium to large sized river plumes of coastal-shelf waters, whereas small sized river plumes acting within estuaries have been neglected. This study addressed the behavior of suspended particulate matter (SPM, dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN, DIP and DSi and Chlorophyll a (Chl. a of a small sized river plume derived from the closely lain São Francisco and Guandú river channels, set in the Sepetiba Bay estuary, SE-Brazil. Two surface water sampling campaigns were conducted, one in January 2003 (humid summer conditions and the other in June 2003 (dry winter conditions. On both occasions, the plumes dispersed in a SE direction towards the inner portion of the bay. The "wet" event plume was more turbid, nutrient rich and dispersed beyond nearshore waters, whereas the "dry" event plume proliferated as a narrow, less turbid and more nutrient poor film alongshore. Both exhibited a marked degree of patchiness, induced by the differential input of materials from the river sources and resuspension processes from the shallow nearshore bottom. The São Francisco river channel was the main source of freshwater, SPM and nutrients, except for ammonia (NH4+-N derived from domestic effluents of the Guandú river. The mesohaline portion of the estuarine mixing zone of the plumes behaved as a slight source for SPM, DSi and DIP, due to bottom resuspension processes. N:P molar ratios ranged between 80:1 and 20:1 along the estuarine gradient, being higher in the summer than in the winter event, indicating that DIP was the potential nutrient limiting primary production. Chl. a concentrations increased at the outer premises of the plume, suggesting that the short residence times and turbidity of the plume waters, hampered primary production nearshore, particularly during the summer occasion. The small

  20. Collisions of Small Drops in a Turbulent Flow. Part III: Relative Droplet Fluxes and Swept Volumes. (United States)

    Pinsky, M. B.; Khain, A. P.; Grits, B.; Shapiro, M.


    Swept volumes of cloud droplets with radii below 20 μm are calculated under conditions typical of atmospheric cloud turbulence characterized by enormous values of Reynolds numbers, high turbulent intermittency, and characteristic values of the dissipation rate. To perform the calculations, the motion equation for small droplets proposed by Maxey is generalized for Stokes numbers St > 0.1, which allows one to simulate relative droplet motion even for very high turbulence intensities typical of deep cumulus clouds. Analytical considerations show that droplet motion is fully determined by turbulent shears and the Lagrangian accelerations.A new statistical representation of a turbulent flow has been proposed based on the results of the scale analysis of turbulence characteristics and those related to the droplet motion. According to the method proposed, statistical properties of turbulent flow are represented by a set of noncorrelated samples of turbulent shears and Lagrangian accelerations. Each sample can be assigned to a certain point of the turbulent flow. Each such point can be surrounded by a small “elementary” volume with linear length scales of the Kolmogorov length scale, in which the Lagrangian acceleration and turbulent shears can be considered as uniform in space and invariable in time.This present study (Part III) investigates the droplet collisions in a turbulent flow when hydrodynamic droplet interaction (HDI) is disregarded. Using a statistical model, long series of turbulent shears and accelerations were generated, reproducing probability distribution functions (PDF) at high Reynolds numbers, as they were obtained in recent laboratory and theoretical studies. Swept volumes of droplets are calculated for each sample of an acceleration shear pair, and the PDF of swept volumes is calculated for turbulent parameters typical of cloud turbulence. The effect of turbulent flow intermittency manifests itself in two aspects: 1) an increase of swept volume

  1. A new device to measure the settling properties of suspended particles : instrumental development and first applications during runoff events in small watersheds (United States)

    Legoût, Cédric; Wendling, Valentin; Gratiot, Nicolas; Mercier, Bernard; Coulaud, Catherine; Nord, Guillaume; Droppo, Ian; Ribolzi, Olivier


    Most equations describing suspended particle transport balances the settling flux of particles against the turbulent flux of the flow. Although in-situ techniques have been developed to measure settling velocities of suspended particles in coastal areas, floodplain rivers and estuaries, they are not easily transferable to small and meso-scale watersheds. The main limitation lies in the range of concentrations frequently reaching several tens of grams per liter during runoff events. To overcome this instrumental limitation we developed an original System for the Characterization of Aggregates and Flocs (SCAF). An optical settling column, equipped with a vertical array of 16 optical sensors, was used to provide light transmission through a suspension during quiescent settling. It was specifically designed to be inserted in plastic bottles contained in classical sequential samplers, in order to obtain automatic measurements of the suspension immediately after its collection in the river. From the SCAF measurements, we calculate both the particle settling velocity distributions and the propensity of particles to flocculate. The prototypes were tested in laboratory conditions for a wide range of concentrations and material types, leading to consistent measurements with flocculation indices comprised between 0 and 80, respectively for non-cohesive and cohesive materials. First measurements in the field were achieved during runoff events at the outlet of small nested catchments in Lao PDR (MSEC network of environmental observatories) in order to explore the non-conservative behavior of the settling properties of eroded soil aggregates during their transfer.

  2. Suspended-sediment transport and storage: A demonstration of acoustic methods in the evaluation of reservoir management strategies for a small water-supply reservoir in western Colorado (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Richards, Rodney J.; Collins, Kent L.


    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and local stakeholder groups are evaluating reservoir-management strategies within Paonia Reservoir. This small reservoir fills to capacity each spring and requires approximately half of the snowmelt-runoff volume from its sediment-laden source waters, Muddy Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting high-resolution (15-minute data-recording interval) sediment monitoring to characterize incoming and outgoing sediment flux during reservoir operations at two sites on Muddy Creek. The high-resolution monitoring is being used to establish current rates of reservoir sedimentation, support USBR sediment transport and storage models, and assess the viability of water-storage recovery in Paonia Reservoir. These sites are equipped with in situ, single-frequency, side-looking acoustic Doppler current meters in conjunction with turbidity sensors to monitor sediment flux. This project serves as a demonstration of the capability of using surrogate techniques to predict suspended-sediment concentrations in small streams (less than 20 meters in width and 2 meters in depth). These two sites provide the ability to report near real-time suspended-sediment concentrations through the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS) web interface and National Real-Time Water Quality websites (NRTWQ) to aid in reservoir operations and assessments.

  3. Suspended microfluidics


    Casavant, Benjamin P.; Berthier, Erwin; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Jean BERTHIER; Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Bischel, Lauren L.; Brakke, Kenneth; Hedman, Curtis J.; Bushman, Wade; Keller, Nancy P.; Beebe, David J.


    Although the field of microfluidics has made significant progress in bringing new tools to address biological questions, the accessibility and adoption of microfluidics within the life sciences are still limited. Open microfluidic systems have the potential to lower the barriers to adoption, but the absence of robust design rules has hindered their use. Here, we present an open microfluidic platform, suspended microfluidics, that uses surface tension to fill and maintain a fluid in microscale...

  4. Thematic mapper research in the earth sciences: Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe River Estuary, German Bight and Tidal Flats (United States)

    Grassl, H.; Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Brockmann, C.; Stoessel, M.


    A Thematic Mapper (TM) field experiment was followed by a data analysis to determine TM capabilities for analysis of suspended matter and phytoplankton. Factor analysis showed that suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature can be retrieved as independent factors which determine the variation in the TM data over water areas. Spectral channels in the near infrared open the possibility of determining the Angstrom exponent better than for the coastal zone color scanner. The suspended matter distribution may then be calculated by the absolute radiance of channel 2 or 3 or the ratio of both. There is no indication of whether separation of chlorophyll is possible. The distribution of suspended matter and sea surface temperature can be observed with the expected fine structure. A good correlation between water depth and suspended matter distribution as found from ship data can now be analyzed for an entire area by the synoptic view of the TM scenes.

  5. Foot Drop (United States)

    ... Seizures Information Page Fibromuscular Dysplasia Information Page Foot Drop Information Page Friedreich's Ataxia Information Page Gaucher Disease Information Page Generalized Gangliosidoses Information Page Gerstmann's Syndrome ...

  6. Ocular tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic study of a small 13kDa domain antibody after intravitreal, subconjuctival and eye drop administration in rabbits. (United States)

    Gough, Gerald; Szapacs, Matthew; Shah, Tejash; Clements, Peter; Struble, Craig; Wilson, Robert


    Domain antibodies (dAb's) comprise the smallest functional unit of human IgG and can be targeted to a range of different soluble cytokine and receptor targets in the eye. In particular their small size may offer advantage for ocular tissue penetration and distribution. To investigate this we used a 13kDa tool molecule to undertake a preliminary short term ocular tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic study in the rabbit eye. The dAb was administered by the intravitreal or subconjunctival route or, as topical eye drops for up to five days and dAb concentrations measured in vitreous, aqueous, conjunctiva, choroid-RPE, retina, iris, sclera, and ciliary body. The observed elimination half-live of the dAb (~3 days) in vitreous showed a similar elimination rate to that of a much larger (∼50kDa) Fab fragment whilst the half-life following subconjunctival administration was ∼24 h and, after eye drop dosing the dAb was detectable in aqueous and conjunctiva. These preliminary data show that the intravitreal half-life of dAb's are similar to much larger antibody fragments, offering the potential to deliver significantly more drug to target on a molar basis with a single intravitreal injection potentially enabling dosing frequencies of once a month or less. Subconjunctival injection may provide short duration therapeutic levels of dAb to the anterior and posterior chamber whilst topical eye drop delivery of dAbs may be useful in front-of-eye disease. These data indicate that small domain antibodies may have utility in ophthalmology. Further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of interfacial phenomena and thermocapillary effect on drop evaporation in reduced gravity condition (United States)

    Xie, Jingchang; Lin, Hai


    Based on ground-based experiments, a drop evaporation experiment will fly aboard Chinese recoverable satellite in the near future This experiment will focus on the interfacial phenomena of phase chance, heat and mass transfer and the effect of thermocapillary convection on drop evaporation process Close attention will also be paid to the contact angle behavior, the triple line shifting and their relations Our ground-based experiments observed the interior flow field and the gaseous exterior of small suspended evaporating drops, the temperature distributions inside and outside the drops. Both good heat conductor and heat insulating material were used as substrate materials to investigate their influence on heat transfer and surface temperature distribution of an evaporating drop Experimental results indicate that for a drop evaporating in ambient temperature without substrate heating, temperature gradients existed along the drop surface which results in stable thermocapillary convection and cells appeared near the surface throughout entire evaporating process. The thermocapillary convection greatly changed drop's interior temperature distribution and the way of energy and mass transfer. Temperature jump or discontinuity was also measured at drop free surface.

  8. Catchment soil moisture and rainfall characteristics as determinant factors for discharge/suspended sediment hysteretic loops in a small headwater catchment in the Spanish pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeger, M.; Beguería, S.; Errea, M.P.; Arnáez, J.; Martí, C.; García-Ruiz, J.M.


    The concentration of suspended sediment and discharge generated during flood events are not normally homogenous, and the curve representing sediment concentration vs. discharge through time is often a hysteretic loop. Three types of hysteretic loops were found at Arnás, a Mediterranean headwater

  9. Oscillating drop/bubble tensiometry: effect of viscous forces on the measurement of interfacial tension. (United States)

    Freer, E M; Wong, H; Radke, C J


    The oscillating drop/bubble technique is increasingly popular for measuring the interfacial dilatational properties of surfactant/polymer-laden fluid/fluid interfaces. A caveat of this technique, however, is that viscous forces are important at higher oscillation frequencies or fluid viscosities; these can affect determination of the interfacial tension. Here, we experimentally quantify the effect of viscous forces on the interfacial-tension measurement by oscillating 100 and 200 cSt poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) droplets in water at small amplitudes and frequencies ranging between 0.01 and 1 Hz. Due to viscous forces, the measured interfacial tension oscillates sinusoidally with the same frequency as the oscillation of the drop volume. The tension oscillation precedes that of the drop volume, and the amplitude varies linearly with Capillary number, Ca=DeltamuomegaDeltaV/gammaa(2), where Deltamu=mu(D)-mu is the difference between the bulk Newtonian viscosities of the drop and surrounding continuous fluid, omega is the oscillation frequency of the drop, DeltaV is the amplitude of volume oscillation, gamma is the equilibrium interfacial tension between the PDMS drop and water, and a is the radius of the capillary. A simplified model of a freely suspended spherical oscillating-drop well explains these observations. Viscous forces distort the drop shape at Ca>0.002, although this criterion is apparatus dependent.

  10. Small plot trials documenting effective mating disruption of oriental fruit moth by using high densities of wax-drop pheromone dispensers. (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; Gut, L J; Mallinger, R E; Epstein, D; Reed, T P; Miller, J R


    In 2004 field experiments, we compared the effectiveness of various deployment densities of 0.1-ml paraffin wax drops containing 5% pheromone versus Isomate M-Rosso "rope" dispensers for disruption of Grapholita molesta (Busck). Treatments were evaluated in 0.05-ha (12-tree) plots of 'Delicious' apples receiving regular maintenance according to growers' standards, but not sprayed with insecticides. The application densities of 0.1-ml wax drops were 3 per tree (820/ha), 10 per tree (2,700/ha), 30 per tree (8,200/ha), and 100 per tree (27,300/ha). Wax drops were compared with 3-ml dispensers of pheromone-containing paraffin wax or Isomate M-Rosso ropes at 1.8 per tree (500/ha) and untreated control plots. Treatments were applied before the start of each of three moth generations. Orientational disruption, as measured by inhibition of moth captures in pheromone-baited delta traps, was greatest in plots that received 100 drops per tree (99.2%) and 30 drops per tree (99.4%). More than 55% of tethered, virgin females were mated in control plots after one night of deployment. However, no mating was recorded at the two highest application densities of wax drops where orientational disruption of traps exceeded 99%. Mating ranged from 7 to 20% among the other treatments, including Isomate rope dispensers. G. molesta males were observed closely approaching pheromone dispensers in plots containing ropes and wax drops, documenting competitive attraction between synthetic pheromone sources and feral females. The majority of observed G. molesta males approached within 60 cm of wax drops or pheromone ropes and departed within 20 s by flying upwind. Thirty wax drops per tree yielded higher mating disruption of G. molesta than did Isomate M-Rosso dispensers deployed at the recommended rate of 500/ha (1.8 per tree). Measurement of release rates confirmed behavioral data indicating that paraffin wax dispensers would need to be applied once per G. molesta generation in Michigan

  11. Dilating Eye Drops (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  12. Micro-explosion of compound drops (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui


    Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive

  13. Development of a Methodology to Conduct Usability Evaluation for Hand Tools that May Reduce the Amount of Small Parts that are Dropped During Installation while Processing Space Flight Hardware (United States)

    Miller, Darcy


    Foreign object debris (FOD) is an important concern while processing space flight hardware. FOD can be defined as "The debris that is left in or around flight hardware, where it could cause damage to that flight hardware," (United Space Alliance, 2000). Just one small screw left unintentionally in the wrong place could delay a launch schedule while it is retrieved, increase the cost of processing, or cause a potentially fatal accident. At this time, there is not a single solution to help reduce the number of dropped parts such as screws, bolts, nuts, and washers during installation. Most of the effort is currently focused on training employees and on capturing the parts once they are dropped. Advances in ergonomics and hand tool design suggest that a solution may be possible, in the form of specialty hand tools, which secure the small parts while they are being handled. To assist in the development of these new advances, a test methodology was developed to conduct a usability evaluation of hand tools, while performing tasks with risk of creating FOD. The methodology also includes hardware in the form of a testing board and the small parts that can be installed onto the board during a test. The usability of new hand tools was determined based on efficiency and the number of dropped parts. To validate the methodology, participants were tested while performing a task that is representative of the type of work that may be done when processing space flight hardware. Test participants installed small parts using their hands and two commercially available tools. The participants were from three groups: (1) students, (2) engineers / managers and (3) technicians. The test was conducted to evaluate the differences in performance when using the three installation methods, as well as the difference in performance of the three participant groups.

  14. Cable suspended windmill (United States)

    Farmer, Moses G. (Inventor)


    A windmill is disclosed which includes an airframe having an upwind end and a downwind end. The first rotor is rotatably connected to the airframe, and a generator is supported by the airframe and driven by the rotor. The airframe is supported vertically in an elevated disposition by poles which extend vertically upwardly from the ground and support cables which extend between the vertical poles. Suspension cables suspend the airframe from the support cable.

  15. Studies of 3D-cloud optical depth from small to very large values, and of the radiation and remote sensing impacts of larger-drop clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiscombe, Warren [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Marshak, Alexander [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Knyazikhin, Yuri [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Chiu, Christine [Univ. of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, MD (United States)


    We have basically completed all the goals stated in the previous proposal and published or submitted journal papers thereon, the only exception being First-Principles Monte Carlo which has taken more time than expected. We finally finished the comprehensive book on 3D cloud radiative transfer (edited by Marshak and Davis and published by Springer), with many contributions by ARM scientists; this book was highlighted in the 2005 ARM Annual Report. We have also completed (for now) our pioneering work on new models of cloud drop clustering based on ARM aircraft FSSP data, with applications both to radiative transfer and to rainfall. This clustering work was highlighted in the FY07 “Our Changing Planet” (annual report of the US Climate Change Science Program). Our group published 22 papers, one book, and 5 chapters in that book, during this proposal period. All are listed at the end of this section. Below, we give brief highlights of some of those papers.

  16. Eye Drop Tips (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  17. Drop Tower Facility at Queensland University of Technology (United States)

    Plagens, Owen; Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore; Ong, Teng-Cheong

    The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Drop Tower Facility is a {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}2.1 second, 21.3 m fall, dual capsule drop tower system. The dual capsule comprises of an uncoupled exterior hollow drag shield that experiences drag by the ambient atmosphere with the experimental capsule falling within the drag shield. The dual capsule system is lifted to the top of the drop tower via a mechanical crane and the dropping process is initiated by the cutting of a wire coupling the experimental package and suspending the drag shield. The internal experimental capsule reaches the bottom of the drag shield floor just prior to the deceleration stage at the air bag and during this time experience gravity levels of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{-6} g. The deceleration system utilizes an inflatable airbag where experimental packages can be designed to experience a maximum deceleration of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{18} g for {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.1 seconds. The drag shield can house experimental packages with a maximum diameter of 0.8 m and height of 0.9 m. The drag shield can also be used in foam mode, where the walls are lined with foam and small experiments can be dropped completely untethered. This mode is generally used for the study of microsatellite manipulation. Payloads can be powered by on-board power systems with power delivered to the experiment until free fall occurs. Experimental data that can be collected includes but is not limited to video, temperature, pressure, voltage/current from the power supply, and triggering mechanisms outputs which are simultaneously collected via data logging systems and high speed video recording systems. Academic and commercial projects are currently under investigation at the QUT Drop Tower Facility and collaboration is openly welcome at this facility. Current research includes the study of heterogeneously burning metals in oxygen which is aimed at fire safety applications and

  18. Studies of Drop/Drop and Drop/Interface Impact (United States)

    Lowengrub, John; Cristini, Vittorio; Kim, Jun-Seok; Zheng, Xiaoming; Mohammed-Kassim, Zulfaa; Longmire, Ellen


    In this talk, we will study the impact and coalescence of liquid drops using a physically-based numerical model that allows seamless transitions in interface topologies combined with adaptive mesh refinement. By using a mesh size that is adaptive to the length scales associated to the lubrication pressure generated by interfaces in near contact, we accurately describe the near contact motion and recover the predictions of asymptotic analyses. We compare simulation results to recent experiments performed by Mohamed-Kassim and Longmire. The effects of multiple drops, van der Waal forces and surfactants will also be considered.

  19. Large bubble entrainment in drop impact (United States)

    Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Li, Yangfan; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.


    A drop impacting on a pool of the same liquid can entrap air bubbles in many different ways. A peculiar entrapment was observed by Pumphrey and Elmore (1990) and remained unexplained until now. For a small range of parameters, the cavity produced by the impacting drop spreads radially in a dish-shape and then closes to entrap a bubble larger than the drop. We demonstrate that the large bubble is caused by a vortex ring produced in the liquid during the impact of the drop. We combine experiments and numerical simulations to show that the vortex ring pulls on the interface on the side of the cavity to stretch it radially, explaining the shape of the cavity. Only prolate drops are able to generate large bubbles. This is due to the self-destruction of the vortex earlier during the impact for flatter drops.

  20. Characteristics of Unequal Size Drop Collisions (United States)

    Kim, Jungyong; Longmire, Ellen; Kim, Man Sik


    Pairs of water/glycerin drops were injected into silicone oil and traveled on downward trajectories before colliding. Unequal size drop collisions with drop size ratios (Ds/DL) of 0.7 and 0.5 were investigated. Simultaneous dual-field PIV measurements were obtained to characterize coalescence and rebounding behavior. The initial injection angle and tube height were adjusted to access appropriate impact parameters. In the current study, the collision angle of the large drop was, in general, shallower than that of the small drop, and a range of velocity ratios and impact parameters was examined. Coalescence occurs above We* = 11 similar to collision outcomes for equal size drops. As drop size ratio decreases, the intervening film deforms more. If the velocity ratio uL/us 1, the interface flattens before coalescence. The rupture location varies due to the asymmetry of the drops. As collision offset increases (B > 0), the film rupture time is shortened and mixing of the fluid within the drops is enhanced after coalescence. These results will be compared with the behavior observed previously for equal size drop collisions.

  1. The evaporation of the charged and uncharged water drops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A laboratory experiment has been performed to study the effect of ventilation on the rate of evaporation of the millimeter sized charged and uncharged water drops suspended in a vertical wind tunnel. The linear relationship, = 0.907 + 0.282 , observed between the mean ventilation coefficient, , and a ...

  2. Analysis of an Electrostatic MEMS Squeeze-film Drop Ejector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P. Furlani


    Full Text Available We present an analysis of an electrostatic drop-on-demand MEMS fluid ejector. The ejector consists of a microfluidic chamber with a piston that is suspended a few microns beneath a nozzle plate. A drop is ejected when a voltage is applied between the orifice plate and the piston. This produces an electrostatic force that moves the piston towards the nozzle. The moving piston generates a squeeze-film pressure distribution that causes drop ejection. We discuss the operating physics of the ejector and present a lumped-element model for predicting its performance. We calibrate the model using coupled structural-fluidic CFD analysis.

  3. Dispersive suspended microextraction. (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Yu; Lu, Yue-Le; Wu, Tong; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Hui


    A novel sample pre-treatment technique termed dispersive suspended microextraction (DSME) coupled with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) has been developed for the determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides (ethoprophos, malathion, chlorpyrifos, isocarbophos, methidathion, fenamiphos, profenofos, triazophos) in aqueous samples. In this method, both extraction and two phases' separation process were performed by the assistance of magnetic stirring. After separating the two phases, 1 μL of the suspended phase was injected into GC for further instrument analysis. Varieties of experiment factors which could affect the experiment results were optimized and the following were selected: 12.0 μL p-xylene was selected as extraction solvent, extraction speed was 1200 rpm, extraction time was 30 s, the restoration speed was 800 rpm, the restoration time was 8 min, and no salt was added. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detections (LODs) varied between 0.01 and 0.05 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSDs, n=6) ranged from 4.6% to 12.1%. The linearity was obtained by five points in the concentration range of 0.1-100.0 μg L(-1). Correlation coefficients (r) varied from 0.9964 to 0.9995. The enrichment factors (EFs) were between 206 and 243. In the final experiment, the developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in wine and tap water samples and the obtained recoveries were between 83.8% and 101.3%. Compared with other pre-treatment methods, DSME has its own features and could achieve satisfied results for the analysis of trace components in complicated matrices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of Interfacial Rheological Properties through Microgravity Oscillations of Bubbles and Drops (United States)

    Nadim, Ali; Rush, Brian M.


    This report summarizes our derivations of analytical expressions for the frequencies and damping constants for small-amplitude axisymmetric shape oscillations of a liquid drop suspended in an immiscible fluid host in microgravity. In particular, this work addresses large Reynolds number shape oscillations and focuses on the surface rheological effects that arise from the presence of insoluble surfactants at the interface. Parameters characterizing viscous effects from the bulk phases, surface viscous effects, Marangoni effects from the surface advection and diffusion of surfactants, and the Gibbs elasticity are all considered and analyzed to determine the relative importance of each contribution. Supplementing the analytical treatment for small-amplitude oscillations, a numerical boundary integral equation formulation is developed for the study of large-amplittide axisymmetric oscillations of a drop in vacuum. The boundary integral formulation is an extension of classical potential flow theory and approximately accounts for viscous effects in the bulk fluid as well as the surface viscous and Marangoni effects resulting from an insoluble surfactant contaminating the interface. Theoretical and numerical results are presented for four distinct cases. These, range from the case when the effects of the surfactants are 'negligible' to 'large' when compared to the viscous effects in the bulk phases. The feasibility of the non-contact measurement of the surface parameters, using experimental observations for the oscillation frequencies and damping constants of drops and bubbles, is discussed.

  5. Bubble and drop interfaces

    CERN Document Server



    The book aims at describing the most important experimental methods for characterizing liquid interfaces, such as drop profile analysis, bubble pressure and drop volume tensiometry, capillary pressure technique, and oscillating drops and bubbles. Besides the details of experimental set ups, also the underlying theoretical basis is presented in detail. In addition, a number of applications based on drops and bubbles is discussed, such as rising bubbles and the very complex process of flotation. Also wetting, characterized by the dynamics of advancing contact angles is discussed critically. Spec

  6. Dynamics of deforming drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, W.


    Liquid drops play a dominant role in numerous industrial applications, such as spray coating, spray painting, inkjet printing, lithography processes, and spraying/sprinkling in agriculture or gardening. In all of these examples, the generation, flight, impact, and spreading of drops are separate

  7. Influence of droplet geometry on the coalescence of low viscosity drops. (United States)

    Eddi, A; Winkels, K G; Snoeijer, J H


    The coalescence of water drops on a substrate is studied experimentally. We focus on the rapid growth of the bridge connecting the two drops, which very quickly after contact ensues from a balance of surface tension and liquid inertia. For drops with contact angles below 90°, we find that the bridge grows with a self-similar dynamics that is characterized by a height h~t(2/3). By contrast, the geometry of coalescence changes dramatically for contact angles at 90°, for which we observe h~t(1/2), just as for freely suspended spherical drops in the inertial regime. We present a geometric model that quantitatively captures the transition from 2/3 to 1/2 exponent, and unifies the inertial coalescence of sessile drops and freely suspended drops.

  8. Lambda-dropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh


    Lambda-lifting a functional program transforms it into a set of recursive equations. We present the symmetric transformation: lambda-dropping. Lambda-dropping a set of recursive equations restores block structure and lexical scope.For lack of scope, recursive equations must carry around all...... to float (for lambda-lifting) or to sink (for lambda-dropping) along the vertices of the scope tree.We believe lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping are interesting per se, both in principle and in practice, but our prime application is partial evaluation: except for Malmkjær and Ø...... with dozens of parameters, which most compilers do not handle efficiently. Lambda-dropping in a post-processing phase restores their block structure and lexical scope thereby significantly reducing both the compile time and the run time of residual programs....

  9. Ferrofluid drops in rotating magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, A V; Morozov, K I; Bauke, H


    Drops of a ferrofluid floating in a non-magnetic liquid of the same density and spun by a rotating magnetic field are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The parameters for the experiment are chosen such that different stationary drop shapes including non-axis-symmetric configurations could be observed. Within an approximate theoretical analysis the character of the occurring shape bifurcations, the different stationary drop forms, as well as the slow rotational motion of the drop is investigated. The results are in qualitative, and often quantitative agreement, with the experimental findings. It is also shown that a small eccentricity of the rotating field may have a substantial impact on the rotational motion of the drop.

  10. Liquid toroidal drop under uniform electric field (United States)

    Zabarankin, Michael


    The problem of a stationary liquid toroidal drop freely suspended in another fluid and subjected to an electric field uniform at infinity is addressed analytically. Taylor's discriminating function implies that, when the phases have equal viscosities and are assumed to be slightly conducting (leaky dielectrics), a spherical drop is stationary when Q=(2R2+3R+2)/(7R2), where R and Q are ratios of the phases' electric conductivities and dielectric constants, respectively. This condition holds for any electric capillary number, CaE, that defines the ratio of electric stress to surface tension. Pairam and Fernández-Nieves showed experimentally that, in the absence of external forces (CaE=0), a toroidal drop shrinks towards its centre, and, consequently, the drop can be stationary only for some CaE>0. This work finds Q and CaE such that, under the presence of an electric field and with equal viscosities of the phases, a toroidal drop having major radius ρ and volume 4π/3 is qualitatively stationary-the normal velocity of the drop's interface is minute and the interface coincides visually with a streamline. The found Q and CaE depend on R and ρ, and for large ρ, e.g. ρ≥3, they have simple approximations: Q˜(R2+R+1)/(3R2) and CaE∼3 √{3 π ρ / 2 } (6 ln ⁡ρ +2 ln ⁡[96 π ]-9 )/ (12 ln ⁡ρ +4 ln ⁡[96 π ]-17 ) (R+1 ) 2/ (R-1 ) 2.

  11. Artificial tektites: an experimental technique for capturing the shapes of spinning drops (United States)

    Baldwin, K. A.


    Tektites are small stones formed from rapidly cooling drops of molten rock ejected from high velocity asteroid impacts with the Earth, that freeze into a myriad of shapes during flight. Many splash-form tektites have an elongated or dumb-bell shape owing to their rotation prior to solidification[1]. Here we present a novel method for creating 'artificial tektites' from spinning drops of molten wax, using diamagnetic levitation to suspend the drops[2]. We find that the solid wax models produced this way are the stable equilibrium shapes of a spinning liquid droplet held together by surface tension. In addition to the geophysical interest in tektite formation, the stable equilibrium shapes of liquid drops have implications for many physical phenomena, covering a wide range of length scales, from nuclear physics (e.g. in studies of rapidly rotating atomic nuclei), to astrophysics (e.g. in studies of the shapes of astronomical bodies such as asteroids, rapidly rotating stars and event horizons of rotating black holes). For liquid drops bound by surface tension, analytical and numerical methods predict a series of stable equilibrium shapes with increasing angular momentum. Slowly spinning drops have an oblate-like shape. With increasing angular momentum these shapes become secularly unstable to a series of triaxial pseudo-ellipsoids that then evolve into a family of two-lobed 'dumb-bell' shapes as the angular momentum is increased still further. Our experimental method allows accurate measurements of the drops to be taken, which are useful to validate numerical models. This method has provided a means for observing tektite formation, and has additionally confirmed experimentally the stable equilibrium shapes of liquid drops, distinct from the equivalent shapes of rotating astronomical bodies. Potentially, this technique could be applied to observe the non-equilibrium dynamic processes that are also important in real tektite formation, involving, e.g. viscoelastic

  12. Micro-splashing by drop impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.


    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to observe directly the earliest onset of prompt splashing when a drop impacts onto a smooth solid surface. We capture the start of the ejecta sheet travelling along the solid substrate and show how it breaks up immediately upon emergence from the underneath the drop. The resulting micro-droplets are much smaller and faster than previously reported and may have gone unobserved owing to their very small size and rapid ejection velocities, which approach 100 m s-1, for typical impact conditions of large rain drops. We propose a phenomenological mechanism which predicts the velocity and size distribution of the resulting microdroplets. We also observe azimuthal undulations which may help promote the earliest breakup of the ejecta. This instability occurs in the cusp in the free surface where the drop surface meets the radially ejected liquid sheet. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  13. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.


    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  14. Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation. (United States)

    Safar, Peter J; Tisherman, Samuel A


    'Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation' is a new concept for attempting resuscitation from cardiac arrest of patients who currently (totally or temporarily) cannot be resuscitated, such as traumatic exsanguination cardiac arrest. Suspended animation means preservation of the viability of brain and organism during cardiac arrest, until restoration of stable spontaneous circulation or prolonged artificial circulation is possible. Suspended animation for exsanguination cardiac arrest of trauma victims would have to be induced within the critical first 5 min after the start of cardiac arrest no-flow, to buy time for transport and resuscitative surgery (hemostasis) performed during no-flow. Cardiac arrest is then reversed with all-out resuscitation, usually requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Suspended animation has been explored and documented as effective in dogs in terms of long-term survival without brain damage after very prolonged cardiac arrest. In the 1990s, the Pittsburgh group achieved survival without brain damage in dogs after cardiac arrest of up to 90 min no-flow at brain (tympanic) temperature of 10 degrees C, with functionally and histologically normal brains. These studies used emergency cardiopulmonary bypass with heat exchanger or a single hypothermic saline flush into the aorta, which proved superior to pharmacologic strategies. For the large number of normovolemic sudden cardiac death victims, which currently cannot be resuscitated, more research in large animals is needed.

  15. Drop tube technical tasks (United States)

    Workman, G. L.


    Criteria, using fundamental thermochemical dynamics, were developed to assist a scientist using the Drop Tube Facility in designing a good experiment. The types of parameters involved in designing the experiments include the type of furnace, the type of atmosphere, and in general which materials are better behaved than others as determined by past experience in the facility. One of the major advantages of the facility lies in its ability to provide large undercoolings in the cooling curve during the drops. A beginning was to consider the effect of oxygen and other gases upon the amount of undercooling observed. The starting point of the thermochemistry was given by Ellingham and later transformed into what is known as the Richardson Chart. The effect of surface oxidations upon the nucleation phenomena can be observed in each specimen.

  16. Dropped object protection analyses


    Nilsen, Ingve


    Master's thesis in Offshore structural engineering Impact from dropped object is a typical accident action (NOKSOK N-004, 2013). Hence, the DOP structure is to be analyzed in an accidental limit state (ALS) design practice, which means that a non-linear finite element analysis can be applied. The DOP structure will be based on a typical DOP structure. Several FEM analyses are performed for the DOP structure. Different shapes size and weights and various impact positions are used for si...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.21 - Suspend. (United States)


    ... part thereof during a particular period of time specified in the rule. ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.21 Suspend. Suspend means to...

  18. Uniform electric-field-induced non-Newtonian rheology of a dilute suspension of deformable Newtonian drops (United States)

    Mandal, Shubhadeep; Chakraborty, Suman


    The rheological behavior of a dilute emulsion comprised of neutrally buoyant drops suspended in an immiscible medium under the combined influence of a uniform electric field and simple shear flow is analyzed. Considering the drops and suspending medium as Newtonian and leaky dielectrics, the effective emulsion stress tensor is obtained when the fluid motion is governed by the Stokes equations. The present study takes into account an arbitrarily oriented uniform electric field in the plane of shear flow. A small-deformation analysis is performed to study this coupled electrohydrodynamic problem considering weak imposed shear flow and weak surface charge convection. Analytical expressions are obtained for the effective shear viscosity and normal stress differences of the dilute emulsion. The tilt angle (orientation angle of the applied electric field relative to the direction of shear flow) is found to affect the emulsion rheology. Key results show that the dilute emulsion exhibits non-Newtonian behavior such as shear-rate-dependent effective viscosity and nonzero first and second normal stress differences. In the absence of shape deformation and charge convection, a dilute emulsion displays shear thinning or shear thickening behavior depending on the drop polarization and tilt angle. The effective viscosity of the dilute emulsion can be lower or higher than the viscosity of the suspending medium depending on the electrical property ratios, tilt angle, and relative strength of the electric stress as compared with viscous stress. Surface charge convection significantly affects the electrohydrodynamic flow and thereby modifies the effective viscosity and normal stress differences. The applied electric field significantly affects the drop shape and orientation angle and thereby modifies the effective viscosity and normal stress differences. Both the surface charge convection and shape deformation can increase or decrease the effective viscosity and normal stress

  19. Transformation of the bridge during drop separation (United States)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Prokhorov, V. E.


    The geometry of flows during separation of pendant drops of liquids with significantly different physical properties (alcohol, water, glycerin, oil) has been studied by high-speed video recording. The dynamics of the processes involving the formation of bridges of two characteristic shapes—slightly nonuniform in thickness and with thinning of the upper and lower ends—has been investigated. It has been shown that the shape change of the separated bridge has a number of stages determined by the properties of the liquid. As a result, the bridge is transformed into a small drop—a satellite drop.

  20. Coalescence collision of liquid drops I: Off-center collisions of equal-size drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Acevedo-Malavé


    Full Text Available The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method (SPH is used here to model off-center collisions of equal-size liquid drops in a three-dimensional space. In this study the Weber number is calculated for several conditions of the droplets dynamics and the velocity vector fields formed inside the drops during the collision process are shown. For the permanent coalescence the evolution of the kinetic and internal energy is shown and also the approaching to equilibrium of the resulting drop. Depending of the Weber number three possible outcomes for the collision of droplets is obtained: permanent coalescence, flocculation and fragmentation. The fragmentation phenomena are modeled and the formation of small satellite drops can be seen. The ligament that is formed follows the “end pinching” mechanism and it is transformed into a flat structure.

  1. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood


    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  2. Electromagnetic radiation due to nonlinear oscillations of a charged drop (United States)

    Shiryaeva, S. O.; Grigor'ev, A. N.; Kolbneva, N. Yu.


    The nonlinear oscillations of a spherical charged drop are asymptotically analyzed under the conditions of a multimode initial deformation of its equilibrium shape. It is found that if the spectrum of initially excited modes contains two adjacent modes, the translation mode of oscillations is excited among others. In this case, the center of the drop's charge oscillates about the equilibrium position, generating a dipole electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the intensity of this radiation is many orders of magnitude higher than the intensity of the drop's radiation, which arises in calculations of the first order of smallness and is related to the drop's charged surface oscillations.

  3. Drop jumping. II. The influence of dropping height on the biomechanics of drop jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M F; Huijing, P A; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    In the literature, athletes preparing for explosive activities are recommended to include drop jumping in their training programs. For the execution of drop jumps, different techniques and different dropping heights can be used. This study was designed to investigate for the performance of bounce

  4. A boundary integral method for two-dimensional (non)-Newtonian drops in slow viscous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toose, E.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.


    A boundary integral method for the simulation of the time-dependent deformation of Newtonian or non-Newtonian drops suspended in a Newtonian fluid is developed. The boundary integral formulation for Stokes flow is used and the non-Newtonian stress is treated as a source term which yields an extra

  5. Rippling instabilities in suspended nanoribbons (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Upmanyu, Moneesh


    Morphology mediates the interplay between the structure and electronic transport in atomically thin nanoribbons such as graphene as the relaxation of edge stresses occurs preferentially via out-of-plane deflections. In the case of end-supported suspended nanoribbons that we study here, past experiments and computations have identified a range of equilibrium morphologies, in particular, for graphene flakes, yet a unified understanding of their relative stability remains elusive. Here, we employ atomic-scale simulations and a composite framework based on isotropic elastic plate theory to chart out the morphological stability space of suspended nanoribbons with respect to intrinsic (ribbon elasticity) and engineered (ribbon geometry) parameters, and the combination of edge and body actuation. The computations highlight a rich morphological shape space that can be naturally classified into two competing shapes, bendinglike and twistlike, depending on the distribution of ripples across the interacting edges. The linearized elastic framework yields exact solutions for these rippled shapes. For compressive edge stresses, the body strain emerges as a key variable that controls their relative stability and in extreme cases stabilizes coexisting transverse ripples. Tensile edge stresses lead to dimples within the ribbon core that decay into the edges, a feature of obvious significance for stretchable nanoelectronics. The interplay between geometry and mechanics that we report should serve as a key input for quantifying the transport along these ribbons.

  6. Eye Drop Tips (United States)

    ... Size Small Text Medium Text Large Text Contrast Dark on Light Light on Dark Donate Search Menu Donate What is Glaucoma? Care ... Low Vision Resources Medication Guide Resources on the Web » See All Articles Where the Money Goes Have ...

  7. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis


    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Dispersions of small particles in liquids have been studied continuously for almost two centuries for their ability to simultaneously advance understanding of physical properties of fluids and their widespread use in applications. In both settings, the suspending (liquid) and suspended (solid) phases are normally distinct and uncoupled on long length and time scales. In this study, we report on the synthesis and physical properties of a novel family of covalently grafted nanoparticles that exist as self-suspended suspensions with high particle loadings. In such suspensions, we find that the grafted polymer chains exhibit unusual multiscale structural transitions and enhanced conformational stability on subnanometer and nanometer length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains in the single-component self-suspended materials, which inhibits phase segregation. On macroscopic length scales, the suspensions exist as neat fluids that exhibit soft glassy rheology and, counterintuitively, enhanced elasticity with increasing temperature. This feature is discussed in terms of increased interpenetration of the grafted chains and jamming of the nanoparticles. (Chemical Presented).

  8. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...... the pressure drop in a contraction are given....

  9. Laser impact on a drop

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Alexander L; Bouwhuis, Wilco; Lhuissier, Henri; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Lohse, Detlef; Gelderblom, Hanneke


    The impact of a laser pulse on a highly absorbing liquid drop can lead to a violent response: the drop is accelerated, strongly deforms, and eventually fragments. Shock waves, the ejection of matter, and even plasma formation can accompany this process ...

  10. Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal


    Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

  11. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter Collected at Two Different. Heights above the Ground in A Sub-Urban Site in Kenya. Gitari W. M1, Kinyua A. M. 2, Kamau G. N3 and C. K. Gatebe C. K4. Abstract. Suspended particulate matter samples were collected in a sub-urban area in Nairobi over a 12 month ...

  12. Drop by drop scattering properties of a radar bin : a numerical experiment (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel


    This paper presents the development and initial results of a numerical simulation of pseudo-radar observations computed as the sum of the electric field backscattered by each drop. Simulations are carried out for three successive radar bins with a gate length of 30 m and beam width of 1°. The first step is the simulation of a 100 m x 100 m x 100 m volume with all its drops. The 3D raindrop generator relies on the findings on the rainfall field very small scales (mm to few tens of m) spatio-temporal structure, of the HYDROP experiment and a recent analysis of 2D video disdrometer data in a Multifractal framework. More precisely: (i) The Liquid Water Content (LWC) distribution is represented with the help a multiplicative cascade down to 0.5 m, below which it is considered as homogeneous. (ii) Within each 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m3 patch, liquid water is distributed into drops according to a pre-defined Drop Size Distribution (DSD) and located randomly uniformly. (iii) Such configuration is compared with the one consisting of the same drops uniformly distributed over the 50 x 50 x 50 m3 volume. Then the backscattered field by the drops located within a radar bin are computed as the sum a individual contribution. Antenna beam weighing is taken into account Due to the fact that the radar wave length is much smaller than the "patches" size for rainfall, it appears that as theoretically expected we retrieved an exponential distribution for potential measure horizontal reflectivity. A much lower dispersion is noticed for differential reflectivity. We show that a simple ballistic assumption for drop velocities does not enable to reproduce radar observations, and turbulence must be taken into account. Finally the sensitivity of these outputs to the various model parameters is quantified.

  13. A drop in uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear extensional flows (United States)

    Favelukis, M.


    In this theoretical report, we explore small deformations of an initially spherical drop subjected to uniaxial or biaxial nonlinear extensional creeping flows. The problem is governed by the capillary number (Ca), the viscosity ratio (λ), and the nonlinear intensity of the flow (E). When the extensional flow is linear (E = 0), the familiar internal circulations are obtained and the same is true with E > 0, except that the external and internal flow rates increase with increasing E. If E 0) and oblate spheroidal drops for biaxial flows (Ca 0, the drop is more elongated than the linear case, while E 0 tends to facilitate drop breakup, while E < 0 makes drop breakup more difficult.

  14. Approximate Series Solutions for Nonlinear Free Vibration of Suspended Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobing Zhao


    Full Text Available This paper presents approximate series solutions for nonlinear free vibration of suspended cables via the Lindstedt-Poincare method and homotopy analysis method, respectively. Firstly, taking into account the geometric nonlinearity of the suspended cable as well as the quasi-static assumption, a mathematical model is presented. Secondly, two analytical methods are introduced to obtain the approximate series solutions in the case of nonlinear free vibration. Moreover, small and large sag-to-span ratios and initial conditions are chosen to study the nonlinear dynamic responses by these two analytical methods. The numerical results indicate that frequency amplitude relationships obtained with different analytical approaches exhibit some quantitative and qualitative differences in the cases of motions, mode shapes, and particular sag-to-span ratios. Finally, a detailed comparison of the differences in the displacement fields and cable axial total tensions is made.

  15. Improving suspended sediment measurements by automatic samplers. (United States)

    Gettel, Melissa; Gulliver, John S; Kayhanian, Masoud; DeGroot, Gregory; Brand, Joshua; Mohseni, Omid; Erickson, Andrew J


    Suspended solids either as total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is an integral particulate water quality parameter that is important in assessing particle-bound contaminants. At present, nearly all stormwater runoff quality monitoring is performed with automatic samplers in which the sampling intake is typically installed at the bottom of a storm sewer or channel. This method of sampling often results in a less accurate measurement of suspended sediment and associated pollutants due to the vertical variation in particle concentration caused by particle settling. In this study, the inaccuracies associated with sampling by conventional intakes for automatic samplers have been verified by testing with known suspended sediment concentrations and known particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 μm to 355 μm under various flow rates. Experimental results show that, for samples collected at a typical automatic sampler intake position, the ratio of sampled to feed suspended sediment concentration is up to 6600% without an intake strainer and up to 300% with a strainer. When the sampling intake is modified with multiple sampling tubes and fitted with a wing to provide lift (winged arm sampler intake), the accuracy of sampling improves substantially. With this modification, the differences between sampled and feed suspended sediment concentration were more consistent and the sampled to feed concentration ratio was accurate to within 10% for particle sizes up to 250 μm.

  16. Drop spreading with random viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Feng


    We examine theoretically the spreading of a viscous liquid drop over a thin film of uniform thickness, assuming the liquid's viscosity is regulated by the concentration of a solute that is carried passively by the spreading flow. The solute is assumed to be initially heterogeneous, having a spatial distribution with prescribed statistical features. To examine how this variability influences the drop's motion, we investigate spreading in a planar geometry using lubrication theory, combining numerical simulations with asymptotic analysis. We assume diffusion is sufficient to suppress solute concentration gradients across but not along the film. The solute field beneath the bulk of the drop is stretched by the spreading flow, such that the initial solute concentration immediately behind the drop's effective contact lines has a long-lived influence on the spreading rate. Over long periods, solute swept up from the precursor film accumulates in a short region behind the contact line, allowing patches of elevated v...

  17. 45-FOOT HIGH DROP TOWER (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Drop Tower is used to simulate and measure the impact shocks that are exerted on parachute loads when they hit the ground. It is also used for HSL static lift to...

  18. High-Speed Interferometry Under Impacting Drops

    KAUST Repository

    Langley, Kenneth R.


    Over the last decade the rapid advances in high-speed video technology, have opened up to study many multi-phase fluid phenomena, which tend to occur most rapidly on the smallest length-scales. One of these is the entrapment of a small bubble under a drop impacting onto a solid surface. Here we have gone from simply observing the presence of the bubble to detailed imaging of the formation of a lubricating air-disc under the drop center and its subsequent contraction into the bubble. Imaging the full shape-evolution of the air-disc has required μm and sub-μs space and time resolutions. Time-resolved 200 ns interferometry with monochromatic light, has allowed us to follow individual fringes to obtain absolute air-layer thicknesses, based on the eventual contact with the solid. We can follow the evolution of the dimple shape as well as the compression of the gas. The improved imaging has also revealed new levels of detail, like the nature of the first contact which produces a ring of micro-bubbles, highlighting the influence of nanometric surface roughness. Finally, for impacts of ultra-viscous drops we see gliding on ~100 nm thick rarified gas layers, followed by extreme wetting at numerous random spots.

  19. Clustering of particles and pathogens within evaporating drops (United States)

    Park, Jaebum; Kim, Ho-Young


    The evaporation of sessile suspension drops leads to accumulation of the particles around the pinned contact line, which is widely termed the coffee ring effect. However, the evaporation behavior of a liquid drop containing a small number of particles with the size comparable to the host drop is unclear yet. Thus, here we investigate the motion and spatial distribution of large particles within a sessile drop. The spherical particles cluster only when their initial distance is below a critical value, which is a function of the diameter and wettability of particle as well as the surface tension and size of the host drop. We rationalize such a critical distance for self-assembly based on the balance of the capillary force and the frictional resistance to sliding and rolling of the particles on a solid substrate. We further discuss the physical significance of this drop-mediated ``Cheerios effect'' in connection with the fate of pathogens residing in drops as a result of sneezing and coughing.

  20. Modeling drop impacts on inclined flowing soap films (United States)

    Basu, Saikat; Yawar, Ali; Concha, Andres; Bandi, Mahesh


    Small drops impinging on soap films flowing at an angle primarily exhibit three fundamental regimes of post-impact dynamics: (a) the drop bounces off the film surface, (b) it coalesces with the downstream flow, and (c) it pierces through the film. During impact, the drop deforms along with a simultaneous, almost elastic deformation of the film transverse to the stream direction. Hence, the governing dynamics for this interaction present the rare opportunity to explore the in-tandem effects of elasticity and hydrodynamics alike. In this talk, we outline the analytical framework to study the drop impact dynamics. The model assumes a deformable drop and a deformable three-dimensional soap film and invokes a parametric study to qualify the three mentioned impact types. The physical parameters include the impact angle, drop impact speed, and the diameters of the drop prior to and during impact when it deforms and spreads out. Our model system offers a path towards optimization of interactions between a spray and a flowing liquid.

  1. Drop Spreading with Random Viscosity (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver


    Airway mucus acts as a barrier to protect the lung. However as a biological material, its physical properties are known imperfectly and can be spatially heterogeneous. In this study we assess the impact of these uncertainties on the rate of spreading of a drop (representing an inhaled aerosol) over a mucus film. We model the film as Newtonian, having a viscosity that depends linearly on the concentration of a passive solute (a crude proxy for mucin proteins). Given an initial random solute (and hence viscosity) distribution, described as a Gaussian random field with a given correlation structure, we seek to quantify the uncertainties in outcomes as the drop spreads. Using lubrication theory, we describe the spreading of the drop in terms of a system of coupled nonlinear PDEs governing the evolution of film height and the vertically-averaged solute concentration. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to predict the variability in the drop centre location and width (1D) or area (2D). We show how simulation results are well described (at much lower computational cost) by a low-order model using a weak disorder expansion. Our results show for example how variability in the drop location is a non-monotonic function of the solute correlation length increases. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  2. Satellite Formation during Coalescence of Unequal Size Drops

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, F. H.


    The coalescence of a drop with a flat liquid surface pinches off a satellite from its top, in the well-known coalescence cascade, whereas the coalescence of two equally sized drops does not appear to leave such a satellite. Herein we perform experiments to identify the critical diameter ratio of two drops, above which a satellite is produced during their coalescence. We find that the critical parent ratio is as small as 1.55, but grows monotonically with the Ohnesorge number. The daughter size is typically about 50% of the mother drop. However, we have identified novel pinch-off dynamics close to the critical size ratio, where the satellite does not fully separate, but rather goes directly into a second stage of the coalescence cascade, thus generating a much smaller satellite droplet.

  3. Continuous-flow centrifugation to collect suspended sediment for chemical analysis (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Black, Robert W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Sheibley, Richard W.; Foreman, James R.; Senter, Craig A.; Peterson, Norman T.


    Recent advances in suspended-sediment monitoring tools and surrogate technologies have greatly improved the ability to quantify suspended-sediment concentrations and to estimate daily, seasonal, and annual suspended-sediment fluxes from rivers to coastal waters. However, little is known about the chemical composition of suspended sediment, and how it may vary spatially between water bodies and temporally within a single system owing to climate, seasonality, land use, and other natural and anthropogenic drivers. Many water-quality contaminants, such as organic and inorganic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens, preferentially partition in sediment rather than water. Suspended sediment-bound chemical concentrations may be undetected during analysis of unfiltered water samples, owing to small water sample volumes and analytical limitations. Quantification of suspended sediment‑bound chemical concentrations is needed to improve estimates of total chemical concentrations, chemical fluxes, and exposure levels of aquatic organisms and humans in receiving environments. Despite these needs, few studies or monitoring programs measure the chemical composition of suspended sediment, largely owing to the difficulty in consistently obtaining samples of sufficient quality and quantity for laboratory analysis.A field protocol is described here utilizing continuous‑flow centrifugation for the collection of suspended sediment for chemical analysis. The centrifuge used for development of this method is small, lightweight, and portable for the field applications described in this protocol. Project scoping considerations, deployment of equipment and system layout options, and results from various field and laboratory quality control experiments are described. The testing confirmed the applicability of the protocol for the determination of many inorganic and organic chemicals sorbed on suspended sediment, including metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and

  4. Impact and Penetration of Nanoparticle Suspension Drops into Porous Membranes (United States)

    Sahu, Rakesh; Yarin, Alexander; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam


    The impacts and dynamic penetration of drops with suspended nanoparticles into porous membranes are studied experimentally and theoretically. This type of penetration is radically different from the wettability-driven imbibition. Two types of membranes are used in the experiments: (i) glass fiber filter membrane (wettable) and (ii) PTFE depth filter (non-wettable). The nanoparticle entrainment and deposition inside the membrane bulk is used to mostly visualize the ultimate penetration fronts of the carrier fluid by observing the cut cross-sections of the filter membranes, albeit also provides an insight into potentially new applications like circuit printing on nonwovens. The experimental results demonstrate that during the dynamic focusing responsible for water penetration into micro- and nanopores, water can penetrate into a non-wettable porous medium (PTFE). Water also penetrates by the same focusing mechanism into the wettable glass fiber membrane, where it additionally spreads on a much longer time scale due to the wettability-driven flow. A theory explaining dynamic penetration of liquid into porous medium after drop impact is proposed. It is used to explain and predict water penetration into the non-wettable media after drop impact, and the results are compared with the experimental data. The work was supported by the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center (NCRC).

  5. Many Drops Interactions I: Simulation of Coalescence, Flocculation and Fragmentation of Multiple Colliding Drops with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Acevedo-Malavé


    Full Text Available Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH is a Lagrangian mesh-free formalism and has been useful to model continuous fluid. This formalism is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations by replacing the fluid with a set of particles. These particles are interpolation points from which properties of the fluid can be determined. In this study, the SPH method is applied to simulate the hydrodynamics interaction of many drops, showing some settings for the coalescence, fragmentation and flocculation problem of equally sized liquid drops in three-dimensional spaces. For small velocities the drops interact only through their deformed surfaces and the flocculation of the droplets arises. This result is very different if the collision velocity is large enough for the fragmentation of droplets takes place. We observe that for velocities around 15 mm/ms the coalescence of droplets occurs. The velocity vector fields formed inside the drops during the collision process are shown.

  6. Drops, contact lines, and electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Mannetje, Dieter


    In this work, we study the behaviour of drops and contact lines under the influence of electric fields, and how these can answer fundamental and industrial questions. Our focus is on studying the varying balance of the electric field, hysteresis forces and inertia as the speed of a contact line

  7. Raman study of lysozyme amyloid fibrils suspended on super-hydrophobic surfaces by shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Manola


    The shear flow generated at the rim of a drop evaporating on a micro-fabricated super-hydrophobic surface has been used to suspend and orient single/few lysozyme amyloid fibrils between two pillars for substrate-free characterization. Micro Raman spectroscopy performed on extended fibers evidenced a shift of the Amide I band main peak to the value attributed to β-sheet secondary structure, characteristic of the amyloid fibers. In addition, given the orientation sensitivity of the anisotropic molecule, the Raman signal of the main secondary structure was nicely enhanced for a fiber alignment parallel to the polarization direction of the laser. The substrate-free sample generated by this suspending technique is suitable for other structural analysis methods, where fiber crystals are investigated. It could be further employed for generation of arrays and patterns in a controllable fashion, where bio-compatible material is needed.

  8. Wetting of sessile water drop under an external electrical field (United States)

    Vancauwenberghe, Valerie; di Marco, Paolo; Brutin, David; Amu Collaboration; Unipi Collaboration


    The enhancement of heat and mass transfer using a static electric field is an interesting process for industrial applications, due to its low energy consumption and potentially high level of evaporation rate enhancement. However, to date, this phenomenon is still not understood in the context of the evaporation of sessile drops. We previously synthesized the state of the art concerning the effect of an electric field on sessile drops with a focus on the change of contact angle and shape and the influence of the evaporation rate [1]. We present here the preliminary results of an new experiment set-up. The novelty of the set-up is the drop injection from the bottom that allows to generate safety the droplet under the electrostatic field. The evaporation at room temperature of water drops having three different volumes has been investigated under an electric field up to 10.5 kV/cm. The time evolutions of the contact angles, volumes and diameters have been analysed. As reported in the literature, the drop elongate along the direction of the electric field. Despite the hysteresis effect of the contact angle, the receding contact angle increases with the strength of the electric field. This is clearly observable for the small drops for which the gravity effect can be neglected.

  9. Capillary-Inertial Colloidal Catapult upon Drop Coalescence (United States)

    Chavez, Roger; Liu, Fangjie; Feng, James; Chen, Chuan-Hua


    To discharge micron-sized particles such as colloidal contaminants and biological spores, an enormous power density is needed to compete against the strong adhesive forces between the small particles and the supporting surface as well as the significant air friction exerted on the particles. Here, we demonstrate a colloidal catapult that achieves such a high power density by extracting surface energy released upon drop coalescence within an extremely short time period, which is governed by the capillary-inertial process converting the released surface energy into the bulk inertia of the merged drop. When two drops coalesce on top of a spherical particle, the resulting capillary-inertial oscillation is perturbed by the solid particle, giving rise to a net momentum eventually propelling the particle to launch from the supporting surface. The measured launching velocity follows a scaling law that accounts for the redistribution of the momentum of the merged drop onto the particle-drop complex, and is therefore proportional to the capillary-inertial velocity characterizing the coalescing drops. The interfacial flow process associated with the colloidal catapult is elucidated with both high-speed imaging and phase-field simulations.

  10. A measurement of a control rod drop using an LVDT (United States)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Ho; Huh, Hyung; Yu, Je-Yong; Sohn, Dong-Seong


    A control element drive mechanism is a reactor regulating system, which is to insert, withdraw, or maintain a control rod containing neutron-absorbing material within a reactor core to control the reactivity of the reactor. The ball-screw type CEDM for the small and medium research reactor has a spring-hydraulic damper to reduce the impact force due to the free drop of the CEDM. This paper describes the experimental results to obtain the drop characteristics of the CEDM. The tests are performed by using a full-scale structure except the control element assembly, and a drop time and displacement after an impact are measured by using an LVDT. The influences of the rod weight and the drop height on the drop behavior are also estimated on the basis of test results. In case of the longest stroke, the drop time of the control rod is within 4.5 seconds to meet the design requirement. The behavior after the impact shows a general damping motion of the spring-damper system, and the maximum displacement is measured as 15.6 mm.

  11. Drop Impact upon Micro- and Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsai, Peichun Amy; Pacheco Benito, Sergio; Pirat, C.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Lohse, Detlef


    We experimentally investigate drop impact dynamics onto different superhydrophobic surfaces, consisting of regular polymeric micropatterns and rough carbon nanofibers, with similar static contact angles. The main control parameters are the Weber number We and the roughness of the surface. At small

  12. Mesophilic Co-Digestion of Cattle Paunch with Poultry Droppings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cattle paunch and poultry droppings are wastes that have posed environmental hazards due to poor management and disposal strategies in most municipal abattoirs and livestock farms in Nigeria. Utilization of these wastes for energy production at small and/or large scale requires assessment to ascertain the optimal mix.

  13. Method of Comprehensive Assessment of Efficiency of Decrease of Fire and Explosion Risk of Coal Suspended Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipov Vladimir


    Full Text Available Methods and results of experimental study of explosive and wetting characteristics of coal dust are presented. Modified evaluation method of explosive characteristics of coal dust allows estimating critical concentrations of suspended dust at variation of temperature of ionizing ignition source corresponding to beginning of flame propagation by means of approximation method. Method of measuring the contact angle of particles of coal powder is based on visualization of the drop placed on the pressed coal.

  14. Dancing drops over vibrating substrates (United States)

    Borcia, Rodica; Borcia, Ion Dan; Helbig, Markus; Meier, Martin; Egbers, Christoph; Bestehorn, Michael


    We study the motion of a liquid drop on a solid plate simultaneously submitted to horizontal and vertical harmonic vibrations. The investigation is done via a phase field model earlier developed for describing static and dynamic contact angles. The density field is nearly constant in every bulk region (ρ = 1 in the liquid phase, ρ ≈ 0 in the vapor phase) and varies continuously from one phase to the other with a rapid but smooth variation across the interfaces. Complicated explicit boundary conditions along the interface are avoided and captured implicitly by gradient terms of ρ in the hydrodynamic basic equations. The contact angle θ is controlled through the density at the solid substrate ρ S , a free parameter varying between 0 and 1 [R. Borcia, I.D. Borcia, M. Bestehorn, Phys. Rev. E 78, 066307 (2008)]. We emphasize the swaying and the spreading modes, earlier theoretically identified by Benilov and Billingham via a shallow-water model for drops climbing uphill along an inclined plane oscillating vertically [E.S. Benilov, J. Billingham, J. Fluid Mech. 674, 93 (2011)]. The numerical phase field simulations will be completed by experiments. Some ways to prevent the release of the dancing drops along a hydrophobic surface into the gas atmosphere are also discussed in this paper.

  15. 9 CFR 201.81 - Suspended registrants. (United States)


    ... 201.81 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.81 Suspended registrants. No stockyard owner, packer, market agency, or dealer shall employ...

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse


    experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  17. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system. KEY WORDS: Environmental toxicology, Suspended particulate matter, Dust analysis, Hematological indices, Wister albino rats. Bull.

  18. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    face area, shape, minerals and source) and conse- quent interaction with heavy metal concentrations. (HMCs). Recent studies have shown a growing awareness of the wider environmental significance of the suspended sediment loads transported by rivers and streams. This includes the importance of fine grain sediment in ...

  19. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust) samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological ...

  20. A depth integrated model for suspended transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galappatti, R.


    A new depth averaged model for suspended sediment transport in open channels has been developed based on an asymptotic solution to the two dimensional convection-diffusion equation in the vertical plane. The solution for the depth averaged concentration is derived from the bed boundary condition and

  1. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.


    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  2. Flow Laminarization and Acceleration by Suspended Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsch, M.; Hulshof, J.; Prostokishin, V.M.


    In [Comm. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci., 4(2009), pp. 153-175], Barenblatt presents a model for partial laminarization and acceleration of shear flows by the presence of suspended particles of different sizes, and provides a formal asymptotic analysis of the resulting velocity equation. In the present

  3. Emulsifying and Suspending Properties of Enterolobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:The thermodynamic instability of emulsions and suspensions necessitate the incorporation of emulsifiers and suspending agents respectively, in order to stabilize the formulations and ensure administration of accurate doses. Objective:Enterolobium cyclocarpum gum was characterized and evaluated for its ...

  4. Drop impact upon micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces


    Tsai, Peichun; Pacheco, Sergio; Pirat, Christophe; Lefferts, Leon; Lohse, Detlef


    We experimentally investigate drop impact dynamics onto different superhydrophobic surfaces, consisting of regular polymeric micropatterns and rough carbon nanofibers, with similar static contact angles. The main control parameters are the Weber number \\We and the roughness of the surface. At small \\We, i.e. small impact velocity, the impact evolutions are similar for both types of substrates, exhibiting Fakir state, complete bouncing, partial rebouncing, trapping of an air bubble, jetting, a...

  5. [Impacts of Sediment Disturbance on the Distribution of Suspended Particle Size and Phosphorus]. (United States)

    Guo, Jun-rui; Li, Da-peng; Liu, Yan-jian


    To clarify the influence of the sediments disturbance on the particle size distribution of suspended solids, and the influence of particle distribution on the forms of dissolved phosphorous in the overlaying water, the sediments and overlying water from Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, were used to conduct the indoor simulation experiments to investigate the particle size of suspended solids according to the Ubbelobde particle size criteria and the distribution of phosphorus compounds in the overlying water under the disturbance circumstances. The results indicated that the average proportions of small (0-10 microm), middle (10-20 microm) and large (> or = 20 microm) diameter particles presented different trends of increasing, decreasing and staying stable, respectively. It indicated the possible transformation of particle size of suspended solids from small-middle diameter to large diameter. In addition, the data of DTP/TP and DIP/TP showed a periodical variation with the corresponding periodical variety of particle diameter in suspended solids, while ns obvious variety of DTP and DIP was observed. It suggested that disturbance enhanced the ability of phosphorus immobilization by suspended solids. On the other band, the percentages of DTP in TP and DIP in TP were 19% and 13% under the disturbance, respectively, and they were obviously lower than those (DTP/TP, 80% and DIP/TP, 69% ) in the control. It indicated that tbs transformation of particle size of suspended solids from small-middle diameter to large diameter due to disturbance was in favor of tbe adsorption and sedimentation of dissolved phosphorus. Accordingly, the formation of particle phosphorus was enhanced. Therefore, it delayed the development of eutrophication in the water body.

  6. Automatic disease screening method using image processing for dried blood microfluidic drop stain pattern recognition. (United States)

    Sikarwar, Basant S; Roy, Mukesh; Ranjan, Priya; Goyal, Ayush


    This paper examines programmed automatic recognition of infection from samples of dried stains of micro-scale drops of patient blood. This technique has the upside of being low-cost and less-intrusive and not requiring puncturing the patient with a needle for drawing blood, which is especially critical for infants and the matured. It also does not require expensive pathological blood test laboratory equipment. The method is shown in this work to be successful for ailment identification in patients suffering from tuberculosis and anaemia. Illness affects the physical properties of blood, which thus influence the samples of dried micro-scale blood drop stains. For instance, if a patient has a severe drop in platelet count, which is often the case of dengue or malaria patients, the blood's physical property of viscosity drops substantially, i.e. the blood is thinner. Thus, the blood micro-scale drop stain samples can be utilised for diagnosing maladies. This paper presents programmed automatic examination of the dried micro-scale drop blood stain designs utilising an algorithm based on pattern recognition. The samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of ordinary non-infected people are clearly recognisable as well as the samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of sick people, due to key distinguishing features. As a contextual analysis, the micro-scale blood drop stains of patients infected with tuberculosis have been contrasted with the micro-scale blood drop stains of typical normal healthy people. The paper dives into the fundamental flow mechanics behind how the samples of the dried micro-scale blood drop stain is shaped. What has been found is a thick ring like feature in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of non-ailing people and thin shape like lines in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of patients with anaemia or tuberculosis disease. The ring like feature at the periphery is caused by an outward stream conveying suspended particles to the edge

  7. Vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop (United States)

    Inci, Levent; Bowles, Richard K.


    Molecular dynamics simulations of miscible and partially miscible binary Lennard-Jones mixtures are used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop in the canonical ensemble. When the system volume is large, the driving force for condensation is low and only a submonolayer of the solvent is adsorbed onto the liquid drop. A small degree of mixing of the solvent phase into the core of the particles occurs for the miscible system. At smaller volumes, complete film formation is observed and the dynamics of film growth are dominated by cluster-cluster coalescence. Mixing into the core of the droplet is also observed for partially miscible systems below an onset volume suggesting the presence of a solubility transition. We also develop a non-volatile liquid drop model, based on the capillarity approximations, that exhibits a solubility transition between small and large drops for partially miscible mixtures and has a hysteresis loop similar to the one observed in the deliquescence of small soluble salt particles. The properties of the model are compared to our simulation results and the model is used to study the formulation of classical nucleation theory for systems with low free energy barriers.

  8. Vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inci, Levent; Bowles, Richard K., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 (Canada)


    Molecular dynamics simulations of miscible and partially miscible binary Lennard–Jones mixtures are used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop in the canonical ensemble. When the system volume is large, the driving force for condensation is low and only a submonolayer of the solvent is adsorbed onto the liquid drop. A small degree of mixing of the solvent phase into the core of the particles occurs for the miscible system. At smaller volumes, complete film formation is observed and the dynamics of film growth are dominated by cluster-cluster coalescence. Mixing into the core of the droplet is also observed for partially miscible systems below an onset volume suggesting the presence of a solubility transition. We also develop a non-volatile liquid drop model, based on the capillarity approximations, that exhibits a solubility transition between small and large drops for partially miscible mixtures and has a hysteresis loop similar to the one observed in the deliquescence of small soluble salt particles. The properties of the model are compared to our simulation results and the model is used to study the formulation of classical nucleation theory for systems with low free energy barriers.

  9. Study on Pressure drop for Ion Exchanger in Jordan Research and Training Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki-jung; Choi, Jungwoon; Kim, Seong-Hoon; Chi, Dae-Young; Park, Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) is currently being constructed and commissioned in the JUST (Jordan University of Science and Technology) site. The main fluid systems relevant to the JRTR have been proceeding at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. In order to achieve the purpose of the pool water purification, two filters and two ion exchangers which can be to remove suspended solids and ionic impurities in the in-taken pool water have been designed. For the reliable design of this system pump, it is important to predict the pressure drop of the system equipment including the ion exchanger. In this study, the pressure drop in the ion exchanger of PWMS is predicted by using the well-known model and the results provided from manufacturing company. And, the calculated results are compared to the actual data which is measured from the ion exchanger during the PWMS commissioning. The predicted pressure drop is dominated by the resin bed as a portion of about 85% for total pressure drop. The predicted pressure drop is compared to the measured pressure drop of the ion exchanger which is installed in the JRTR, the data above 5 kg/s agree within 5% in the entire range.

  10. Surface tension of Nanofluid-type fuels containing suspended nanomaterials. (United States)

    Tanvir, Saad; Qiao, Li


    The surface tension of ethanol and n-decane based nanofluid fuels containing suspended aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and boron (B) nanoparticles as well as dispersible multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were measured using the pendant drop method by solving the Young-Laplace equation. The effects of nanoparticle concentration, size and the presence of a dispersing agent (surfactant) on surface tension were determined. The results show that surface tension increases both with particle concentration (above a critical concentration) and particle size for all cases. This is because the Van der Waals force between particles at the liquid/gas interface increases surface free energy and thus increases surface tension. At low particle concentrations, however, addition of particles has little influence on surface tension because of the large distance between particles. An exception is when a surfactant was used or when (MWCNTs) was involved. For such cases, the surface tension decreases compared to the pure base fluid. The hypothesis is the polymer groups attached to (MWCNTs) and the surfactant layer between a particle and the surround fluid increases the electrostatic force between particles and thus reduce surface energy and surface tension.

  11. Surface tension of Nanofluid-type fuels containing suspended nanomaterials (United States)


    The surface tension of ethanol and n-decane based nanofluid fuels containing suspended aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and boron (B) nanoparticles as well as dispersible multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were measured using the pendant drop method by solving the Young-Laplace equation. The effects of nanoparticle concentration, size and the presence of a dispersing agent (surfactant) on surface tension were determined. The results show that surface tension increases both with particle concentration (above a critical concentration) and particle size for all cases. This is because the Van der Waals force between particles at the liquid/gas interface increases surface free energy and thus increases surface tension. At low particle concentrations, however, addition of particles has little influence on surface tension because of the large distance between particles. An exception is when a surfactant was used or when (MWCNTs) was involved. For such cases, the surface tension decreases compared to the pure base fluid. The hypothesis is the polymer groups attached to (MWCNTs) and the surfactant layer between a particle and the surround fluid increases the electrostatic force between particles and thus reduce surface energy and surface tension. PMID:22513039

  12. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail:; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank


    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  13. Energy content of suspended detritus from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.

    Energy components of suspended matter included phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus inclusive of microorganisms adsorbed to detritus. Of these, detritus contributed most of the energy (98%). The average caloric content of suspended detritus...

  14. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan


    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  15. Dynamics of a Disturbed Sessile Drop Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuiggan, Patricia M.; Grave, Daniel A.; Wallace, Jay S.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Prosperetti, Andrea; Robbins, Mark O.


    A new method for studying the dynamics of a sessile drop by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is demonstrated. A hydrophobic microsphere (radius, r 20–30 μm) is brought into contact with a small sessile water drop resting on a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface. When the microsphere touches the

  16. Drag and drop display & builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab


    The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

  17. Near bed suspended sediment flux by single turbulent events (United States)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Mohammad; Kwoll, Eva; Winter, Christian


    The role of small scale single turbulent events in the vertical mixing of near bed suspended sediments was explored in a shallow shelf sea environment. High frequency velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC; calibrated from the backscatter intensity) were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). Using quadrant analysis, the despiked velocity time series was divided into turbulent events and small background fluctuations. Reynolds stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) calculated from all velocity samples, were compared to the same turbulent statistics calculated only from velocity samples classified as turbulent events (Reevents and TKEevents). The comparison showed that Reevents and TKEevents was increased 3 and 1.6 times, respectively, when small background fluctuations were removed and that the correlation with SSC for TKE could be improved through removal of the latter. The correlation between instantaneous vertical turbulent flux (w ‧) and SSC fluctuations (SSC ‧) exhibits a tidal pattern with the maximum correlation at peak ebb and flood currents, when strong turbulent events appear. Individual turbulent events were characterized by type, strength, duration and length. Cumulative vertical turbulent sediment fluxes and average SSC associated with individual turbulent events were calculated. Over the tidal cycle, ejections and sweeps were the most dominant events, transporting 50% and 36% of the cumulative vertical turbulent event sediment flux, respectively. Although the contribution of outward interactions to the vertical turbulent event sediment flux was low (11%), single outward interaction events were capable of inducing similar SSC ‧ as sweep events. The results suggest that on time scales of tens of minutes to hours, TKE may be appropriate to quantify turbulence in sediment transport studies, but that event characteristics, particular the upward turbulent flux need to be accounted for when considering sediment transport

  18. Shear-induced coalescence of emulsified oil drops. (United States)

    Yeung, A; Moran, K; Masliyah, J; Czarnecki, J


    Crude oil droplets, when suspended in water, possess negative surface charges which give rise to double-layer repulsive forces between the drops. According to conventional DLVO theory, the magnitude of this repulsion (based on the measured zeta potential) is more than sufficient to prevent coalescence of the droplets. Indeed, when two such droplets were brought together on direct (i.e., "head-on") approach, coalescence was rarely observed. Upon oblique approach, however, the same droplets were seen to coalesce readily. An oblique encounter must necessarily give rise to lateral relative motion-or shearing-between the droplet surfaces. It is speculated that, if the charge distributions at the droplet surfaces were heterogeneous, lateral shearing would facilitate many encounters between surface patches of different zeta potentials across the intervening water film. If the repulsion across any local region were sufficiently weak to allow formation of an oil bridge across the water film, coalescence of the drops would follow inevitably. With the hypothesis of surface heterogeneity, it is not necessary to invoke any additional colloidal interactions (such as "hydrophobic forces") to account for the observed droplet-droplet coalescence. This finding may have important implications for the underlying mechanisms of emulsion stability in general and the commercial extraction of bitumen from oil sands in particular.

  19. Surface clogging process modeling of suspended solids during urban stormwater aquifer recharge. (United States)

    Wang, Zijia; Du, Xinqiang; Yang, Yuesuo; Ye, Xueyan


    Aquifer recharge, which uses urban stormwater, is an effective technique to control the negative effects of groundwater over-exploitation, while clogging problems in infiltration systems remain the key restricting factor in broadening its practice. Quantitative understanding of the clogging process is still very poor. A laboratory study was conducted to understand surface physical clogging processes, with the primary aim of developing a model for predicting suspended solid clogging processes before aquifer recharge projects start. The experiments investigated the clogging characteristics of different suspended solid sizes in recharge water by using a series of one-dimensional fine quartz sand columns. The results showed that the smaller the suspended particles in recharge water, the farther the distance of movement and the larger the scope of clogging in porous media. Clogging extents in fine sand were 1 cm, for suspended particle size ranging from 0.075 to 0.0385 mm, and 2 cm, for particles less than 0.0385 mm. In addition, clogging development occurred more rapidly for smaller suspended solid particles. It took 48, 42, and 36 hr respectively, for large-, medium-, and small-sized particles to reach pre-determined clogging standards. An empirical formula and iteration model for the surface clogging evolution process were derived. The verification results obtained from stormwater recharge into fine sand demonstrated that the model could reflect the real laws of the surface clogging process.

  20. Estimating total suspended sediment yield with probability sampling (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas


    The ""Selection At List Time"" (SALT) scheme controls sampling of concentration for estimating total suspended sediment yield. The probability of taking a sample is proportional to its estimated contribution to total suspended sediment discharge. This procedure gives unbiased estimates of total suspended sediment yield and the variance of the...

  1. Optomechanics for thermal characterization of suspended graphene (United States)

    Dolleman, Robin J.; Houri, Samer; Davidovikj, Dejan; Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J.; Blanter, Yaroslav M.; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steeneken, Peter G.


    The thermal response of graphene is expected to be extremely fast due to its low heat capacity and high thermal conductivity. In this work, the thermal response of suspended single-layer graphene membranes is investigated by characterization of their mechanical motion in response to a high-frequency modulated laser. A characteristic delay time τ between the optical intensity and mechanical motion is observed, which is attributed to the time required to raise the temperature of the membrane. We find, however, that the measured time constants are significantly larger than the predicted ones based on values of the specific heat and thermal conductivity. In order to explain the discrepancy between measured and modeled τ , a model is proposed that takes a thermal boundary resistance at the edge of the graphene drum into account. The measurements provide a noninvasive way to characterize thermal properties of suspended atomically thin membranes, providing information that can be hard to obtain by other means.

  2. Drop fragmentation by laser-induced cavitation bubbles (United States)

    Gonzalez-A, S. Roberto; Kerssens, Pjotr; Ohl, Claus-Dieter


    The fragmentation of water droplets by a short laser pulse has received significant attention since the 70's. The fundamental understanding of droplet vaporization/fragmentation is of interest in laser beam propagation in the atmosphere, in situ analysis of combustion products -a great concern due to its ecological implications- and more recently driven by a better understanding of the drop shaping by a laser pulse which is of interest in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) machines. In this presentation we discuss about the incipient events that lead to the fragmentation of a drop produced by a cavitation bubble. When the bubble expands, it stretches the drop into a thin liquid film; this liquid film is eventually ruptured and a shockwave and small droplets are ejected as fast as 4 times the speed of sound in air. Interestingly, we also observe bubbles on the surface of the stretched film. Numerical simulations of a shock wave propagating inside a droplet show that cavitation bubbles appear when counter propagating shock waves that rebound from the walls of the drop meet. We also show different fragmentation scenarios recorded with high-speed video, one of them being a jelly fish like liquid film that eventually fragments into smaller drops.

  3. Method and apparatus for producing drops using a drop-on-demand dispenser (United States)

    Chen, Alvin U.; Basaran, Osman A.


    A method and apparatus for dispensing fluid from a drop-on-demand (DOD) fluid dispenser. The method involves withdrawing fluid in the dispenser for a first duration of time, followed by a second duration of time during which the fluid is propelled toward the orifice of the dispenser. Following the period during which the fluid is propelled, there is a second withdrawing of the fluid into the dispenser. The duration of the propelling period is shorter than the duration of either the first withdrawing or the second withdrawing. The propelling of the fluid results in the extension of a small tongue of fluid from the meniscus of the fluid. The second withdrawing of the fluid results in a retraction of the meniscus into the passageway such that only the small tongue of fluid separates and is ejected from the dispenser.

  4. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.


    It is commonly recognized that suspended-sediment concentrations in rivers can change rapidly in time and independently of water discharge during important sediment‑transporting events (for example, during floods); thus, suspended-sediment measurements at closely spaced time intervals are necessary to characterize suspended‑sediment loads. Because the manual collection of sufficient numbers of suspended-sediment samples required to characterize this variability is often time and cost prohibitive, several “surrogate” techniques have been developed for in situ measurements of properties related to suspended-sediment characteristics (for example, turbidity, laser-diffraction, acoustics). Herein, we present a new physically based method for the simultaneous measurement of suspended-silt-and-clay concentration, suspended-sand concentration, and suspended‑sand median grain size in rivers, using multi‑frequency arrays of single-frequency side‑looking acoustic-Doppler profilers. The method is strongly grounded in the extensive scientific literature on the incoherent scattering of sound by random suspensions of small particles. In particular, the method takes advantage of theory that relates acoustic frequency, acoustic attenuation, acoustic backscatter, suspended-sediment concentration, and suspended-sediment grain-size distribution. We develop the theory and methods, and demonstrate the application of the method at six study sites on the Colorado River and Rio Grande, where large numbers of suspended-sediment samples have been collected concurrently with acoustic attenuation and backscatter measurements over many years. The method produces acoustical measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and suspended-sand concentration (in units of mg/L), and acoustical measurements of suspended-sand median grain size (in units of mm) that are generally in good to excellent agreement with concurrent physical measurements of these quantities in the river cross sections at

  5. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera


    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  6. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability (United States)

    Ricardo, Gerard F.; Jones, Ross J.; Clode, Peta L.; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P.


    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L−1), with 2–37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water’s surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water’s surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  7. Drop shaping by laser-pulse impact

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Alexander L; Visser, Claas Willem; Lhuissier, Henri; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Lohse, Detlef; Gelderblom, Hanneke


    We study the hydrodynamic response of a falling drop hit by a laser pulse. Combining high-speed with stroboscopic imaging we report that a millimeter-sized dyed water drop hit by a milli-Joule nanosecond laser-pulse deforms and propels forward at several meters per second, until it eventually fragments. We show that the drop motion results from the recoil momentum imparted at the drop surface by water vaporization. We measure the propulsion speed and the time-deformation law of the drop, complemented by boundary integral simulations. We explain the drop propulsion and shaping in terms of the laser pulse energy and drop surface tension. These findings are crucial for the generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light in lithography machines.

  8. Interface Tracking Simulation of Drops Rising through Liquids in a Vertical Pipe Using Three Coordinate Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Hayashi


    Full Text Available Interface tracking simulations of single drops rising through a vertical pipe are carried out using three coordinate systems, i.e. cylindrical, general curvilinear and Cartesian coordinates, to investigate the effects of coordinate system and spatial resolution on the accuracy of predictions. Experiments of single drops in a vertical pipe are also conducted to obtain experimental data for comparisons with simulations. The drop shape observed are spheroidal and deformed spheroidal at low values of the diameter ratio, Λ, of the sphere-volume equivalent diameter of a drop to the pipe diameter, whereas they take bullet-shapes at large Λ. The conclusions obtained are as follows: (1 the effects of coordinate system on drop shape are small at low Λ. At large Λ, the effects are also small for drops in a low viscosity system, whereas non-physical shape distortion takes place when the Cartesian coordinates are used with low spatial resolution for drops in a high viscosity system, and (2 the drop terminal velocity and the velocity profile in the liquid film between a bullet-shaped drop and a pipe wall are well predicted using all the coordinate systems tested even at low spatial resolution.

  9. Acoustically levitated dancing drops: Self-excited oscillation to chaotic shedding (United States)

    Lin, Po-Cheng; I, Lin


    We experimentally demonstrate self-excited oscillation and shedding of millimeter-sized water drops, acoustically levitated in a single-node standing waves cavity, by decreasing the steady acoustic wave intensity below a threshold. The perturbation of the acoustic field by drop motion is a possible source for providing an effective negative damping for sustaining the growing amplitude of the self-excited motion. Its further interplay with surface tension, drop inertia, gravity and acoustic intensities, select various self-excited modes for different size of drops and acoustic intensity. The large drop exhibits quasiperiodic motion from a vertical mode and a zonal mode with growing coupling, as oscillation amplitudes grow, until falling on the floor. For small drops, chaotic oscillations constituted by several broadened sectorial modes and corresponding zonal modes are self-excited. The growing oscillation amplitude leads to droplet shedding from the edges of highly stretched lobes, where surface tension no longer holds the rapid expanding flow.

  10. Cognitive Demands Influence Lower Extremity Mechanics During a Drop Vertical Jump Task in Female Athletes. (United States)

    Almonroeder, Thomas Gus; Kernozek, Thomas; Cobb, Stephen; Slavens, Brooke; Wang, Jinsung; Huddleston, Wendy


    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background The drop vertical jump task is commonly used in anterior cruciate ligament injury risk screening; however, the predictive validity is limited. Part of the limited predictive validity may be because the drop vertical jump task does not impose cognitive demands that reflect sports participation. Objectives To investigate the influence of additional cognitive demands on lower extremity mechanics during execution of the drop vertical jump task. Methods Twenty uninjured females (ages 18-25 years old) were required to perform the standard drop vertical jump task, as well as drop vertical jumps which included additional cognitive demands. The additional cognitive demands were related to attending to an overhead goal (ball suspended overhead) and/or temporal constraints on movement selection ('decision-making'). Three-dimensional ground reaction forces and lower extremity mechanics were compared between conditions. Results The inclusion of the overhead goal resulted in higher peak vertical ground reaction forces and lower peak knee flexion angles in comparison to the standard drop vertical jump task. In addition, participants demonstrated greater peak knee abduction angles when trials incorporated temporal constraints on decision-making and/or required participants to attend to an overhead goal, in comparison to the standard drop vertical jump task. Conclusion Imposing additional cognitive demands during execution of the drop vertical jump task influenced lower extremity mechanics in a manner that may increase anterior cruciate ligament loading. Tasks utilized in anterior cruciate ligament injury risk screening may benefit from more closely reflecting the cognitive demands of the sports environment. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 10 Jan 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7739.

  11. Drop morphologies on flexible fibers: influence of elastocapillary effects. (United States)

    Sauret, Alban; Boulogne, François; Somszor, Katarzyna; Dressaire, Emilie; Stone, Howard A


    Various materials are made of long thin fibers that are randomly oriented to form a complex network in which drops of wetting liquid tend to accumulate at the nodes. The capillary force exerted by the liquid can bend flexible fibers, which in turn influences the morphology adopted by the liquid. In this paper, we investigate through a model situation the role of the fiber flexibility on the shape of a small volume of liquid on a pair of crossed flexible fibers. We characterize the liquid morphologies as we vary the volume of liquid, the angle between the fibers, and the length of the fibers. The drop morphologies previously reported for rigid crossed fibers, i.e., a drop, a column and a mixed morphology, are also observed on flexible crossed fibers with modified domains of existence. In addition, at small tilt angles between the fibers, a new behavior is observed: the fibers bend and collapse. Depending on the volume of liquid, a thin column with or without a drop is reported on the collapsed fibers. Our study suggests that the fiber flexibility adds a rich variety of behaviors that may be important for some applications.

  12. Writing and functionalisation of suspended DNA nanowires on superhydrophobic pillar arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Miele, Ermanno


    Nanowire arrays and networks with precisely controlled patterns are very interesting for innovative device concepts in mesoscopic physics. In particular, DNA templates have proven to be versatile for the fabrication of complex structures that obtained functionality via combinations with other materials, for example by functionalisation with molecules or nanoparticles, or by coating with metals. Here, the controlled motion of the a three-phase contact line (TCL) of DNA-loaded drops on superhydrophobic substrates is used to fabricate suspended nanowire arrays. In particular, the deposition of DNA wires is imaged in situ, and different patterns are obtained on hexagonal pillar arrays by controlling the TCL velocity and direction. Robust conductive wires and networks are achieved by coating the wires with a thin layer of gold, and as proof of concept conductivity measurements are performed on single suspended wires. The plastic material of the superhydrophobic pillars ensures electrical isolation from the substrate. The more general versatility of these suspended nanowire networks as functional templates is outlined by fabricating hybrid organic-metal-semiconductor nanowires by growing ZnO nanocrystals onto the metal-coated nanowires.

  13. Writing and functionalisation of suspended DNA nanowires on superhydrophobic pillar arrays. (United States)

    Miele, Ermanno; Accardo, Angelo; Falqui, Andrea; Marini, Monica; Giugni, Andrea; Leoncini, Marco; De Angelis, Francesco; Krahne, Roman; Di Fabrizio, Enzo


    Nanowire arrays and networks with precisely controlled patterns are very interesting for innovative device concepts in mesoscopic physics. In particular, DNA templates have proven to be versatile for the fabrication of complex structures that obtained functionality via combinations with other materials, for example by functionalisation with molecules or nanoparticles, or by coating with metals. Here, the controlled motion of the a three-phase contact line (TCL) of DNA-loaded drops on superhydrophobic substrates is used to fabricate suspended nanowire arrays. In particular, the deposition of DNA wires is imaged in situ, and different patterns are obtained on hexagonal pillar arrays by controlling the TCL velocity and direction. Robust conductive wires and networks are achieved by coating the wires with a thin layer of gold, and as proof of concept conductivity measurements are performed on single suspended wires. The plastic material of the superhydrophobic pillars ensures electrical isolation from the substrate. The more general versatility of these suspended nanowire networks as functional templates is outlined by fabricating hybrid organic-metal-semiconductor nanowires by growing ZnO nanocrystals onto the metal-coated nanowires. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Transport of phosphorus, wash load and suspended sediment in the River Varde A in southwest Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodsen, Hans; Hasholt, Bent; Pejrup, Morten


    Total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and wash load have been measured at three river monitoring stations in the River Varde Angstrom system since 1998. This provides the possibility of studying the link between SSC and wash load and concentrations of TP....... Transport rates of TP, suspended sediment and wash load at the three stations, calculated using rating curves, indicate the dependence of TP transport on the transport of suspended sediment and wash load. Two stations are located on tributaries flowing upstream of the third station located at a weir...... at the end of a small impoundment. Transport rates at the upstream stations were 57% higher for suspended sediment and 27% higher for wash load than at the downstream station, while transport of TP was the same. This indicates that phosphorus is transported adhered to the finest grain size fractions that do...

  15. Planar Microfluidic Drop Splitting and Merging (United States)

    Collignon, Sean; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie; MAD-LAB Team


    Open drop microfluidic platforms offer attractive alternatives to closed microchannel devices, however, to be effective they require efficient schemes for planar drop transport and manipulation. While there are many methods that have been reported for drop transport, it is far more difficult to carry out drop operations of dispensing, merging and splitting. In this work, we introduce a novel alternative to merge and split drops using laterally-offset modulated surface acoustic waves (SAWs). To do so, the energy delivery into the drop is modulated to induce drop stretching. Upon removal of the SAW energy, capillary forces at the center of the elongated drop drain the capillary bridge region towards both ends, resulting in its collapse and consequential splitting of the drop. This occurs only below a critical Ohnesorge number, a balance between the viscous forces that retard the drainage and the sufficiently large capillary forces that cause the liquid bridge to pinch. By this scheme we show the possibility of both reliable symettric splitting of a drop with an average deviation in droplet volumes of only around 4%, and no greater than 10%, as well as asymmetric splitting, by tuning the input energy to the device--thus presenting a comparable alternative to electrowetting.

  16. A theory of electrophoresis of emulsion drops in aqueous two-phase polymer systems (United States)

    Levine, S.


    An electrophoresis study has been carried out in an emulsion formed from an electrically neutral aqueous mixture of dextran and polyethylene glycol equilibrated at sufficient concentrations in the presence of electrolytes. Electrophoresis of a drop of one phase suspended in the other is observed, and the direction of the drop's motion is reversed when the disperse phase and the continuous phase are interchanged. In the presence of sulfate, phosphate, or citrate ions, an electrostatic potential difference of the order of a few mV exists between the two phases. The potential implied by the direction of the electrophoretic motion is opposite to the Donnan potential observed between the two phases. The mobility of an emulsion drop increases with the drop radius and depends on ion concentration. These results are explained in terms of a model postulating an electric dipole layer associated with a mixture of oriented polymer molecules at the surface of a drop, with a potential difference between the interiors of the two phases resulting from the unequal ion distribution.

  17. Footprint Geometry and Sessile Drop Resonance (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H.


    How does a sessile drop resonate if its footprint is square (square drop)? In this talk, we discuss the two distinct families of observed modes in our experiments. One family (spherical modes) is identified with the natural modes of capillary spherical caps, and the other (grid modes) with Faraday waves on a square bath (square Faraday waves). A square drop exhibits grid or spherical modes depending on its volume, and the two families of modes arise depending on how wavenumber selection of footprint geometry and capillarity compete. For square drops, a dominant effect of footprint constraint leads to grid modes which are constrained response; otherwise the drops exhibit spherical modes, the characteristic of sessile drops on flat plates. Chun-Ti Chang takes his new position at National Taiwan University on Aug. 15th, 2016. Until then, Chun-Ti Chang is affiliated with Technical University Dortmund, Germany.

  18. Star-shaped oscillations of Leidenfrost drops (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Liétor-Santos, Juan-José; Burton, Justin C.


    We experimentally investigate the self-sustained, star-shaped oscillations of Leidenfrost drops. The drops levitate on a cushion of evaporated vapor over a heated, curved surface. We observe modes with n =2 -13 lobes around the drop periphery. We find that the wavelength of the oscillations depends only on the capillary length of the liquid and is independent of the drop radius and substrate temperature. However, the number of observed modes depends sensitively on the liquid viscosity. The dominant frequency of pressure variations in the vapor layer is approximately twice the drop oscillation frequency, consistent with a parametric forcing mechanism. Our results show that the star-shaped oscillations are driven by capillary waves of a characteristic wavelength beneath the drop and that the waves are generated by a large shear stress at the liquid-vapor interface.

  19. Monitoring of suspended sediment in South Tyrol (United States)

    Nadalet, Rudi; Dinale, Roberto; Pernter, Martin; Maraldo, Luca; Peterlin, Dieter; Richter, Arnold; Comiti, Francesco


    In the context of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to achieve a good status of European water bodies, the Hydrographic Office of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Italy) extended in 2014 its institutional activities including the monitoring of suspended sediment in the river channel network. Currently, the only active monitoring station is on the Adige River at the gauging station of Ponte Adige near Bolzano (drainage area 2705 km2). The applied monitoring strategy and the data analysis concept are both based on the guidelines issued by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW). The results indicates that the temporal variability strongly differs during the investigated period (2014-2015). In addition to the analysis of precipitation and water discharge, temperature and lightning activity were also included to better understand the sediment transport dynamics observed at the station. In summer 2015, the combination of constantly high daily temperature throughout the Adige basin (which drove intense glacier melting in the headwaters) with a high frequency of convective rainfall events (90% more than in 2014, obtained through lightning detection), led to an annual mass of transported suspended sediment of 260000 t. Interestingly, this value is similar to the one estimated for 2014 (300000 t), which was characterized by very different meteorological conditions (colder and wetter summer), but with the occurrence of an important flood in August, which transported half of the annual amount. Finally, we can conclude that the adopted monitoring strategy is applicable for institutional aims in terms of costs as well as in terms of time effort. During the next years, other stations for suspended sediment monitoring are planned to be installed in the Province to cover the most important river segments.

  20. Active noise cancellation in a suspended interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Driggers, Jennifer C; Pepper, Keenan; Adhikari, Rana


    We demonstrate feed-forward vibration isolation on a suspended Fabry-Perot interferometer using Wiener filtering and a variant of the common Least Mean Square (LMS) adaptive filter algorithm. We compare the experimental results with theoretical estimates of the cancellation efficiency. Using data from the recent LIGO Science Run, we also estimate the impact of this technique on full scale gravitational wave interferometers. In the future, we expect to use this technique to also remove acoustic, magnetic, and gravitational noise perturbations from the LIGO interferometers. This noise cancellation technique is simple enough to implement in standard laboratory environments and can be used to improve SNR for a variety of high precision experiments.

  1. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan


    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  2. Safety Harness For Work Under Suspended Load (United States)

    Sunoo, Su Young


    Safety device protects worker under suspended engine or other heavy load. Mechanically linked with load so if load should fall, worker yanked safely away. Worker wears chest-plate vest with straps crossing eye on back. Lower safety cable connected to eye extends horizontally away from worker to nearby wall, wrapped on pulley and extends upward to motion amplifier or reducer. Safety cables transform any sudden downward motion of overhanging load into rapid sideways motion of worker. Net catches worker, preventing worker from bumping against wall.

  3. Investigation of drop coalescence using tomographic PIV (United States)

    Ortiz-Duenas, Cecilia; Kim, Jungyong; Longmire, Ellen


    High-speed tomographic PIV was used to obtain evolving volumetric velocity fields of the coalescence of single drops and two side-by-side drops through liquid/liquid interfaces. Reynolds numbers (Re=ρsUσD/μs) based on surface tension velocity (Uσ=D/tσ) and surrounding ambient fluid were 8-10, and the viscosity ratio between the fluid drop and surrounding fluid was 0.14. The coalescence process investigated is driven by gravity and thus the initial drops are non-spherical and the interface is deformed by the drops. Previously, Mohamed-Kassim & Longmire (2004) showed that under these conditions, the film rupture typically occurs off-axis, and therefore the flow is three-dimensional. For a single drop, volumetric velocity vector fields are used to characterize the asymmetric film rupture occurring for 0drop into a vortex ring are relatively axisymmetric. For two side-by-side drops, the first drop to coalesce ruptures off-axis on the side closest to the second drop. The volumetric velocity and vorticity fields indicate an asymmetric collapse of the drop for 0.1drop while the capillary waves are axisymmetric.

  4. Chaos in a Water Drop. (United States)

    Schneider, Scott Dudley

    Nature is chaotic. It appears to be more disorderly and random than orderly and regular. The path of a leaf in a rocky stream can appear as complex as the smoke from a cigarette or the outline of a cloud. In trying to model the path of a leaf in a rocky stream, the dynamical equations become rapidly complicated. A branch of scientific analysis know as Chaos has sprung up in the last few decades with techniques that can be applied to most of the physical sciences in an attempt to describe or categorize the various non-linear phenomena found in Nature. The aim of this paper is to provide an introduction to the study of chaotic behavior, with an emphasis on the potential teaching possibilities contained in some of the analysis. An appropriate beginning would be motion that is regular and "easy" to understand--stable motion. Along the way, various graphical representations will be developed that enable a clear viewing of the motion of the system under study. Next, the Logistic model will be used to gain an understanding of the nature of chaos; it is very comprehensive in representing the characteristics of chaos that will be studied in other systems. Another system studied is the three-dimensional Rossler model. In the study of the "dripping faucet", a time series of the periods between drips of water is recorded. Various techniques (collected from the introductory systems) are applied in an attempt to model the mechanism behind the water drops, or at least to characterize the graphical "animals" that we find. The water drop "attractor" is found to be chaotic, exhibiting many of the chaotic characteristics seen in other models. It is hoped that this work can be used as a primer for those students beginning a journey into Chaos, or as a reference tool for those already familiar with the topics enclosed. Many areas in this work were touched lightly; there is a rich un-tapped complexity still waiting future study. The waters here have only begun to be charted.

  5. Drops moving along and across a filament (United States)

    Sahu, Rakesh P.; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Yarin, Alexander; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam


    The present work is devoted to the experimental study of oil drop motion both along and across a filament due to the air jet blowing. In case of drop moving along the filament, phenomena such as drop stick-slip motion, shape oscillations, shedding of a tail along the filament, the tail capillary instability and drop recoil motion were observed which were rationalized in the framework of simplified models. Experiments with cross-flow of the surrounding gas relative to the filament with an oil drop on it were conducted, with air velocity in the range of 7.23 to 22.7 m s-1. The Weber number varied from 2 to 40 and the Ohnesorge number varied from 0.07 to 0.8. The lower and upper critical Weber numbers were introduced to distinguish between the beginning of the drop blowing off the filament and the onset of the bag-stamen breakup. The range of the Weber number between these two critical values is filled with three types of vibrational breakup: V1 (a balloon-like drop being blown off), V2 (a drop on a single stamen being blown off), and V3 (a drop on a double stamen being blown off). The Weber number/Ohnesorge number plane was delineated into domains of different breakup regimes. The work is supported by the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center (NCRC).

  6. Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2 (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Koutsos, Vasileios; Cheung, Rebecca


    We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe2 membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe2 and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe2 flakes onto SiO2/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe2 membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe2 has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe2 (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS2 and WS2. Moreover, the multilayer WSe2 can endure ˜12.4 GPa stress and ˜7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe2 can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.

  7. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures (United States)

    Fleming, James G.


    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {111} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {111}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g. KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {111} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {111}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  8. Cooperative breakups induced by drop-to-drop interactions in one-dimensional flows of drops against micro-obstacles. (United States)

    Schmit, Alexandre; Salkin, Louis; Courbin, Laurent; Panizza, Pascal


    Depending on the capillary number at play and the parameters of the flow geometry, a drop may or may not break when colliding with an obstacle in a microdevice. Modeling the flow of one-dimensional trains of monodisperse drops impacting a micro-obstacle, we show numerically that complex dynamics may arise through drop-to-drop hydrodynamic interactions: we observe sequences of breakup events in which the size of the daughter drops created upon breaking mother ones becomes a periodic function of time. We demonstrate the existence of numerous bifurcations between periodic breakup regimes and we establish diagrams mapping the possible breakup dynamics as a function of the governing (physicochemical, hydrodynamic, and geometric) parameters. Microfluidic experiments validate our model as they concur very well with predictions.

  9. Capillarity and wetting phenomena drops, bubbles, pearls, waves

    CERN Document Server

    Gennes, Pierre-Gilles; Quéré, David


    As I glance out my window in the early morning, I can see beads of droplets gracing a spider web. The film of dew that has settled on the threads is unstable and breaks up spontaneously into droplets. This phenomenon has implications for the treatment of textile fibers (the process known as "oiling"), glass, and carbon. It is no less important when applying mascara! I take my morning shower. The moment I step out, I dry off by way of evaporation (which makes me feel cold) and by dewetting (the process by which dry areas form spontaneously and expand on my skin). As I rush into my car under a pelting rain, my attention is caught by small drops stuck on my windshield. I also notice larger drops rolling down and others larger still that, like snails, leave behind them a trail of water. I ask myself what the difference is between these rolling drops and grains of sand tumbling down an incline. I wonder why the smallest drops remain stuck. The answers to such questions do help car manufacturers treat the surface o...

  10. Water drop impact onto oil covered solid surfaces (United States)

    Chen, Ningli; Chen, Huanchen; Amirfazli, Alidad


    Droplet impact onto an oily surface can be encountered routinely in industrial applications; e.g., in spray cooling. It is not clear from literature what impact an oil film may have on the impact process. In this work, water drop impact onto both hydrophobic (glass) and hydrophilic (OTS) substrates which were covered by oil films (silicone) of different thickness (5um-50um) and viscosity (5cst-100cst) were performed. The effects of drop impact velocity, film thickness, and viscosity of the oil film and wettability of the substrate were studied. Our results show that when the film viscosity and impact velocity is low, the water drop deformed into the usual disk shape after impact, and rebounded from the surface. Such rebound phenomena disappears, when the viscosity of oil becomes very large. With the increase of the impact velocity, crown and splashing appears in the spreading phase. The crown and splashing behavior appears more easily with the increase of film thickness and decrease of its viscosity. It was also found that the substrate wettability can only affect the impact process in cases which drop has a large Webber number (We = 594), and the film's viscosity and thickness are small. This work was support by National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Project Number is 51506084.

  11. Combining spray nozzle simulators with meshes: characterization of rainfall intensity and drop properties (United States)

    Carvalho, Sílvia C. P.; de Lima, João L. M. P.; de Lima, M. Isabel P.


    Rainfall simulators can be a powerful tool to increase our understanding of hydrological and geomorphological processes. Nevertheless, rainfall simulators' design and operation might be rather demanding, for achieving specific rainfall intensity distributions and drop characteristics. The pressurized simulators have some advantages over the non-pressurized simulators: drops do not rely on gravity to reach terminal velocity, but are sprayed out under pressure; pressurized simulators also yield a broad range of drop sizes in comparison with drop-formers simulators. The main purpose of this study was to explore in the laboratory the potential of combining spray nozzle simulators with meshes in order to change rainfall characteristics (rainfall intensity and diameters and fall speed of drops). Different types of spray nozzles were tested, such as single full-cone and multiple full-cone nozzles. The impact of the meshes on the simulated rain was studied by testing different materials (i.e. plastic and steel meshes), square apertures and wire thicknesses, and different vertical distances between the nozzle and the meshes underneath. The diameter and fall speed of the rain drops were measured using a Laser Precipitation Monitor (Thies Clima). The rainfall intensity range and coefficients of uniformity of the sprays and the drop size distribution, fall speed and kinetic energy were analysed. Results show that when meshes intercept drop trajectories the spatial distribution of rainfall intensity and the drop size distribution are affected. As the spray nozzles generate typically small drop sizes and narrow drop size distributions, meshes can be used to promote the formation of bigger drops and random their landing positions.

  12. On the spreading of impacting drops

    CERN Document Server

    Wildeman, Sander; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef


    The energy budget and dissipation mechanisms during droplet impact on solid surfaces are studied numerically and theoretically. We find that for high impact velocities and negligible surface friction, about one half of the initial kinetic energy is transformed into surface energy, independent of the impact parameters and the detailed energy loss mechanism(s). We argue that this seemingly universal rule is related to the deformation mode of the droplet and is reminiscent of pipe flow undergoing a sudden expansion, for which the head loss can be calculated by multiplying the kinetic energy of the incoming flow by a geometrical factor. For impacts on a no-slip surface also dissipation in the shear boundary layer at the solid surface is important. In this case the head loss acts as a lower bound on the total dissipation for small viscosities. This new view on the impact problem allows for simple analytical estimates of the maximum spreading diameter of impacting drops as a function of the impact parameters and th...

  13. Environmentally-suspended sediment production of the Nasia River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the level of suspended sediment produced in the Nasia River Basin. Hydrological and meteorological data and water samples were used for the study. Average suspended sediment yield (33 years) in the basin was 19.90 t/km2/yr. With mean annual runoff of 439.13m3/s, 322.43 t/yr suspended sediment ...

  14. Many Drops Make a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya S. Mudgal


    greater knowledge, better skills and disseminate this knowledge through this journal to influence as many physicians and their patients as possible. They have taken the knowledge of their teachers, recognized their giants and are now poised to see further than ever before. My grandmother often used to quote to me a proverb from India, which when translated literally means “Many drops make a lake”. I cannot help but be amazed by the striking similarities between the words of Newton and this Indian saying. Therefore, while it may seem intuitive, I think it must be stated that it is vital for the betterment of all our patients that we recognize our own personal lakes to put our drops of knowledge into. More important is that we recognize that it is incumbent upon each and every one of us to contribute to our collective lakes of knowledge such as ABJS. And finally and perhaps most importantly we need to be utterly cognizant of never letting such lakes of knowledge run dry.... ever.

  15. Suspended-sediment loads in the lower Stillaguamish River, Snohomish County, Washington, 2014–15 (United States)

    Anderson, Scott A.; Curran, Christopher A.; Grossman, Eric E.


    Continuous records of discharge and turbidity at a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage in the lower Stillaguamish River were paired with discrete measurements of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in order to estimate suspended-sediment loads over the water years 2014 and 2015. First, relations between turbidity and SSC were developed and used to translate the continuous turbidity record into a continuous estimate of SSC. Those concentrations were then used to predict suspended-sediment loads based on the current discharge record, reported at daily intervals. Alternative methods were used to in-fill a small number of days with either missing periods of turbidity or discharge records. Uncertainties in our predictions at daily and annual time scales were estimated based on the parameter uncertainties in our turbidity-SSC regressions. Daily loads ranged from as high as 121,000 tons during a large autumn storm to as low as –56 tons, when tidal return flow moved more sediment upstream than river discharge did downstream. Annual suspended-sediment loads for both water years were close to 1.4 ± 0.2 million tons.

  16. Polishing of POME by Chlorella sp. in suspended and immobilized system (United States)

    Lahin, F. A.; Sarbatly, R.; Suali, E.


    The effect of using suspended and immobilized growth of Chlorella sp. to treat POME was studied. Cotton and nylon ropes were used as the immobilization material in a rotating microalgae biofilm reactor. The result showed that POME treated in suspended growth system was able to remove 81.9% and 55.5% of the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) respectively. Whereas the immobilized system showed lower removal of 77.22% and 53.02% for TN and TP. Lower performance of immobilized microalgae is due to the limited light penetration and supply of CO2 inside the immobilization materials. The rotating microalgae biofilm reactor was able to reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to 90 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (COD) to 720 mg/L. Higher BOD and COD reading were obtained in suspended growth due to the presence of small number of microalgae cell in the samples. This study shows that suspended growth system is able to remove higher percentages of nitrogen and phosphorus. However, an efficient separation method such as membrane filtration is required to harvest the cultivated microalgae cell to avoid organic matter release into water bodies.

  17. Topsy-turvy locomotion: biomechanical specializations of the elbow in suspended quadrupeds reflect inverted gravitational constraints. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Endo, Hideki; Hutchinson, John R


    Some tetrapods hang upside down from tree branches when moving horizontally. The ability to walk in quadrupedal suspension has been acquired independently in at least 14 mammalian lineages. During the stance (supportive) phase of quadrupedal suspension, the elbow joint flexor muscles (not the extensors as in upright vertebrates moving overground) are expected to contract to maintain the flexed limb posture. Therefore muscular control in inverted, suspended quadrupeds may require changes of muscle control, and even morphologies, to conditions opposite to those in upright animals. However, the relationships between musculoskeletal morphologies and elbow joint postures during the stance phase in suspended quadrupeds have not been investigated. Our analysis comparing postures and skeletal morphologies in Choloepus (Pilosa), Pteropus (Chiroptera), Nycticebus (Primates) and Cynocephalus (Dermoptera) revealed that the elbow joints of these animals were kept at flexed angles of 70-100 ° during the stance phase of quadrupedal suspension. At these joint angles the moment arms of the elbow joint flexors were roughly maximized, optimizing that component of antigravity support. Our additional measurements from various mammalian species show that suspended quadrupeds have relatively small extensor/flexor ratios in both muscle masses and maximum moment arms. Thus, in contrast to the pattern in normal terrestrial quadrupeds, suspended quadrupeds emphasize flexor over extensor muscles for body support. This condition has evolved independently multiple times, attendant with a loss or reduction of the ability to move in normal upright postures. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Topsy-turvy locomotion: biomechanical specializations of the elbow in suspended quadrupeds reflect inverted gravitational constraints (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Endo, Hideki; Hutchinson, John R


    Some tetrapods hang upside down from tree branches when moving horizontally. The ability to walk in quadrupedal suspension has been acquired independently in at least 14 mammalian lineages. During the stance (supportive) phase of quadrupedal suspension, the elbow joint flexor muscles (not the extensors as in upright vertebrates moving overground) are expected to contract to maintain the flexed limb posture. Therefore muscular control in inverted, suspended quadrupeds may require changes of muscle control, and even morphologies, to conditions opposite to those in upright animals. However, the relationships between musculoskeletal morphologies and elbow joint postures during the stance phase in suspended quadrupeds have not been investigated. Our analysis comparing postures and skeletal morphologies in Choloepus (Pilosa), Pteropus (Chiroptera), Nycticebus (Primates) and Cynocephalus (Dermoptera) revealed that the elbow joints of these animals were kept at flexed angles of 70–100 ° during the stance phase of quadrupedal suspension. At these joint angles the moment arms of the elbow joint flexors were roughly maximized, optimizing that component of antigravity support. Our additional measurements from various mammalian species show that suspended quadrupeds have relatively small extensor/flexor ratios in both muscle masses and maximum moment arms. Thus, in contrast to the pattern in normal terrestrial quadrupeds, suspended quadrupeds emphasize flexor over extensor muscles for body support. This condition has evolved independently multiple times, attendant with a loss or reduction of the ability to move in normal upright postures. PMID:21477151

  19. Head-dropping mechanism in traffic control (United States)

    Liu, Xintong; Yang, Oliver W.


    In this paper, we investigate the application of the head dropping policy as a partial solution to the problem of queue oscillation encountered by RED and its variants. With this method, instead of the tail dropping, which is currently used by RED and many other AQM schemes, the TCP source can be informed of the congestion occurring in the bottleneck router a time period earlier. Specifically, that is a time period of the queuing delay. We have compared DH-RED (drop head RED) and DH-BLUE (drop head BLUE) with the current RED and BLUE in a variety of situations and found that the performances such as the queue size stability as well as packet drop rate can be greatly improved.

  20. Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA): An Outline. (United States)

    Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm


    Drop shape techniques for the measurement of interfacial tension are powerful, versatile and flexible. The shape of the drop/bubble depends on the balance between surface tension and external forces, e.g. gravity. This balance is reflected mathematically in the Laplace equation of capillarity. Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) is a commonly used drop shape technique. A streamlined version of the development of ADSA over the past several decades is presented to illustrate its validity and range of utility. Several configurations of interest will be considered and presented systematically. Shape and surface tension will be linked to a shape parameter based on proper concepts of differential geometry. The resulting shape parameter will be shown to allow determination of the range of applicability of such a drop shape method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds (United States)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  2. Rapid determination of caffeine in one drop of beverages and foods using drop-to-drop solvent microextraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Wu, Hui-Fen


    A simple and rapid sample cleanup and preconcentration method for the quantitative determination of caffeine in one drop of beverages and foods by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been proposed using drop-to-drop solvent microextraction (DDSME). The best optimum experimental conditions for DDSME were: chloroform as the extraction solvent, 5 min extraction time, 0.5 microL exposure volume of the extraction phase and no salt addition at room temperature. The optimized methodology exhibited good linearity between 0.05 and 5.0 microg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.980. The relative standard deviation (RSD) and limits of detection (LOD) of the DDSME/GC/MS method were 4.4% and 4.0 ng/mL, respectively. Relative recovery of caffeine in beverages and foods were found to be 96.6-101%, which showing good reliability of this method. This DDSME excludes the major disadvantages of conventional method of caffeine extraction, like large amount of organic solvent and sample consumption and long sample pre-treatment process. So, this approach proves that the DDSME/GC/MS technique can be applied as a simple, fast and feasible diagnosis tool for environmental, food and biological application for extremely small amount of real sample analysis.

  3. Electromagnetic radiation from linearly and nonlinearly oscillating charge drops (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A. I.; Shiryaeva, S. O.


    It has been shown that analytic calculations of the intensity of electromagnetic radiation from an oscillating charged drop in the approximation linear in the oscillation amplitude (small parameter is on the order of 0.1) give only the quadrupole component of the total radiation. The dipole component can only be obtained in calculations using higher-order approximations. Nevertheless, the intensity of the dipole radiation turns out to be substantially higher (by 14-15 orders of magnitude). This is because the decomposition of radiation from a system of charges into multipole components (differing even in the rates of decrease in the potential with the distance) is carried out using the expansion in a substantially smaller parameter, viz., the ratio of the size of the emitting system (in our case, a drop of radius 10 μm) to the distance to the point of observation in the wave zone of the emission of radiation (emitted wavelength) of 100-1000 m. As a result, this second small parameter is on the order of 10-7 to 10-8. On the other hand, in accordance with the field theory, the ratio of intensities of quadrupole and dipole radiations is proportional to the squared ratio of the hydrodynamic velocity of the oscillating surface of a charged drop to the velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic signal in vacuum (velocity of light), which yields a ratio of 10-14 to 10-15.

  4. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems (United States)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.


    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.

  5. Batch fabrication of nanotubes suspended between microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Stöckli, T.; Knapp, H. F.


    We report a fabrication method, which uses standard UV-lithography to pattern the catalyst for the chemical vapour deposition(CVD) of suspended double clamped single walled carbon nanotubes. By using an aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3 the patterning of the catalyst material onto microelectrodes can...... be done with a simple lift-off process with standard photolithographic resist. An applied electric field is sustained between the microelectrodes during CVD to guide the nanotube growth. Comparison with simulations shows that the location and the orientation of the grown carbon nanotubes (CNT) correspond...... to the regions of maximum electric field, enabling accurate positioning of a nanotube by controlling the shape of the microelectrodes. The CNT bridges are deflected tens of nm when a DC voltage is applied between the nanotube and a gate microelectrode indicating that the clamping through the catalyst particles...

  6. The Drop Tower Bremen -An Overview (United States)

    von Kampen, Peter; Könemann, Thorben; Rath, Hans J.

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University of Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of ZARM`s drop tower began. Since its inau-guration in September 1990, the eye-catching Drop Tower Bremen with a height of 146m and its characteristic glass roof has become twice a landmark on the campus of the University of Bremen and the emblem of the technology park Bremen. As such an outstanding symbol of space science in Bremen the drop tower provides an european unique facility for experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness with residual gravitational accelerations in the microgravity regime. The period of maximum 4.74s of each freely falling experiment at the Drop Tower Bremen is only limited by the height of the drop tower vacuum tube, which was fully manufactured of steal and enclosed by an outer concrete shell. Thus, the pure free fall height of each microgravity drop experiment is approximately 110m. By using the later in-stalled catapult system established in 2004 ZARM`s short-term microgravity laboratory is able to nearly double the time of free fall. This world-wide inimitable capsule catapult system meets scientists` demand of extending the period of weightlessness. During the catapult operation the experiment capsule performs a vertical parabolic flight within the drop tower vacuum tube. In this way the time of microgravity can be extended to slightly over 9s. Either in the drop or in the catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility are the same, generally up to 3 times per day. In comparison to orbital platforms the ground-based laboratory Drop Tower Bremen represents an economic alternative with a permanent access to weightlessness on earth. Moreover, the exceptional high quality of weightlessness in order of 1e-6 g (in the frequency range below 100

  7. Investigation of drop motion through circular orifices (United States)

    Bordoloi, Ankur; Longmire, Ellen; Kong, Xiangzhao; Saar, Martin


    The motion of drops though porous media occurs in numerous science and engineering fields including multiphase fluid flow in the subsurface during groundwater flow, geothermal energy recovery, and geologic carbon dioxide sequestration. Here, we simplify the porous medium to a thin plate with an orifice to study the interactions between the drop and the solid medium. Drops of water/glycerin with diameter, D, are released in a tank of silicone oil with matched refractive index and allowed to fall downward by gravity. After reaching terminal speed, the drops encounter a thin plate with orifice diameter, d, placed horizontally within the surrounding tank. Drop deformation, contact with the orifice, and breakage are investigated using high-speed imaging, and velocity fields are determined by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Effects of diameter ratio d/D, drop Reynolds number, and drop offset with respect to the orifice center are examined. The experimental results are compared to results from numerical simulations using an immiscible, two-color BGK lattice-Boltzmann method performed under similar test conditions. Supported by DOE (DOE EERE-PMC-10EE0002764).

  8. Drop impact splashing and air entrapment

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, Marie-Jean


    Drop impact is a canonical problem in fluid mechanics, with numerous applications in industrial as well as natural phenomena. The extremely simple initial configuration of the experiment can produce a very large variety of fast and complex dynamics. Scientific progress was made in parallel with major improvements in imaging and computational technologies. Most recently, high-speed imaging video cameras have opened the exploration of new phenomena occurring at the micro-second scale, and parallel computing allowed realistic direct numerical simulations of drop impacts. We combine these tools to bring a new understanding of two fundamental aspects of drop impacts: splashing and air entrapment. The early dynamics of a drop impacting on a liquid pool at high velocity produces an ejecta sheet, emerging horizontally in the neck between the drop and the pool. We show how the interaction of this thin liquid sheet with the air, the drop or the pool, can produce micro-droplets and bubble rings. Then we detail how the breakup of the air film stretched between the drop and the pool for lower impact velocities can produce a myriad of micro-bubbles.

  9. "Self-Shaping" of Multicomponent Drops. (United States)

    Cholakova, Diana; Valkova, Zhulieta; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Smoukov, Stoyan K


    In our recent study we showed that single-component emulsion drops, stabilized by proper surfactants, can spontaneously break symmetry and transform into various polygonal shapes during cooling [ Denkov Nature 2015 , 528 , 392 - 395 ]. This process involves the formation of a plastic rotator phase of self-assembled oil molecules beneath the drop surface. The plastic phase spontaneously forms a frame of plastic rods at the oil drop perimeter which supports the polygonal shapes. However, most of the common substances used in industry appear as mixtures of molecules rather than pure substances. Here we present a systematic study of the ability of multicomponent emulsion drops to deform upon cooling. The observed trends can be summarized as follows: (1) The general drop-shape evolution for multicomponent drops during cooling is the same as with single-component drops; however, some additional shapes are observed. (2) Preservation of the particle shape upon freezing is possible for alkane mixtures with chain length difference Δn ≤ 4; for greater Δn, phase separation within the droplet is observed. (3) Multicomponent particles prepared from alkanes with Δn ≤ 4 plastify upon cooling due to the formation of a bulk rotator phase within the particles. (4) If a compound, which cannot induce self-shaping when pure, is mixed with a certain amount of a compound which induces self-shaping, then drops prepared from this mixture can also self-shape upon cooling. (5) Self-emulsification phenomena are also observed for multicomponent drops. In addition to the three recently reported mechanisms of self-emulsification [ Tcholakova Nat. Commun. 2017 , ( 8 ), 15012 ], a new (fourth) mechanism is observed upon freezing for alkane mixtures with Δn > 4. It involves disintegration of the particles due to a phase separation of alkanes upon freezing.

  10. The lift force on a drop in unbounded plane Poiseuille flow (United States)

    Wohl, P. R.


    The lift force on a deformable liquid sphere moving in steady, plane Poiseuille-Stokes flow and subjected to an external body force is calculated. The results are obtained by seeking a solution to Stokes' equations for the motion of the liquids inside and outside the slightly perturbed sphere surface, as expansions valid for small values of the ratio of the Weber number to the Reynolds number. When the ratio of the drop and external fluid viscosities is small, the lift exerted on a neutrally buoyant drop is found to be approximately one-tenth of the magnitude of the force reported by Wohl and Rubinow acting on the same drop in unbounded Poiseuille flow in a tube. The resultant trajectory of the drop is calculated and displayed as a function of the external body force.

  11. Viscous drops bounce faster: prompt tumbling-rebound from a sublimating slope (United States)

    Antonini, Carlo; Jung, Stefan; Wetzel, Andreas; Heer, Emmanuel; Schoch, Philippe; Mazloomi, M. Ali; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Ilya; Marengo, Marco; Poulikakos, Dimos


    We discovered a new drop rebound regime, characteristic of highly viscous liquids impacting onto tilted sublimating surfaces. By focusing on non-axisymmetric impact conditions at increasing viscosity, we demonstrate that low viscous drops show a ``slide, spread, recoil and rebound'' behavior, whereas viscous drops exhibit a ``prompt tumbling-rebound'' behavior. As such, viscous glycerol drops surprisingly rebound faster than three orders of magnitude less viscous water drops. This is made possible by a small conversion of translational to rotational kinetic energy, at non-axisymmetric impact conditions, as also confirmed by additional Lattice Boltzmann simulations: a rapid transition of the internal angular velocity prior to rebound to a constant value, as in a tumbling solid body, promotes a rapid rebound of more viscous drops, which are capable to rebound without recoiling. By studying drop impact dynamics, we explore the drop behavior in contactless and frictionless conditions, and identify the Ohnesorge number as the primary parameter to predict the transition between different impact regimes on tilted sublimating slopes, with tumbling observed for Ohnesorge numbers higher than unity.

  12. Forced dewetting for robust scalable generation of Double Emulsions drops with thin shells (United States)

    Vian, Antoine; Amstad, Esther


    Double emulsions drops are small drops contained in larger drops. They can be used as picoliter-sized vessels to conduct chemical or biochemical reactions or to conduct high throughput screening assays. Key to a successful application of these drops is a good stability against coalescence and rupture. Previous studies have shown that the mechanical stability of double emulsion drops increases if their shell is reduced below the µm scale. Unfortunately, the fabrication of double emulsion drops with such thin shells at high throughputs is still challenging. We present here a new microfluidics device that reduces the thickness of double emulsion shells to values as low as 250 nm at very high throughputs. This is achieved by injecting double emulsion drops with thick shells into a microfluidic channel that is intersected by many shunt channels. These shunt channels remove a large volume fraction of the oil, contained in the shells of double emulsion drops, thereby reducing their shell thickness to values below 250 nm. We demonstrate that the reduction of the shell thickness of double emulsions improves their mechanical stability and lowers their permeability.

  13. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite derived suspended sediment concentrations (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Ratheesh; Rajawat, A. S.


    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are realized with respect to the sediment size distribution and the bottom bed materials observed in the Gulf. Simulated SSCs are compared with alternate OCM derived SSC. The results are observed to be impetus where the model is able to generate the spatial dynamics of the sediment concentrations. Sediment dynamics like deposition, erosion and dispersion are explained with the simulated tidal currents and OCM derived sediment concentrations. Tidal range is observed as the important physical factor controlling the deposition and resuspension of sediments within the Gulf. From the simulation studies; maximum residual current velocities, tidal fronts and high turbulent zones are found to characterise the islands and shoals within the Gulf, which results in high sediment concentrations in those regions. Remarkable variability in the bathymetry of the Gulf, different bed materials and varying tidal conditions induces several circulation patterns and turbulence creating the unique suspended sediment concentration pattern in the Gulf.

  14. Temporal and spatial variations in total suspended and dissolved solids in the upper part of Manoa stream, Hawaii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Fares, Ali; Tran, Dai Ngia


    Hawaiian watersheds are small, steep, and receive high intensity rainfall events of non-uniform distribution. These geographic and weather patterns result in flashy streams of strongly variable water quality even within various stream segments. Total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids

  15. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical equation that can be used for estimating the suspended sediment yields of river drainage basins without sediment data has been established for basins in the sub-tropical forest Southwestern river basin system of Ghana. The power law equation relates mean annual specific suspended sediment yield (t km-2 ...

  16. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud. Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are ...

  17. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  18. A wave-resolving model for nearshore suspended sediment transport (United States)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Chou, Yi-Ju; Shi, Fengyan


    This paper presents a wave-resolving sediment transport model, which is capable of simulating sediment suspension in the field-scale surf zone. The surf zone hydrodynamics is modeled by the non-hydrostatic model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012). The turbulent flow and suspended sediment are simulated in a coupled manner. Three effects of suspended sediment on turbulent flow field are considered: (1) baroclinic forcing effect; (2) turbulence damping effect and (3) bottom boundary layer effect. Through the validation with the laboratory measurements of suspended sediment under nonbreaking skewed waves and surfzone breaking waves, we demonstrate that the model can reasonably predict wave-averaged sediment profiles. The model is then utilized to simulate a rip current field experiment (RCEX) and nearshore suspended sediment transport. The offshore sediment transport by rip currents is captured by the model. The effects of suspended sediment on self-suspension are also investigated. The turbulence damping and bottom boundary layer effects are significant on sediment suspension. The suspended sediment creates a stably stratified water column, damping fluid turbulence and reducing turbulent diffusivity. The suspension of sediment also produces a stably stratified bottom boundary layer. Thus, the drag coefficient and bottom shear stress are reduced, causing less sediment pickup from the bottom. The cross-shore suspended sediment flux is analyzed as well. The mean Eulerian suspended sediment flux is shoreward outside the surf zone, while it is seaward in the surf zone.

  19. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many natural gums are employed as suspending agents in the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The search to develop locally available natural gum from apparently a waste product as an alternative suspending agent stimulated the interest in this present study. Cola acuminata gum (CAG) extracted from Cola ...

  20. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity. (United States)


    ... time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the... suspended particulates persist. The biological and the chemical content of the suspended material may react with the dissolved oxygen in the water, which can result in oxygen depletion. Toxic metals and organics...

  1. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are ...

  2. Evaluation of the suspending property of grewia gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in sulphadimidine suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for sulphadimidine. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  3. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Adansonia digitata gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedimentation volume and rate, rheology, and ease of redispersion were employed as evaluation parameters. The results showed that both hot and cold water extracts of the gum used at 2-3 % w/v produced a better suspending property than 4 % w/v Compound Tragacanth gum. The suspending ability of the gums was in ...

  4. Evaluation of the Suspending Property of Grewia Gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in metronidazole suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for metronidazole. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  5. Design and Certification of Targets for Drop Tests at the NTRC Packaging Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, S.B.


    This report provides documentation of the design and certification of drop pad (targets) at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) Packaging Research Facility(PRF). Based on the evaluation performed, it has been demonstrated that the small (interior) drop pad (target) meets the regulatory definition of a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface for packages weighing up to 3,150 lb (1,432 kg). The large (exterior) drop pad (target) meets the regulatory definition of a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface for packages weighing up to 28,184 lb (12,811 kg).

  6. Spatially Explicit Estimates of Suspended Sediment and Bedload Transport Rates for Western Oregon and Northwestern California (United States)

    O'Connor, J. E.; Wise, D. R.; Mangano, J.; Jones, K.


    Empirical analyses of suspended sediment and bedload transport gives estimates of sediment flux for western Oregon and northwestern California. The estimates of both bedload and suspended load are from regression models relating measured annual sediment yield to geologic, physiographic, and climatic properties of contributing basins. The best models include generalized geology and either slope or precipitation. The best-fit suspended-sediment model is based on basin geology, precipitation, and area of recent wildfire. It explains 65% of the variance for 68 suspended sediment measurement sites within the model area. Predicted suspended sediment yields range from no yield from the High Cascades geologic province to 200 tonnes/ km2-yr in the northern Oregon Coast Range and 1000 tonnes/km2-yr in recently burned areas of the northern Klamath terrain. Bed-material yield is similarly estimated from a regression model based on 22 sites of measured bed-material transport, mostly from reservoir accumulation analyses but also from several bedload measurement programs. The resulting best-fit regression is based on basin slope and the presence/absence of the Klamath geologic terrane. For the Klamath terrane, bed-material yield is twice that of the other geologic provinces. This model explains more than 80% of the variance of the better-quality measurements. Predicted bed-material yields range up to 350 tonnes/ km2-yr in steep areas of the Klamath terrane. Applying these regressions to small individual watersheds (mean size; 66 km2 for bed-material; 3 km2 for suspended sediment) and cumulating totals down the hydrologic network (but also decreasing the bed-material flux by experimentally determined attrition rates) gives spatially explicit estimates of both bed-material and suspended sediment flux. This enables assessment of several management issues, including the effects of dams on bedload transport, instream gravel mining, habitat formation processes, and water-quality. The

  7. Blood drop patterns: Formation and applications. (United States)

    Chen, Ruoyang; Zhang, Liyuan; Zang, Duyang; Shen, Wei


    The drying of a drop of blood or plasma on a solid substrate leads to the formation of interesting and complex patterns. Inter- and intra-cellular and macromolecular interactions in the drying plasma or blood drop are responsible for the final morphologies of the dried patterns. Changes in these cellular and macromolecular components in blood caused by diseases have been suspected to cause changes in the dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood, which could be used as simple diagnostic tools to identify the health of humans and livestock. However, complex physicochemical driving forces involved in the pattern formation are not fully understood. This review focuses on the scientific development in microscopic observations and pattern interpretation of dried plasma and whole blood samples, as well as the diagnostic applications of pattern analysis. Dried drop patterns of plasma consist of intricate visible cracks in the outer region and fine structures in the central region, which are mainly influenced by the presence and concentration of inorganic salts and proteins during drying. The shrinkage of macromolecular gel and its adhesion to the substrate surface have been thought to be responsible for the formation of the cracks. Dried drop patterns of whole blood have three characteristic zones; their formation as functions of drying time has been reported in the literature. Some research works have applied engineering treatment to the evaporation process of whole blood samples. The sensitivities of the resultant patterns to the relative humidity of the environment, the wettability of the substrates, and the size of the drop have been reported. These research works shed light on the mechanisms of spreading, evaporation, gelation, and crack formation of the blood drops on solid substrates, as well as on the potential applications of dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood in diagnosis. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Drop Performance Test of CRDMs for JRTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Chung, Jong-Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Hyun [POSCO Plandtec Co. Ltd, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan-Hee [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    The drop test results of CRDMs with AC-type electromagnet show that the initial delay times are not satisfied with the requirement, 0.15 seconds. After the replacement of the electromagnet from AC-type to DCtype, the drop times of CARs and accelerations due to the impact of moving parts are satisfied with all requirements. As a result, it is found that four CRDMs to be installed at site have a good drop performance, and meet all performance requirements. A control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is a device to control the position of a control absorber rod (CAR) in the core by using a stepping motor which is commanded by the reactor regulating system (RRS) to control the reactivity during the normal operation of the reactor. The top-mounted CRDM driven by the stepping motor for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) has been developed in KAERI. The CRDM for JRTR has been optimized by the design improvement based on that of the HANARO. It is necessary to verify the performances such as the stepping, drop, endurance, vibration, seismic and structural integrity for active components. Especially, the CAR drop curves are important data for the safety analysis. This paper describes the test results to demonstrate the drop performances of a prototype and 4 CRDMs to be installed at site. The tests are carried out at a test rig simulating the actual reactor's conditions.

  9. Circulation and suspended sediment transport in a coral reef lagoon: the south-west lagoon of New Caledonia. (United States)

    Ouillon, S; Douillet, P; Lefebvre, J P; Le Gendre, R; Jouon, A; Bonneton, P; Fernandez, J M; Chevillon, C; Magand, O; Lefèvre, J; Le Hir, P; Laganier, R; Dumas, F; Marchesiello, P; Bel Madani, A; Andréfouët, S; Panché, J Y; Fichez, R


    The south-west lagoon of New Caledonia is a wide semi-open coral reef lagoon bounded by an intertidal barrier reef and bisected by numerous deep inlets. This paper synthesizes findings from the 2000-2008 French National Program EC2CO-PNEC relative to the circulation and the transport of suspended particles in this lagoon. Numerical model development (hydrodynamic, fine suspended sediment transport, wind-wave, small-scale atmospheric circulation) allowed the determination of circulation patterns in the lagoon and the charting of residence time, the later of which has been recently used in a series of ecological studies. Topical studies based on field measurements permitted the parameterisation of wave set-up induced by the swell breaking on the reef barrier and the validation of a wind-wave model in a fetch-limited environment. The analysis of spatial and temporal variability of suspended matter concentration over short and long time-scales, the measurement of grain size distribution and the density of suspended matter (1.27 kg l(-1)), and the estimation of erodibility of heterogeneous (sand/mud, terrigenous/biogenic) soft bottoms was also conducted. Aggregates were shown to be more abundant near or around reefs and a possible biological influence on this aggregation is discussed. Optical measurements enabled the quantification of suspended matter either in situ (monochromatic measurements) or remotely (surface spectral measurements and satellite observations) and provided indirect calibration and validation of a suspended sediment transport model. The processes that warrant further investigation in order to improve our knowledge of circulation and suspended sediment transport in the New Caledonia lagoon as well as in other coral reef areas are discussed, as are the relevance and reliability of the numerical models for this endeavour. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Drop impact upon micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces. (United States)

    Tsai, Peichun; Pacheco, Sergio; Pirat, Christophe; Lefferts, Leon; Lohse, Detlef


    We experimentally investigate drop impact dynamics onto different superhydrophobic surfaces, consisting of regular polymeric micropatterns and rough carbon nanofibers, with similar static contact angles. The main control parameters are the Weber number We and the roughness of the surface. At small We, i.e., small impact velocity, the impact evolutions are similar for both types of substrates, exhibiting Fakir state, complete bouncing, partial rebouncing, trapping of an air bubble, jetting, and sticky vibrating water balls. At large We, splashing impacts emerge forming several satellite droplets, which are more pronounced for the multiscale rough carbon nanofiber jungles. The results imply that the multiscale surface roughness at nanoscale plays a minor role in the impact events for small We less than or approximately equal 120 but an important one for large We greater than or approximately equal 120. Finally, we find the effect of ambient air pressure to be negligible in the explored parameter regime We less than or approximately equal 150.

  11. Diffusion processes in freely suspended smectic films (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Zakharov, A. V.


    A molecular model describing translational diffusion in freely suspended smectic films (FSSFs) in air is proposed. This model is based on the random walk theory and allows calculation of the translational diffusion coefficient (TDC) across smectic layers (along the director). All values necessary for calculating the TDC are obtained within the generalized mean-field model considering not only anisotropic interactions between nearest neighbors of molecules forming FSSFs, but also the stabilizing effect of the smectic/air interface. The spatial inhomogeneity of order parameters over the FSSF section, arising in this case, results in the fact that the surface tension at the smectic/air interface not only suppresses thermal fluctuations in surface layers, but also completely suppresses translational diffusion of molecules from the FSSF to air. The results of calculations of dimensional translational diffusion in the bulk of the FSSF formed by 5- n-alkyl-2-(4- n-(perfluoroalkyl-metyleneoxy))pentyl molecules during its thinning show that the TDC monotonically increases as the smectic film is thinned.

  12. Deterministic separation of suspended particles in a reconfigurable obstacle array

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Siqi


    We use a macromodel of a flow-driven deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) microfluidic system to investigate conditions leading to size-separation of suspended particles. This model system can be easily reconfigured to establish an arbitrary orientation between the average flow field and the array of obstacles comprising the stationary phase (forcing angle). We also investigate the effect of obstacle size using two arrays with different obstacles but same surface-to-surface distance between them. In all cases, we observe the presence of a locked mode at small forcing angles, in which particles move along a principal direction in the lattice until a locked-to-zigzag transition takes place when the driving force reaches a critical angle. We show that the transition occurs at increasing angles for larger particles, thus enabling particle separation at specific forcing angles. Moreover, we observe a linear correlation between the critical angle and the size of the particles that could be used in the design of...

  13. Probing the nanoscale with high-speed interferometry of an impacting drop

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.


    The simple phenomenon of a water drop falling onto a glass plate may seem like a trivial fluid mechanics problem. However, detailed imaging has shown that this process is highly complex and a small air-bubble is always entrapped under the drop when it makes contact with the solid. This bubble can interfere with the uniformity of spray coatings and degrade inkjet fabrication of displays etc. We will describe how we use high-speed interferometry at 5 million frames per second to understand the details of this process. As the impacting drop approaches the solid, the dynamics are characterized by a balance between the lubrication pressure in the thin air layer and the inertia of the bot-tom of the drop. This deforms the drop, forming a dimple at its bottom and making the drop touch the surface along a ring, thereby entrapping the air-layer, which is typically 1-3 mu m thick. This air-layer can be highly compressed and the deceleration of the bottom of the drop can be as large as 300,000 g. We describe how the thicknessevolution of the lubricating air-layer is extracted from following the interference fringes between frames. Two-color interferometry is also used to extract absolute layer thicknesses. Finally, we identify the effects of nanometric surface roughness on the first contact of the drop with the substrate. Here we need to resolve the 100 nm thickness changes occurring during 200 ns intervals, requiring these state of the art high-speed cameras. Surprisingly, we see a ring of micro-bubbles marking the first contact of the drop with the glass, only for microscope slides, which have a typical roughness of 20 nm, while such rings are absent for drop impacts onto molecularly smooth mica surfaces.

  14. Contributions of suspended sediment from highway construction and other land uses to the Olentangy River, Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    Helsel, D.R.


    Highway construction within the Olentangy River flood plain in Columbus, Ohio, was projected to be a large source of suspended sediment to the river system. A monitoring program was begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 to quantify the implacts of construction process. Sediment information was collected daily at six gaging stations located above, below, and within the construction area. Yields of suspended sediment from the active construction area ranged from 9,580 to 15,700 tons per square mile per year. Surrounding suburban terrain yielded 428 to754 tons per square mile per year. However, the size of the construction project was small in comparison to the surrounding suburbs contributing sediment. No more than 4 percent of the yearly downstream suspended-sediment loads were produced by high-way construction during the monitoring periods.

  15. The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation (United States)

    Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

    The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a

  16. [Optimize dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills by using design space approach]. (United States)

    Shen, Ji-Chen; Wang, Qing-Qing; Chen, An; Pan, Fang-Lai; Gong, Xing-Chu; Qu, Hai-Bin


    In this paper, a design space approach was applied to optimize the dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Firstly, potential critical process parameters and potential process critical quality attributes were determined through literature research and pre-experiments. Secondly, experiments were carried out according to Box-Behnken design. Then the critical process parameters and critical quality attributes were determined based on the experimental results. Thirdly, second-order polynomial models were used to describe the quantitative relationships between critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Finally, a probability-based design space was calculated and verified. The verification results showed that efficient production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills can be guaranteed by operating within the design space parameters. The recommended operation ranges for the critical dropping process parameters of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills were as follows: dropping distance of 5.5-6.7 cm, and dropping speed of 59-60 drops per minute, providing a reference for industrial production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Influence of charge carriers on corrugation of suspended graphene (United States)

    Kirilenko, Demid A.; Gorodetsky, Andrei; Baidakova, Marina V.


    Electronic degrees of freedom are predicted to play a significant role in mechanics of two-dimensional crystalline membranes. Here we show that appearance of charge carriers may cause a considerable impact on suspended graphene corrugation, thus leading to additional mechanism resulting in charge carriers mobility variation with their density. This finding may account for some details of suspended graphene conductivity dependence on its doping level and suggests that proper modeling of suspended graphene-based device properties must include the influence of charge carriers on its surface corrugation.

  18. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas


    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  19. Self-Propulsion and Shape Restoration of Aqueous Drops on Sulfobetaine Silane Surfaces. (United States)

    Singh, Vickramjeet; Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong


    The motion of droplets on typical surfaces is generally halted by contact line pinning associated with contact angle hysteresis. In this study, it was shown that, on a zwitterionic sulfobetaine silane (SBSi)-coated surface, aqueous drops with appropriate solutes can demonstrate hysteresis-free behavior, whereas a pure water drop shows spontaneous spreading. By adding solutes such as polyethylene glycol, 2(2-butoxy ethoxy) ethanol, or sodium n-dodecyl sulfate, an aqueous drop with a small contact angle (disappearance of spontaneous spreading) was formed on SBSi surfaces. The initial drop shape was readily relaxed back to a circular shape (hysteresis-free behavior), even upon severe disturbances. Moreover, it was interesting to observe the self-propulsion of such a drop on horizontal SBSi surfaces in the absence of externally provided stimuli. The self-propelled drop tends to follow a random trajectory, and the continuous movement can last for at least 10 min. This self-propelled random motion can be attributed to the combined effects of the hysteresis-free surface and the Marangoni stress. The former comes from the total wetting property of the surface, while the latter originates from surface tension gradient due to fluctuating evaporation rates along the drop border.

  20. Visualization of the drop deformation and break-up process in a high pressure homogenizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innings, F. [Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Ruben Rausings gata, SE-221 86 Lund (Sweden); Traegaardh, C. [Lund University, Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)


    For the creation of sub-micron emulsions in fluids of low viscosity the high pressure homogenizer (HPH) is usually chosen. One way of obtaining deeper knowledge of exactly what happens in the active region is to visualize it. In this work, a drop deformation and break-up visualization system based on a modified Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system is described. The system reproduces the gap in a HPH and has been used with pressures up to 18 MPa and drops as small as 5 {mu}m. The optics of the system are analyzed taking into account limiting factors such as the lens resolving power, the focal depth, and the duration of the laser pulses. It is shown that it is possible to resolve drops down to a few {mu}m moving in excess of 100 m/s, and that the main limitations are the resolving power and in the focal depth of the objectives. Examples are shown from capillary drop creation and from the deformation and break-up of drops in a HPH. It can be concluded that in a HPH, the drops are only deformed to a limited extent in the inlet of the gap, and that all drop break-up occurs far downstream of the gap. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Cavity optomechanics in a levitated helium drop (United States)

    Childress, L.; Schmidt, M. P.; Kashkanova, A. D.; Brown, C. D.; Harris, G. I.; Aiello, A.; Marquardt, F.; Harris, J. G. E.


    We describe a proposal for a type of optomechanical system based on a drop of liquid helium that is magnetically levitated in vacuum. In the proposed device, the drop would serve three roles: its optical whispering-gallery modes would provide the optical cavity, its surface vibrations would constitute the mechanical element, and evaporation of He atoms from its surface would provide continuous refrigeration. We analyze the feasibility of such a system in light of previous experimental demonstrations of its essential components: magnetic levitation of mm-scale and cm-scale drops of liquid He , evaporative cooling of He droplets in vacuum, and coupling to high-quality optical whispering-gallery modes in a wide range of liquids. We find that the combination of these features could result in a device that approaches the single-photon strong-coupling regime, due to the high optical quality factors attainable at low temperatures. Moreover, the system offers a unique opportunity to use optical techniques to study the motion of a superfluid that is freely levitating in vacuum (in the case of 4He). Alternatively, for a normal fluid drop of 3He, we propose to exploit the coupling between the drop's rotations and vibrations to perform quantum nondemolition measurements of angular momentum.

  2. Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.


    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, article 264506). These dynamics mainly occur within 50 -s after the first contact, requiring imaging at 1 million f.p.s. For a water drop impacting on a thin layer of water, the entrapment of isolated bubbles starts through azimuthal instability, which forms at low impact velocities, in the neck connecting the drop and pool. For Reynolds number Re above -12 000, up to 10 partial bubble rings have been observed at the base of the ejecta, starting when the contact is -20% of the drop size. More regular bubble rings are observed for a pool of ethanol or methanol. The video imaging shows rotation around some of these air cylinders, which can temporarily delay their breakup into micro-bubbles. The different refractive index in the pool liquid reveals the destabilization of the vortices and the formation of streamwise vortices and intricate vortex tangles. Fine-scale axisymmetry is thereby destroyed. We show also that the shape of the drop has a strong influence on these dynamics. 2013 Cambridge University Press.

  3. Drop Testing Representative Multi-Canister Overpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Spencer D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Morton, Dana K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The objective of the work reported herein was to determine the ability of the Multi- Canister Overpack (MCO) canister design to maintain its containment boundary after an accidental drop event. Two test MCO canisters were assembled at Hanford, prepared for testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), drop tested at Sandia National Laboratories, and evaluated back at the INEEL. In addition to the actual testing efforts, finite element plastic analysis techniques were used to make both pre-test and post-test predictions of the test MCOs structural deformations. The completed effort has demonstrated that the canister design is capable of maintaining a 50 psig pressure boundary after drop testing. Based on helium leak testing methods, one test MCO was determined to have a leakage rate not greater than 1x10-5 std cc/sec (prior internal helium presence prevented a more rigorous test) and the remaining test MCO had a measured leakage rate less than 1x10-7 std cc/sec (i.e., a leaktight containment) after the drop test. The effort has also demonstrated the capability of finite element methods using plastic analysis techniques to accurately predict the structural deformations of canisters subjected to an accidental drop event.

  4. Drop splash on a smooth, dry surface (United States)

    Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, Jose Manuel; Korobkin, Alexander


    It is our purpose here to determine the conditions under which a drop of a given liquid with a known radius R impacting against a smooth impermeable surface at a velocity V, will either spread axisymmetrically onto the substrate or will create a splash, giving rise to usually undesired star-shaped patterns. In our experimental setup, drops are generated injecting low viscosity liquids falling under the action of gravity from a stainless steel hypodermic needle. The experimental observations using two high speed cameras operating simultaneously and placed perpendicularly to each other reveal that, initially, the drop deforms axisymmetrically, with A (T) the radius of the wetted area. For high enough values of the drop impact velocity, a thin sheet of liquid starts to be ejected from A (T) at a velocity Vjet > V for instants of time such that T >=Tc . If Vjet is above a certain threshold, which depends on the solid wetting properties as well as on the material properties of both the liquid and the atmospheric gas, the rim of the lamella dewets the solid to finally break into drops. Using Wagner's theory we demonstrate that A (T) =√{ 3 RVT } and our results also reveal that Tc We - 1 / 2 =(ρV2 R / σ) - 1 / 2 and Vjet We 1 / 4 .

  5. Drop impact on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces (United States)

    Choi, Wonjae; Leclear, Sani; Leclear, Johnathon; Abhijeet, .; Park, Kyoo-Chul

    We report an empirical study and dimensional analysis on the impact patterns of water drops on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces. While the classic Weber number determines the spreading and recoiling dynamics of a water drop on a horizontal / smooth surface, for a superhydrophobic surface, the dynamics depends on two distinct Weber numbers, each calculated using the length scale of the drop or of the pores on the surface. Impact on an inclined superhydrophobic surface is even more complicated, as the velocity that determines the Weber number is not necessarily the absolute speed of the drop but the velocity components normal and tangential to the surface. We define six different Weber numbers, using three different velocities (absolute, normal and tangential velocities) and two different length scales (size of the drop and of the texture). We investigate the impact patterns on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces with three different types of surface texture: (i) posts, (ii) ridges aligned with and (iii) ridges perpendicular to the impact direction. Results suggest that all six Weber numbers matter, but affect different parts of the impact dynamics, ranging from the Cassie-Wenzel transition, maximum spreading, to anisotropic deformation. We acknowledge financial support from the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through Contract 3002453812.

  6. Drop impact on spherical soft surfaces (United States)

    Chen, Simeng; Bertola, Volfango


    The impact of water drops on spherical soft surfaces is investigated experimentally through high-speed imaging. The effect of a convex compliant surface on the dynamics of impacting drops is relevant to various applications, such as 3D ink-jet printing, where drops of fresh material impact on partially cured soft substrates with arbitrary shape. Several quantities which characterize the morphology of impacting drops are measured through image-processing, including the maximum and minimum spreading angles, length of the wetted curve, and dynamic contact angle. In particular, the dynamic contact angle is measured using a novel digital image-processing scheme based on a goniometric mask, which does not require edge fitting. It is shown that the surface with a higher curvature enhances the retraction of the spreading drop; this effect may be due to the difference of energy dissipation induced by the curvature of the surface. In addition, the impact parameters (elastic modulus, diameter ratio, and Weber number) are observed to significantly affect the dynamic contact angle during impact. A quantitative estimation of the deformation energy shows that it is significantly smaller than viscous dissipation.

  7. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size (United States)

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.


    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  8. Suspended sediment concentration profiles from synoptic satellite observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Rajawat, A; Chauhan, O.S.

    A method is developed to estimate vertical suspended sediment concentration (SSC) profiles in Gulf of Kachchh, from the sediment concentration values derived from synoptic observations of Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM). Under the influence of currents...

  9. Monosaccharide composition of suspended particles from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Neutral carbohydrates were determined as alditol acetates by capillary gas chromatography in the hydrolysates of suspended particulate samples (40) collected from 8 depths (approx 1 to 1,000 m) at 5 stations of the Bay of Bengal. Eight individual...

  10. Particles matter: Transformation of suspended particles in constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.


    This thesis shows that constructed wetlands transform suspended particles in (treated) municipal wastewater through selective precipitation in ponds, biological filtering by plankton communities and physical and biological retention in reed beds. These processes effectively remove faecal indicator

  11. Concentration Measurements of Suspended Load using ADV with Influence of the Particle Size (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula


    suspended sediment concentration in a small subtropical estuary, Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 88, Issue 4, 2008

  12. Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Keyu [THz Technical Research Center of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Photonic Information Technology, Shenzhen 518067 (China); College of Electronic Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Xiao, Jun-Jun [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Yin, Xiaobo, E-mail: Xiaobo.Yin@Colorado.Edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)


    We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

  13. Drop impact on porous superhydrophobic polymer surfaces. (United States)

    Rioboo, R; Voué, M; Vaillant, A; De Coninck, J


    Water drop impacts are performed on porous-like superhydrophobic surfaces. We investigate the influence of the drop size and of the impact velocity on the event. The Cassie-Baxter/Wenzel transition is observed to be a function of the drop size, as well as the outcomes of the impact or deposition process, which can be deposition, rebound, sticking, or fragmentation. A quantitative analysis on the experimental conditions required to observe rebound is provided. Our analysis shows that the wettability hysteresis controls the limit between deposition and rebound events. This limit corresponds to a constant Weber number. A survey of literature results on impact over patterned superhydrophobic surfaces is provided as a comparison.

  14. Chemical precipitation structures formed by drops impacting on a deep pool (United States)

    Kaminker, V.; Maselko, J.; Pantaleone, J.


    The experiments described here are at the intersection of two dynamical systems with long pedigrees for forming interesting patterns: liquid droplet impacts and precipitation membranes. Drops of calcium chloride solution have been allowed to impact on a deep pool of sodium silicate solution. The precipitation structures produced by this method, and how these structures subsequently evolve, have been observed. Many interesting patterns can be formed from this process. It is observed that the precipitation patterns produced are sensitive to the shape of the drop when it impacts the pool's surface. Also, at large drop heights, we determine two critical Weber numbers: one for forming a skirt around the structures and the other for breakup of the structures. On longer time scales, open tubes grow from the closed precipitation shell produced at lower drop heights. These tubes can appear in large numbers with nearly identical sizes and diameters as small as 50 μm.

  15. Internal rupture and rapid bouncing of impacting drops induced by submillimeter-scale textures (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xiwen; Hao, Pengfei; He, Feng


    We demonstrate an internal breakup mechanism for high Weber number drop impact on superhydrophobic surfaces uniformly patterned with submillimeter-scale textures, in which the liquid film ruptures from both interior and rim. The employment of submillimeter-scale posts could help decrease the critical Weber number of internal rupture, due to the small solid fraction and the large dimension ratio between primary structures and droplets. The internal rupture is found to promote more rapid drop bouncing than conventional rebound and rim breakup on superhydrophobic surfaces with small roughness, with a 10%-50% reduction of contact time. The internal rupture results from the film instability inside and the jet instability outside.

  16. Internal rupture and rapid bouncing of impacting drops induced by submillimeter-scale textures. (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xiwen; Hao, Pengfei; He, Feng


    We demonstrate an internal breakup mechanism for high Weber number drop impact on superhydrophobic surfaces uniformly patterned with submillimeter-scale textures, in which the liquid film ruptures from both interior and rim. The employment of submillimeter-scale posts could help decrease the critical Weber number of internal rupture, due to the small solid fraction and the large dimension ratio between primary structures and droplets. The internal rupture is found to promote more rapid drop bouncing than conventional rebound and rim breakup on superhydrophobic surfaces with small roughness, with a 10%-50% reduction of contact time. The internal rupture results from the film instability inside and the jet instability outside.

  17. Combined Discrete Space Voltage Vector with Direct Torque Control for Bearingless Brushless DC Motor and Closed-Loop Suspended Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiran Wang


    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of bearingless brushless DC motor, a closed-loop suspended force controller combining the discrete space voltage vector modulation is applied and the direct torque control is presented in this paper. Firstly, we increase the number of the control vector to reduce the torque ripple. Then, the suspending equation is constructed which is spired by the direct torque control algorithm. As a result, the closed-loop suspended force controller is built. The simulated and experimental results evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The more advantage is that the proposed algorithm can achieve the fast torque response, reduce the torque ripple, and follow ideal stator flux track. Furthermore, the motor which implants the closed-loop suspended force controller cannot onlyobtain the dynamic response rapidly and displacement control accurately, but also has the characteristics of bearingless brushless DC motor (such as simple structure, high energy efficiency, small volume and low failure rate.

  18. Suspended-sediment and suspended-sand concentrations and loads for selected streams in the Mississippi River Basin, 1940-2009 (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Cline, Teri L.; Glaspie, Lori M.


    This report presents suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow data, describes load-estimation techniques used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment loads, and presents annual suspended-sediment loads for 48 streamgaging stations within the Mississippi River Basin. Available published, unpublished, and computed annual total suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads are presented for water years 1940 through 2009. When previously published annual loads were not available, total suspended-sediment and sand loads were computed using available data for water years 1949 through 2009. A table of suspended-sediment concentration and daily mean streamflow data used in the computation of annual loads is presented along with a table of compiled and computed annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads, annual streamflows, and flow-weighted concentrations for the 48 stations.

  19. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine


    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  20. Water Drops Dancing on Ice: How Sublimation Leads to Drop Rebound (United States)

    Antonini, C.; Bernagozzi, I.; Jung, S.; Poulikakos, D.; Marengo, M.


    Drop rebound is a spectacular event that appears after impact on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces but can also be induced through the so-called Leidenfrost effect. Here we demonstrate that drop rebound can also originate from another physical phenomenon, the solid substrate sublimation. Through drop impact experiments on a superhydrophobic surfaces, a hot plate, and solid carbon dioxide (commonly known as dry ice), we compare drop rebound based on three different physical mechanisms, which apparently share nothing in common (superhydrophobicity, evaporation, and sublimation), but lead to the same rebound phenomenon in an extremely wide temperature range, from 300°C down to even below -79°C. The formation and unprecedented visualization of an air vortex ring around an impacting drop are also reported.

  1. Shuttlecock Velocity of a Badminton Drop Shot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampharin Ongvises


    Full Text Available In a badminton ‘drop shot’, the shuttlecock is struck by a non-rotating racquet at low speed. In this investigation, a shuttlecock was hit by a badminton racquet in a linear collision, simulating a drop shot. The collision was recorded with high-speed video and the velocities of the racquet and shuttlecock determined. The relationship between the impact velocity of the racquet and the velocity of the shuttlecock as it leaves the badminton racquet after collision was found to be proportional over the range tested.

  2. Shuttlecock Velocity of a Badminton Drop Shot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampharin Ongvises


    Full Text Available In a badminton ‘drop shot’, the shuttlecock is struck by a non-rotating racquet at low speed. In this investigation, a shuttlecock was hit by a badminton racquet in a linear collision, simulating a drop shot. The collision was recorded with high-speed video and the velocities of the racquet and shuttlecock determined. The relationship between the impact velocity of the racquet and the velocity of the shuttlecock as it leaves the badminton racquet after collision was found to be proportional over the range tested.

  3. Self-assembly of suspended graphene wrinkles with high pre-tension and elastic property (United States)

    Yang, Liusi; Niu, Tianxiao; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Wenjing; Zou, Mingchu; Xu, Lu; Cao, Guoxin; Cao, Anyuan


    Wrinkles exist universally in graphene-based structures, yet their controlled fabrication remains challenging; most graphene wrinkles have been produced either in attachment to elastic substrates or limited in small single sheets. Here, we utilize the phenomenon of gel-cracking to generate uniaxial strains locally on solution-precipitated graphene oxide (GO) sheets, thus creating suspended and aligned wrinkles over the trenches between cracked TiO2 islands. In particular, those GO wrinkles are subjected to a high pre-tension, which is important for making stable suspended configuration, as confirmed by theoretical calculations based on the wrinkle geometry and measured spring constants, respectively. As a result, in situ atomic force microscope indentation reveals elastic deformation with tunable spring constants depending on the gap width. We further obtain chemically reduced GO wrinkles with enhanced spring constants and reversible behavior after 1000 indentation cycles. Our suspended and aligned graphene wrinkles have potential applications in many areas such as sensors, actuators, and micro/nano electromechanical systems.

  4. An Experimental Investigation of Bubble Rise Characteristics in a Crystal Suspended Non—Newtonian Fluid (United States)

    Hassan, N. M. S.; Khan, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Rackemann, D. W.


    An experimental study of the bubble rise characteristics in non-Newtonian fluid with crystal suspension is presented in this paper. The suspension was made of different concentration of xanthan gum solutions with 0.23 mm polystyrene crystal particle. Different percentage of crystal content (by weight) was used to vary rheological properties. The effect of crystal particles and bubble volumes on the bubble rise velocity and bubble trajectory is analysed. The results show that the average bubble velocity increases with the increase in bubble volume for crystal suspended xanthan gum solution. In trajectory analysis, it is seen that the small bubbles experienced less horizontal motion in crystal suspended xanthan gum solution while larger bubbles followed a spiral motion. Experimentally determined data for the drag coefficient at high Reynolds number are compared with the results of other analytical and experimental studies available in the literature. The reported experimental data of drag co-efficient increases in crystal suspended xanthan gum solution for corresponding bubble volume and was found to be consistent with published data.

  5. A combined use of acoustic and optical devices to investigate suspended sediment in rivers (United States)

    Guerrero, Massimo; Rüther, Nils; Haun, Stefan; Baranya, Sandor


    The use of acoustic and optic devices has become more and more common for estimating suspended sediment loads in rivers. The echo intensity levels (EIL) recorded by means of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) have been applied in different methods, which provided relationships between scattering particles features derived from samples (i.e., concentration and grain size) and corresponding backscattering strength and sound attenuation. At the same time, the laser diffraction was applied by an in-stream sampler (LISST-SL) to measure suspended sediment concentration and the corresponding particle size distribution (PSD). These two techniques exhibited different limitations in terms of the measured range of concentration, sensitivity to a certain spectrum of particle sizes, and instruments deploy feasibility especially in large rivers, in a way that the use of sampled PSD by LISST-SL to validate ADCP methods may not be trivial. The aim of this study was to combine the vertical profiling of EIL by an ADCP with results from LISST-SL, eventually demonstrating the possibility of using moving ADCP measurements to detect different suspended matters along a Danube River section characterized by a small tributary junction. At the same time, this work elucidates optical to acoustic method deviations that hinders an actual validation of ADCP methods based on LISST-SL rather than with physical samplings.

  6. Temporal dynamics of suspended sediment transport in a glacierized Andean basin (United States)

    Mao, Luca; Carrillo, Ricardo


    Suspended sediment transport can affect water quality and aquatic ecosystems, and its quantification is of the highest importance for river and watershed management. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and discharge were measured at two locations in the Estero Morales, a Chilean Andean stream draining a small basin (27 km2) hosting glacierized areas of about 1.8 km2. Approximately half of the suspended sediment yield (470 t year- 1 km- 2) was transported during the snowmelt period and half during glacier melting. The hysteresis patterns between discharge and SSC were calculated for each daily hydrograph and were analysed to shed light on the location and activity of different sediment sources at the basin scale. During snowmelt, an unlimited supply of fine sediments is provided in the lower and middle part of the basin and hysteresis patterns tend to be clockwise as the peaks in SSC precede the peak of discharge in daily hydrographs. Instead, during glacier melting the source of fine sediments is the proglacial area, producing counterclockwise hysteresis. It is suggested that the analysis of hysteretic patterns over time provides a simple concept for interpreting variability of location and activity of sediment sources at the basin scale.

  7. Acoustic backscatter by suspended cohesive sediments: Field observations, Seine Estuary, France (United States)

    Sahin, Cihan; Verney, Romaric; Sheremet, Alexandru; Voulgaris, George


    Observations of suspended sediment size and concentration, flow and acoustic backscatter intensity collected on the Seine Estuary (France) are used to study the acoustic response in cohesive-sediment dominated environments. Estimates of suspended sediment concentration based on optical backscatter sensors and water samples are used to calibrate the acoustic backscatter intensity. The vertical structure of suspended sediment concentration is then estimated from acoustic backscatter information. To our knowledge, this is the first field application of the recently proposed model of acoustic scattering by flocculating suspensions based on the variation of particle density (floc-scattering model). The estimates of sediment concentration reproduce well the observations under different tidal (neap/spring) conditions, confirming the applicability of the new model in the field when detailed particle size measurements are available. When particle size measurements are not available, using estimated floc sizes based on the turbulence intensities may provide reasonable SSC profiles. During spring tide events (associated with strong currents, small flocs and large concentrations), the performances of the new floc-scattering model and the previous models given for solid particle-scattering are comparable. The floc-scattering model increases the quality of the SSC estimates especially during low-energy conditions characterized with larger flocs.

  8. Reduction in drop size of ophthalmic topical drop preparations and the impact of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar


    Full Text Available In this work we devised a method to create smaller eye drops of the glaucoma medication timolol maleate by altering the dropper tip design and changing the physical properties of the formulation. Most ocular diseases are treated with topical application of eye drops. After instillation of an eye drop, typically, less than 5% of the applied drug penetrates the cornea and reaches the intraocular tissues; the major fraction of the instilled drug is absorbed and enters the systemic circulation. Ophthalmic solutions are available in multidose or single-dose glass/plastic dropper bottles that deliver drops with a volume that ranges from 25 μL to 70 μL (average 40 μL. Because of the low capacity of the precorneal area, the optimal drop volume is about 20 μL; with larger volumes there is the risk of adverse systemic effects due to absorption of the drug via the nasal mucosa. Thus, both from the biopharmaceutical and economic point of view, drops of only 5-15 mL volume should be instilled into the eye. In this present work we devised a method to reduce the size of the drop by inserting a glass capillary tube into the dropper tip and by changing the physical properties of the formulation (by altering the concentration of Tween 80™, i.e., 0.05% and 0.1% of Tween 80™. We measured the drop sizes of the different timolol eye drop formulations available in the market and estimated the yearly cost of the medications. Our timolol maleate formulation with 0.1% concentration of Tween 80™ delivered through the dropper tip with the inserted glass capillary was shown to be better than the other formulations available in the market in terms of ability to deliver smaller drops, meaning that each bottle would last longer and that the yearly cost of treatment would be lower.

  9. Turbulence control of suspended matter aggregate size (United States)

    Jago, C. F.; Jones, S. E.; Rippeth, T. P.; Simpson, J. H.


    The size and properties of the aggregates which comprise suspended particulate matter (SPM) change on short time and length scales in shelf seas. There is experimental and theoretical evidence to suggest that turbulence plays a key role in aggregation but there is contradictory evidence with respect to disaggregation: it has been proposed that sinking stresses, rather than turbulent stresses, are the dominant control of disaggregation. But there is little observational evidence for turbulence control of particle properties. New observations are presented which provide compelling evidence for turbulence control of both aggregation and disaggregation. TKE dissipation and particle size were measured in situ at stratified sites in the northern North Sea in 110 m water depth during the period of weakening of the seasonal thermocline (in October/November) and in the Clyde Sea in 55 m water depth (April). There were similar vertical distributions of TKE dissipation E, SPM concentration C, and particle size D at both sites. At the base of the thermocline, there were minima in E and C, but a maximum in D, indicating that enhanced aggregation was occurring in this region of low turbulent stress. In the bottom mixed layer, E and C increased, while D decreased due to disaggregation in this region of increasing turbulent stress towards the seabed. Particles settling out of the low stress region at the base of the thermocline began to disaggregate when E increased to 3.2x10-6 watts m-2. D did not correlate directly with E because aggregation is a function of collision frequency (and hence of both C and E): this can be accounted for using a simplified theoretical aggregation model which treats flocs as self-similar fractal entities and allows simultaneous floc formation and break up, specified as functions of C and E. It was found that in the northern North Sea the measured D represents an equilibrium size predicted by the model, while in the Clyde Sea tidal variation in both C

  10. Analyzing the uncertainty of suspended sediment load prediction using sequential data assimilation (United States)

    Leisenring, Marc; Moradkhani, Hamid


    SummaryA first step in understanding the impacts of sediment and controlling the sources of sediment is to quantify the mass loading. Since mass loading is the product of flow and concentration, the quantification of loads first requires the quantification of runoff volume. Using the National Weather Service's SNOW-17 and the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) models, this study employed particle filter based Bayesian data assimilation methods to predict seasonal snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff within a small watershed in the Lake Tahoe Basin located in California, USA. A procedure was developed to scale the variance multipliers (a.k.a hyperparameters) for model parameters and predictions based on the accuracy of the mean predictions relative to the ensemble spread. In addition, an online bias correction algorithm based on the lagged average bias was implemented to detect and correct for systematic bias in model forecasts prior to updating with the particle filter. Both of these methods significantly improved the performance of the particle filter without requiring excessively wide prediction bounds. The flow ensemble was linked to a non-linear regression model that was used to predict suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) based on runoff rate and time of year. Runoff volumes and SSC were then combined to produce an ensemble of suspended sediment load estimates. Annual suspended sediment loads for the 5 years of simulation were finally computed along with 95% prediction intervals that account for uncertainty in both the SSC regression model and flow rate estimates. Understanding the uncertainty associated with annual suspended sediment load predictions is critical for making sound watershed management decisions aimed at maintaining the exceptional clarity of Lake Tahoe. The computational methods developed and applied in this research could assist with similar studies where it is important to quantify the predictive uncertainty of pollutant load

  11. Two-Phase Pressure Drop of a Refrigerant Flowing Vertically Downward in a Mini-channel (United States)

    Miyata, Kazushi; Enoki, Koji; Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

    Experiments were performed on two-phase pressure drop of a refrigerant R-410A flowing vertically downward in small copper circular tubes with 0.5-2.0 mm I.D., and small copper rectangular and triangular tubes with 1.04 and 0.88 mm inner hydraulic equivalent diameter, respectively, for the development of a high-performance heat exchanger using small tubes or multi-port extruded tubes for air conditioning systems.Pressure drops were measured and flow patterns were observed in the range of mass flux from 30 to 400 kg/(m2s)and quality from 0.1 to 0.9 at the saturation temperature of 10 °C. Characteristics of measured pressure drops were examined for different flow channel geometries. In high quality region or relatively high mass flux condition, the frictional pressure drop was reproduced well by the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation used together with a new correlation for Chisholm's parameter C as a function of hydraulic equivalent diameter. In low mass flux and low quality region, the frictional pressure drop was also reproduced well by multiplying the Chisholm two-phase multiplier factor by modified coefficient. In addition, flow pattern was observed with 0.5 and 2.0 mm I.D circular glass tubes. Slug flow and annular flow patterns were observed at lower and higher quality, respectively.

  12. Modeling merging behavior at lane drops. (United States)


    In work-zone configurations where lane drops are present, merging of traffic at the taper presents an operational concern. In : addition, as flow through the work zone is reduced, the relative traffic safety of the work zone is also reduced. Improvin...

  13. 49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test. (United States)


    ... of anti-freeze. Water/anti-freeze solutions with a minimum specific gravity of 0.95 for testing at... than flat drops, the center of gravity of the test packaging must be vertically over the point of... is performed with water: (i) Where the materials to be carried have a specific gravity not exceeding...

  14. Goose droppings as food for reindeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, R; Loonen, MJJE

    Feeding conditions for Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus, on Spitsbergen are generally poor, owing to low availability of forage. We report on coprophagy: the use of goose faeces as an alternative food source for reindeer. Fresh droppings from Barnacle Geese, Branta leucopsis,


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. A study of inorganic complexation of lead using drop amalgam voltammetry is described. The study has been carried out in simulated salt lake water and at ionic strength of. 7.35 M, the predetermined ionic strength of Lake Katwe. The complexation of lead with the simple ligands (Cl-, CO3. 2-) created anodic ...

  16. Spontaneous evaporation of the acetone drop (United States)

    Dunin, S. Z.; Nagornov, O. V.


    The exact solution of the problem on evaporation of the acetone sessile drop at solid substrate is derived. The solution allows us to analyze the temperature field behavior at various thermodynamic parameters. The Marangoni forces are calculated in explicit form. The solution can be used to check numerical approaches for similar problems.

  17. An evaporation model of multicomponent solution drops (United States)

    Sartori, Silvana; Liñán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.


    Solutions of polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as tablets coatings. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or appearance. The coating is performed by spraying and drying the tablets at moderate temperatures. The wetting of the coating solution on the pill's surface depends on the droplet Webber and Re numbers, angle of impact and on the rheological properties of the droplet. We present a model for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions droplets in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the solvent. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface the fluid in the drop increases in concentration, until reaching its saturation point. After saturation, precipitation occurs uniformly within the drop. As the surface regresses, a compacting front formed by the precipitate at its maximum packing density advances into the drop, while the solute continues precipitating uniformly. This porous shell grows fast due to the double effect of surface regression and precipitation. The evaporation rate is determined by the rates at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and at which liquid vapor diffuses away from it. When the drop is fully compacted, the evaporation is drastically reduced.

  18. Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire. (United States)

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

  19. 49 CFR 178.965 - Drop test. (United States)


    ... Large Packaging design types and performed periodically as specified in § 178.955(e) of this subpart. (b...) Conditioning. Rigid plastic Large Packagings and Large Packagings with plastic inner receptacles must be... § 178.960(d). (d) Test method. (1) Samples of all Large Packaging design types must be dropped onto a...

  20. 49 CFR 178.810 - Drop test. (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of IBCs... design types and performed periodically as specified in § 178.801(e) of this subpart. (b) Special preparation for the drop test. (1) Metal, rigid plastic, and composite IBCs intended to contain solids must be...

  1. Check valves with drop-shaped disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report discusses improvements possible with drop check valves. Up to the time of the report, the most important improvements had been: (1) lightening of the drop by hollowing it out, (2) reducing lift to reduce impact, (3) increasing clearance in the guide to minimize the danger of it getting stuck, (4) drilling of a safety hole which would indicate excessive wear of the housing by a leak. Other possibilities for the above improvements had produced the following conclusions: (1) a further lightening of the drop was found possible by milling out the halves with a milling cutter, by welding them together and thus eliminating the threaded portion, or by having the drop open on the bottom; (2) further reduction in lift was not found possible in most sizes, but for reduction of the impact effect by a cushion of oil or paste, the seating surface was widened as much as possible; (3) sticking of certain check valves caused by ferrous sulfide deposits could be solved by use of a certain bushing in the housing; (4) some plants favored and some disfavored the safety hole, but in general, plants were to service check valves and change them at such regular intervals as experience dictated; (5) the seat plate was no longer solid steel, but a welded piece.

  2. Lightweight, Economical Device Alleviates Drop Foot (United States)

    Deis, B. C.


    Corrective apparatus alleviates difficulties in walking for victims of drop foot. Elastic line attached to legband provides flexible support to toe of shoe. Device used with flat (heelless) shoes, sneakers, crepe-soled shoes, canvas shoes, and many other types of shoes not usable with short leg brace.

  3. Biomechanical analysis of drop and countermovement jumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M. F.; Mackay, M.T.; Schinkelshoek, D.; Huijing, P. A.; van Ingen Schenau, G. J.

    For 13 subjects the performance of drop jumps from a height of 40 cm (DJ) and of countermovement jumps (CMJ) was analysed and compared. From force plate and cine data biomechanical variables including forces, moments, power output and amount of work done were calculated for hip, knee and ankle

  4. A bilateral foot drop due to neuroschistosomiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbers, J.; Idema, A.J.S.; Gijtenbeek, A.


    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease, uncommon in Europe and the USA. We present an unusual case of intracerebral schistosomiasis, presenting with a bilateral foot drop. We describe unique magnetic resonance spectroscopy characteristics that can contribute to diagnosis and follow up of a

  5. Size-selective sliding of sessile drops on a slightly inclined plane using low-frequency AC electrowetting. (United States)

    Hong, Jiwoo; Lee, Seung Jun; Koo, Bonchull C; Suh, Yong Kweon; Kang, Kwan Hyoung


    When placed on an inclined solid plane, drops often stick to the solid surface due to pinning forces caused by contact angle hysteresis. When the drop size or the plane's incline angle is small, the drop is difficult to slide due to a decrease in gravitational force. Here we demonstrate that small drops (0.4-9 μL) on a slightly inclined plane (~12°, Teflon and parylene-C surface) can be mobilized through patterned electrodes by applying low-frequency ac electrowetting under 400 Hz (110-180 V(rms)), which has a mechanism different from that of the high-frequency ac method that induces sliding by reducing contact angle hysteresis. We attribute the sliding motion of our method to a combination of contact angle hysteresis and interfacial oscillation driven by ac electrowetting instead of the minimization of contact angle hysteresis at a high frequency. We investigated the effects of ac frequency on the sliding motion and terminal sliding of drops; the terminal sliding velocity is greatest at resonance frequency. Varying the electrowetting number (0.21-0.56) at a fixed frequency (40 Hz) for 5 μL drops, we found an empirical relationship between the electrowetting number and the terminal sliding velocity. Using the relationship between the drop size and ac frequency, we can selectively slide drops of a specific size or merge two drops along an inclined plane. This simple method will help with constructing microfluidic platforms with sorting, merging, transporting, and mixing of drops without a programmable control of electrical signals. Also, this method has a potential in heat transfer applications because heat removal capacity can be enhanced significantly through drop oscillation. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  6. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie


    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  7. Spray and microjets produced by focusing a laser pulse into a hemispherical drop (United States)

    Thoroddsen, S. T.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.; Ohl, C.-D.


    We use high-speed video imaging to study laser disruption of the free surface of a hemispheric drop. The drop sits on a glass surface and the Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser pulse propagates through the drop and is focused near the free surface from below. We focus on the evolution of the cylindrical liquid sheet and spray which emerges out of the drop and resembles typical impact crowns. The tip of the sheet emerges at velocities over 1 km/s. The tip of the crown breaks up into fine spray some of which is sucked back into the growing cavity at about 100 m/s. We measure the size of the typical spray droplets to be about 3 μm. We also show the formation of fine microjets, which are produced when the laser is focused inside the drop and the shock front hits small bubbles sitting under the free surface. For water these microjets are 5-50 μm in diameter and exit at 100-250 m/s. For higher viscosity drops, these jets can emerge at over 500 m/s.

  8. Commercial Value and Challenges of Drop-Based Microfluidic Screening Platforms–An Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holtze


    Full Text Available Developments in High Throughput Screening aim at maximizing the number of samples per time and reducing the cost per sample, e.g., by applying very small sample volumes. The ultimate technological step in miniaturization is moving from microtiter plate wells to droplets, and from batch-wise characterization to the continuous preparation and analysis of samples. A range of drop-based microfluidic screening platforms has emerged that benefit from drop-formation rates of thousands per second, perfect drop size uniformity, plug-flow and compartmentalization, and the possibility of continuously analyzing a train of drops. However, after many years of intensive research, only few commercial applications have been developed and substantial development in the field is still required to make them reliable and broadly applicable. Can academic research achieve this, given that most of the fundamental concepts have been described already, making it hard to publish a big story? Can start-up companies raise enough money to overcome the technical issues of drop-based screening platforms? This contribution addresses the question, focusing on how the different stakeholders in the field should interact so that disillusionment will not put a premature end to the development of drop-based screening technologies.

  9. Coalescence collision of liquid drops II: Off-center collisions of unequal-size drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Acevedo-Malavé


    Full Text Available We applied the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method to simulate for first time in the three-dimensional space the hydrodynamic off-center collisions of unequal-size liquid drops in a vacuum environment. The Weber number for several conditions of the droplets dynamics is determined. Also the velocity vector fields inside the drops are shown in the collision process. The evolution of the kinetic and internal energy is shown for the permanent coalescence case. The resulting drops tend to deform, and depending of the Weber number two possible outcomes for the collision of droplets arise: either permanent coalescence or flocculation. In the permanent coalescence of the drops a fragmentation case is modeled, yielding the formation of little satellite droplets.

  10. Prediction of suspended-sediment concentrations at selected sites in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, 2008-09 (United States)

    Stogner, Sr., Robert W.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mau, David P.


    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, Colorado Water Conservation Board, Colorado Springs City Engineering, and the Lower Arkansas Valley Water Conservancy District, began a small-scale pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of a computational model of streamflow and suspended-sediment transport for predicting suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the Fountain Creek watershed in Colorado. Increased erosion and sedimentation damage have been identified by the Fountain Creek Watershed Plan as key problems within the watershed. A recommendation in the Fountain Creek Watershed plan for management of the basin is to establish measurable criteria to determine if progress in reducing erosion and sedimentation damage is being made. The major objective of this study was to test a computational method to predict local suspended-sediment loads at two sites with different geomorphic characteristics in order to evaluate the feasibility of using such an approach to predict local suspended-sediment loads throughout the entire watershed. Detailed topographic surveys, particle-size data, and suspended-sediment samples were collected at two gaged sites: Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07103970), and Sand Creek above mouth at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07105600). These data were used to construct three-dimensional computational models of relatively short channel reaches at each site. The streamflow component of these models predicted a spatially distributed field of water-surface elevation, water velocity, and bed shear stress for a range of stream discharges. Using the model predictions, along with measured particle sizes, the sediment-transport component of the model predicted the suspended-sediment concentration throughout the reach of interest. These computed concentrations were used with predicted flow patterns and channel morphology to

  11. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers – Theory, evaluation, and results from 14 stations on five rivers (United States)

    Topping, David; Wright, Scott A.; Griffiths, Ronald; Dean, David


    We have developed a physically based method for using two acoustic frequencies to measure suspended-silt-and-clay concentration, suspended-sand concentration, and suspended-sand median grain size in river cross sections at 15-minute intervals over decadal timescales. The method is strongly grounded in the extensive scientific literature on the scattering of sound by suspensions of small particles. In particular, the method takes advantage of the specific theoretical relations among acoustic frequency, acoustic attenuation, acoustic backscatter, suspended-sediment concentration, and suspended-sediment grain-size distribution. We briefly describe the theory and methods, demonstrate the application of the method, and compute biases and errors in the method at 14 stations in the Colorado River and Rio Grande basins, where large numbers of suspended-sediment samples have been collected concurrently with acoustical measurements over many years. Quantification of errors in sediment-transport measurements made using this method is essential if the measurements are to be used effectively, e.g., to evaluate uncertainty in long-term sediment loads and budgets

  12. Head-on collision of drops: A numerical investigation (United States)

    Nobari, M. R.; Jan, Y.-J.; Tryggvason, G.


    The head-on collision of equal sized drops is studied by full numerical simulations. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved for fluid motion both inside and outside the drops using a front tracking/finite difference technique. The drops are accelerated toward each other by a body force that is turned off before the drops collide. When the drops collide, the fluid between them is pushed outward leaving a thin later bounded by the drop surface. This layer gets progressively thinner as the drops continue to deform and in several of the calculations this double layer is artificially removed once it is thin enough, thus modeling rupture. If no rupture takes place, the drops always rebound, but if the film is ruptured the drops may coalesce permanently or coalesce temporarily and then split again.

  13. Monitoring suspended sediments and turbidity in Sahelian basins (United States)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Nogmana, Soumaguel


    Suspended matter can carry viruses and bacteria that are pathogenic to humans and can foster their development. Therefore, turbidity can be considered a vector of microbiological contaminants, which cause diarrheal diseases, and it can be used as a proxy for fecal bacteria. Few studies have focused on water turbidity in rural Africa, where many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, reservoirs, lakes and rivers. Diarrheal diseases are indeed the second cause of infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, in this region, environment survey is minimal or inexistent. Monitoring water turbidity therefore represents a challenge for health improvement. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and it is well suited to monitoring by remote sensing. Because it varies in space and time and because the small water bodies (remote sensing and questions the methods developed for less turbid waters. In addition, high aerosol loadings (mineral dust and biomass burning) may be detrimental to turbidity retrieval in this region because of inaccurate atmospheric corrections. We propose a method to monitor water quality of Sahelian ponds, lakes and rivers using in-situ and remote sensing data, which is tested at different sites for which in-situ water turbidity and suspended sediments concentration (SSSC) measurements are acquired. Water sample are routinely collected at two sites within the AMMA-CATCH observatory part of the Réseau de Bassin Versants (RBV) French network: the Agoufou pond in northern Mali (starting September 2014), and the Niger River at Niamey in Niger (starting June 2015). These data are used to evaluate different indexes to derive water turbidity from the reflectance in the visible and infrared bands of high resolution optical sensors (LANDSAT, SENTINEL2). The temporal evolution of the turbidity of ponds, lakes and rivers is well captured at the seasonal and interannual scales with the

  14. Cracks formation during blood drop evaporation (United States)

    Sobac, Benjamin; Brutin, David; Université de Provence Team


    We firstly presented the pattern formation occurring when drops of whole blood desiccate in a recent publication. The phenomena presented evidence to involve lots of physical field such as surface chemistry, haematolology, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, colloids science... All these mechanisms are acting together and produce an axisymetric and reproducible pattern. Dried cellular components are segregated and deposited by a capillary flow. During the evaporation, the system is slowly drying and cracks when stresses are too important leading to the final pattern observed. In this presentation, we will present the mechanisms involved in the formation of crack patterns. The phenomenon presented here with red blood cells as the main colloids involved is very similar to the drying of drop of nanoparticules. We will explain the common point and the differences encountered.

  15. DROP: Durable Reconnaissance and Observation Platform (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; McKenzie, Clifford F.


    Robots have been a valuable tool for providing a remote presence in areas that are either inaccessible or too dangerous for humans. Having a robot with a high degree of adaptability becomes crucial during such events. The adaptability that comes from high mobility and high durability greatly increases the potential uses of a robot in these situations, and therefore greatly increases its usefulness to humans. DROP is a lightweight robot that addresses these challenges with the capability to survive large impacts, carry a usable payload, and traverse a variety of surfaces, including climbing vertical surfaces like wood, stone, and concrete. The platform is crash-proof, allowing it to be deployed in ways including being dropped from an unmanned aerial vehicle or thrown from a large MSL-class (Mars Science Laboratory) rover.

  16. Drop interactions on a viscous film (United States)

    Costalonga, Maxime; Hack, Michiel; Snoeijer, Jacco


    Every morning at their breakfast, cereal eaters can see that floating objects on a liquid bath attracts to form clusters: this is the so-called Cheerios effect. It has been shown recently that droplets on elastic substrates also interact, either attracting or repelling each other depending on the local slope of the substrate where they lie. Here we present an experiment extending these results to the interaction of droplets deposited on a thin viscous film. By measuring independently the velocity of the droplets and the surface topography of the film, we identify non-monotonic interactions that are due to waves appearing on the film. The drag force exerted onto the droplets is also investigated. We show that the thickness of the film below the drop is intrinsically selected by the velocity of the drop, by a mechanism similar to Bretherton's bubble rising in a confining tube.

  17. Semisupervised Community Detection by Voltage Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji


    Full Text Available Many applications show that semisupervised community detection is one of the important topics and has attracted considerable attention in the study of complex network. In this paper, based on notion of voltage drops and discrete potential theory, a simple and fast semisupervised community detection algorithm is proposed. The label propagation through discrete potential transmission is accomplished by using voltage drops. The complexity of the proposal is OV+E for the sparse network with V vertices and E edges. The obtained voltage value of a vertex can be reflected clearly in the relationship between the vertex and community. The experimental results on four real networks and three benchmarks indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective and flexible. Furthermore, this algorithm is easily applied to graph-based machine learning methods.

  18. A pressure drop model for PWR grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Je Geon; Jung, Youn Ho; Chun, Tae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    A pressure drop model for the PWR grids with and without mixing device is proposed at single phase based on the fluid mechanistic approach. Total pressure loss is expressed in additive way for form and frictional losses. The general friction factor correlations and form drag coefficients available in the open literatures are used to the model. As the results, the model shows better predictions than the existing ones for the non-mixing grids, and reasonable agreements with the available experimental data for mixing grids. Therefore it is concluded that the proposed model for pressure drop can provide sufficiently good approximation for grid optimization and design calculation in advanced grid development. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  19. Measuring Pressure Drop Under Non Ideal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin M


    Full Text Available The method of measurement of the pressure drop (PD of cigarette filter rods and the draw resistance of cigarettes is defined in ISO 6565-2002 (1. This standard defines the calibration and use of a transfer standard to calibrate the measuring instrument and also defines the measurement procedure for cigarette and filter samples. The procedure described in the standard assumes that the measurement conditions are constant and that the sample is in equilibrium with the measurement environment.

  20. Drag and Drop API v HTML5


    BARABÁŠ, Vít


    The work (the bachelor´s thesis) deals with a new way of web application management via the "drag and drop" technique in the HTML5 programming language. The work is divided into two parts. The first part consists of DND API description in HTML5. The support analysis within common web browsers is included as a part of this description. The second, practical part of the thesis focuses on a concept and the following realisation of a photogallery using DND API.

  1. Hydrodynamic and suspended sediment transport controls on river mouth morphology (United States)

    Falcini, F.; Piliouras, A.; Garra, R.; Guerin, A.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Rowland, J.; Paola, C.


    mouths building into standing bodies of water have strikingly varied growth habits. This presents a compelling pattern formation problem that is also of great practical relevance for subsurface prediction and managing coastal wetlands. Here we present a generalized 2.5-dimensional potential vorticity (PV) theory that explains sedimentation patterns of a sediment-laden stationary jet by coupling an understanding of vorticity with suspended sediment concentration fields. We explore the physical meaning of this new sediment-PV definition, and its impact on outflow depositional patterns, by analyzing data from a shallow wall-bounded plane jet experiment and by discussing new theoretical insights. A key result is that lateral advection and diffusion of suspended sediment are directly proportional to jet vorticity, a feature that reveals the mechanistic process that forms elongated channels by focused levee deposition. The new PV theory constitutes a more generalized mathematical framework that expands the Rouse theory for the equilibrium of suspended sediment.

  2. Laser acupuncture and prevention of bone loss in tail-suspended rats. (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Liu, Mu-Qing; Man, Hau-Cheung; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Mu, Jia-Ji; Li, Yong-Zhi; Feng, Jin-Sheng; Shi, San-Qiang; Zhang, Ming


    Skeletal unloading during spaceflight results in bone loss. This study investigated whether laser acupuncture could be an effective countermeasure to prevent unloading-induced bone loss in rats. There were 18 rats that were randomly assigned into three groups: a control group, a tail-suspended group (TS), and a tail-suspended with laser acupuncture treatment group (TSA). The rats in the TSA group were treated with laser acupuncture at the KI1 (Yong Quan) and ST36 (Zu San Li) acupoints of the left leg for 3 min per day. Bone mineral density (BMD), biomechanical properties, and histomorphometry of both tibiae were determined after the animals were euthanized at the end of week 4. Compared with the control group, BMD in the TS group significantly decreased by 12.3% in cortical bone and 15.1% in cancellous bone, whereas BMD in the TSA group decreased by only 3.1% in cortical bone and 9.0% in cancellous bone. The hardness of cortical bone dropped 44.1% in the TS group and 22.3% in the TSA group compared with the control group. The histomorphometry data were in accordance with BMD measurements. Although acupuncture treatment was applied only to the left side, we observed similar changes between the measurements of both the left and right tibiae. Laser acupuncture on KI1 and ST36 can inhibit bone loss in rats subjected to unloading. The fact that similar changes between the right and left sides when only the left limbs were treated suggests that the preventive effect of laser acupuncture occurs via a systemic regulation.

  3. Drop coalescence and liquid flow in a single Plateau border (United States)

    Cohen, Alexandre; Fraysse, Nathalie; Raufaste, Christophe


    We report a comprehensive study of the flow of liquid triggered by injecting a droplet into a liquid foam microchannel, also called a Plateau border. This drop-injected experiment reveals an intricate dynamics for the liquid redistribution, with two contrasting regimes observed, ruled either by inertia or viscosity. We devoted a previous study [A. Cohen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218303 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.218303] to the inertial imbibition regime, unexpected at such small length scales. Here we report other features of interest of the drop-injected experiment, related to the coalescence of the droplet with the liquid microchannel, to both the inertial and viscous regimes, and to the occurrence of liquid flow through the soap films as well as effects of the interfacial rheology. The transition between the two regimes is investigated and qualitatively accounted for. The relevance of our results to liquid foam drainage is tackled by considering the flow of liquid at the nodes of the network of interconnected microchannels. Extensions of our study to liquid foams are discussed.

  4. The shape of a drop between two rigid fibers (United States)

    Protiere, Suzie; Duprat, Camille; Stone, Howard A.


    Wetting of fibrous media is observed in many engineered systems, e.g. filters, textiles, paper etc. and may also be found in Nature (e.g. hair or feathers). To understand the basic response of such material when interacting with a liquid we study the model system of a finite volume of liquid on two parallel rigid fibers. A liquid wetting the fibers can adopt two distinct equilibrium shapes: a compact hemispherical drop shape or a long liquid column of constant cross-section. These two morphologies depend on the inter-fiber distance, the liquid volume, the fiber radius and the liquid-fiber contact angle. We study the transitions between a drop shape and a column by incrementally varying the inter-fiber distance and find that the transition depends on the global geometry of the system as well as on the volume of liquid. More surprisingly we find that these two morphological states may coexist for certain parameter values. These switches in morphologies may be used to manipulate or transport liquid at a small scale.

  5. Dropped-head in recessive oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. (United States)

    Garibaldi, Matteo; Pennisi, Elena Maria; Bruttini, Mirella; Bizzarri, Veronica; Bucci, Elisabetta; Morino, Stefania; Talerico, Caterina; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Renieri, Alessandra; Antonini, Giovanni


    A 69-year-old woman presented a dropped head, caused by severe neck extensor weakness that had started two years before. She had also developed a mild degree of dysphagia, rhinolalia, eyelid ptosis and proximal limb weakness during the last months. EMG revealed myopathic changes. Muscle MRI detected fatty infiltration in the posterior neck muscles and tongue. Muscle biopsy revealed fiber size variations, sporadic rimmed vacuoles, small scattered angulated fibers and a patchy myofibrillar network. Genetic analysis revealed homozygous (GCN)11 expansions in the PABPN1 gene that were consistent with recessive oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). There are a few reports of the recessive form, which has a later disease onset with milder symptoms and higher clinical variability than the typical dominantly inherited form. This patient, who is the first Italian and the eighth worldwide reported case of recessive OPMD, is also the first case of OPMD with dropped-head syndrome, which thus expands the clinical phenotype of recessive OPMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Drop impacts on electrospun nanofiber membranes (United States)

    Sahu, Rakesh P.; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Yarin, Alexander; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam


    This work reports a study of drop impacts of polar and non-polar liquids onto electrospun nanofiber membranes (of 8-10 mm thickness and pore sizes of 3-6 nm) with an increasing degree of hydrophobicity. The nanofibers used were electrospun from polyacrylonitrile (PAN), nylon 6/6, polycaprolactone (PCL) and Teflon. It was found that for any liquid/fiber pair there exists a threshold impact velocity (1.5 to 3 m/s) above which water penetrates membranes irrespective of their wettability. The low surface tension liquid left the rear side of sufficiently thin membranes as a millipede-like system of tiny jets protruding through a number of pores. For such a high surface tension liquid as water, jets immediately merged into a single bigger jet, which formed secondary drops due to capillary instability. An especially non-trivial result is that superhydrophobicity of the porous nano-textured Teflon skeleton with the interconnected pores is incapable of preventing water penetration due to drop impact, even at relatively low impact velocities close to 3.46 m/s. A theoretical estimate of the critical membrane thickness sufficient for complete viscous dissipation of the kinetic energy of penetrating liquid corroborates with the experimental data. The current work is supported by the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center (NCRC).

  7. Dynamic transport of suspended sediment by solitary wave: Experimental study (United States)

    cho, JaeNam; Kim, DongHyun; Hwang, KyuNam; Lee, SeungOh


    Solitary waves are able to transport a large amount of suspended sediment when approaching on the beach, which sometimes causes - serious beach erosion, especially in the east and south coastal lines in Korea. But it has rarely been known about the method how to evaluate or estimate the amount of beach erosion caused by solitary waves. Experimental assessment is necessary to comprehend the process of sediment transport on a slope. The prismatic rectangular channel is 12 m long, 0.8 m wide, and 0.75 m high. A sluice gate is applied at prismatic channel in order to produce the solitary waves. Upstream water depth is more than channel water depth and the sluice gate is suddenly opened to simulate conditions of solitary waves. A sand slope with a 1/6 and a sediment thickness is 0.03 m. The experimental sediments are used anthracite (d_50=1.547 mm ,C_u=1.38) and Jumoonjin sand (d_50=0.627 mm ,C_u=1.68). Specific laboratory equipment are designed to collect suspended sediment samples at the same time along the wave propagation at 5 points with evenly space. Each amount of sampling is approximately 25 ml and they are completely dried in oven over 24 hours according to the USGS (Guideline and standard techniques and method 3-C4). Two video cameras (Model No. : Sony, HDR-XR550) are mounted for capturing images at top and side-view when the processes of solitary wave and run up/down on slope. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between Suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Turbidity is used to verify suspended sediment concentration. Dimensionless analyses of experimental results carried out in this study. One dimensionless parameter is expressed with pressure of solitary wave on a slope to suspended sediment concentration, which is concerned about lifting force. The other is relate to drag force presenting with run up/down velocity on a slope and

  8. Design of a LC-tuned magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope (United States)

    Jin, Lichuan; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong


    A inductor-capacitor (LC) tuned magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope prototype is designed and analyzed. High permeability ferrite cores are used for providing suspension force, and the rotation system is designed using the switched reluctance motor (SRM) principle. According to the LC-tuned principle, magnetic suspension force expression has been derived. The electromagnetic properties of the gyroscope are simulated by the Ansoft Maxwell software. And our result is expected to be able to serve as a prototype of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope in future practical applications.

  9. Quantum Hall effect in multi-terminal suspended graphene devices (United States)

    Ghahari, Fereshte; Zhao, Yue; Bolotin, Kirill; Kim, Philip


    The integer and fractional quantum hall effects have been already observed in two terminal suspended graphene devices. However in this two probe device geometry, mixing between magnetoresistance ρxx and Hall resistance ρxy for incompletely developed quantum Hall states leads to substantial deviation of conductance plateaus values. In this talk, we present the experimental results from four terminal suspended graphene devices. The quality of quantum Hall effect will be discussed in muti-terminal device geometry in conjunction with the current-induced annealing process to improve the quality of graphene samples.

  10. Colorimetry Technique for Scalable Characterization of Suspended Graphene. (United States)

    Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J; Steeneken, Peter G; Centeno, Alba; Zurutuza, Amaia; van der Zant, Herre S J; Houri, Samer


    Previous statistical studies on the mechanical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) suspended graphene membranes have been performed by means of measuring individual devices or with techniques that affect the material. Here, we present a colorimetry technique as a parallel, noninvasive, and affordable way of characterizing suspended graphene devices. We exploit Newton's rings interference patterns to study the deformation of a double-layer graphene drum 13.2 μm in diameter when a pressure step is applied. By studying the time evolution of the deformation, we find that filling the drum cavity with air is 2-5 times slower than when it is purged.

  11. Laplacian drop shapes and effect of random perturbations on accuracy of surface tension measurement for different drop constellations. (United States)

    Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm


    Theoretical drop shapes are calculated for three drop constellations: pendant drops, constrained sessile drops, and unconstrained sessile drops. Based on total Gaussian curvature, shape parameter and critical shape parameter are discussed as a function of different drop sizes and surface tensions. The shape parameter is linked to physical parameters for every drop constellation. The as yet unavailable detailed dimensional analysis for the unconstrained sessile drop is presented. Results show that the unconstrained sessile drop shape depends on a dimensionless volume term and the contact angle. Random perturbations are introduced and the accuracy of surface tension measurement is assessed for precise and perturbed profiles of the three drop constellations. It is concluded that pendant drops are the best method for accurate surface tension measurement, followed by constrained sessile drops. The unconstrained sessile drops come last because they tend to be more spherical at low and moderate contact angles. Of course, unconstrained sessile drops are the only option if contact angles are to be measured. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Variability of suspended sediment yields within the Loire river basin (France) (United States)

    Gay, A.; Cerdan, O.; Delmas, M.; Desmet, M.


    Suspended sediment fluxes and their variability in time and space have received much attention over the past decades. Large databases compiling suspended sediment load (SL) data are often used to serve these purposes. Analyses of these databases have highlighted the following two major limitations: (i) the role of lowland areas in sediment production and transfer has been minimised, and studies on small-scale catchments (with a drainage area of ⩽ 102 km2) are practically non-existent in the literature; and (ii) inhomogeneous data and calculation methods are used to estimate and compare the SL values. In this context, the present study aims to complete the existing studies by providing a reliable comparison of SL values for various catchments within lowland river basins. Therefore, we focused on the Loire and Brittany river basins (France). 111 small to large catchments covering 78% of this area and representative of the basins landscape diversity were chosen. We first present a large database of area-specific suspended sediment yields (SY) calculated from the suspended sediment concentration and flow discharge data over 7-40 yr of measurements at gauging stations. Two calculation methods are used, and the calculated loads are confined within a factor of 0.60-1.65 of the real values. Second, we analyse the temporal and spatial variability of the calculated SY values. Finally, using a nested catchment approach, we provide insight into sediment transport from upstream to downstream gauging stations and into the role of small- and medium- scale catchments in sediment production and transfers. The SL values at the outlet of the catchments range from 2.5 * 102 to 8.6 * 105 t yr-1, and the SY values range from 2.9 to 32.4 t km-2 yr-1. A comparison with the limited values available in the literature for this region corroborates our estimations. Sediment exports from the Loire and Brittany river basins are very low compared with mountainous regions and European exports

  13. Merging drops in a Teflon tube, and transferring fluid between them, illustrated by protein crystallization and drug screening. (United States)

    Feuerborn, A; Prastowo, A; Cook, P R; Walsh, E


    The ability to manipulate drops with small volumes has many practical applications. Current microfluidic devices generally exploit channel geometry and/or active external equipment to control drops. Here we use a Teflon tube attached to a syringe pump and exploit the properties of interfaces between three immiscible liquids to create particular fluidic architectures. We then go on to merge any number of drops (with volumes of micro- to nano-liters) at predefined points in time and space in the tube; for example, 51 drops were merged in a defined order to yield one large drop. Using a different architecture, specified amounts of fluid were transferred between 2 nl drops at specified rates; for example, 2.5 pl aliquots were transferred (at rates of ~500 fl s(-1)) between two drops through inter-connecting nano-channels (width ~40 nm). One proof-of-principle experiment involved screening conditions required to crystallize a protein (using a concentration gradient created using such nano-channels). Another demonstrated biocompatibility; drugs were mixed with human cells grown in suspension or on surfaces, and the treated cells responded like those grown conventionally. Although most experiments were performed manually, moderate high-throughput potential was demonstrated by mixing ~1000 different pairs of 50 nl drops in ~15 min using a robot. We suggest this reusable, low-cost, and versatile methodology could facilitate the introduction of microfluidics into workflows of many experimental laboratories.

  14. Comparison of Drop Size Distribution Measurements by Impact and Optical Disdrometers. (United States)

    Tokay, Ali; Kruger, Anton; Krajewski, Witold F.


    Simultaneous observations made with optical- and impact-type disdrometers were analyzed to broaden knowledge of these instruments. These observations were designed to test how accurately they measure drop size distributions (DSDs). The instruments' use in determining radar rainfall relations such as that between reflectivity and rainfall rate also was analyzed. A unique set of instruments, including two video and one Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer along with eight tipping-bucket rain gauges, was operated within a small area of about 100 × 50 m2 during a 2-month-long field campaign in central Florida. The disdrometers were evaluated by comparing their rain totals with the rain gauges. Both disdrometers underestimated the rain totals, but the video disdrometers had higher readings, resulting in a better agreement with the gauges. The disdrometers underreported small- to medium-size drops, which most likely caused the underestimation of rain totals. However, more medium-size drops were measured by the video disdrometer, thus producing higher rain rates for that instrument. The comparison of DSDs, averaged at different timescales, showed good agreement between the two types of disdrometers. A continuous increase in the number of drops toward smaller sizes was only evident in the video disdrometers at rain rates above 20 mm h1. Otherwise, the concentration of small drops remained the same or decreased to the smallest measurable size. The Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer severely underestimated only at very small drop size (diameter 0.5 mm). Beyond the Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer measurement limit were very large drops that fell during heavy and extreme rain intensities. The derived parameters of exponential and gamma distributions reflect the good agreement between the disdrometers' DSD measurements. The parameters of fitted distributions were close to each other, especially when all the coincident measurements were averaged. The low concentrations of very large drops observed by

  15. PDSparc: A Drop-In Replacement for LEON3 Written Using Synopsys Processor Designer (United States)


    SNUG  2015   1   PDSparc:  A  Drop-­‐In  Replacement  for  LEON3   Written  Using  Synopsys   Processor  Designer PDSparc...A  Drop-­‐In  Replacement  for  LEON3  Written  Using   Synopsys   Processor  Designer12   David  Whelihan,  Ph.D.  and...fabricate a range of stand-alone processors . However the proliferation of small computing devices such as cell phones, laptop computers, and internet

  16. The Temperature of the Dimethylhydrazine Drops Moving in the Atmosphere after Depressurization of the Fuel Tank Rockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulba Elena


    Full Text Available This work includes the results of the numerical modeling of temperature changes process of the dimethylhydrazine (DMH drops, taking into account the radial temperature gradient in the air after the depressurization of the fuel compartments rockets at high altitude. There is formulated a mathematical model describing the process of DMH drops thermal state modifying when it's moving to the Earth's surface. There is the evaluation of the influence of the characteristic size of heptyl drops on the temperature distribution. It's established that the temperatures of the small size droplets practically completely coincide with the distribution of temperature in the atmosphere at altitudes of up to 40 kilometers.

  17. Assessment of catchment scale connectivity in different catchments using measured suspended sediment output (United States)

    Masselink, Rens; Keesstra, Saskia; Seeger, Manuel


    Recent developments in hydrology and geomorphology include the connectivity principle, which describes how different elements in a landscape are connected and how water and matter moves between these elements. So far, studies on connectivity have been mainly of a conceptual nature and have been done on a small scale, while studies that map, quantitatively establish relations, and model water and sediment transport in connectivity are rare. In this study we established a relation between change in connectivity within four catchments and the time of year by using suspended sediment data. The data were collected for four catchments in Navarra, Spain of which two catchments are dominated by forest and pasture, while the other two catchments are dominated by agriculture and have no forest. Data were collected during a 13 year period; 4 samples were taken a day at 6 hour intervals which were mixed to obtain a daily average suspended sediment concentration. This was then converted into daily suspended sediment output using the measured total daily discharge. The effect of precipitation on the sediment output data was minimized by using an antecedent precipitation index (API), which consists of the precipitation of the current day added by the precipitation of the previous 14 days, where the influence of the previous days decays exponentially with time. The daily total suspended sediment output was divided by the API, to obtain a measure for sediment output independent of precipitation. This sediment output then serves as a measure for the connectivity within the catchment. The connectivity of the four catchments throughout the years will be compared to each other and we hypothesise that the two catchments dominated by forests and pastures will change only slightly throughout the year, whereas we expect to see large differences in connectivity in the two agricultural catchments. The agricultural catchments are likely to display a highly varying connectivity throughout the

  18. Simplified procedure for determining of drop and stilling basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R. Vatankhah


    Full Text Available Drops are used to effectively dissipate the surplus energy of the water flow. A closed conduit drop conveys water and stills it at its downstream. I-type pipe drop is one kind of the closed conduit drops which is used in irrigation networks as a typical hydraulic structure. Sump elevation is an important design parameter for I-type pipe drop. Similarly, in supercritical flow structures, such as open channel chutes, determination of stilling basin invert elevation is very important. At present, these key design parameters are determined by the momentum and energy equations using tedious trial-and-error procedure. In this study, square conduit drop, pipe drop, and rectangular stilling basin are considered, and three explicit equations have been developed by (multiple nonlinear regression technique to determine the sump and stilling basin invert elevations. Being very simple and accurate, these equations can be easily used to design the closed conduit drops and stilling basins by hydraulic engineers.

  19. Solvent-free microwave extraction coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction of essential oils from flower of Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. (United States)

    Jiang, Chunzhu; Sun, Ying; Zhu, Xiaonan; Gao, Yan; Wang, Liying; Wang, Jian; Wu, Liwei; Song, Daqian


    Solvent-free microwave extraction coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction was developed for extracting the essential oils from Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. Carbonyl iron powders were mixed with the sample to extract essential oils from the dried plant materials and single-drop solvent was used to simultaneously extract essential oils from the headspace. The single-drop of decane was suspended from the tip of a microsyringe and exposed to the headspace above the sample. After the extraction was finished, the single-drop was injected into gas chromatographic system and analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of the experimental parameters, including microwave power, microwave irradiation time, the ratio of carbonyl iron powder to sample, extraction solvent, single-drop volume and extraction time, were investigated. Sixteen compounds in the essential oils of E. caryophyllata T. were obtained and identified. The constituents of essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation and solvent-free microwave extraction-headspace single-drop microextraction were not obviously different. Compared with hydro-distillation, the proposed method required shorter extraction time and less amount of the sample.

  20. Controls on suspended aggregate size in partially mixed estuaries (United States)

    Fugate, David C.; Friedrichs, Carl T.


    Knowledge of aggregate size in estuaries is important to determining the fate and transport of suspended sediment and particle adherent contaminants. We have used a suite of in situ instruments to determine the controls of aggregate size distributions in three muddy, partially mixed estuaries in the mid-Atlantic USA. A novel method is presented to estimate turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production and the resulting Kolmogorov microscale ( λK) using a profiling acoustic Doppler velocimeter that has been contaminated by boat motion. The physical processes that control particle size distribution differ in the three estuaries due to the different hydrodynamics and benthic characteristics. Controls within each estuary also vary with different depth regimes. Surface particle size dynamics in all the studied estuaries are affected by irregular advection events. In the hydrodynamically energetic York River, mid-depth regions are controlled tidally by the combined processes of small λK decreasing particle size at high TKE and differential settling increasing particle size during lower TKE, more stratified conditions. Mid-depth regions in the lower energy Elizabeth River are controlled by irregular resuspension and trapping at the pycnocline of large low density particles. Bottom regions in all estuaries are most strongly influenced by resuspension, tidally in the energetic estuaries and irregularly in the low energy estuary. Near-bed particle size distributions are controlled by both λK and the distribution of particles in the bed in the higher energy estuaries. Just above the bed, large porous particles survive resuspension in the lower energy Elizabeth River, particles become smaller with decreased λK in the more energetic York River, and biological aggregation causes large dense particles to resist turbulent breakup in the Chesapeake Bay, which has a more active benthic community. The net result just above the bed is that particle size and settling velocity are

  1. Reducing pressure drop in a baghouse using flow distributors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. [Tajen Institute of Technology, Ping-Tung Hsien (Taiwan). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Health


    The pressure drop of ladder vanes in a baghouse could be reduced by decreasing the vane number and adjusting the inclined angle of the vane. Two types of flow distributors were utilized to test pressure drop caused by the structure of a baghouse. The pressure drops were measured by an inclined manometer under various filtration velocities. The purpose of this study is to understand the improvement effect of pressure drop saving on traditional ladder vanes. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Cerebral infarction presenting with unilateral isolated foot drop. (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Wan; Park, Jung-Soo; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Jong-Myong


    Weakness of the dorsiflexor muscles of the ankle or toe, referred to as foot drop, is a relatively common presentation. In most cases, foot drop is caused by a lower motor neuron disease such as peroneal peripheral neuropathy, L4-5 radiculopathic sciatic neuropathy, or polyneuropathy. Although upper motor neuron lesions can present as foot drop, the incidence is very rare. Here, we report an extremely rare case in which foot drop was the only presenting symptom of cerebral infarction.

  3. Cerebral Infarction Presenting with Unilateral Isolated Foot Drop


    Kim, Ki-Wan; Park, Jung-Soo; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Jong-Myong


    Weakness of the dorsiflexor muscles of the ankle or toe, referred to as foot drop, is a relatively common presentation. In most cases, foot drop is caused by a lower motor neuron disease such as peroneal peripheral neuropathy, L4-5 radiculopathic sciatic neuropathy, or polyneuropathy. Although upper motor neuron lesions can present as foot drop, the incidence is very rare. Here, we report an extremely rare case in which foot drop was the only presenting symptom of cerebral infarction.

  4. Spatial distribution of soil erosion and suspended sediment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sediment transport rate for Chou-Shui river basin ... 5, Anzhong Road,. Tainan 70970, Taiwan. 4. Department of Hydraulics and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1,. University Road, Tainan ... surface runoff discharge, suspended sediment transport rate, quantity of soil erosion, and spatial distribu-.

  5. Calamine lotion: experimenting with a new suspending agent. (United States)

    Al-Achi, A; Greenwood, R; Akin-Isijola, A; Bullard, J


    The use of a new suspending agent is investigated. Calamine lotion, USP contains bentonite magma as a suspending agent. In this study, bentonite magma was partially or completely replaced with a new suspending agent called tahini. Tahini is sesame paste composed of crushed sesame seeds in sesame oil. It is frequently used in middle eastern food as a thickening and suspending agent. Calamine lotion was prepared, generally, according to the USP method. The formula contained 40% v/v magma. Tahini was added instead of bentonite magma by replacing 100%, 99%, 90%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the magma. The sedimentation volume and the degree of flocculation were calculated for the resulting preparations. Rheological characteristics of bentonite- and tahini-containing lotions were also determined. Sedimentation volume showed 0.723 and 0.851 (p=0.05) for the lotions containing 100% bentonite and 100% tahini, respectively. The degree of flocculation was 2.00 and 2.35 (p=0.05) for the 100% bentonite and 100% tahini lotions, respectively. The rheograms of all the suspensions showed pseudoplastic flow. Overall, the use of tahini in calamine lotion has improved the physical stability of the formula.

  6. Turbulence Flow Characteristics of Suspended Sediments and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are inturn integrated to give the hydraulic resistance law for sediment laden flow. The law of velocity distribution in open channel flow with suspended sediments was derived introducing Monin-Obukhov Length L . The distribution equation agrees well with the observation of velocity profile in the experiments.

  7. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignardi, L.; Dorp, W.F. van; Gottardi, S.; Ivashenko, O.; Dudin, P.; Barinov, A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Stöhr, M.; Rudolf, P.


    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron

  8. Geochemistry of suspended and settling solids in two freshwater lakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.


    This study describes the 1987–1992 time variationof the bulk chemical composition, levels of heavymetals, arsenic, nitrogen and phosporous insuspended and settling solids in Lake Volkerak andLake Zoom (The Netherlands). Suspended and setlingsolids were collected with continuous flowcentrifuges and

  9. Comparison of Suspended Solid Separation in Advanced Storm Overflow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Morten Steen


    This paper describes a laboratory investigation of the separation of suspended solids in a circular weir overflow and a vortex separator. The basic idea is to evaluate the efficiency of a vortical flow in the overflow chamber, and to compare these results with other overflow structures....

  10. Current-use insecticides, phosphates and suspended solids in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Western Cape orchard areas, the last pesticide application of the growing season in summer takes place at the end of February. Pesticides, total phosphates and total suspended solids (TSS) were measured in the Lourens River at the beginning of April 1999 prior to the first rainfall of the rainy season and in the middle of ...

  11. Reduction in density of suspended - sediment - laden natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    to 0.4% - 4.5%) that of the density of the same water without suspended sediment. Teh values of peff in a given site differed from one tidal cycle to another (approx equal to 1.9%). These values varied slightly (less than 0.8%) from mid-tide to slack...

  12. Transport of suspended particles in turbulent open channel flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugem, W.A.


    Two experiments are performed in order to investigate suspended sediment transport in a turbulent open channel flow. The first experiment used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure the fluid velocity with a high spatial resolution, while particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) was used to measure

  13. Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface water concentrations of inorganic nutrients and suspended particulate matter (SPM) components from Mtwapa and Shirazi creeks in Kenya were measured and compared. This was aimed at assessing the contribution of phytoplankton carbon, particulate organic carbon (POC) and detritus on the total SPM pool, and ...

  14. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  15. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amino sugars (AS)are important constituents of organic matter.However,very little is known about their cycling in marine waters.In this research,we assessed the distribution and cycling of these compounds in waters of the Bay of Bengal.For this purpose,samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM)were collected from 8 ...

  16. Stabilised suspending efficiency of Laponite XLG and sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charged drugs like Sulphamerazine may make pseudoplastic/plastic materials become Newtonian and loose their suspending power. In this study ... For this purpose, the rheograms of the systems were obtained by the use of a Haake rotoviscometer RV 12 utilizing a cup and rotor sensor system MV 1. In the absence of ...

  17. Spin Transport in High-Quality Suspended Graphene Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimaraes, Marcos H. D.; Veligura, A.; Zomer, P. J.; Maassen, T.; Vera-Marun, I. J.; Tombros, N.; van Arees, B. J.; Wees, B.J. van

    We measure spin transport in high mobility suspended graphene (mu approximate to 10(5)cm(2)/(V s)), obtaining a (spin) diffusion coefficient of 0.1 m(2)/s and giving a lower bound on the spin relaxation time (tau(s) approximate to 150 ps) and spin relaxation length (lambda(s) = 4.7 mu m) for

  18. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control strategy..., the State must repromulgate Regulation No. 1 to satisfy reasonably available control technology...

  19. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family Mimosoideae) were evaluated comparatively with those of Compound Tragacanth, Acacia and Gelatin at concentration range of 0.5 – 4.0%w/v in Sulphadimidine suspension. Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum. Sedimentation ...

  20. Discrete Dynamics of Nanoparticle Channelling in Suspended Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Tim; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Andersen, Henrik


    We have observed a previously undescribed stepwise oxidation of mono- and few layer suspended graphene by silver nanoparticles in situ at subnanometer scale in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Over the range of 600–850 K, we observe crystallographically oriented channelling...

  1. Method for separating biological cells. [suspended in aqueous polymer systems (United States)

    Brooks, D. E. (Inventor)


    A method for separating biological cells by suspending a mixed cell population in a two-phase polymer system is described. The polymer system consists of droplet phases with different surface potentials for which the cell populations exhibit different affinities. The system is subjected to an electrostatic field of sufficient intensity to cause migration of the droplets with an attendant separation of cells.

  2. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Gillespie, Jonathan


    Well over three million children, K-12, are estimated to have lost instructional "seat time" in 2009-2010 because they were suspended from school, often with no guarantee of adult supervision outside the school. That's about the number of children it would take to fill every seat in every major league baseball park and every NFL stadium…

  3. Investigation of suspended sediment transport using ultrasonic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø


    The results of the initial experimental studies involving the scattering of ultrasonic signals from canonical and non-canonical shaped suspended particles with known elastical qualities are reported. These results have formed the basis for the development of a numerical model for ultrasound...

  4. Microwave-induced nonequilibrium temperature in a suspended carbon nanotube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, H.L.; Öztürk, A.; Zeng, P.; Driessen, E.F.C.; Klapwijk, T.M.


    Antenna-coupled suspended single carbon nanotubes exposed to 108?GHz microwave radiation are shown to be selectively heated with respect to their metal contacts. This leads to an increase in the conductance as well as to the development of a power-dependent DC voltage. The increased conductance

  5. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of suspended single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeRoy, B.J.; Lemay, S.G.; Kong, J.; Dekker, C.


    We have performed low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy measurements on single-wall carbon nanotubes that are freely suspended over a trench. The nanotubes were grown by chemical vapor deposition on a Pt substrate with predefined trenches etched into it. Atomic resolution was obtained on the

  6. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Coprecipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending ability of the different ratios was evaluated in magnesium trisilicate suspension, and compared with a suspension prepared with Compound Tragacanth Powder BP (CTP) as well as a commercially available magnesium trisilicate suspension (MTS). The parameters tested were sedimentation rate, flow rate, ...

  7. Suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresists fabricated with UV photolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Caviglia, Claudia


    In this work we present an easy, fast, reliable and low cost microfabrication technique for fabricating suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresistswith UV photolithography. Two different fabrication processes with epoxy based resins (SU-8 and mr-DWL) using UV exposures at wavelengths...

  8. Template-Assisted Preparation of Micrometric Suspended Membrane Lattices of Photoluminescent and Non-Photoluminescent Polymers by Capillarity-Driven Solvent Evaporation: Application to Microtagging


    Polito, Giovanni; Robbiano, Valentina; Cozzi, Chiara; Cacialli, Franco; Barillaro, Giuseppe


    In this work, the bottom-up template-assisted preparation of high-density lattices (up to 11???106?membranes/cm2) of suspended polymer membranes with micrometric size (in the order of few ?m2) and sub-micrometric thickness (in the order of hundreds of nm) is demonstrated for both photoluminescent and non-photoluminescent polymers by capillarity-driven solvent evaporation. Solvent evaporation of low concentration polymer solutions drop-cast on an array of open-ended micropipes is shown to lead...

  9. Template-Assisted Preparation of Micrometric Suspended Membrane Lattices of Photoluminescent and Non-Photoluminescent Polymers by Capillarity-Driven Solvent Evaporation: Application to Microtagging


    Polito, G.; Robbiano, V.; Cozzi, C.; Cacialli, F.; Barillaro, G.


    In this work, the bottom-up template-assisted preparation of high-density lattices (up to 11 · 10(6) membranes/cm(2)) of suspended polymer membranes with micrometric size (in the order of few μm(2)) and sub-micrometric thickness (in the order of hundreds of nm) is demonstrated for both photoluminescent and non-photoluminescent polymers by capillarity-driven solvent evaporation. Solvent evaporation of low concentration polymer solutions drop-cast on an array of open-ended micropipes is shown t...

  10. Transport and exchange of U-series nuclides between suspended material, dissolved load and colloids in rivers draining basaltic terrains (United States)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Burton, Kevin W.; Porcelli, Don; James, Rachael H.; van Calsteren, Peter; Gislason, Sigurður R.


    This study presents uranium and thorium concentrations and activity ratios for all riverine phases (bedload, suspended load, dissolved load and colloids) from basaltic terrains in Iceland and the Azores. Small basaltic islands, such as these, are thought to account for ~ 25% of CO2 consumed by global silicate weathering, and for ~ 45% of the flux of suspended material to the oceans. These data indicate that [U] and [Th] in the dissolved and colloidal fractions are strongly controlled by pH, and to a much lesser extent by levels of dissolved organic carbon (which are low in these environments). At high pH, basalt glass dissolution is enhanced, and secondary mineral formation (e.g. Fe-oxyhydroxides and allophane) is suppressed, resulting in high dissolved [U], and low colloidal [U] and [Th], indicating a direct chemical weathering control on elemental abundances. When the dissolved (234U/238U) activity ratio is >~1.3 (i.e. when physical weathering, groundwater contribution or soil formation are high), there is little isotope exchange between dissolved and colloidal fractions. At lower activity ratios, the dissolved load and colloids have indistinguishable activity ratios, suggesting that when chemical weathering rates are high, secondary clay formation is also high, and colloids rapidly adsorb dissolved U. Many of the suspended sediment samples have (234U/238U) activity ratios of > 1, which suggests that uptake of U onto the suspended load is important. Identical (230Th/232Th) in suspended, dissolved and colloidal samples suggests that Th, like U, is exchanged or sorbed rapidly between all riverine phases. This particle-reactivity, combined with poorly constrained contributions from groundwater and hydrothermal water, and short-term variations in input to soils (volcanic and glacial), suggests that U-series nuclides in riverine material from such basaltic terrains are unlikely to reflect steady state erosion processes.

  11. Electrowetting-enhanced microfluidic device for drop generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.; Malloggi, F.G.J.; Vanapalli, Srinivas; Vanapalli Veera, V.S.A.R.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther


    We integrated electrowetting into a microfluidic flow focusing device to study drop generation under the influence of electric fields. Using both the dispersed phase inlet pressure and the applied voltage as control parameters, we find that the range of drop sizes and the drop generation rate can be

  12. How microstructures affect air film dynamics prior to drop impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Roeland; Hendrix, M.H.W.; Tran, Tuan; Sun, Chao; Tsai, Peichun Amy; Lohse, Detlef


    When a drop impacts a surface, a dimple can be formed due to the increased air pressure beneath the drop before it wets the surface. We employ a high-speed color interferometry technique to measure the evolution of the air layer profiles under millimeter-sized drops impacting hydrophobic

  13. Preparation and Stability of Voriconazole Eye Drop Solution▿


    Dupuis, Antoine; Tournier, Nicolas; Le Moal, Gwenaël; Venisse, Nicolas


    The combined systemic and topical administration of voriconazole has successfully been used to treat keratomycosis. Because no voriconazole eye drop product is commercially available, we prepared a sterile eye drop solution (10 mg/ml). Voriconazole remains stable over 30 days, providing an eye drop solution suitable for use for the topical treatment of fungal keratitis.

  14. Coalescence, evaporation and particle deposition of consecutively printed colloidal drops (United States)

    Chhasatia, Viral; Yang, Xin; Shah, Jaymeen; Sun, Ying


    In applications such as inkjet printing and spray deposition, colloid drops are often used as building blocks for line and pattern printing where their interactions play important roles in determining the deposition morphology and properties. In this study, the particle deposition dynamics of two consecutively printed evaporating colloidal drops is examined using a fluorescence microscope and a synchronized side-view camera. The results show that the relaxation time of the water-air interface of the merged drop is shorter than that of a single drop impacting on a dry surface. It is also found that both morphology and particle distribution uniformity of the deposit change significantly with varying jetting delay and spatial spacing between two drops. As the drop spacing increases while keeping jetting delay constant, the circularity of the coalesced drop reduces. For the regime where the time scale for drop evaporation is comparable with the relaxation time scale for two drops to completely coalesce, the capillary flow induced by the local curvature variation of the air-water interface redistributes particles inside a merged drop, causing suppression of the coffee-ring effect for the case of a high jetting frequency while resulting in a region of particle accumulation in the middle of the merged drop at a low jetting frequency. By tuning the interplay of wetting, evaporation, capillary relaxation, and particle assembly, the deposition morphology of consecutively printed colloidal drops can be controlled.

  15. Partial coalescence from bubbles to drops

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, F. H.


    The coalescence of drops is a fundamental process in the coarsening of emulsions. However, counter-intuitively, this coalescence process can produce a satellite, approximately half the size of the original drop, which is detrimental to the overall coarsening. This also occurs during the coalescence of bubbles, while the resulting satellite is much smaller, approximately 10 %. To understand this difference, we have conducted a set of coalescence experiments using xenon bubbles inside a pressure chamber, where we can continuously raise the pressure from 1 up to 85 atm and thereby vary the density ratio between the inner and outer fluid, from 0.005 up to unity. Using high-speed video imaging, we observe a continuous increase in satellite size as the inner density is varied from the bubble to emulsion-droplet conditions, with the most rapid changes occurring as the bubble density grows up to 15 % of that of the surrounding liquid. We propose a model that successfully relates the satellite size to the capillary wave mode responsible for its pinch-off and the overall deformations from the drainage. The wavelength of the primary wave changes during its travel to the apex, with the instantaneous speed adjusting to the local wavelength. By estimating the travel time of this wave mode on the bubble surface, we also show that the model is consistent with the experiments. This wavenumber is determined by both the global drainage as well as the interface shapes during the rapid coalescence in the neck connecting the two drops or bubbles. The rate of drainage is shown to scale with the density of the inner fluid. Empirically, we find that the pinch-off occurs when 60 % of the bubble fluid has drained from it. Numerical simulations using the volume-of-fluid method with dynamic adaptive grid refinement can reproduce these dynamics, as well as show the associated vortical structure and stirring of the coalescing fluid masses. Enhanced stirring is observed for cases with second

  16. Drops on hydrophobic surfaces & vibrated fluid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind-Willassen, Øistein

    in the literature. Furthermore, we quantify the energy associated with center of mass translation and internal fluid motion. The model predicts trajectories for tracer particles deposited inside the drop, and satisfactorily describes the sliding motion of steadily accelerating droplets. The model can be used...... numerically, and the results are compared to experiments. We provide, again, the most detailed regime diagram of the possible orbits depending on the forcing and the rotation rate of the fluid bath. We highlight each class of orbit, and analyze in depth the wobbling state, precessing orbits, wobble......-leap dynamics, exotic trajectories and the emergence of statistical behavior when the forcing is near the Faraday threshold....

  17. Sample handling and chemical kinetics in an acoustically levitated drop microreactor. (United States)

    Pierre, Zakiah N; Field, Christopher R; Scheeline, Alexander


    Accurate measurement of enzyme kinetics is an essential part of understanding the mechanisms of biochemical reactions. The typical means of studying such systems use stirred cuvettes, stopped-flow apparatus, microfluidic systems, or other small sample containers. These methods may prove to be problematic if reactants or products adsorb to or react with the container's surface. As an alternative approach, we have developed an acoustically-levitated drop reactor eventually intended to study enzyme-catalyzed reaction kinetics related to free radical and oxidative stress chemistry. Microliter-scale droplet generation, reactant introduction, maintenance, and fluid removal are all important aspects in conducting reactions in a levitated drop. A three capillary bundle system has been developed to address these needs. We report kinetic measurements for both luminol chemiluminescence and the reaction of pyruvate with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase, to demonstrate the feasibility of using a levitated drop in conjunction with the developed capillary sample handling system as a microreactor.

  18. An analysis of bedload and suspended load interactions (United States)

    Recking, alain; Navratil, Oldrich


    Several approaches were used to develop suspension equations. It includes semi-theoretical equations based on the convection diffusion equation (Einstein 1950; Van Rijn 1984; Camenen and Larson 2008; Julien 2010), semi-empirical tools based on energy concept (Velikanov 1954; Bagnold 1966), empirical adjustments (Prosser and Rusttomji 2000). One essential characteristic of all these equations is that most of them were developed by considering continuity between bedload and suspended load, and that the partitioning between these two modes of transport evolves progressively with increasing shear stress, which is the case for fine bed materials. The use of these equations is thus likely to be welcome in estuaries or lowland sandy rivers, but may be questionable in gravel-bed rivers and headwater streams where the bed is usually structured vertically and fine sediments potentially contributing to suspension are stored under a poorly mobile surface armour comprising coarse sediments. Thus one question this work aimed to answer is does the presence of an armour at the bed surface influence suspended load? This was investigated through a large field data set comprising instantaneous measurements of both bedload and suspension. We also considered the river characteristics, distinguishing between lowland rivers, gravel bed rivers and headwater streams. The results showed that a correlation exist between bedload and suspension for lowland and gravel bed rivers. This suggests that in gravel bed rivers a large part of the suspended load is fed by subsurface material, and depends on the remobilization of the surface material. No correlation was observed for head water streams where the sediment production is more likely related to hillslope processes. These results were used with a bedload transport equation for proposing a method for suspended load estimate. The method is rough, but especially for gravel bed rivers, it predicts suspended load reasonably well when compared to

  19. Marangoni or not Marangoni? Thermal Marangoni flow measurements in evaporating drops (United States)

    Marin, Alvaro Gomez; Liepelt, Robert; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian


    Sessile evaporating droplets fascinate for the rich and complex behavior that hides behind their apparent simplicity. Although the basic physics of the coffee-stain formation can be explained assuming thermal equilibrium (Deegan, 1997), thermal effects play an important role in the flow patterns within the droplet and in the deposits left on the substrate. Understanding such flows would give a chance to add a higher degree of control in these not-so-simple systems. For example, several studies have recently suggested that such thermal Marangoni flows can be strong enough to neutralize the coffee-stain effect. Experimental work in this sense has been scarce due to the difficulty of tracking particles at the surface of the droplet, where the flow is originated. In this study we perform fully three-dimensional and time resolved particle tracking measurements of particles suspended in sessile drops of liquids on substrates with different thermal conductivity ratios. The results are compared with some of the theoretical models and simulations available in the literature. Our final aim is to precisely quantify how important is the thermal Marangoni flow in an evaporating drop and if it can be used for practical applications.

  20. Spatial variability of suspended sediment concentration within a tidal marsh in San Francisco Estuary (United States)

    Swanson, K.; Drexler, J. Z.; Schoellhamer, D. H.; Buffington, K.; Takekawa, J.


    The sustainability of existing marshes and feasibility of future marsh restoration projects in San Francisco Estuary and elsewhere are threatened by a potential imbalance between accelerating sea-level rise and tidal marsh accretion rates. Marsh accretion is, in large part, dependent upon the availability of suspended sediment supplied from adjacent waterways. As water and sediment move across a marsh plain, suspended sediment settles and is trapped by vegetation near the source, resulting in less suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and deposition in the interior of the marsh. Measurements of deposition and limited observations of SSC within marshes have confirmed a decrease in sediment supply and accumulation from the marsh edge to the marsh interiors, but the spatial variability of SSC has not been quantified in a manner that allows for comparison to a theoretical sediment transport model. For this study, transects of SSC were collected within a marsh at China Camp State Park in the San Francisco Estuary which demonstrate that a dominant pattern of settling can be quantified and generally matches the exponentially decreasing pattern of SSC predicted by a simple advection-settling model. The observed pattern suggests that sediment settling and marsh flow characteristics are consistent both spatially (between transects) and temporally (between monthly sampling events). However, deviations from the predicted pattern occurred systematically at some locations and are likely related to resuspension of sediment from the marsh surface or small, unmapped creek channels that supply sediment to the marsh. Despite these deviations, our data show this simple 1-D model of advection and settling can be used to generalize within-marsh sediment transport as a function of distance from the nearest sediment source.

  1. Spray and microjets produced by focusing a laser pulse into a hemispherical drop

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.


    We use high-speed video imaging to study laser disruption of the free surface of a hemispheric drop. The drop sits on a glass surface and the Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser pulse propagates through the drop and is focused near the free surface from below. We focus on the evolution of the cylindrical liquid sheet and spray which emerges out of the drop and resembles typical impact crowns. The tip of the sheet emerges at velocities over 1 km/s. The tip of the crown breaks up into fine spray some of which is sucked back into the growing cavity at about 100 m/s. We measure the size of the typical spray droplets to be about 3 μm. We also show the formation of fine microjets, which are produced when the laser is focused inside the drop and the shock front hits small bubbles sitting under the free surface. For water these microjets are 5–50 μm in diameter and exit at 100–250 m/s. For higher viscositydrops, these jets can emerge at over 500 m/s.

  2. Effect of chamfer geometry on the pressure drop of perforated plates with thin orifices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Filho, José A., E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, André A.C., E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Navarro, Moysés A., E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jordão, Elizabete, E-mail: [Faculdade de Engenharia Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein, 500, 13.083-852 Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    Highlights: • CFD estimation of pressure drop of perforated plates with chamfered thin orifices. • Different chamfer geometric features evaluated. • Calculation validated against reduced scale experiments. - Abstract: Perforated plates with thin orifices is one of the options under considerations to be used in the debris filtering bottom end pieces for the next generation of fuel assemblies for the Brazilian nuclear plants. The increase in pressure drop can be drastically reduced by optimizing the chamfer geometries. This paper describes the development and validation of a procedure devised to use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to accurately estimate the pressure drop of water flow through perforated plates with chamfered thin orifices. The procedure comprises a scaled down calculation domain, grid configuration and a set of numerical solution parameters. The validation was performed against experiments with a set of plates with different chamfer geometric features like position (inlet, outlet and both sides), angles and sizes. Three turbulence models were evaluated with the standard k–ε giving the best result. For the range of parameters evaluated here the pressure drop decrease of a two sided chamfer plate can be estimated as a sum of both inlet and outlet chamfers individually. In both cases the pressure drop decreases rapidly for small chamfers and more slowly for larger chamfers. In the flat regions the chamfer angle has little influence at the inlet and is more important at outlet.

  3. PDC Bit Hydraulic & Mud Rheological simulation to model pressure drop across Bit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sheng Ong


    Full Text Available During fluid flow from larger to smaller diameter pipes, a drop in pressure is experienced. High pressure drop across bit indicated high energy loss in the hydraulic system and also a setback to ROP performance. This is inefficient and pressure pumps would have to be of bigger sizing to make up for the losses. Present form of pressure drop models is in terms of mud density, flow rate, and total flow area. The objective of this paper is focused on the analysis of CFD simulation and to propose optimized parameters for improved ROP. Single phase flow study of Yield Power Law mud rheology was simulated at bottom hole of horizontal section. Parametric study on mud rheology was carried using DOE. Design points of DOE were sampled mostly using Latin Hypercube Sampling and a few by Central Composite Design. It is found that Kriging Response Surface method generated the best regression model where the predicted values are closest to the observed values and has the lowest Maximum Relative Residual (0.000336%. Inlet velocity and Power Index have significant effect on pressure drop. Consistency Index showed moderate effect while Yield Stress showed small effect to pressure drop. This research has proven that pressure loss model should take into account of mud rheology. Further research can be done with PDC bit rotation and its effect on mud behaviour.

  4. Equilibrium drop surface profiles in electric fields (United States)

    Mugele, F.; Buehrle, J.


    Electrowetting is becoming a more and more frequently used tool to manipulate liquids in various microfluidic applications. On the scale of the entire drop, the effect of electrowetting is to reduce the apparent contact angle of partially wetting conductive liquids upon application of an external voltage. Microscopically, however, strong electric fields in the vicinity of the three phase contact line give rise to local deformations of the drop surface. We determined the equilibrium surface profile using a combined numerical, analytical, and experimental approach. We find that the local contact angle in electrowetting is equal to Young's angle independent of the applied voltage. Only on the scale of the thickness of the insulator and beyond does the surface slope assume a value consistent with the voltage-dependent apparent contact angle. This behaviour is verified experimentally by determining equilibrium surface profiles for insulators of various thicknesses between 10 and 250 µm. Numerically and analytically, we find that the local surface curvature diverges algebraically upon approaching the contact line with an exponent -1<μ<0. We discuss the relevance of the local surface properties for dynamic aspects of the contact line motion.

  5. Impact Dynamics of Oxidized Liquid Metal Drops

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich M


    With exposure to air, many liquid metals spontaneously generate an oxide layer on their surface. In oscillatory rheological tests, this skin is found to introduce a yield stress that typically dominates the elastic response but can be tuned by exposing the metal to hydrochloric acid solutions of different concentration. We systematically studied the normal impact of eutectic gallium-indium (eGaIn) drops under different oxidation conditions and show how this leads to two different dynamical regimes. At low impact velocity (or low Weber number), eGaIn droplets display strong recoil and rebound from the impacted surface when the oxide layer is removed. In addition, the degree of drop deformation or spreading during the impact is controlled by the oxide skin. We show that the scaling law known from ordinary liquids for the maximum spreading radius as a function of impact velocity can still be applied to the case of oxidized eGaIn if an effective Weber number $We^{\\star}$ is employed that uses an effective surface...

  6. Contemporary suspended sediment dynamics within two partly glacierized mountain drainage basins in western Norway (Erdalen and Bødalen, inner Nordfjord) (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Laute, Katja; Storms, Joep E. A.


    the drainage basin surface area) as compared to Erdalen (18% of the drainage basin surface area) and by a significantly higher sediment yield from the glacierized area of the Bødalen drainage basin compared to the glacierized surface area in Erdalen. When looking at the total annual mass of suspended sediments being fluvially exported from both entire drainage basin systems, the total amount of suspended sediments coming from the ice-free drainage basin surface areas altogether dominates over the total amount of suspended sediments coming from the glacierized surface area of both drainage basins. Drainage-basin wide annual suspended sediment yields are rather low when compared with yields of other partly glacierized drainage basin systems in Norway and in other cold climate environments worldwide, which is mainly due to the high resistance of the predominant gneisses towards glacial erosion and weathering, the altogether only small amounts of sediments being available within the entire drainage basin systems, the stable and nearly closed vegetation cover in the ice-free surface areas with sedimentary covers, and the efficiency of proglacial lakes in trapping sediments supplied by defined outlet glaciers. Both contemporary and long-term suspended sediment yields are altogether supply-limited. Contemporary suspended sediment transport accounts for nearly two-thirds of the total fluvial transport and, accordingly, plays an important role within the sedimentary budgets of the entire Erdalen and Bødalen drainage basins.

  7. Deformed liquid marbles: Freezing drop oscillations with powders

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy


    In this work we show that when a liquid drop impacts onto a fine-grained hydrophobic powder, the final form of the drop can be very different from the spherical form with which it impacts. In all cases, the drop rebounds due to the hydrophobic nature of the powder. However, we find that above a critical impact speed, the drop undergoes a permanent deformation to a highly non-spherical shape with a near-complete coverage of powder, which then freezes the drop oscillations during rebound. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Experimental study and analysis of the purge gas pressure drop across the pebble beds for the fusion HCPB blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Sena, Ali, E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Arbeiter, Frederik; Boccaccini, Lorenzo V.; Rey, Jörg; Schlindwein, Georg [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Highlights: ► The pressure drop significantly increases with decreasing the pebbles diameter. ► The pressure drop slightly increases with increasing the packing factor. ► The pressure drop is directly proportional to pebble bed length and inlet pressure. ► Predictions of Ergun equation agree well with the measured values of pressure drop. ► The filters resistance has a small contribution to the total pressure drop. -- Abstract: The lithium ceramic and beryllium pebble beds of the breeder units (BU), in the fusion breeding blanket, are purged by helium to extract the bred tritium. Therefore, the objective of this study is to support the design of the BU purge gas system by studying the effect of pebbles diameter, packing factor, pebble bed length, and flow inlet pressure on the purge gas pressure drop. The pebble bed was formed by packing glass pebbles in a rectangular container (56 mm × 206 mm × 396 mm) and was integrated into a gas loop to be purged by helium at BU-relevant pressures (1.1–3.8 bar). To determine the pressure drop across the pebble bed, the static pressure was measured at four locations along the pebble bed as well as at the inlet and outlet locations. The results show: (i) the pressure drop significantly increases with decreasing the pebbles diameter and slightly increases with increasing the packing factor, (ii) for a constant inlet flow velocity, the pressure drop is directly proportional to the pebble bed length and inlet pressure, and (iii) predictions of Ergun's equation agree well with the experimental values of the pressure drop.

  9. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( >  1000 km2 over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation–deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc., transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation. Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity, and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment

  10. Effects of transparent exopolymer particles and suspended particles on the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in seawater. (United States)

    Davidson, Marion C F; Berardi, Terra; Aguilar, Beatriz; Byrne, Barbara A; Shapiro, Karen


    The bacterium Salmonella enterica can infect marine mammals and has been increasingly implicated in seafood-borne disease outbreaks in humans. Despite the risk this zoonotic agent poses to animals and people, little is known regarding the environmental factors that affect its persistence in the sea. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of two constituents on the survival of Salmonella in the marine environment: transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and suspended particles. A decay experiment was conducted by spiking Salmonella into bottles containing seawater, seawater with alginic acid as a source of TEP, filtered seawater or filtered seawater with alginic acid. Survival of Salmonella was monitored using culture followed by enrichment assays to evaluate if the bacteria entered a viable but non-cultivable (VBNC) state. Salmonella cell counts dropped significantly faster (P ≤ 0.05) in the unfiltered seawater samples with and without TEP. The slowest decay occurred in filtered seawater containing alginic acid, with VBNC Salmonella persisting for 17 months. These findings suggest that TEP may favor Salmonella survival while suspended particles facilitate its decay. Insight on the survival of allochthonous, zoonotic pathogens in seawater can guide monitoring, management and policy decisions relevant to wildlife and human public health. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  11. Investigation of liquid-liquid drop coalescence using tomographic PIV (United States)

    Ortiz-Dueñas, Cecilia; Kim, Jungyong; Longmire, Ellen K.


    High-speed tomographic PIV was used to investigate the coalescence of drops placed on a liquid/liquid interface; the coalescence of a single drop and of a drop in the presence of an adjacent drop (side-by-side drops) was investigated. The viscosity ratio between the drop and surrounding fluids was 0.14, the Ohnesorge number (Oh = μd/(ρdσD)1/2) was 0.011, and Bond numbers (Bo = ( ρ d - ρ s ) gD 2/ σ) were 3.1-7.5. Evolving volumetric velocity fields of the full coalescence process allowed for quantification of the velocity scales occurring over different time scales. For both single and side-by-side drops, the coalescence initiates with an off-axis film rupture and film retraction speeds an order of magnitude larger than the collapse speed of the drop fluid. This is followed by the formation and propagation of an outward surface wave along the coalescing interface with wavelength of approximately 2D. For side-by-side drops, the collapse of the first drop is asymmetric due to the presence of the second drop and associated interface deformation. Overall, tomographic PIV provides insight into the flow physics and inherent three-dimensionalities in the coalescence process that would not be achievable with flow visualization or planar PIV only.

  12. Effect of neighboring particles on drop coalescence at an interface (United States)

    Bordoloi, Ankur; Adhikari, Deepak; Longmire, Ellen


    The coalescence of a liquid drop in the presence of an adjacent solid particle or liquid drop is studied using high-speed visualization and Tomographic PIV. A drop of water/glycerin (W/G), surrounded by silicone oil of matched refractive index, is released onto an underlying W/G interface. A nylon sphere, neutrally buoyant with respect to the drop liquid, is placed adjacent to the drop. Three initial conditions are considered: the particle is wetted in W/G so that the interface maintains an angle of contact with the particle, the particle is wetted in oil so that it rests above the interface, and the particle is placed so that it maintains an angle of contact with the drop already resting above the interface. These cases are compared with that of two neighboring W/G drops. Off-axis rupture near the solid particle was found to be dominant in cases where the particle was wetted with W/G. However, when the particle was wetted with oil, the point of rupture occurred closer to the drop-axis. The film rupture in the drop is followed by retraction of the film and finally collapse of the drop. Both visualization and PIV results show that the trajectory of the collapsing drop depends on the initial contact condition as well as the rupture location.

  13. Dropping macadamia nuts-in-shell reduces kernel roasting quality. (United States)

    Walton, David A; Wallace, Helen M


    Macadamia nuts ('nuts-in-shell') are subjected to many impacts from dropping during postharvest handling, resulting in damage to the raw kernel. The effect of dropping on roasted kernel quality is unknown. Macadamia nuts-in-shell were dropped in various combinations of moisture content, number of drops and receiving surface in three experiments. After dropping, samples from each treatment and undropped controls were dry oven-roasted for 20 min at 130 °C, and kernels were assessed for colour, mottled colour and surface damage. Dropping nuts-in-shell onto a bed of nuts-in-shell at 3% moisture content or 20% moisture content increased the percentage of dark roasted kernels. Kernels from nuts dropped first at 20%, then 10% moisture content, onto a metal plate had increased mottled colour. Dropping nuts-in-shell at 3% moisture content onto nuts-in-shell significantly increased surface damage. Similarly, surface damage increased for kernels dropped onto a metal plate at 20%, then at 10% moisture content. Postharvest dropping of macadamia nuts-in-shell causes concealed cellular damage to kernels, the effects not evident until roasting. This damage provides the reagents needed for non-enzymatic browning reactions. Improvements in handling, such as reducing the number of drops and improving handling equipment, will reduce cellular damage and after-roast darkening. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Emulsion Design. Analysis of Drop Deformations in Mixed Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm, Runi Ditlev


    does not rely on numerical flow field calculations. The results from this analysis indicate that there is a relationship between the average drop deformation and the apparent shear rate. In the second method the experimentally obtained particle track is used together with numerical calculations...... the drop deformation and drop position a twin camera system is applied. In the subsequent data analysis the recorded movies are analysed using an automated image analysis procedure which leads to the deformation history of the drop and the drop trajectory in the device. However, due to the geometric...... by the drop in the rotor-stator device is emulated in the computational box used for carrying out drop shape simulations. Comparison of simulated and experimentally obtained deformations show that in general the agreement is acceptable on a qualitative level. However, the simulations predict deformations...

  15. Electrowetting-driven spreading and jumping of drops in oil (United States)

    Hong, Jiwoo; Lee, Sang Joon


    Electrowetting-based practical applications include digital microfluidics, liquid lenses, and reflective displays. Most of them are performed in water/oil system, because oil medium reduces the contact-angle hysteresis and prevents drop evaporation. In this study, the effects of drop volume, oil viscosity, and applied voltage on the dynamic behaviors of spreading drops, such as transition of spreading pattern and response time, are investigated. Interestingly, jumping phenomena of drops are observed in oil when the applied voltage is turned off after reaching the electrowetted equilibrium radius of drops. A numerical model to predict the transient behavior of jumping drops is formulated based on the phase-field method. The numerical results for the transient deformation of jumping drops show quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Asymmetry of Drop Impacts on Patterned Hydrophobic Microstructures (United States)

    Willmott, Geoff; Robson, Simon; Broom, Matheu


    When a water drop falls on to a flat solid surface, asymmetries in the geometry of the spreading drop can be specifically determined by patterned surface microstructures. For hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) micropillar arrays, the most important asymmetric mechanisms appear to be the surface energy of contact lines, and pathways for gas escaping from penetrated microstructure. In this presentation, static wetting and drop impact experiments will be discussed in relation to drop asymmetries. In addition to micropillar arrays, natural superhydrophobic surfaces (leaves) have been studied, and may suggest possibilities for controlling drop impacts in applications. Some of the clearest large scale drop asymmetries on leaves, which are similar to those associated with low drop impact contact times on synthetic surfaces, appear to be caused by features which generate high contact angle hysteresis, and are therefore indicative of poor superhydrophocity.

  17. Suspended sediment profiles derived from spectral attenuation coefficients measurements using neural network method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, G.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.; Kamath, S.S.

    total suspended matter values from water samples obtained at discrete depths at the same location. An artificial neural network (ANN) model has been used to derive suspended matter from the spectral values of beam attenuation coefficients measured using...

  18. Impact of sound attenuation by suspended sediment on ADCP backscatter calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vermeulen, B.


    Although designed for velocity measurements, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are widely being used to monitor suspended particulate matter in rivers and in marine environments. To quantify mass concentrations of suspended matter, ADCP backscatter is generally calibrated with in situ

  19. Effect of Martian Suspended Dust on Albedo Measurements from the MGS-TES Data


    A. Zinzi; Palomba, E.; Rinaldi, G.; d'Amore, M.


    Suspended dust on Mars influences albedo measurements by orbiting instruments, but not necessary the real surface albedo. The aim of this study is to characterize the role of suspended aerosols on albedo measurement by remote sensing instruments.

  20. Design, analysis and control of cable-suspended parallel robots and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zi, Bin


    This book provides an essential overview of the authors’ work in the field of cable-suspended parallel robots, focusing on innovative design, mechanics, control, development and applications. It presents and analyzes several typical mechanical architectures of cable-suspended parallel robots in practical applications, including the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae, hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robots, and cooperative cable parallel manipulators for multiple mobile cranes. It also addresses the fundamental mechanics of cable-suspended parallel robots on the basis of their typical applications, including the kinematics, dynamics and trajectory tracking control of the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae. In addition it proposes a novel hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robot that uses integrated mechanism design methods to improve the performance of traditional cable-suspended parallel robots. A comparative study on error and performance indices of hybr...

  1. Drop Pinch-Off for Discrete Flows from a Capillary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson M.C.T.


    Full Text Available The problem of drop formation and pinch-off from a capillary tube under the influence of gravity has been extensively studied when the internal capillary pressure gradient is constant. This ensures a continuous time independent flow field inside the capillary tube typically of the Poiseuille flow type. Characteristic drop ejection behaviour includes: periodic drop ejection, drop ejection with associated satellite production, complex dripping, chaotic behaviour and jetting. It is well known that this characteristic behaviour is governed by the Weber (We and Ohnesorge (Oh numbers (for a given Bond number and may be delineated in a We verses Oh operability diagram. An in-depth physical understanding of drop ejection is also of great importance to industry where the tight control of drop size and ejection velocity are of critical importance in industrial processes such as sealants used in electronics assembly and inkjet printing. However, the use of such a continuous flow approach for drop ejection in industry is often impractical since such flows cannot be operator controlled. For this reason it is important to investigate so-called discrete pipe flows where the flow can be turned on and off at will. This means the flow inside the pipe is now time-dependent being controlled in a step-wise fashion. As a first stage in the investigation of drop pinch-off behaviour in discrete pipe flows this paper will study the critical pinch-off time required for drop ejection starting from a pendant drop. This is the discrete amount of time the pipe flow is turned on for in order for a drop to be ejected from the capillary. A Newtonian incompressible free-surface CFD flow code developed at the University of Leeds is used to investigate the critical pinch-off time for a range of internal pipe velocities (the central flow maximum in Poiseuille flow. It is found that the time required for drop ejection to occur decreases exponentially with internal pipe velocity

  2. Empirical model for estimating vertical concentration profiles of re-suspended, sediment-associated contaminants (United States)

    Zhu, H. W.; Cheng, P. D.; Li, W.; Chen, J. H.; Pang, Y.; Wang, D. Z.


    Vertical distribution processes of sediment contaminants in water were studied by flume experiments. Experimental results show that settling velocity of sediment particles and turbulence characteristics are the major hydrodynamic factors impacting distribution of pollutants, especially near the bottom where particle diameter is similar in size to vortex structure. Sediment distribution was uniform along the distance, while contaminant distribution slightly lagged behind the sediment. The smaller the initial sediment concentration was, the more time it took to achieve a uniform concentration distribution for suspended sediment. A contaminants transportation equation was established depending on mass conservation equations. Two mathematical estimation models of pollutant distribution in the overlying water considering adsorption and desorption were devised based on vertical distribution of suspended sediment: equilibrium partition model and dynamic micro-diffusion model. The ratio of time scale between the sediment movement and sorption can be used as the index of the models. When this ratio was large, the equilibrium assumption was reasonable, but when it was small, it might require dynamic micro-diffusion model.

  3. 48 CFR 52.209-6 - Protecting the Government's Interest When Subcontracting With Contractors Debarred, Suspended, or... (United States)


    ...'s Interest When Subcontracting With Contractors Debarred, Suspended, or Proposed for Debarment. 52....209-6 Protecting the Government's Interest When Subcontracting With Contractors Debarred, Suspended... Government's Interest When Subcontracting With Contractors Debarred, Suspended, or Proposed for Debarment...

  4. Quantification of Surface Suspended Sediments along a River Dominated Coast with NOAA AVHRR and SeaWiFS Measurements: Louisiana, USA (United States)

    Myint, S. W.; Walker, N. D.


    The ability to quantify suspended sediment concentrations accurately over both time and space using satellite data has been a goal of many environmental researchers over the past few decades This study utilizes data acquired by the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Orbview-2 Sea-viewing wide field-of-view (SeaWiFS) ocean colour sensor, coupled with field measurements to develop statistical models for the estimation of near-surface suspended sediment and suspended solids "Ground truth" water samples were obtained via helicopter, small boat and automatic water sampler within a few hours of satellite overpasses The NOAA AVHRR atmospheric correction was modified for the high levels of turbidity along the Louisiana coast. Models were developed based on the field measurements and reflectance/radiance measurements in the visible and near infrared Channels of NOAA-14 and Orbview-2 SeaWiFS. The best models for predicting surface suspended sediment concentrations were obtained with a NOAA AVHRR Channel 1 (580-680nm) cubic model, Channel 2 (725-1100 nm) linear mod$ and SeaWiFs Channel 6 (660-68Onm) power modeL The suspended sediment models developed using SeaWiFS Channel 5 (545-565 nm) were inferior, a result that we attribute mainly to the atmospheric correction technique, the shallow depth of the water samples and absorption effects from non-sediment water constituents.

  5. 78 FR 48145 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation (United States)


    ... Doc No: 2013-19067] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-818] Lemon Juice... of the suspended investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would likely lead to continuation or... of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina (``suspended...

  6. Crack formation and prevention in colloidal drops (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, So Youn; Weon, Byung Mook


    Crack formation is a frequent result of residual stress release from colloidal films made by the evaporation of colloidal droplets containing nanoparticles. Crack prevention is a significant task in industrial applications such as painting and inkjet printing with colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we illustrate how colloidal drops evaporate and how crack generation is dependent on the particle size and initial volume fraction, through direct visualization of the individual colloids with confocal laser microscopy. To prevent crack formation, we suggest use of a versatile method to control the colloid-polymer interactions by mixing a nonadsorbing polymer with the colloidal suspension, which is known to drive gelation of the particles with short-range attraction. Gelation-driven crack prevention is a feasible and simple method to obtain crack-free, uniform coatings through drying-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles.

  7. Drop Impact on a Solid Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Josserand, C.


    © Copyright 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. A drop hitting a solid surface can deposit, bounce, or splash. Splashing arises from the breakup of a fine liquid sheet that is ejected radially along the substrate. Bouncing and deposition depend crucially on the wetting properties of the substrate. In this review, we focus on recent experimental and theoretical studies, which aim at unraveling the underlying physics, characterized by the delicate interplay of not only liquid inertia, viscosity, and surface tension, but also the surrounding gas. The gas cushions the initial contact; it is entrapped in a central microbubble on the substrate; and it promotes the so-called corona splash, by lifting the lamella away from the solid. Particular attention is paid to the influence of surface roughness, natural or engineered to enhance repellency, relevant in many applications.

  8. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.


    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  9. Capture of cenospheres by evaporating drops (United States)

    Leong, K. H.; Ochs, Harry T.; Beard, K. V.

    The capture efficiency of evaporating cloud drops between 60 and 100 μm radius has been measured for 2 μm radius lithium carbonate hollow particles (cenospheres). Since the effective particle density is low compared to a 2-μm solid particle the cenospheres have reduced sedimentation speeds and a negligible inertial capture efficiency. The particles are sufficiently large ( Kn = 0.03) so that the phoretic theory in the slip regime ( Kn < 0.1) should apply. The measured capture efficiencies are significantly above the theoretical computations. There is some evidence to suggest that thermophoresis may be underestimated in the computations. This assessment is contigent on attributing the discrepancy between theory and experiment to the theoretical description of phoresis or its application to our experiment.

  10. The IFSI Experimental Gravitation Group drop tower (United States)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Reale, Andrea; Santoli, Francesco

    The Experimental Gravitation Group of Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI-INAF) has recently completed the development of a drop tower in its laboratories. This new facility is used in the context of the wide range of activities of the Group, in particular for testing high-sensitivity accelerometers and gradiometers. These instruments will be mainly operated in free fall conditions and this facility will be used for simulating these conditions. The tower has an height of 10 m (7-8 m effective fall height). Its capabilities include a magnetic release mechanism, a (variable acceleration) recovery system and will include a telemetry system. Following a description of the facility, the main foreseen uses will be discussed, among them: tests of accelerometer working position stability, release transient effects, capability of test mass initial attitude and angular velocity control, repeatability.

  11. Crack formation and prevention in colloidal drops. (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Ryu, Seul-A; Kim, So Youn; Weon, Byung Mook


    Crack formation is a frequent result of residual stress release from colloidal films made by the evaporation of colloidal droplets containing nanoparticles. Crack prevention is a significant task in industrial applications such as painting and inkjet printing with colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we illustrate how colloidal drops evaporate and how crack generation is dependent on the particle size and initial volume fraction, through direct visualization of the individual colloids with confocal laser microscopy. To prevent crack formation, we suggest use of a versatile method to control the colloid-polymer interactions by mixing a nonadsorbing polymer with the colloidal suspension, which is known to drive gelation of the particles with short-range attraction. Gelation-driven crack prevention is a feasible and simple method to obtain crack-free, uniform coatings through drying-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles.

  12. Effect of Bilineaster Drop on Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ameli


    Full Text Available Background: Hyperbilirubinemia is considered one of the most prevalent problems in newborns. Phototherapy, exchange transfusion, and herbal medicine are common therapeutic approaches for preventing any neurologic damage in infants with neonatal jaundice. However, herbal medicine is less commonly used. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of bilineaster drop on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 98 term neonates (aged 2-14 days with neonatal jaundice admitted to Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad, Iran, during 2015. These newborns were randomly assigned into intervention (phototherapy and bilineaster drop and control (only phototherapy groups. Total and direct serum bilirubin levels were measured at the time of admission and then 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after treatment. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and repeated measures ANOVA through Stata software (Version 12. Results: The mean ages of the newborns at the time of admission were 6.2 ±2.5 and 6.04 ±2.4 days in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The intervention group showed higher reduction in mean duration of hospital stay, readmission rate, and bilirubin levels 12 and 24 h after the intervention, compared to the control group (P>0.001. However, the two groups demonstrated no statistically significant difference 36 h and 48 h after the intervention (P=0.06, P=0.22, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated that the intervention had no significant effect on the reduction trend of bilirubin levels (P=0.10 [total], P=0.06 [indirect] in both groups. Nonetheless, bilirubin levels significantly diminished in both groups over time (P

  13. Suspended 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes for electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Keller, Stephan Sylvest


    Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended pyrolytic carbon microstructures serving as three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes for electrochem...... resistance as compared to 2D carbon electrodes. The higher sensitivity of 3D carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical sensing was illustrated by dopamine detection.......Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended pyrolytic carbon microstructures serving as three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes...... for electrochemical applications. A 3D polymer template in epoxy based photoresist (SU-8) was fabricated with multiple steps of UV photolithography and pyrolysed at 900 °C to obtain 3D carbon microelectrodes. The pyrolytic carbon microstructures were characterized by SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS to determine...

  14. [Light absorption by suspended particulate matter in Chagan Lake, Jilin]. (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Dong; Liu, Dian-Wei; Song, Kai-Shan; Zhang, Bai; Wang, Zong-Ming; Jiang, Guang-Ji; Tang, Xu-Guang; Lei, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Yan-Qing


    Spectral characteristics and the magnitudes of light absorption by suspended particulate matter were determined by spectrophotometry in this optically complex Lake Chagan waters for the purpose of surveying the natural variability of the absorption coefficients to parameterize the bio-optical models for converting satellite or in-situ water reflectance signatures into water quality information. Experiments were carried out on seasonal frozen Lake Chagan, one representative inland case-2 water body in Northeast of China. Particulate absorption properties analyzed using the field data on July 15th and October 12th 2009 were measured using the quantitative filter technique to produce absorption spectra containing several fractions that could be attributed to two main optical active constituents (OACs) phytoplankton pigments and non-algal particulates (mineral sediments, and organic detritus). Results suggested that the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration was higher while phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration) was lower in July and that in October. The spectral shape of total suspended particulate matter resembled that of non-algal particulates which contributed greater than phytoplankton in total particulate absorption during both periods. An obvious absorption peak occurring at around 440 nm exhibited an increase in phytoplankton contribution in October. Non-algal particulate absorption at 440 nm (a(NAP) (440)) had better correlation with total suspended particulate matter concentration than that with chlorophyll-a over the two periods. Light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Chagan lake region was generally lower than that of non-algal components. Chl. a dominating phytoplankton pigment composition functioned exponentially with its absorption coefficients at 440 and 675 nm specifically, the average values of which in July were 0.146 8 m2 x mg(-1) and 0.050 3 respectively while in October they were 0.153 3 and 0.013 2 m2 x mg(-1

  15. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Mississippi Sound (United States)

    Merritt, D. N.; Skarke, A. D.; Silwal, S.; Dash, P.


    The Mississippi Sound is a semi-enclosed estuary between the coast of Mississippi and a chain of offshore barrier islands with relatively shallow water depths and high marine biodiversity that is wildly utilized for commercial fishing and public recreation. The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound and the adjacent Northern Gulf of Mexico creates turbid plumes that can extend hundreds of square kilometers along the coast and persist for multiple days. The concentration of suspended sediment in these coastal waters is an important parameter in the calculation of regional sediment budgets as well as analysis of water-quality factors such as primary productivity, nutrient dynamics, and the transport of pollutants as well as pathogens. The spectral resolution, sampling frequency, and regional scale spatial domain associated with satellite based sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended sediment dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Accordingly, the presented research evaluates the validity of published models that relate remote sensing reflectance with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), for similar environmental settings, with 51 in situ observations of SSC from the Mississippi Sound. Additionally, regression analysis is used to correlate additional in situ observations of SSC in Mississippi Sound with coincident observations of visible and near-infrared band reflectance collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Aqua satellite, in order to develop a site-specific empirical predictive model for SSC. Finally, specific parameters of the sampled suspended sediment such as grain size and mineralogy are analyzed in order to quantify their respective contributions to total remotely sensed reflectance.

  16. Development of a microfluidic interface for suspended microchannel resonators


    Maillard, Damien


    Suspended microchannel resonators (SMRs) are devices that detect particles in liquid samples. In comparison with similar resonating devices that must be immersed, SMRs allow the fluids to flow through microfluidic resonators. This principle of operation leads to a great reduction of the required sample and to enhanced quality factors. As such, SMRs show great potential for a variety of sensing applications. This thesis reports on the final steps of the microfabrication of SMRs and on the deve...

  17. On the Design of Suspended Roofs with Paraboloidal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ungureanu


    Full Text Available Some considerations concerning the design of the paraboloidal suspended roofs are made. The main geometric aspects are first time presented. For the roofs we propose, as pattern, the equivalent continuum membranes, and the efforts in the cable are determined by using the membrane efforts and their equations. Two examples are analyzed: elliptic paraboloide and hyperbolic paraboloide, with horizontal projection under the form of an ellipse.

  18. Technological advances in suspended-sediment surrogate monitoring (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.


    Surrogate technologies to continuously monitor suspended sediment show promise toward supplanting traditional data collection methods requiring routine collection and analysis of water samples. Commercially available instruments operating on bulk optic (turbidity), laser optic, pressure difference, and acoustic backscatter principles are evaluated based on cost, reliability, robustness, accuracy, sample volume, susceptibility to biological fouling, and suitable range of mass concentration and particle size distribution. In situ turbidimeters are widely used. They provide reliable data where the point measurements can be reliably correlated to the river's mean cross section concentration value, effects of biological fouling can be minimized, and concentrations remain below the sensor's upper measurement limit. In situ laser diffraction instruments have similar limitations and can cost 6 times the approximate $5000 purchase price of a turbidimeter. However, laser diffraction instruments provide volumetric-concentration data in 32 size classes. Pressure differential instruments measure mass density in a water column, thus integrating substantially more streamflow than a point measurement. They are designed for monitoring medium-to-large concentrations, are generally unaffected by biological fouling, and cost about the same as a turbidimeter. However, their performance has been marginal in field applications. Acoustic Doppler profilers use acoustic backscatter to measure suspended sediment concentrations in orders of magnitude more streamflow than do instruments that rely on point measurements. The technology is relatively robust and generally immune to effects of biological fouling. Cost of a single-frequency device is about double that of a turbidimeter. Multifrequency arrays also provide the potential to resolve concentrations by clay silt versus sand size fractions. Multifrequency hydroacoustics shows the most promise for revolutionizing collection of continuous

  19. Segment Fixed Priority Scheduling for Self Suspending Real Time Tasks (United States)


    for soft real- time systems [15]. Table 1 shows a brief... for execution are the times when a job of task arrives. For 2 ≤ ≤ , when , finishes its execution, it suspends itself for a time duration that lies...assume , and , can take non-negative values such that , ≤ , and let , = , . For each job, a segment , executes for a time duration that lies in

  20. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  1. Drop impact on a liquid-liquid interface (United States)

    Mohamed-Kassim, Zulfaa; Longmire, Ellen K.


    The effects of Reynolds number (Re) on the gravity-driven impact of a single drop onto a liquid-liquid interface were studied experimentally using the particle image velocimetry method. The liquid beneath the interface was identical to the drop liquid. Two liquids with different viscosities were used as the ambient above the interface resulting in viscosity ratios (drop to ambient) of 0.14 and 0.33. Index matching and a slight camera inclination were employed to eliminate optical distortion. Image planes were captured at a rate of 500 Hz, and velocity fields were determined from consecutive images. The flow Reynolds numbers based on drop impact velocity and ambient viscosity were 20 and 68 for the lower and higher viscosity ratios, respectively. During the approach toward the interface, the drop shape was more oblate for the higher Re case. At the same time, viscous stresses generated a vortex ring inside each drop and a wake behind it. Each wake contained a detached ring of similar sign to the ring inside the drop. The subsequent deformation of the drop and the interface due to impact was observed to be more radical in the higher Re case. The impingement and shearing of the trailing wake on the upper surface of each drop played a significant role in dissipating the vorticity inside both drops, and the vorticity dissipated faster for lower Re.

  2. Surface wetting effects on drop passage through a confining orifice (United States)

    Bordoloi, Ankur; Longmire, Ellen


    The motion of gravity-driven drops (Bo ~ 2-10) through a sharp-edged confining orifice is studied in a liquid/liquid system for both hydrophobic (HPB) and hydrophilic (HPL) orifice surfaces. The drop interface is tracked by high-speed imaging, and fluid velocity fields are obtained by PIV. When a drop impacts the leading edge of the orifice, the drop fluid contacts the solid surface immediately, and the resulting interfacial contact lines begin propagating away from the edge. The final drop outcome (capture, release or break-up) is influenced by the motion of the contact lines as well as the contact force between the drop fluid and the orifice surface. In the HPB case, the contact line motion is limited, and the contact force acting against drop passage is weak. In the HPL case, the contact line motion strongly inhibits drop passage by spreading fluid across the upper surface of the orifice plate. For drops that break into multiple volumes, the wettability influences both the break-up location and fractional volume of the resulting satellite drop. Supported by DOE (DOE EERE-PMC-10EE0002764).

  3. [Objective evaluation of applying eye drops by elderly patients]. (United States)

    Colomé-Campos, J; Martínez-Salcedo, I; Martorell-Hallado, M C; Romero-Aroca, P


    To objectively evaluate the ability and skills of patients older than 65 years to successfully administer a topical ocular eye drop. A prospective study was conducted on a group of 25 patients with a diagnosis of dry eye or glaucoma, undergoing daily treatment with eye drops for at least one year. The procedure was recorded with a video camera at the time of the application. Of the total, 64% were diagnosed with glaucoma and 36% with dry eye. Almost half (44%) needed a single attempt to apply the drop, and 56% required 2 attempts. In terms of the number of eye drops applied, 52% managed with a single drop, 16% 2 drops, a 12% 3 drops, and 20% 4 or more eye drops. Areas where the eye drop was deposited in the first attempt was, 32% into the conjunctival sac, 32% on the outer corner of the eye, 8% in the inner angle, 8% in the nose, 12% on the cheek, 8% in other areas. Self-administration of eye drops by the elderly is a complex activity that can have an effect on the expected results. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of neighboring perturbations on drop coalescence at an interface (United States)

    Bordoloi, Ankur Deep; Longmire, Ellen K.


    Coalescence at a quiescent silicone oil/water glycerine interface was investigated for water/glycerine drops with Bond number ˜7 and Ohnesorge number = 0.01 using high-speed imaging and time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. In addition to a single drop case, three perturbation cases were considered corresponding with a second drop, a solid particle wetted in oil, and a solid particle wetted in water/glycerine placed adjacent to the coalescing drop. Each perturbing object caused an initial tilting of the drop, influencing its rupture location and eventual collapse behavior. Once tilted, drops typically ruptured near their lowest vertical position which was located either toward or away from the perturbing object depending on the case. The initial retraction speed of the ruptured film was higher for drops initially tilted at significant angles, and the local variations in retraction speed correlated well with the expected variations in local film thickness. The drop fluid always collapsed away from the drop axis in the direction of the rupture location in all unperturbed or perturbed cases. In the case of a drop next to a particle wetted in water/glycerine, the collapsing fluid travelled away from the particle, and the downward propagating vortex ring which developed was similar to that resulting from an unperturbed drop rupture. By contrast, the drop fluid collapsed toward either a second drop or a particle wetted in oil. The resulting vortex rings were more asymmetric, and viscous interaction between the particle and collapsing fluid hindered the downward motion of the associated ring.

  5. Strain sensitivity enhancement in suspended core fiber tapers (United States)

    André, Ricardo M.; Silva, Susana O.; Becker, Martin; Schuster, Kay; Rothardt, M.; Bartelt, H.; Marques, Manuel B.; Frazão, Orlando


    Suspended core fiber tapers with different cross sections (with diameters from 70 μm to 120 μm) are produced by filament heating. Before obtaining the taper, the spectral behavior of the suspended core fiber is a multimode interference structure. When the taper is made, an intermodal interference between a few modes is observed. This effect is clearly visible for low taper core dimensions. Since the core and cladding do not collapse, two taper regions exist, one in the core and the other in the cladding. The cladding taper does not affect the light transmission, only the core is reduced to a microtaper. The spectral response of the microtaper based-suspended core fiber is similar to a beat of two interferometers. The strain is applied to the microtaper, and with the reduction in the transverse area, an increase in sensitivity is observed. When the taper is immersed in a liquid with a different index of refraction or subjected to temperature variations, no spectral change occurs.

  6. Optimal control of suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake (United States)

    Ratianingsih, R.; Resnawati, Azim, Mardlijah, Widodo, B.


    Talaga Lake is one of several lakes in Central Sulawesi that potentially to be managed in multi purposes scheme because of its characteristic. The scheme is addressed not only due to the lake maintenance because of its sediment but also due to the Algae farming for its biodiesel fuel. This paper governs a suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake. The model is derived from the two dimensional hydrodynamic shallow water equations of the mass and momentum conservation law of sediment transport. An order reduction of the model gives six equations of hyperbolic systems of the depth, two dimension directional velocities and sediment concentration while the bed elevation as the second order of turbulent diffusion and dispersion are neglected. The system is discreted and linearized such that could be solved numerically by box-Keller method for some initial and boundary condition. The solutions shows that the downstream velocity is play a role in transversal direction of stream function flow. The downstream accumulated sediment indicate that the suspended sediment and its changing should be controlled by optimizing the downstream velocity and transversal suspended sediment changing due to the ideal algae growth need.

  7. Abrasion properties of self-suspended hairy titanium dioxide nanomaterials (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-xia; Liu, Si; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xiao-jing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Ya-ming; Li, Shi-yun


    Considering the excellent solubility of pyrrolidone ring organic compounds, the synthesized N-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone chlorides was tethered onto titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to improve dispersion of TiO2, and then polyethylene oxide (PEO) oligomer through ion exchange embraced the tethered TiO2 to obtain a novel self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials without any solvent. A variety of techniques were carried out to illustrate the structure and properties of the self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials. It was found that TiO2 nanoparticles embody monodispersity in the hybrid system though the "false reunion" phenomenon occurring due to nonpermanent weak physical cross-linking. Remarkably, self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials exhibit lower viscosity, facilitating maneuverable and outstanding antifriction and wear resistance properties, due to the synergistic lubricating effect between spontaneously forming lubricating film and nano-lubrication of TiO2 cores, overcoming the deficiency of both solid and liquid lubricants. This make them promising candidates for the micro-electromechanic/nano-electromechanic systems (MEMS/NEMS).

  8. Spontaneous self-coating of a water drop by flaky copper powders: critical role of the particle shape. (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Chung; Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong


    The self-coating process of solid particles over a liquid drop is important for the formation of a liquid marble. Generally, some external forces such as rolling or flipping are used to cover a drop by small particles. In this work, it is observed that flaky copper powders can spontaneously spread over the planar water surface and form a dense flat cluster with a fractal dimension of 2. Moreover, flaky copper powders can cover the water pendant and sessile drops spontaneously and rapidly. This powder-coated drop can roll on an inclined plane at a relatively high speed. However, spontaneous self-coating disappears for spheroidal copper powders. To explain our observations, the shape factors of particles are introduced into the spreading coefficient S for powders on the liquid surface. The flaky powders have the lowest shape factors and therefore spontaneous self-coating formation, with S > 0.

  9. Combustion of drops of Mexican fuel oils with high asphaltenes content; Combustion de gotas de combustoleos mexicanos con alto contenido de asfaltenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rodriguez, Jose Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    In this work the combustion of fuel drops with a content of 18% of asphaltenes has been studied . The results obtained for this fuel were compared with the ones obtained for another with a content of 12% asphaltenes. The drops were suspended in a platinum filament and burned in an spherical radiant furnace. The drop size varied between 600 and 800 microns. The fuel drops with 12% asphaltenes showed shorter combustion times, a smaller diameter increment of the smaller diameter during the combustion stages and also a shorter burning time of the carbonaceous residue than the fuel drops with a content of 18% asphaltenes. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la combustion de gotas de combustible con 18% de contenido de asfaltenos. Los resultados obtenidos para este combustible se compararon con los obtenidos para otro con 12% de contenido de asfaltenos. Las gotas fueron suspendidas en un filamento de platino y quemadas en un horno radiante esferico. El tamano de las gotas vario entre 600 y 800 micras. Las gotas de combustible con 12% de asfaltenos mostraron tiempos de combustion mas cortos, un incremento del diametro menor durante las etapas de combustion y un tiempo de quemado del residuo carbonoso tambien mas corto que las gotas del combustible con 18% de contenido de asfaltenos.

  10. On angled bounce-off impact of a drop impinging on a flowing soap film (United States)

    Basu, Saikat; Yawar, Ali; Concha, Andres; Bandi, M. M.


    Small drops impinging obliquely on thin flowing soap films frequently demonstrate the rare emergence of bulk elastic effects working in-tandem with the more commonplace hydrodynamic interactions. Three collision regimes are observable: (a) drop piercing through the film, (b) it coalescing with the flow, and (c) it bouncing off the film surface. During impact, the drop deforms along with a bulk elastic deformation of the film. For impacts that are close-to-tangential, the bounce-off regime predominates. We outline a reduced order analytical framework assuming a deformable drop and a deformable three-dimensional film, and the idealization invokes a phase-based parametric study. Angular inclination of the film and the ratio of post and pre-impact drop sizes entail the phase parameters. We also perform experiments with vertically descending droplets (constituted from deionized water) impacting against an inclined soap film, flowing under constant pressure head. Model-predicted phase domain for bounce-off compares well to our experimental findings. Additionally, the experiments exhibit momentum transfer to the film in the form of shed vortex dipoles, along with propagation of free surface waves. On consulting prior published work, we note that for locomotion of water-walking insects using an impulsive action, the momentum distribution to the shed vortices and waves are both significant, taking up respectively 2/3 and 1/3 of the imparted streamwise momentum. Considering the visually similar impulse actions, this theory, despite its assumption of a quiescent liquid bath of infinite depth, is applied to the drop bounce-off experiments, and the resultant shed vortex dipole momenta are compared to the momenta of the coherent vortex structures computed from particle imaging velocimetry data. The magnitudes reveal identical order (10‑7 N s), suggesting that notwithstanding the disparities, the bounce-off regime may be tapped as a toy analog for impulse-based interfacial

  11. Transport of Substances on Different Stages of Processes Initiated by Free Fallen Drop Impact on Surface of Quiescent Water (United States)

    Ilyinykh, A. Yu.


    Collision of a free fallen drop with a surface of quiescent layer of water initiates a sequence of processes including initial shock, formation of cavern and crown with a chevron edge emitted small water drops, wide central trough surrounding by a train of running surface circular capillary waves, splash, secondary cavern collapsing with a streamer discharge and gradual decal of all disturbances. Fine structure of the drop splashes and transport of substances carrying by the drop inside accepting target fluid are studied by methods of direct registering of flow images by fast video- and photo cameras. Different directions of observations were realized that are side, top and bottom view of flow patterns. Flow patterns produced by clean and coloured water, alcohol (changing the surface tension) and oil drops were investigated. Attention was concentrated on small scale processes dynamics studying which produce fast variations of water surface shapes with sharp local irregularities. Shapes and textures of craters and surrounding rim surfaces as well as coloured filaments of a drop substance inside the fluid body were registered and analyzed. Two groups of flows with relatively large scales defined by the drop diameter and very fine scales were identified. It is supposed that short living and fast changing flow components are result of strong short-acting forces impact. Their manifestations depend on surface tension on the boundaries fluid-fluid and fluid-air. Effects of surface tension gradients on the drop dye propagation pattern are also demonstrated and discussed. Experiments were performed on set-up USU "HPC IPMec RAS" under support of Ministry of Education and Science RF (Goscontract No. 16.518.11.7059).

  12. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the rate of solvent equilibration in the hanging drop method of protein crystal growth (United States)

    Fowlis, William W.; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Twigg, Pamela J.; Howard, Sandra B.; Meehan, Edward J.


    The principles of the hanging-drop method of crystal growth are discussed, and the rate of water evaporation in a water droplet (containing protein, buffer, and a precipitating agent) suspended above a well containing a double concentration of precipitating agent is investigated theoretically. It is shown that, on earth, the rate of evaporation may be determined from diffusion theory and the colligative properties of solutions. The parameters affecting the rate of evaporation include the temperature, the vapor pressure of water, the ionization constant of the salt, the volume of the drop, the contact angle between the droplet and the coverslip, the number of moles of salt in the droplet, the number of moles of water and salt in the well, the molar volumes of water and salt, the distance from the droplet to the well, and the coefficient of diffusion of water vapor through air. To test the theoretical equations, hanging-drop experiments were conducted using various reagent concentrations in 25-microliter droplets and measuring the evaporation times at 4 C and 25 C. The results showed good agreement with the theory.

  13. The Influence of Concentrace Mineral Drops on Performance Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Mugiyono


    Full Text Available A research has been conducted in Experimental Farm Faculty of Animal Husbandry Unsoed from July 1 st until August 15 th, 1996. The purpose want to study the influence of CMD supplementation in drinking water consists of M0 = control; M1 = 0.5 drops/1000 cc, M2 = 1 drops/1000 cc; M3 = 1.5 drops/1000 cc and M4 = 2 drops/1000cc. The performance observed were growth, body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, drinking water consumption; and income over feed and mineral cost (IOFMC. The research involved 100 broiler chickens divided that CMD supplementation until 2 drops/1000cc did not significantly affect on the performance of broiler chickens except in income over feed and mineral cost (P<0.05. (Animal Production 1(2: 56-62 (1999 Key Words: broiler, concentrace mineral drops, performance.

  14. Drop Impact on Textile Material: Effect of Fabric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romdhani Zouhaier


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of impact of water drop on a surface in a spreading regime with no splashing. Three surfaces were studied: virgin glass, coating film and woven cotton fabric at different construction parameters. All experiments were carried out using water drop with the same free fall high. Digidrop with high-resolution camera is used to measure the different parameters characterising this phenomenon. Results show an important effect of the height of the free fall on the drop profile and the spreading behaviour. An important drop deformation at the surface impact was observed. Then, fabric construction as the weft count deeply affects the drop impact. For plain weave, an increase of weft count causes a decrease in penetration and increase in the spreading rate. The same result was obtained for coated fabric. Therefore, the impact energy was modified and the drop shape was affected, which directly influenced the spreading rate.

  15. Scattering signatures of suspended particles: an integrated system for combining digital holography and laser diffraction. (United States)

    Davies, Emlyn J; Nimmo-Smith, W Alex M; Agrawal, Yogesh C; Souza, Alejandro J


    The use of laser diffraction is now common practice for the determination of an in situ particle size distribution in the marine environment. However, various imaging techniques have shown that particles vary greatly in shape, leading to uncertainty in the response of laser diffraction instruments when subjected to this diverse range of complex particles. Here we present a novel integrated system which combines both digital in-line holography and a LISST-100 type C, to simultaneously record in-focus images of artificial and natural particles with their small-angle forward scattering signature. The system will allow for further development of a reliable alternative to Mie Theory when using laser diffraction for the in situ measurement of complex suspended particles. A more detailed knowledge of the performance of laser diffraction when subjected to the wide variety of complex particles found in the marine environment will then be possible.

  16. DROpS: an object of learning in computer simulation of discrete events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alves Silva Ribeiro


    Full Text Available This work presents the “Realistic Dynamics Of Simulated Operations” (DROpS, the name given to the dynamics using the “dropper” device as an object of teaching and learning. The objective is to present alternatives for professors teaching content related to simulation of discrete events to graduate students in production engineering. The aim is to enable students to develop skills related to data collection, modeling, statistical analysis, and interpretation of results. This dynamic has been developed and applied to the students by placing them in a situation analogous to a real industry, where various concepts related to computer simulation were discussed, allowing the students to put these concepts into practice in an interactive manner, thus facilitating learning

  17. Negative Normal Stress Elasticity of Emulsions of Viscous Drops at Finite Inertia (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Sarkar, Kausik


    The relation between the normal stress and the imposed strain for a Newtonian emulsion in an oscillating extensional flow is computed at finite Reynolds numbers using numerically simulated drop geometry. The interfacial stress was determined using Batchelor’s formalism. In the presence of inertia, the phase between the stress and the strain deviates from Stokes’s flow, and leads to a negative elastic modulus at small frequencies. The results are explained by a mass-spring-dashpot model.

  18. Sample Handling and Chemical Kinetics in an Acoustically Levitated Drop Microreactor


    Pierre, Zakiah N.; Field, Christopher R.; Scheeline, Alexander


    Accurate measurement of enzyme kinetics is an essential part of understanding the mechanisms of biochemical reactions. The typical means of studying such systems use stirred cuvettes, stopped-flow apparatus, microfluidic systems, or other small sample containers. These methods may prove to be problematic if reactants or products adsorb to or react with the container?s surface. As an alternative approach, we have developed an acoustically-levitated drop reactor eventually intended to study enz...

  19. Student Drop Tower Competitions: Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) and What If No Gravity? (WING) (United States)

    Hall, Nancy R.; Stocker, Dennis P.; DeLombard, Richard


    This paper describes two student competition programs that allow student teams to conceive a science or engineering experiment for a microgravity environment. Selected teams design and build their experimental hardware, conduct baseline tests, and ship their experiment to NASA where it is operated in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. The hardware and acquired data is provided to the teams after the tests are conducted so that the teams can prepare their final reports about their findings.

  20. Drop impact and rebound dynamics on an inclined superhydrophobic surface. (United States)

    Yeong, Yong Han; Burton, James; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S


    Due to its potential in water-repelling applications, the impact and rebound dynamics of a water drop impinging perpendicular to a horizontal superhydrophobic surface have undergone extensive study. However, drops tend to strike a surface at an angle in applications. In such cases, the physics governing the effects of oblique impact are not well studied or understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct an experiment to investigate the impact and rebound dynamics of a drop at various liquid viscosities, in an isothermal environment, and on a nanocomposite superhydrophobic surface at normal and oblique impact conditions (tilted at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°). This study considered drops falling from various heights to create normal impact Weber numbers ranging from 6 to 110. In addition, drop viscosity was varied by decreasing the temperature for water drops and by utilizing water-glycerol mixtures, which have similar surface tension to water but higher viscosities. Results revealed that oblique and normal drop impact behaved similarly (in terms of maximum drop spread as well as rebound dynamics) at low normal Weber numbers. However, at higher Weber numbers, normal and oblique impact results diverged in terms of maximum spread, which could be related to asymmetry and more complex outcomes. These asymmetry effects became more pronounced as the inclination angle increased, to the point where they dominated the drop impact and rebound characteristics when the surface was inclined at 60°. The drop rebound characteristics on inclined surfaces could be classified into eight different outcomes driven primarily by normal Weber number and drop Ohnesorge numbers. However, it was found that these outcomes were also a function of the receding contact angle, whereby reduced receding angles yielded tail-like structures. Nevertheless, the contact times of the drops with the coating were found to be generally independent of surface inclination.

  1. Studying the field induced breakup of acoustically levitated drops (United States)

    Warschat, C.; Riedel, J.


    Coulomb fission of charged droplets (The terms drop and droplet are often used synonymous. Throughout this manuscript, to avoid confusion, the terms drop and droplet will be used for liquid spheres with radii in the millimeter range and the micrometer range, respectively. In our experiments, the first correspond to the parent drop while the latter describes the ejected progeny droplets.) is a well-studied natural phenomenon. Controlled droplet fission is already successfully employed in several technological applications. Still, since the occurring surface rupture relies on the exact understanding and description of the liquid gas boundary, some details are still under debate. Most empirical systematic studies observe falling micrometer droplets passing through the electric field inside a plate capacitor. This approach, although easily applicable and reliable, limits the experimental degrees of freedom regarding the observable time and the maximum size of the drops and can only be performed in consecutive individual observations of different subsequent drops. Here we present a novel setup to study the field induced breakup of acoustically levitated drops. The design does not bear any restrictions towards the temporal window of observation, and allows handling of drops of a tunable radius ranging from 10 μm to several millimeters and a real-time monitoring of one single drop. Our comprehensive study includes a time resolved visual inspection, laser shadowgraphy, laser induced fluorescence imaging, and ambient mass spectrometric interrogation of the nascent Taylor cone. The results shown for a millimeter sized drop, previously inaccessible for Coulomb fission experiments, are mostly comparable with previous results for smaller drops. The major difference is the time scale and the threshold potential of the drop rupture. Both values, however, resemble theoretically extrapolations to the larger radius. The technique allows for a systematic study of breakup behavior of

  2. Drop-out from a psychodynamic group psychotherapy outpatient unit. (United States)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin


    BACKGROUND. Drop-out from psychotherapy is common and represents a considerable problem in clinical practice and research. Aim. To explore pre-treatment predictors of early and late drop-out from psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient unit for non-psychotic disorders in Denmark. Methods. Naturalistic design including 329 patients, the majority with mood, neurotic and personality disorders referred to 39-session group therapy. Predictors were socio-demographic and clinical variables, self-reported symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-Revised) and personality style (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II). Drop-out was classified into early and late premature termination excluding patients who dropped out for external reasons. Results. Drop-out comprised 20.6% (68 patients) of the sample. Logistic regression revealed social functioning, vocational training, alcohol problems and antisocial behavior to be related to drop-out. However, early drop-outs had prominent agoraphobic symptoms, lower interpersonal sensitivity and compulsive personality features, and late drop-outs cognitive and somatic anxiety symptoms and antisocial personality features. Clinical and psychological variables accounted for the major part of variance in predictions of drop-out, which ranged from 15.6% to 19.5% (Nagelkerke Pseudo R-Square). Conclusion. Social functioning was consistently associated with drop-out, but personality characteristics and anxiety symptoms differentiated between early and late drop-out. Failure to discriminate between stages of premature termination may explain some of the inconsistencies in the drop-out literature. Clinical implications. Before selection of patients to time-limited psychodynamic groups, self-reported symptoms should be thoroughly considered. Patients with agoraphobic symptoms should be offered alternative treatment. Awareness of and motivation to work with interpersonal issues may be essential for compliance with group therapy.

  3. Organic matter dynamics and stable isotope signature as tracers of the sources of suspended sediment (United States)

    Schindler Wildhaber, Y.; Liechti, R.; Alewell, C.


    Suspended sediment (SS) and organic matter in rivers can harm brown trout Salmo trutta by affecting the health and fitness of free swimming fish and by causing siltation of the riverbed. The temporal and spatial dynamics of sediment, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) during the brown trout spawning season in a small river of the Swiss Plateau were assessed and C isotopes as well as the C/N atomic ratio were used to distinguish autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter in SS loads. The visual basic program IsoSource with 13Ctot and 15N as input isotopes was used to quantify the temporal and spatial sources of SS. Organic matter concentrations in the infiltrated and suspended sediment were highest during low flow periods with small sediment loads and lowest during high flow periods with high sediment loads. Peak values in nitrate and dissolved organic C were measured during high flow and high rainfall, probably due to leaching from pasture and arable land. The organic matter was of allochthonous sources as indicated by the C/N atomic ratio and δ13Corg. Organic matter in SS increased from up- to downstream due to an increase of pasture and arable land downstream of the river. The mean fraction of SS originating from upper watershed riverbed sediment decreased from up to downstream and increased during high flow at all measuring sites along the course of the river. During base flow conditions, the major sources of SS are pasture, forest and arable land. The latter increased during rainy and warmer winter periods, most likely because both triggered snow melt and thus erosion. The measured increase in DOC and nitrate concentrations during high flow support these modeling results. Enhanced soil erosion processes on pasture and arable land are expected with increasing heavy rain events and less snow during winter seasons due to climate change. Consequently, SS and organic matter in the river will increase, which will possibly affect brown trout negatively.

  4. Treatment of wastewater containing a large amount of suspended solids by a novel multi-staged UASB reactor. (United States)

    Uemura, S; Harada, H; Ohashi, A; Torimura, S


    Treatment of artificial wastewater containing a large amount of suspended solids comprised of soybean processing waste and pig fodder was studied using a novel multi-staged upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. The reactor consisted of three compartments, each containing a gas solid separator. The wastewater had chemical oxygen demand of approximately 21600 mg l(-1), suspended solids of 12800 mg l(-1), and an ammonia concentration of 945 mg l(-1). A continuous experiment without effluent circulation showed that the multi-staged reactor was not that effective for the treatment of wastewater containing a large amount of suspended solids. However, operation of the reactor with circulation of effluent enabled the reactor to achieve organic removal of 85% and approximately 70% methane conversion at loading rates of between 4.0 to 5.4 kg-chemical oxygen demand per cubic meter per day, meaning that the reactor was more effective when effluent was circulated. Morphological investigation revealed that the crude fiber in the sludge was partially degraded and that it had many small depressions on its surface. Evolved biogas may have become caught in these depressions of the fibers and caused washout of the sludge.

  5. Electrowetting-enhanced microfluidic device for drop generation (United States)

    Gu, Hao; Malloggi, Florent; Vanapalli, Siva A.; Mugele, Frieder


    We integrated electrowetting into a microfluidic flow focusing device to study drop generation under the influence of electric fields. Using both the dispersed phase inlet pressure and the applied voltage as control parameters, we find that the range of drop sizes and the drop generation rate can be controlled in a much finer way than with hydrodynamics alone. In particular a "conical spray" regime occurring at a voltage of O(50 V) allows for continuous tuning of the (highly monodisperse) drop diameter from ≈5 to 50 μm at a fixed continuous flow rate.

  6. Reducing pressure drop in a baghouse using flow distributors. (United States)

    Chen, C J


    The pressure drop of ladder vanes in a baghouse could be reduced by decreasing the vane number and adjusting the inclined angle of the vane. Two types of flow distributors were utilized to test pressure drop caused by the structure of a baghouse. The pressure drops were measured by an inclined manometer under various filtration velocities. The purpose of this study is to understand the improvement effect of pressure drop saving for the traditional ladder vanes. Experimental results showed that the pressure drop of the Vane 3-1 configuration (flow distributor with three vanes perpendicular to the inlet flow) was higher than that of the Empty configuration (without flow distributors). The Vane 3-1 configuration could not reduce the pressure drop because of the barrier effect. By reducing the number and adjusting the angle of the vanes, the barrier effect was decreased, and the pressure drop of the Vane 2-1 configuration was much lower than that of the Vane 3-1 configuration. The largest difference in pressure drop between Vane 2-1 and Vane 3-1 was 1.702 cm w.g. at a filtration velocity of 4.17 cm/sec and, in terms of percentage, is 18.52% corresponding to a filtration velocity of 2.25 cm/sec. The improvement effect on the pressure drop saving for Vane 3-1 was significant.

  7. Substrate constraint modifies the Rayleigh spectrum of vibrating sessile drops. (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Bostwick, Joshua B; Steen, Paul H; Daniel, Susan


    In this work, we study the resonance behavior of mechanically oscillated, sessile water drops. By mechanically oscillating sessile drops vertically and within prescribed ranges of frequencies and amplitudes, a rich collection of resonance modes are observed and their dynamics subsequently investigated. We first present our method of identifying each mode uniquely, through association with spherical harmonics and according to their geometric patterns. Next, we compare our measured resonance frequencies of drops to theoretical predictions using both the classical theory of Lord Rayleigh and Lamb for free, oscillating drops, and a prediction by Bostwick and Steen that explicitly considers the effect of the solid substrate on drop dynamics. Finally, we report observations and analysis of drop mode mixing, or the simultaneous coexistence of multiple mode shapes within the resonating sessile drop driven by one sinusoidal signal of a single frequency. The dynamic response of a deformable liquid drop constrained by the substrate it is in contact with is of interest in a number of applications, such as drop atomization and ink jet printing, switchable electronically controlled capillary adhesion, optical microlens devices, as well as digital microfluidic applications where control of droplet motion is induced by means of a harmonically driven substrate.

  8. Clinical analysis of diclofenac sodium eye drops combined with sodium hyaluronate eye drops for dry eye after ophthalmic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To study and analyze the clinical efficacy of diclofenac sodium eye drops combined with sodium hyaluronate eye drops in treating dry eyes after ophthalmic surgery. METHODS: Totally 94 eyes from 94 patients with dry eyes were slected, and they were randomly divided into orbervation group and control group. Fouty-seven patients in the control group using conventional treatment combined with sodium hyaluronate eye drops. Other 47 patients in orbervation group were treated with diclofenac sodium eye drops on the basis of control group. We compared symptoms, fluorescein station, tear film break time, Schirmer Ⅰ test between the two groups.RESULTS: Compared with before treatment, patients of both groups with sympotom, fluorescein station score, BUT, and Schirmer Ⅰ test were significantly improved(PPPCONCLUSION: Diclofenac sodium eye drops combined with sodium hyaluronate eye drops have significant efficacy in treatment of dry eyes after ophthalmic surgery, which can effectively relieve clinical symptoms, improve BUT and Schirmer Ⅰ test.

  9. Career drop outs of young elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Fišer


    Full Text Available The main problem of the study was to examine the characteristics of sports career drop outs of young elite sportswomen and their adaptation to the post-sport life. The sample included 20 ex-young elite sportswomen, who had brought their successful sport careers to an end before the age of 19. We used a modified interview about sports career termination (Cecić Erpič, 1998 for the investigation of the characteristics of their sports careers. To examine the caracteristics of sport careers we used frequency analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that the participants mostly stated more than one reason for the termination of their career. The most common reasons for career termination were: lack of motivation, bad relations with trainers or co-competitors and dedication to school or education. After the end of a sports career most of the young sportswomen stayed actively in touch with sport, either as trainers, judges, or they remained engaged in sports for recreation.


    Dwyer, Rachel E; Hodson, Randy; McLoud, Laura


    For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college degree and future difficulties they may face in repaying college debt. We examine these new realities by studying gender differences in the role of debt in the pivotal event of graduating from college using the 1997 cohort of the national longitudinal Survey of youth. In this article, we find that women and men both experience slowing and even diminishing probabilities of graduating when carrying high levels of debt, but that men drop out at lower levels of debt than do women. We conclude by theorizing that high levels of debt are one of the mechanisms that sort women and men into different positions in the social stratification system.

  11. Effect of drop volume and surface statistics on the superhydrophobicity of randomly rough substrates (United States)

    Afferrante, L.; Carbone, G.


    In this paper, a simple theoretical approach is developed with the aim of evaluating shape, interfacial pressure, apparent contact angle and contact area of liquid drops gently deposed on randomly rough surfaces. This method can be useful to characterize the superhydrophobic properties of rough substrates, and to investigate the contact behavior of impacting drops. We assume that (i) the size of the apparent liquid–solid contact area is much larger than the micromorphology of the substrate, and (ii) a composite interface is always formed at the microscale. Results show apparent contact angle and liquid–solid area fraction are slightly influenced by the drop volume only at relatively high values of the root mean square roughness h rms, whereas the effect of volume is practically negligible at small h rms. The main statistical quantity affecting the superhydrophobic properties is found to be the Wenzel roughness parameter r W, which depends on the average slope of the surface heights. Moreover, transition from the Cassie–Baxter state to the Wenzel one is observed when r W reduces below a certain critical value, and theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, the present method can be conveniently exploited to evaluate the occurrence of pinning phenomena in the case of impacting drops, as the Wenzel critical pressure for liquid penetration gives an estimation of the maximum impact pressure tolerated by the surface without pinning occurring.

  12. Pseudo-empirical Likelihood-Based Method Using Calibration for Longitudinal Data with Drop-Out. (United States)

    Chen, Baojiang; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary


    In observational studies, interest mainly lies in estimation of the population-level relationship between the explanatory variables and dependent variables, and the estimation is often undertaken using a sample of longitudinal data. In some situations, the longitudinal data sample features biases and loss of estimation efficiency due to non-random drop-out. However, inclusion of population-level information can increase estimation efficiency. In this paper we propose an empirical likelihood-based method to incorporate population-level information in a longitudinal study with drop-out. The population-level information is incorporated via constraints on functions of the parameters, and non-random drop-out bias is corrected by using a weighted generalized estimating equations method. We provide a three-step estimation procedure that makes computation easier. Some commonly used methods are compared in simulation studies, which demonstrate that our proposed method can correct the non-random drop-out bias and increase the estimation efficiency, especially for small sample size or when the missing proportion is high. In some situations, the efficiency improvement is substantial. Finally, we apply this method to an Alzheimer's disease study.

  13. Use of the pendant drop method to measure interfacial tension between molten polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Y. Arashiro


    Full Text Available In this paper the pendant drop method to measure interfacial tension between molten polymers is reviewed. A typical pendant drop apparatus is presented. The algorithms used to infer interfacial tension from the geometrical profile of the pendant drop are described in details, in particular a new routine to evaluate correctly the value of the radius at the apex of the drop, necessary to the calculation of interfacial tension is presented. The method was evaluated for the possibility of measuring the interfacial tension between polyethylene and polystyrene. It is shown that the method is unsuitable for the measurement of interfacial tension between high density polyethylene and polystyrene due possibly to a too small difference of density between the two polymers. Values of interfacial tension between low density polyethylene (LDPE and polystyrene (PS as a function of the molecular weight of PS are presented. It was shown that the interfacial tension between LDPE and PS increased as a function of molecular weight of PS up to values of molecular weight of roughly 40,000 g/mol, value for which entanglements occur.

  14. Microgravity Level Measurement of the Beijing Drop Tower Using a Sensitive Accelerometer (United States)

    Liu, T. Y.; Wu, Q. P.; Sun, B. Q.; Han, F. T.


    Drop tower is the most common ground-based facility to provide microgravity environment and widely used in many science experiments. A differential space accelerometer has been proposed to test the spin-gravity interaction between rotating extended bodies onboard a drag-free satellite. In order to assist design and test of this inertial sensor in a series of ground- based pre-flight experiments, it is very important to know accurately the residual acceleration of drop towers. In this report, a sensitive instrument for this purpose was built with a high-performance servo quartz accelerometer, and the dedicated interface electronics design providing small full-scale range and high sensitivity, up to 136.8 V/g0. The residual acceleration at the Beijing drop tower was measured using two different drop capsules. The experimental result shows that the microgravity level of the free-falling double capsule is better than 2 × 10-4g0 (Earth’s gravity). The measured data in this report provides critical microgravity information for design of the following ground experiments.

  15. Assessment of eye drop instillation technique in glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fiuza Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To study the technique of eye drop instillation in glaucoma patients and identify independent factors that may influence their performance. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 71 consecutive patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension, self-administering topical anti-glaucoma medications for ≥6 months were evaluated. All patients instilled a tear substitute into the eye with the worst eyesight using the technique normally used at home. The following parameters were evaluated: age, number of years receiving treatment with ocular hypotensive eye drops, time spent to instill the first drop, number of drops instilled, correct location of the eye drops, contact of the bottle with the eye, closing of the eyelids or occlusion of the tear punctum, and asepsis of the hands. Results: The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 10.8 years, and patients were on ocular hypotensive drugs for 11.3 ± 7.3 (range, 2-35 years. Only 28% of the patients were able to correctly instill the eye drops (squeeze out 1 drop and instill it into the conjunctival sac without bottle tip contact. Touching the tip of the bottle to the globe or periocular tissue occurred in 62% of the patients. In 49% of the patients, the eye drops fell on the eyelids or cheek. Two or more drops were squeezed by 27% of the patients. Conclusions: The majority of glaucoma patients were unable to correctly instill eye drops. Age was an independent factor associated with eye drop instillation performance.

  16. Prediction and forecast of Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) on the Upper Yangtze basin (United States)

    Matos, José Pedro; Hassan, Marwan; Lu, Xixi; Franca, Mário J.


    Sediment transport in suspension may represent 90% or more of the global annual flux of sediment. For instance, more than 99% of the sediment supplied to the sea by the Yangtze River is suspended load. Suspended load is an important component for understanding channel dynamics and landscape evolution. Sediments transported in suspension are a major source of nutrients for aquatic organisms in riparian and floodplain habitats, and play a beneficial role acting as a sink in the carbon cycle. Excess of fine sediments may also have adverse effects. It can impair fish spawning by riverbed clogging, disturb foraging efficiency of hunting of river fauna, cause algae and benthos scouring, reduce or inhibit exchanges through the hyporheic region. Accumulation of fine sediments in reservoirs reduces storage capacity. Although fine sediment dynamics has been the focus of many studies, the current knowledge of sediment sources, transfer, and storage is inadequate to address fine sediment dynamics in the landscape. The theoretical derivation of a complete model for suspended sediment transport at the basin scale, incorporating small scale processes of production and transport, is hindered because the underlying mechanisms are produced at different non-similar scales. Availability of long-term reliable data on suspended sediment dynamics is essential to improve our knowledge on transport processes and to develop reliable sediment prediction models. Over the last 60 years, the Yangtze River Commission has been measuring the daily Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) at the Pingshan station. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to examine temporal variability and controls of fine sediment dynamics in the Upper Yangtze basin. The objective of this study is to describe temporal variation of fine sediment dynamics at the Pingshan station making use of the extensive sediment monitoring program undertaken at that location. We test several strategies of prediction and forecast

  17. Progress towards Acoustic Suspended Sediment Transport Monitoring: Fraser River, BC (United States)

    Attard, M. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Kostaschuk, R. A.


    Our ability to predict the timing and quantity of suspended sediment transport is limited because fine sand, silt and clay delivery are supply limited, requiring empirical modeling approaches of limited temporal stability. A solution is the development of continuous monitoring techniques capable of tracking sediment concentrations and grain-size. Here we examine sediment delivery from upstream sources to the lower Fraser River. The sediment budget of the lower Fraser River provides a long-term perspective of the net changes in the channels and in sediment delivery to Fraser Delta. The budget is based on historical sediment rating curves developed from data collected from 1965-1986 by the Water Survey of Canada. We explore the possibility of re-establishing the sediment-monitoring program using hydro-acoustics by evaluating the use of a 300 kHz side-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), mounted just downstream of the sand-gravel transition at Mission, for continuous measurement of suspended sediment transport. Complementary field observations include conventional bottle sampling with a P-63 sampler, vertical profiles with a downward-looking 600 kHz aDcp, and 1200 kHz aDcp discharge measurements. We have successfully completed calibration of the downward-looking aDcp with the P-63 samples; the side-looking aDcp signals remain under investigation. A comparison of several methods for obtaining total sediment flux indicates that suspended sediment concentration (SSC) closely follows discharge through the freshet and peaks in total SSC and sand SSC coincide with peak measurements of discharge. Low flows are dominated by fine sediment and grain size increases with higher flows. This research assesses several techniques for obtaining sediment flux and contributes to the understanding of sediment delivery to sand-bedded portions of the river.

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of suspended monolayer graphene (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Bing-Jie; Lin, Hsing-Ying; Huang, Chen-Han; Shih, Fu-Yu; Wang, Wei-Hua; Liu, Chih-Yi; Chui, Hsiang-Chen


    The interactions between phonons and electrons induced by the dopants or the substrate of graphene in spectroscopic investigation reveal a rich source of interesting physics. Raman spectra and surface-enhanced Raman spectra of supported and suspended monolayer graphenes were measured and analyzed systemically with different approaches. The weak Raman signals are greatly enhanced by the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy which has attracted considerable interests. The technique is regarded as wonderful and useful tool, but the dopants that are produced by depositing metallic nanoparticles may affect the electron scattering processes of graphene. Therefore, the doping and substrate influences on graphene are also important issues to be investigated. In this work, the peak positions of G peak and 2D peak, the I 2D/ I G ratios, and enhancements of G and 2D bands with suspended and supported graphene flakes were measured and analyzed. The peak shifts of G and 2D bands between the Raman and SERS signals demonstrate the doping effect induced by silver nanoparticles by n-doping. The I 2D/ I G ratio can provide a more sensitive method to carry out the doping effect on the graphene surface than the peak shifts of G and 2D bands. The enhancements of 2D band of suspended and supported graphenes reached 138, and those of G band reached at least 169. Their good enhancements are helpful to measure the optical properties of graphene. The different substrates that covered the graphene surface with doping effect are more sensitive to the enhancements of G band with respect to 2D band. It provides us a new method to distinguish the substrate and doping effect on graphene.

  19. IR optical fiber-based noncontact pyrometer for drop tube instrumentation (United States)

    May, R. G.; Moneyhun, S.; Saleh, W.; Sudeora, S.; Claus, R. O.; Buoncristiani, A. M.


    The design of a two color pyrometer with infrared optical fiber bundles for collection of the infrared radiation is described. The pyrometer design is engineered to facilitate its use for measurement of the temperature of small, falling samples in a microgravity materials processing experiment using a 100 meter long drop tube. Because the samples are small and move rapidly through the field of view of the pyrometer, the optical power budget of the detection system is severly limited. Strategies for overcoming this limitation are discussed.

  20. Universal scaling laws for the disintegration of electrified drops. (United States)

    Collins, Robert T; Sambath, Krishnaraj; Harris, Michael T; Basaran, Osman A


    Drops subjected to strong electric fields emit charged jets from their pointed tips. The disintegration of such jets into a spray consisting of charged droplets is common to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, printing and coating processes, and raindrops in thunderclouds. Currently, there exist conflicting theories and measurements on the size and charge of these small electrospray droplets. We use theory and simulation to show that conductivity can be tuned to yield three scaling regimes for droplet radius and charge, a finding missed by previous studies. The amount of charge Q that electrospray droplets carry determines whether they are coulombically stable and charged below the Rayleigh limit of stability (Q(R)) or are unstable and hence prone to further explosions once they are formed. Previous experiments reported droplet charge values ranging from 10% to in excess of (Q(R)). Simulations unequivocally show that electrospray droplets are coulombically stable at the instant they are created and that there exists a universal scaling law for droplet charge, Q = 0.44 (Q(R)).

  1. Dynamics of the central entrapped bubble during drop impact (United States)

    Jian, Zhen; Channa, Murad Ali; Thoraval, Marie-Jean


    When a drop impacts onto a liquid surface, it entraps a thin central air disk. The air is then brought towards the axis of symmetry by surface tension. This contraction dynamics is very challenging to capture, due to the small length scales (a few micrometers thin air disk) and time scales (contracting in a few hundred microseconds). We use the open source two-phase flow codes Gerris and Basilisk to study this air entrapment phenomenon. The effects of liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension, and of the impact velocity were investigated. We focus on the morphology of the contracting air disk. The bubble is expected to contract into a single spherical bubble. However, in some cases, the air can be stretched vertically by the liquid inertia and split into two smaller bubbles. The convergence of capillary waves on the air disk towards the axis of symmetry can also make it rupture at the center, thus forming a toroidal bubble. In other cases, vorticity shedding can deform the contracting bubble, leading to more complex structures. A parameter space analysis based on the Reynolds and Weber numbers was then done to classify the different regimes and explain the transitions. Full affiliation:State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures,Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environment and Control for Flight Vehicle,International Center for Applied Mechanics,School of Aerospace,Xi'an Jiaotong University.

  2. Update on the Purdue University 2-second Drop Tower (United States)

    Collicott, Steven

    A small drop tower of approximately one second drop duration was built in the School of Aero-nautics and Astronautics at Purdue University beginning in 1998 and operated until summer 2007. This inexpensive tower in an old airplane hanger, was built largely by Yongkang Chen, now a Research Professor at Portland State University in Oregon, USA. In about 7 years of operations, the tower generated sufficient science results for Chen's PhD thesis[1] (summarized in three AIAA Journal papers[2-4]), Fitzpatrick's MS thesis[5], two industry projects for since-canceled advanced rodent habitats for ISS, and one project for NASA Marshall. In addition to the science use, Purdue undergraduate students designed, built, and performed simpler fluids experiments for their own career advancement, including a novel investigation of the impact of imperfect repeatability of initial conditions on a zero-g fluids experiment. The tower was also used for outreach to school children. It is most satisfying that Chen's PhD research in this small tower, and subsequent discussions and interactions, helped Weislogel to propose the two Vane Gap tests in his highly successful Capillary Fluids Experiment (CFE) in the International Space Station in 2006 and 2007[6]. Chen as been involved in the remodeling of these two Vane Gap cylinders for subsequent re-launch to ISS for a second round of experiments expected in 2010 and 2011. In August 2007 the School of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Purdue University moved into the new Neil Armstrong Hall of Engineering and construction on a new 2-second drop tower began. A vertical shaft of nearly 23 meters was designed into the building. An approximately 80 m2 general-use fluids lab is at the top level, and a small access room of approximately 9 m2 is at the bottom. However, construction of the new $57M building created only the space for the science facility, not the science facility itself. The science facility is under construction and this paper presents

  3. Coupling between electronic transport and longitudinal phonons in suspended nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapmaz, S; Jarillo-Herrero, P; Blanter, Ya M; Zant, H S J van der [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands)


    Current-voltage characteristics of suspended single-wall carbon nanotube (NT) quantum dots show a series of steps equally spaced in voltage. The energy scale of this harmonic, low-energy excitation spectrum is consistent with that of the longitudinal low-k phonon mode in the NT. Agreement is found with a Franck-Condon-based model in which the phonon-assisted tunnelling process is modelled as a coupling of electronic levels to underdamped quantum harmonic oscillators. Comparison with this model indicates a rather strong electron-phonon coupling factor of order unity. We investigate different electron-phonon coupling mechanisms and give estimates of the coupling factor.

  4. Regional volume changes in canine lungs suspended in air (United States)

    Abbrecht, Peter H.; Kyle, Richard R.; Bryant, Howard J.; Feuerstein, Irwin


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the absence of a pleural pressure gradient (simulating the presumed condition found in microgravity) upon regional expansion of the lung. We attempted to produce a uniform pressure over the surface of the lung by suspending excised lungs in air. Such studies should help determine whether or not the absence of a pleural pressure gradient leads to uniform ventilation. A preparation in which there is no pleural pressure gradient should also be useful in studying non-gravitational effects on ventilation distribution.

  5. The Ages in a Self-Suspended Nanoparticle Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen


    Telomers ionically tethered to nanometer-sized particles yield self-suspended, nanoparticle-Iaden liquids with unusual dynamical features. By subjecting these suspensions to controlled, modest shear strains, we find that their flow behaviors observed using experiments performed on time scales of tens of seconds can be projected to obtain maps of their dynamical response on geological time scales. That such extraordinarily slow dynamic processes can be uncovered from real-time measurements by simply stretching a system provides a simple but powerful tool for interrogating extremely slow motions in other jammed physical states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Suspended liminality: Vacillating affects in cyberbullying/research


    Kofoed, J.; Stenner, Paul


    This paper develops a concept of liminal hotspots in the context of i) a secondary analysis of a cyberbullying case involving a group of school children from a Danish school, and ii) an altered auto-ethnography in which the authors ‘entangle’ their own experiences with the case analysis. These two sources are used to build an account of a liminal hotspot conceived as an occasion of troubled and suspended transformative transition in which a liminal phase is extended and remains unresolved. Th...

  7. Oscillation of a diamagnetic liquid bubble suspended by magnetic force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, R. E-mail:; Tomita, S.; Mai, J.; Park, M.K.; Oshima, S


    The levitation of the diamagnetic liquid droplet with the strong magnetic field is experimentally simulated, using the magnetic fluid as the surrounding fluid in place of air or gas, and the water bubble is levitated with the conventional permanent magnet. When the stepwise magnetic field is superposed, the suspended bubble behaves as a typical step response with the overshoot and viscous damping. The effects of the volume of the bubble, the strength of the magnetic field and the concentration of the magnetic fluid are investigated.

  8. Total sleep time severely drops during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Leger

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Restricted sleep duration among young adults and adolescents has been shown to increase the risk of morbidities such as obesity, diabetes or accidents. However there are few epidemiological studies on normal total sleep time (TST in representative groups of teen-agers which allow to get normative data. PURPOSE: To explore perceived total sleep time on schooldays (TSTS and non schooldays (TSTN and the prevalence of sleep initiating insomnia among a nationally representative sample of teenagers. METHODS: Data from 9,251 children aged 11 to 15 years-old, 50.7% of which were boys, as part of the cross-national study 2011 HBSC were analyzed. Self-completion questionnaires were administered in classrooms. An estimate of TSTS and TSTN (week-ends and vacations was calculated based on specifically designed sleep habits report. Sleep deprivation was estimated by a TSTN - TSTS difference >2 hours. Sleep initiating nsomnia was assessed according to International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD 2. Children who reported sleeping 7 hours or less per night were considered as short sleepers. RESULTS: A serious drop of TST was observed between 11 yo and 15 yo, both during the schooldays (9 hours 26 minutes vs. 7 h 55 min.; p<0.001 and at a lesser extent during week-ends (10 h 17 min. vs. 9 h 44 min.; p<0.001. Sleep deprivation concerned 16.0% of chidren aged of 11 yo vs. 40.5% of those of 15 yo (p<0.001. Too short sleep was reported by 2.6% of the 11 yo vs. 24.6% of the 15 yo (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Despite the obvious need for sleep in adolescence, TST drastically decreases with age among children from 11 to 15 yo which creates significant sleep debt increasing with age.

  9. Electrowetting-driven oscillating drops sandwiched between two substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mampallil Augustine, Dileep; Eral, Burak; Staicu, A.D.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.


    Drops sandwiched between two substrates are often found in lab-on-chip devices based on digital microfluidics. We excite azimuthal oscillations of such drops by periodically modulating the contact line via ac electrowetting. By tuning the frequency of the applied voltage, several shape modes can be

  10. Vortex Shedding and Depinning of Wind-Forced Liquid Drops (United States)

    Simon, Roger; White, Edward


    Water drops adhere to solid substrates but can depin when wind forcing exceeds the adhesion force provided by surface tension. Schmucker and White (2012.DFD.M4.6) measured critical wind forcing limits for high-Reynolds-number airflow forcing and found a critical constant Weber number, Wecrit = 8.0 , for a range of drop Bond numbers. This work seeks to identify what behavior is associated with Wecrit = 8.0 and why wind-forced drops depin when they do. One hypothesis suggests that, at high Reynolds numbers, drops depin when their interface natural frequency matches the frequency of air vortex shedding in the separated drop wake. We investigate whether a resonance between vortex shedding and drop interface oscillations is involved with depinning. We measure the shedding frequencies behind solid protuberances of the same size as typical drops and, separately, water-drop interface frequencies. We compare our measured values under different flow conditions to establish whether shedding and interface resonance are related to depinning. 1Supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant CBET-1605947.

  11. Liquid-gas mass transfer at drop structures. (United States)

    Matias, Natércia; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Ferreira, Filipa; Matos, José Saldanha


    Over the last decades, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the sulfur cycle in sewer systems. In spite of a wealth of experimental and field studies that have addressed the release of hydrogen sulfide from free surface flows in gravity sewers and the corresponding air-water mass transfer, little is known about hydrogen sulfide emission under highly turbulent conditions (e.g., drop structures, hydraulic jumps). In this study, experimental work was carried out to analyze the influence of characteristics of drops on reaeration. Physical models were built, mimicking typical sewer drop structures and allowing different types of drops, drop heights, tailwater depths and flow rates. In total, 125 tests were performed. Based on their results, empirical expressions translating the relationship between the mass transfer of oxygen and physical parameters of drop structures were established. Then, by applying the two-film theory with two-reference substances, the relation to hydrogen sulfide release was defined. The experiments confirmed that the choice of the type of drop structure is critical to determine the uptake/emission rates. By quantifying the air-water mass transfer rates between free-fall and backdrop types of drop, the latter resulted in considerably lower oxygen uptake rates.

  12. Cathode potential drop in the channel of a magnetoplasma compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubin, A.P.


    Calculations are carried out for the dissipationless plasma flow in the channel of a magnetoplasma compressor when there is a potential drop near the cathode. This drop appears when the current is carried by ions as the result of the disappearance of ions at the cathode.

  13. Maximal air bubble entrainment at liquid-drop impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, W.; van der Veen, Roeland; Tran, Tuan; Keij, D.L.; Winkels, K.G.; Peters, I.R.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Lohse, Detlef


    At impact of a liquid drop on a solid surface, an air bubble can be entrapped. Here, we show that two competing effects minimize the (relative) size of this entrained air bubble: for large drop impact velocity and large droplets, the inertia of the liquid flattens the entrained bubble, whereas for

  14. Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, W.; Winkels, K.G.; Peters, I.R.; Brunet, P.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus


    We investigate the spontaneous oscillations of drops levitated above an air cushion, eventually inducing a breaking of axisymmetry and the appearance of “star drops”. This is strongly reminiscent of the Leidenfrost stars that are observed for drops floating above a hot substrate. The key advantage

  15. Remote Sensing Studies of Suspended Sediment Concentration Variation in Barito Delta (United States)

    Arisanty, Deasy; Nur Saputra, Aswin


    The dynamic of suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta depend on the process in upstream. Agriculture, mining, and illegal logging in Barito River upstream has an effect for suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta. The objective of research is to estimate the variation of suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta. The data of research consist of Landsat 7 in year 2011 and measurement result data of suspended sediment concentration both in wet season and dry season in year 2011. Data analysis is regression analysis to estimates the variation of suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta. The method of research compares three types of spectral transformation for suspended sediment that is Normalized Suspended Material Index (NSMI), Normalized Differences Suspended Sediment Index (NDSSI), and band ratio (green/blue). The result of the transformation is compared with the value of the field measurement. Based on the result of the comparison can be known the suitable type of transformation for the suspended sediment estimation in Barito Delta. The result of research explains that NSMI has the highest value to estimate the variation of suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta.

  16. Drop interaction with solid boundaries in liquid/liquid systems (United States)

    Bordoloi, Ankur Deep

    The present experimental work was motivated primarily by the CO 2 sequestration process. In a possible scenario during this process, gravity driven CO2 bubbles coalesce at an interface near the rock surface. In another scenario, trapped CO2 fluid may escape from a porous matrix overcoming interfacial force inside a pore. Based on these potential scenarios, the current research was divided into two broad experimental studies. In the first part, coalescence at a quiescent interface of two analogous fluids (silicone oil and water/glycerin mixture) was investigated for water/glycerin drops with Bond number (Bo) ~7 and Ohnesorge number ~ 0.01 using high-speed imaging and time-resolved tomographic PIV. Two perturbation cases with a solid particle wetted in oil and water/glycerin placed adjacent to the coalescing drop were considered. The results were compared with coalescence of a single drop and that of a drop neighBored by a second drop of equivalent size. Each perturbing object caused an initial tilting of the drop, influencing its rupture location, subsequent film retraction and eventual collapse behavior. Once tilted, drops typically ruptured near their lowest vertical position which was located either toward or away from the perturbing object depending on the case. The trends in local retraction speed of the ruptured film and the overall dynamics of the collapsing drops were discussed in detail. In the second part, the motion of gravity driven drops (B o~0.8-11) through a confining orifice d/Dglycerin, surrounded by silicone oil, fall toward and encounter the orifice plate after reaching terminal speed. The effects of surface wettability were investigated for Both round-edged and sharp-edged orifices. For the round-edged case, a thin film of surrounding oil prevented the drop fluid from contacting the orifice surface, such that the flow outcomes of the drops were independent of surface wettability. For d/D<0.8, the Boundary between drop capture and release depended

  17. Electrowetting-driven oscillating drops sandwiched between two substrates (United States)

    Mampallil, Dileep; Burak Eral, H.; Staicu, Adrian; Mugele, Frieder; van den Ende, Dirk


    Drops sandwiched between two substrates are often found in lab-on-chip devices based on digital microfluidics. We excite azimuthal oscillations of such drops by periodically modulating the contact line via ac electrowetting. By tuning the frequency of the applied voltage, several shape modes can be selected one by one. The frequency of the oscillations is half the frequency of the contact angle modulation by electrowetting, indicating a parametric excitation. The drop response to sinusoidal driving deviates substantially from sinusoidal behavior in a “stop and go” fashion. Although our simple theoretical model describes the observed behavior qualitatively, the resonances appear at lower frequencies than expected. Moreover, the oscillations produce a nonperiodic fluid transport within the drop with a typical velocity of 1 mm/s. In digital microfluidic devices, where the typical drop size is less than 1 mm, this flow can result in very fast mixing on the spot.

  18. Tunable transport of drops on a vibrating inclined fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Bick, Alison; Sauret, Alban; Stone, Howard A


    Transport of liquid drops in fibrous media occurs in various engineering systems such as fog harvesting or cleaning of textiles. The ability to tune or to control liquid movement can increase the system efficiency and enable new engineering applications. In this Letter, we experimentally investigate how partially wetting drops on a single fiber can be manipulated by vibrating the fiber. We show that a sliding motion along the fiber or a dripping of the drop can be triggered by standing waves. We identify the conditions on the drop volume, the fiber tilt angle and the amplitude and frequency of oscillations to observe these different behaviors. Finally, we experimentally illustrate that vibrations can be used to control the transport and the collection of water drops along a fiber using a combination of the sliding and dripping transitions.

  19. Silicon wavelength-selective partial-drop broadcast filter bank. (United States)

    Su, Zhan; Cherchi, Matteo; Timurdogan, Erman; Sun, Jie; Moresco, Michele; Leake, Gerald; Coolbaugh, Douglas; Watts, Michael R


    We propose an approach to a wavelength-selective 1×N port optical broadcast network demonstrating the approach in a 1×8 port parallel optical drop filter bank utilizing adiabatic micro-ring tunable filters. The micro-ring filters exhibit first-order 92.7±3.7 GHz full width at half-maximum bandwidths with a 36.2 nm free spectral range, low-drop power variation (0.11 dB), and aggregate excess loss of only 1.1 dB in all drop ports. Error-free operation at a 10 Gbit/s data rate is achieved for all eight drop ports with less than a 0.5 dB power penalty among the ports. This wavelength-selective parallel-drop approach serves as a building block for on-chip all-to-all communication networks.

  20. Capillary-inertial colloidal catapults upon drop coalescence (United States)

    Chavez, Roger L.; Liu, Fangjie; Feng, James J.; Chen, Chuan-Hua


    Surface energy released upon drop coalescence is known to power the self-propelled jumping of liquid droplets on superhydrophobic solid surfaces, and the jumping droplets can additionally carry colloidal payloads toward self-cleaning. Here, we show that drop coalescence on a spherical particle leads to self-propelled launching of the particle from virtually any solid surface. The main prerequisite is an intermediate wettability of the particle, such that the momentum from the capillary-inertial drop coalescence process can be transferred to the particle. By momentum conservation, the launching velocity of the particle-drop complex is proportional to the capillary-inertial velocity based on the drop radius and to the fraction of the liquid mass in the total mass. The capillary-inertial catapult is not only an alternative mechanism for removing colloidal contaminants, but also a useful model system for studying ballistospore launching.

  1. Building micro-soccer-balls with evaporating colloidal fakir drops (United States)

    Gelderblom, Hanneke; Marín, Álvaro G.; Susarrey-Arce, Arturo; van Housselt, Arie; Lefferts, Leon; Gardeniers, Han; Lohse, Detlef; Snoeijer, Jacco H.


    Drop evaporation can be used to self-assemble particles into three-dimensional microstructures on a scale where direct manipulation is impossible. We present a unique method to create highly-ordered colloidal microstructures in which we can control the amount of particles and their packing fraction. To this end, we evaporate colloidal dispersion drops from a special type of superhydrophobic microstructured surface, on which the drop remains in Cassie-Baxter state during the entire evaporative process. The remainders of the drop consist of a massive spherical cluster of the microspheres, with diameters ranging from a few tens up to several hundreds of microns. We present scaling arguments to show how the final particle packing fraction of these balls depends on the drop evaporation dynamics, particle size, and number of particles in the system.

  2. Nutrients, Select Pesticides, and Suspended Sediment in the Karst Terrane of the Sinking Creek Basin, Kentucky, 2004-06 (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.


    headwaters station; mean daily flows at the headwater station were, therefore, estimated using a mathematical record-extension technique known as the Maintenance of Variance-Extension, type 1 (MOVE.1). The estimation of mean daily streamflows introduced a large amount of uncertainty into the loads and yields estimates at the headwater station. Total estimated loads of select (five most commonly detected) pesticides from the Sinking Creek Basin were about 0.01 to 1.2 percent of the estimated application, indicating pesticides possibly are retained within the watershed. Mean annual loads [(in/lb)/yr] for nutrients and suspended sediment were estimated at the two Sinking Creek mainstem sampling stations. The relation between estimated and measured instantaneous loads of nitrite plus nitrate at the Sinking Creek near Lodiburg station indicate a reasonably tight distribution over the range of loads. The model for loads of nitrite plus nitrate at the Sinking Creek at Rosetta station indicates small loads were overestimated and underestimated. Relations between estimated and measured loads of total phosphorus and orthophosphate at both Sinking Creek mainstem stations showed similar patterns to the loads of nitrite plus nitrate at each respective station. The estimated mean annual load of suspended sediment is about 14 times larger at the Sinking Creek near Lodiburg station than at the Sinking Creek near Rosetta station. Estimated yields of nutrients and suspended sediment increased from the headwater to downstream monitoring stations on Sinking Creek. This finding suggests that sources of nutrients and suspended sediment are not evenly distributed throughout the karst terrane of the Sinking Creek Basin. Yields of select pesticides generally were similar from the headwater to downstream monitoring stations. However, the estimated yield of atrazine was about five times higher at the downstream station on Sinking Creek than at the headwater station on Sinking Creek.

  3. Coalescence and noncoalescence of sessile drops: impact of surface forces. (United States)

    Karpitschka, Stefan; Hanske, Christoph; Fery, Andreas; Riegler, Hans


    Due to capillarity, sessile droplets of identical liquids will instantaneously fuse when they come in contact at their three-phase lines. However, with drops of different, completely miscible liquids, instantaneous coalescence can be suppressed. Instead, the drops remain in a state of noncoalescence for some time, with the two drop bodies connected only by a thin neck. The reason for this noncoalescence is the surface tension difference, Δγ, between the liquids. If Δγ is sufficiently large, then it induces a sufficiently strong Marangoni flow, which keeps the main drop bodies temporarily separated. Studies with spreading drops have revealed that the boundary between instantaneous coalescence and noncoalescence is sharp (Karpitschka, S.; Riegler, H. J. Fluid. Mech. 2014, 743, R1). The boundary is a function of two parameters only: Δγ and Θ(a), the arithmetic mean of the contact angles in the moment of drop-drop contact. It appears plausible that surface forces (the disjoining pressure) could also influence the coalescence behavior. However, in experiments with spreading drops, surface forces always promote coalescence and their influence might be obscured. Therefore, we present here coalescence experiments with partially wetting liquids and compare the results to the spreading case. We adjust different equilibrium contact angles (i.e., different surface forces) with different substrate surface coatings. As for spreading drops, we observe a sharp boundary between regimes of coalescence and noncoalescence. The boundary follows the same power law relation for both partially and completely wetting cases. Therefore, we conclude that surface forces have no significant, explicit influence on the coalescence behavior of sessile drops from different miscible liquids.

  4. Thermoelectric unipolar spin battery in a suspended carbon nanotube (United States)

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng; He, Wan-Xiu; Luo, Hong-Gang


    A quantum dot formed in a suspended carbon nanotube exposed to an external magnetic field is predicted to act as a thermoelectric unipolar spin battery which generates pure spin current. The built-in spin flip mechanism is a consequence of the spin-vibration interaction resulting from the interplay between the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and the vibrational modes of the suspended carbon nanotube. On the other hand, utilizing thermoelectric effect, the temperature difference between the electron and the thermal bath to which the vibrational modes are coupled provides the driving force. We find that both magnitude and direction of the generated pure spin current are dependent on the strength of spin-vibration interaction, the sublevel configuration in dot, the temperatures of electron and thermal bath, and the tunneling rate between the dot and the pole. Moreover, in the linear response regime, the kinetic coefficient is non-monotonic in the temperature T and it reaches its maximum when {{k}\\text{B}}T is about one phonon energy. The existence of a strong intradot Coulomb interaction is irrelevant for our spin battery, provided that high-order cotunneling processes are suppressed.

  5. Thermoelectric unipolar spin battery in a suspended carbon nanotube. (United States)

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng; He, Wan-Xiu; Luo, Hong-Gang


    A quantum dot formed in a suspended carbon nanotube exposed to an external magnetic field is predicted to act as a thermoelectric unipolar spin battery which generates pure spin current. The built-in spin flip mechanism is a consequence of the spin-vibration interaction resulting from the interplay between the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and the vibrational modes of the suspended carbon nanotube. On the other hand, utilizing thermoelectric effect, the temperature difference between the electron and the thermal bath to which the vibrational modes are coupled provides the driving force. We find that both magnitude and direction of the generated pure spin current are dependent on the strength of spin-vibration interaction, the sublevel configuration in dot, the temperatures of electron and thermal bath, and the tunneling rate between the dot and the pole. Moreover, in the linear response regime, the kinetic coefficient is non-monotonic in the temperature T and it reaches its maximum when [Formula: see text] is about one phonon energy. The existence of a strong intradot Coulomb interaction is irrelevant for our spin battery, provided that high-order cotunneling processes are suppressed.

  6. IUTAM symposium on hydrodynamic diffusion of suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.H. [ed.


    Hydrodynamic diffusion refers to the fluctuating motion of nonBrownian particles (or droplets or bubbles) which occurs in a dispersion due to multiparticle interactions. For example, in a concentrated sheared suspension, particles do not move along streamlines but instead exhibit fluctuating motions as they tumble around each other. This leads to a net migration of particles down gradients in particle concentration and in shear rate, due to the higher frequency of encounters of a test particle with other particles on the side of the test particle which has higher concentration or shear rate. As another example, suspended particles subject to sedimentation, centrifugation, or fluidization, do not generally move relative to the fluid with a constant velocity, but instead experience diffusion-like fluctuations in velocity due to interactions with neighboring particles and the resulting variation in the microstructure or configuration of the suspended particles. In flowing granular materials, the particles interact through direct collisions or contacts (rather than through the surrounding fluid); these collisions also cause the particles to undergo fluctuating motions characteristic of diffusion processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Suspended animation-like state protects mice from lethal hypoxia. (United States)

    Blackstone, Eric; Roth, Mark B


    Joseph Priestley observed the high burn rate of candles in pure oxygen and wondered if people would "live out too fast" if we were in the same environment. We hypothesize that sulfide, a natural reducer of oxygen that is made in many cell types, acts as a buffer to prevent unrestricted oxygen consumption. To test this, we administered sulfide in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to mice (Mus musculus). As we have previously shown, H2S decreases the metabolic rate of mice by approximately 90% and induces a suspended animation-like state. Mice cannot survive for longer than 20 min when exposed to 5% oxygen. However, if mice are first put into a suspended animation-like state by a 20-min pretreatment with H2S and then are exposed to low oxygen, they can survive for more than 6.5 h in 5% oxygen with no apparent detrimental effects. In addition, if mice are exposed to a 20-min pretreatment with H2S followed by 1 h at 5% oxygen, they can then survive for several hours at oxygen tensions as low as 3%. We hypothesize that prior exposure to H2S reduces oxygen demand, therefore making it possible for the mice to survive with low oxygen supply. These results suggest that H2S may be useful to prevent damage associated with hypoxia.

  8. Skin permeation of lidocaine from crystal suspended oily formulations. (United States)

    Matsui, Rakan; Hasegawa, Masaaki; Ishida, Masami; Ebata, Toshiya; Namiki, Noriyuki; Sugibayashi, Kenji


    In vitro permeation of lidocaine (lidocaine base, LID) through excised rat skin was investigated using several LID-suspended oily formulations. The first skin permeation of LID from an LID-suspended oily solution such as liquid paraffin (LP), isopropyl myristate (IPM), polyoxyethylene (2) oleylether (BO-2), and diethyl sebacate (DES) was evaluated and compared with that from polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) solution, a hydrophilic base. The obtained permeation rate of LID, Japp, from PEG400, LP, IPM, BO-2, and DES was in the order of DES>BO-2=IPM>LP>PEG400, and increased with LID solubility in the oily solvents, although LID crystals were dispersed in all solvents. Subsequently, oily formulations that consisted of different ratios of the first oily solvent (IPM, BO-2, or DES) (each 0-20%), the second oily solvent (LP) and an oily mixture of microcrystalline wax/white petrolatum/paraffin (1/5/4) were evaluated. BO-2 groups at a concentration of 5% and 10% had the highest Japp among the oily formulations, although a higher BO-2 resulted in lower skin permeation. In addition, pretreatment with BO-2 increased the skin permeation of LID. These results suggest that the penetration enhancing effect by the system may be related to the skin penetration of BO-2 itself. Finally, mathematical analysis was done to evaluate the effect of BO-2, and it was shown that BO-2 improved the LID solubility in stratum corneum lipids to efficiently enhance the LID permeation through skin.

  9. A Passively-Suspended Tesla Pump Left Ventricular Assist Device (United States)

    Izraelev, Valentin; Weiss, William J.; Fritz, Bryan; Newswanger, Raymond K.; Paterson, Eric G.; Snyder, Alan; Medvitz, Richard B.; Cysyk, Joshua; Pae, Walter E.; Hicks, Dennis; Lukic, Branka; Rosenberg, Gerson


    The design and initial test results of a new passively suspended Tesla type LAVD blood pump are described. CFD analysis was used in the design of the pump. Overall size of the prototype device is 50 mm in diameter and 75 mm in length. The pump rotor has a density lower than that of blood and when spinning inside the stator in blood it creates a buoyant centering force that suspends the rotor in the radial direction. The axial magnetic force between the rotor and stator restrain the rotor in the axial direction. The pump is capable of pumping up to 10 liters/min at a 70 mmHg head rise at 8000 RPM. The pump has demonstrated a normalized index of hemolysis level below .02 mg/dL for flows between 2 and 9.7 L/min. An inlet pressure sensor has also been incorporated into the inlet cannula wall and will be used for control purposes. One initial in vivo study showed an encouraging result. Further CFD modeling refinements are planned as well as endurance testing of the device. PMID:19770799

  10. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis


    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of self-suspended ferrofluids that exhibit remanent magnetization at room temperature. Our system relies on the chemisorption of a thiol-terminated ionic liquid with very low melting point on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic component. The ferrofluids do not show any sign of flocculation or phase separation, despite the strong interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles due to the strong chemisorption of the ionic liquid as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Composites with high FePt loading (40 and 70. wt%) exhibit a pseudo solid-like rheological behavior and high remanent magnetization values (10.1 and 12.8. emu/g respectively). At lower FePt loading (12. wt%) a liquid like behavior is observed and the remanent and saturation magnetization values are 3.5 and 6.2. emu/g, respectively. The magnetic and flow properties of the materials can be easily fine tuned by controlling the type and amount of FePt nanoparticles used. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Assessment of CO, CO2 and Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Isah ABDULKARIM


    Full Text Available The concentrations of carbon oxides (CO and CO2 and suspended particulate matter at Benue Cement Company (BCC and Tse-Kucha community was investigated. Results obtained, shows that concentrations of carbon dioxide of 34.40ppm, 39.50 ppm, 48.50 ppm, 78.55 ppm, 65.25 ppm, 26.80 ppm and 29.5 ppm for quarry, raw mill, cement mill, Kiln, packing house, limestone stockpile and Tse-Kucha community respectively were below the maximum standard natural concentration of CO2 in atmosphere of 600ppm while concentrations of CO (1.25ppm - 4.00ppm measured in all the sample stations were below the Nigerian Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS and WHO max limit of 10 ppm - 20 ppm for an 8-hourly average time. Lastly, the concentrations of suspended particulate matter of 375 μg/m3, 338 μg/m3 and 290 μg/m3 at the cement mill, packing house and raw mill respectively were also above the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s Guidelines and Standards for Ambient Air Quality which stipulates a range of 150 μg/m3 to 230 μg/m3 for a 24- hourly average.

  12. Contrasting tropical cyclone and non-tropical cyclone related rainfall drop size distribution at Darwin, Australia (United States)

    Deo, Anil; Walsh, Kevin J. E.


    In this study the rainfall drop size distribution (DSD) during the passage of seven tropical cyclones (TCs) over Darwin is compared and contrasted with that associated with non-tropical cyclone (non-TC) events, using the impact disdrometer data at the Darwin Atmospheric Radiation and Measurement (ARM) site. The disparity of the DSD with respect to rainfall types (between TC and non-TC conditions) and distance from TC centre is also examined. It is shown that TC DSDs are statistically different from the non-TC DSDs, the former encompassing a larger concentration of small to moderate drop sizes. The TC mass-weighted mean diameter (Dm) is lower than the non-TC values at all rain rates and also for the different precipitation types (convective, transition and stratiform). The TC DSD varies with distance from the TC centre, as rainfall near the TC centre (< 60 km) comprises of relatively smaller drops which are strongly evident at small to moderate rain rates (< 30 mm h- 1). Such variations in the DSD have implications for the parameters used in the algorithm that converts radar reflectivity to rainfall rate in TCs, as well as for the analytical expressions used in describing the observed DSD employed in cloud modelling parameterizations.

  13. Development of an Integrated Suspended Sediment Sampling System - Prototype Results (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Moirogiorgou, Konstantia; Efstathiou, Dionissis; Giannakis, George; Voutsadaki, Stella; Zervakis, Michalis; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.


    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a unique micro-climate and a complex geologic and geomorphologic environment caused by its position in the Alpine orogenesis belt. Unique features of the region are the temporary rivers that are dry streams or streams with very low flow for most of the time over decadal time scales. One of their key characteristics is that they present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours. It is crucial to monitor flash-flood events and observe their behavior since they can cause environmental degradation of the river's wider location area. The majority of sediment load is transferred during these flash events. Quantification of these fluxes through the development of new measuring devices is of outmost importance as it is the first step for a comprehensive understanding of the water quality, the soil erosion and erosion sources, and the sediment and nutrient transport routes. This work proposes an integrated suspended sediment sampling system which is implemented in a complex semi-arid Mediterranean watershed (i.e. the Koiliaris River Basin of Crete) with temporary flow tributaries and karstic springs. The system consists of sensors monitoring water stage and turbidity, an automated suspended sediment sampler, and an online camera recording video sequence of the river flow. Water stage and turbidity are continuously monitored and stage is converted to flow with the use of a rating curve; when either of these variables exceeds certain thresholds, the pump of the sediment sampler initiates sampling with a rotation proportional to the stage (flow weighted sampling). The water passes through a filter that captures the sediment, the solids are weighted after each storm and the data are converted to a total sediment flux. At the same time, the online camera derives optical measurements for the determination of the two-dimensional river flow velocity and the spatial sediment distribution by analyzing the Hue

  14. Hysteresis in suspended sediment to turbidity relations due to changing particle size distributions (United States)

    Landers, Mark N.; Sturm, Terry W.


    Turbidity (T) is the most ubiquitous of surrogate technologies used to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). The effects of sediment size on turbidity are well documented; however, effects from changes in particle size distributions (PSD) are rarely evaluated. Hysteresis in relations of SSC-to-turbidity (SSC~T) for single stormflow events was observed and quantified for a data set of 195 concurrent measurements of SSC, turbidity, discharge, velocity, and volumetric PSD collected during five stormflows in 2009–2010 on Yellow River at Gees Mill Road in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Regressions of SSC-normalized turbidity (T/SSC) on concurrently measured PSD percentiles show an inverse, exponential influence of particle size on turbidity that is not constant across the size range of the PSD. The majority of the influence of PSD on T/SSC is from particles of fine-silt and smaller sizes (finer than 16 microns). This study shows that small changes in the often assumed stability of the PSD are significant to SSC~T relations. Changes of only 5 microns in the fine silt and smaller size fractions of suspended sediment PSD can produce hysteresis in the SSC~T rating that can increase error and produce bias. Observed SSC~T hysteresis may be an indicator of changes in sediment properties during stormflows and of potential changes in sediment sources. Trends in the PSD time series indicate that sediment transport is capacity-limited for sand-sized sediment in the channel and supply-limited for fine silt and smaller sediment from the hillslope.

  15. Viruses, bacteria and suspended particles in a backwater and main channel site of the Danube (Austria) (United States)

    Peduzzi, Peter; Luef, Birgit


    A short overview of currently available studies on the ecology of viruses in running waters is provided. Additionally, a survey was conducted on the dynamics of both viruses and bacteria in an isolated floodplain segment of the Danube River and in the main channel near Vienna (Austria) during the hydrologically most dynamic phase (spring – summer). The study evaluates the differences between the main channel and the floodplain segment for suspended particle abundance and quality in relation to bacterial and viral parameters; both free-living forms and those attached to particles are examined. The hydrological disconnection of these two contrasting sampling sites influenced particle abundance and quality as well as the distribution of free-living vs. attached bacteria and viruses. The per-cell activity of bacteria attached to particles was significantly higher than that of the free-living fraction, particularly in the isolated water body. The abundance of bacteria and viruses on particles depended on particle quality (size). In the main channel, bacteria were significantly more abundant on surfaces (per mm2) of suspended matter > 5 μm (aggregates with organic constituents) compared to particles 5μm and attached viruses; free-living viruses were less abundant at high > 5μm particle loads. Only in the isolated floodplain section was viral abundance positively influenced by elevated per-cell productivity of potential host bacteria. The results demonstrate that system variability on a relatively small topographical scale (within a river-floodplain system) has consequences for microbial life, including viruses. PMID:21151810

  16. Suspended Integrated Strip-line Transition Design for Highly Integrated Radar Systems (United States)


    Frequency Structural Figure 3. Internal-view of SISL thru structure. Figure 2. Suspended substrate strip- line side -view. Figure 4. Top-view of trace and...response, you can see that the measured response is shifted to Figure 2. Suspended Substrate Strip- line Side -View Figure 5. Fabricated thru line ...Suspended Integrated Strip- line Transition Design for Highly Integrated Radar Systems Jay W. McDaniel, Shahrokh Saeedi, Mark B. Yeary, and

  17. Dynamic Study of Liquid Drop Impact on Supercooled Cerium Dioxide: Anti-Icing Behavior. (United States)

    Fu, Sin-Pui; Sahu, Rakesh P; Diaz, Estefan; Robles, Jaqueline Rojas; Chen, Chen; Rui, Xue; Klie, Robert F; Yarin, Alexander L; Abiade, Jeremiah T


    This work deals with the anti-icing behavior at subfreezing temperatures of CeO2/polyurethane nanocomposite coatings with and without a stearic acid treatment on aluminum alloy substrates. The samples ranged from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic depending on surface morphology and surface functionalization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the surface composition. The anti-icing behavior was studied both by importing fog into a chamber with controlled atmosphere at subzero temperatures and by conducting experiments with drop impact velocities of 1.98, 2.8, 3.83, and 4.95 m/s. It was found that the ice-phobicity of the ceramic/polymer nanocomposite coating was dependent on the surface roughness and surface energy. Water drops were observed to completely rebound from the surface at subfreezing temperatures from superhydrophobic surfaces with small contact angle hysteresis regardless of the impact velocity, thus revealing the anti-icing capability of such surfaces.

  18. Drop-photochemical deposition of aluminum oxide thin films from aqueous solutions (United States)

    Sato, Shunta; Ichimura, Masaya


    Aluminum oxide thin films were deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass by drop photochemical deposition for the first time. The deposition solution was deionized water containing aluminum sulfate and sodium thiosulfate. Small amount of the solution was dropped on the substrate and irradiated with UV light. The solution was replaced with new one after 5 min irradiation, and the process was repeated 10 times. A film was not deposited without thiosulfate ions in the solution. The deposited films were transparent, and their band gap was larger than 4 eV. The O/Al composition ratio was about 1.2, smaller than the stoichiometric ratio 1.5.

  19. Inverse Leidenfrost effect: self-propelling drops on a bath (United States)

    Gauthier, Anais; van der Meer, Devaraj; Lohse, Detlef; Physics of Fluids Team


    When deposited on very hot solid, volatile drops can levitate over a cushion of vapor, in the so-called Leidenfrost state. This phenomenon can also be observed on a hot bath and similarly to the solid case, drops are very mobile due to the absence of contact with the substrate that sustains them. We discuss here a situation of ``inverse Leidenfrost effect'' where room-temperature drops levitate on a liquid nitrogen pool - the vapor is generated here by the bath sustaining the relatively hot drop. We show that the drop's movement is not random: the liquid goes across the bath in straight lines, a pattern only disrupted by elastic bouncing on the edges. In addition, the drops are initially self-propelled; first at rest, they accelerate for a few seconds and reach velocities of the order of a few cm/s, before slowing down. We investigate experimentally the parameters that affect their successive acceleration and deceleration, such as the size and nature of the drops and we discuss the origin of this pattern.

  20. Shedding of Water Drops from a Surface under Icing Conditions. (United States)

    Mandal, Deepak Kumar; Criscione, Antonio; Tropea, C; Amirfazli, A


    A sessile water drop exposed to an air flow will shed if the adhesion is overcome by the external aerodynamic forces on the drop. In this study, shedding of water drops were investigated under icing conditions, on surfaces with different wettabilities, from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. A wind tunnel was used for experiments in a temperature range between -8 and 24.5 °C. Results indicate that the temperature has a major influence on the incipient motion of drop shedding. The critical air velocity (U(c)) at which a drop first starts to shed generally increases under icing conditions, indicating an increase in the adhesion force. The contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and the drop base length (L(b)) are found to be the controlling factors for adhesion. A correlation was also developed to deduce the drag coefficient, C(D) for the drop. It was found that C(D) can decrease under icing conditions. In general, a lower C(D) and higher adhesion together lead to a higher critical air velocity. However, there are systems such as water on Teflon for which the critical air velocity remains practically unaffected by temperature because of similar adhesion and C(D) values, at all temperatures tested.

  1. Application of Proteomics to the Study of Pollination Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Prior


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Pollination drops are a formative component in gymnosperm pollen-ovule interactions. Proteomics offers a direct method for the discovery of proteins associated with this early stage of sexual reproduction. Methods: Pollination drops were sampled from eight gymnosperm species: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar, Ephedra monosperma, Ginkgo biloba, Juniperus oxycedrus (prickly juniper, Larix ×marschlinsii, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir, Taxus ×media, and Welwitschia mirabilis. Drops were collected by micropipette using techniques focused on preventing sample contamination. Drop proteins were separated using both gel and gel-free methods. Tandem mass spectrometric methods were used including a triple quadrupole and an Orbitrap. Results: Proteins are present in all pollination drops. Consistency in the protein complement over time was shown in L. ×marschlinsii. Representative mass spectra from W. mirabilis chitinase peptide and E. monosperma serine carboxypeptidase peptide demonstrated high quality results. We provide a summary of gymnosperm pollination drop proteins that have been discovered to date via proteomics. Discussion: Using proteomic methods, a dozen classes of proteins have been identified to date. Proteomics presents a way forward in deepening our understanding of the biological function of pollination drops.

  2. Pupil dilation using drops vs gel: a comparative study (United States)

    Moisseiev, E; Loberman, D; Zunz, E; Kesler, A; Loewenstein, A; Mandelblum, J


    Purpose To compare the efficacy in pupil dilation and degree of discomfort between topical instillation of mydriatic drops and gel. Methods The study included 60 patients with no previous ocular history of trauma and surgery. One eye was dilated with two drops (tropicamide 0.5% and phenylephrine 10%), and the other with one drop of gel (tropicamide 0.5%+phenylephrine 5%). Pupil size was measured by a Colvard pupillometer at baseline and 5, 15, 30, and 45 min following instillation. Pain upon instillation was measured by visual analog scale (VAS). Results There was no difference in pupil size at baseline. Use of the gel achieved greater mydriasis than drops (P=0.01), and was also associated with lower pain scores (P=0.003). In diabetic patients, pupil size was smaller at baseline and following instillation of drops and gel. Use of the gel achieved an even greater degree of pupil dilation in this subset of patients than drops (P=0.019). Conclusions Gel formulation achieved significantly greater pupil dilation than drops, despite a lower concentration of phenylephrine, and was also associated with significantly lower patient discomfort. This study is the first report of improved mydriatic efficacy in diabetic patients. PMID:25857606

  3. Drop coalescence through a liquid/liquid interface (United States)

    Mohamed-Kassim, Zulfaa; Longmire, Ellen K.


    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments were conducted to study the coalescence of single drops through planar liquid/liquid interfaces. Sequences of velocity vector fields were obtained with a high-speed video camera and subsequent PIV analysis. Two ambient liquids with different viscosity but similar density were examined resulting in Reynolds numbers based on a surface tension velocity of 10 and 26. Prior to rupture, the drops rested on a thin film of ambient liquid above an underlying interface. After rupture, which was typically off-axis, the free edge of the thin film receded rapidly allowing the drop fluid to sink into the bulk liquid below. Vorticity generated in the collapsing fluid developed into a vortex ring straddling the upper drop surface. The ring core traveled radially inward with a ring-shaped capillary wave effectively pinching the upper drop surface and increasing the drop collapse speed. The inertia of the collapse deflected the interface downward before it rebounded upward. During this time, the vortex core split so that part of its initial vorticity moved inside the drop fluid while part remained in the ambient fluid above it. A second ring-shaped capillary wave formed along the interface outside of the drop and propagated radially outward during the collapse. Changing the ambient fluid viscosity resulted in several effects. First, the velocity of the receding free edge was smaller for higher ambient viscosity. Second, the pinching of the upper drop surface caused by the shrinking capillary ring wave was stronger when the ambient viscosity was lower, and this resulted in a higher maximum collapse speed and higher vorticity values in the dominant vortex ring.

  4. Uncertainty Analysis of the Results of Potential Cask Drops in the K West Basin South Loadout Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEW, B.S.


    If a cask and Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) were to be dropped, the analysis established possible initial volumetric flow rates. The results of the uncertainty analysis demonstrated that even if a cask and MCO were to be dropped the possible initial volumetric flow rate through the opened floor/wall joint would be small. There is a 95% confidence (probability of 0.95) that the initial volumetric flow rate would be smaller than 411 gpm and a 99% confidence (probability of 0.99) that it would be smaller than 916 gpm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martunus Martunus


    Full Text Available Perpindahan massa dari satu fase cair ke fase cair lainnya di dalam kolom ekstraksi cair-cair ditentukan dengan luas perpindahan antara kedua fase. Luas perpindahan ini dapat dinyatakan dengan drop size yang merupakan faktor yang sangat penting dalam perancangan kolom ekstraksi cair-cair berpengaduk (Rotating Disc Contactor, RDC. Tiga model yang berhubungan dengan drop size dikembangkan untuk variabel operasi kolom yang didasarkan pada kecepatan putaran yaitu yaitu model untuk ekstraksi tanpa pengadukan atau pengadukan dengan putaran sangat rendah, model dengan kecepatan pengadukan medium, dan model pengadukan dengan putaran tinggi. Artikel ini berisi pembahasan persamaan drop size yang sudah dipublikasikan menyangkut ketiga kondisi operasi tersebut.

  6. Intelligent water drops for aerospace and defense applications (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy


    A modified version of the intelligent water drop algorithm for performing planning for air and ground robots based on telemetry provided by satellites has been created. The IWD algorithm works by simulating the flow of water drops in a stream-network, dynamically adapting drop and network characteristics. This paper presents the base IWD algorithm, a simplified version of the algorithm (SIWD) and a derivative of this simplified version that has been adapted and applied to planning air and ground robot paths based upon orbital (for aerial) and aerial (for ground) imagery. An analysis of the performance of the algorithm is presented.

  7. Creeping motion of long bubbles and drops in capillary tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westborg, Henrik; Hassager, Ole


    at high capillary numbers. Furthermore the flow of a viscous drop through a doughnut shaped constriction in a capillary tube has been simulated. The simulations show that snap-off may be initiated by a sudden drop in the flow rate after the drops have protruded for some distance beyond the throat...... and the snap-off time increases with increasing capillary number. Snap-off without a sudden decrease of the flow rate does not seem to occur in constrictions of circular cross section....

  8. Partial coalescence of sessile drops with different liquids (United States)

    Borcia, Rodica; Bestehorn, Michael


    We examine numerically the interaction between two deformable drops consisting of two perfectly miscible liquids sitting on a solid substrate under a given contact angle. Driven by solutal Marangoni forces, several distinct coalescence regimes are achieved after the droplets collision. Phase diagrams for different control parameters are emphasized, which give predictions about drop behavior along the solid substrates, control of various interfacial effects, manipulations of tiny droplets in micro- and nano-fluidic devices without power supply, design of droplets or cleaning surfaces. This work was partially supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the project ``Dynamics of interfaces between drops with miscible liquids''.

  9. Ready-made allogeneic ABO-specific serum eye drops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Nielsen, Connie; Ullum, Henrik


    PURPOSE: To overcome problems and delays of the preparation of autologous serum eye drops, a production line of ABO-specific allogeneic serum eye drops from male blood donors was set up in a blood bank. Feasibility, clinical routine, safety and efficacy were evaluated in a cohort of patients...... serum treatment. CONCLUSION: Ready-made ABO-identical allogeneic serum eye drops were straightforwardly produced, quality-assured and registered as a safe standard blood product for the treatment of certain cases of severe dry eye disease. Therapeutic efficacy was comparable to previous reports...

  10. Accurate Characterization of Rain Drop Size Distribution Using Meteorological Particle Spectrometer and 2D Video Disdrometer for Propagation and Remote Sensing Applications (United States)

    Thurai, Merhala; Bringi, Viswanathan; Kennedy, Patrick; Notaros, Branislav; Gatlin, Patrick


    Accurate measurements of rain drop size distributions (DSD), with particular emphasis on small and tiny drops, are presented. Measurements were conducted in two very different climate regions, namely Northern Colorado and Northern Alabama. Both datasets reveal a combination of (i) a drizzle mode for drop diameters less than 0.7 mm and (ii) a precipitation mode for larger diameters. Scattering calculations using the DSDs are performed at S and X bands and compared with radar observations for the first location. Our accurate DSDs will improve radar-based rain rate estimates as well as propagation predictions.

  11. Sludge pipe flow pressure drop prediction using composite power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pipes, the rheology of the fluid plays an important role, especially with increasing concentration of the suspended matter in the sludge. The f-Re relationship is often applied when designing pipelines, but it depends on the rheological parameters of the fluid and what definition of non-Newtonian Reynolds number is used.

  12. Handling test of eye drop dispenser--comparison of unit-dose pipettes with conventional eye drop bottles. (United States)

    Parkkari, Minna; Latvala, Terho; Ropo, Auli


    The aims of this study were to investigate how elderly people handle single-use eye drop dispensers (unit-dose pipettes) and to compare the performance with conventional eye drop bottles. In this open-label study, the handling of unit-dose pipettes and conventional eye drop bottles was compared in 41 elderly people who had little or no prior regular use of eye drop dispensers. The participants tested both types of dispenser once, and the following 7 variables were studied: ease/difficulty of opening the dispenser; influence of the size for handling of the dispenser; influence of the shape for handling of the dispenser; observation of the contents in the dispenser; the feeling of the dispenser in the hand; ease/difficulty of drop instillation on the eye from the dispenser; and overall performance of the eye drop dispenser. The dispensers contained isotonic saline, and a visual analog scale was used for assessment of each of the above variables. The mean age of the participants was 73 years. A statistically significant difference in favor of the unit-dose pipettes was found with respect to observation of the contents in the dispenser, ease of administration, and the overall performance. Women regarded the unit-dose pipettes generally better than the bottles, but such a difference was not seen in men. The study participants managed the unit-dose pipettes at least as well as the conventional eye drop bottles. If anything, the unit-dose pipettes appeared to be easier to use.

  13. Final prototype of magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system (United States)

    Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.; Zmood, R. B.; Pang, D.; Lashley, C.


    A prototype of a 500 Wh magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system was designed, built, and tested. The authors present the work done and include the following: (1) a final design of the magnetic bearing, control system, and motor/generator, (2) construction of a prototype system consisting of the magnetic bearing stack, flywheel, motor, container, and display module, and (3) experimental results for the magnetic bearings, motor, and the entire system. The successful completion of the prototype system has achieved: (1) manufacture of tight tolerance bearings, (2) stability and spin above the first critical frequency, (3) use of inside sensors to eliminate runout problems, and (4) integration of the motor and magnetic bearings.

  14. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Liquids by Using a Suspended Microheater (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Wook


    In this paper, the traditional 3ω method is modified in order to measure the thermal conductivity of a droplet of liquid. The 3ω sensor is microfabricated using bulk silicon etching on a silicon wafer to form a microheater on a suspended bridge structure. The Si substrate of over 400 μ m thickness beneath the microheater is etched away so that the sample liquid can fill the gap created between the heater and the bottom boundary of the sensor. The frequency of the sinusoidal heating pulses that are generated from the heater is controlled such that the thermal penetration depth is much smaller than the thickness of the liquid layer. The temperature oscillation of the sample fluid is measured at the thin-film heater to calculate the thermal conductivity of the surrounding fluid. The thermal conductivity and measured values of the de-ionized water and ethanol show a good agreement with the theoretical values at room temperature.

  15. Suspended sediment in a high-Arctic river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard-Pedersen, Pernille; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Kroon, Aart


    Quantifying fluxes of water, sediment and dissolved compounds through Arctic rivers is important for linking the glacial, terrestrial and marine ecosystems and to quantify the impact of a warming climate. The quantification of fluxes is not trivial. This study uses a 8-years data set (2005......-2012) of daily measurements from the high-Artic Zackenberg River in Northeast Greenland to estimate annual suspended sediment fluxes based on four commonly used methods: M1) is the discharge weighted mean and uses direct measurements, while M2-M4) are one uncorrected and two bias corrected rating curves......-daily sampling together with a sampling frequency of 2h during extreme events. The most consistent estimation method was an uncorrected rating curve of bi-daily measurements (M2), combined with a linear interpolation of extreme event fluxes. Sampling can be reduced to every fourth day, with both method...

  16. Fluorine and sulfur simultaneously co-doped suspended graphene (United States)

    Struzzi, C.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, L.; Reckinger, N.; Colomer, J.-F.; Snyders, R.; Bittencourt, C.; Scardamaglia, M.


    Suspended graphene flakes are exposed simultaneously to fluorine and sulfur ions produced by the μ-wave plasma discharge of the SF6 precursor gas. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses, performed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectromicroscopy, show the homogeneity in functionalization yield over the graphene flakes with F and S atoms covalently bonded to the carbon lattice. This promising surface shows potential for several applications ranging from biomolecule immobilization to lithium battery and hydrogen storage devices. The present co-doping process is an optimal strategy to engineer the graphene surface with a concurrent hydrophobic character, thanks to the fluorine atoms, and a high affinity with metal nanoparticles due to the presence of sulfur atoms.

  17. Heat Transfer Correlations for Free Convection from Suspended Microheaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GOSSELIN


    Full Text Available Portability and autonomy for biomedical diagnostic devices are two rising requirements. It is recognized that low-energy heating of such portable devices is of utmost importance for molecular recognition. This work focuses on screen-printed microheaters based on on Joule effect, which constitute an interesting solution for low-energy heating. An experimental study of the natural convection phenomena occurring with such microheaters is conducted. When they are suspended in the air, and because of the thinness of the supporting film, it is shown that the contributions of both the upward and downward faces have to be taken into account. A total Nusselt number and a total convective heat transfer coefficient have been used to describe the natural convection around these microheaters. In addition a relation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number is derived, leading to an accurate prediction of the heating temperature (MRE< 2 %.

  18. Giant magneto-photoelectric effect in suspended graphene (United States)

    Sonntag, Jens; Kurzmann, Annika; Geller, Martin; Queisser, Friedemann; Lorke, Axel; Schützhold, Ralf


    We study the optical response of a suspended, monolayer graphene field-effect transistor structure in magnetic fields of up to 9 T (quantum Hall regime). With an illumination power of only 3 μW, we measure a photocurrent of up to 400 nA (without an applied bias) corresponding to a photo-responsivity of 0.13 A W-1, which we believe to be one of the highest values ever measured in single-layer graphene. We discuss possible mechanisms for generating this strong photo-response (17 electron-hole pairs per 100 incident photons). Based on our experimental findings, we believe that the most likely scenario is a ballistic two-stage process including carrier multiplication via Auger-type inelastic Coulomb scattering at the graphene edge.

  19. Net transport of suspended matter due to tidal straining (United States)

    Jones, S. E.; Jago, C. F.; Simpson, J. H.; Rippeth, T. P.


    Net transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is well-known in tidal regions where there is time-velocity asymmetry due to frictional modification of the tide in shallow water. We present here observations which show a new mechanism for net flux of SPM in response to tidal straining in a region of freshwater influence (ROFI). In situ measurements of the particle size of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and turbulent energy dissipation have been made at a site in Liverpool Bay (Irish Sea) where there is significant resuspension of particles from the muddy sand substrate during spring tides. This is a ROFI where tidal straining dominates the temporal development of turbulence. On a spring tide the water column tries to stratify on the ebb and destratify on the flood, but these tendencies are masked by mixing due to tidal stirring. Nevertheless, there is a marked excess of TKE dissipation rate E on the flood, especially in the upper part of the water column. Resuspension occurs on both flood and ebb, but SPM flux is strongly asymmetric with a net shorewards component. Asymmetry is most pronounced for the larger particles which comprise most of the mass. Enhanced ? on the flood mixes large particles upwards into faster flowing water, which increases the flux. Comparable upwards mixing of large particles does not occur on the ebb where enhanced E is confined to slower bottom waters. The net flux is not seen on neap tides because, although there is more stratification due to tidal straining, there is essentially no resuspension. The net flux on springs is undoubtedly an important component of SPM transport (and any comparable particulates) in coastal regions.

  20. Liquid Drop Pinning on Micro-patterned Surfaces (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed; Kalinin, Yevgeniy; Baur, Robin; Thorne, Robert


    Pinning of liquid drops on surfaces is important in many areas of biotechnology. Micro-patterned surfaces provide a way to control drop pinning, and to investigate the mechanisms of pinning on real (rough) surfaces. Continuous circular rings on silicon wafers produced by etching the interior and surrounding silicon are shown to dramatically increase contact line pinning. The critical apparent contact angles and liquid drop volumes are measured and correlated with parameters that describe the ring geometry, such as ring-wall height and width, as well as with ring surface energy (hydrophilicity / hydrophobicity). Micro-patterning of surfaces in this way can be used to improve drop pinning, shape reproducibility and imaging in high-throughput protein crystallization.

  1. Queues with Dropping Functions and General Arrival Processes. (United States)

    Chydzinski, Andrzej; Mrozowski, Pawel


    In a queueing system with the dropping function the arriving customer can be denied service (dropped) with the probability that is a function of the queue length at the time of arrival of this customer. The potential applicability of such mechanism is very wide due to the fact that by choosing the shape of this function one can easily manipulate several performance characteristics of the queueing system. In this paper we carry out analysis of the queueing system with the dropping function and a very general model of arrival process--the model which includes batch arrivals and the interarrival time autocorrelation, and allows for fitting the actual shape of the interarrival time distribution and its moments. For such a system we obtain formulas for the distribution of the queue length and the overall customer loss ratio. The analytical results are accompanied with numerical examples computed for several dropping functions.

  2. Bird nesting and droppings control on highway structures. (United States)


    This report provides a comprehensive literature survey of permanent and temporary deterrents to nesting and roosting, a : discussion of risks to human health and safety from exposure to bird nests and droppings and recommended protective measures, : ...

  3. Critical look at South Africa’s Green Drop Programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntombela, Cebile


    Full Text Available itself in. Challenges facing the Green Drop Programme and the municipalities implementing the programme include: lack of human resource capacity to prepare effective corrective action plans and/or wastewater risk abatement plans; lack of finances...

  4. The effect of dropping impact on bruising pomegranate fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad Shafie


    Full Text Available Introduction: The pomegranate journey from orchard to supermarket is very complex and pomegranates are subjected to the variety of static and dynamic loads that could result in this damage and bruise occurring. Bruise area and bruise volume are the most important parameters to evaluate fruit damage occurred in harvest and postharvest stages. The bruising is defined as damage to fruit flesh usually with no abrasion of the peel. The two different types of dynamic loading which can physically cause fruit bruising are impact and vibration. The impact and vibration loadings may occur during picking or sorting as the pomegranates are dropped into storage bins and during transportation. The focus of this work was on the impact loading as this appeared to be the most prevalent. In view of the limitations of conventional testing methods (ASTM D3332 Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Shock Fragility of Products, the method and procedure for determining dropping bruise boundary of fruit were also established by adapting free-fall dropping tests. Materials and Methods: After the ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ pomegranates had been selected, they were numbered, and the weight and dimension of each sample were measured and recorded. Firmness in cheek region of each fruit was also measured. Fruit firmness was determined by measuring the maximum force during perforating the sample to a depth of 10 mm at a velocity of 100 mm min-1 with an 8 mm diameter cylindrical penetrometer mounted onto a STM-5 Universal Testing Machine (SANTAM, Design CO. LTD., England. Free-fall dropping tests with a series of drop heights (6, 7, 10, 15, 30 and 60 cm were conducted on fresh ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ pomegranates. Three samples were used for each dropping height, and each sample was subjected to impact on two different positions. Before the test was started, it was necessary to control the sample's drop position. The cheek of sample was placed on the fruit holder. An aluminum plate mounted

  5. Drop motion in a rotating immiscible liquid body (United States)

    Annamalai, P.; Cole, R.


    The interaction of liquids is an important part of many processes and is often used for such purposes as causing a separation of solution components by mass transfer between phases, allowing a chemical reaction between liquids or their components, providing direct contact heating or cooling, or creating emulsions. Containerless space processing may well involve the interaction of liquids in the form of drops. For example it may be desirable to form an alloy in space by merger of two or more drops. Encapsulation of a volatile liquid by a second less volatile and immiscible liquid might be a means for avoiding volatilization. Rotation of such systems would enhance mixing where desirable and/or provide means for drop management. In this study, single drop behavior in rotating liquid bodies is studied experimentally.

  6. Multiscale liquid drop impact on wettable and textured surfaces (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Farokhirad, Samaneh; Lee, Taehun; Koplik, Joel


    The impact of microscopic liquid drops on solids with a variety of surface characteristics is studied using numerical simulations. The focus is on relatively low impact velocities leading to bouncing or spreading drops, and the effects of wettability. Molecular dynamics and lattice Boltzmann simulation methods are used for nanometer-sized and continuum drops, respectively, and the results of the two methods are compared in terms of scaled variables. We consider surfaces which are flat, curved or pillared, with either homogeneous interactions or cross-shaped patterns of wettability. In most situations we observe similar drop behavior at both length scales; the two methods agree best at low impact velocities on wettable surfaces while discrepancies are most pronounced for strongly hydrophobic surfaces and for higher velocities.

  7. Modeling merging behavior at lane drops : [tech transfer summary]. (United States)


    A better understanding of the merging behavior of drivers will lead : to the development of better lane-drop traffic-control plans and : strategies, which will provide better guidance to drivers for safer : merging.

  8. What explains Rwanda's drop in fertility between 2005 and 2010 ?


    Bundervoet, Tom


    Following a decade-and-a-half stall, fertility in Rwanda dropped sharply between 2005 and 2010. Using a hierarchical age-period-cohort model, this paper finds that the drop in fertility is largely driven by cohort effects, with younger cohorts having substantially fewer children than older cohorts observed at the same age. An Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is applied on two successive rounds...

  9. Nectar and pollination drops: how different are they? (United States)

    Nepi, Massimo; von Aderkas, Patrick; Wagner, Rebecca; Mugnaini, Serena; Coulter, Andrea; Pacini, Ettore


    Pollination drops and nectars (floral nectars) are secretions related to plant reproduction. The pollination drop is the landing site for the majority of gymnosperm pollen, whereas nectar of angiosperm flowers represents a common nutritional resource for a large variety of pollinators. Extrafloral nectars also are known from all vascular plants, although among the gymnosperms they are restricted to the Gnetales. Extrafloral nectars are not generally involved in reproduction but serve as 'reward' for ants defending plants against herbivores (indirect defence). Although very different in their task, nectars and pollination drops share some features, e.g. basic chemical composition and eventual consumption by animals. This has led some authors to call these secretions collectively nectar. Modern techniques that permit chemical analysis and protein characterization have very recently added important information about these sugary secretions that appear to be much more than a 'reward' for pollinating (floral nectar) and defending animals (extrafloral nectar) or a landing site for pollen (pollination drop). Nectar and pollination drops contain sugars as the main components, but the total concentration and the relative proportions are different. They also contain amino acids, of which proline is frequently the most abundant. Proteomic studies have revealed the presence of common functional classes of proteins such as invertases and defence-related proteins in nectar (floral and extrafloral) and pollination drops. Invertases allow for dynamic rearrangement of sugar composition following secretion. Defence-related proteins provide protection from invasion by fungi and bacteria. Currently, only few species have been studied in any depth. The chemical composition of the pollination drop must be investigated in a larger number of species if eventual phylogenetic relationships are to be revealed. Much more information can be provided from further proteomic studies of both

  10. Refrigeration. Two-Phase Flow. Flow Regimes and Pressure Drop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard


    The note gives the basic definitions used in two-phase flow. Flow regimes and flow regimes map are introduced. The different contributions to the pressure drop are stated together with an imperical correlation from the litterature.......The note gives the basic definitions used in two-phase flow. Flow regimes and flow regimes map are introduced. The different contributions to the pressure drop are stated together with an imperical correlation from the litterature....

  11. Exchange flows of two immiscible Newtonian liquids in a vertical tube: From falling drops to falling slugs (United States)

    Varges, P. R.; Fonseca, B. S.; Naccache, M. F.; de Souza Mendes, P. R.


    We present an experimental study of buoyancy-driven flows of two immiscible Newtonian liquids in a vertical tube where initially the heavier and more viscous one is placed on the top of the lighter one. Flow visualization was performed using a digital camera, and inversion velocities were determined through image analysis. The influence of the governing parameters on the speed and flow regime was examined for pairs of liquids with small density differences. Two different flow regimes were observed, namely, falling drops and falling slugs. In the first regime, spherical and ellipsoidal drops are obtained, depending on the ratio between the drop and tube diameters. The falling slug regime is a core-annular flow pattern above a critical value of interfacial tension, while no flow is noticed below this critical value. The experimental results are in good agreement with model predictions from the literature. Indeed, the results showed that terminal velocity can be estimated by empirical correlations for falling spheres.

  12. Drop formation of black liquor spraying; Mustalipeaen pisaroituminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelholm, C.J.; Kankkunen, A.; Nieminen, K.; Laine, J.; Miikkulainen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Lab. of Energy Technology and Environmental Protection


    Black liquor is a spent liquor of the pulp and paper industry. It is burned in kraft recovery boilers for chemical and energy recovery. The high dry solids content and viscosity of black liquor require a high spraying temperature. This affects the performance of the boiler. Kraft recovery boiler deposit formation, emissions and chemical recovery are strongly affected by the drop size and the velocity of the black liquor spray formed by a splashplate nozzle. The sheet breakup mechanism is studied with a system based on a video and image-analysis. The drop size of mill-scale nozzles was measured also with an image-analysis-system. Measurements were carried out in a spray test chamber. The sheet breakup mechanism and drop size tests were carried out both below and over the boiling point of black liquor. Special attention was paid to the effect of flashing on drop formation. Temperature increase normally decreases drop size. In the temperature where the wavy-sheet disintegration changes to perforated-sheet disintegration the drop size increases. Spray velocity rises when the temperature is increased above the boiling point. (orig.)

  13. Vortex-ring-induced large bubble entrainment during drop impact (United States)

    Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Li, Yangfan; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.


    For a limited set of impact conditions, a drop impacting onto a pool can entrap an air bubble as large as its own size. The subsequent rise and rupture of this large bubble plays an important role in aerosol formation and gas transport at the air-sea interface. The large bubble is formed when the impact crater closes up near the pool surface and is known to occur only for drops that are prolate at impact. Herein we use experiments and numerical simulations to show that a concentrated vortex ring, produced in the neck between the drop and the pool, controls the crater deformations and pinchoff. However, it is not the strongest vortex rings that are responsible for the large bubbles, as they interact too strongly with the pool surface and self-destruct. Rather, it is somewhat weaker vortices that can deform the deeper craters, which manage to pinch off the large bubbles. These observations also explain why the strongest and most penetrating vortex rings emerging from drop impacts are not produced by oblate drops but by more prolate drop shapes, as had been observed in previous experiments.

  14. [Preparation of Shuxiong pulsatile controlled-release dropping pill]. (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Chen, Yan-Zhong; Xie, Qing-Chun; Lin, Shi-Yuan; Lin, Jia-Cheng; Jianc, Wei-Ning


    To prepare Shuxiong pulsatile controlled-release dropping pill and study the influencing factors in vitro. Dropping pills with suitable size (10 - 15 mg) were coated with swelling layer containing croscarmellose sodium and controlled-release layer containing ethylcellulos aqueous dispersion respectively to prepare Shuxiong pulsatile controlled-release dropping pill. The effects of the materials of swelling layer, the weight of swelling layer and controlled-release layer on the release of drugs were investigated to optimize the process technology and validate formula. The release behavior was influenced strikingly by the types and weight of coating layer. The optimal formula was as follows: Shuxiong pulsatile controlled-release dropping pills were prepared using croscarmellose sodium as inner layer with 15% (weight) coating level and ethylcellulose aqueous dispersion (Surelease) as outer controlled-release layer with 7% (weight) coating level. The lag time of prepared pulsatile controlled-release dropping pills was about 4 h and accumulative release rate reached 80% within 4 h. The drug release of Shuxiong pulsatile controlled-release dropping pill is shown in pulsatile way in vitro.

  15. Afterlife of a Drop Impacting a Liquid Pool (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Wei, Yanju; Tang, Xiaoyu; Law, Chung K.


    Drop impact on liquid pool is ubiquitous in industrial processes, such as inkjet printing and spray coating. While merging of drop with the impacted liquid surface is essential to facilitate the printing and coating processes, it is the afterlife of this merged drop and associated mixing which control the quality of the printed or coated surface. In this talk we will report an experimental study on the structural evolution of the merged droplet inside the liquid pool. First, we will analyze the depth of the crater created on the pool surface by the impacted drop for a range of impact inertia, and we will derive a scaling relation and the associated characteristic time-scale. Next, we will focus on the toroidal vortex formed by the moving drop inside the liquid pool and assess the characteristic time and length scales of the penetration process. The geometry of the vortex structure which qualitatively indicates the degree of mixedness will also be discussed. Finally, we will present the results from experiments with various viscosities to demonstrate the role of viscous dissipation on the geometry and structure formed by the drop. This work is supported by the Army Research Office and the Xerox Corporation.

  16. Numerical simulations of drop impact on superhydrophobic structured surfaces (United States)

    Guzzetti, Davide; Larentis, Stefano; Pugno, Nicola


    During the last decade drop impact dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces has been intensively investigated because of the incredible properties of water repellency exhibited by this kind of surfaces, mostly inspired by biological examples such as Lotus leave. Thanks to the recent progress in micro-fabrication technology is possible to tailor surfaces wettability defining specific pillar-like structured surfaces. In this work, the behavior of impinging drops on these pillar-like surfaces is simulated, characterizing temporal evolution of droplets contact radius and drop maximal deformation dependence on Weber number. Numerical simulations results are compared with theoretical and experimental results guaranteeing simulation reliability. Fingering patterns obtained from drop impact has been studied obtaining a correlation between number of fingers and Weber number. Drop fragmentation pattern obtained from simulations supports the proposed correlation. Different drop impact outcomes (e.g. rebound, fragmentation) on structured superhydrophobic surfaces are simulated, focusing on the influence of micro-structured surface geometrical pattern. This investigation is relevant in order to define design rules for possible reliable non wettable surfaces. Financial support by Alta Scuola Politecnica.

  17. Short Duration Reduced Gravity Drop Tower Design and Development (United States)

    Osborne, B.; Welch, C.

    The industrial and commercial development of space-related activities is intimately linked to the ability to conduct reduced gravity research. Reduced gravity experimentation is important to many diverse fields of research in the understanding of fundamental and applied aspects of physical phenomena. Both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial experimental facilities are currently available to allow researchers access to reduced gravity environments. This paper discusses two drop tower designs, a 2.0 second facility built in Australia and a proposed 2.2 second facility in the United Kingdom. Both drop towers utilise a drag shield for isolating the falling experiment from the drag forces of the air during the test. The design and development of The University of Queensland's (Australia) 2.0 second drop tower, including its specifications and operational procedures is discussed first. Sensitive aspects of the design process are examined. Future plans are then presented for a new short duration (2.2 sec) ground-based reduced gravity drop tower. The new drop tower has been designed for Kingston University (United Kingdom) to support teaching and research in the field of reduced gravity physics. The design has been informed by the previous UQ drop tower design process and utilises a catapult mechanism to increase test time and also incorporates features to allow participants for a variety of backgrounds (from high school students through to university researchers) to learn and experiment in reduced gravity. Operational performance expectations for this new facility are also discussed.

  18. Vortex-ring-induced large bubble entrainment during drop impact

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, Marie-Jean


    For a limited set of impact conditions, a drop impacting onto a pool can entrap an air bubble as large as its own size. The subsequent rise and rupture of this large bubble plays an important role in aerosol formation and gas transport at the air-sea interface. The large bubble is formed when the impact crater closes up near the pool surface and is known to occur only for drops that are prolate at impact. Herein we use experiments and numerical simulations to show that a concentrated vortex ring, produced in the neck between the drop and the pool, controls the crater deformations and pinchoff. However, it is not the strongest vortex rings that are responsible for the large bubbles, as they interact too strongly with the pool surface and self-destruct. Rather, it is somewhat weaker vortices that can deform the deeper craters, which manage to pinch off the large bubbles. These observations also explain why the strongest and most penetrating vortex rings emerging from drop impacts are not produced by oblate drops but by more prolate drop shapes, as had been observed in previous experiments.

  19. Organic matter dynamics and stable isotope signature as tracers of the sources of suspended sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Schindler Wildhaber


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment (SS and organic matter in rivers can harm brown trout Salmo trutta by affecting the health and fitness of free swimming fish and by causing siltation of the riverbed. The temporal and spatial dynamics of sediment, carbon (C, and nitrogen (N during the brown trout spawning season in a small river of the Swiss Plateau were assessed and C isotopes as well as the C/N atomic ratio were used to distinguish autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter in SS loads. The visual basic program IsoSource with 13Ctot and 15N as input isotopes was used to quantify the temporal and spatial sources of SS. Organic matter concentrations in the infiltrated and suspended sediment were highest during low flow periods with small sediment loads and lowest during high flow periods with high sediment loads. Peak values in nitrate and dissolved organic C were measured during high flow and high rainfall, probably due to leaching from pasture and arable land. The organic matter was of allochthonous sources as indicated by the C/N atomic ratio and δ13Corg. Organic matter in SS increased from up- to downstream due to an increase of pasture and arable land downstream of the river. The mean fraction of SS originating from upper watershed riverbed sediment decreased from up to downstream and increased during high flow at all measuring sites along the course of the river. During base flow conditions, the major sources of SS are pasture, forest and arable land. The latter increased during rainy and warmer winter periods, most likely because both triggered snow melt and thus erosion. The measured increase in DOC and nitrate concentrations during high flow support these modeling results. Enhanced soil erosion processes on pasture and arable land are expected with increasing heavy rain events and less snow during winter seasons due to climate change. Consequently, SS and organic

  20. 76 FR 6462 - Notice of Intent To Suspend Certain Pesticide Registrations (United States)


    ... hearing is made by a person adversely affected by the Notice of Intent to Suspend or the registrant has... this notice (i.e., how to request a hearing or how to comply fully with the requirements that served as... name notice of intent No. to suspend The Fountainhead Group, Inc.... Resmethrin 53853-1 Burgess Insect...

  1. 19 CFR 351.222 - Revocation of orders; termination of suspended investigations. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of orders; termination of suspended investigations. 351.222 Section 351.222 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... orders; termination of suspended investigations. (a) Introduction. “Revocation” is a term of art that...

  2. Satellite estimates of wide-range suspended sediment concentrations in Changjiang (Yangtze) estuary using MERIS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, F.; Verhoef, W.; Zhou, Y.; Salama, M.S.; Liu, X.


    The Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine and coastal waters are characterized by suspended sediments over a wide range of concentrations from 20 to 2,500 mg l-1. Suspended sediment plays important roles in the estuarine and coastal system and environment. Previous algorithms for satellite estimates of

  3. 75 FR 60720 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance... (United States)


    ... Goldberger, (202) 482-4136. from South Korea (A-580-836) (2rd Review). Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin... South Korea (C-580-837) (2rd Review). Suspended Investigations No Sunset Review of suspended...; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration...

  4. Mechanical properties of freely suspended semiconducting graphene-like layers based on MoS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Poot, M.; Steele, G.A.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Agrait, N.; Rubio-Bollinger, G.


    We fabricate freely suspended nanosheets of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) which are characterized by quantitative optical microscopy and high-resolution friction force microscopy. We study the elastic deformation of freely suspended nanosheets of MoS2 using an atomic force microscope. The Young’s

  5. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (United States)


    ... MATERIALS Definitions § 227.32 Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (a) For the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. 227.32 Section 227.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  6. Cricket inspired sensory hairs on suspended membranes with capacitive displacement detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.


    This paper presents the fabrication of artificial hairs of siliconnitride and SU-8 on suspended membranes for flow sensing applications. The suspended membranes contain electrodes for capacitive sensing of the rotation of the hairs. For the siliconnitride hairs a silicon wafer is used as mould and

  7. High suspended solids as a factor in reproductive failure of a freshwater mussel (United States)

    Andrew M. Gascho-Landis; Wendell R. Haag; James A. Stoeckel


    Elevated suspended solids are a widespread stressor of aquatic ecosystems, but their effects on growth and reproduction in freshwater mussels are largely unknown. We fertilized experimental ponds to create a gradient in total suspended solids (TSS) and examined the effects of TSS on growth, nutritional status, reproduction, and clearance rate in Ligumia subrostrata....

  8. 76 FR 28730 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports (United States)


    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of suspension of... Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to suspend a currently approved information collection, the Agricultural...

  9. Physical and biological changes of suspended particles in a free surface flow constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.; van den Boomen, R.M.; Claassen, T.H.L.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kappelhof, J.W.N.M.; Admiraal, W.


    Suspended particles are considered as contaminants in treated wastewater and can have profound effects on the biological, physical and chemical properties of receiving aquatic ecosystems, depending on the concentration, type and nature of the suspended particles. Constructed wetlands are known to

  10. Numerical investigation of dynamic effects for sliding drops on wetting defects (United States)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Musterd, Michiel; Mugele, Frieder


    The ability to trap or deflect sliding drops is of great interest in microfluidics, as it has several technological applications, ranging from self-cleaning and fog harvesting surfaces to laboratory-on-a-chip devices. We present a three-dimensional numerical model that describes sliding droplets interacting with wetting defects of variable strength and size. This approach provides relevant insight if compared to simplified analytic models, as it allows us to assess the relevance of the internal degrees of freedom of the droplet. We observe that the deformation of the drop enhances the effective strength and range of the defect, and we quantify this effect by comparison to a point-mass model. We also analyze the role of the steepness and strength of the defect on the drop motion, observing that small, strong defects are more effective at trapping than large, shallow traps of same excess surface energy. Finally, our results show quantitative agreement with previously reported electrowetting experiments, suggesting a universal behavior in droplet trapping that does not depend strongly on the nature of the defect.

  11. Considerations and calculations on the breakup of jets and drops of melt related to premixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, M.; Berg, E. von; Buck, M. [Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE), Univ. of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)


    Various descriptions of jet and drop breakup are applied in premixing codes, presently. The main task is to check these descriptions over a wide range of conditions in order to assure extrapolation capabilities for the codes. Jet breakup under non-boiling conditions is relatively well described by IKEJET, based on Conte/Miles (CM) instability description and a relatively detailed stripping model, in contrast to using Kelvin/Helmholtz (KH) theory. Remaining open questions are elaborated. Especially, thick jet behavior with dominance of stripping even at small relative velocities must be distinguished from thin jets with coarse breakup. The application of IKEJET to cases with jet breakup under strong film boiling yielded significantly too little fragmentation. As a possible explanation line, multiphase effects on the wave growth and stripping are considered, due to entrainment of melt and water. Parametric checking calculations are performed with a strongly simplified approach for PREMIX and FARO experiments in order to reveal main effects and the possible physical explanation features as a basis for extended modelling. The results indicate that jet breakup may be essentially sufficient to explain the experimental behavior. Rather coalescence than further drop breakup may be expected. This is also indicated by calculations with IKE drop breakup models. (author)

  12. Comparison of Two Phase Pressure Drop Models in 1-D Top Flooded Debris Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moon Eon; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Eun ho; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    The dry out of coolant inside debris bed can be considered as the limitation of cooling in the conservative point of view and the heat flux through whole bed at the situation is named as Dryout Heat Flux (DHF). The modeling of DHF for debris bed started from early 1980s by several researchers. It is known that DHF mainly occurs by hydrodynamic limitation inside porous media. Therefore, there have been following attempts to capture flow resistance in porous media, precisely. Up to date, although there are about seven pressure drop models available in literatures, it is hard to find comparison of those models with a wide range of DHF experimental data. The one attempt[9] was conducted in 2013, but due to lack of consideration of the capillary pressure in his work, the DHF values that he calculated seem to be underestimated, especially in the range of the small particle diameter cases. In this research, the importance of capillary pressure in the comparison of pressure drop model with experimental data was checked and model selection among pressure drop models for the DHF calculation was also conducted. The model comparison with 108 experimental data from various conditions has been conducted and the Schmidt model shows the best agreement to the experimental data although Reed, Rahman model also show similar results.

  13. Quantitative suspended sediment mapping using aircraft remotely sensed multispectral data. [in Virginia (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.


    Suspended sediment is an important environmental parameter for monitoring water quality, water movement, and land use. Quantitative suspended sediment determinations were made from analysis of aircraft remotely sensed multispectral digital data. A statistical analysis and derived regression equation were used to determine and plot quantitative suspended sediment concentration contours in the tidal James River, Virginia, on May 28, 1974. From the analysis, a single band, Band 8 (0.70-0.74 microns), was adequate for determining suspended sediment concentrations. A correlation coefficient of 0.89 was obtained with a mean inaccuracy of 23.5 percent for suspended sediment concentrations up to about 50 mg/l. Other water quality parameters - secchi disc depth and chlorophyll - also had high correlations with the remotely sensed data. Particle size distribution had only a fair correlation with the remotely sensed data.

  14. How Much Water and Suspended Sediment Does a Large Tropical Island Shed During a Major Hurricane? Hydrologic and Geomorphologic Effects of Hurricane Georges, September 1998, Puerto Rico (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.; Webb, R. M.; Warne, A. G.


    On September 21-22 1998, Hurricane Georges, a category-3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, produced heavy rainfall, flooding, and landslides in the mountains and coastal plains of Puerto Rico. In general, rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield vary across the 8,711 square kilometer island of Puerto Rico because of an orographic barrier, the Cordillera Central. Mean annual runoff for the island is estimated to be 910 mm (equal to 8 billion cubic meters), which is about 57 percent of mean annual precipitation: 1,600 mm (14 billion cubic meters). Mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from Puerto Rico into surrounding coastal waters is estimated at 5.9 (+/- 3.2) million metric tonnes. The largely mountainous watersheds of the island are small (tens to hundreds of square kilometers), channel gradients are steep, and most stream valleys tend to be well-incised and narrow. Major rainstorms are intense but brief. As a consequence, flood waters rise rapidly (minutes to tens of minutes) with peak discharges several orders of magnitude above base discharge, and flood waters recede quickly (hours). Major storms transport a substantial portion of suspended sediment from uplands to the coast, based on data from a set of nine suspended-sediment monitoring stations representative of typical conditions in Puerto Rico. During Hurricane Georges, U. S. Geological Survey and National Weather Service rain-gage networks recorded 2-day rainfalls that ranged from about 100 mm to 630 mm (average was 300 mm, equal to about 2.6 billion cubic meters of water). Many streams rose more than 5 meters, resulting in severe flooding in northern, southwestern, and western watersheds. Landslides dissected roads and isolated communities on both the northern and southern slopes of the Cordillera Central. More than twice the mean annual discharge flowed from some watersheds (approximately 1 billion cubic meters of water for the entire island) carrying with it one to six times the mean annual load of

  15. Tracing suspended sediment sources in the Upper Sangamon River Basin using fingerprinting techniques (United States)

    Yu, M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Neal, C.; Anders, A. M.


    As the awareness of water pollution, eutrophication and other water related environmental concerns grows, the significance of sediment in the transport of nutrients and contaminants from agricultural areas to streams has received increasing attention. Both the physical and geochemical properties of suspended sediment are strongly controlled by sediment sources. Thus, tracing sources of suspended sediment in watersheds is important for the design of management practices to reduce sediment loads and contributions of sediment-adsorbed nutrients from agricultural areas to streams. However, the contributions of different sediment sources to suspended sediment loads within intensively managed watersheds in the Midwest still remain insufficiently explored. This study aims to assess the provenance of suspended sediment and the relation between channel morphology and production of suspended sediment in the Upper Sangamon River Basin, Illinois. The 3,690-km2 Upper Sangamon River Basin is characterized by low-relief, agricultural lands dominated by row-crop agriculture. Sediment source samples were collected in the Saybrook and Wildcat Slough sub-watersheds from six potential sources: row-crop agriculture, forest, floodplains, river banks, pastures, and grasslands. Event-based suspended sediment samples were collected by in situ suspended sediment samplers and ISCO automatic pump samplers from the streams. A quantitative geochemical fingerprinting technique, combining statistically verified multicomponent signatures and an unmixing model, was employed to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from six potential sources to the suspended sediment loads. Our preliminary results indicate that the majority of suspended sediment is derived from channel banks and forest adjacent to meandering reaches in the downstream portions of the watersheds, while only minor amounts of suspended sediment are derived from upland areas adjacent to channelized rivers in the low

  16. Deflection of a liquid metal jet/drop in a tokamak environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelekasis, Nikos, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos 38334 (Greece); Benos, Lefteris [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos 38334 (Greece); Gomes, Rui [Associação EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusão Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)


    Highlights: • We model steady flow of a liquid metal jet inside an electromagnetic field in the presence of inertia and capillary forces. • Similar analysis is performed for the motion of a liquid metal spherical drop. • The deflection of the trajectory is predicted as a function of the intensity of the externally imposed magnetic and electric fields. • The analysis is used as a proof of principle study in reference to experimental observations of jet/drop deflection due to j{sup →}×B{sup →} effects in the ISTTOK tokamak. • We discuss the possibility of using liquid metal flows as an alternative approach toward enhancing power exhaust in tokamak facilities. - Abstract: The interaction of a liquid gallium jet with plasma has been investigated in the ISTTOK tokamak. The jet was observed to remain intact during its interaction with plasma, within a certain length beyond which drop formation was observed. Significant deflection of the jet was detected as soon as plasma production was started. Furthermore, a strong dependency of the deflection magnitude on plasma position was observed that could be correlated with plasma potential gradients. As a means to capture and, possibly, quantify this effect, a preliminary magnetohydrodynamic analysis was performed in order to predict the trajectory of a jet that is traveling inside an electromagnetic field. The effect of Lorentz forces, gravity and pressure drop are accounted for in a unidirectional model that assumes a small jet radius in comparison with the trajectory length. The effect of external electric potential gradients on jet deflection was ascertained in conjunction with the importance of electric stresses in modulating the jet speed and radius. Analysis of the results reported in the ISTTOK experiments identifies the process of jet break-up as a capillary instability. The trajectory of the ensuing droplets is modeled and intensification of the deflection process is predicted in the presence of Lorentz

  17. Quantification of suspended sediment transfers in a lowland agricultural catchment (United States)

    Salvador-Blanes, Sebastien; Manière, Louis; Grangeon, Thomas; Cerdan, Olivier; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Vandromme, Rosalie


    Lowland agricultural landscapes underwent important changes since the second half of the XXth century such as hedges removal, implementation of drainage systems, stream redesign and land reallocation. It resulted in changes in sediment transfer processes, and in widespread morphological alterations of water bodies. However, little is known about the sediment dynamics in these environments. The Louroux catchment (25 km2) is located in central France. It is a typical intensively cultivated and tile drained lowland catchment. The Xth century pond located at its outlet (52 ha) is undergoing large siltation, with a current sedimentation rate 60 fold higher than the pre-1950 period. Five monitoring stations, measuring water levels and turbidity at high frequency (15 mn and 1 mn respectively), combined with automatic samplers, were implemented in 2013. Three stations are located at the main tributaries outlets of the pond, one in a sub-catchment, and one at a tile drain outlet. 45 floods were observed during the three studied hydrological years. They occurred mostly between December and March (33 floods) and in May-June (8 floods). Specific sediment yields ranged from 0.02 to 0.38 t.ha-1.yr-1 depending on the monitoring site and the considered year. The vast majority of suspended sediment transfers occur during the winter floods. While large water volumes were also measured during spring floods, the sediment yields remained low. Suspended sediment yields present large inter-annual (ratio ranging between 2 and 6 depending on the monitoring station) and spatial variations, due to significant differences in total rainfall amounts during the winter season and variations in land use, respectively. The processes related to sediment transfers are most likely linked to soil saturation during winter despite the presence of a tile drainage network, with transfers occurring both at the soil surface and through the drainage system. While sediment transfer rates can be considered as

  18. Drop-On-Drop Multimaterial 3D Bioprinting Realized by Peroxidase-Mediated Cross-Linking. (United States)

    Sakai, Shinji; Ueda, Kohei; Gantumur, Enkhtuul; Taya, Masahito; Nakamura, Makoto


    A cytocompatible inkjet bioprinting approach that enables the use of a variety of bioinks to produce hydrogels with a wide range of characteristics is developed. Stabilization of bioinks is caused by horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed cross-linking consuming hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). 3D cell-laden hydrogels are fabricated by the sequential dropping of a bioink containing polymer(s) cross-linkable through the enzymatic reaction and H2 O2 onto droplets of another bioink containing the polymer, HRP, and cells. The ≈95% viability of enclosed mouse fibroblasts and subsequent elongation of the cells in a bioprinted hydrogel consisting of gelatin and hyaluronic acid derivatives suggest the high cytocompatibility of the developed printing approach. The existence of numerous polymers, including derivatives of polysaccharides, proteins, and synthetic polymers, cross-linkable through the HRP-catalyzed reaction, means the current approach shows great promise for biofabrication of functional and structurally complex tissues. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Water-quality assessment of the eastern Iowa basins- nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended sediment, and organic carbon in surface water, 1996-98 (United States)

    Becher, Kent D.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Miller, Von E.


    Twelve sites on streams and rivers in the Eastern Iowa Basins study unit were sampled monthly and during selected storm events from March 1996 through September 1998 to assess the occurrence, distribution, and transport of nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended sediment, and organic carbon as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. One site was dropped from monthly sampling after 1996. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus were detected in every water sample collected. Nitrate accounted for 92 percent of the total dissolved nitrogen. About 22 percent of the samples had nitrate concentrations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen for drinking-water regulations. The median concentration of total dissolved nitrogen for surface water in the study unit was 7.2 milligrams per liter. The median total phosphorus concentration for the study unit was 0.22 milligram per liter. About 75 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended total phosphorus concentration of 0.10 milligram per liter or less to minimize algal growth. Median suspended sediment and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations for the study unit were 82 and 3.5 milligrams per liter, respectively.

  20. Vaporization response of evaporating drops with finite thermal conductivity (United States)

    Agosta, V. D.; Hammer, S. S.


    A numerical computing procedure was developed for calculating vaporization histories of evaporating drops in a combustor in which travelling transverse oscillations occurred. The liquid drop was assumed to have a finite thermal conductivity. The system of equations was solved by using a finite difference method programmed for solution on a high speed digital computer. Oscillations in the ratio of vaporization of an array of repetitivity injected drops in the combustor were obtained from summation of individual drop histories. A nonlinear in-phase frequency response factor for the entire vaporization process to oscillations in pressure was evaluated. A nonlinear out-of-phase response factor, in-phase and out-of-phase harmonic response factors, and a Princeton type 'n' and 'tau' were determined. The resulting data was correlated and is presented in graphical format. Qualitative agreement with the open literature is obtained in the behavior of the in-phase response factor. Quantitatively the results of the present finite conductivity spray analysis do not correlate with the results of a single drop model.